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1

Forest Products Laboratory Wood Products Production Index.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study presents a single measure of total wood products production, called the Forest Products Laboratory Wood Products Production Index. The measure is simple and useful in tracking both volume and value of forest products production. To show the beha...

J. L. Howard K. E. Skog R. N. Stone

1986-01-01

2

Productivity in Language Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical statistics and a production experiment gauge the extent to which the linguistic notion of morphological productivity is relevant for psycholinguistic theories of speech production in languages such as Dutch. Lexical statistics show that new Dutch words are created often enough to make such theories of speech production theoretically…

Baayen, R. Harald

1994-01-01

3

Hydrogen production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state of hydrogen production technology is evaluated. Specific areas discussed include: hydrogen production fossil fuels; coal gasification processes; electrolysis of water; thermochemical production of hydrogen; production of hydrogen by solar energy; and biological production of hydrogen. Supply options are considered along with costs of hydrogen production.

England, C.; Chirivella, J. E.; Fujita, T.; Jeffe, R. E.; Lawson, D.; Manvi, R.

1975-01-01

4

Mead Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honey is a natural product with recognized physical and chemical properties, which contribute to its biological activity. However, honey is currently being sold at low prices, making it imperative to find alternatives to make apiculture a viable national enterprise. One of these alternatives could be mead production.Despite the excellent properties of honey, mead production faces several problems, namely, delays and

Elsa Ramalhosa; Teresa Gomes; Ana Paula Pereira; Teresa Dias; Leticia M. Estevinho

2011-01-01

5

Certified Products  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Originally a way of recognizing the companies who developed technology for use in US space efforts, the Space Certification Program was eventually adopted in consumer products and other terrestrial applications. Examples of such technologies include heat shields, water filtration systems, and the famous zero-gravity space pen. This Web site highlights some of these certified products. Each description begins with the original purpose of the product and how it was used by NASA; then, the uses of the product on Earth are mentioned. The only drawback to this site is that not all of the products are accompanied by descriptions.

1969-12-31

6

Products liability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter for the Encyclopedia of Law and Economics (2d ed. forthcoming) provides a survey of the economic analysis of the law governing liability for defective products, commonly known as products liability. Sections 11.2 through 11.10 develop the economic framework for evaluating different liability rules. Sections 11.11 through 11.13 describe the impact that the products liability system has had on

Mark A Geistfeld

2009-01-01

7

Vaccine Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The biotechnology revolution which began in the 1970s with the advent of genetic engineering, coupled with major developments\\u000a in fermentation and downstream processing technology, has had major impacts on research, development and production of vaccines.\\u000a In the case of vaccine production, the effect of recombinant DNA techniques has been to make vaccines available against agents\\u000a where previously production and isolation

Jack Melling

8

Fish production  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention is directed to the use of spinosyn or a physiologically acceptable derivative or salt thereof for improved production of fish; controlling ectoparasite infestations in aquaculture raised fish; and fish feed formulations.

2011-02-01

9

Product liability.  

PubMed

Product liability litigation has made important contributions to tobacco control, especially by uncovering incriminating industry documents and publicizing product dangers and industry misconduct. WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 19 encourages Parties to strengthen legal procedures to facilitate these lawsuits and to establish mechanisms for mutual assistance. Creative lawyers will continue to find ways to bring the tobacco industry to justice in forums around the world. PMID:22345254

Daynard, Richard A; Legresley, Eric

2012-03-01

10

Record Production  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Record Production is a website that has been created by record production professionals. Its main draw is the over 200 high quality streaming videos that feature tours of recording studios and interviews with the top record producers in the industry. Aside from the videos, the site also provides reviews of home and studio recording equipment, a news page that highlights updates to the site, as well as a forum.

2006-12-18

11

Bottom production  

SciTech Connect

In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

2000-03-15

12

Muon production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The production of muons by collisions of primary cosmic ray particles with air nuclei is discussed. From these collisions pions and kaons are produced which then decay into muons. Two cases, oblique incidence and vertical incidence, are analyzed theoretically. Theoretical calculations agree well with observed data.

Maeda, K.

1972-01-01

13

New Products.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews new educational technology products, including a microcomputer-based tutoring system, laser barcode reader, video/data projectors, CD-ROM for notebook computers, a system to increase a printer's power, data cartridge storage shell, knowledge-based decision tool, video illustrator, interactive videodiscs, surge protectors, scanner system,…

TechTrends, 1992

1992-01-01

14

Institutional productivities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We considered the 5707 research papers published in the ApJ, AJ, and PASP in 1952, 1962, 1972, 1982, and 1992. For each paper we noted the affiliations and, assuming that each of n authors should get credit for one/n paper for his/her institution, we determined the numbers of papers published by 38 preselected institutions, the remaining other U.S. institutions, and non-U.S. institutions. The ten or 20 most- productive institutions are listed for each year. In many cases the institutions with the largest staffs are at the top of the lists. Then we determined the numbers of AAS members at each institution and computed the mean number of papers per AAS member. We found that pure research organizations have the highest productivity per AAS member and the averages decrease as we progress to institutions whose staff members have many other commitments in addition to research.

Abt, Helmut A.

1993-07-01

15

Tequila production.  

PubMed

Tequila is obtained from the distillation of fermented juice of agave plant, Agave tequilana, to which up to 49% (w/v) of an adjunct sugar, mainly from cane or corn, could be added. Agave plants require from 8 to 12 years to mature and during all this time cleaning, pest control, and slacken of land are required to produce an initial raw material with the appropriate chemical composition for tequila production. Production process comprises four steps: cooking to hydrolyze inulin into fructose, milling to extract the sugars, fermentation with a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to convert the sugars into ethanol and organoleptic compounds, and, finally, a two-step distillation process. Maturation, if needed, is carried out in white oak barrels to obtain rested or aged tequila in 2 or 12 months, respectively. PMID:7736598

Cedeño, M

1995-01-01

16

Basophil Production  

PubMed Central

Factors influencing basophil production from the bone marrow of ovalbumin (OA)-sensitized guinea pigs have been examined in vitro. Autologous co-cultures of marrow and spleen cells from OA-immune animals contained significantly higher numbers of basophils after 7 d of liquid culture in the presence of OA, compared with control co-cultures or with marrow cultures alone (P < 0.005). Basophils increased in co-culture as the number of spleen cells added to a fixed number of marrow cells was increased from 0.10 to 2.5 × 106/ml; at each spleen cell concentration, the presence of OA significantly enhanced basophil production in vitro when compared with unstimulated co-cultures. There was no basophil production from spleen cell suspensions cultured in the absence of autologous marrow cells. Conditioned media (CM) prepared from OA-stimulated spleen cells of OA-treated animals (CM-OA) caused a specific stimulation of basophil production from normal guinea pig bone marrow cells in liquid cultures (P < 0.01). Phytohemagglutinin (PHA)- and pokeweed mitogen-stimulated CM (CM-PHA, CM-pokeweed mitogen) nonspecifically enhanced normal basophilopoiesis, causing dose-dependent increases in basophils and histamine in vitro. CM-OA and CM-PHA also preferentially stimulated formation of neutrophil-macrophage colony-forming units in semisolid methylcellulose cultures. CM-PHA prepared from T cell-enriched splenic cell suspensions contained basophil-stimulating activity, whereas T cell-depleted CM-PHA activity did not exceed control values (P < 0.01). Preliminary characterization of CM-PHA revealed that basophil-stimulating activity was predominantly heat stable and nondialyzable. These results demonstrate OA-specific, as well as mitogen-dependent T-cell regulation of guinea pig basophilopoiesis in vitro. The data are compatible with the existence of a specific “basophilopoietin” in CM derived from guinea pig splenic T cells.

Denburg, Judah A.; Davison, Maureen; Bienenstock, John

1980-01-01

17

Software Products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MAST is a decision support system to help in the management of dairy herds. Data is collected on dairy herds around the country and processed at regional centers. One center is Cornell University, where Dr. Lawrence Jones and his team developed MAST. The system draws conclusions from the data and summarizes it graphically. CLIPS, which is embedded in MAST, gives the system the ability to make decisions without user interaction. With this technique, dairy managers can identify herd problems quickly, resulting in improved animal health and higher milk quality. CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System) was developed by NASA's Johnson Space Center. It is a shell for developing expert systems designed to permit research, development and delivery on conventional computers.

1993-01-01

18

Lentivirus production.  

PubMed

RNA interference (RNAi) is a system of gene silencing in living cells. In RNAi, genes homologous in sequence to short interfering RNAs (siRNA) are silenced at the post-transcriptional state. Short hairpin RNAs, precursors to siRNA, can be expressed using lentivirus, allowing for RNAi in a variety of cell types. Lentiviruses, such as the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, are capable to infecting both dividing and non-dividing cells. We will describe a procedure which to package lentiviruses. Packaging refers to the preparation of competent virus from DNA vectors. Lentiviral vector production systems are based on a 'split' system, where the natural viral genome has been split into individual helper plasmid constructs. This splitting of the different viral elements into four separate vectors diminishes the risk of creating a replication-capable virus by adventitious recombination of the lentiviral genome. Here, a vector containing the shRNA of interest and three packaging vectors (p-VSVG, pRSV, pMDL) are transiently transfected into human 293 cells. After at least a 48-hour incubation period, the virus containing supernatant is harvested and concentrated. Finally, virus titer is determined by reporter (fluorescent) expression with a flow cytometer. PMID:19801965

Wang, Xiaoyin; McManus, Michael

2009-01-01

19

Dynamic product development — DPD  

Microsoft Academic Search

To be competitive on an increasingly competitive global market, companies must be better at quickly developing innovations and new product platforms. Particularly for companies with short product life cycles, it is important to quickly and safely develop new products and new product platforms that fulfill reasonable demands on quality, performance, and cost. Unfortunately, classical methods such as Integrated Product Development

S. Ottosson

2004-01-01

20

Product Structure, the Heart of Product Definition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the LMMSS Product Definition System (PDS) philosophy and approach were the use of each item parts document or software can be traced to a specific end item (EI) serial/tail number of the product. It explains why a part-oriented approach to data organization and configuration management is required. The definition of part-oriented is that all appropriate product definition data products will be collected. Referenced and managed by their linkage/relationship to parts/items, The paper will touch upon how LMMSS store/controls product definition information under each project's top product designator in a two tiered approach. One tier for each product end item and another tier which contain/controls listings of drawings, documents. Specifications and standards that are required for hardware item definition.

DeHoog, C., Jr.

1999-01-01

21

Product Roadmapping in Collaboration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Product roadmapping has not been widely examined, and particularly an intercompany collaboration perspective to product roadmapping is a fresh field of research. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to research factors related to the product roadmapping p...

T. Kynkaanniemi

2007-01-01

22

Household Products Database: Pesticides  

MedlinePLUS

... Names Types of Products Manufacturers Ingredients About the Database FAQ Product Recalls Help Glossary Contact Us More ... holders. Information is extracted from Consumer Product Information Database ©2001-2013 by DeLima Associates. All rights reserved. ...

23

Illegal Pesticide Products  

MedlinePLUS

... They go by names like Tres Pasitos or Chalk , and they come with a guarantee to kill ... Common Illegal Pest Products mothballs | pet products | insecticidal chalk | " Tres Pasitos " | antibacterial products Illegal naphthalene moth repellent ...

24

Rain Forest Products  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students move from lab station to lab station observing samples of products from the Rain Forest. At each station they record the name of the product, write a description and sketch a diagram of the product. For homework, students prepare an advertisement for the Rain Forest and its products

Meg Milani (South San Francisco High School REV)

1994-07-30

25

Successful product realization strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Product realization is the process of defining, designing, developing, and delivering products to the market. While the main thrust of this JTEC panel was to conduct a complete investigation of the state of Japanese low-cost electronic packaging technologies, it is very difficult to totally separate the development of technology and products from the product realization process. Japan's electronics firms adhere to a product realization strategy based on a strong customer focus, a consistent commitment to excellence in design, and a cost-effective approach to technology commercialization. The Japanese product-pull strategy has been a successful driver and influencing factor in every aspect of the product development cycle.

Peeples, John; Boulton, William R.

1995-02-01

26

Successful product realization strategies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Product realization is the process of defining, designing, developing, and delivering products to the market. While the main thrust of this JTEC panel was to conduct a complete investigation of the state of Japanese low-cost electronic packaging technologies, it is very difficult to totally separate the development of technology and products from the product realization process. Japan's electronics firms adhere to a product realization strategy based on a strong customer focus, a consistent commitment to excellence in design, and a cost-effective approach to technology commercialization. The Japanese product-pull strategy has been a successful driver and influencing factor in every aspect of the product development cycle.

Peeples, John; Boulton, William R.

1995-01-01

27

Ocean Primary Productivity Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers datasets of primary productivity measurements, computer source code, input data fields, and ocean productivity estimates for modeling purposes, as well as information on the activities of the NASA-sponsored Ocean Primary Productivity Working Group (OPPWG), which has been conducting round-robin algorithm testing exercises to compare the performance of various productivity models with the intent of establishing a NASA resident "consensus" algorithm for the routine generation of ocean productivity maps.

28

Sports Product Liability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses recent developments in the product liability of the manufacturers of sporting goods and their impact upon physical education and athletic programs, and offers suggestions for physical educators and schools in situations involving product liability. (MM)

Arnold, Don E.

1978-01-01

29

Baryon production at PEP  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of inclusive ..lambda.. + anti ..lambda.. production for 1.0 less than or equal to p less than or equal to 10.0 GeV/c and p + anti p production for 0.4 less than or equal to p less than or equal to 2.0 GeV/c show significant baryon production in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation at E/sub cm/ = 29 GeV. ..lambda.. + anti ..lambda.. production represents 0.2 ..lambda..'s or anti ..lambda..'s per PEP event while the observed p + anti p production implies all baryon-antibaryon pair production is occurring at least as often as 0.6 per event, depending on the yet to be measured p + anti p production at high momentum. Comparisons are made with the first theoretical attempts to account for baryon production at these energies.

Goldhaber, G.; Weiss, J.M.

1981-09-01

30

Equipment & New Products.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews new science equipment and products for the laboratory. Includes hand-held calculators, fiberglass fume hoods, motorized microtomy, disposable mouse cages, and electric timers. Describes 11 products total. Provides manufacturer name, address, and price. (MA)

Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

1979-01-01

31

Increasing productivity: Another approach  

SciTech Connect

An engineering information (EI) and information technology (IT) organization that must improve its productivity should work to further its business goals. This paper explores a comprehensive model for increasing EI/IT productivity by supporting organizational objectives.

Norton, F.J.

1996-06-10

32

Product Life Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this media-rich lesson featuring LOOP SCOOPS videos, students think about where materials in everyday products come from, and learn that knowing about product life cycles can help us make decisions that reduce waste and pollution.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2010-11-30

33

EGRET Data Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We describe the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) data products which we anticipate will suffice for virtually all guest and archival investigations. The production process, content, availability, format, and the associated software of each...

J. R. Mattox D. L. Bertsch C. E. Fichtel R. C. Hartman S. D. Hunter

1992-01-01

34

The Top 10 Products  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2008, American School & University showcased some of the hottest products in the industry. This article presents the 10 most requested, as determined by readers. Products include fluorescent lighting, concrete floor maintenance and exterior sheathing.

American School & University, 2008

2008-01-01

35

Product liability in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper informs about the new Norwegian Product Liability Act. The Act follows closely EC Directive 85\\/374, but rejects the development risk defence. Liability is also extended to primary agricultural products. Liability for medicinal products is regulated by a special compensation scheme based on mandatory insurance for producers and importers.

Peter Lødrup

1991-01-01

36

Is public expenditure productive?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the relationship between aggregate productivity and stock and flow govern- ment-spending variables. The empirical results indicate that (i) the nonmilitary public capital stock is dramatically more important in determining productivity than is either the flow of nonmilitary or military spending, (ii) military capital bears little relation to productivity, and (iii) a 'core' infrastructure of streets, highways, airports,

David Alan Aschauer

1989-01-01

37

Supporting Evolving Product Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this article is to draw attention to the challenging problems associated with supporting evolving product families. After a general problem description, we focus on a single detail of supporting evolving product families. We propose and evaluate using industrial experts a method to measure the similarity between products.

Piërre van de Laar

2009-01-01

38

Nulcear materials production: Primer  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Nuclear Materials Production (NMP) is responsible for managing the production and recovery of nuclear materials for national defense. NMP oversees the production of radioactive materials for government, commercial, industrial, and medical applications. This Primer is a general introduction to NMP's major activities.

Not Available

1988-09-01

39

The MODIS fire products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire products are now available from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) including the only current global daily active fire product. This paper describes the algorithm, the products and the associated validation activities. High-resolution ASTER data, which are acquired simultaneously with MODIS, provide a unique opportunity for MODIS validation. Results are presented from a preliminary active fire validation study in

C. o. Justice; L. Giglio; S. Korontzi; J. Owens; J. t. Morisette; D. Roy; J. Descloitres; S. Alleaume; F. Petitcolin; Y. Kaufman

2002-01-01

40

Dairy Products, 2006 Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Total cheese production, excluding cottage cheeses, was 9.53 billion pounds, 4.2 percent above 2005 production. Wisconsin was the leading State with 25.9 percent of the production. Italian varieties, with 3.99 billion pounds were 4.9 percent above 2005 pr...

2007-01-01

41

Mass production of Spirulina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions A large industrial production ofSpirulina and its products is possible already now, thanks to technological development. This production capacity and its excellent properties as a food have justified the effort to overcome the barriers of sanitary regulations in countries such as Mexico, Japan, Canada, the United States of America, France, Great Britain, the Federal Republic of Germany, New Zealand,

Claudio Santillan; S. Aaronson; T. Kawahara; S. Miyachi; A. Mitsui; A. San-Pietro; S. Tamura

1982-01-01

42

Coal production 1989  

SciTech Connect

Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

Not Available

1990-11-29

43

The offline production effect.  

PubMed

People remember words they say aloud better than ones they do not, a result called the production effect. The standing explanation for the production effect is that producing a word renders it distinctive in memory and thus memorable at test. Whereas it is now clear that motoric production benefits remembering over nonproduction, and that more intense motoric production benefits remembering to a greater extent than less intense motoric production, there has been no comparison of the memorial benefit conferred by motoric versus imagined production. One reason for the gap is that the standard production-by-vocalization procedure confounds the analysis. To make the comparison, we used a production-by-typing procedure and tested memory for words that people typed, imagined typing, and did not type. Whereas participants remembered the words that they typed and imagined typing better than words that they did not, they remembered the words they typed better than the ones they imagined typing; an advantage that was consistent over tests of recognition memory and source discrimination. We conclude that motoric production is a sufficient and facilitative (but not a necessary) condition to observe the production effect. We explain our results by a sensory feedback account of the production effect and sketch a computational framework to implement that approach. PMID:24364810

Jamieson, Randall K; Spear, Jackie

2014-03-01

44

Flexible production systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flexible production systems are a technological tool design to automate multiple product line manufacturing. Flexible production systems provide an efficient means of organizing combined equipment operations and bring the production organization nearer to an unmanned arrangement or one requiring a limited number of workers. This is achieved by intensifying and automating manufacturing processes; coordinating the automated processes involved in warehousing and materials transport to maintain a tight production path; and using computers to automate production preparation and production control. The prerequisites for a change to these new production structures include numerical control NC tools and machining centers, power connection points for robots, automated conveying and warehousing systems controlled by microelectronic devices and control computer complexes consisting primarily of microprocessor-based units capable of controlling equipment via a direct connection and on a real-time basis. The types of flexible production systems in operation are divided into three groups: (1) flexible automated lines (GAL), (2) flexible production modules (GPM); and (3) flexible production complexes (GPK).

Chudakov, A. D.; Shchetinin, D. D.

1986-03-01

45

Improving Capital Productivity through Maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manufacturing companies are under pressure to minimize production costs. Reducing downtime and minimizing maintenance costs are the traditional approach. Improving production equipment effectiveness as prescribed in total productive maintenance (TPM) is a relatively recent development. Outlines improving maintenance productivity through structural audit and improving production equipment effectiveness for discrete type production systems and continuous processes. Suggests continuous improvement of production

A. Raouf

1994-01-01

46

Gippsland reaches peak production  

SciTech Connect

Ten years of crude oil and natural gas production have resulted in significant achievements for the Esso/BHP operation in Gippsland, Australia. The major oil and gas prospects have been defined, and 4 oil and 2 gas fields have been developed. The oil production system includes an established production and processing infrastructure. Forty percent of estimated commercial oil and 12% of estimated gas reserves have been produced. Demanding challenges remain for the operators in spite of achievements already made. The significance of crude oil to the Australian national economy makes Gippsland crude production vitally important and provides the goal of maintaining production at system capacity for as long as possible. To do this a program is underway to (1) maximize production rates and ultimate recovery from the fields currently producing; (2) develop new oil fields; and (3) investigate more subtle exploration prospects.

Hayman, I.G.

1980-12-01

47

Coal Production 1992  

SciTech Connect

Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

Not Available

1993-10-29

48

Valuable product production from wood mill effluents.  

PubMed

Fibreboard production is one of the most important industrial activities in Galicia (Spain). Great amounts of wastewater are generated, with properties depending on the type of wood, treatment process, final product and water reusing, among others. These effluents are characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand (COD), low pH and nutrients limitation. Aerobic and anaerobic processes have been used for their treatment. Presently, bioplastics production (mainly polyhydroxyalkanoates or PHA) from wastewaters with mixed cultures is being studied. Substrate requirements for these processes are a high organic matter content and low nutrient concentration. Therefore, wood mill effluents could be a suitable feedstock. PHA production from wastewaters is carried out in three steps. First, complex organic matter is converted into volatile fatty acids (VFA) through acidogenic fermentation. Then, VFA are used as substrate in an aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR), in which the enrichement of PHA producing bacteria from a mixed culture is favoured. Finally, the sludge from the SBR is fed with a pulse containing high VFA concentrations, resulting in PHA accumulation inside the cells. In this work, the possibility of applying this process to wood mill effluents is proposed. An acidification percentage of 37% and a storage yield (Y(STO)) of 0.23 Cmmol/Cmmol were obtained. PMID:21076215

Mato, T; Ben, M; Kennes, C; Veiga, M C

2010-01-01

49

Subthreshold pion production  

SciTech Connect

This process is relatively well-understood, and one of the aims of subthresold production experiments is to identify other collective effects. Some possible signatures of collective effects are: Production below the 'absolute' threshold; production in excess predictions of nucleon-nucleon models; and a change in the characteristic behavior of the pion spectra as the threshold is crossed. This paper discusses these collective effects especially the last one. (LSP)

Miller, J.

1987-11-01

50

Cyanobacterial hydrogen production  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the global attention and research now being focussed on looking for an alternative to fossil fuel, hydrogen is the hope\\u000a of future. Cyanobacteria are highly promising microorganisms for biological photohydrogen production. The review highlights\\u000a the advancement in the biology of cyanobacterial hydrogen production in recent years. It discusses the enzymes involved in\\u000a hydrogen production, viz. hydrogenases and nitrogenases, various

Datta Madamwar; Nikki Garg; Vishal Shah

2000-01-01

51

Thermal axion production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reconsider thermal production of axions in the early universe, including axion couplings to all Standard Model (SM>) particles. Concerning the axion coupling to gluons, we find that thermal effects enhance the axion production rate by a factor of few with respect to previous computations performed in the limit of small strong gauge coupling. Furthermore, we find that the top Yukawa coupling induces a much larger axion production rate, unless the axion couples to SM particles only via anomalies.

Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro; Xue, Wei

2014-01-01

52

Inner Product Computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inner product computer is a special-purpose computational unit intended to be used as an adjunct to a general-purpose digital computer to perform numerical processing tasks which previously exceeded the capacity of the general-purpose computer. The algorithmic structure of the inner product is briefly reviewed in the first section of this paper. Methods are described for computing the inner product

Earl E. Swartzlander Jr.; Barry K. Gilbert; Irving S. Reed

1978-01-01

53

Coal combustion products  

SciTech Connect

Coal-burning power plants, which supply more than half of US electricity, also generate coal combustion products, which can be both a resource and a disposal problem. The US Geological Survey collaborates with the American Coal Ash Association in preparing its annual report on coal combustion products. This Fact Sheet answers questions about present and potential uses of coal combustion products. 5 refs., 5 figs.

Kalyoncu, R.S.; Olson, D.W.

2001-08-15

54

Microsystem product development.  

SciTech Connect

Over the last decade the successful design and fabrication of complex MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems), optical circuits and ASICs have been demonstrated. Packaging and integration processes have lagged behind MEMS research but are rapidly maturing. As packaging processes evolve, a new challenge presents itself, microsystem product development. Product development entails the maturation of the design and all the processes needed to successfully produce a product. Elements such as tooling design, fixtures, gages, testers, inspection, work instructions, process planning, etc., are often overlooked as MEMS engineers concentrate on design, fabrication and packaging processes. Thorough, up-front planning of product development efforts is crucial to the success of any project.

Polosky, Marc A.; Garcia, Ernest J.

2006-04-01

55

Honeywell's Successful Productivity Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Honeywell productivity plan. Elements of this plan which are discussed include program management, the role of novelty, newsletters, incentives and recognition, ground rules, and feedback. (CT)

DeBoer, Larry M.

1982-01-01

56

Nail Care Products  

MedlinePLUS

... Products Advisory Committees Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll ...

57

Primary Productivity: Grass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students will use grass plants grown over a one week period in the classroom to calculate productivity rates using two methods of collection. At the end of this lab students will understand the concept of primary productivity and will have used one or more methods to calculate it. They will have also been introduced to the concepts of standing biomass, net productivity versus gross productivity, and the importance of comparing dry weight versus wet weight. This activity has an accompanying teacher site with hints and more information. There are also links to several other sites with more information on this topic.

Morrow, Angela

58

Sustainable hydrogen production  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the Sustainable Hydrogen Production research conducted at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) for the past year. The report presents the work done on the following four tasks: Task 1--production of hydrogen by photovoltaic-powered electrolysis; Task 2--solar photocatalytic hydrogen production from water using a dual-bed photosystem; Task 3--development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at intermediate temperatures; and Task 4--production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas. For each task, this report presents a summary, introduction/description of project, and results.

Block, D.L.; Linkous, C.; Muradov, N.

1996-01-01

59

Nanotechnology Consumer Product Inventory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An inventory of nanotechnology-based consumer products currently on the market. After more than twenty years of basic and applied research, nanotechnologies are gaining in commercial use. Nanoscale materials now are in electronic, cosmetics, automotive and medical products. But it has been difficult to find out how many "nano" consumer products are on the market and which merchandise could be called "nano." While not comprehensive, this inventory gives the public the best available look at the 800+ manufacturer-identified nanotechnology-based consumer products currently on the market.

2011-02-11

60

TRMM Gridded Text Products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has many products that contain instantaneous or gridded rain rates often among many other parameters. However, these products because of their completeness can often seem intimidating to users just desiring surface rain rates. For example one of the gridded monthly products contains well over 200 parameters. It is clear that if only rain rates are desired, this many parameters might prove intimidating. In addition, for many good reasons these products are archived and currently distributed in HDF format. This also can be an inhibiting factor in using TRMM rain rates. To provide a simple format and isolate just the rain rates from the many other parameters, the TRMM product created a series of gridded products in ASCII text format. This paper describes the various text rain rate products produced. It provides detailed information about parameters and how they are calculated. It also gives detailed format information. These products are used in a number of applications with the TRMM processing system. The products are produced from the swath instantaneous rain rates and contain information from the three major TRMM instruments: radar, radiometer, and combined. They are simple to use, human readable, and small for downloading.

Stocker, Erich Franz

2007-01-01

61

Ethyl alcohol production  

SciTech Connect

Recent price increases and temporary shortages of petroleum products have caused farmers to search for alternate sources of fuel. The production of ethyl alcohol from grain is described and the processes involved include saccharification, fermentation and distillation. The resulting stillage has potential as a livestock feed.

Hofman, V.; Hauck, D.

1980-11-01

62

Gas production apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates generally to the production of gases, and more particularly to the production of tritium gas in a reliable long operating lifetime systems that employs solid lithium to overcome the heretofore known problems of material compatibility and corrosion, etc., with liquid metals. The solid lithium is irradiated by neutrons inside low activity means containing a positive (+) pressure

Warren E. Winsche; Francis T. Miles; James R. Powell

1976-01-01

63

Biogas: Production and utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the aspects of biogas production and utilization covered are: (1) the microbiology and biochemistry of the acid and methane production stages in the anaerobic process; (2) factors affecting the process, such as temperature, acidity and alkalinity, nutrients, and cations; (3) denitrification processes and systems; and (4) the process kinetics of suspended growth systems, packed columns, and fluidized beds. Also

E. C. Price; P. N. Cheremisinoff

1981-01-01

64

Bohr Sommerfeld star products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We relate the Bohr-Sommerfeld conditions to formal deformation quantization of symplectic manifolds by classifying star products adapted to some Lagrangian submanifold L, i.e. products preserving the classical vanishing ideal IL of L up to IL-preserving equivalences.

Carl, Michael

2008-05-01

65

Accountability for Productivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Productivity gains in higher education won't be made just by improving cost effectiveness or even performance. They need to be documented, communicated, and integrated into a strategic agenda to increase attainment. This requires special attention to "accountability" for productivity, meaning public presentation and communication of evidence about…

Wellman, Jane

2010-01-01

66

Primary Productivity: Marine Adaptation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to give students a better understanding of the concept of primary productivity and to have them use one or more methods to calculate primary productivity. Students will have also been introduced to the concepts of marine primary productivity, net productivity vs. gross productivity, and the importance of comparing dry weight versus wet weight. Marine primary producers are usually not plants as we typically think about them, but rather seaweeds or single cell algae. The classic example of a marine primary producer is a marine diatom. In this experiment students use marine diatoms to measure primary productivity. Real-time data from several sources may be used to increase understanding of this topic. Students will discover that although often ignored in the classroom, the marine environment produces 32 percent of the world's primary productivity on 71 percent of the Earth's surface area. Although this is far less than the 68 percent from the continental surfaces (29 percent of the Earth's surface area), this productivity is still very important.

Morrow, Angela

67

Methane production from waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques for the production of methane from organic wastes are reviewed with emphasis on biological degradation and a technique (called 'geordnete Deponie') involving the treatment of waste deposits. Special emphasis is put on thermal methods of methane production from organic refuse, including a method of degassing (i.e., pyrolysis) and a method of gasification (i.e., oxidative gas generation).

R. Rasch

1977-01-01

68

USGS Geophysical Data Products  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains links and listings of digital geophysical products spanning the regional centers of the USGS. There are surveys and reports on magnetic, gravity, and other forms of data. There are regional, state, quadrangle compilations of data. And there a number of other data and products available.

Team, Crustal I.; Survey, United S.

69

MICROBIAL RESISTANT GYPSUM PRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Gypsum building materials often become wet, resulting in mold growth that leads to health and productivity impacts. A major source of mold growth is gypsum wallboard since nearly 90% of the interior finished surfaces of buildings are covered with gypsum products. It has been est...

70

Equipment & New Products.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents several new products and equipment for teaching college science courses such as laser optics bench, portable digital thermometer, solar energy furnaces and blackboard optics kit. A description of all equipment or products, cost, and addresses of manufacturers are also included. (HM)

Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

1977-01-01

71

Novel Aroid Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to and has among its objects novel products from Aroids (family Aracae) and novel methods of making the same. Novel products are prepared from Aroid corms by first peeling and washing the corms and then cutting the corms into pieces...

J. C. C. Tu

1979-01-01

72

Sorghums for Methane Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this research is to develop an integrated system for methane production utilizing high-energy sorghum as the feedstock. Because of its wide geographic adaptability, its high gas production potential and the fact that it is already cultiva...

E. A. Hiler F. R. Miller R. L. Monk G. G. McBee R. A. Creelman

1984-01-01

73

Management Attitudes toward Productivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an attempt to discover management attitudes toward productivity, including management's views about worker attitudes and their motivation, managerial practices and organization, and possible changes to effect improvements in productivity, the United States Chamber of Commerce surveyed a sample of 1,870 top business executives across the country…

Chamber of Commerce of the United States, Washington, DC.

74

Hydrogen production from coal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gasification reactions necessary for the production of hydrogen from montana subbituminous coal are presented. The coal composition is given. The gasifier types mentioned include: suspension (entrained) combustion; fluidized bed; and moving bed. Each gasification process is described. The steam-iron process, raw and product gas compositions, gasifier feed quantities, and process efficiency evaluations are also included.

1975-01-01

75

Equilibrium Product Bundling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article offers an equilibrium theory of product bundling by rival firms. In several models where a primary good is produced in a duopoly market and one or more other goods is produced under perfectly competitive conditions, bundling is shown to emerge as an equilibrium strategy of one or both of the duopolists for its role as a product-differentiation device.

Yongmin Chen

1997-01-01

76

Heliostat for volume production  

Microsoft Academic Search

After several generations of design, heliostats show promise of emerging as viable volume-produced hardware. A recently completed design includes attributes which are typical of mature products. A unique aspect of this product is that even though it is designed for high volume it can also be produced at low and moderate volumes at reasonable costs. Virtually all components used to

J. A. Pietsch; F. A. Blake

1981-01-01

77

Productivity: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training package explains productivity in terms of the difference between worker output and company input. Output is defined in terms of the products and/or services of an organization (number and/or quality of units produced, efficiency of time use, marginal profits) and in terms of behavior (labor turnover, disruptions in routine, wasted…

Swartz, Carl

78

The LSST Data Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LSST produces data products at two cadences. The nightly data products consist of raw images, low-latency alerts, and updates to the object, source, and orbit catalogs, all of which are archived and publicly available. Some additional data produced by the nightly pipelines, such as calibrated and subtracted images, are not necessarily archived but can be recreated on demand. At

Tim S. Axelrod; R. Allsman; A. Becker; J. Becla; A. Connolly; K. Cook; J. Gray; A. Jagatheesan; J. Kantor; M. Nieto-Santisteban; S. Nikolaev; R. Owen; R. Pike; R. Plante; N. Silvestri; C. Smith; A. Szalay; A. Thakar; J. A. Tyson

2006-01-01

79

Dairy Products, 2010 Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Special Note - Total production by State will no longer be published on an annual basis for the following tables: Yogurt, Total Lowfat Hard Ice Cream, Hard Sherbet, Water and Juice Ices, Sherbet Mix, Frozen Yogurt Mix, and Other Frozen Dairy Products. Ind...

2011-01-01

80

Nobel Foundation: Educational Productions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page features more than 40 multimedia productions related to Nobel Prize-winning concepts. Many of the productions are interactive learning games within the disciplines of physics, chemistry, and medicine. Example topics include "Energy from Matter", "Liquid Crystals", "Nerve Signaling", "Semiconductors", "MRI Imaging", "Relativity", and "The Quantized World".

2011-12-09

81

Thorium in mineral products.  

PubMed

Many ores contain low levels of thorium. When these ores are processed, the associated radioactivity can be found in mineral concentrates, intermediates and final products. There is an incentive for industries to remove radioactivity from mineral products to allow the movement and sale of these materials, both nationally and internationally, without the need for licensing. Control of thorium in various products involves the development and optimisation of process steps to be able to meet product specifications. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has undertaken a range of R & D programmes targeting the treatment of thorium-bearing minerals. This paper discusses the application of a microprobe technique for siting radioactivity in zircon and ilmenite and the problems experienced in measuring the concentrations in solid rare earth products. PMID:11843361

Collier, D E; Brown, S A; Blagojevic, N; Soldenhoff, K H; Ring, R J

2001-01-01

82

Product definition data interface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and application of advanced Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology in aerospace industry is discussed. New CAD/CAM capabilities provide the engineer and production worker with tools to produce better products and significantly improve productivity. This technology is expanding in all phases of engineering and manufacturing with large potential for improvements in productivity. The integration of CAD and CAM systematically to insure maximum utility throughout the U.S. Aerospace Industry, its large community of supporting suppliers, and the Department of Defense aircraft overhaul and repair facilities is outlined. The need for a framework for exchange of digital product definition data, which serves the function of the conventional engineering drawing is emphasized.

Birchfield, B.; Downey, P.

1984-01-01

83

Firewall products today  

SciTech Connect

With an increased interest in connecting to the Internet, there is a corresponding interest in protecting an organization`s network from others on the Internet. Internet firewalls help protect an organization`s network, and the increased demand for firewalls have brought about a number of freeware and commercial products. But how does someone determine the best product or service for their organization? This paper discusses things that need to be considered in deciding to build or purchase a firewall system. It discusses many of the products, features, and services that are commercially available and what components they include such as software, hardware, consulting, or a combination thereof. This paper is not an attempt to evaluate the products. The aim is to provide an awareness of what is currently available and their capabilities. An appendix gives contact information for all of the vendors whose product information was used in developing this paper.

Cooper, S.P.

1995-02-01

84

Concrete production floating platforms  

SciTech Connect

The floating production platforms operating in the North Sea are adapted from drilling semisubmersibles which allow only a limited payload capacity. Experience of concrete production platforms constructed for the North Sea has led Sea Tank Co. to propose a floating platform which offers large payload and oil storage capacities similar to those of existing fixed platforms. Sea Tank Co. and Institut Francais du Petrole joined forces in early 1976 to study the feasibility of a concrete floating production platform incorporating the structure and the production riser together. The results of this 3-yr program show that the concrete floating structure is economically attractive for permanent utilization on a production site. Furthermore, concrete has definite advantages over other materials, in its long term behavior.

Letourneur, O.; Falcimaigne, J.

1981-01-01

85

Consumer products distribution system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A real-time transaction processing Consumer Products Distribution System (PDMS) reduces distribution costs, facilitates the distribution of products to consumers and makes online shopping practical. The PDMS integrates Collaborative Inventory Sharing, Order Aggregation, Consumer Predictive Purchasing, Product Transport Support Service, Display Shops, Uniform Consumer Preference Codes, Integrated Virtual Technical Support Centers, and other convenient features. Consumers purchase products through web sites of local and remotely located retailers preferably using Predictive Purchasing. The items purchased from multiple retailers are aggregated at a consumer selected Order Aggregation Site (OAS) based upon a consumer specified schedule. The consumer can pick up the aggregated orders at the selected OAS or have the aggregated orders delivered to a residence. Commercial carriers process consumer parcels at OASs where they are combined with Aggregated Orders for pickup or delivery. Consumers are given incentive discounts to promote the use of Predictive Purchasing, which significantly improves supply chain productivity.

2007-08-14

86

Heliostat for volume production  

SciTech Connect

After several generations of design, heliostats show promise of emerging as viable volume-produced hardware. A recently completed design includes attributes which are typical of mature products. A unique aspect of this product is that even though it is designed for high volume it can also be produced at low and moderate volumes at reasonable costs. Virtually all components used to fabricate the heliostat are off-the-shelf volume-produced hardware being utilized in other industries. Cost reductions which develop with volume will generally come from more conveniently located component suppliers or establishing captive, dedicated manufacturing facilities. Throughout the evolution from low volume production to high volume production the design remains essentially the same. A detailed account of this heliostat design approach is provided along with a description of a realistic production and commercialization scenario which should contribute to successful central receiver applications in the early 1980's.

Pietsch, J.A. (Northrup, Inc., Hutchins, TX); Blake, F.A.

1981-01-01

87

Volatile products controlling Titan's tholins production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantitative agreement between nitrile relative abundances and Titan's atmospheric composition was recently shown with a reactor simulating the global chemistry occurring in Titan's atmosphere (Gautier et al. [2011]. Icarus, 213, 625-635). Here we present a complementary study on the same reactor using an in situ diagnostic of the gas phase composition. Various initial N2sbnd /CH4 gas mixtures (methane varying from 1% to 10%) are studied, with a monitoring of the methane consumption and of the stable gas neutrals by in situ mass spectrometry. Atomic hydrogen is also measured by optical emission spectroscopy. A positive correlation is found between atomic hydrogen abundance and the inhibition function for aerosol production. This confirms the suspected role of hydrogen as an inhibitor of heterogeneous organic growth processes, as found in Sciamma-O'Brien et al. (Sciamma-O'Brien et al. [2010]. Icarus, 209, 704-714). The study of the gas phase organic products is focussed on its evolution with the initial methane amount [CH4]0 and its comparison with the aerosol production efficiency. We identify a change in the stationary gas phase composition for intermediate methane amounts: below [CH4]0 = 5%, the gas phase composition is mainly dominated by nitrogen-containing species, whereas hydrocarbons are massively produced for [CH4]0 > 5%. This predominance of N-containing species at lower initial methane amount, compared with the maximum gas-to solid conversion observed in Sciamma-O'Brien et al. (2010) for identical methane amounts confirms the central role played by N-containing gas-phase compounds to produce tholins. Moreover, two protonated imines (methanimine CH2dbnd NH and ethanamine CH3CHdbnd NH) are detected in the ion composition in agreement with Titan's INMS measurements, and reinforcing the suspected role of these chemical species on aerosol production.

Carrasco, Nathalie; Gautier, Thomas; Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Pernot, Pascal; Cernogora, Guy

2012-05-01

88

IRIS Product Recommendations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the Applied Meteorology Unit's (AMU) evaluation of SIGMET Inc.'s Integrated Radar Information System (IRIS) Product Generator and recommendations for products emphasizing lightning and microburst tools. The IRIS Product Generator processes radar reflectivity data from the Weather Surveillance Radar, model 74C (WSR-74C), located on Patrick Air Force Base. The IRIS System was upgraded from version 6.12 to version 7.05 in late December 1999. A statistical analysis of atmospheric temperature variability over the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) Weather Station provided guidance for the configuration of radar products that provide information on the mixed-phase (liquid and ice) region of clouds, between 0 C and -20 C. Mixed-phase processes at these temperatures are physically linked to electrification and the genesis of severe weather within convectively generated clouds. Day-to-day variations in the atmospheric temperature profile are of sufficient magnitude to warrant periodic reconfiguration of radar products intended for the interpretation of lightning and microburst potential of convectively generated clouds. The AMU also examined the radar volume-scan strategy to determine the scales of vertical gaps within the altitude range of the 0 C to -20 C isotherms over the Kennedy Space Center (KSC)/CCAFS area. This report present's two objective strategies for designing volume scans and proposes a modified scan strategy that reduces the average vertical gap by 37% as a means for improving radar observations of cloud characteristics in the critical 0 C to -20 C layer. The AMU recommends a total of 18 products, including 11 products that require use of the IRIS programming language and the IRIS User Product Insert feature. Included is a cell trends product and display, modeled after the WSR-88D cell trends display in use by the National Weather Service.

Short, David A.

2000-01-01

89

Silicon production process evaluations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical engineering analyses involving the preliminary process design of a plant (1,000 metric tons/year capacity) to produce silicon via the technology under consideration were accomplished. Major activities in the chemical engineering analyses included base case conditions, reaction chemistry, process flowsheet, material balance, energy balance, property data, equipment design, major equipment list, production labor and forward for economic analysis. The process design package provided detailed data for raw materials, utilities, major process equipment and production labor requirements necessary for polysilicon production in each process.

1982-01-01

90

Meson production in nuclei  

SciTech Connect

A summary review is given of the data and information that is available regarding meson production in nuclei, especially as induced by hadronic probes such as pions and protons. A discussion is given of features of the pion-nucleon interaction in the free system and in nuclei. A proposed set of experiments related to eta production is described. Ideas are advanced for new studies of heavy meson production in nuclei, such as that involving rhos and omegas, in order to learn important features of the meson-nucleon interaction.

Comfort, J.R.

1984-11-15

91

Versioning of printed products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the definition of a printed product in an MIS system, a lot of attention is paid to the production process. The MIS systems typically gather all process-related parameters at such a level of detail that they can determine what the exact cost will be to make a specific product. This information can then be used to make a quote for the customer. Considerably less attention is paid to the content of the products since this does not have an immediate impact on the production costs (assuming that the number of inks or plates is known in advance). The content management is typically carried out either by the prepress systems themselves or by dedicated workflow servers uniting all people that contribute to the manufacturing of a printed product. Special care must be taken when considering versioned products. With versioned products we here mean distinct products that have a number of pages or page layers in common. Typical examples are comic books that have to be printed in different languages. In this case, the color plates can be shared over the different versions and the black plate will be different. Other examples are nation-wide magazines or newspapers that have an area with regional pages or advertising leaflets in different languages or currencies. When considering versioned products, the content will become an important cost factor. First of all, the content management (and associated proofing and approval cycles) becomes much more complex and, therefore, the risk that mistakes will be made increases considerably. Secondly, the real production costs are very much content-dependent because the content will determine whether plates can be shared across different versions or not and how many press runs will be needed. In this paper, we will present a way to manage different versions of a printed product. First, we will introduce a data model for version management. Next, we will show how the content of the different versions can be supplied by the customer/content provider and point out how soft proofing can be used to eliminate errors as much as possible. In the second part of the paper, we will show how the supplied information can be used to determine an optimal process plan that shows the number of plates to be generated and the press plans indicating plate changes and press runs.

Tuijn, Chris

2004-12-01

92

Production of esters  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Disclosed is a process for the production of esters. In particular, the process includes contacting an olefin or an ether with carbon monoxide and an acid composition comprising BF.sub.3.2CH.sub.3OH to from a product composition, adding an alcohol to the product composition, and separating the BF.sub.3.2CH.sub.3OH from the ester. The separated BF.sub.3.2CH.sub.3OH may then be recycled to the reaction unit.

2006-02-28

93

Fundamentals of energy production  

SciTech Connect

The theory, methods of conversion, and costs of various energy sources, transformations, and production techniques are summarized. Specific attention is given to carbon-based fuels in liquid, gaseous, and solid forms and processes for producing synthetic fuels. Additional details are presented for hydrogen and biomass technologies, as well as nuclear fuel-based electricity production. Renewable energy methods are dealt with in terms of the potentials and current applications of tidal generating stations, hydroelectric installations, solar thermal and electrical energy production, and the development of large wind turbines. Consideration is given to the environmental effects of individual energy technologies, along with associated costs and transportability of the energy produced.

Harder, E.L.

1982-01-01

94

The Integer Product Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each of two players alternately selects an integer to multiply by another given integer to color the cell of an answer that matches a product on the game board. The first student to fill four cells in a row wins.

Connected Mathematics Project 2006

2010-05-17

95

Hydrogen Production Econometric Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current assessments of fossil fuel resources in the United States were examined, and predictions of the maximum and minimum lifetimes of recoverable resources according to these assessments are presented. In addition, current rates of production in qu...

J. R. Howell R. B. Bannerot

1975-01-01

96

Production Record by Platform.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is the first edition of 'Minerals Management Service, Pacific OCS Region, Production Record by Platform'. The report is a compilation of information from the Outer Continental Shelf Information System (OCSIS) and is non-proprietary. The edition...

A. Searls

1988-01-01

97

MISR UAE Products  

MISR Data and Information   United Arab Emirates - Unified Aerosol Experiment (UAE 2 ) 2004 ... is to evaluate and improve satellite derived aerosol and ocean products commonly used by the scientific community. Over 20 research ...

2014-03-24

98

Colloidal Silver Products  

MedlinePLUS

... Silver products for medical indications: risk-benefit assessment. Clinical Toxicology . 1996;34(1):119–126. Gulbranson SH, ... argyria secondary to ingestion of colloidal silver protein. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology . 2003;28(3):254–256. ...

99

MISR Firstlook Products  

... cloud texture, and other related parameters. The Level 2 Aerosol/Surface Product includes a range of parameters such as tropospheric aerosol optical depth; aerosol composition and size; surface directional ...

2014-04-15

100

MISR Final Products  

... cloud texture, and other related parameters. The Level 2 Aerosol/Surface Product includes a range of parameters such as tropospheric aerosol optical depth; aerosol composition and size; surface directional ...

2014-04-15

101

Equipment & New Products  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Listed are a number of materials including a spectrophotometer, power meter, vacuum pump, fume hood, cart system, and others. The source of the product and a brief description are given for each. (RH)

Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

1976-01-01

102

Other Fluoride Products  

MedlinePLUS

... of fluoride delivery that is effective in preventing tooth decay in people of all ages. Use the information ... fluoride products that may lower the risk for tooth decay, especially for people who are at higher risk ...

103

Satelliting School Lunch Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Satelliting" or transporting food in bulk from one school kitchen or from a factory-like kitchen to smaller schools can help school districts reduce cost, improve efficiency, maintain quality, and standardize products. (MLF)

Van Egmond-Pannell, Dorothy

1983-01-01

104

Microbial Production of Phenols.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most processes for the oxidation, particularly hydroxylation of aromatic hydrocarbons depend on the organic chemical reactions which sometimes require complicated steps in commercial applications as they are not without by-products generation. If phenols ...

A. Yoshikawa

1985-01-01

105

Production of Enterovirus Antisera.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The production of enterovirus antisera in horses and of rhinovirus antisera in goats is reported. Eight other coxsackie virus, one echo virus, and eight rhinovirus antigens are in progress. Data on inoculations, bleedings, and stored and transferred sera ...

R. W. Brown

1967-01-01

106

Quality Seed Production,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In many arid and semiarid regions, seed production has not kept pace with the development of new varieties. To remedy the situation, the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) is working closely with national programs and...

A. J. G. van Gastel J. Kerley

1988-01-01

107

Cancer immunotherapy products  

PubMed Central

Active immunotherapy products (widely known as “cancer vaccines”) are products intended to stimulate an immune response to mediate tumor destruction or reduce the progression of disease in patients where cancer has been diagnosed. Some quality attributes of these products are very difficult to characterize or present a high variability (especially if they are for autologous use), further complicating the interpretation of some of the clinical data. Furthermore, questions arise in the evaluation of efficacy and safety data in comparison with current chemical or biological treatments for the same indications. Some of these aspects are discussed in this paper in relationship with the regulatory requirements in the European Union and as applied to two recently assessed medicinal products, Oncophage and Provenge, both considered therapeutic “cancer vaccines” for renal cell carcinoma and prostate cancer, respectively.

Camarero, Jorge; Ruiz, Sol

2012-01-01

108

Diffractive vector meson production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a brief introduction to diffractive vector meson production, both exclusive ?p?V and large momentum transfer ?p?VX processes. I overview the theoretical basis for the perturbative description and some recent developments.

Enberg, R.

2005-06-01

109

Teaching about Productivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses major issues affecting production costs and how these issues can be presented to students. The major factors which are discussed are advanced technology, materials, labor, taxes, and government regulations. (CT)

Harris, Ronald R.

1982-01-01

110

CALIPSO Expedited Products  

... and measurement field campaigns. These daily products have a processing latency of less than 8 hours from the time they are received at the ... browse images can be viewed at the  CALIPSO Lidar Browse Image page .   Read more ...

2013-07-10

111

Fission products experimental programme  

SciTech Connect

The 'Fission Products (FPs)' experimental programme was carried out from 1998 to 2004 in CEA/Valduc Apparatus B in the framework of the IRSN-AREVA NC Common Interest Program dealing with 'burnup credit' studies. It aims at compensating for the lack of critical experiments with FPs in the literature and validating a selection of 6 stable, non-volatile, fission products representing half of the irradiated fuel absorption of all fission products: {sup 103}Rh, {sup 133}Cs, {sup 143}Nd, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 155}Gd. This paper provides a more exhaustive approach of the k{sub eff} results, uncertainties and tendencies associated with the different steps of the 'Fission Products' programme. (authors)

Leclaire, N. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire IRSN, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Anno, J. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique CEA, Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (CEA/IPSN) (France); Girault, E. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique CEA, Centre de Valduc, 21120 Is-Sur-Tille (France); Letang, E. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire IRSN, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France)

2006-07-01

112

Plankton Production Biology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mining existing data I have continued to investigate hydrography and nutrients in respect to plankton production in the central and eastern Arabian Sea and on the shelf off India's west coast. Occasionally I have commented on general oceanographic or ecol...

K. Banse

2013-01-01

113

Plankton Production Biology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

I continue to investigate geographic and seasonal distributions of hydrography and nutrients in respect to plankton production in the central and eastern Arabian Sea including the continental shelf of India west coast. This year I have added the central B...

K. Banse

2013-01-01

114

?Project Dropstrat?: Product Elimination and the Product Life Cycle Concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research represents the first attempt to examine the product elimination decision over the Product Life Cycle (PLC). Two research hypotheses were put forward proposing that: (a) a product may be dropped from a company?s product line irrespective of its position on the PLC, and (b) the stage of the PLC does influence the product elimination process. These exploratory propositions

George J. Avlonitis

1990-01-01

115

Steel product cost estimation based on product features & process chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective is to propose a cost estimating method which is fitted to recent continuously producing industrial context evolution. In order to quote the steel product price and control cost before production, estimating steel product cost accurately is important for steel enterprise. After analyzing the existing cost estimation methods, steel product cost estimation was given based on steel product features

Liu Xiao-bing; Cui Fa-jing; Meng Qiu-nan; Li Hao

2008-01-01

116

Ethanol production from lignocellulose  

DOEpatents

This invention presents a method of improving enzymatic degradation of lignocellulose, as in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, through the use of ultrasonic treatment. The invention shows that ultrasonic treatment reduces cellulase requirements by 1/3 to 1/2. With the cost of enzymes being a major problem in the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, this invention presents a significant improvement over presently available methods.

Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Wood, Brent E. (Gainesville, FL)

2001-01-01

117

Production of antihydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented for a measurement for the production of the antihydrogen atom H0 ? pe+, the simplest atomic bound state of antimatter.A method has been used by the PS210 collaboration at LEAR which assumes that the production of H0 is predominantly mediated by the e+e?-pair creation via the two-photon mechanism in the antiproton-nucleus interaction. Neutral H0 atoms are identified

G. Baur; G. Boero; A. Brauksiepe; A. Buzzo; W. Eyrich; R. Geyer; D. Grzonka; J. Hauffe; K. Kilian; M. Lo Vetere; M. Macri; M. Moosburger; R. Nellen; W. Oelert; S. Passaggio; A. Pozzo; K. Röhrich; K. Sachs; G. Schepers; T. Sefzick; R Stratmann; F. Stinzing; M. Wolke

1996-01-01

118

Optimal production operations sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this research is to address the following issues: Under what circumstances should a company perform operations resequencing? Which design leads to the most desirable inventory cost and customer service trade-off? For make-to-stock production–inventory systems with no WIP safety stocks, we establish the optimal production operations sequencing and determine easy-to-use criteria for resequencing when technologically possible. We show

ERIKA SCHRANER; WARREN H. HAUSMAN

1997-01-01

119

Optimal production operations sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this research is to address the following issues: Under what circumstances should a company perform operations resequencing? Which design leads to the most desirable inventory cost and customer service trade-off? For make-to-stock production-inventory systems with no WIP safety stocks, we establish the optimal production operations sequencing and determine easy-to-use criteria for resequencing when technologically possible. We show

ERIKA SCHRANER; WARREN H. HAUSMAN

1997-01-01

120

Material and energy productivity.  

PubMed

Resource productivity, measured as GDP output per resource input, is a widespread sustainability indicator combining economic and environmental information. Resource productivity is ubiquitous, from the IPAT identity to the analysis of dematerialization trends and policy goals. High resource productivity is interpreted as the sign of a resource-efficient, and hence more sustainable, economy. Its inverse, resource intensity (resource per GDP) has the reverse behavior, with higher values indicating environmentally inefficient economies. In this study, we investigate the global systematic relationship between material, energy and carbon productivities, and economic activity. We demonstrate that different types of materials and energy exhibit fundamentally different behaviors, depending on their international income elasticities of consumption. Biomass is completely inelastic, whereas fossil fuels tend to scale proportionally with income. Total materials or energy, as aggregates, have intermediate behavior, depending on the share of fossil fuels and other elastic resources. We show that a small inelastic share is sufficient for the total resource productivity to be significantly correlated with income. Our analysis calls into question the interpretation of resource productivity as a sustainability indicator. We conclude with suggestions for potential alternatives. PMID:21210661

Steinberger, Julia K; Krausmann, Fridolin

2011-02-15

121

43 CFR 3931.70 - Production maps and production reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MANAGEMENT (3000) MANAGEMENT OF OIL SHALE EXPLORATION AND LEASES Plans of... (a) Report production of all oil shale products or by-products to the...information that is applicable to oil shale operations. Well logs may be...

2013-10-01

122

Productivity of production labor, non-production labor, and capital: An international study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Productivity is defined as the amount of output produced with certain combinations of input resources (capital, labor, etc.). Recent studies have indicated the value of non-production labor (e.g., engineers, product designer, quality inspectors, and administrators) to a manufacturing plant's productivity. However, the effect of non-production labor compared to other input resources such as production labor and capital on factory productivity

John G. Wacker; Chen-Lung Yang; Chwen Sheu

2006-01-01

123

The Economics of Product Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report of the National Commission on Product Safety stated that the American public is being exposed to many unreasonably hazardous products. Further, the post-accident remedies to compensate victims of product-related accidents are inadequate and encourage the continued production of unsafe products. It is believed that a shift in assignment of liability for accident costs from consumers to sellers would

Walter Y. Oi

1973-01-01

124

Nutritional water productivity and diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in water productivity is likely to play a vital role in coping with the additional requirement for food production and the growth of the uses of water other than in agriculture in the coming century consistent with the shift from productivity per unit land to productivity per unit water, the nutritional productivity of water is calculated as energy,

D. Renault; W. W. Wallender

2000-01-01

125

Interproject improvement in product development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Product development projects can be utilized to create not only new products or services but also competitively important capabilities on how to work with product development. The resulting capabilities can be, and often are, as important as the product itself. Although there is potential for an organization to improve product development performance, most organizations can learn even more

Marc Antoni; Lars Nilsson-Witell; Jens J. Dahlgaard

2005-01-01

126

Tensor products of operator systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present paper is to lay the foundations for a systematic study of tensor products of operator systems. After giving an axiomatic definition of tensor products in this category, we examine in detail several particular examples of tensor products, including a minimal, maximal, maximal commuting, maximal injective and some asymmetric tensor products. We characterize these tensor products

Ali Kavruk; Vern I. Paulsen; Ivan G. Todorov; Mark Tomforde

2011-01-01

127

Application of manufactured products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide range of products can be manufactured from the following materials: (1) lunar regolith or basalt; (2) regolith or rock beneficiated to concentrate plagioclase or other minerals; (3) iron, extracted from lunar soil or rocks by various means; (4) naturally occurring or easily obtained materials that have cementitious properties; and (5) byproducts of the above materials. Among the products that can be produced from these materials are the following: beams; plates and sheets; transparent plates (windows); bricks and blocks; pipes and tubes; low-density materials (foams); fiber, wire, and cables; foils and reflective coatings; hermetic seals (coatings); and formed objects. In addition to oxygen, which can be obtained by several processes, either from unbeneficiated regolith or by reduction of concentrated ilmenite, these materials make the simplest requirements of the lunar resource extraction system. A thorough analysis of the impact of these simplest products on the economics of space operations is not possible at this point. Research is necessary both to define optimum techniques and adapt them to space and to determine the probable market for the products so that the priority of various processes can be assessed. Discussions of the following products are presented: aerobraking heat shields; pressurized habitats; lunar photovoltaic farms; and agricultural systems.

Sastri, Sankar; Duke, Michael B.

128

Technology's Impact on Production  

SciTech Connect

As part of a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) ?? entitled Technology’s Impact on Production: Developing Environmental Solutions at the State and National Level ? ? the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has been tasked with assisting state governments in the effective, efficient, and environmentally sound regulation of the exploration and production of natural gas and crude oil, specifically in relation to orphaned and abandoned wells and wells nearing the end of productive life. Project goals include: Developing (a) a model framework for prioritization and ranking of orphaned or abandoned well sites; (b) a model framework for disbursement of Energy Policy Act of 2005 funding; and (c) a research study regarding the current status of orphaned wells in the nation. Researching the impact of new technologies on environmental protection from a regulatory perspective. Research will identify and document (a) state reactions to changing technology and knowledge; (b) how those reactions support state environmental conservation and public health; and (c) the impact of those reactions on oil and natural gas production. Assessing emergent technology issues associated with wells nearing the end of productive life. Including: (a) location of orphaned and abandoned well sites; (b) well site remediation; (c) plugging materials; (d) plug placement; (e) the current regulatory environment; and (f) the identification of emergent technologies affecting end of life wells. New Energy Technologies ??Regulating Change, is the result of research performed for Tasks 2 and 3.

Amann, Rachel; Deweese, Ellis; Shipman, Deborah

2009-06-30

129

Technology's Impact on Production  

SciTech Connect

As part of a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) - entitled Technology's Impact on Production: Developing Environmental Solutions at the State and National Level - the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has been tasked with assisting state governments in the effective, efficient, and environmentally sound regulation of the exploration and production of natural gas and crude oil, specifically in relation to orphaned and abandoned wells and wells nearing the end of productive life. Project goals include: (1) Developing (a) a model framework for prioritization and ranking of orphaned or abandoned well sites; (b) a model framework for disbursement of Energy Policy Act of 2005 funding; and (c) a research study regarding the current status of orphaned wells in the nation. (2) Researching the impact of new technologies on environmental protection from a regulatory perspective. Research will identify and document (a) state reactions to changing technology and knowledge; (b) how those reactions support state environmental conservation and public health; and (c) the impact of those reactions on oil and natural gas production. (3) Assessing emergent technology issues associated with wells nearing the end of productive life. Including: (a) location of orphaned and abandoned well sites; (b) well site remediation; (c) plugging materials; (d) plug placement; (e) the current regulatory environment; and (f) the identification of emergent technologies affecting end of life wells. New Energy Technologies - Regulating Change, is the result of research performed for Tasks 2 and 3.

Rachel Amann; Ellis Deweese; Deborah Shipman

2009-06-30

130

Visualization of graph products.  

PubMed

Graphs are a versatile structure and abstraction for binary relationships between objects. To gain insight into such relationships, their corresponding graph can be visualized. In the past, many classes of graphs have been defined, e.g. trees, planar graphs, directed acyclic graphs, and visualization algorithms were proposed for these classes. Although many graphs may only be classified as "general" graphs, they can contain substructures that belong to a certain class. Archambault proposed the TopoLayout framework: rather than draw any arbitrary graph using one method, split the graph into components that are homogeneous with respect to one graph class and then draw each component with an algorithm best suited for this class. Graph products constitute a class that arises frequently in graph theory, but for which no visualization algorithm has been proposed until now. In this paper, we present an algorithm for drawing graph products and the aesthetic criterion graph product's drawings are subject to. We show that the popular High-Dimensional Embedder approach applied to cartesian products already respects this aestetic criterion, but has disadvantages. We also present how our method is integrated as a new component into the TopoLayout framework. Our implementation is used for further research of graph products in a biological context. PMID:20975146

Jänicke, Stefan; Heine, Christian; Hellmuth, Marc; Stadler, Peter F; Scheuermann, Gerik

2010-01-01

131

Testing a Software Product Line.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A suitably organized and executed test process can contribute to the success of a product line organization. Testing is used to identify defects during construction and to assure that completed products possess the qualities specified for the products. Te...

J. D. McGregor

2001-01-01

132

Processes for producing hydrocarbon products  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to processes for producing industrial products such as hydrocarbon products from non-polar lipids in a vegetative plant part. Preferred industrial products include alkyl esters which may be blended with petroleum based fuels.

2014-05-27

133

Household Products Database: Personal Care  

MedlinePLUS

... Names Types of Products Manufacturers Ingredients About the Database FAQ Product Recalls Help Glossary Contact Us More ... holders. Information is extracted from Consumer Product Information Database ©2001-2013 by DeLima Associates. All rights reserved. ...

134

MISR L2 Cloud Product  

MISR Data and Information Level 2TC Cloud Products The MISR Level 2 Products are geophysical ... derived from the Level 1B2 data. The Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA)/Cloud Products contain measurements of TOA bidirectional reflectance factors, ...

2014-06-20

135

Product Appearance and Consumer Choice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Product advantage is the number one factor influencing commercial success. In order for a product to have commercial success, consumers must perceive this product advantage. The communication of produce advantage is often difficult, as people perceive a l...

M. E. Creusen

1998-01-01

136

Top production at CDF  

SciTech Connect

We present the measurements of t{anti t} production cross section using {ital L} = 110 {ital pb{sup -1}} data sample of {ital p{anti p}} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). Combining the results from the channels with at least one W decaying into leptons ({ital e} or {mu}) plus jets we measure {sigma}{sub t{anti t}} = 7.5 {sup +1.9}{sub -1.6} {ital pb}. We report the observation of t{anti t} production in all hadronic decay channels using a kinematical selection and b identification techniques. Finally we show preliminary evidence for t {anti t} production in the decay mode with one e or {mu} in the final state and a hadronically decaying {tau}.

Azzi, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padua (Italy); CDF Collaboration

1996-05-01

137

On entropy production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the case of a dynamical system when irreversible time evolution is generated by a nonHermitian superoperator on the states of the system. We introduce a generalized scalar product which can be used to construct a monotonically changing functional of the state, a generalized entropy. This will depend on the level of system dynamics described by the evolution equation. In this paper we consider the special case when the irreversibility derives from imbedding the system of interest into a thermal reservoir. The ensuing time evolution is shown to be compatible both with equilibrium thermodynamics and the entropy production near the final steady state. In particular, Prigogine's principle of minimum entropy production is discussed. Also the limit of zero temperature is considered. We present comments on earlier treatments.

Stenholm, Stig

2008-11-01

138

Crop Production: Annual Summary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) (described in the June 4, 1998 Scout Report for Business and Economics) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has recently released the annual summary of US crop production. Available in text or .pdf format, the summary contains "annual US data for acreage, yield, and production by crop." In addition to statistical tables, the report includes reviews of crop progress and the weather in 1998. Reports from 1995-98 are also available in text format only.

139

Cu-67 Photonuclear Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cu-67 is considered as one of the most promising radioisotopes for cancer therapy with monoclonal antibodies. Current production schemes using high-flux reactors and cyclotrons do not meet potential market need. In this paper we discuss Cu-67 photonuclear production through the reaction Zn-68(?,p)Cu-67. Computer simulations were done together with experiments to study and optimize Cu-67 yield in natural Zn target. The data confirms that the photonuclear method has potential to produce large quantities of the isotope with sufficient purity to be used in medical field.

Starovoitova, Valeriia; Foote, Davy; Harris, Jason; Makarashvili, Vakhtang; Segebade, Christian R.; Sinha, Vaibhav; Wells, Douglas P.

2011-06-01

140

5.OA Comparing Products  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Leo and Silvia are looking at the following problem: How does the product of $60 \\times 225$ compare to the product of $30 \\times 225$? Silvia says she...

141

Biogas: Production and utilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the aspects of biogas production and utilization covered are: (1) the microbiology and biochemistry of the acid and methane production stages in the anaerobic process; (2) factors affecting the process, such as temperature, acidity and alkalinity, nutrients, and cations; (3) denitrification processes and systems; and (4) the process kinetics of suspended growth systems, packed columns, and fluidized beds. Also considered are such issues in the application of this technology as the digestion of municipal treatment plant sludges, animal wastes, food processing wastes and energy crops. Attention is in addition given to anaerobic digester design, offgas measurement of anaerobic digesters, and sludge treatment through soil conditioning and composting.

Price, E. C.; Cheremisinoff, P. N.

142

Malaysian post merger banks’ productivity: application of Malmquist productivity index  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature and extent of productivity change of ten commercial banks in Malaysia is analysed over the period 2000-2001. Utilising non-parametric methodology, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Malmquist total factor productivity index (MPI), individual bank efficiency and productivity changes which took place within this period is estimated. The MPI calculated within the framework of DEA further decompose productivity growth into

Geeta Krishnasamy; Alfieya Hanuum Ridzwa; Vignesen Perumal

2004-01-01

143

Product performance and specification in new product development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with product performance and specification in new product development. There are many different definitions of performance and specification in the literature. These are reviewed and a new classification scheme for product performance is proposed. The link between performance and specification is discussed in detail using a new model for the new product development process. The new model

T. Osteras; D. N. P. Murthy; M. Rausand

2006-01-01

144

Exploring Products: Nano Fabrics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how the application of nano-sized "whiskers" can protect clothing from stains. Learners investigate the hydrophobic properties of pants made from nano fabric and ordinary fabric. Use this activity to talk about products that we can already buy that use nanotechnology, like treated fabrics, water filters, sunscreen and stuffed animals that have silver nanoparticles.

Network, Nanoscale I.; Sciencenter

2010-01-01

145

The Productivity of Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article I point out that method is not neutral and innocent, but rather productive, performative and creative. In other words, method does not simply represent reality (the world) but distorts and reconstructs it. Conventional methods are useful but distort the world giving the imprecision that it is simple, predictable and decidable.…

Le Grange, Lesley

2008-01-01

146

Energy Saving - Energy Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Chamber of Agriculture in Schleswig-Holstein takes stock in and provides a description of the theme ''Energy Saving-Energy Production'' in this book. 19 individual essays are used to report on energy supply in Germany, including alternative energy sou...

1980-01-01

147

PRODUCTION OF POLYFORMALDEHYDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of polyformaldehyde by subjecting formaldehyde, in the ; absence of a catalyst, to ionizing radiation at a temperature below -60 deg C is ; described. At temperatures below --60 deg C a series of temperature zones were ; distinguished in which the conditions most favorable for polymerization by ; irradiation differ substantially. (C.E.S.)

Chachaty

1963-01-01

148

Fixing Maintenance Productivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how one university's facility managers use Nextel communications technology in conjunction with a Famis Software maintenance management system to improve the productivity of its maintenance technicians. The system uses a wireless Internet connection to automate the flow of work order information to and from technicians. The key to these…

Fickes, Michael

2003-01-01

149

Productive Thinking in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is composed of a collection of articles based on the ideas produced and presented at two conferences on productive thinking. Intended, overall, to introduce new concepts of intellectual abilities, the book is divided into four parts: Part I describes a considerable amount of the significant research in "Intelligence and Its…

Aschner, Mary Jane, Ed.; Bish, Charles E., Ed.

150

The Democratization of Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Just as the democratization of information through personal computers was a key advance of the 20th century, the democratization of production through improvements in fabrication technologies will be a pivotal development in the 21st century. Digital fabrication is the process of translating a digital design into a physical object. At one time,…

Bull, Glen; Groves, James

2009-01-01

151

Configuring Versioned Software Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite recent advances in software configuration management (SCM), constructing consistent configurations of large and complex versioned software products still remains a challenge. We provide an overview of existing approaches which address this problem. These approaches are compared by means of a taxonomy which is based on an analogy to deductive databases: construction of a configuration corresponds to evaluation of a

Reidar Conradi; Bernhard Westfechtel

1996-01-01

152

Production ecology of Gelidium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Available data on determinants of production in species of Gelidium suggest several general patterns. Species diversity is higher in tropical latitudes, whereas in temperate latitudes the size of the fronds is larger, the species are ecologically dominant and commercially viable. Typically, the species occur on rocky substrate, often on coralline crusts, associated with rapid water movement and arranged in successive

B. Santelices

1991-01-01

153

Liability for New Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The slowdown in the economy and the pace of construction, the mushrooming of new technology, and greater competition have created new conditions under which construction contracts for the water industry operate. These factors have led to less harmonious relationships among the parties to a construction contract. The development and use of new products introduce additional potential pitfalls and further complicate

Barry Barnes; Dale R. Ulin

1984-01-01

154

Alkoxy radical radiation products  

SciTech Connect

Single crystals of ribitol and 6-methylpurine-riboside were x-irradiated at 4.2 /sup 0/K. Alkoxy radicals were identified in the radiation products. The g tensor and proton coupling tensors, were determined from ENDOR and ESR studies. (AIP)

Box, H.C.; Budzinski, E.E.

1982-06-01

155

The Product Development Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Product development has emerged very recently as an area of specialization within the field of education, having received its greatest impetus with the establishment of the federally funded educational research and development centers in 1964 and the regional educational laboratories in 1965. The first part of this three-part document defines…

Bowman, Harry L.

156

Improving Meeting Productivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although technology is affecting the way organizations conduct business, there still remains a need to pay attention to good business meeting practices. Based on observations of the meeting practices of a business firm, a consultant found several areas in which meetings can be made more productive. The purpose of the meeting should be defined.…

Whitehead, Jack L., Jr.

157

Plasma production by laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of high density, high temperature plasma production with pulse lasers is presented. In view of possible applications to thermonuclear fusion we limit our discussion to plasma generation from solid targets of low atomic number Z, with particular emphasis on solid deuterium.

P. Mulser; R. Sigel; S. Witkowski

1973-01-01

158

Early Humour Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current studies explored early humour as a complex socio-cognitive phenomenon by examining 2- and 3-year-olds' humour production with their parents. We examined whether children produced novel humour, whether they cued their humour, and the types of humour produced. Forty-seven parents were interviewed, and videotaped joking with their…

Hoicka, Elena; Akhtar, Nameera

2012-01-01

159

Cooperative Biogas Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the feasibility of a cooperative biogas production in France is presented. The objectives were to minimize the constraints for the farmers, to mechanize in a simple manner the supply of agricultural wastes to the facility, to recover the proces...

F. Cayrol

1983-01-01

160

CERES NPP Data Products  

... CERES NPP Data Products The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a key component of the Earth Observing ... Two CERES instruments (FM1 and FM2) were launched into polar orbit on board the EOS flagship Terra on December 18, 1999. Two additional ...

2014-01-31

161

Knowledge Production and Utilization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of knowledge production and utilization deals with the problems of how to translate theoretical concepts and knowledge into practical solutions to people's problems. Many criticisms have been leveled at aspects of previous information system models, including their linearity, one-way communication paths, overdependence on scientific…

Beal, George M.; Meehan, Peter

162

Electrothermal Production of Magnesium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Magnetherm process for the thermal production of magnesium in a controlled partial vacuum in a single-stage electric furnace is based on the reduction of calcined dolomite with ferrosilicate in the presence of a residual slag which acts as a resistanc...

M. J. Marchal

1982-01-01

163

Increasing Productivity at Saturn  

Microsoft Academic Search

To remain competitive, manufacturing enterprises must increase and simultaneously reduce costs. This requires daily and long term examination and analysis of a plant's functions and operations. Using this data, an enterprise can identify production flow bottlenecks and analyze capacity and other factors, which in turn helps identify improvement opportunities. While such information is critical, it is often a challenge to

Earl Long; Amit Misra; Janos Sztipanovits

1998-01-01

164

HMI Magnetic Field Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on SDO has measured magnetic field, velocity, and intensity in the photosphere over the full disk continuously since May 2010 with arc-second resolution. Scalar images are measured every 45 seconds. From these basic observables the pipeline automatically identifies and tracks active regions on the solar disk. The vector magnetic field and a variety of summary quantities are determined every 720s in these tracked Space-weather HMI Active Region Patches (SHARPS). Synoptic and synchronic maps are constructed daily and after each Carrington Rotation Most data products are available with definitive scientific calibration after a few day deal at and in a quick-look near-real-time version a few minutes after the observations are made. Uncertainties are determined for the derived products. All of the magnetic field products along with movies and images suitable for browsing are available at http:://Hmi.stanford.edu/magnetic. Other products, e.g. coronal field over active regions, can be computed on demand.

Hoeksema, Jon T.; HMI Magnetic Field Team

2013-07-01

165

Neuraminidase production by clostridia.  

PubMed

The production of neuraminidase (EC 3.2.1.18) by a range of clostridial species was investigated with techniques previously developed to distinguish neuraminidase-negative and neuraminidase-positive strains of Clostridium perfringens (welchii). Large amounts of extracellular neuraminidase were produced by representative strains of C. perfringens and C. septicum in the test media. Under similar conditions, two strains each of C. chauvoei and C. tertium were found to produce small amounts of the enzyme. All of 12 strains of C. sordellii were clearly shown to produce neuraminidase, often in large amounts, but none of five strains of the closely related but non-pathogenic C. bifermentans had demonstrable neuraminidase activity. No neuraminidase was produced by C. novyi (oedematiens) types A-D (10 strains), C. tetani (6), C. botulinum types A, B, C or E (4), C. sporogenes (4), C. histolyticum (4) or by single strains of five other clostridial species. Clostridial neuraminidase was predominantly extracellular and was not calcium-dependent. The investigation took account of variations in growth and enzyme production in different media. It was necessary to prolong the neuraminidase-assay reaction time to 24 h and to monitor for the presence of NAN-aldolase (EC 4.1.3.3) to define true negatives. It is suggested that neuraminidase production may be of value in taxonomic studies and that its production by several pathogenic species of clostridia may be of interest in studies of pathogenicity and virulence. PMID:210277

Fraser

1978-08-01

166

Total Productive Maintenance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Kaye Krueger of Wisconsin Online Resource Center, this presentation allows user to read about how total productive maintenance can prevent breakdowns, defects, and a variety of other losses. This is a nice brief introduction to this important topic in manufacturing engineering.

Krueger, Kaye

2010-09-24

167

Precooked Potato Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to and has among its objects the provision of novel potato products and novel processes for making them. It is a particular object of the invention to provide a precooked, non-par-fried potato piece, such as a French-fried potato, s...

M. L. Weaver K. C. Ng

1979-01-01

168

Salicornia Production in Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kuwait lacks the resources for agricultural development and plant production, but there are growing (high) interest with the public and the government for plant cultivation. The soil is sandy in texture with low fertility content of nutrients and low water holing capacity. The irrigation water is limited to desalinated sea water which is very expensive, brackish water that is to

Mahdi S. Abdal

169

Catalyst for olefin production  

SciTech Connect

A process is claimed for selectively preparing alpha-olefins having from 2 to about 22 carbon atoms by contacting a gaseous mixture containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen with an iron titanate alkali metal hydroxide catalyst at reaction conditions correlated so as to favor the formation of a substantial proportion of such alpha-olefin product.

Hargis, D.C.

1981-04-14

170

Means of Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

No one who's worked in higher education will ever confuse the experience with working in the corporate sector. Colleges and universities are simply not geared for the business of manufacturing or marketing products. The focus--as it should be--is on teaching and research. Given the wealth of talent among IT staff and faculty, however, higher ed…

Raths, David

2012-01-01

171

Autonomous production of propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The autonomous production of propellants is addressed. Since 80 to 90 percent of a spacecraft's mass is typically propellants, it is advantageous to produce propellants in strategic locations en route to, and at, the desired mission destination. This reduces the weight of the spacecraft and the cost of each mission. Since one of the primary goals of the space program is safety, a totally automated propellant production system is desirable. This system would remove, from hostile, high-risk extraterrestrial environments, the constant human intervention currently required in the production of many propellants. This enables the exploration of space to be more than the search for and production of fuel. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, one specific case was chosen for this study. That case was a composite propellant processor (the principle is more important than the application), and the specific processor used saved SERC the considerable cost of acquiring a new liquid propellant processor that would also have required similar automation.

Ramohalli, Kumar; Schallhorn, P. A.

1990-01-01

172

Retrieving Product Documentation Online.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses demands users face when searching for information in online libraries of product documentation. Demonstrates how physical libraries provide a helpful metaphor for design. Offers heuristics and a conceptual prototype for facilitating electronic document retrieval. Argues that the search form itself should communicate the way materials are…

Racine, Sam J.; Crandall, Irving B.

2001-01-01

173

TRANSVERSELY POLARIZED L PRODUCTION.  

SciTech Connect

Transversely polarized {Lambda} production in hard scattering processes is discussed in terms of a leading twist T-odd fragmentation function which describes the fragmentation of an unpolarized quark into a transversely polarized {Lambda}. We focus on the properties of this function and its relevance for the RHIC and HERMES experiments.

BORER,D.

2000-05-22

174

Antiproton production for Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

Needs to improve the Fermilab Pbar Source for the Tevatron Upgrade and discrepancies in predictions of the antiproton yields have forced us to develop the production model based on the modern data and to incorporate this model to the current version of MARS10 code. The inclusive scheme of this code with the use of statistical weights allows the production of antiprotons to be enhanced within the phase space region of interest, which is extremely effective for optimization of Pbar Source parameters and for developing of such an idea as a beam sweeping system. Antiproton production model included in the modified version of our Monte Carlo program MARS10M for the inclusive simulation of hadronic cascades, as for other particles throughout the program, is based on a factorization approach for hadron-nucleus differential cross-section. To describe antiproton inclusive spectra in pp-collisions a phenomenological model has been used modified in the low-Pt region. The antiproton production in pion-nucleon interactions is described in the frame of our simple phenomenological model based on the modern data. In describing of the of antiproton production cross-sections ratio in hadron-nucleus and hadron-nucleon collisions the ideas of soft hadronization of color strings and all the present experimental data have been used. Some comparisons of our model with experimental data are presented in the wide intervals of initial momenta, antiproton kinematical variables and nuclei. In all the cases the agreement is pretty good what gives us an assurance in the consequent studies carried out for the Fermilab Pbar Source. The results of such study are presented in this paper.

Azhgirey, I.L.; Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I. (Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol'zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Serpukhov (USSR). Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij)

1991-03-01

175

Butadiene production process overview.  

PubMed

Over 95% of butadiene is produced as a by-product of ethylene production from steam crackers. The crude C4 stream isolated from the steam cracking process is fed to butadiene extraction units, where butadiene is separated from the other C4s by extractive distillation. The amount of crude C4s produced in steam cracking is dependent on the composition of the feed to the cracking unit. Heavier feeds, such as naphtha, yield higher amounts of C4s and butadiene than do lighter feeds. Crackers using light feeds typically produce low quantities of C4s and do not have butadiene extraction units. Overall butadiene capacity is determined by ethylene cracker operating rates, the type of feed being cracked, and availability of butadiene extraction capacity. Global butadiene capacity is approximately 10.5 million metric tons, and global production is approximately 9 million metric tons [Chemical Marketing Associates, Inc. (CMAI), 2005 World Butadiene Analysis, Chemical Marketing Associates, Inc. (CMAI), 2005]. Crude C4s are traded globally, with the United States being the only significant net importer. Finished butadiene is also traded globally, with the largest exporters being Canada, Western Europe, Saudi Arabia and Korea. The largest net importers are Mexico, the United States and China. The global demand for butadiene is approximately 9 million metric tons [Chemical Marketing Associates, Inc. (CMAI), 2005 World Butadiene Analysis, Chemical Marketing Associates, Inc. (CMAI), 2005]. Production of styrene-butadiene rubber and polybutadiene rubber accounts for about 54% of global butadiene demand, with tire production being the single most important end use of butadiene synthetic rubbers. Other major butadiene derivatives are acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and styrene butadiene latex (about 24% of demand combined). PMID:17324391

White, Wm Claude

2007-03-20

176

Designer-moderated product design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A well-designed product can provide a firm with a competitive advantage that will enable it to achieve a higher market share and increased profits. Conjoint analysis procedures are often used for product design. Numerous methods have been developed to take conjoint data and produce optimal or near-optimal product designs. But conjoint analysis, while significantly contributing to the product design process,

Peter Tarasewich; Suresh K. Nair

2001-01-01

177

The Post Mass Production Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new production paradigm called the “Post Mass Production Paradigm” (PMPP) which recognizes social, natural, and environmental limitations that conflict with the proliferation of artifacts produced with mass production technologies. PMPP aims at qualitative satisfaction rather than quantitative sufficiency and advocates sustainable production by decoupling economic growth from material and energy consumption. Because PMPP aims at qualitative

Tetsuo Tomiyama

1999-01-01

178

What Is a Profitable Product?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Product mix decisions can have a critical impact on both the profitability and competitive position of a firm [7] (Porter, Michael: Competitive Strategies, New York, The Free Press, 1980.). Typically, a product mix decision is made by comparing product profit margins and considering nonquantitative criteria including “carrying a complete line of products” [1, 6] (Boyd, H. W, Jr., and Walker,

John B. South; John E. Oliver

1998-01-01

179

Statistical Assessment of Biosimilar Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological products or medicines are therapeutic agents that are produced using a living system or organism. Access to these life-saving biological products is limited because of their expensive costs. Patents on the early biological products will soon expire in the next few years. This allows other biopharmaceutical\\/biotech companies to manufacture the generic versions of the biological products, which are referred

Shein-Chung Chow; Jen-pei Liu

2009-01-01

180

Interagency Task Force on Product Liability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Causes of the product liability problem; Product liability--a legal framework; The impact of product liability on selected industries; Product liability prevention techniques; Product liability insurance; Major impacts of product liability; Reme...

1977-01-01

181

Essential Learning Products  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Formerly TeacherNet, Essential Learning Products caters to the educational resource needs of K-8 educators, and is certainly one that is worth taking some time to browse through. Developed by the Highlights educational products group, the site contains opportunities for educators to join various discussion lists, classroom resources (such as lesson plans), and links to the webpages of various classrooms around the United States. One potentially entertaining (and also therapeutic) feature is the "Laugh Lines" section, were educators can submit their various humorous classroom experiences. The bulletin boards are also worth checking out, as they can offer quick answers to any number of topics, such as handwriting, use of the Internet in the classroom, and literature. The site is rounded out by a nice area set aside for discussion and resources specifically designated for student teachers.

182

Basics of Electrical Products  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course is one of the quickStep series offered by Siemens in Electrical Products. These are FREE on-line industrial knowledge building tutorials. quickSTEPs are a great start for industry novices moving into technical jobs or staff in operational support rolls. They can also be very effectively used as out of class assignments for review or to build fundamental skills. Each course includes: -an online tutorial organized as a number of units and lessons with self check quiz questions-a glossary of terms-a self-check final exam with scoring -an extensive downloadable pdf study guideThis course on the basics of electrical products covers residential, commerical, and industrial applications.

2009-06-12

183

Energy Production in Stars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Energy Production in Stars is part of the Astronomy 162: Stars, Galaxies, and Cosmology course offered by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Tennessee. This section covers the mass-energy relation of special relativity; the curve of binding energy, and its implications for fusion and fission reactions, and stellar energy production; nuclear reactions, and their relation to the Coulomb barrier, and quantum mechanical tunneling; temperature and pressure in stars, including the kinetic theory of gases, ideal gas law, and the Gamow window for charged particle reactions; the proton-proton chain; the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen (CNO) cycle; the triple-alpha process, mass-5 and mass-8 bottlenecks; advanced burning stages; stellar energy transport; and the solar neutrino problem.

2007-04-13

184

Tensor Products of Operator Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present paper is to lay the foundations for a systematic\\u000astudy of tensor products of operator systems. After giving an axiomatic\\u000adefinition of tensor products in this category, we examine in detail several\\u000aparticular examples of tensor products, including a minimal, maximal, maximal\\u000acommuting, maximal injective and some asymmetric tensor products. We\\u000acharacterize these tensor products

Ali S. Kavruk; Vern I. Paulsen; Ivan G. Todorov; Mark Tomforde

2009-01-01

185

XML-based product information processing method for product design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design knowledge of modern mechatronics product is based on information processing as the center of the knowledge-intensive engineering, thus product design innovation is essentially the knowledge and information processing innovation. Analysis of the role of mechatronics product design knowledge and information management features, a unified model of XML-based product information processing method is proposed. Information processing model of product design includes functional knowledge, structural knowledge and their relationships. For the expression of product function element, product structure element, product mapping relationship between function and structure based on the XML model are proposed. The information processing of a parallel friction roller is given as an example, which demonstrates that this method is obviously helpful for knowledge-based design system and product innovation.

Zhang, Zhen Yu

2011-12-01

186

Catalase Production by Lactobacilli  

Microsoft Academic Search

LACTOBACILLI are considered to be catalase-negative1, or occasionally to produce very small amounts of catalase2. The lactobacilli isolated from dairy products have always been found to be catalase-negative3,4. During recent work on the microflora of Cheddar cheese, we have encountered strains of lactobacilli which possess both strong and weak catalase activity. Three strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, originally isolated by Sherwood3

J. C. Dacre

1956-01-01

187

CLEANER PRODUCTION THROUGH CONSERVATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Colorado State University Industrial Assessment Center (CSU IAC) promotes cleaner production through conservation of energy and materials. This paper reports results from 75 1996-99 CSU IAC industrial assessments at small and mid-size manufacturing plants. Teams of faculty members and engineering students carry out the industrial assessments. Each assessment includes a full-day plant visit and generates a detailed assessment report

Harry W. Edwards; Michael F. Kostrzewa; Jason M. Jonkman

188

Irradiation of blood products  

SciTech Connect

The method of treating white blood cells is described comprising irradiating a thin film of blood product containing white blood cells with ultraviolet radiation predominantly of a wavelength of 280 to 320 nanometers at an intensity of 4 to 15 milliwatts per square cm., to provide a total energy exposure of 800 to 2800 millijoules per square cm. of ultraviolet radiation for a sufficient time. The white blood cells substantially lose their capability to set off an immune reaction in an alloimmunized patient.

Miripol, J.E.; Bilstad, A.; Foley, J.; Glash, D.

1988-02-23

189

Organic Production and Certification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Minnesota Department of Agriculture\\'s Sustainable Agriculture Program provides farmers and consumers with information on organic production practices and certification. The \\"What\\'s New\\" section on the front page of the site includes recent issues in the agricultural field. Agricultural organizations, news and events, and farming systems are all mapped out in detail on the site. Users are also given access to University of Minnesota research on agriculture.

2008-10-08

190

Pyrolysis Products Of Dimethyldichlorosilane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes experimental study of chemical reactions and chemical products of chemical-vapor deposition of silicon carbide from dimethyldichlorosilane. Topic important because it relates to current interest in lightweight refractory materials for use in advanced aircraft and spacecraft. Analyses showed that at temperature of 700 to 1,100 degrees C and contact time of about 1 minute, SiC forms by two chemical-reaction paths.

Cagliostro, D. E.; Riccitiello, S. R.; Carswell, M. G.

1990-01-01

191

Water Filtration Products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

American Water Corporation manufactures water filtration products which incorporate technology originally developed for manned space operations. The formula involves granular activated charcoal and other ingredients, and removes substances by catalytic reactions, mechanical filtration, and absorption. Details are proprietary. A NASA literature search contributed to development of the compound. The technology is being extended to a deodorizing compound called Biofresh which traps gas and moisture inside the unit. Further applications are anticipated.

1986-01-01

192

DSRP, Direct Sulfur Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot-gas desulfurization processes for IGCC and other advanced power applications utilize regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents to remove hydrogen sulfide (HâS) from raw coal gas. Regeneration of these sorbents produces an off-gas typically containing I to 3 percent sulfur dioxide (SOâ). Production of elemental sulfur is a highly desirable option for the ultimate disposal of the SOâ content of this off-gas.

S. K. Gangwal; W. J. McMichael; S. K. Agarwal; B. L. Jang; G. B. Howe; D. H. Chen; J. R. Hopper

1993-01-01

193

Tools and Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A look at new products on the market, including Z Corporation's zp140, Nvidia's Quadro Plex VCS Model IV, Croquet Consortium's Croquet SDK 3D software toolkit, SensAble Technologies FreeForm Modeling and Modeling Plus v. 9.1, Elgato Systems EyeTV 2.4, Toon Boom Animation's Toon Boom Studio Express v. 3.5, Test Systems Strategies' TD-Scan and TD-Sim, Adobe's Acrobat 8, Autodesk's Inventor LT, Dassault

Carl Machover; David J. Kasik

2007-01-01

194

Joined ceramic product  

DOEpatents

According to the present invention, a joined product is at least two ceramic parts, specifically bi-element carbide parts with a bond joint therebetween, wherein the bond joint has a metal silicon phase. The bi-element carbide refers to compounds of MC, M.sub.2 C, M.sub.4 C and combinations thereof, where M is a first element and C is carbon. The metal silicon phase may be a metal silicon carbide ternary phase, or a metal silicide.

Henager, Jr., Charles W [Kennewick, WA; Brimhall, John L. (West Richland, WA) [West Richland, WA

2001-08-21

195

Aluminum hydroxide production  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for the production of aluminum hydroxide, comprising reacting water in the liquid phase and aluminum of surface area of at least 20 mm/sup 2/ per gram at a pH above about 12.4 for producing a reaction mixture containing aluminum hydroxide, and collecting solid aluminum hydroxide from the reaction mixture, the reaction being carried out in the presence of choline at a concentration of about 0.05 to 2 mols per liter.

Martin, E.S.; Weaver, M.L.

1988-07-05

196

Hydrogen production by microalgae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of H2 gas from water and sunlightusing microalgae, `biophotolysis', has been a subjectof applied research since the early 1970s. A numberof approaches have been investigated, but most provedto have fundamental limitations or requireunpredictable research breakthroughs. Examples areprocesses based on nitrogen-fixing microalgae andthose producing H2 and O2 simultaneously fromwater (`direct biophotolysis'). The most plausibleprocesses for future applied R &

John R. Benemann

2000-01-01

197

Microbial Production of Biovanillin  

PubMed Central

This review aims at providing an overview on the microbial production of vanillin, a new alternative method for the production of this important flavor of the food industry, which has the potential to become economically competitive in the next future. After a brief description of the applications of vanillin in different industrial sectors and of its physicochemical properties, we described the traditional ways of providing vanillin, specifically extraction and chemical synthesis (mainly oxidation) and compared them with the new biotechnological options, i.e., biotransformations of caffeic acid, veratraldehyde and mainly ferulic acid. In the second part of the review, emphasis has been addressed to the factors most influencing the bioproduction of vanillin, specifically the age of inoculum, pH, temperature, type of co-substrate, as well as the inhibitory effects exerted either by excess substrate or product. The final part of the work summarized the downstream processes and the related unit operations involved in the recovery of vanillin from the bioconversion medium.

Converti, A.; Aliakbarian, B.; Dominguez, J.M.; Bustos Vazquez, G.; Perego, P.

2010-01-01

198

Charmonia production in ALICE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quarkonia states are expected to provide essential information on the properties of the high-density strongly-interacting system formed in the early stages of high-energy heavy-ion collisions. ALICE is the LHC experiment dedicated to the study of nucleus-nucleus collisions and can study charmonia at forward rapidity (2.5production as a function of transverse momentum and rapidity in pp collisions at ?{s}=7 TeV, the inclusive J/? production as a function of the charged particle multiplicity, the inclusive J/? polarization at forward rapidity and the J/? prompt to non-prompt fraction are discussed. Finally, the analysis of the inclusive J/? production in the Pb-Pb data collected fall 2011 at a center of mass energy of ?{s}=2.76 TeV is presented. Results on the nuclear modification factor are then shown as a function of centrality, transverse momentum and rapidity and compared to model predictions. First results on inclusive J/? elliptic flow are given.

Suire, Christophe

2013-08-01

199

Benzene Production on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Methane to Aromatics on Mars (METAMARS) system is an in situ resource utilization (ISRU) technique that converts methane produced from the carbon dioxide in the martian atmosphere to low hydrogen content liquid aromatic fuels for an Earth Return Vehicle, thus greatly increasing the leverage of the hydrogen imported from the Earth. More importantly, the METAMARS system reduces the amount of hydrogen imported from Earth by a factor of four, leading to dramatic reductions in mission cost. This project involves design and construction of two fully functional oxygen/aromatic hydrocarbon production facilities (brassboard and protoflight) sized to produce 1 kg of bipropellant per day. Because aromatic fuels contain only about one hydrogen atom per carbon atom, the METAMARS system gives extremely high leverages on the order of 53 in the production of fuel and oxidizer for a Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission and human Mars missions. In addition, there are extensive potential commercial applications for the technology in converting trillions of cubic feet of stranded natural gas into easily transportable liquid aromatic products.

Muscatello, Anthony C.; Berggren, Mark H.; Strott, David K.; Zubrin, Robert M.

2004-02-01

200

Productivity and product quality: Evidence from agricultural products in South Mediterranean Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to investigate the relationship between trade openness and productivity in the Mediterranean countries agricultural sector. The study ba- sically focuses on analyzing the effects of exports quality on productivity growth at the aggregate farming sector. The impact of quality on productivity is evaluated through the estimation of a dynamic production function by the GMM estimator over five

Nadia BELHAJ HASSINE-BELGHITH; Rym BEN AYED-MOUELHI

2007-01-01

201

Microbiological Spoilage of Cereal Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide range of cereal products, including bakery items, refrigerated dough, fresh pasta products, dried cereal products, snack foods, and bakery mixes, are manufactured for food consumption. These products are subject to physical, chemical, and microbiological spoilage that affects the taste, aroma, leavening, appearance, and overall quality of the end consumer product. Microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and have the potential for causing food spoilage and foodborne disease. However, compared to other categories of food products, bakery products rarely cause food poisoning. The heat that is applied during baking or frying usually eliminates pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and low moisture contributes to product stability. Nevertheless, microbiological spoilage of these products occurs, resulting in substantial economic losses.

Cook, Frederick K.; Johnson, Billie L.

202

Tobacco and Nicotine Product Testing  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Tobacco product testing is a critical component of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), which grants the Food and Drug Administration the authority to regulate tobacco products. The availability of methods and measures that can provide accurate data on the relative health risks across types of tobacco products, brands, and subbrands of tobacco products on the validity of any health claims associated with a product, and on how consumers perceive information on products toxicity or risks is crucial for making decisions on the product's potential impact on public health. These tools are also necessary for making assessments of the impact of new indications for medicinal products (other than cessation) but more importantly of tobacco products that may in the future be marketed as cessation tools. Objective: To identify research opportunities to develop empirically based and comprehensive methods and measures for testing tobacco and other nicotine-containing products so that the best science is available when decisions are made about products or policies. Methods: Literature was reviewed to address sections of the FSPTCA relevant to tobacco product evaluation; research questions were generated and then reviewed by a committee of research experts. Results: A research agenda was developed for tobacco product evaluation in the general areas of toxicity and health risks, abuse liability, consumer perception, and population effects. Conclusion: A cohesive, systematic, and comprehensive assessment of tobacco products is important and will require building consensus and addressing some crucial research questions.

Biener, Lois; Leischow, Scott J.; Zeller, Mitch R.

2012-01-01

203

Stakeholders' perceptions of product messages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Designers,create,messages,that are,encoded,in the products’,design,and,consumers,perceive the products in an environment. Hence the product can be seen as a communication,media between the,designer,and,different,product,stakeholders.,The stakeholder’s,response,to the designer’s,intent embodied in the product design falls into three categories: cognitive, affective and behavioural. In some cases, it is important to have an understanding of stakeholder response to product design. This paper presents theories, approaches and methods

Emma Linder; Elin Olander

204

MICRO TUTOR PRODUCTS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

MICRO TUTOR PRODUCTS announces the first formal course designed to give teachers all the expertise they need to put their class on a MOO. Beginning with 'What is a MOO?', the course assumes no previous MOO experience, yet soon each student will be creating MOO objects, designing their online classrooms, and even doing just a little MOO programming. Completion of the course assignments, as well as a personal design-and-application Project, will result in the awarding of a course certificate for the student's permanent resume. More information, as well as registration details, can be found at:

205

{gamma} production at CDF  

SciTech Connect

We report on preliminary measurements of the {gamma}(1S), {gamma}(2S) and {gamma}(3S) differential and integrated cross sections in p{bar p} at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV using a sample of 16.6 {+-} 0.6 pb{sup -1} collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. The three resonances were reconstructed through the decay {gamma} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} in the rapidity region {vert_bar}y{vert_bar} < 0.4. The cross section results are compared to theoretical models of direct bottomonium production.

Abe, F.

1995-07-01

206

Challenges facing production grids  

SciTech Connect

Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

2007-06-01

207

Tetracel (American Home Products).  

PubMed

American Home Products (AHP) is developing Tetracel as a vaccine for children (aged 12 to 18 months) against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) [275146]. The components are contained in AHP's two currently marketed vaccines. ACEL-Immune contains diphtheria and tetanus toxoids with acellular pertussis vaccine adsorbed, and HibTITER contains the Haemophilus influenzae B conjugate vaccine (diphtheria CRM197 protein conjugate) [239655]. As of January 2000, Lehman Brothers predicted Tetracel to be approved in the US during 2000 [354434]. PMID:11527012

Jones, D H

2001-01-01

208

Strangeness Production at CLAS  

SciTech Connect

The CLAS detector is a large acceptance spectrometer located at the electron accelerator at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Production of K+ and K* mesons along with associated hyperons were measured using the CLAS detector at electron beam energies of 2.4-4.4 GeV. In addition, polarization transfer from the electron helicity to the Lambda hyperon was measured. These data are compared with theoretical models, where available, based on fits to older, less precise K+ data. The new data for CLAS indicate that improvements in the models are necessary in order to interpret the results.

K. H. Hicks

2002-06-07

209

Dynamic production system management  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Data about operation of a well for extracting a product from the subterranean reservoir and at least one of a characteristic of a subterranean reservoir or operation of a processing and transport system upstream of a point of sale is received. A corrective action can be automatically initiated on at least one of the well or the processing and transport system in response to a difference between the received data and a specified operational objective. An adjustment to a model of the reservoir, the well, and the processing and transporting system can be automatically initiated in response to the received data.

2012-06-05

210

Product Module Rig Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The low emissions potential of a Rich-Quench-Lean (RQL) combustor for use in the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) application was evaluated as part of Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 1.0.2.7 of the NASA Critical Propulsion Components (CPC) Program under Contract NAS3-27235. Combustion testing was conducted in cell 1E of the Jet Burner Test Stand at United Technologies Research Center. Specifically, a Rich-Quench-Lean combustor, utilizing reduced scale quench technology implemented in a quench vane concept in a product-like configuration (Product Module Rig), demonstrated the capability of achieving an emissions index of nitrogen oxides (NOx EI) of 8.5 gm/Kg fuel at the supersonic flight condition (relative to the program goal of 5 gm/Kg fuel). Developmental parametric testing of various quench vane configurations in the more fundamental flametube, Single Module Rig Configuration, demonstrated NOx EI as low as 5.2. All configurations in both the Product Module Rig configuration and the Single Module Rig configuration demonstrated exceptional efficiencies, greater than 99.95 percent, relative to the program goal of 99.9 percent efficiency at supersonic cruise conditions. Sensitivity of emissions to quench orifice design parameters were determined during the parametric quench vane test series in support of the design of the Product Module Rig configuration. For the rectangular quench orifices investigated, an aspect ratio (length/width) of approximately 2 was found to be near optimum. An optimum for orifice spacing was found to exist at approximately 0.167 inches, resulting in 24 orifices per side of a quench vane, for the 0.435 inch quench zone channel height investigated in the Single Module Rig. Smaller quench zone channel heights appeared to be beneficial in reducing emissions. Measurements were also obtained in the Single Module Rig configuration on the sensitivity of emissions to the critical combustor parameters of fuel/air ratio, pressure drop, and residence time. Minimal sensitivity was observed for all of these parameters.

Holdeman, James D. (Technical Monitor); Chiappetta, Louis, Jr.; Hautman, Donald J.; Ols, John T.; Padget, Frederick C., IV; Peschke, William O. T.; Shirley, John A.; Siskind, Kenneth S.

2004-01-01

211

Novel products for haemostasis.  

PubMed

The primary major issue in haemophilia treatment remains the development of inhibitors. Recently two novel bypassing products have been developed. First, a humanized bispecific antibody against FIXa and FX, termed hBS23, was produced utilizing these two molecules placed into a spatially appropriate position to mimic FVIIIa, and recently this mimetic activity and the pharmacokinetics of the original antibody were improved by engineering the charge properties of the variable region within the immunoglobulin. Using the new antibody, termed ACE910, a phase 1 study in 64 Japanese and Caucasian healthy adults was performed and data from this trial suggested that the product had medically acceptable safety and tolerability profiles. The other new bypassing agent is named MC710, and consists of a mixture of plasma-derived FVIIa and FX. Preclinical studies using in vitro and in vivo haemophilia B inhibitor monkey models indicated that the haemostatic effects of FVIIa and FX were enhanced by simultaneous administration. Results from phase I and II clinical studies suggested that MC710 had equal or greater pharmacokinetic (PK), pharmacodynamic (PD), efficacy and safety profiles than conventional bypassing agents in the treatment of joint bleeding in haemophilia patients with inhibitors. Another significant current issue in this context is the increased medical cost of conventional treatment due to the higher consumption of concentrates. Biosimilar products may offer advantages in these circumstances and may offer a less expensive alternative. Regulatory issues, however, together with acceptability of biosimilar materials and reimbursement policies as well as supply and demand incentives remain to be considered. Rare bleeding disorders (RBDs) have attracted less attention from the pharmaceutical industry than haemophilia or von Willebrand disease due to the limited number of patients involved. Many cases of this type have been treated, therefore, using fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) which carry serious risks of infections, allergic reactions and fluid overload. Several specific plasma-derived or recombinant products including fibrinogen, FVIIa, FXI and FXIII have now become available, however, and a phase III clinical study of recombinant FXIIIa has recently been completed demonstrating safety and efficacy of substances of this nature. PMID:24762272

Shima, M; Hermans, C; de Moerloose, P

2014-05-01

212

Climate Information Products  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the High Plains Regional Climate Center is to increase the use and availability of climate data in the High Plains region of the US. The Climate Information Products page of the Web site offers current climate summary maps, 30-year normals, a climate atlas, historical data summaries, and more. Other parts of the site include a climate data page for online data retrieval; a publications link that includes newsletters, articles, book chapters, reports, and presentations; and more. Those researching or interested in climate information from this specific area (the six high plains states of Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming) will appreciate this valuable tool.

213

Antibiotics in Animal Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The administration of antibiotics to animals to prevent or treat diseases led us to be concerned about the impact of these antibiotics on human health. In fact, animal products could be a potential vehicle to transfer drugs to humans. Using appropri ated mathematical and statistical models, one can predict the kinetic profile of drugs and their metabolites and, consequently, develop preventive procedures regarding drug transmission (i.e., determination of appropriate withdrawal periods). Nevertheless, in the present chapter the mathematical and statistical concepts for data interpretation are strictly given to allow understanding of some basic pharma-cokinetic principles and to illustrate the determination of withdrawal periods

Falcão, Amílcar C.

214

Wood Products Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structural Reliability Consultants' computer program creates graphic plots showing the statistical parameters of glue laminated timbers, or 'glulam.' The company president, Dr. Joseph Murphy, read in NASA Tech Briefs about work related to analysis of Space Shuttle surface tile strength performed for Johnson Space Center by Rockwell International Corporation. Analysis led to a theory of 'consistent tolerance bounds' for statistical distributions, applicable in industrial testing where statistical analysis can influence product development and use. Dr. Murphy then obtained the Tech Support Package that covers the subject in greater detail. The TSP became the basis for Dr. Murphy's computer program PC-DATA, which he is marketing commercially.

1990-01-01

215

PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop technologies for carbon products from coal-derived feed-stocks. Carbon products can include precursor materials such as solvent extracted carbon ore (SECO) and synthetic pitch (Synpitch). In addition, derived products include carbon composites, fibers, foams and others.

Dady Dadyburjor; Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

2005-12-12

216

Relationships between product development strategies and product design issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taiwanese electronics and computer products are well respected by consumers globally. This study examines local electronics and computer enterprises to identify the product development strategies applied to deal with global competition and attain competitive advantage. Based on questionnaire results, product development strategic groups were categorised for the Taiwanese electronics and computer industry in response to global competition. In total, 48

Yen Hsu

2011-01-01

217

Report on Federal Productivity. Volume 2, Productivity Case Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volume 2 contains 15 productivity case studies which illustrate and expand on the causal factors mentioned in volume 1. The cases illustrate many different approaches to productivity measurement improvement. The case studies are: Development of an Output-Productivity Measure for the Air Force Medical Service; Measuring Effectiveness and Efficiency…

Joint Financial Management Improvement Program, Washington, DC.

218

Product life trade-offs: what if products fail early?  

PubMed

Increasing product life allows the embodied emissions in products to be spread across a longer period but can mean that opportunities to improve use-phase efficiency are foregone. In this paper, a model that evaluates this trade-off is presented and used to estimate the optimal product life for a range of metal-intensive products. Two strategies that have potential to save emissions are explored: (1) adding extra embodied emissions to make products more sturdy, increasing product life, and (2) increasing frequency of use, causing early product failure to take advantage of improvements in use-phase efficiency. These strategies are evaluated for two specific case studies (long-life washing machines and more frequent use of vehicles through car clubs) and for a range of embodied and use-phase intensive products under different use-phase improvement rate assumptions. Particular emphasis is placed on the fact that products often fail neither at their design life nor at their optimal life. Policy recommendations are then made regarding the targeting of these strategies according to product characteristics and the timing of typical product failure relative to optimal product life. PMID:23343618

Skelton, Alexandra C H; Allwood, Julian M

2013-02-01

219

Integrating multi-product production and distribution in newspaper logistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a tabu search metaheuristic to aid in the coordination and synchronization of the production and delivery of multi-product newspapers to bulk delivery locations. The problem is modeled as an open vehicle routing problem with time windows and zoning constraints. The methodology is applied to the newspaper production and distribution problem in a major metropolitan area. Computational results

Robert A. Russell; Wen-chyuan Chiang; David Zepeda

2008-01-01

220

The NASA SBIR product catalog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this catalog is to assist small business firms in making the community aware of products emerging from their efforts in the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. It contains descriptions of some products that have advanced into Phase 3 and others that are identified as prospective products. Both lists of products in this catalog are based on information supplied by NASA SBIR contractors in responding to an invitation to be represented in this document. Generally, all products suggested by the small firms were included in order to meet the goals of information exchange for SBIR results. Of the 444 SBIR contractors NASA queried, 137 provided information on 219 products. The catalog presents the product information in the technology areas listed in the table of contents. Within each area, the products are listed in alphabetical order by product name and are given identifying numbers. Also included is an alphabetical listing of the companies that have products described. This listing cross-references the product list and provides information on the business activity of each firm. In addition, there are three indexes: one a list of firms by states, one that lists the products according to NASA Centers that managed the SBIR projects, and one that lists the products by the relevant Technical Topics utilized in NASA's annual program solicitation under which each SBIR project was selected.

Gilman, J. A.; Paige, J. B.; Schwenk, F. Carl

1992-01-01

221

Accelerators for energy production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tremendous progress of accelerators for these several decades, has been motivated mainly by the research on subnuclear physics. The culmination in high energy accelerators might be SSC, 20 TeV collider in USA, probably the ultimate accelerator being built with the conventional principle. The technology cultivated and integrated for the accelerator development, can now stably offer the high power beam which could be used for the energy problems. The Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) with high current, 10 kA and short pulse, 20 ns heavy ion beam (HIB) of mass number approximately 200, would be the most promising application of accelerators for energy production. In this scenario, the fuel containing D-T mixture, will be compressed to the high temperature, approximately 10 keV and to the high density state, approximately 1000 times the solid density with the pressure of ablative plasma or thermal X ray produced by bombarding of high power HIB. The efficiency, beam power/electric power for accelerator, and the repetition rate of HIB accelerators could be most suitable for the energy production. In the present paper, the outline of HIB ICF (HIF) is presented emphasizing the key issues of high current heavy ion accelerator system.

Katayama, Takeshi

1993-11-01

222

Regulation of erythropoietin production  

PubMed Central

The hormone erythropoietin (Epo) maintains red blood cell mass by promoting the survival, proliferation and differentiation of erythrocytic progenitors. Circulating Epo originates mainly from fibroblasts in the renal cortex. Epo production is controlled at the transcriptional level. Hypoxia attenuates the inhibition of the Epo promoter by GATA-2. More importantly, hypoxia promotes the availability of heterodimeric (?/?) hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (predominantly HIF-2) which stimulate the Epo enhancer. The HIFs are inactivated in normoxia by enzymatic hydroxylation of their ?-subunits. Three HIF-? prolyl hydroxylases (PHD-1, -2 and -3) initiate proteasomal degradation of HIF-?, while an asparaginyl hydroxylase (‘factor inhibiting HIF-1’, FIH-1) inhibits the transactivation potential. The HIF-? hydroxylases contain Fe2+ and require 2-oxoglutarate as co-factor. The in vivo response is dynamic, i.e. the concentration of circulating Epo increases initially greatly following an anaemic or hypoxaemic stimulus and then declines despite continued hypoxia. Epo and angiotensin II collaborate in the maintenance of the blood volume. Whether extra-renal sites (brain, skin) modulate renal Epo production is a matter of debate. Epo overproduction results in erythrocytosis. Epo deficiency is the primary cause of the anaemia in chronic kidney disease and a contributing factor in the anaemias of chronic inflammation and cancer. Here, recombinant analogues can substitute for the hormone.

Jelkmann, Wolfgang

2011-01-01

223

Offshore production challenged  

SciTech Connect

The capability to produce oil fields from under 20,000 ft of water or below the thick and treacherous Arctic icepack are 2 of the breakthroughs that have been brought about by a quietly emerging technology. A scan of announcements by designers, contractors, operators, and manufacturers reveals that substantial research and development efforts are being undertaken to ease the task of bringing to market the energy resources trapped under presently inaccessible locations. As a result, entirely new breeds of permanent or temporary drilling/production systems are evolving, some of which could be scaled down to face still another challenge: the economic exploitation of marginal offshore fields, whose meager reserves do not justify development by conventional means. New offshore systems described include the mobile Arctic drilling system, the mobile concrete island drilling system, the base and independent deck platform, the buoyant tower, the semiflex floating station, the tension leg platform, the big buoy floating cylinder, and the Sea Plex retrievable drilling/production system.

Franco, A.

1983-10-01

224

Monascus rice products.  

PubMed

The fermentation products of Monascus, especially those produced by solid-state fermentation of rice, have been used as food and health remedies for over 1000 years in China. Monascus rice products (MRPs) are currently being used as health foods in the United States and many Asian countries such as Japan, Taiwan, China, Korea, Thailand, the Philippines, and Indonesia. Many studies have shown that Monascus spp. produce commercially viable metabolites, including food colorants, cholesterol-lowering agents, and antibiotics. The most important bioactive compound isolated from Monascus is monacolin K, which is identical to the potent cholesterol-lowering, antiatherosclerotic drug lovastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor. Several species of the genus Monascus also produce citrinin, a mycotoxin harmful to the hepatic and renal systems. Monacolin K and citrinin are polyketide fungal metabolites. The biosynthetic pathways leading to the formation of polyketides, including monacolin K and citrinin, have been elucidated in Aspergillus and Monascus. The concern for safety is, therefore, high for the development of MRPs as health foods. Other attractive applications for MRPs are likely, as supported by recent studies that indicate that MRPs contain other substances (flavonoids, polyunsaturated fats, phytosterols, pyrrolinic compounds, and others) with a wide variety of biological activities and pharmacological potentials. Their effects in lowering blood sugar and triacylglycerol while raising HDL-C are more pronounced than those of monacolin K alone. Beyond cholesterol lowering, MRP may also be an ideal candidate for the treatment of metabolic syndrome. PMID:17900498

Wang, Tseng-Hsing; Lin, Tzann-Feng

2007-01-01

225

Quality concepts and products litigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The landscape for doing business in America is marked by products liability litigation. Americans have gained a reputation for being extraordinarily litigious. While the existence of any products liability \\

Todd E. Kastetter

1999-01-01

226

Organizational Context and Scientific Productivity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An earlier study found that while a scientist's productivity does not affect the prestige of the academic position obtained, the prestige of the position does affect later productivity. In the paper consideration of contextual effects is broadened to incl...

J. S. Long R. McGinnis

1981-01-01

227

Production of Foil (Selected Chapters).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All processes in the production of foil are described, using the available practical and documentary facts about this production. A theoretical basis was provided for some of the processes. The sections describing old processes which still continue to be ...

P. A. Kovalenko S. N. Chernyak V. I. Karasevich

1971-01-01

228

Correction product for printing inks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention pertains to the removal of printed ink characters from substrates. In particular, the invention pertains to correction products specifically for printing inks made of printed ink-specific correction product applied to a flexible substrate. T...

S. E. Krampe J. N. Pierce

1991-01-01

229

FDA 101: Regulating Biological Products  

MedlinePLUS

... mail Consumer Updates RSS Feed FDA 101: Regulating Biological Products Search the Consumer Updates Section Consumer Update ... friendly PDF (196 KB) On this page: What biological products does FDA regulate? How do biologics differ ...

230

Productivity and the Defense Industries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Detailed analysis of economic productivity, to include its definition components, measurement criteria, and causative factors for productivity decline in the United States. Excellent awareness of the economic conditions of the US during the 1970's and the...

J. A. Petrolino

1982-01-01

231

A guide to scientific products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dipping the oars into some fresh waters, product review offers product information on astronomy and oceanography, as well as our standard complement, including electroporation cuvettes and a direct blotting electrophoresis system.

Horton, Brendan

1996-01-01

232

10+ Questions about Household Products  

MedlinePLUS

... huffing" certain products like spray paint or airplane glue will get you high. Are they right? How ... huffing" certain products like spray paint or airplane glue will get you high. Are they right? It ...

233

Publication Production: An Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers brief annotations of 52 articles and papers on document production (from the Society for Technical Communication's journal and proceedings) on 9 topics: information processing, document design, using color, typography, tables, illustrations, photography, printing and binding, and production management. (SR)

Firman, Anthony H.

1994-01-01

234

Waste Products in Highway Construction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents waste materials and products for highway construction. The general legislation, local liability, and research projects related to waste materials are outlined. The waste materials and products presented include waste paving materials, ...

C. Han

1993-01-01

235

Object-Oriented Productivity Metrics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Software productivity metrics are useful for sizing and costing proposed software and for measuring development productivity. Estimating and measuring source lines of code (SLOC) has proven to be a bad idea because it encourages writing more lines of code...

J. L. Connell N. Eller

1992-01-01

236

RENDERED PRODUCTS IN SWINE NUTRITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Numerous rendered products can be used in swine diets. In general, these by-products of the packing\\/rendering industry are good sources of amino acids, calcium, phosphorus, and other minerals, as well as B-complex vitamins. The major animal-derived by-products used in swine diets are meat meal, meat and bone meal, fish meal, dried blood products (blood meal, spray-dried plasma, and spray-

Gary L. Cromwell

237

Production and maintenance integrated planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces an expert system for the planning and management of a multi-product and one-stage production system made up of flexible machines operating in parallel. The following characteristics of the production system were considered: production costs depending on the machine and on the job processed, setups depending on the machine and on the job-processing sequence, preventive maintenance, order portfolio

M. BRANDOLESE; M. FRANCI; A. POZZETTI

1996-01-01

238

Co-production and time use. Influence on product evaluation.  

PubMed

This study analyses how time use influences consumers' evaluation of a product and their satisfaction with the co-production activity. It also includes hypotheses about how knowledge and perceived convenience are related to the evaluative constructs. The constructs are checked for reliability and validity, before using structural equation modelling in Lisrel to estimate the relationships between the constructs and their measures. The results showed that time use had a negative influence on perceived convenience and a positive effect on satisfaction with co-production, but did not influence the global evaluation of the product. Satisfaction with co-production and perceived convenience had a positive influence on the global evaluation. Knowledge had a negative influence on time use. Finally, knowledge and perceived convenience had a positive relationship with satisfaction with co-production. In total, seven out of nine hypotheses are supported by the data. The study suggests that time use, perceived convenience, and satisfaction with co-production can be an important variables in the understanding of the evaluative outcome of a co-produced product. The dual role of time use can be positioned as something the consumer wants to minimize for convenient reasons or extended in order to be satisfied with the co-production effort. The paper presents new insights into how co-production and time use influence product evaluation. PMID:21144876

Heide, Morten; Olsen, Svein Ottar

2011-02-01

239

Products Liability, Signaling and Disclosure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the behavior of a firm that produces a product with a privately-observed safety attribute. Costly disclosure and price-signaling of safety are alternative firm strategies. The liability system and production cost determine the firm's full marginal cost. When the firm's full marginal cost is increasing (decreasing) in safety, a firm with a safer product will distort its price upward

Andrew F. Daughety; Jennifer F. Reinganum

2008-01-01

240

Product Development and the Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students investigate the life cycles of engineered products and how they impact the environment. They use a basic life cycle assessment method that assigns fictional numerical values for different steps in the life cycle. Then they use their analyses to compare the impacts of their products to other products, and suggest ways to reduce environmental impact based on their analyses.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

241

Ostomy Products National Formulary (Video).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This videotape provides detailed information relating to ostomy care and the use of high quality ostomy products as listed in the Ostomy Products Formulary. It provides a summation of the products listed in the formulary and information on how to select t...

1994-01-01

242

The Product Is the Message  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A veteran educator, Sister Mary Andre Chipko, who serves as educational consultant to Lorain County Catholic Schools in the Cleveland Diocese, took a hard look at the Madison Avenue approach toward selling a product. She thought that nothing sells a product like the product itself and the result was a textbook produced by students on their…

Flannery, Jim

1976-01-01

243

Applications for silica aerogel products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerogels, nanoporous lightweight materials, were discovered more than 60 years ago. The supercritical manufacturing process and expensive raw materials typically used to produce aerogels prohibited commercialization on an industrial scale. Recently, a commercially attractive ambient pressure production process was developed which will allow broader commercialization of silica aerogel products. Some aerogel products for insulation applications and their preparation is described.

M. Schmidt; F Schwertfeger

1998-01-01

244

Lotka's Law and Institutional Productivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the applicability of Lotka's Law, negative binomial distribution, and lognormal distribution for institutional productivity in the same way as it is to authors and their productivity. Results indicate that none of the distributions are applicable for institutional productivity in engineering sciences. (Author/LRW)

Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, Praveen; Garg, K. C.

1998-01-01

245

Treatment of Cured Meat Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention pertains to a treatment of cured meat products to reduce their water activities to a level below 0.92 to produce a product which does not permit the growth of Clostridium botulinum. Cured meat products which do not permit the growth of Clos...

C. N. Huhtanen W. I. Kimoto

1978-01-01

246

Productivity in Education. Two Addresses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet consists of two papers delivered by Patrick Haggerty, chairman of Texas Instruments, Incorporated, on the general topic of productivity in the American educational system. The first paper, "Education, Work, and Productivity," points out that while productivity per man-hour in the private sector of our economy has been increasing,…

Haggerty, Patrick E.

247

Competition, Innovation, and Product Exit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do products exit markets? This paper integrates rationale for product exit from a number of different literatures and compares the statistical and substantive effect of these explanations. We use a novel dataset covering every product introduced into the desktop laser printer industry since its inception. Using hedonic models, hazard rate models, and count models, this study generates three main

John M. de Figueiredo; Margaret K. Kyle

2001-01-01

248

Flood Resilient Technological Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a consequence of the paradigm shift of the EU water policy (Directive 2007/60/EC, EC 2003) from defense to living with flood, floods shall be faced in the future through resilient solutions, seeking to improve the permanence of flood protection, and getting thus beyond traditional temporary and human-relying solutions. But the fact is that nowadays "Flood Resilient (FRe) Building Technological Products" is an undefined concept, and concerned FRe solutions cannot be even easily identified. "FRe Building Technological materials" is a wide term involving a wide and heterogeneous range of solutions. There is an interest in offering an identification and classification of the referred products, since it will be useful for stakeholders and populations at flood risk for adopting the most adequate protections when facing floods. Thus, a previous schematic classification would enable us at least to identify most of them and to figure out autonomous FRe Technological Products categories subject all of them to intense industrial innovative processes. The flood resilience enhancement of a given element requires providing it enough water-repelling capacity, and different flood resilient solutions can be sorted out: barriers, waterproofing and anticorrosive. Barriers are palliative solutions that can be obtained either from traditional materials, or from technological ones, offering their very low weight and high maneuverability. Belonging barriers and waterproofing systems to industrial branches clearly different, from a conceptual point of view, waterproofing material may complement barriers, and even be considered as autonomous barriers in some cases. Actually, they do not only complement barriers by their application to barriers' singular weak points, like anchors, joints, but on the other hand, waterproofing systems can be applied to enhance the flood resilience of new building, as preventive measure. Anticorrosive systems do belong to a clearly different category because their function do not consist in repelling water, but in preventing damages caused by the watery contact. Finally, others preventive flood resilient technologies could also be considered, since forecasting, near-casting and warning alert are solutions getting more and more involved in flood resilience strategies.

Diez Gonzalez, J. J.; Monnot, J. V.; Marquez Paniagua, P.; Pámpanas, P.; Paz Abuín, S.; Prendes, P.; Videra, O.; U. P. M. Smartest Team

2012-04-01

249

Silicon production process evaluations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineering design of the third distillation column in the process was accomplished. The initial design is based on a 94.35% recovery of dichlorosilane in the distillate and a 99.9% recovery of trichlorosilane in the bottoms. The specified separation is achieved at a reflux ratio of 15 with 20 trays (equilibrium stages). Additional specifications and results are reported including equipment size, temperatures and pressure. Specific raw material requirements necessary to produce the silicon in the process are presented. The primary raw materials include metallurgical grade silicon, silicon tetrachloride, hydrogen, copper (catalyst) and lime (waste treatment). Hydrogen chloride is produced as by product in the silicon deposition. Cost analysis of the process was initiated during this reporting period.

1982-01-01

250

Radioactivity of Consumer Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of consumer products and household items contain varying amounts of radioactivity. Examples of these items include: FiestaWare and similar glazed china, salt substitute, bananas, brazil nuts, lantern mantles, smoke detectors and depression glass. Many of these items contain natural sources of radioactivity such as Uranium, Thorium, Radium and Potassium. A few contain man-made sources like Americium. This presentation will detail the sources and relative radioactivity of these items (including demonstrations). Further, measurements of the isotopic ratios of Uranium-235 and Uranium-238 in several pieces of china will be compared to historical uses of natural and depleted Uranium. Finally, the presenters will discuss radiation safety as it pertains to the use of these items.

Peterson, David; Jokisch, Derek; Fulmer, Philip

2006-11-01

251

Gulf operators resuming production  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that Gulf of Mexico operators last week were gradually restoring production at installations struck by Hurricane Andrew. The Minerals Management Service continued receiving reports of more damage. By the end of the day Sept. 8, MMS had received reports of damage to 83 pipeline segments and 193 platforms and satellite installations. Damage reports listed 112 installations with structural damage, 13 platforms toppled and five leaning, and 30 satellite platforms toppled and 33 leaning. But despite the extent of damage the storm inflicted on oil and gas installations in the gulf, it pales in comparison to the misery and suffering the storm caused in Florida and Louisiana, an oil company official said.

Koen, A.D.

1992-09-14

252

Light cone matrix product  

SciTech Connect

We show how to combine the light-cone and matrix product algorithms to simulate quantum systems far from equilibrium for long times. For the case of the XXZ spin chain at {Delta} = 0.5, we simulate to a time of {approx} 22.5. While part of the long simulation time is due to the use of the light-cone method, we also describe a modification of the infinite time-evolving bond decimation algorithm with improved numerical stability, and we describe how to incorporate symmetry into this algorithm. While statistical sampling error means that we are not yet able to make a definite statement, the behavior of the simulation at long times indicates the appearance of either 'revivals' in the order parameter as predicted by Hastings and Levitov (e-print arXiv:0806.4283) or of a distinct shoulder in the decay of the order parameter.

Hastings, Matthew B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

253

Production of zinc pellets  

DOEpatents

Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

1996-01-01

254

Production of acetylene  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes the process for converting essentially pure acetylene from the gaseous out-put stream from a coal to acetylene conversion process, comprising the steps of: (a) processing the gaseous out-put stream in an acid gas removal first stage by absorbing HCN and H/sub 2/S in an organic solvent, and scrubbing with a caustic agent to remove CO/sub 2/; (b) scrubbing the gaseous out-put stream with organic solvent in a sweet gas treatment second stage and removing essentially pure acetylene as a product; and (c) in a third stage, first hydrogenating, then desulfurizing and then methanating the remaining gases from the second stage.

Katz, M.; Carluccio, F.; Mallari, G.; Fitz Patrick, K.; Desai, A.; Casciano, R.; Tsai, J.

1988-11-29

255

Gut triglyceride production  

PubMed Central

Our knowledge of how the body absorbs triacylglycerols (TAG) from the diet and how this process is regulated has increased at a rapid rate in recent years. Dietary TAG are hydrolyzed in the intestinal lumen to free fatty acids (FFA) and monoacylglycerols (MAG), which are taken up by enterocytes from their apical side, transported to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and resynthesized into TAG. TAG are assembled into chylomicrons (CM) in the ER, transported to the Golgi via pre-chylomicron transport vesicles and secreted towards the basolateral side. In this review, we mainly focus on the roles of key proteins involved in uptake and intracellular transport of fatty acids, their conversion to TAG and packaging into CM. We will also discuss intracellular transport and secretion of CM. Moreover, we will bring to light few factors that regulate gut triglyceride production. Furthermore, we briefly summarize pathways involved in cholesterol absorption.

Pan, Xiaoyue; Hussain, M. Mahmood

2012-01-01

256

Biomimetic Production of Hydrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic reaction for hydrogen generation is formation of molecular hydrogen from two electrons and two protons. Although there are many possible sources for the protons and electrons, and a variety of mechanisms for providing the requisite energy for hydrogen synthesis, the most abundant and readily available source of protons and electrons is water, and the most attractive source of energy for powering the process is sunlight. Not surprisingly, living systems have evolved to take advantage of these sources for materials and energy. Thus, biology provides paradigms for carrying out the reactions necessary for hydrogen production. Photosynthesis in green plants uses sunlight as the source of energy for the oxidation of water to give molecular oxygen, protons, and reduction potential. Some photosynthetic organisms are capable of using this reduction potential, in the form of the reduced redox protein ferredoxin, to reduce protons and produce molecular hydrogen via the action of an hydrogenase enzyme. A variety of other organisms metabolize the reduced carbon compounds that are ultimately the major products of photosynthesis to produce molecular hydrogen. These facts suggest that it might be possible to use light energy to make molecular hydrogen via biomimetic constructs that employ principles similar to those used by natural organisms, or perhaps with hybrid "bionic" systems that combine biomimetic materials with natural enzymes. It is now possible to construct artificial photosynthetic systems that mimic some of the major steps in the natural process.(1) Artificial antennas based on porphyrins, carotenoids and other chromophores absorb light at various wavelengths in the solar spectrum and transfer the harvested excitation energy to artificial photosynthetic reaction centers.(2) In these centers, photoinduced electron transfer uses the energy from light to move an electron from a donor to an acceptor moiety, generating a high-energy charge-separated state. Subsequent electron transfer reactions further separate the electron and hole spatially, reducing the electronic coupling, slowing charge recombination, and lengthening the useful lifetime of the charge separation.(3) Still following the example of natural bacterial photosynthesis, these artificial reaction centers may be inserted into the lipid bilayer membranes of liposomes. There, they are used to power transmembrane proton pumps based on a redox loop that employs a lipid-soluble quinone molecule to shuttle hydrogen ions across the membrane, acidifying the interior of the liposome.(4) Finally, ATP synthase isolated from spinach can be inserted into the liposomal bilayer. Protons flow out of the liposome through the enzyme, driven by the gradient produced by the proton pump. The energy released is used to convert adenosine diphosphate into adenosine triphosphate, which is a major biological energy currency.(5) The chromophores used in these artificial photosynthetic reaction centers may also be attached to wide band gap nanoparticulate semiconductor electrodes, where their excited states inject electrons into the semiconductor, generating the radical cation of the chromophore. Such electrodes have been incorporated into a photoelectrochemical biofuel cell.(6) In the cell, NADH reduces the radical cation, regenerating the chromophore and ultimately producing NAD+. The NAD+ is recycled by converting it back to NADH via dehydrogenase enzymes that oxidize carbohydrates and similar reduced carbon compounds, including glucose, ethanol and methanol. Addition of a suitable cathode produces a cell that generates electric current through the combined action of light and enzymatic oxidation. The two examples of artificial photosynthesis discussed above are potential sources of the reducing power necessary for hydrogen production. A biomimetic approach to this goal is to couple an artificial photosynthetic system to an enzymatic system for hydrogen production isolated from a suitable organism. Some possible approaches to achieving this will be discussed. References (

Gust, Devens

2004-03-01

257

Production of magnesium metal  

DOEpatents

A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention further relates to a process for production of magnesium metal or a magnesium compound where an external source of carbon dioxide is not used in any of the reactions of the process. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

Blencoe, James G. (Harriman, TN) [Harriman, TN; Anovitz, Lawrence M. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Palmer, Donald A. (Oliver Springs, TN) [Oliver Springs, TN; Beard, James S. (Martinsville, VA) [Martinsville, VA

2010-02-23

258

Automotive Design and Production  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site is the "Field Guide to Automotive Technology" and contains a great deal of information for automotive engineers, or for those teaching and studying in the field. Here, visitors will find all issues of the Automotive Design and Production monthly magazine going back to 1997. The "Industry Focus" section contains articles on electronics, and tools and practices in the automotive supply chain. The "Resources" section supplies information about automotive industry events, a database of links to useful automotive sites, as well as reports and books. The tabs on the top of the page take users to various forums and articles from the site, categorized as "On Cars," "Equip & Apps," "Materials," "Supply Side," and "Digital Domain."

2007-09-27

259

Penstock productivity improved  

SciTech Connect

The Strawberry Water Users Association recently realized a significant increase in output on their hydroelectric plant near Spanish Fork, Utah. The plant's output was declining steadily and the problem was determined to be caused by build-up in its 11,000 foot long, 18 inch diameter penstock. After considering replacing the penstock or using hydro-blasting, the association decided that the pipe could be cleaned internally with flexible foam pits. Following the cleaning operation, the plant's output increased 22 percent to 345 kW. The new output level represents an increase in the association's annual income from the sale of electricity of $32,850 -enough to cover the costs of the equipment and contractor costs in approximately one year. The association plans to maintain maximum production by pumping an 18 inch pig down the line each year.

Not Available

1989-09-01

260

Observation of WZ production.  

PubMed

We report the first observation of the associated production of a W boson and a Z boson. This result is based on 1.1 fb;-1 of integrated luminosity from pp collisions at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. We observe 16 WZ candidates passing our event selection with an expected background of 2.7+/-0.4 events. A fit to the missing transverse energy distribution indicates an excess of events compared to the background expectation corresponding to a significance equivalent to 6 standard deviations. The measured cross section is sigma(pp-->WZ)=5.0(-1.6)(+1.8) pb, consistent with the standard model expectation. PMID:17501412

Abulencia, A; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J-F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Budroni, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carillo, S; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenaro, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Cyr, D; DaRonco, S; Datta, M; D'Auria, S; Davies, T; D'Onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdeckerc, G; Dell'Orso, M; Delli Paoli, F; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; DiTuro, P; Dörr, C; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garberson, F; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraan, A C; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McCarthy, K; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T

2007-04-20

261

LCLS undulator production.  

SciTech Connect

Design and construction of the undulators for the linac coherent light source (LCLS) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is the responsibility of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). A full-scale prototype undulator was constructed in-house and extensively tested at Argonne's advanced photon source (APS). The device was tunable to well within the LCLS requirements and was stable for five years. Experience constructing the prototype undulator led us to conclude that with appropriate engineering design and detailed assembly procedures, precision undulators can be constructed by highly-qualified industrial vendors without undulator-construction experience. Argonne's detailed technological knowledge and experience were transferred to the successful bidders who produced outstanding undulators. Our production concept for the 3.4-m-long, fixed-gap, planar-hybrid undulators with a 30-mm period is discussed. Manufacturing, quality assurance, and acceptance testing details are also presented.

Trakhtenberg, E.; Barsz, T.; Lawrence, G.; Sasaki, S.; Vasserman, I.; White, M.; Goldfarb, G.; Lagonsky, S.; Sorsher, S.; Becker, T.; Dufresne, S.; Schuermann, R.; Hi-Tech Manufacturing; Metalex Manufacturing

2008-01-01

262

STS-9 BET products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The final products generated for the STS-9, which landed on December 8, 1983 are reported. The trajectory reconstruction utilized an anchor epoch of GMT corresponding to an initial altitude of h 356 kft, selected in view of the limited tracking coverage available. The final state utilized IMU2 measurements and was based on processing radar tracking from six C-bands and a single S-band station, plus six photo-theodolite cameras in the vicinity of Runway 17 at Edwards Air Force Base. The final atmosphere (FLAIR9/UN=581199C) was based on a composite of the remote measured data and the 1978 Air Force Reference Atmosphere model. The Extended BET is available as STS9BET/UN=274885C. The AEROBET and MMLE input files created are discussed. Plots of the more relevant parameters from the AEROBET (reel number NL0624) are included. Input parameters, final residual plots, a trajectory listing, and data archival information are defined.

Findlay, J. T.; Kelly, G. M.; Heck, M. L.; Mcconnell, J. G.; Henry, M. W.

1984-01-01

263

Prototypicality in Sentence Production  

PubMed Central

Three cued-recall experiments examined the effect of category typicality on the ordering of words in sentence production. Past research has found that typical items tend to be mentioned before atypical items in a phrase—a pattern usually associated with lexical variables (like word frequency), and yet typicality is a conceptual variable. Experiment 1 revealed that an appropriate conceptual framework was necessary to yield the typicality effect. Experiment 2 tested ad-hoc categories that do not have prior representations in long-term memory and yielded no typicality effect. Experiment 3 used carefully matched sentences in which two category members appeared in the same or in different phrases. Typicality affected word order only when the two words appeared in the same phrase. These results are consistent with an account in which typicality has its origin in conceptual structure, which leads to differences in lexical accessibility in appropriate contexts.

Onishi, Kristine H.; Murphy, Gregory L.; Bock, Kathryn

2008-01-01

264

Global production through 2005  

SciTech Connect

Two companion studies released recently should provide great food for thought among geo-political strategists and various national governments. If predictions contained in these Petroconsultants studies of oil and gas production trends for the next 10 years are realized, there will be great repercussions for net exporters and importers, alike. After analyzing and predicting trends within each of the world`s significant producing nations for the 1996--2005 period, the crude oil and condensate report concludes tat global production will jump nearly 24%. By contrast, worldwide gas output will leap 40%. The cast of characters among producers and exporters that will benefit from these increases varies considerably for each fuel. On the oil side, Russia and the OPEC members, particularly the Persian Gulf nations, will be back in the driver`s seat in terms of affecting export and pricing patterns. On the gas side, the leading producers will be an interesting mix of mostly non-OPEC countries. The reemergence of Persian Gulf oil producers, coupled with an anticipated long-term decline among top non-OPEC producing nations should present a sobering picture to government planners within large net importers, such as the US. They are likely to find themselves in much the same supply trap as was experienced in the 1970s, only this time the dependence on foreign oil supplies will be much worse. Gas supplies will not be similarly constrained, and some substitution for oil is probable. Here, two articles, ``World oil industry is set for transition`` and ``Worldwide gas surges forward in next decade,`` present a summary of the findings detailed in Petroconsultants` recent studies.

Foreman, N.E. [Petroconsultants, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-12-01

265

Microbial Production of Isoprene  

SciTech Connect

Isoprene is a volatile hydrocarbon of unknown function, produced by certain bacteria, plants and animals, sometimes in huge amounts—the Earth’s forests are estimated to emit >500 x 106 tons of isoprene per year. With funding from this program we explored the biochemistry and regulation of isoprene formation in the model bacterial system, Bacillus subtilis, with the goals of explaining the biological rationale for isoprene biogenesis and constructing an isoprene-overproducing microbial system. Although the role for isoprene formation in B. subtilis is still uncertain, our current model for regulation of this hydrocarbon’s synthesis is that isoprene production in B. subtilis is controlled by a combination of i) rapid regulation of isoprene synthase activity and ii) supply of the substrate for isoprene synthase, dimethyallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). This model parallels our current thinking about the control of isoprene formation in plant chloroplasts. In this reporting period we have been working to test part ii) of this model; this work has produced new results using genetic and analytical approaches. For examples, we have developed an analytical method to resolve DMAPP and its isomer, isopentenyl diphosphate, from each other in bacteria and plants. We have also shown that the IPP isomerase (type 2) of B. subtilis is not the source of “isoprene synthase” activity, and discovered that B. subtilis releases C5 isoprenoid alcohols to the medium, suggesting that isoprene plus other C5 isoprenoids may be common by-products of metabolism. In addition, we have continued to work on our discovery that wild type B. subtilis strains form prolific biofilms, are normal components of plant root microflora, and are testing the idea that B. subtilis growing in biofilms uses isoprene to induce plant root exudation.

Ray Fall

2007-07-29

266

Gross Primary Productivity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's new Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) allows scientists to gauge our planet's metabolism on an almost daily basis. GPP, gross primary production, is the technical term for plant photosynthesis. This composite image over the continental United States, acquired during the period March 26-April 10, 2000, shows regions where plants were more or less productive-i.e., where they 'inhaled' carbon dioxide and then used the carbon from photosynthesis to build new plant structures. This false-color image provides a map of how much carbon was absorbed out of the atmosphere and fixed within land vegetation. Areas colored blue show where plants used as much as 60 grams of carbon per square meter. Areas colored green and yellow indicate a range of anywhere from 40 to 20 grams of carbon absorbed per square meter. Red pixels show an absorption of less than 10 grams of carbon per square meter and white pixels (often areas covered by snow or masked as urban) show little or no absorption. This is one of a number of new measurements that MODIS provides to help scientists understand how the Earth's landscapes are changing over time. Scientists' goal is use of these GPP measurements to refine computer models to simulate how the land biosphere influences the natural cycles of water, carbon, and energy throughout the Earth system. The GPP will be an integral part of global carbon cycle source and sink analysis, an important aspect of Kyoto Protocol assessments. This image is the first of its kind from the MODIS instrument, which launched in December 1999 aboard the Terra spacecraft. MODIS began acquiring scientific data on February 24, 2000, when it first opened its aperture door. The MODIS instrument and Terra spacecraft are both managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. Image courtesy Steven Running, MODIS Land Group Member, University of Montana

2002-01-01

267

PRODUCTS OF ACTIVATED LYMPHOCYTES  

PubMed Central

General methods were developed and applied to the biosynthesis and purification of products of activated lymphocytes available in minute quantities. The activity studied here was the migration inhibitory factor (MIF) produced by purified protein derivative (PPD)- or concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated lymphocytes obtained from one guinea pig or less. The methods selected yielded results in terms of two chemical parameters characteristic of the molecules involved, namely Kd on Sephadex G-75 and isoionic point, pI, on isoelectric focusing. When supernatants were fractionated on G-75 columns, there were several areas even in control supernatants which produced migration inhibition relative to medium controls. However, in PPD- and Con A-stimulated supernatants, at least one peak of MIF activity was found solely in the stimulated cultures, with a Kd of 0.15. A double-labeling technique was used to characterize the proteins of this peak. Control, unstimulated cultures were labeled with [14C]leucine and stimulated cultures were labeled with [3H]leucine. After mixing the supernatants and G-75 filtration, a major "ratiolabeled" broad peak. i.e. one with increased 3H/14C ratio, was found. When a narrow portion of this peak about Kd 0.15, containing most of the MIF activity, was subjected to analytical isoelectric focusing, all of the label was associated with proteins of lower net charge than albumin. A unique ratiolabeled peak was found in PPD- and Con A-stimulated fractions with a pI of approx. 5.3. A micropreparative isoelectric focusing technique was developed and yielded MIF activity in the same region as the major ratiolabeled peak. Further study will be required to ascertain whether the ratiolabeled protein is MIF. By following the Kd, pI, and 3H/14C labeling ratio, at least 14 products of activated lymphocytes, synthesized either de novo or in increased amounts, could be distinguished.

Sorg, Clemens; Bloom, Barry R.

1973-01-01

268

75 FR 18015 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and...Treasury. ACTION: Correction to publication of inflation adjustment factors and...This document contains a correction to publication of inflation adjustment factors...

2010-04-08

269

77 FR 25538 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and...Treasury. ACTION: Correction to a publication of inflation adjustment factors and...This document contains corrections to a publication of inflation adjustment factors...

2012-04-30

270

Natural Products for Cancer Prevention  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To review the clinical trial literature on the use and effects of natural products for cancer prevention. DATA SOURCES Clinical trials published in PubMed. CONCLUSION There is a growing body of literature on the use of natural products for cancer prevention. To date, few trials have demonstrated conclusive benefit. Current guidelines recommend against the use of natural products for cancer prevention. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE Clinicians should ask patients about their use of natural products and motivations for use. If patients are using natural products specifically for cancer prevention, they should be counseled on the current guidelines, as well as their options for other cancer prevention strategies.

Greenlee, Heather

2013-01-01

271

Method for production of magnesium  

DOEpatents

A continuous process for the production of elemental magnesium is described. Magnesium is made from magnesium oxide and a light hydrocarbon gas. In the process, a feed stream of the magnesium oxide and gas is continuously fed into a reaction zone. There the magnesium oxide and gas are reacted at a temperature of about 1400.degree. C. or greater in the reaction zone to provide a continuous product stream of reaction products, which include elemental magnesium. The product stream is continuously quenched after leaving the reaction zone, and the elemental magnesium is separated from other reaction products.

Diaz, Alexander F. (Cambridge, MA); Howard, Jack B. (Winchester, MA); Modestino, Anthony J. (Hanson, MA); Peters, William A. (Lexington, MA)

1998-01-01

272

Method for production of magnesium  

DOEpatents

A continuous process for the production of elemental magnesium is described. Magnesium is made from magnesium oxide and a light hydrocarbon gas. In the process, a feed stream of the magnesium oxide and gas is continuously fed into a reaction zone. There the magnesium oxide and gas are reacted at a temperature of about 1400 C or greater in the reaction zone to provide a continuous product stream of reaction products, which include elemental magnesium. The product stream is continuously quenched after leaving the reaction zone, and the elemental magnesium is separated from other reaction products. 12 figs.

Diaz, A.F.; Howard, J.B.; Modestino, A.J.; Peters, W.A.

1998-07-21

273

Integrating operations and product development methodologies for improved product success using advanced product quality planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general product development literature quotes new product success rates from the development through launch stages at a steady 25% between 1995 and 2004. Cooperation between manufacturing and other functional groups is critical to improve the success of new products. However, integrating operations and development methodologies is often challenging due to conflicting priorities and organizational structures. In this paper, a

Thomas A. Carbone

2005-01-01

274

Options for Martian propellant production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A quantitative evaluation methodology for utilizing in-situ resources on Mars for the production of useful substances. The emphasis is on the chemical processes. Various options considering different feedstock (mostly, carbon dioxide, water, and iron oxides) are carefully examined for the product mix and the energy needs. Oxygen, carbon monoxide, alcohols, and other chemicals are the end products. The chemical processes involve electrolysis, methanation, and variations. It is shown that maximizing the product utility is more important than the production of oxygen, methane, or alcohols. An important factor is the storage of the chemicals produced. The product utility is dependent, to some extent, upon the mission. A combination of the stability, the enthalpy of formation, and the mass fraction of the products is seen to yield a fairly good quantitative feel for the overall utility and maximum mission impact.

Dowler, Warren; French, James; Ramohalli, Kumar

1991-01-01

275

Pig production in subtropical agriculture.  

PubMed

Pig production plays an important role in farming systems worldwide, especially in subtropical areas. The past few decades have seen significant changes in swine production in such regions. However, there are regional differences in pig production, and some of these are associated with serious problems which impact production systems, the environment and human health. This review introduces the pig breeds, crops and challenge of pig production that faces subtropical areas. A detailed analysis focuses on the control of production problems that are affected by limitations in management and nutritional strategies. Then, factors that drive the major changes in the pig industry in this area are examined in detail, and some insight into pig production directions is provided. PMID:22002631

Zhang, Yong-gang; Yin, Yu-long; Fang, Jun; Wang, Qi

2012-03-30

276

Information models of software productivity - Limits on productivity growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research into generalized information-metric models of software process productivity establishes quantifiable behavior and theoretical bounds. The models establish a fundamental mathematical relationship between software productivity and the human capacity for information traffic, the software product yield (system size), information efficiency, and tool and process efficiencies. An upper bound is derived that quantifies average software productivity and the maximum rate at which it may grow. This bound reveals that ultimately, when tools, methodologies, and automated assistants have reached their maximum effective state, further improvement in productivity can only be achieved through increasing software reuse. The reuse advantage is shown not to increase faster than logarithmically in the number of reusable features available. The reuse bound is further shown to be somewhat dependent on the reuse policy: a general 'reuse everything' policy can lead to a somewhat slower productivity growth than a specialized reuse policy.

Tausworthe, Robert C.

1992-01-01

277

Hydroprocessing Bio-oil and Products Separation for Coke Production  

SciTech Connect

Fast pyrolysis of biomass can be used to produce a raw bio-oil product, which can be upgraded by catalytic hydroprocessing to hydrocarbon liquid products. In this study the upgraded products were distilled to recover light naphtha and oils and to produce a distillation resid with useful properties for coker processing and production of renewable, low-sulfur electrode carbon. For this hydroprocessing work, phase separation of the bio-oil was applied as a preparatory step to concentrate the heavier, more phenolic components thus generating a more amenable feedstock for resid production. Low residual oxygen content products were produced by continuous-flow, catalytic hydroprocessing of the phase separated bio-oil.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.

2013-04-01

278

Product Quality of Parenteral Vancomycin Products in the United States  

PubMed Central

In response to concerns raised about the quality of parenteral vancomycin products, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is investigating the product quality of all FDA-approved parenteral vancomycin products available in the United States. Product quality was evaluated independently at two FDA Office of Testing and Research (FDA-OTR) sites. In the next phase of the investigation, being done in collaboration with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the in vivo activity of these products will be evaluated in an appropriate animal model. This paper summarizes results of the FDA investigation completed thus far. One site used a validated ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography method (OTR-UPLC), and the second site used the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for related substances provided in the British Pharmacopeia (BP) monograph for vancomycin intravenous infusion. Similar results were obtained by the two FDA-OTR laboratories using two different analytical methods. The products tested had 90 to 95% vancomycin B (active component of vancomycin) by the BP-HPLC method and 89 to 94% vancomycin by OTR-UPLC methods. Total impurities were 5 to 10% by BP-HPLC and 6 to 11% by OTR-UPLC methods. No single impurity was >2.0%, and the CDP-1 level was ?2.0% across all products. Some variability in impurity profiles of the various products was observed. No adverse product quality issues were identified with the six U.S. vancomycin parenteral products. The quality parameters of all parenteral vancomycin products tested surpassed the United States Pharmacopeia acceptance criteria. Additional testing will characterize in vivo performance characteristics of these products.

Madurawe, R. D.; Zuk, S. M.; Khan, S. R.; Ellison, C. D.; Faustino, P. J.; Mans, D. J.; Trehy, M. L.; Hadwiger, M. E.; Boyne, M. T.; Biswas, K.

2012-01-01

279

Valeurs et prix de production. Le cas des productions jointes  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Les systèmes de prix de production fondés sur le formalisme des productions jointes posent encore aux économistes de nombreux problèmes. On sait que, dans ces hypothèses, les prix et les valeurs auxquels conduit la résolution des équations, ne sont pas nécessairement positifs. Dans certains cas, l'existence de prix de pro­production positifs s'associe à celle des valeurs négatives. Ces résultats

Dominique Levy; Gérard Dumenil

1982-01-01

280

Bioreactor technology for production of valuable algal products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioreactor technology has long been employed for the production of various (mostly cheap) food and pharmaceutical products. More recently, research has been mainly focused on the development of novel bioreactor technology for the production of high—value products. This paper reports the employment of novel bioreactor technology for the production of high-value biomass and metabolites by microalgae. These high-value products include microalgal biomass as health foods, pigments including phycocyanin and carotenoids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. The processes involved include heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultures using organic substrates as the carbon source. We have demonstrated that these bioreactor cultivation systems are particularly suitable for the production of high-value products from various microalgae. These cultivation systems can be further modified to improve cell densities and productivities by using high cell density techniques such as fed-batch and membrane cell recycle systems. For most of the microalgae investigated, the maximum cell concentrations obtained using these bioreactor systems in our laboratories are much higher than any so far reported in the literature.

Liu, Guo-Cai; Cao, Ying

1998-03-01

281

Chemical production on Mars using in situ propellant production technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In situ propellant production (ISPP) was examined in terms of its applicability to a manned Mars mission. Production of oxygen from Martian atmosphere was used as the baseline system for ISPP technology assessment. It was concluded that production of oxygen was an important element in a manned Mars mission which could be developed in terrestrial laboratories. Expert system methodology will be required to enable reliable, autonomous production of oxygen. Furthermore, while no major technical breakthroughs are required, this research requires a long lead time to permit its systematic evolution.

Ash, Robert L.

1986-01-01

282

PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS  

SciTech Connect

This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be economically competitive with current processes, and yet be environmentally friendly as well. The solvent extraction process developed uses mild hydrogenation of low cost oils to create powerful solvents that can dissolve the organic portion of coal. The insoluble portion, consisting mainly of mineral matter and fixed carbon, is removed via centrifugation or filtration, leaving a liquid solution of coal chemicals and solvent. This solution can be further refined via distillation to meet specifications for products such as synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and fibers. The most economical process recycles 85% of the solvent, which itself is obtained as a low-cost byproduct from industrial processes such as coal tar or petroleum refining. Alternatively, processes have been developed that can recycle 100% of the solvent, avoiding any need for products derived from petroleum or coal tar.

Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

2004-08-31

283

JWST mirror production status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is an on axis three mirror anastigmat telescope with a primary mirror, a secondary mirror, and a tertiary mirror. The JWST mirrors are constructed from lightweight beryllium substrates and the primary mirror consists of 18 hexagonal mirror segments each approximately 1.5 meters point to point. Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation leads the mirror manufacturing team and the team utilizes facilities at six locations across the United States. The fabrication process for each individual mirror assembly takes approximately six years due to limitations dealing with the number of segments and manufacturing & test facilities. The primary mirror Engineering Development Unit (EDU) recently completed the manufacturing process with the final cryogenic performance test of the mirror segment assembly. The 18 flight primary mirrors segments, the secondary mirror, and the tertiary mirror are all advanced in the mirror production process with many segments through the final polishing process, coating process, final assembly, vibration testing, and final acceptance testing. Presented here is a status of the progress through the manufacturing process for all of the flight mirrors.

Gallagher, Benjamin; Bergeland, Mark; Brown, Bob; Chaney, David; Copp, Tracy; Lewis, Jake; Shogrin, Brad; Smith, Koby; Sokol, Jeff; Hadaway, James; Glatzel, Holger; Johnson, Patrick; Lee, Allen; Patriarca, Dan; Stevenson, Ian; Cluney, Jason; Parsonage, Tom; Calvert, Jeff; Rodgers, Brady; McKay, Andy; Texter, Scott; Cohen, Lester; Feinberg, Lee

2011-09-01

284

Operator product expansion algebra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We establish conceptually important properties of the operator product expansion (OPE) in the context of perturbative, Euclidean J4-quantum field theory. First, we demonstrate, generalizing earlier results and techniques of hep-th/1105.3375, that the 3-point OPE, =?CA1A2A3C, usually interpreted only as an asymptotic short distance expansion, actually converges at finite, and even large, distances. We further show that the factorization identity A1A2A3B=?CA1A2CCA3B is satisfied for suitable configurations of the spacetime arguments. Again, the infinite sum is shown to be convergent. Our proofs rely on explicit bounds on the remainders of these expansions, obtained using refined versions, mostly due to Kopper et al., of the renormalization group flow equation method. These bounds also establish that each OPE coefficient is a real analytic function in the spacetime arguments for non-coinciding points. Our results hold for arbitrary but finite loop orders. They lend support to proposals for a general axiomatic framework of quantum field theory, based on such ``consistency conditions'' and akin to vertex operator algebras, wherein the OPE is promoted to the defining structure of the theory.

Holland, Jan; Hollands, Stefan

2013-07-01

285

Regulation of biomedical products.  

PubMed

Two recent decisions, one from Australia and one from Canada, should cause us to examine the ethical issues surrounding the regulation of biomedical products. The protection of vulnerable consumers from variable quality and poorly prepared drugs with uncertain parameters of safety and efficacy is a priority for any community and should not have to be weighed against possible costs based on restrictions of trade. However, the possibility of an environment in which the multinational biomedical industry edges out any other players in the treatment of various illnesses has its own dangers. Not least is the apparent collusion between regulators and industry that ramps up the costs and intensity of licensing and risk management so that only an industry-type budget can sustain the costs of compliance. This has the untoward effect of delivering contemporary health care into the hands of those who make immense fortunes out of it. An approach to regulation that tempers bureaucratic mechanisms with a dose of common sense and realistic evidence-based risk assessment could go a long way in avoiding the Scylla and Charybdis awaiting the clinical world in these troubled waters. PMID:20552933

Gillett, Grant; Saville-Cook, Donald

2010-05-01

286

Early humour production.  

PubMed

The current studies explored early humour as a complex socio-cognitive phenomenon by examining 2- and 3-year-olds' humour production with their parents. We examined whether children produced novel humour, whether they cued their humour, and the types of humour produced. Forty-seven parents were interviewed, and videotaped joking with their children. Other parents (N= 113) completed a survey. Parents reported children copy jokes during the first year of life, and produce novel jokes from 2 years. In play sessions, 3-year-olds produced mostly novel humorous acts; 2-year-olds produced novel and copied humorous acts equally frequently. Parents reported children smile, laugh, and look for a reaction when joking. In play sessions, 2- and 3-year-olds produced these behaviours more when producing humorous versus non-humorous acts. In both parent reports and play sessions, they produced novel object-based (e.g., underwear on head) and conceptual humour (e.g., 'pig says moo') and used wrong labels humorously (e.g., calling a cat a dog). Thus, parent report and child behaviour both confirm that young children produce novel humorous acts, and share their humour by smiling, laughing, and looking for a reaction. PMID:23039334

Hoicka, Elena; Akhtar, Nameera

2012-11-01

287

APASS Data Product Developments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(Abstract only) Data Release 6 (DR6) of the AAVSO Photometric All-Sky Survey (APASS) was a significant milestone in the ambitious project to provide calibrated photometry for 10 < V < 17 over the entire sky in Johnson B and V and Sloan g',r',I', bandpasses. DR6 itself was a list of mean magnitudes and colors for about 42 million objects and sky coverage was approximately 95% complete. The photometric means database has now been supplemented by additional data products: an epoch photometry database and a publicly-accessible store of the dark-subtracted, flat-fielded images at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre. In this talk, I will describe the processes and challenges of producing these new, useful resources and the contributions of numerous people to the success of this effort. As new data releases occur, the epoch photometry database - which contains data for all measured stars, not just variables - will be updated to include all newly available measurements. As of October 2012, 861,322,813 individual photometric measurements exist in the epoch photometry database. The breakdown of measurements per filter is: B 167,682,680; V 170,005,969; u 25,457; g 181,303,298; r 181,266,321; i 160,374,091; z 664,997. A VStar plug-in to access and analyse the APASS epoch photometry database will be demonstrated and future developments discussed.

Welch, D. L.

2013-06-01

288

DIRAC: data production management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LHCb Computing Model describes the dataflow for all stages in the processing of real and simulated events, and defines the role of LHCb associated Tier-1 and Tier-2 computing centers. The WLCG 'Dress Rehearsal' exercise aims to allow LHC experiments to deploy the full chain of their Computing Models, making use of all underlying WLCG services and resources, in preparation for real data taking. During this exercise simulated RAW physics data, matching the properties of eventual real data, will be uploaded from the LHCb Online storage system to Grid enabled storage. This data will then be replicated to LHCb Tier-1 centers and subsequently processed (reconstructed and stripped). The product of this processing is user analysis data that are distributed to all LHCb Tier-1 centers. DIRAC, LHCbs Workload and Data Management System, supports the implementation of the Computing Model in a data driven, real time and coordinated fashion. In this paper the LHCb Computing Model will be reviewed and the DIRAC components providing the needed functionality to support the Computing Model will be detailed. An evaluation of the preparedness for real data taking will also be given.

Smith, A. C.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.

2008-07-01

289

Detecting livestock production zones.  

PubMed

Communities are sets of nodes that are related in an important way, most likely sharing common properties and/or playing similar roles within a network. Unraveling a network structure, and hence the trade preferences and pathways, could be useful to a researcher or a decision maker. We implemented a community detection algorithm to find livestock communities, which is consistent with the definition of a livestock production zone, assuming that a community is a group of farm premises in which an animal is more likely to stay during its lifetime than expected by chance. We applied this algorithm to the network of animal movements within the state of Mato Grosso for 2007. This database holds information concerning 87,899 premises and 521,431 movements throughout the year, totaling 15,844,779 animals moved. The community detection algorithm achieved a network partition that shows a clear geographical and commercial pattern, two crucial features for preventive veterinary medicine applications; this algorithm provides also a meaningful interpretation to trade networks where links emerge based on trader node choices. PMID:23434375

Grisi-Filho, J H H; Amaku, M; Ferreira, F; Dias, R A; Neto, J S Ferreira; Negreiros, R L; Ossada, R

2013-07-01

290

STUDIES ON ANTIBODY PRODUCTION  

PubMed Central

When lymph node fragments from previously immunized rabbits were stimulated in vitro to produce a secondary response, the continuous presence of 50 µg/ml (0.15 mM) of chloramphenicol in the medium during the entire incubation period of 15 to 21 days produced nearly complete suppression of the response. Concentrations as low as 5 µg/ml (0.015 mM) produced approximately 80 per cent suppression of the response. When 50 µg/ml of chloramphenicol was present during only the first 6 days of culture, the secondary response was reduced 90 per cent. When it was absent for the first 6 days but present for the next 9 to 15 days, the response was reduced only 40 per cent. Since over 95 per cent of the antibody of the secondary response in most experiments appeared in the medium after the 6th day, chloramphenicol apparently inhibits antibody production by interfering with some early phase of the response. It is suggested that this interference involves messenger RNA and that animal cells have appeared resistant to this drug only because their complement of messenger RNA present when the drug has been added is stable over the short periods during which protein synthesis has usually been studied.

Ambrose, Charles T.; Coons, Albert H.

1963-01-01

291

75 FR 4383 - Pesticide Products: Registration Applications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Pesticide Products: Registration...register pesticide products containing...the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide...92507. Product name: SPLAT...ingredients: Insecticide and (Z...protection, Pesticides and...

2010-01-27

292

Production of Bioactive Secondary Metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter includes information based on published literature on utilization of agro industrial residues for the production\\u000a of bioactive compounds. Various approaches using microbial fermentation technology have been explored for the production of\\u000a bioactive compounds which as secondary metabolites could be produced by selected microorganisms. Certain factors have been\\u000a found to affect the productivity of these compounds, hence the yield

Poonam Nigam

293

Cyclotron Production of Medical Radioisotopes  

SciTech Connect

The cyclotron production of radioisotopes for medical applications is gaining increased significance in diagnostic molecular imaging techniques such as PET and SPECT. In this regard, radioisotope production has never been easier or more convenient until de introduction of compact medical cyclotrons in the last few decades, which allowed the use of short-lived radioisotopes in in vivo nuclear medicine studies on a routine basis. This review outlines some general considerations about the production of radioisotopes using charged particle accelerators.

Avila-Rodriguez, M. A.; Zarate-Morales, A.; Flores-Moreno, A. [Unidad PET/CT-Ciclotron, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Edificio de Investigacion P.B, Cd. Universitaria, Circ. Interior, C.P. 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

2010-08-04

294

Method for Production of Powders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus and method are disclosed for producing oxides of metals and of metal alloys. The metal or alloy is placed in an oxygen atmosphere in a combustion chamber and ignited. Products of the combustion include one or more oxides of the metal or alloy in powdered form. In one embodiment of the invention a feeder is provided whereby material to be oxidized by combustion can be achieved into a combustion chamber continuously. A product remover receives the powder product of the combustion.

Stoltzfus, Joel M. (Inventor); Sircar, Subhasish (Inventor)

1997-01-01

295

Multiscale technicolor and top production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pair-production of heavy top quarks at the Tevatron Collider is significantly enhanced by the color-octet technipion, etaT, occuring in multiscale models of walking technicolor. We discuss ttrates for mt = 170 GeV and MetaT = 400-500GeV Multiscale models also have color-octet technirho states in the mass range 200-600 GeV that appear as resonances in dijet production and technipion pair-production.

Estia Eichten

1994-01-01

296

''Optimum productivity'': a geneticist's view  

SciTech Connect

Both ''optimum'' and ''productivity'' are explored in a social context with a long time dimension. Renewability, flexibility, and diversity are important concepts in long-term planning to achieve optimum productivity. Various possible genetic contributions, including complementary clones, quantitative genetic engineering, resistant trees and plantations, elimination of inbreeding, single-gene genetic engineering, and agri-forestry, are suggested for long-term sustained or increased productivity.

Libby, W.J.

1980-01-01

297

Production of Pseudoscalar Mesons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments that study the hadronic and electromagnetic production of the pseudoscalar mesons - pions, etas and kaons, contribute to our knowledge of the properties of baryon and hyperon resonances. Fixed-target programs at hadronic facilities, such as BNL-AGS, have been phased out. However, the availability of modern experimental facilities with pseudo-monochromatic or tagged medium-energy photon beams at GRAAL, SPring-8, Bonn, Mainz, and Jefferson Lab, together with LEGS, Max-Lab, and HIGS at lower energies, are beginning to produce high-quality results. These new data have smaller statistical uncertainties and better understood systematic uncertainties, than those obtained at the older bremsstrahlung facilities, for measurements of differential and integrated cross sections, as well as polarization and asymmetry. Experimental results are compared with the predictions of QCD-based approaches, such as the lattice-gauge calculations of baryon properties, and chiral perturbation theory applied to threshold photoproduction, and are essential to the performance of partial-wave analyses (PWA). These PWA studies are less model dependent than in the past, and are used in coupled-channels calculations that incorporate unitarity dynamically, and combine results from hadronic reaction channels with electromagnetic processes. This approach is necessary to extract resonance properties and may lead to the discovery of the "missing resonances" predicted by a number of different QCD-inspired calculations. We discuss recent experimental and phenomenological results for single and double pseudoscalar meson hadronic and photoproduction channels with emphasis on the JLab Hall B and the BNL/AGS Crystal Ball programs.

Briscoe, W. J.; Arndt, R. A.; Strakowsky, I. I.; Workman, R. L.

298

PRODUCTION VERIFICATION TESTS  

SciTech Connect

A summary of the demonstration of 14 stages (in 10 wells) of a unique liquid-free stimulation process which employs carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as the working fluid in ten Candidate Wells. Three were situated in Perry County and seven in Pike County of eastern kentucky's Big Sandy gas field. These activities included four individual efforts which have previously been described in detail in four submitted Final Reports, and are herein summarized. These ten Candidate wells produce from the Devonian Shale which is well known to be damaged by liquid based stimulation processes. They were treated with a total of fourteen stages; four as a single stage, and the others in two stages per well all containing approximately 120 tons of CO{sub 2} per stage. These liquid free stimulations also contained proppant quantities on the order of 45,000 lbs per stage. The results show in the three Perry Co Candidate wells that the stimulations were not as effective as the best conventional technology, and resulted in a stimulation cost for produced gas of $0.69 per Mcf vs $0.43 for N{sub 2} gas stimulations. The results in the Pike County Candidates, where the shale section is thicker--1,025 vs. 350 feet, indicated a superior response from the wells stimulated with the CO{sub 2}/sand process. A five year production benefit of 67.7 MMcf per stage, or 135.4 MMcf per well over that from the closest competing technology which results in a 3.41 benefit ratio and a stimulation cost for produced gas of $0.47 per Mcf vs $1.14 for N{sub 2} gas.

Raymond L. Mazza

2003-09-30

299

Operator product expansion algebra  

SciTech Connect

We establish conceptually important properties of the operator product expansion (OPE) in the context of perturbative, Euclidean ?{sup 4}-quantum field theory. First, we demonstrate, generalizing earlier results and techniques of hep-th/1105.3375, that the 3-point OPE, =?{sub C}C{sub A{sub 1A{sub 2A{sub 3}{sup C}}}}, usually interpreted only as an asymptotic short distance expansion, actually converges at finite, and even large, distances. We further show that the factorization identity C{sub A{sub 1A{sub 2A{sub 3}{sup B}}}}=?{sub C}C{sub A{sub 1A{sub 2}{sup C}}}C{sub CA{sub 3}{sup B}} is satisfied for suitable configurations of the spacetime arguments. Again, the infinite sum is shown to be convergent. Our proofs rely on explicit bounds on the remainders of these expansions, obtained using refined versions, mostly due to Kopper et al., of the renormalization group flow equation method. These bounds also establish that each OPE coefficient is a real analytic function in the spacetime arguments for non-coinciding points. Our results hold for arbitrary but finite loop orders. They lend support to proposals for a general axiomatic framework of quantum field theory, based on such “consistency conditions” and akin to vertex operator algebras, wherein the OPE is promoted to the defining structure of the theory.

Holland, Jan [School of Mathematics, Cardiff University, Senghennydd Rd, Cardiff CF24 4AG (United Kingdom)] [School of Mathematics, Cardiff University, Senghennydd Rd, Cardiff CF24 4AG (United Kingdom); Hollands, Stefan [School of Mathematics, Cardiff University, Senghennydd Rd, Cardiff CF24 4AG (United Kingdom) [School of Mathematics, Cardiff University, Senghennydd Rd, Cardiff CF24 4AG (United Kingdom); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig, Brüderstr. 16, Leipzig, D-04103 (Germany)

2013-07-15

300

Natural Products as Aromatase Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

With the clinical success of several synthetic aromatase inhibitors (AIs) in the treatment of postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, researchers have also been investigating also the potential of natural products as AIs. Natural products from terrestrial and marine organisms provide a chemically diverse array of compounds not always available through current synthetic chemistry techniques. Natural products that have been used traditionally for nutritional or medicinal purposes (e.g., botanical dietary supplements) may also afford AIs with reduced side effects. A thorough review of the literature regarding natural product extracts and secondary metabolites of plant, microbial, and marine origin that have been shown to exhibit aromatase inhibitory activity is presented herein.

Balunas, Marcy J.; Su, Bin; Brueggemeier, Robert W.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

2010-01-01

301

Product Interactions and Industry Shakeout  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct an industry shakeout model based on the Cournot competition of firms each producing a differentiated product and adjusting their output according to the diffusion of their respective product. We investigate the resulting Lotka-Volterra dynamics and present a coexistence region that is a function of the interaction among the products. We show that as the products become less differentiated, the competition intensifies and the coexistence region contracts. The extent of the shakeout depends on the distribution of the competitive interactions among firms in the industry.

Escobido, M. G. O.

302

Intermediate inputs and economic productivity.  

PubMed

Many models of economic growth exclude materials, energy and other intermediate inputs from the production function. Growing environmental pressures and resource prices suggest that this may be increasingly inappropriate. This paper explores the relationship between intermediate input intensity, productivity and national accounts using a panel dataset of manufacturing subsectors in the USA over 47 years. The first contribution is to identify sectoral production functions that incorporate intermediate inputs, while allowing for heterogeneity in both technology and productivity. The second contribution is that the paper finds a negative correlation between intermediate input intensity and total factor productivity (TFP)--sectors that are less intensive in their use of intermediate inputs have higher productivity. This finding is replicated at the firm level. We propose tentative hypotheses to explain this association, but testing and further disaggregation of intermediate inputs is left for further work. Further work could also explore more directly the relationship between material inputs and economic growth--given the high proportion of materials in intermediate inputs, the results in this paper are suggestive of further work on material efficiency. Depending upon the nature of the mechanism linking a reduction in intermediate input intensity to an increase in TFP, the implications could be significant. A third contribution is to suggest that an empirical bias in productivity, as measured in national accounts, may arise due to the exclusion of intermediate inputs. Current conventions of measuring productivity in national accounts may overstate the productivity of resource-intensive sectors relative to other sectors. PMID:23359736

Baptist, Simon; Hepburn, Cameron

2013-03-13

303

A New CO2 Sequestration Process via Concrete Products Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the possibility of using concrete building products to absorb carbon dioxide during their production and develop high early strength at the same time. Type 10 and Type 30 Portland cements were examined by their abilities to serve as CO2 absorbents when exposed to carbon dioxide with 100% and 25% concentrations, the former simulating the recovered CO2 and

Yixin Shao; Xudong Zhou; S. Monkman

2006-01-01

304

FDI in post-production services and product market competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-production services, such as sales, distribution, and maintenance, comprise a crucial element of business activity. We explore an international duopoly model in which a foreign firm has the option of outsourcing post-production services to its domestic rival or providing those services by establishing its own facilities through FDI. We demonstrate that trade liberalization in goods may hurt domestic consumers and

Jota Ishikawa; Hodaka Morita; Hiroshi Mukunoki

2010-01-01

305

New product development practices in consumer versus business products organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most recent work in the area of new product development has been of a theoretically prescriptive basis, ignoring, to a large degree, the current state of affairs in US corporations. The study examines, on a comparative basis, consumer and business products organizations, practices being utilized to guide the development process and key factors influencing the success\\/failure of the process. Results

Nessim Hanna; Douglas J. Ayers; Rick E. Ridnour; Geoffrey L. Gordon

1995-01-01

306

Food Production, Management, and Services. Production. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide contains 20 units of instruction for a course in production in the food production, management, and services area. Units of instruction are designed for use in more than one lesson or class period of instruction. Introductory materials include the following: a competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic…

Gibson, LeRoy

307

Product Liability and Product Safety in Europe: Harmonization or Differentiation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines whether there are economic reasons for a harmonisation of product safety and product liability. On the basis of the economic criteria an analysis is given of the areas that may be centralised at the European level. It is argued that there are arguments in favour of centralised European rule making if there would be inefficiencies in national

Michael G. Faure

2000-01-01

308

Equation of state for detonation products. [Detonation products  

SciTech Connect

The concepts of hydrodynamics and thermodynamics as they apply to equations of state for explosive products are collected and discussed. The physics behind the behavior of dense gases is considered. Some ideas about applications are presented. This paper is intended as an introduction to the subject of equation of state for detonation products. 7 references, 3 figures.

Davis, W.C.

1985-01-01

309

Documented Problem Solving: Gross Domestic Product Versus Gross National Product  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The topic of gross domestic product (GDP) was introduced in class. The components of GDP - consumption, investment, government spending, and net exports - were discussed. The items that are excluded from GDP and the difference between GDP and gross national product (GNP) were also explained.

Wilson, Linda

310

Valuing Production Values: A "Do It Yourself" Media Production Club  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we identify how and why digital media production can contribute to the active participation of children in education and also consider how much of the existing work in this area is framed as a "miraculous" answer to educational challenges without critical interrogation of either the process or product. To begin, we…

Jenson, Jennifer; Dahya, Negin; Fisher, Stephanie

2014-01-01

311

Development of Product Costing in the Modern Productive Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the paper is to examine the following aspects: What do traditional theory and text books say about product costing; What kind of changes affecting product costing have occurred; Are there faults in the present accounting practice; What is t...

E. Uusi-Rauva J. Karjalainen

1989-01-01

312

Green product design through product modularization using atomic theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increasing environmental consciousness and the establishment of environmental protection regulations, green product design not only plays a crucial role in a modern industry but is also becoming the main focus of the future market. In this paper, an innovative method is presented that uses the concepts of atomic theory to solve design modularization problems for green product design. With

Shana Smith; Chao-Ching Yen

2010-01-01

313

Commercial Product Activation Using RFID  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radio-frequency identification (RFID) would be used for commercial product activation, according to a proposal. What is new here is the concept of combining RFID with activation - more specifically, using RFID for activating commercial products (principally, electronic ones) and for performing such ancillary functions as tracking individual product units on production lines, tracking shipments, and updating inventories. According to the proposal, an RFID chip would be embedded in each product. The information encoded in the chip would include a unique number for identifying the product. An RFID reader at the point of sale would record the number of the product and would write digital information to the RFID chip for either immediate activation of the product or for later interrogation and processing. To be practical, an RFID product-activation system should satisfy a number of key requirements: the system should be designed to be integrable into the inventory-tracking and the data-processing and -communication infrastructures of businesses along the entire supply chain from manufacture to retail; the system should be resistant to sophisticated hacking; activation codes should be made sufficiently complexity to minimize the probability of activating stolen products; RFID activation equipment at points of sale must be capable to two-way RF communication for the purposes of reading information from, and writing information to, embedded RFID chips; the equipment at points of sale should be easily operable by sales clerks with little or no training; the point-of-sale equipment should verify activation and provide visible and/or audible signals indicating verification or lack thereof; and, the system should be able to handle millions of products per year with minimal human intervention, among other requirements.

Jedrey, Thomas

2008-01-01

314

MODIS Snow-Cover Products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On December 18, 1999, the Terra satellite was launched with a complement of five instruments including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Many geophysical products are derived from MODIS data including global snow-cover products. MODIS snow and ice products have been available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) since September 13, 2000. MODIS snow-cover products represent potential improvement to or enhancement of the currently-available operational products mainly because the MODIS products are global and 500-m resolution, and have the capability to separate most snow and clouds. Also the snow-mapping algorithms are automated which means that a consistent data set may be generated for long-term climate studies that require snow-cover information. Extensive quality assurance (QA) information is stored with the products. The MODIS snow product suite begins with a 500-m resolution, 2330-km swath snow-cover map which is then gridded to an integerized sinusoidal grid to produce daily and 8-day composite tile products. The sequence proceeds to a climate-modeling grid (CMG) product at about 5.6-km spatial resolution, with both daily and 8-day composite products. Each pixel of the CMG contains fraction of snow cover from 40 - 100%. Measured errors of commission in the CMG are low, for example, on the continent of Australia in the spring, they vary from 0.02 - 0.10%. Near-term enhancements include daily snow albedo and fractional snow cover. A case study from March 6, 2000, involving MODIS data and field and aircraft measurements, is presented to show some early validation work.

Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; DiGirolamo, Nicole E.; Bayr, Klaus J.; Houser, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

315

Implementing Production Grids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have presented the essence of experience gained in building two production Grids, and provided some of the global context for this work. As the reader might imagine, there were a lot of false starts, refinements to the approaches and to the software, and several substantial integration projects (SRB and Condor integrated with Globus) to get where we are today. However, the point of this paper is to try and make it substantially easier for others to get to the point where Information Power Grids (IPG) and the DOE Science Grids are today. This is what is needed in order to move us toward the vision of a common cyber infrastructure for science. The author would also like to remind the readers that this paper primarily represents the actual experiences that resulted from specific architectural and software choices during the design and implementation of these two Grids. The choices made were dictated by the criteria laid out in section 1. There is a lot more Grid software available today that there was four years ago, and various of these packages are being integrated into IPG and the DOE Grids. However, the foundation choices of Globus, SRB, and Condor would not be significantly different today than they were four years ago. Nonetheless, if the GGF is successful in its work - and we have every reason to believe that it will be - then in a few years we will see that the 28 functions provided by these packages will be defined in terms of protocols and MIS, and there will be several robust implementations available for each of the basic components, especially the Grid Common Services. The impact of the emerging Web Grid Services work is not yet clear. It will likely have a substantial impact on building higher level services, however it is the opinion of the author that this will in no way obviate the need for the Grid Common Services. These are the foundation of Grids, and the focus of almost all of the operational and persistent infrastructure aspects of Grids.

Johnston, William E.; Ziobarth, John (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

316

Software products and services are high tech? New product development strategy for software products and services  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-tech products and services are characterized as having short life cycles and being state-of-the-art. The life cycles of software products and services are affected by the changes in the hardware and software industries; and the changes in the needs and requirements of software users in variety of industries. To survive in the marketplace, software products and services ought to be

Majid Aramand

2008-01-01

317

Waste Dairy Product-Disposal-McMurdo  

NSF Publications Database

... dairy product (ice cream) through the McMurdo sewer system. The waste dairy product ingredients are ... the product has not degraded enough to produce odors which may be associated with sour milk products ...

318

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Production and Inspection  

MedlinePLUS

... the establishment's AMR product and tag the AMR system itself, meaning neither the product nor the equipment can be used until satisfactory corrective action has been taken. If the establishment has distributed the sampled product then the product will be ...

319

Product Line Analysis: A Practical Introduction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Product line analysis applies established modeling techniques to engineer the requirements for a product line of software-intensive systems. This report provides a practical introduction to product line requirements modeling. It describes product line ana...

G. Chastek, P. Donohoe, K. C. Kang, S. Thiel

2001-01-01

320

Accelerator production of tritium (APT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is continuing interest in Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) because, the lack of uranium, plutonium, and fission product inventory; the low residual radioactivity and heat; the low operating temperature and pressure; and the ease of rapid shutdown suggest that an APT system is an attractive option in terms of safety, environmental impact, and public acceptance. The goal quantity of

S. Drell; R. Briggs; R. Brodsky; C. Callan; R. J. Dietz

1992-01-01

321

Educational Production Function. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study, concerning the conceptual and econometric problems involved in estimating educational production functions, focuses on the following topics: 1) the meaning of an educational production function estimated from cross-section data; 2) the measurement of the output of schools; 3) the problem of measuring the initial endowment of students…

Bowles, Samuel

322

Production of SOD Peat. Handbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of the study is to create a kind of handbook on sod peat production. The book would include all stages of sod peat production from selection of the bog to the transport and delivery of sod peat to users. The references used are mainly from Finnish...

A. Leinonen V. M. Luukkainen

1986-01-01

323

Gas production apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates generally to the production of gases, and more particularly to the production of tritium gas in a reliable long operating lifetime systems that employs solid lithium to overcome the heretofore known problems of material compatibility and corrosion, etc., with liquid metals. The solid lithium is irradiated by neutrons inside low activity means containing a positive pressure gas

W. E. Winsche; F. T. Miles; J. R. Powell

2009-01-01

324

World Crop Production, April 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

World production for 1986/87 is estimated at a record 529.2 million metric tons, up 0.8 million or less than 1 percent from last months and up 6 percent from the 1985/86 harvest. Important changes from a month ago include the following: China; production ...

1987-01-01

325

Template based production system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a methodological guidance for the practical use of the axiomatic designed production module template presented in a former publication. The objective is to accelerate the design process and increase the quality of results in the design of lean production systems. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Two case studies based on practical cases were

D. T. Matt

2008-01-01

326

The SPOOKI post production system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) delivers a large number of numerical weather prediction products to the various weather offices and clients throughout Canada and abroad. The current post production system was built according to the needs and ideology of the 1980's and it is becoming obsolete with time. Its cumbersome architecture is difficult to maintain and requires a lot of

M. Beauchemin; M. Klasa; S. Fortier; F. Fortin; G. Hardy; L. Pelletier; S. Edouard; B. Archambault; H. Yazidi

2010-01-01

327

Charmed hadron production by neutrinos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charmed hadron production has been studied using a hybrid emulsion spectrometer in the Fermilab wide-band neutrino beam. The relative rates of D0, D+, F+, and Lambda+c production have been measured - the fraction of D mesons is 69 +\\/- 810%. Momentum, transverse momentum, Feynman X, and fragmentation (Z) distributions are presented. The mean Z for charmed hadrons is 0.59 +\\/-

N. Ushida; T. Kondo; F. Fujioka; H. Fukushima; Y. Takahashi; S. Tatsumi; C. Yokohama; Y. Homma; Y. Tsuzuki; S. Bahk; C. Kim; J. Song; D. Bailey; S. Conetti; J. Fischer; J. Trischuk; H. Fuchi; K. Hoshino; M. Miyanashi; K. Niu; K. Niwa; H. Shibuya; Y. Yanagisawa; S. Errede; M. Gutzwiller; S. Kuramata; N. W. Reay; K. Reibel; T. A. Romanowski; R. Sidwell; N. R. Stanton; K. Moriyama; H. Shibata; T. Hara; O. Kusumoto; Y. Noguchi; M. Teranaka; H. Okabe; J. Yokota; J. Harnois; C. Hébert; J. Hébert; S. Lokanathan; B. McLeod; S. Tasaka; P. Davis; J. Martin; D. Pitman; J. D. Prentice; P. Sinervo; T. S. Yoon; H. Kimura; Y. Maeda

1983-01-01

328

Usual Intake of Soy products  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Soy products Table A30. Soy products: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.0 (0.00) 0.0

329

Noncommutative Translations and *-PRODUCT Formalism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the noncommutative space-times with Lie-algebraic noncommutativity (e.g. ?-deformed Minkowski space). In the framework with classical fields we extend the *-product in order to represent the noncommutative translations in terms of commutative ones. We show the translational invariance of noncommutative bilinear action with local product of noncommutative fields. The quadratic noncommutativity is also briefly discussed.

Daszkiewicz, Marcin; Lukierski, Jerzy; Woronowicz, Mariusz

2008-09-01

330

Gold prices and gold production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a model of gold production which makes use of the relationship between the price of gold and the average mill pay limit, which allows for the possibility of an inverse gold supply curve. Increases in the price of gold, with constant production costs, reduce the average mill pay limit which gives an incentive for producers to step

Duane W Rockerbie

1999-01-01

331

Robust modular product family design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a modified Taguchi methodology to improve the robustness of modular product families against changes in customer requirements. The general research questions posed in this paper are: (1) How to effectively design a product family (PF) that is robust enough to accommodate future customer requirements. (2) How far into the future should designers look to design a robust

Lan Jiang; Venkat Allada

2001-01-01

332

Succinate production in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Succinate has been recognized as an important platform chemical that can be produced from biomass. While a number of organisms are capable of succinate production naturally, this review focuses on the engineering of Escherichia coli for production of the four-carbon dicarboxylic acid. Important features of a succinate production system are to achieve optimal balance of reducing equivalents generated by consumption of the feedstock, while maximizing the amount of carbon that is channeled to the product. Aerobic and anaerobic production strains have been developed and applied to production from glucose as well as other abundant carbon sources. Metabolic engineering methods and strain evolution have been used and supplemented by the recent application of systems biology and in silico modeling tools to construct optimal production strains. The metabolic capacity of the production strain, as well as the requirement for efficient recovery of succinate and the reliability of the performance under scale-up are important in the overall process. The costs of the overall biorefinery compatible process will determine the economical commercialization of succinate and its impact in larger chemical markets.

Thakker, Chandresh; Martinez, Irene; San, Ka-Yiu; Bennett, George N.

2012-01-01

333

Electricity Production Using Solar Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a solar-powered development project is used to identify whether it is possible to utilize solar technologies in the electricity production sector. Electricity production from solar energy has been found to be a promising method in the future. Concentrated solar energy can be converted to chemical energy via high-temperature endothermic reactions. Coal and biomass can be pyrolyzed or

M. F. Demirbas

2007-01-01

334

Products and Processes: Synergistic Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most people agree that products are the culmination of what students have studied. For this article, "product" will refer to students' abilities to create outcomes and design artifacts. Those abilities are guided by four processes: inquiry-based learning, use of a research model, use of Web 2.0 tools, and appropriate assessments.…

Wallace, Virginia; Husid, Whitney

2013-01-01

335

Bioethanol production: Status and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of fuel ethanol from renewable lignocellulosic materials (“bioethanol”) has the potential to reduce burgeoning world dependence on petroleum while decreasing net emissions of carbon dioxide, the principal greenhouse gas. This paper reviews the benefits and status of bioethanol production technology, focusing mostly on recent developments in the United States of America. The composition of representative lignocellulosic biomass species is

James D. McMillan

1997-01-01

336

Photoparameters in Photofermentative Biohydrogen Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on hydrogen production by photofermentation has gained renewed interest in recent times because of its potential to generate hydrogen from renewable sources in a sustainable manner for use as an alternate energy carrier. Photofermentative bacteria use nitrogenase enzyme in the presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reducing power for hydrogen production in photobioreactors (PBRs). Depending on the pigments present

Venkataramana Gadhamshetty; Anoop Sukumaran; Nagamany Nirmalakhandan

2010-01-01

337

Customized Products: A Competitive Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the competitive market for mass-customized products. Competition leads to surprising conclusions: Manufacturers customize only one of a product's two attributes, and each manufacturer chooses the same attribute. Customization of both attributes cannot persist in an equilibrium where firms first choose customization and then choose price, because effort to capture market with customization makes a rival desperate, putting

Niladri B. Syam; Ranran Ruan; James D. Hess

2005-01-01

338

Arctic drilling and production platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mobile drilling and production platform for arctic regions is described in which a hull having a deck forming the production platform is supported on a first set of parallel runners secured to the underside of the hull and extending fore and aft with spaces between the runners. A second set of parallel segmented runners are secured to the underside

Schirtzinger

1979-01-01

339

Genetic Engineering and Crop Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With a spotlight upon current agricultural difficulties and environmental dilemmas, this paper considers both the extant and potential applications of genetic engineering with respect to crop production. The nonagricultural factors most likely to sway the impact of this emergent technology upon future crop production are illustrated. (JJK)

Jones, Helen C.; Frost, S.

1991-01-01

340

Green product design for EEE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, manufacturers are facing great challenges with regard to the production of green products due to the emerging issue of hazardous substance management (HSM). In particular, environmental legislation pressures have yielded to increased risk, manufacturing complexity and green components demands. The green principles were expanded to many departments within organization, including supply chain. Green supply chain management (GSCM) was emerging

M. E. Genevois; I. Bereketli

2009-01-01

341

Biodiesel production: a review1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits and the fact that it is made from renewable resources. The cost of biodiesel, however, is the main hurdle to commercialization of the product. The used cooking oils are used as raw material, adaption of continuous transesterification process and recovery of high quality glycerol from biodiesel by-product (glycerol) are

Fangrui Ma; Milford A. Hanna

342

Canadian Drug Products Containing ASA  

PubMed Central

A list of nearly 200 Canadian ASA-containing drug products is presented. Information was supplied by the major pharmaceutical companies and data were also obtained from various Canadian reference sources. This information should aid the physician and other health-related personnel in identifying ASA-containing products and counselling the salicylate-endangered patient.

Parker, William A.; Shearer, Cameron A.; Kirkpatrick, Susan L.

1977-01-01

343

Technical progresses for PVC production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review covers recent development of PVC production technologies of the suspension polymerization process, the bulk (mass) polymerization process and the emulsion polymerization process with some historical background. The development of process for the vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) production is also explained briefly. Since the suspension process is regarded to be the most important process with its 80% share of

Y. Saeki; T. Emura

2002-01-01

344

Mass customization and mass production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total quality management resulting from total customer satisfaction today can mean giving every customer a product tailored specifically to his or her needs. In the past, manufacturing was usually characterized by keeping costs down with economies of scale. Mass customization can result in a challenging manufacturing environment typified by both high volume and an excellent product mix, where customers expect

Laetitia Radder; Lynette Louw

1999-01-01

345

Nanotechnology Consumer Products Resource Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Center for Nanotechnology Education and Utilization at Pennsylvania State University, this document provides a list of products which utilize some form of nanotechnology in their production. Educators may use this list as a reference in creating nanotechnology curriculum. This resource, along with other materials from the NACK center, requires a simple, fast, free log-in to access their quality materials.

2011-07-25

346

Utilization of Biodiesel By-Products for Biogas Production  

PubMed Central

This contribution reviews the possibility of using the by-products from biodiesel production as substrates for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. The process of biodiesel production is predominantly carried out by catalyzed transesterification. Besides desired methylesters, this reaction provides also few other products, including crude glycerol, oil-pressed cakes, and washing water. Crude glycerol or g-phase is heavier separate liquid phase, composed mainly by glycerol. A couple of studies have demonstrated the possibility of biogas production, using g-phase as a single substrate, and it has also shown a great potential as a cosubstrate by anaerobic treatment of different types of organic waste or energy crops. Oil cakes or oil meals are solid residues obtained after oil extraction from the seeds. Another possible by-product is the washing water from raw biodiesel purification, which is an oily and soapy liquid. All of these materials have been suggested as feasible substrates for anaerobic degradation, although some issues and inhibitory factors have to be considered.

Kolesarova, Nina; Hutnan, Miroslav; Bodik, Igor; Spalkova, Viera

2011-01-01

347

Metabolic Engineering for the Production of Natural Products  

PubMed Central

Natural products and natural product derived compounds play an important role in modern healthcare as frontline treatments for many diseases and as inspiration for chemically synthesized therapeutics. With advances in sequencing and recombinant DNA technology, many of the biosynthetic pathways responsible for the production of these chemically complex and pharmaceutically valuable compounds have been elucidated. With an ever expanding toolkit of biosynthetic components, metabolic engineering is an increasingly powerful method to improve natural product titers and generate novel compounds. Heterologous production platforms have enabled access to pathways from difficult to culture strains; systems biology and metabolic modeling tools have resulted in increasing predictive and analytic capabilities; advances in expression systems and regulation have enabled the fine-tuning of pathways for increased efficiency, and characterization of individual pathway components has facilitated the construction of hybrid pathways for the production of new compounds. These advances in the many aspects of metabolic engineering have not only yielded fascinating scientific discoveries but also make it an increasingly viable approach for the optimization of natural product biosynthesis.

Pickens, Lauren B.; Tang, Yi; Chooi, Yit-Heng

2014-01-01

348

Small ruminant production in Turkey: highlighting in goat production.  

PubMed

This paper deals with the effects of structural, governmental and socio-economic conditions linked to small ruminant production, especially goat production. The number of small ruminants in Turkey fell from almost 51,530 in 1990, to 31,761 in 2007. In 1990, the number of small ruminants started to decrease due to structural, genetic and economic reasons such as a lack of state support policies, high costs of inputs, poor performance of local breeds, socio-economic conditions, and migration. In Turkey, the socio-economic and geographical structure make small ruminant production an important profession; it is also a significant source of income in rural regions. 35% of red meat and 12% of milk production is obtained from small ruminants. Although, Turkey has the highest goat population among its border and EU countries, ranks low with milk production. Reasons for the present situation are well evaluated; changes and tendencies in sheep and goat production as well as milk and meat production that are examined and associated with the population of Turkey are widely discussed. In addition, in order to improve the present situation, some technical and structural suggestions are mentioned. PMID:19597751

Ocak, Sezen; Davran, Müge K; Güney, Okan

2010-02-01

349

LANL PDMLink Product Structure Implementation  

SciTech Connect

Over the past 2 and a half years LANL has done both functionality exploration as well as production implementations of PDMLink Product Structure to control the configuration of many of the LANL Design Agency Products. Based on this experience LANL has been recommending for over a year that future product structure implementation in PDMLink do not use the two digit suffix in the number field of enterprise parts (or WTParts). The suffix will be part of one of the attributes for Part Number. Per the TBP's the two digit suffix represents a change in form, fit, or function in a part or a change in the production agency or a number of other conditions. It also denotes backward compatibility with earlier suffixed parts (see TBP 402 section 3.1).

Scully, Christopher J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-29

350

Virtual data in CMS production  

SciTech Connect

Initial applications of the GriPhyN Chimera Virtual Data System have been performed within the context of CMS Production of Monte Carlo Simulated Data. The GriPhyN Chimera system consists of four primary components: (1) a Virtual Data Language, which is used to describe virtual data products, (2) a Virtual Data Catalog, which is used to store virtual data entries, (3) an Abstract Planner, which resolves all dependencies of a particular virtual data product and forms a location and existence independent plan, (4) a Concrete Planner, which maps an abstract, logical plan onto concrete, physical grid resources accounting for staging in/out files and publishing results to a replica location service. A CMS Workflow Planner, MCRunJob, is used to generate virtual data products using the Virtual Data Language. Subsequently, a prototype workflow manager, known as WorkRunner, is used to schedule the instantiation of virtual data products across a grid.

Arbree, A. et al.

2004-08-26

351

Particle production in inhomogeneous cosmologies  

SciTech Connect

A perturbative evaluation of the {ital S} matrix is used to compute the production of particles in an expanding flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe in the presence of small inhomogeneities. We first consider the production of massless conformally coupled and weakly nonconformally coupled particles, obtaining known results, and then we consider the production of massive particles. The production of massive particles cannot be treated only perturbatively and a method is proposed to compute this in general. The pair-production probability is computed using two different, but related, methods: in one we directly evaluate the number of particles produced and in the other we concentrate mainly on the vacuum-to-vacuum or vacuum persistence amplitude.

Cespedes, J.; Verdaguer, E. (Grup de Fisica Teorica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain (ES))

1990-02-15

352

Fumaric acid production by fermentation  

PubMed Central

The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid from maleic anhydride and the fermentation process yields only 85% w/w from glucose, the latter raw material is three times cheaper. Besides, the fermentation fixes CO2. Production of fumaric acid by Rhizopus species and the involved metabolic pathways are reviewed. Submerged fermentation systems coupled with product recovery techniques seem to have achieved economically attractive yields and productivities. Future prospects for improvement of fumaric acid production include metabolic engineering approaches to achieve low pH fermentations.

Roa Engel, Carol A.; Zijlmans, Tiemen W.; van Gulik, Walter M.; van der Wielen, Luuk A. M.

2008-01-01

353

Evaluating Product Plans Using Real Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Product planning helps a company to strategically plan its current and future product platforms and offer product variants in the marketplace. Product platforming is widely touted as a successful strategy for mass customization. However, due diligence should be exercised before implementing any product platform strategy. The product planning exercise should account for future uncertainties. Traditional financial tools such as the

Prasenjit Shil; Venkat Allada

2007-01-01

354

Long term prediction of unconventional oil production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although considerable discussion surrounds unconventional oil's ability to mitigate the effects of peaking conventional oil production, very few models of unconventional oil production exist. The aim of this article was to project unconventional oil production to determine how significant its production may be. Two models were developed to predict the unconventional oil production, one model for in situ production and

S. H. Mohr; G. M. Evans

2010-01-01

355

The efficiency of certain production system implementations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The obvious method of determining which productions are satisfied on a given cycle involves matching productions, one at a time, against the contents of working memory. The cost of this processing is essentially linear in the product of the number of productions in production memory and the number of assertions in working memory. By augmenting a production system architecture with

J. McDermott; A. Newell; J. Moore

1977-01-01

356

Relationship Between Primary Production and Fish Production in Lake Tanganyika  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary production in Lake Tanganyika, 0.8 g C?m?day, is not high by comparison with other tropical lakes yet the fisheries of the lake maintain annual yields of 125 kg hectare (1.3 g C?m?year). The efficiency of carbon transfer to the fishery from primary production is anomalously high among the lakes of the world and approximates the efficiencies of the most

R. E. Hecky; E. J. Fee; H. J. Kling; J. W. M. Rudd

1981-01-01

357

Applying environmental product design to biomedical products research.  

PubMed

The principal themes for the Biomedical Research and the Environment Conference Committee on Environmental Economics in Biomedical Research include the following: healthcare delivery companies and biomedical research organizations, both nonprofit and for-profit, need to improve their environmental performance; suppliers of healthcare products will be called upon to support this need; and improving the environmental profile of healthcare products begins in research and development (R&D). The committee report begins with requirements from regulatory authorities (e.g., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], the U.S. Food and Drug Administration), and the healthcare delivery sector). The 1998 American Hospital Association and EPA Memorandum of Understanding to reduce solid waste and mercury from healthcare facilities is emblematic of these requirements. The dominant message from the requirements discussion is to ensure that R&D organizations do not ignore customer, environmental, and regulatory requirements in the early stages of product development. Several representatives from healthcare products manufacturers presented their companies' approaches to meeting these requirements. They reported on efforts to ensure that their R&D processes are sensitive to the environmental consequences from manufacturing, distributing, using, and disposing of healthcare products. These reports describe representatives' awareness of requirements and the unique approaches their R&D organizations have taken to meet these requirements. All representatives reported that their R&D organizations have embraced environmental product design because it avoids the potential of returning products to R&D to improve the environmental profile. Additionally, several reports detailed cost savings, sustainability benefits, and improvements in environmental manufacturing or redesign, and increased customer satisfaction. Many companies in healthcare delivery are working to improve environmental performance. Fundamental to these efforts is the necessity of motivating suppliers to improve the environmental profile of new products used in the healthcare delivery sector. PMID:11121364

Messelbeck, J; Sutherland, L

2000-12-01

358

Propellant production on Mars - Single cell oxygen production test bed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study focusing on oxygen production using resources indigenous to Mars is presented. A bank of solid zirconia electrolytic cells that will electrochemically separate oxygen from a high temperature stream of carbon dioxide is at the center of the oxygen production system. The experimental data are discussed with attention given to the cell operating temperature, the carbon dioxide flow rate, and the voltage applied across the cell.

Colvin, James; Schallhorn, Paul; Ramohalli, Kumar

1991-01-01

359

Coal combustion products 2007 production and use report  

SciTech Connect

The American Coal Ash Association's 2007 Annual Coal Combustion Products (CCP) are derived from data from more than 170 power plants. The amount of CCPs used was 40.55%, a decrease of 2.88% from 2006, attributed to reduced fuel burn and a decrease in demand in the building industry. Figures are given for the production of fly ash, flue gas desulfurization gypsum, bottom ash, FBC ash and boiler slag. The article summarises results of the survey. 1 ref., 1 tab.

NONE

2009-07-01

360

Citric acid production patent review.  

PubMed

Current Review article summarizes the developments in citric acid production technologies in East and West last 100 years. Citric acid is commercially produced by large scale fermentation mostly using selected fungal or yeast strains in aerobe bioreactors and still remains one of the runners in industrial production of biotechnological bulk metabolites obtained by microbial fermentation since about 100 years, reflecting the historical development of modern biotechnology and fermentation process technology in East and West. Citric acid fermentation was first found as a fungal product in cultures of Penicillium glaucum on sugar medium by Wehmer in 1893. Citric acid is an important multifunctional organic acid with a broad range of versatile uses in household and industrial applications that has been produced industrially since the beginning of 20(th) century. There is a great worldwide demand for citric acid consumption due to its low toxicity, mainly being used as acidulant in pharmaceutical and food industries. Global citric acid production has reached 1.4 million tones, increasing annually at 3.5-4.0% in demand and consumption. Citric acid production by fungal submerged fermentation is still dominating, however new perspectives like solid-state processes or continuous yeast processes can be attractive for producers to stand in today's strong competition in industry. Further perspectives aiming in the improvement of citric acid production are the improvement of citric acid producing strains by classical and modern mutagenesis and selection as well as downstream processes. Many inexpensive by-products and residues of the agro-industry (e.g. molasses, glycerin etc.) can be economically utilized as substrates in the production of citric acid, especially in solid-state fermentation, enormously reducing production costs and minimizing environmental problems. Alternatively, continuous processes utilizing yeasts which reach 200-250 g/l citric acid can stand in today's strong competition in citric acid industry and replace the traditional discontinuous fungi processes. PMID:19075859

Anastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G; Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Finogenova, Tatiana V

2008-01-01

361

Microbial production of primary metabolites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial production of primary metabolites contributes significantly to the quality of life. Through fermentation, microorganisms growing on inexpensive carbon sources can produce valuable products such as amino acids, nucleotides, organic acids, and vitamins which can be added to food to enhance its flavor or increase its nutritive value. The contribution of microorganisms will go well beyond the food industry with the renewed interest in solvent fermentations. Microorganisms have the potential to provide many petroleum-derived products as well as the ethanol necessary for liquid fuel. The role of primary metabolites and the microbes which produce them will certainly increase in importance.

Demain, Arnold L.

1980-12-01

362

Product Operations Status Summary Metrics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Product Operations Status Summary Metrics (POSSUM) computer program provides a readable view into the state of the Phoenix Operations Product Generation Subsystem (OPGS) data pipeline. POSSUM provides a user interface that can search the data store, collect product metadata, and display the results in an easily-readable layout. It was designed with flexibility in mind for support in future missions. Flexibility over various data store hierarchies is provided through the disk-searching facilities of Marsviewer. This is a proven program that has been in operational use since the first day of the Phoenix mission.

Takagi, Atsuya; Toole, Nicholas

2010-01-01

363

Productivity issues at organizational interfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for close interdependence between large numbers of diverse and specialized work groups makes the Space Program extremely vulnerable to loss of productivity at organizational interfaces. Trends within the program also suggest that the number and diversity of interfaces will grow in the near term. Continued maintenance of R&D excellence will require that interface performance issues be included in any future productivity improvement effort. The types and characteristics of organizational interfaces are briefly presented, followed by a review of factors which impact their productivity. Approaches to assessing and improving interface effectiveness are also discussed.

Holland, A. W.

1985-01-01

364

Therapeutic peptide production in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Bioactive peptides are important therapeutic drugs, yet conventional methods of peptide synthesis are challenged to meet increasing demand. We developed a novel and efficient means of metabolic engineering: therapeutic peptide production in Drosophila and as a proof of concept, we demonstrate production of fully-matured human insulin. This in vivo system offers an innovative means to produce valuable bioactive peptides for therapies, its inherent flexibility facilitates drug development, and its ease of producing fully processed peptides simplifies metabolic engineering of new peptide products.

Park, Dongkook; Hou, Xiaowen; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Taghert, Paul H.

2012-01-01

365

MODIS Snow-Cover Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On December 18, 1999, the Terra satellite was launched with a complement of five instruments including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Many geophysical products are derived from MODIS data including global snow-cover products. MODIS snow and ice products have been available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) since September 13, 2000. MODIS snow-cover products, available globally and at up to 500-m resolution, are derived from automated algorithms. This means that a consistent data set is generated for long-term climate studies that require snow-cover information. Extensive quality assurance (QA) information is stored with the product. The snow product suite starts with a 500-m resolution swath snow-cover map which is gridded to the Integerized Sinusoidal Grid to produce daily and eight-day composite tile products. The sequence then proceeds to a climate-modeling grid product at ~5.6-km spatial resolution, with both daily and eight-day composite products. Recent improvements to the algorithm include the addition of a "thermal mask" that eliminates pixels from the snow maps that had contained "false snow" in the original algorithm. The origin of the false snow detection is from a variety of sources, including some clouds, large cities and atmospheric aerosols. The thermal mask reduces the snow-mapping errors associated with the MODIS snow-cover products. Cloud masking had been done using the 'cloud obscuration flag' from the cloud mask. However, that technique resulted in a cloud mask that was too conservative. Selective use of the cloud spectral tests from the MODIS cloud mask will be used to allow an improved determination of snow-covered area. Algorithm improvements will be implemented during the 2001-02 snow year in the Northern Hemisphere, however it is anticipated that in the future, all MODIS snow and ice products will be reprocessed so that consistent products will be available for the lifetime of the MODIS mission. >http://snowmelt.gsfc.nasa.gov/MODIS_Snow/modis.html

Hall, D. K.; Riggs, G. A.; Salomonson, V. V.; Barton, J. S.

2001-12-01

366

Single Pion production from Nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied charged current one pion production induced by ??(??) from some nuclei. The calculations have been done for the incoherent pion production processes from these nuclear targets in the ? dominance model and take into account the effect of Pauli blocking, Fermi motion and renormalization of ? properties in the nuclear medium. The effect of final state interactions of pions has also been taken into account. The numerical results have been compared with the recent results from the MiniBooNE experiment for the charged current 1? production, and also with some of the older experiments in Freon and Freon-Propane from CERN.

Singh, S. K.; Athar, M. Sajjad; Ahmed, S.

2007-12-01

367

Product liability insurance for WECS  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary findings from a sampling of manufacturers indicate that, in many cases, product liability insurance for WECS is still difficult to obtain. About half of the 21 WECS manufacturers contacted said they did not have product liability insurance. About one manufacturer in three who attempted to obtain insurance was rejected by at least one insurance company. In some instances, although an insurer had offered to provide coverage, the manufacturer found the rates quoted to be prohibitively expensive. For example, in one case a WECS manufacturer had been offered product liability insurance, but at an annual rate of 30% of his gross sales.

Noun, R.J.

1980-06-01

368

Heavy-flavor production overview  

SciTech Connect

This talk serves as an introduction to the Heavy-Flavor session of the XXXIII International Symposium on Multiparticle Dynamics. A major focus of this session is on the production of heavy quarks. The talks which follow review the latest results on heavy quark production in strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions, as well as some of the physics of the heavy quarks themselves. This talk emphasizes what we can learn from the production measurements, both about underlying QCD theory and the partonic nature of the hadrons which we see in the laboratory.

Jeffrey A. Appel

2003-12-10

369

Lightning Arrestor Connectors Production Readiness  

SciTech Connect

The Lightning Arrestor Connector (LAC), part “M”, presented opportunities to improve the processes used to fabricate LACs. The A## LACs were the first production LACs produced at the KCP, after the product was transferred from Pinnellas. The new LAC relied on the lessons learned from the A## LACs; however, additional improvements were needed to meet the required budget, yield, and schedule requirements. Improvement projects completed since 2001 include Hermetic Connector Sealing Improvement, Contact Assembly molding Improvement, development of a second vendor for LAC shells, general process improvement, tooling improvement, reduction of the LAC production cycle time, and documention of the LAC granule fabrication process. This report summarizes the accomplishments achieved in improving the LAC Production Readiness.

Marten, Steve; Linder, Kim; Emmons, Jim; Gomez, Antonio; Hasam, Dawud; Maurer, Michelle

2008-10-20

370

Analysis of biomass production systems  

SciTech Connect

Methodology is presented to analyze biomass production systems using a modeling and simulation approach. To illustrate the concepts, example studies are presented for sugarcane, water hyacinth, and napier grass. Economics and energetic analysis are described using methane as the output.

Mishoe, J.W.; Fluck, R.C.; Jones, J.W.; Lorber, M.N.; Peart, R.M.

1983-06-01

371

Electrolytic Production of Calcium Metal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines developed an alternative electrochemical process for the production of calcium metal. The current industrial practice is costly, complex, and inefficient. The Bureau method involves electrowinning of a calcium-tin alloy followed by ele...

J. J. Lukasko J. E. Murphy

1990-01-01

372

Carbonate Production by Coral Reefs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the paper, the authors first create hypothetical models of coral reefs, based upon carbonate production estimates for individual organisms; then they compare the models with what is known about real reef communities and their geologic histories. The di...

K. E. Chave S. V. Smith K. J. Roy

1971-01-01

373

Production System Conflict Resolution Strategies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Production systems designed to function and grow in environments that make large numbers of different, sometimes competing, and sometimes unexpected demands require support from their interpreters that is qualitatively different from the support required ...

C. Forgy J. McDermott

1976-01-01

374

Ethanol Production by Zymomonas Mobilis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research progress is described on the development of laboratory-scale columnar bioreactors utilizing the flocculent bacterium, X. mobilis, for ethanol production. X. mobilis forms stable, ball-like aggregates which maintain structural integrity even when ...

G. W. Strandberg C. D. Scott T. L. Donaldson R. M. Worden

1983-01-01

375

Geophysical Factors Affecting Plant Productivity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A model for productivity is presented. It combines a model for photosynthesis with an energy budget approach to leaf energy balance. The photosynthesis model describes the rate of photosynthesis of a leaf as a function of leaf temperature, diffusive resis...

D. M. Gates H. B. Johnson C. S. Yocum P. W. Lommen

1969-01-01

376

Nuclear dependence of charm production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using data taken by SELEX during the 1996-1997 fixed target run at Fermilab, we study the production of charmed hadrons on copper and carbon targets with ? -, p, ? -, and ? + beams. Parametrizing the dependence of the inclusive production cross section on the atomic number A as A ? , we determine ? for D +, D 0, D {/s +}, D +(2010), ? {/c +}, and their respective anti-particles, as a function of their transverse momentum p t and scaled longitudinal momentum x F . Within our statistics there is no dependence of ? on x F for any charm species for the interval 0.1< x F <1.0. The average value of ? for charm production by pion beams is ? meson=0.850±0.028. This is somewhat larger than the corresponding average ? baryon=0.755±0.016 for charm production by baryon beams ( ? -, p).

Blanco-Covarrubias, A.; Engelfried, J.; Akgun, U.; Alkhazov, G.; Amaro-Reyes, J.; Atamantchouk, A. G.; Ayan, A. S.; Balatz, M. Y.; Bondar, N. F.; Cooper, P. S.; Dauwe, L. J.; Davidenko, G. V.; Dersch, U.; Dolgolenko, A. G.; Dzyubenko, G. B.; Edelstein, R.; Emediato, L.; Endler, A. M. F.; Eschrich, I.; Escobar, C. O.; Estrada, N.; Evdokimov, A. V.; Filimonov, I. S.; Flores-Castillo, A.; Garcia, F. G.; Golovtsov, V. L.; Gouffon, P.; Gülmez, E.; Iori, M.; Jun, S. Y.; Kaya, M.; Kilmer, J.; Kim, V. T.; Kochenda, L. M.; Konorov, I.; Kozhevnikov, A. P.; Krivshich, A. G.; Krüger, H.; Kubantsev, M. A.; Kubarovsky, V. P.; Kulyavtsev, A. I.; Kuropatkin, N. P.; Kurshetsov, V. F.; Kushnirenko, A.; Lach, J.; Landsberg, L. G.; Larin, I.; Leikin, E. M.; López-Hinojosa, G.; Lungov, T.; Maleev, V. P.; Mao, D.; Mathew, P.; Mattson, M.; Matveev, V.; McCliment, E.; Moinester, M. A.; Molchanov, V. V.; Morelos, A.; Nemitkin, A. V.; Neoustroev, P. V.; Newsom, C.; Nilov, A. P.; Nurushev, S. B.; Ocherashvili, A.; Onel, Y.; Ozkorucuklu, S.; Penzo, A.; Petrenko, S. V.; Procario, M.; Prutskoi, V. A.; Razmyslovich, B. V.; Rud, V. I.; Russ, J.; Sánchez-López, J. L.; Simon, J.; Sitnikov, A. I.; Smith, V. J.; Srivastava, M.; Steiner, V.; Stepanov, V.; Stutte, L.; Svoiski, M.; Terentyev, N. K.; Torres, I.; Uvarov, L. N.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vavilov, D. V.; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E.; Verebryusov, V. S.; Victorov, V. A.; Vishnyakov, V. E.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Vorwalter, K.; You, J.; Zukanovich-Funchal, R.

2009-12-01

377

Herbal Products and Your Anesthestic  

MedlinePLUS

... Popular Herbal Products and Possible Side Effects or Interactions with Anesthetics Black Cohosh Blood pressure decrease; may ... John’s Wort Sedation; blood pressure changes; risk of interaction with other medications that prolong effects of anesthesia. ...

378

Egg Products and Food Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Safety and Inspection Service United States Department of Agriculture About FSIS District Offices Careers Contact Us Ask ... This is done at United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)-inspected plants. Basic egg products include whole ...

379

EPA CLEAN PRODUCTS RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The recent emphasis on developing information on achieving pollution prevention has resulted in increased research activity by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the area of clean product development. urrently the EPA's Pollution Prevention Research Branch (PPRB) has si...

380

Developments in HSLA steel products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technology of microalloyed steels is expanding beyond its original emphasis on low-carbon, severely control-rolled strip and plate products. A variety of economical, high-strength, tough, as-rolled or as-forged microalloyed products are replacing more expensive heat-treated steels. Recrystallization-controlled rolling is being utilized to produce very fine ferrite grain sizes and good toughness in strip, plate and bar products processed with relatively high rolling temperatures. High-strength microalloyed long products such as railroad joint bars, truck frame rails and flat bars for truck trailer construction are replacing heat-treated parts. Microalloyed, medium-carbon forging steels are used extensively for automobile engine and suspension components. Fully pearlitic high-carbon rods are being microalloyed to enhance the properties of wire and springs.

Paules, John R.

1991-01-01

381

What Scanner products are available?  

There are single satellite and combined-satellite scanner products. The best source for these data is to order the ERBE scanner CD which gives all the S4G monthly mean 2.5 degree gridded data from ...

2012-07-19

382

Production expansion continues to accelerate  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco) is continuing its accelerated Crude Oil Expansion Program initiated in 1989 that aims at achieving a 10 million bpd productive capacity by 1995. In addition to major engineering, construction and renovation work related to production expansion, Saudi Aramco drilling and workover operations have been markedly expanded. Since January 1991, rig activity has doubled. As an indication of aging of Saudi production, projects include modernizing current injection water treatment facilities, installing a new seawater injection plant on the Persian Gulf, installing dewatering facilities in a number of locations and installing a pilot gas lift project. In addition, equipment orders indicate the new discoveries south of Riyadh may also need the assistance of water injection from inception of production.

Not Available

1992-08-01

383

Forest Production for Tropical America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book is concerned primarily with wood production. Without the direct economic returns possible therefrom, the other, less tangible benefits that accrue from forests are in jeopardy in the face of developmental pressures driven by more attractive dire...

F. H. Wadsworth

1997-01-01

384

Progress of the Productive Ward.  

PubMed

The progress of the Productive Ward programme has been variable. This article outlines a study that investigated the experience of implementing the programme in different hospitals and the lessons that can be learnt. PMID:21409998

Robert, Glenn

385

Doctoral Preparation and Research Productivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factors influencing nursing research productivity include (1) academic mentoring; (2) doctoral degrees; (3) released time from work; (4) supportive environment; and (5) access to library and computer resources and research populations. (SK)

Abdellah, Faye G.

1993-01-01

386

European oil product supply modelling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the last few years, trends in European oil product consumption (in terms of level as structure and quality) has important implications of the refining industry. In this context, the purpose of this thesis consists in building a mathematical programmi...

V. Saint-Antonin

1998-01-01

387

Irradiation of Northwest agricultural products  

SciTech Connect

Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect control procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting this program to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

Eakin, D.E.; Tingey, G.L.

1985-02-01

388

Economics of neodymium alloy production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Process economics of neodymium alloy (Nd-16%Fe) production are becoming increasingly important to the high-performance iron neodymium boron magnet industry. This paper examines economics of oxide conversion to fluoride, followed by thermite reduction proc...

R. J. McClure F. A. Schmidt

1993-01-01

389

Alternate Red Meat Production Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress on a project designed to maximize the quantity of acceptable red meat per unit of land area with minimum expenditure of cultural energy is presented. The two interacting factors investigated were breed types of cattle and forage production system...

C. W. Cook

1978-01-01

390

Product Manuals: A Consumer Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative analysis of insights from consumer focus groups on product manual usage reveals consumer perceptions and preferences regarding manual and safety message format. Results can be used to improve manual design and content. (JOW)

Showers, Linda S.; And Others

1993-01-01

391

Health and Productivity Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The intent of the small conference was to organize and convene a meeting of corporate medical directors, human resource and finance executives along with governmental research executives to discuss the general topic of health and productivity. The confere...

R. W. Whitmer

2003-01-01

392

Biomedical Engineering Development and Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication explores ways to mesh effectively, on a regional basis, the resources of government, universities, business and manufacturing interests for orderly approaches to research, development, production and the distribution of medical instruments...

1969-01-01

393

Production of virus resistant plants  

DOEpatents

A method of suppressing virus gene expression in plants using untranslatable plus sense RNA is disclosed. The method is useful for the production of plants that are resistant to virus infection. 9 figs.

Dougherty, W.G.; Lindbo, J.A.

1996-12-10

394

Miehittaemaetoen turvetuotanto. (Unoccupied peat production).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods needed for automation of milled peat production are reviewed in this report. The main targets of the research were the utilization possibilities of the tractors available on the Finnish vehicle markets, the suitabilities of different positioning m...

P. Hirvonen V. Aho A. Leinonen

1990-01-01

395

Forest Products: Acoustic Humidity Sensor  

SciTech Connect

The new acoustic sensor, designed as a humidity-control system for the paper and textile industries, can both eliminate overdrying and improve product quality by measuring humidity precisely. This new fact sheet explains how the process works.

Poole, L.; Recca, L.

1999-01-29

396

Smoke Production of Nonmetallic Pipes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The smoke production of nonmetallic pipes was investigated using 'Test Method for Specific Optical Density of Smoke Generated by Solid Materials,' ASTM E 662. The pipe samples consisted of two epoxy resin glass reinforced pipes, two vinyl ester resin glas...

W. H. McLain L. Nash

1995-01-01

397

Solar Drying of Agricultural Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four different types of solar driers were designed and fabricated for the laboratory experiments for drying different agricultural products. By using these driers, comparative study of the drying process was done for bagasse, custard powder, sorghum, grap...

V. G. Bhide M. G. Takwale R. S. Pawar R. Henriksson

1987-01-01

398

World Agricultural Production, August 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Production Articles this Month; Eastern European Grains; Canadian Trip Report; Mexican and Central American Cotton; Indian Sunflowerseed; Brazilian Agricultural Policy; Former Soviet Union Historical Series; and Poultry and Eggs in Selected Coun...

1992-01-01

399

ConcepTest: Groundwater Production  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The cross section below simplifies the groundwater resources in a county in a Midwest state. Which location would have the potential for the best groundwater production? A. Sand and gravel on hilltop B. Shale ...

400

(Ethanol production by immobilized microorganisms)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler presented research on ethanol production by immobilized Z. mobilis in a fluidized-bed bioreactor and the hydrodynamics of these systems. Discussions were held on the current progress on the collaborative research grant and on possible sources for continued collaborative support. The current laboratory research at the two sites was discussed and observed, including ethanol production, immobilized cells, plant-cell culture, and extractive distillation of ethanol.

Davison, B.H.

1988-06-23

401

Top 10 Products of 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2011, American School & University (AS&U) showcased some of the hottest products in the industry. This article presents the top ten most requested products as determined by readers. The top one on the list is the Bulb crusher which can cut recycling costs by 50%, can hold 1,350 4-foot lamps in a single 55-gallon drum, can crush a 4-foot lamp in…

American School & University, 2011

2011-01-01

402

Mockups and human productivity studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Idea outlines are presented concerning mockup candidates, mockup utilization and schedules/sequence in mockup development. Mockup candidates which aid in human productivity investigations and assessment are given. Areas which are considered in the mockups are the safe haven zone, general purpose workstations, maintenance and servicing area, sleep quaters, multiple docking adapter, airlock, hygiene station, food station, habitation zones, group gathering area and lab areas. Some aesthetic concerns in human productivity are also given.

Fisher, T.

1985-01-01

403

Automation of somatic embryo production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automation could enhance the use of somatic embryogenesis for micropropagation in two ways: as effective tools for research\\u000a on somatic embryogenesis, and for improving the efficiency of embryo production by reducing labor costs. Processes expected\\u000a to be automated for somatic embryo production are: (1) evaluation of embryogenic cultures, (2) embryo development, (3) harvesting,\\u000a (4) post-harvesting (pre-delivery) processes for enhancing conversion

Yasuomi Ibaraki; Kenji Kurata

2001-01-01

404

Technology Roadmap for Productive Nanosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Technology Roadmap for Productive Nanosystems charts a path beginning with current nanotechnology capabilities to advanced systems. The Roadmap is a first attempt to lay out a step-by-step course of development that must take place to move from one stage to another, with milestones for achieving each step. This report identifies the gap between the basic nanostructured materials of today, and the potential of productive nanosystems.

2010-10-18

405

The cascade high productivity language  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the design of Chapel, the Cascade High Productivity Language, which is being developed in the DARPA-funded HPCS project Cascade led by Cray Inc. Chapel pushes the state-of-the-art in languages for HEC system programming by focusing on productivity, in particular by combining the goal of highest possible object code performance with that of programmability offered by a high-level user interface.

Callahan, David; Chamberlain, Branford L.; Zima, Hans P.

2004-01-01

406

Organic & Integrated Tree Fruit Production  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the Washington State University Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center, this website offers various resources for orchardists interested in organic and integrated production methods. The site contains sections on Organic Fruit Production, Soil and Pest Management, Apple Replant Disease, and more. The site also offers links to other Washington State University sites for Horticulture, Entomology, Fruit Pathology, and Postharvest resources. Many of the documents on this site are available for download as PDF files.

2007-08-02

407

California Forest Products Commission Homepage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors to this site can find a variety of materials on forestry and forest products in California. Teachers can access information on forest tours, a touring exhibit, posters, activities, and links to other forestry education programs and related sites. For students, there is career information, interactive games, and a photo and video gallery. General interest materials include a history and overview of California forests, forest management, protecting water quality, renewability and recycling of wood products, and tree planting.

2004-12-14

408

Heavy flavor production in STAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the recent STAR results on heavy flavor production in Au+Au collisions at = 200, 62.4 and 39 GeV. We present the nuclear modification factor and elliptic flow of open charm mesons and electrons from semileptonic decays of heavy flavor hadrons. We also report on new measurements of energy dependence of J/? production. STAR data are compared to theoretical model calculations and physics implications are discussed.

Kiko?a, Daniel; Star Collaboration

2014-05-01

409

Stimulating diffusion of green products  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   This paper presents a model-based analysis of the introduction of green products, which are products with low environmental\\u000a impacts. Both consumers and firms are simulated as populations of agents who differ in their behavioural characteristics.\\u000a Model experiments illustrate the influence of behavioural characteristics on the success of switching to green consumption.\\u000a The model reproduces empirical observed stylised facts and

Marco A. Janssen; Wander Jager

2002-01-01

410

Methane production in Minnesota peatlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rates of methane production in Minnesota peats were studied. Surface (10- to 25-cm) peats produced an average of 228 nmol of CHâ per g (dry weight) per h at 25°C and ambient pH. Methanogenesis rates generally decreased with depth in ombrotrophic peats, but on occasion were observed to rise within deeper layers of certain fen peats. Methane production was temperature

R. T. Williams; R. L. Crawford

1984-01-01

411

Production of Fungal Glucoamylase for Glucose Production from Food Waste  

PubMed Central

The feasibility of using pastry waste as resource for glucoamylase (GA) production via solid state fermentation (SSF) was studied. The crude GA extract obtained was used for glucose production from mixed food waste. Our results showed that pastry waste could be used as a sole substrate for GA production. A maximal GA activity of 76.1 ± 6.1 U/mL was obtained at Day 10. The optimal pH and reaction temperature for the crude GA extract for hydrolysis were pH 5.5 and 55 °C, respectively. Under this condition, the half-life of the GA extract was 315.0 minutes with a deactivation constant (kd) 2.20 × 10?3 minutes?1. The application of the crude GA extract for mixed food waste hydrolysis and glucose production was successfully demonstrated. Approximately 53 g glucose was recovered from 100 g of mixed food waste in 1 h under the optimal digestion conditions, highlighting the potential of this approach as an alternative strategy for waste management and sustainable production of glucose applicable as carbon source in many biotechnological processes.

Lam, Wan Chi; Pleissner, Daniel; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

2013-01-01

412

Product Liability, Research and Development, and Innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Product liability ideally should promote efficient levels of product safety but misdirected liability efforts may depre ss beneficial innovations. This paper examines these competing effects of liability costs on product R&D intensity and new product introductio ns by manufacturing firms. At low to moderate levels of expected liabil ity costs, there is a positive effect of liability costs on product

W. Kip Viscusi; Michael J. Moore

1993-01-01

413

Intelligent Use of Model-Derived Products  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many NWP output products must undergo internal processing in order to be readily displayed and used. This module examines how such products are developed, their strengths and weaknesses, and their application in the forecast process. The module focuses on three primary groups of model-derived products: postprocessed products, statistical guidance products, and model assessment tools.

Spangler, Tim

1999-08-31

414

Productivity of energy: engineering and economic factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and practical graphical method for making international or interregional comparisons of energy productivity has been productivity and applied to some specific significant cases. The method is based on definitions of national energy productivity as gross domestic product (GDP) per unit of energy consumed, annual per capita energy consumption, and the product of these two numbers which is GDP

H. William Welch

1981-01-01

415

STEP PRODUCT INFORMATION MODELS IN AGILE MANUFACTURING  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the product information needed to support the emerging trend of agilemanufacturing. We address the issue of consistent product information being available during thedesign and manufacturing stages of the products life cycle. We have described a means ofconverting product design data from Initial Graphic Exchange Specification (IGES) format intoStandard for the Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP)

Mangesh P. Bhandarkar; Rakesh Nagi

416

Herbal products: Marketing strategies and legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marketing of herbal products in the European Union (EU) has been regulated under national legislation for years, leading to differences in legal status of these herbal products. In one member state, a product may be regulated as a food supplement, while in the other member state the same product is considered a medicinal product, thereby subjected to medicinal law. To

PieterA Hooyenga; RengerF Witkamp; Kees Groen

2009-01-01

417

CHARRING RATE OF COMPOSITE TIMBER PRODUCTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly, wood members used in wood structures are structural composite lumber products. Such products include laminated veneer lumber, parallel strand lumber, and lami- nated strand lumber (Green 1998). To apply the calculation procedures to composite timber products, it is critical that char rate data for such products be available in the public domain. Charring data on composite lumber products in

Robert H. White

418

Product family modeling for mass customization  

Microsoft Academic Search

With growing reliance on modeling in product development, it is imperative to describe product families in a cohesive way. In particular, mass customization calls for a close integration of product life cycle from customer recognition to delivery and services. This paper proposes a triple-view scheme for modeling product families. Technical challenges are discussed by comparing product family modeling with modeling

Jianxin Jiao; Mitchell M. Tseng; Vincent G. Duffy; Fuhua Lin

1998-01-01

419

Understanding Productivity: Lessons from Longitudinal Microdata  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews research that uses longitudinal microdata to document productivity movements and to examine factors behind productivity growth. The research explores the dispersion of productivity across firms and establishments, the persistence of productivity differentials, the consequences of entry and exit, and the contribution of resource reallocation across firms to aggregate productivity growth. The research also reveals important factors correlated

Eric J. Bartelsman; Mark Doms

2000-01-01

420

Communication Strategies and Product Line Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

When selling a product line, a firm has to consider the costs of communicating about the different products to the consumers. This may affect the product line design in general, and which products or services are offered in particular. The problem is that firms have to communicate to consumers, possibly through advertising, to make them consider buying the products that

J. Miguel Villas-Boas

2004-01-01

421

Customer interactivity and new product performance: Moderating effects of product newness and product embeddedness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding customer needs which drive significant product innovation is particularly challenging for new product development (NPD) organizations. Research has addressed how organizations benefit from interacting with customers, but more conceptualization is needed into the dimensions of the customer interaction process. In a business-to-business (B2B) setting, customer interactivity is conceptualized as a multi-dimensional construct consisting of bidirectional communications, participation, and joint

Joseph M. Bonner

2010-01-01

422

Evolvable Production Systems: Mechatronic Production Equipment with Evolutionary Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current major roadmapping efforts have all clearly underlined that true industrial sustainability will require far higher levels of systems' autonomy and adaptability. In accordance with these recommendations, the Evolvable Production Systems (EPS) has aimed at developing such technological solutions and support mechanisms. Since its inception in 2002 as a next generation of production systems, the concept is being further developed and tested to emerge as a production system paradigm. Characteristically, Evolvable systems have distributed control, and are composed of intelligent modules with embedded control. A concerted effort is being exerted through European research projects in collaboration with manufacturers, technology/equipment suppliers, and universities. After introducing EPS, this paper presents current developments and applications.

Maffei, Antonio; Onori, Mauro; Neves, Pedro; Barata, José

423

SORCE Solar Irradiance Data Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) at the University of Colorado manages the SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) Science Data System. This data processing system routinely produces Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) and Spectral Solar Irradiance (SSI) data products, which are formulated using measurements from the four primary instruments on board the SORCE spacecraft. The TIM instrument provides measurements of the TSI, whereas the SIM, SOLSTICE, and XPS instruments collectively provide measurements of the solar irradiance spectrum from 1 nm to 2400 nm (excluding 31-115 nm, which is measured by the SEE instrument on NASA's TIMED mission). Derived products, such as the Magnesium II Core-to-Wing Index which can be used for space weather applications, are also produced. The SORCE Science Data System utilizes raw spacecraft and instrument telemetry, calibration data, and other ancillary information to produce a variety of solar irradiance data products that have been corrected for all known instrumental and operational factors. Since launch of the SORCE spacecraft in January 2003, science processing algorithms have continued to mature, instrument calibrations (e.g. degradation corrections) have improved, and regularly updated versions of data products have been released. "Level 3" data products (time-averaged over daily and six-hourly periods and/or spectrally re-sampled onto uniform wavelength scales) are routinely produced and delivered to the public via the SORCE web site (http://lasp.colorado.edu/sorce/data/), and are archived at the Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC). Native resolution "Level 2" products are also available for scientific studies. This poster provides an overview of the SORCE data processing system, summarizes the present state of the processing algorithms, describes the quality of the current SORCE data products, provides details on how to access SORCE science data, and presents future plans.

Lindholm, D. M.; Pankratz, C. K.; Knapp, B. G.; Meisner, R.; Fontenla, J.; Harder, J. W.; McClintock, W. E.; Kopp, G.; Snow, M.; Woods, T. N.

2008-12-01

424

Tritium production distribution in the accelerator production of tritium device  

SciTech Connect

Helium-3 ({sup 3}He) gas is circulated throughout the accelerator production of tritium target/blanket (T/B) assembly to capture neutrons and convert {sup 3}He to tritium. Because {sup 3}He is very expensive, it is important to know the tritium producing effectiveness of {sup 3}He at all points throughout the T/B. The purpose of this paper is to present estimates of the spatial distributions of tritium production, {sup 3}He inventory, and the {sup 3}He FOM.

Kidman, R.B.

1997-11-01

425

Pheromone production in bark beetles.  

PubMed

The first aggregation pheromone components from bark beetles were identified in 1966 as a mixture of ipsdienol, ipsenol and verbenol. Since then, a number of additional components have been identified as both aggregation and anti-aggregation pheromones, with many of them being monoterpenoids or derived from monoterpenoids. The structural similarity between the major pheromone components of bark beetles and the monoterpenes found in the host trees, along with the association of monoterpenoid production with plant tissue, led to the paradigm that most if not all bark beetle pheromone components were derived from host tree precursors, often with a simple hydroxylation producing the pheromone. In the 1990 s there was a paradigm shift as evidence for de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components began to accumulate, and it is now recognized that most bark beetle monoterpenoid aggregation pheromone components are biosynthesized de novo. The bark beetle aggregation pheromones are released from the frass, which is consistent with the isoprenoid aggregation pheromones, including ipsdienol, ipsenol and frontalin, being produced in midgut tissue. It appears that exo-brevocomin is produced de novo in fat body tissue, and that verbenol, verbenone and verbenene are produced from dietary ?-pinene in fat body tissue. Combined biochemical, molecular and functional genomics studies in Ips pini yielded the discovery and characterization of the enzymes that convert mevalonate pathway intermediates to pheromone components, including a novel bifunctional geranyl diphosphate synthase/myrcene synthase, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates myrcene to ipsdienol, and an oxidoreductase that interconverts ipsdienol and ipsdienone to achieve the appropriate stereochemistry of ipsdienol for pheromonal activity. Furthermore, the regulation of these genes and their corresponding enzymes proved complex and diverse in different species. Mevalonate pathway genes in pheromone producing male I. pini have much higher basal levels than in females, and feeding induces their expression. In I. duplicatus and I. pini, juvenile hormone III (JH III) induces pheromone production in the absence of feeding, whereas in I. paraconfusus and I. confusus, topically applied JH III does not induce pheromone production. In all four species, feeding induces pheromone production. While many of the details of pheromone production, including the site of synthesis, pathways and knowledge of the enzymes involved are known for Ips, less is known about pheromone production in Dendroctonus. Functional genomics studies are under way in D. ponderosae, which should rapidly increase our understanding of pheromone production in this genus. This chapter presents a historical development of what is known about pheromone production in bark beetles, emphasizes the genomic and post-genomic work in I. pini and points out areas where research is needed to obtain a more complete understanding of pheromone production. PMID:20727970

Blomquist, Gary J; Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Aw, Mory; Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Abbott, Nicole L; Chang, Eric; Tittiger, Claus

2010-10-01

426

State power plant productivity programs  

SciTech Connect

The findings of a working group formed to review the status of efforts by utilities and utility regulators to increase the availability and reliability of generating units are presented. Representatives from nine state regulatory agencies, NRRI, and DOE, participated on the Working Group. The Federal government has been working cooperatively with utilities, utility organizations, and with regulators to encourage and facilitate improvements in power plant productivity. Cooperative projects undertaken with regulatory and energy commissions in California, Illinois, New York, Ohio, Texas, North Carolina and Mighigan are described. Following initiation of these cooperative projects, DOE funded a survey to determine which states were explicitly addressing power plant productivity through the regulatory process. The Working Group was formed following completion of this survey. The Working Group emphasized the need for those power plant productivity improvements which are cost effective. The cost effectiveness of proposed availability improvement projects should be determined within the context of opportunities for operating and capital improvements available to an entire utility. The Working Group also identified the need for: allowing for plant designs that have a higher construction cost, but are also more reliable; allowing for recovery and reducing recovery lags for productivity-related capital expenditures; identifying and reducing disincentives in the regulatory process; ascertaining that utilities have sufficient money available to undertake timely maintenance; and support of EPRI and NERC to develop a relevant and accurate national data base. The DOE views these as extremely important aspects of any regulatory program to improve power plant productivity.

Not Available

1981-02-01

427

Probing green algal hydrogen production.  

PubMed Central

The recently developed two-stage photosynthesis and H(2)-production protocol with green algae is further investigated in this work. The method employs S deprivation as a tool for the metabolic regulation of photosynthesis. In the presence of S, green algae perform normal photosynthesis, carbohydrate accumulation and oxygen production. In the absence of S, normal photosynthesis stops and the algae slip into the H(2)-production mode. For the first time, to our knowledge, significant amounts of H(2) gas were generated, essentially from sunlight and water. Rates of H(2) production could be sustained continuously for ca. 80 h in the light, but gradually declined thereafter. This work examines biochemical and physiological aspects of this process in the absence or presence of limiting amounts of S nutrients. Moreover, the effects of salinity and of uncouplers of phosphorylation are investigated. It is shown that limiting levels of S can sustain intermediate levels of oxygenic photosynthesis, in essence raising the prospect of a calibration of the rate of photosynthesis by the S content in the growth medium of the algae. It is concluded that careful titration of the supply of S nutrients in the green alga medium might permit the development of a continuous H(2)-production process.

Zhang, Liping; Melis, Anastasios

2002-01-01

428

Reaction products of chlorine dioxide.  

PubMed Central

Inspection of the available literature reveals that a detailed investigation of the aqueous organic chemistry of chlorine dioxide and systematic identification of products formed during water disinfection has not been considered. This must be done before an informed assessment can be made of the relative safety of using chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant alternative to chlorine. Although trihalomethanes are generally not formed by the action of chlorine dioxide, the products of chlorine dioxide treatment of organic materials are oxidized species, some of which also contain chlorine. The relative amounts of species types may depend on the amount of chlorine dioxide residual maintained and the concentration and nature of the organic material present in the source water. The trend toward lower concentrations of chlorinated by-products with increasing ClO2 concentration, which was observed with phenols, has not been observed with natural humic materials as measured by the organic halogen parameter. Organic halogen concentrations have been shown to increase with increasing chlorine dioxide dose, but are much lower than those observed when chlorine is applied. Aldehydes have been detected as apparent by-products of chlorine dioxide oxidation reactions in a surface water that is a drinking water source. Some other nonchlorinated products of chlorine dioxide treatment may be quinones and epoxides. The extent of formation of these moieties within the macromolecular humic structure is also still unknown.

Stevens, A A

1982-01-01

429

40 CFR 158.2220 - Product performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Antimicrobial Pesticide Data Requirements § 158...Product performance requirement for all antimicrobial pesticides. Each applicant...product performance data requirements for antimicrobial pesticide products. (b)...

2013-07-01

430

Issues in Agricultural Policy: Mandatory Production Controls.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mandatory restrictions on agricultural production continue to be suggested as an alternative policy for reducing price-depressing surplus production, increasing farm income, and cutting farm program costs. A mandatory production control program, as with a...

C. E. Young J. M. Price W. Y. Huang B. T. Hyberg C. Lee

1987-01-01

431

Plan for effective distribution of petroleum products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Petroleum products take up the largest share of total domestic logistics as a single product in Korea. As the level of refinery technology gets standardized between countries and enterprises, to secure competitive power of petroleum product largely depend...

D. S. Lee

1998-01-01

432

40 CFR 158.2210 - Product chemistry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Product chemistry. 158.2210 Section 158.2210 Protection...Pesticide Data Requirements § 158.2210 Product chemistry. The product chemistry data requirements of subpart D of this part...

2013-07-01

433

40 CFR 161.155 - Product composition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES Product Chemistry Data Requirements § 161.155 Product composition. Information on the composition of the pesticide product...

2013-07-01

434

31 CFR 561.330 - Petrochemical products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Petrochemical products. 561.330 Section 561.330...REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.330 Petrochemical products. The term petrochemical products includes any aromatic,...

2013-07-01

435

Economics of Butter Production and Marketing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Changes in factors affecting the economic performance of the butter industry are discussed. Emphasis is placed on trends in butter production, plant numbers, production per plant, regional shifts in production, per capita consumption, and sources of butte...

W. W. Jones

1977-01-01

436

Generic Questionnaire for Biopharmaceutical Production Candidates  

Cancer.gov

Generic Questionnaire for Biopharmaceutical Production Candidates Involving Recombinant Organisms Principal Investigator: Institution: What amount(s) of delivered product(s) is desired? A. Non-GMP (laboratory grade) B. cGMP (clinical grade) Please

437

Analysis of Consumer Information Products Collected.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Consumer information products were analyzed in a project to provide objective, comparative information on such products. This list presents the analysis for each of 178 consumer information products in the areas of reading, mathematics, social studies, ex...

N. T. Bagenstos P. Owoc

1977-01-01

438

Protein Identification from Protein Product Ion Spectra.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mass spectrometry is used to identify a protein of interest. The protein is first ionized then fragmented into protein product ion. Masses of the observed product ions are compared to product ion masses calculated in silico for database protein sequences ...

G. E. Reid J. M. Hogan S. A. McLuckey

2003-01-01

439

Productive Aging: A Question of Role.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "The Paradox of Productive Aging" (Sicker); "Beyond Productive Aging" (Riley, Riley); "Changing Concepts; Visionary or Short-Sighted" (Holstein); "Making Aging Meaningful" (Glanz, Neikrug); and "Perspectives on Productive Aging from Austria, Bolivia, Denmark, Finland, Japan, Venezuela." (JOW)

Sicker, Martin; And Others

1994-01-01

440

"Light" Tobacco Products Pose Heavy Health Risks  

MedlinePLUS

... Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol “Light” Tobacco Products Pose Heavy Health Risks Search the ... Feed A federal law is restricting the words “light,” “low,” and “mild” from tobacco products now on ...

441

Methanol production method and system  

DOEpatents

Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

Chen, Michael J. (Darien, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Bolingbrook, IL)

1984-01-01

442

Ethanol production method and system  

DOEpatents

Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

Chen, M.J.; Rathke, J.W.

1983-05-26

443

Heparinase production by anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The production of heparinase by a wide range of anaerobic bacteria isolated from clinical specimens was investigated. None of the 29 strains of Bacteroides fragilis produced heparinase. Of 62 other Bacteroides tested, only two of four strains of B ovatus, two of three strains of B thetaiotaomicron, and two of four strains of B uniformis were heparinase producers. None of the 48 strains of fusobacteria or seven strains of Veillonella produced heparinase. The anaerobic cocci (19 peptococci and seven peptostreptococci) were also negative for heparinase production as were 46 Clostridium spp tested. It was concluded that heparinase production by anaerobic bacteria was unlikely to play a part in the regional thrombophlebitis that sometimes occurs in anaerobic infections.

Riley, T V

1987-01-01

444

Coal conversion products Industrial applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The synfuels economic evaluation model was utilized to analyze cost and product economics of the TVA coal conversion facilities. It is concluded that; (1) moderate yearly future escalations ( 6%) in current natural gas prices will result in medium-Btu gas becoming competitive with natural gas at the plant boundary; (2) utilizing DRI price projections, the alternate synfuel products, except for electricity, will be competitive with their counterparts; (3) central site fuel cell generation of electricity, utilizing MBG, is economically less attractive than the other synthetic fuels, given projected price rises in electricity produced by other means; and (4) because of estimated northern Alabama synfuels market demands, existing conventional fuels, infrastructure and industrial synfuels retrofit problems, a diversity of transportable synfuels products should be produced by the conversion facility.

Warren, D.; Dunkin, J.

1980-01-01

445

State Support of Domestic Production  

SciTech Connect

This project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the State Support of Domestic Production DE-FC26-04NT15456. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) performed efforts in support of State programs related to the security, reliability and growth if our nation's domestic production of oil and natural gas. The project objectives were to improve the States ability to monitor the security of oil and gas operations; to maximize the production of domestic oil and natural gas thereby minimizing the threat to national security posed by interruptions in energy imports; to assist States in developing and maintaining high standards of environmental protection; to assist in addressing issues that limit the capacity of the industry; to promote the deployment of the appropriate application of technology for regulatory efficiency; and to inform the public about emerging energy issues.

Amy Wright

2007-12-30

446

Geometric Qualification of Production Parts  

SciTech Connect

Computer Aided Design (CAD) is a commonly utilized software tool to conceptualize and create the part designs that are then used as input for product definition, or for the manufacture of production parts within commercial industry and, more specifically, at the Kansas City Plant (KCP). However, data created on CAD systems is, at times, unable to regenerate within the originating CAD system or be shared or translated for use by a dissimilar CAD system. Commercial software has been developed to help identify or qualify these difficulties that occur in the usage of this data. This project reviewed the different commercial software packages available for the activity of qualification and made recommendations for availability and use in the design processes at the KCP prior to the release of the product definition.

J. A. Bradley

2005-09-30

447

Neutrino induced coherent pion production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss different parameterizations of the C5A(q2) N? form factor, fitted to the old Argonne bubble chamber data for pion production by neutrinos, and we use coherent pion production to test their low q2 behavior. We find moderate effects that will be difficult to observe with the accuracy of present experiments. We also discuss the use of the Rein-Sehgal model for low energy coherent pion production. By comparison to a microscopic calculation, we show the weaknesses some of the approximations in that model that lead to very large cross sections as well as to the wrong shapes for differential ones. Finally we show that models based on the partial conservation of the axial current hypothesis are not fully reliable for differential cross sections that depend on the angle formed by the pion and the incident neutrino.

Hernández, E.; Nieves, J.; Valverde, M.; Vicente-Vacas, M. J.

2010-03-01

448

Single Pion production from Nuclei  

SciTech Connect

We have studied charged current one pion production induced by {nu}{sub {mu}}({nu}-bar{sub {mu}}) from some nuclei. The calculations have been done for the incoherent pion production processes from these nuclear targets in the {delta} dominance model and take into account the effect of Pauli blocking, Fermi motion and renormalization of {delta} properties in the nuclear medium. The effect of final state interactions of pions has also been taken into account. The numerical results have been compared with the recent results from the MiniBooNE experiment for the charged current 1{pi} production, and also with some of the older experiments in Freon and Freon-Propane from CERN.

Singh, S. K.; Athar, M. Sajjad; Ahmed, S. [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202 002 (India)

2007-12-21

449

Leading Hadron Production at HERA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from the recent measurements of very forward baryon and photon production with the H1 and ZEUS detectors at electron-proton collider HERA are presented and compared to the theoretical calculations and Monte Carlo models. Results are presented of the production of leading protons, neutrons and photons in deep inelastic scattering (ep ? e' pX, ep ? e'nX, ep ? e'?X) as well as the leading neutron production in the photoproduction of dijets (ep ? ejjXn). The forward baryon and photon results from the H1 and ZEUS Experiments are compared also with the models of the hadronic interactions of high energy Cosmic Rays. The sensitivity of the HERA data to the differences between the models is demonstrated.

Buniatyan, Armen

2013-06-01

450

Natural Products from Mangrove Actinomycetes  

PubMed Central

Mangroves are woody plants located in tropical and subtropical intertidal coastal regions. The mangrove ecosystem is becoming a hot spot for natural product discovery and bioactivity survey. Diverse mangrove actinomycetes as promising and productive sources are worth being explored and uncovered. At the time of writing, we report 73 novel compounds and 49 known compounds isolated from mangrove actinomycetes including alkaloids, benzene derivatives, cyclopentenone derivatives, dilactones, macrolides, 2-pyranones and sesquiterpenes. Attractive structures such as salinosporamides, xiamycins and novel indolocarbazoles are highlighted. Many exciting compounds have been proven as potential new antibiotics, antitumor and antiviral agents, anti-fibrotic agents and antioxidants. Furthermore, some of their biosynthetic pathways have also been revealed. This review is an attempt to consolidate and summarize the past and the latest studies on mangrove actinomycetes natural product discovery and to draw attention to their immense potential as novel and bioactive compounds for marine drugs discovery.

Xu, Dong-Bo; Ye, Wan-Wan; Han, Ying; Deng, Zi-Xin; Hong, Kui

2014-01-01

451

Natural products from mangrove actinomycetes.  

PubMed

Mangroves are woody plants located in tropical and subtropical intertidal coastal regions. The mangrove ecosystem is becoming a hot spot for natural product discovery and bioactivity survey. Diverse mangrove actinomycetes as promising and productive sources are worth being explored and uncovered. At the time of writing, we report 73 novel compounds and 49 known compounds isolated from mangrove actinomycetes including alkaloids, benzene derivatives, cyclopentenone derivatives, dilactones, macrolides, 2-pyranones and sesquiterpenes. Attractive structures such as salinosporamides, xiamycins and novel indolocarbazoles are highlighted. Many exciting compounds have been proven as potential new antibiotics, antitumor and antiviral agents, anti-fibrotic agents and antioxidants. Furthermore, some of their biosynthetic pathways have also been revealed. This review is an attempt to consolidate and summarize the past and the latest studies on mangrove actinomycetes natural product discovery and to draw attention to their immense potential as novel and bioactive compounds for marine drugs discovery. PMID:24798926

Xu, Dong-Bo; Ye, Wan-Wan; Han, Ying; Deng, Zi-Xin; Hong, Kui

2014-01-01

452

Synthesis of Polycyclic Natural Products  

SciTech Connect

With the continuous advancements in molecular biology and modern medicine, organic synthesis has become vital to the support and extension of those discoveries. The isolations of new natural products allow for the understanding of their biological activities and therapeutic value. Organic synthesis is employed to aid in the determination of the relationship between structure and function of these natural products. The development of synthetic methodologies in the course of total syntheses is imperative for the expansion of this highly interdisciplinary field of science. In addition to the practical applications of total syntheses, the structural complexity of natural products represents a worthwhile challenge in itself. The pursuit of concise and efficient syntheses of complex molecules is both gratifying and enjoyable.

Tuan Hoang Nguyen

2003-05-31

453

Biotechnological production of citric acid  

PubMed Central

This work provides a review about the biotechnological production of citric acid starting from the physicochemical properties and industrial applications, mainly in the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Several factors affecting citric acid fermentation are discussed, including carbon source, nitrogen and phosphate limitations, pH of culture medium, aeration, trace elements and morphology of the fungus. Special attention is paid to the fundamentals of biochemistry and accumulation of citric acid. Technologies employed at industrial scale such as surface or submerged cultures, mainly employing Aspergillus niger, and processes carried out with Yarrowia lipolytica, as well as the technology for recovering the product are also described. Finally, this review summarizes the use of orange peels and other by-products as feedstocks for the bioproduction of citric acid.

Max, Belen; Salgado, Jose Manuel; Rodriguez, Noelia; Cortes, Sandra; Converti, Attilio; Dominguez, Jose Manuel

2010-01-01

454

Shipyard production cost structure optimisation model related to product type  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishing a shipbuilding production cost structure is a fundamental management activity, concerning materials and fabrication. Shipyards compete in world market niches regarding vessel type and dimensions. Therefore, the vessel's market price has a tremendous influence on the shipyard's determination of the price of the vessel offered to buyers. For this reason, shipyard management is forced to concentrate its efforts on

Nikša Fafandjel; Albert Zamarin; Marko Hadjina

2010-01-01

455

Product design: A conceptual development of product remanufacturing index  

Microsoft Academic Search

In light of increasing pressure from environmental safety advocate groups and governments for eco-friendly manufacturing, safe after life product & waste disposal has had strong emphasizes in the past several years. Industrial manufacturers are becoming more and more responsive towards environment safety concerns. These efforts are being reflected by concepts such as green design or environmentally responsible design and manufacturing

Swapnil B Dixit

2006-01-01

456

Productive Leaders and Productive Leadership: Schools as Learning Organisations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws on a three-year study of 24 schools involving classroom observations and interviews with teachers and principals. Through an examination of three cases, sets of leadership practices that focus on the learning of both students and teachers are described. This set of practices is called productive leadership and how these practices…

Hayes, Debra; Christie, Pam; Mills, Martin; Lingard, Bob

2004-01-01

457

Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phagocyiosis of erythrocytes may contribute to the increased susceptibility to life- threatening infections in patients with burn injury, sickle cell anemia, and malaria. The phagocytosis of immunoglobulin G-coated erythrocytes (EIgG) is fol- lowed by a transient depression of several macro- phage functions including phagocytosis, respiratory burst capacity, and killing of bacteria. The present study suggests the possibility that after

Daniel J. Loegering; Michael J. Raley; Thomas A. Reho; John W. Eaton

2005-01-01

458

Economical Production of Pu-238  

SciTech Connect

All space exploration missions traveling beyond Jupiter must use radioisotopic power sources for electrical power. The best isotope to power these sources is plutonium-238. The US supply of Pu-238 is almost exhausted and will be gone within the next decade. The Department of Energy has initiated a production program with a $10M allocation from NASA but the cost is estimated at over $100 M to get to production levels. The Center for Space Nuclear Research has conceived of a potentially better process to produce Pu-238 earlier and for significantly less cost. The new process will also produce dramatically less waste. Potentially, the front end costs could be provided by private industry such that the government only had to pay for the product produced. Under a NASA Phase I NIAC grant, the CSNR has evaluated the feasibility of using a low power, commercially available nuclear reactor to produce at least 1.5 kg of Pu-238 per year. The impact on the neutronics of the reactor have been assessed, the amount of Neptunium target material estimated, and the production rates calculated. In addition, the size of the post-irradiation processing facility has been established. In addition, a new method for fabricating the Pu-238 product into the form used for power sources has been identified to reduce the cost of the final product. In short, the concept appears to be viable, can produce the amount of Pu-238 needed to support the NASA missions, can be available within a few years, and will cost significantly less than the current DOE program.

Steven D. Howe; Douglas Crawford; Jorge Navarro; Terry Ring

2013-02-01

459

Isolation and removal of waste products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods of isolation and elimination of waste products in spacecraft cabins are described. The role of waste products in the environment, collection and transport of waste products to storage containers, or to recovery systems, preservation of waste products, and storage and removal of waste products are among the factors discussed. Regeneration of the waste products to recover water and/or oxygen, is briefly considered.

Borshchenko, V. V.

1975-01-01

460

Pion production by target emission  

SciTech Connect

The coherent production of pions in a proton nucleus collision is calculated. The energy region considered is below the nucleon-nucleon threshold so that the entire nucleus must take part in the process. The amplitude for this reaction is broken into two parts, the first part being characterized by initial emission of the pion from the projectile and the second part by initial emission from the target nucleus. It is the second part which is emphasized in this talk. The target nuclei /sup 12/C and /sup 209/Bi are considered. Total production cross sections as a function of energy and some angular distributions are calculated.

Gibbs, W.R.

1981-01-01

461

Nutritional Products from Space Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six scientists from Martin Marietta who did research for NASA on algae as food supply, oxygen source and a recycling agent for long duration space travel founded Martek Biosciences Corporation. Martek's main product is Formulaid for infants, an algae-based, vegetable-like oil containing two essential polyunsaturated fatty acids known as DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and ARA (arachidonic acid). The acids are found in human milk but not in most infant formulas, and they are believed to be associated with mental and visual development. Formulaid is on the market in two European countries and licensed to the Mead Johnson Division of Bristol-Myers Squibb, American Home Products and others.

1996-01-01

462

Microscopic approach to entropy production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is a great challenge of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics to calculate entropy production within a microscopic theory. In the framework of linear irreversible thermodynamics, we combine the Mori-Zwanzig-Forster projection operator technique with the first and second law of thermodynamics to obtain microscopic expressions for the entropy production as well as for the transport equations of the entropy density and its time correlation function. We further present a microscopic derivation of a dissipation functional from which the dissipative dynamics of an extended dynamical density functional theory can be obtained in a formally elegant way.

Wittkowski, Raphael; Löwen, Hartmut; Brand, Helmut R.

2013-09-01

463

Marketing and selling product security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The risk run for counterfeiting and diversion is significantly smaller than that for armed robbery, the latter involving getting killed or being jailed. The industry of valuable products, therefore, must authenticate their products using overt, and/or semi-covert, and/or covert technology. As a result counterfeiting and diversion are limited, while sales and revenues are stimulated. Relevant market categories are government, health and safety, non-consumables, and consumables. To make security measures function adequately, manufacturers of valuable goods must be not only be provided with application equipment and know how, but also with the necessary services.

Carr, Sharon

1998-04-01

464

Fur productivity of submarginal farmland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A submarginal tract of a thousand acres on the Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, Maryland, was trapped for three seasons (1943-46) to determine the fur-productivity of the area. The tract yielded 392 fur animals, the pelts of which were sold at public auction for $1119.00. This resulted in an average income from trapping of approximately forty cents per acre per year. The habitats most productive of catches of fur animals were hedgerows and wood and road margins, followed by bottomland forests and lake margins. Some suggestions for improving habitat for fur animals are given.

Uhler, F.M.; Llewellyn, L.M.

1952-01-01

465

Traditional soyfoods: processing and products.  

PubMed

Although soyfoods have been consumed for more than 1000 years, only for the past 15 years have they made an inroad into Western cultures and diets. Soyfoods are typically divided into two categories: nonfermented and fermented. Traditional nonfermented soyfoods include fresh green soybeans, whole dry soybeans, soy nuts, soy sprouts, whole-fat soy flour, soymilk and soymilk products, tofu, okara and yuba. Traditional fermented soyfoods include tempeh, miso, soy sauces, natto and fermented tofu and soymilk products. This paper presents a brief overview of processing techniques used in the manufacture of traditional soyfoods. PMID:7884535

Golbitz, P

1995-03-01

466

High throughput protein production screening  

DOEpatents

Methods, compositions, and kits for the cell-free production and analysis of proteins are provided. The invention allows for the production of proteins from prokaryotic sequences or eukaryotic sequences, including human cDNAs using PCR and IVT methods and detecting the proteins through fluorescence or immunoblot techniques. This invention can be used to identify optimized PCR and WT conditions, codon usages and mutations. The methods are readily automated and can be used for high throughput analysis of protein expression levels, interactions, and functional states.

Beernink, Peter T. (Walnut Creek, CA); Coleman, Matthew A. (Oakland, CA); Segelke, Brent W. (San Ramon, CA)

2009-09-08

467

Combustion synthesis method and products  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method of producing dense refractory products, comprising: (a) obtaining a quantity of exoergic material in powder form capable of sustaining a combustion synthesis reaction; (b) removing absorbed water vapor therefrom; (c) cold-pressing said material into a formed body; (d) plasma spraying said formed body with a molten exoergic material to form a coat thereon; and (e) igniting said exoergic coated formed body under an inert gas atmosphere and pressure to produce self-sustained combustion synthesis. Also disclosed are products produced by the method.

Holt, J. Birch (San Jose, CA) [San Jose, CA; Kelly, Michael (West Alexandria, OH) [West Alexandria, OH

1993-01-01

468

Combustion synthesis method and products  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method of producing dense refractory products, comprising: (a) obtaining a quantity of exoergic material in powder form capable of sustaining a combustion synthesis reaction; (b) removing absorbed water vapor therefrom; (c) cold-pressing said material into a formed body; (d) plasma spraying said formed body with a molten exoergic material to form a coat thereon; and (e) igniting said exoergic coated formed body under an inert gas atmosphere and pressure to produce self-sustained combustion synthesis. Also disclosed are products produced by the method.

Holt, J.B.; Kelly, M.

1993-03-30

469

Testosterone production by XYY subjects.  

PubMed

A study of plasma concentration (P1T, ng/ml), metabolic clearance rate (MCRT, L/day) and blood production rate (PBT, mg/day) was done on seven XYY subjects of various ages and four pair-matched control XY subjects by a radioinfusion technique of 1,2-3H-testosterone. Although MCRT showed no significant difference between the groups, P1T and PBT were significantly lower (P less than 0.05) in XYY subjects. Therefore, increased aggressive behavior of the XYY subjects can not be attributed to increased levels or production rates of testosterone. PMID:1189002

Sharma, M; Meyer-Bahlburg, H F; Boon, D A; Slaunwhite, W R; Edwards, J A

1975-08-01

470

Natural Products as Molecular Messengers*  

PubMed Central

The chemistry of naturally-occurring compounds has long been pursued in the search for medicines, dyes, pesticides, flavors, and fragrances. In addition, the deeper aim of understanding life itself as a chemical phenomenon has motivated generations of scientists. One consequence of such studies has been the realization that natural products often serve central roles as biological signaling agents. We consider natural products from the viewpoint of the organisms that produce and/or respond to them, and suggest how a naturally-occurring compound may acquire its role in chemical communication.

Meinwald, Jerrold

2011-01-01

471

SOLVENT FIRE BY-PRODUCTS  

SciTech Connect

Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) conducted a burn test of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent to determine the combustion products. The testing showed hydrogen fluoride gas is not a combustion product from a solvent fire when up to 70% of the solvent is consumed. The absence of HF in the combustion gases may reflect concentration of the modifier containing the fluoride groups in the unburned portion. SwRI reported results for other gases (CO, HCN, NOx, formaldehyde, and hydrocarbons). The results, with other supporting information, can be used for evaluating the consequences of a facility fire involving the CSSX solvent inventory.

Walker, D; Samuel Fink, S

2006-05-22

472

Preferences in Data Production Planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the data production problem, which consists of transforming a set of (initial) input data into a set of (goal) output data. There are typically many choices among input data and processing algorithms, each leading to significantly different end products. To discriminate among these choices, the planner supports an input language that provides a number of constructs for specifying user preferences over data (and plan) properties. We discuss these preference constructs, how we handle them to guide search, and additional challenges in the area of preference management that this important application domain offers.

Golden, Keith; Brafman, Ronen; Pang, Wanlin

2005-01-01

473

Improving designer productivity. [artificial intelligence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Designer and design team productivity improves with skill, experience, and the tools available. The design process involves numerous trials and errors, analyses, refinements, and addition of details. Computerized tools have greatly speeded the analysis, and now new theories and methods, emerging under the label Artificial Intelligence (AI), are being used to automate skill and experience. These tools improve designer productivity by capturing experience, emulating recognized skillful designers, and making the essence of complex programs easier to grasp. This paper outlines the aircraft design process in today's technology and business climate, presenting some of the challenges ahead and some of the promising AI methods for meeting these challenges.

Hill, Gary C.

1992-01-01

474

Collimated positronium production from gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New data for positronium beam production efficiency are presented. As a converter of positrons to forward-going positronium, O2 has been found to be as good as CO2 from ~250 to 400 eV. Preliminary data is also presented for the production efficiency from Ar at 2.8 eV. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Electron and Positron Induced Processes", edited by Michael Brunger, Radu Campeanu, Masamitsu Hoshino, Oddur Ingólfsson, Paulo Limão-Vieira, Nigel Mason, Yasuyuki Nagashima and Hajime Tanuma.

Shipman, Michael; Brawley, Simon J.; Sarkadi, László; Laricchia, Gaetana

2014-04-01

475

Designing Safer Products: Corporate Responses to Product Liability Law and Regulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Of all the various external social pressures, product liability has the greatest influence on product design decisions. The other influences largely work through the product liability mechanism. In industries with potentially high-hazard products, but not...

G. Eads P. Reuter

1984-01-01

476

21 CFR 607.40 - Establishment registration and blood product listing requirements for foreign blood product...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Establishment registration and blood product listing requirements for foreign blood product establishments. 607.40 Section 607...LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Foreign Blood Product...

2009-04-01

477

21 CFR 607.40 - Establishment registration and blood product listing requirements for foreign blood product...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Establishment registration and blood product listing requirements for foreign blood product establishments. 607.40 Section 607...LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Procedures for Foreign Blood Product...

2010-04-01

478

Multiphase Processing of Isoprene Oxidation Products - Kinetic and Product Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isoprene represents a significant fraction of NMHC in the troposphere with recently estimated emission rates of 500-750 TgC yr-1 (1). Due to its enormous source strength, the fate of isoprene and its degradation products is important in atmospheric processes. Possible ascendancies of such oxidation processes are the regional ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Some aspects of SOA formation from isoprene and its degradation products have already been studied by chamber studies (2,3). Aqueous phase oxidation processes which may occur after phase transfer of ‘early’ oxidation products are often neglected. But these processes provide a potentially important source for organic particle mass constituents such as carboxylic acids. The majority of existing aqueous phase modelling studies focus only on ‘later’ products such as methylglyoxal and oxalic acid. Yet, a recent field study reports much higher aqueous phase concentrations of some ‘earlier’ isoprene oxidation products including methacrolein (MACR) and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) than expected (4). This indicates a possibly underestimated importance of multiphase chemical processes in the course of the isoprene oxidation as a source for the production of organic particle mass together with known ‘heterogeneous processes’ such as the direct condensation of low-volatility products from gas phase processes onto existing particle surfaces. In order to implement the isoprene multiphase chemistry in atmospheric models detailed kinetic and mechanistic studies are needed. Hence, the temperature dependence of MACR, MVK, methacrylic acid and acrylic acid exposed to NO3, SO4- and OH radicals in the aqueous phase was investigated. The measurements were performed using a laser-photolysis laser long path absorption technique. The analysis confirmed in all cases the much higher reactivity of the OH radical in comparison to SO4- and NO3 radicals. The temperature dependence is most distinct for NO3 radical reactions and weakest for those with SO4-. For the identification of oxidation products different analytical techniques were applied such as HPLC-UV, CE-UV and HPLC-MS after laser flash photolysis. All samples were analyzed offline with and without prior derivatization steps. In order to purify and enrich the samples, a solid phase extraction was performed before analysis. Mainly identified reaction products are functionalized carbonyl compounds and carboxylic acids. The kinetic and mechanistic data obtained will help to improve existing aqueous phase isoprene oxidation mechanisms. With the extended mechanism the role of multiphase processes for the formation of organic particle constituents such as carboxylic acids from the isoprene oxidation can be much better assessed in the future. (1) A. Guenther, et al. (2006). ACP, 6, 3181. (2) J. H. Kroll, et al. (2006). ES&T, 40, 1869. (3) J. D. Surratt, et al. (2007). ES&T, 41, 5363. (4) D. van Pinxteren, et al. (2005). Atmos. Environ, 39, 4305.

Hoffmann, D.; Schoene, L.; Schindelka, J.; Herrmann, H.

2010-12-01

479

Superoxide production by polymorphonuclear leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear leukocytes triggers a burst of oxidative metabolism resulting in hydrogen peroxide and superoxide production, and these active oxygen species function in the killing of microorganisms. A new cytochemical technique, based on a manganese dependent diaminobenzidine oxidation, has been developed to detect superoxide in these cells. It has been shown that superoxide generation is associated with the plasma

R. T. Briggs; J. M. Robinson; M. L. Karnovsky; M. J. Karnovsky

1986-01-01

480

Nuclear Dependence of Charm Production  

SciTech Connect

With data taken by SELEX, which accumulated data during the 1996-1997 fixed target run at Fermilab, we study the production of charmed hadrons on copper and carbon targets with {Sigma}{sup -}, p, {pi}{sup -}, and {pi}{sup +} beams. Parameterizing the production cross section {infinity} A{sup {alpha}}, A being the atomic number, we determine {alpha} for D{sup +}, D{sup 0}, D{sub s}{sup +}, D{sup +}(2010), {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}, and their respective anti-particles, as a function of their transverse momentum p{sub t} and scaled longitudinal momentum x{sub F}. Within our statistics there is no dependence of {alpha} on x{sub F} for any charm species for the interval 0.1 < x{sub F} < 1.0. The average value of {alpha} for charm production by pion beams is {alpha}{sub meson} = 0.850 {+-} 0.028. This is somewhat larger than the corresponding average {alpha}{sub baryon} = 0.755 {+-} 0.016 for charm production by baryon beams ({Sigma}{sup -}, p).

Blanco-Covarrubias, A.; /San Luis Potosi U.; Engelfried, J.; /San Luis Potosi U.; Akgun, U.; /Iowa State U.; Alkhazov, G.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Amaro-Reyes, J.; /San Luis Potosi U.; Atamantchouk, A.G.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Ayan, A.S.; /Iowa State U.; Balatz, M.Y.; /Moscow, ITEP; Bondar, N.F.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Cooper, P.S.; /Fermilab; Dauwe, Loretta J.; /Michigan U., Flint /Moscow, ITEP

2009-02-01

481

Culture-Orientated Product Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is little in-depth research that can assist designers to use culture as a catalyst for designing innovative products within Botswana's context. The concept of culture and design are intertwined, thus modifications stemming from cultural evolution both reflect and determine developments in design. The paper discusses an experimental design…

Moalosi, Richie; Popovic, Vesna; Hickling-Hudson, Anne

2010-01-01

482

Biogas production from olive pomace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas production from a slurry obtained by mixing finely ground olive pomace in water was investigated using anaerobic digesters of 1-l working volume at 37°C. A start-up culture was obtained from a local landfill area and was adopted to the slurry within 10 days at this temperature. The biogas generation rates were determined by varying the total solids (TS) concentration

Ali R Tekin; A. Co?kun Dalg?ç

2000-01-01

483

Production of Beta-Carotene.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention involves a method of greatly improving the production of beta-carotene by the mixed mating strains of Blakeslea trispora in a beta-carotene-producing fermentation medium, comprising adding to the medium at the beginning of the fermentation a...

A. Ciegler

1965-01-01

484

Acid Rain and Forest Productivity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acid rain can cause increases or decreases in forest productivity depending on site nutrient status and the duration and rate of inputs. Some acid irrigation studies have shown short-term growth increases due to increased N availability, yet long-term gro...

D. W. Johnson

1981-01-01

485

Performance Prediction in Production Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate performance predictions are difficult to achieve for parallel applications executing on production dis- tributed systems. Conventional point-valued performance parameters and prediction models are often inaccurate since they can only represent one point in a range of possi- ble behaviors. We address this problem by allowing charac- teristic application and system data to be represented by a set of possible

Jennifer M. Schopf; Francine Berman

1998-01-01

486

Predictive Models in Agricultural Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prediction may be envisaged as organized thinking about the possible. For this purpose, dynamic models of the state-variable approach are important tools because they combine basic knowledge on the physical, chemical and physiological processes that underlie crop growth and agricultural production. At one extreme are comprehensive models that claim to integrate all aspects of growth and to focus attention on

C. T. de Wit

1985-01-01

487

Productivity Benefits of Energy Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the capital cost, investing in energy efficiency to reduce energy costs and increase envi- ronmental performance is good business practice. Additional benefits such as increased productiv- ity, reduced maintenance and better product quality often outweigh the cost of energy saved and reduce the payback period by a factor of two. In this paper, examples of costs due to non

Eric Bonneville; Anne Rialhe

488

Create products by going virtual.  

PubMed

A virtual organisation is a business that outsources the majority of its operations. This enables it to be highly responsive to the market and to fast track the creation of specialist products. Tips for the successful implementation of this approach are offered here, with an example of one profitable business. PMID:16438448

Hogan, J

2005-11-01

489

COâ mitigation and fuel production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanol as an alternative transportation fuel appears to be an effective intermediate agent, for reducing COâ from the utility power and the transportation sectors. On the utilization side, methanol as a liquid fuel fits in well with the current infrastructure for storage and delivery to the automotive sector with better efficiency. On the production side, COâ from fossil fuel plants

Steinberg

1997-01-01

490

Cytokinin production by Paenibacillus polymyxa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of hormones has been suggested to be one of the mechanisms by which plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) stimulate plant growth. To evaluate whether the free-living soil bacterium, Paenibacillus polymyxa, releases the hormone group cytokinins and, if so, their identity, the content of cytokinins in the growth media, before and after cultivation of this bacterium, was determined by immunoaffinity

S. Timmusk; B. Nicander; U Granhall; E Tillberg

1999-01-01

491

PRODUCTION OF LITHIUM HYDRIDE POWDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the production of lithium hydride powder is described. ; Lithium carbonate was converted into the chloride. From a saturated solution of ; the chloride lithium amalgam was produced by electrolysis. The lithium amalgam ; was then converted into the hydride by heating the amalgam in a hydrogen ; atmosphere. The apparatus used for the reaction of the

J. Novotny; M. Novotna

1959-01-01

492

Production Of Viewgraphs With TEX  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

TEXVIEW is software package of TEX macros facilitating production of viewgraphs. Based on TEX, public-domain typesetting language developed by Dr. Donald Knuth of Stanford University. TEXVIEW macros are grouped into following categories: format control, indentation control, font control, spacing control, graphical control, and page layout.

Scott, Peter J.

1988-01-01

493

Employee Ownership, Motivation and Productivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between employee ownership, motivation, and productivity was explored. The main data collection activities were as follows: (1) a literature review; (2) interviews with management and employees from 10 selected companies across the United Kingdom; (3) surveys of ICOM (the federation of worker cooperatives) member companies and…

Michie, Jonathan; Oughton, Christine; Bennion, Yvonne

494

Cryolite Byproduct in Silicon Production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Process reacts alumina hydrate with HF and NaF from silicon-production process. Cryolite is produced by adding reaction step to process that makes high-purity silicon from fluorosilicic acid. New extended process has been demonstrated in laboratory and could be used in commercial plants.

Bartlett, R. W.

1982-01-01

495

IRAN: Agricultural Production and Trade.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Iran's economy is growing rapidly, exceeding 14 percent in both 1971/72 and 1972/73. Increasing oil production dominates export revenue. Agriculture's share of GNP continues to decline but it still employs the largest share of the labor force. Agricultura...

M. E. Kurtzig

1974-01-01

496

Possible methods for biodiesel production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel production is a very modern and technological area for researchers due to the relevance that it is winning everyday because of the increase in the petroleum price and the environmental advantages. In this work it is made a review of the alternative technological methods that could be used to produce this fuel. Different studies have been carried out using

J. M. Marchetti; V. U. Miguel; A. F. Errazu

2007-01-01

497

Discovery Reconceived: Product before Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Motivated by the question, "What exactly about a mathematical concept should students discover, when they study it via discovery learning?", I present and demonstrate an interpretation of discovery pedagogy that attempts to address its criticism. My approach hinges on decoupling the solution process from its resultant product. Whereas theories of…

Abrahamson, Dor

2012-01-01

498

Office productivity: a theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to provide a validated theoretical framework for the measurement of office productivity. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study's strength is that it is based on two sizable data sets. The data collected consists of data about the physical characteristics of the office environment and data pertaining to the behavioural environment. Findings – One of

Barry P. Haynes

2007-01-01

499

Preventing Perseveration in Language Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the effect of the repetition of phonological elements on accuracy in spontaneous language production. Using a corpus of naturalistic speech errors, it is shown that repetition of a whole segment doubles the error rate on the second token (a perseveratory effect), for onset consonants, vowels, and coda consonants; the effect…

Stemberger, Joseph Paul

2009-01-01

500

Products of Block Toeplitz operators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we characterize when the product of two block Toeplitz operators is a compact perturbation of a block Toeplitz operator on the Hardy space of the open unit disk. Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for the commutator of two block Toeplitz operators to be compact.

Caixing Gu; Dechao Zheng

1996-01-01