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Sample records for production seed yield

  1. Pistil Smut Infection Increases Ovary Production, Seed Yield Components, and Pseudosexual Reproductive Allocation in Buffalograss

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Ambika; Huff, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Sex expression of dioecious buffalograss [Bouteloua dactyloides Columbus (syn. Buchloë dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.)] is known to be environmentally stable with approximate 1:1, male to female, sex ratios. Here we show that infection by the pistil smut fungus [Salmacisia buchloëana Huff & Chandra (syn. Tilletia buchloëana Kellerman and Swingle)] shifts sex ratios of buffalograss to be nearly 100% phenotypically hermaphroditic. In addition, pistil smut infection decreased vegetative reproductive allocation, increased most seed yield components, and increased pseudosexual reproductive allocation in both sex forms compared to uninfected clones. In female sex forms, pistil smut infection resulted in a 26 fold increase in ovary production and a 35 fold increase in potential harvest index. In male sex forms, pistil smut infection resulted in 2.37 fold increase in floret number and over 95% of these florets contained a well-developed pistil. Although all ovaries of infected plants are filled with fungal teliospores and hence reproductively sterile, an average male-female pair of infected plants exhibited an 87 fold increase in potential harvest index compared to their uninfected clones. Acquiring an ability to mimic the effects of pistil smut infection would enhance our understanding of the flowering process in grasses and our efforts to increase seed yield of buffalograss and perhaps other grasses. PMID:27135522

  2. Increasing the production yield of recombinant protein in transgenic seeds by expanding the deposition space within the intracellular compartment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Seeds must maintain a constant level of nitrogen in order to germinate. When recombinant proteins are produced while endogenous seed protein expression is suppressed, the production levels of the foreign proteins increase to compensate for the decreased synthesis of endogenous proteins. Thus, exchanging the production of endogenous seed proteins for that of foreign proteins is a promising approach to increase the yield of foreign recombinant proteins. Providing a space for the deposition of recombinant protein in the intracellular compartment is critical, at this would lessen any competition in this region between the endogenous seed proteins and the introduced foreign protein. The production yields of several recombinant proteins have been greatly increased by this strategy. PMID:23563599

  3. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    Nowadays is widely well know that the potato is an important vegetable crop at Brazíl. It is grown on about 173.000 ha, with total yield of 2.6 million tons year-1. The average yield is 15 t ha-1. This level is very low because degeneration of crop is rapid under high temperature and high viruses pressure. Therefore seed potato propagation and production is principal on consumption potato production. This is why we found it necessary to develop it. The latossolo vermelho soil-farmyard manure- burnt rice straw-fertilizer 4N:14P:8K greenhouse pot trial was set up at the National Vegetable Crops Research Center, Brasília-DF, Brazíl in 1990. The methods of the experiments were soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw, soil x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer and soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer on randomized block design in total 29 combination of treatments in 5, 5 and 3 repetitions with in a total parcel of 116. According to chemical analysis of the a., soil, b., farmyard manure and c., burnt rice straw the agrochemistry parameters were as follows (estimated datas): a., latossolo vermelho soil: CaCO3 0.3-0.7%, humo 0.9-1.0%, pH (H2O) 5.3, pH (KCl) 4.5, AL- P2O5 3.2-3.5 mg kg-1, AL- K2O 180 mg kg-1, Mg (KCl) 70 mg kg-1, EDTA-Zn 0.5-0.8 mg kg-1, EDTA-Cu 0.5-0.6 mg kg-1, b., farmyard manure: N 1.8 g kg-1, P2O5 2.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.0 g kg-1, c., burnt rice straw: N 0.8 g kg-1, P2O5 7.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.5 g kg-1. The experimental datas were estimated by analysis of variance, ANOVA and MANOVA. The main conclusions were as follows: 1. Mixture of 80% latossolo vermelho, 10% burnt rice straw and 10% farmyard manure were shown best performance on seed potato productivity. The piece of tubers with a 0-20 mm (consumption seeds) was increased by 77%. 2. Total seed potato number was reached maximum at 10.8 g pot-1 4N:14P:8K fertilizer regarding to average of treatments with a 33%. 3. Dry biomassa production plant-1 was decreased by high dose of 4N:14P:8K

  4. Genetic Influences on the Seed Yielding Ability of Carrot Hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carrot seed production characteristics of four different threeway carrot hybrids were evaluated over three years during seed production from transplanted roots in Madison, Wisconsin. Components of seed yielding ability and plant architecture were measured. Both the male sterile seed parent and inbr...

  5. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    Nowadays is widely well know that the potato is an important vegetable crop at Brazíl. It is grown on about 173.000 ha, with total yield of 2.6 million tons year-1. The average yield is 15 t ha-1. This level is very low because degeneration of crop is rapid under high temperature and high viruses pressure. Therefore seed potato propagation and production is principal on consumption potato production. This is why we found it necessary to develop it. The latossolo vermelho soil-farmyard manure- burnt rice straw-fertilizer 4N:14P:8K greenhouse pot trial was set up at the National Vegetable Crops Research Center, Brasília-DF, Brazíl in 1990. The methods of the experiments were soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw, soil x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer and soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer on randomized block design in total 29 combination of treatments in 5, 5 and 3 repetitions with in a total parcel of 116. According to chemical analysis of the a., soil, b., farmyard manure and c., burnt rice straw the agrochemistry parameters were as follows (estimated datas): a., latossolo vermelho soil: CaCO3 0.3-0.7%, humo 0.9-1.0%, pH (H2O) 5.3, pH (KCl) 4.5, AL- P2O5 3.2-3.5 mg kg-1, AL- K2O 180 mg kg-1, Mg (KCl) 70 mg kg-1, EDTA-Zn 0.5-0.8 mg kg-1, EDTA-Cu 0.5-0.6 mg kg-1, b., farmyard manure: N 1.8 g kg-1, P2O5 2.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.0 g kg-1, c., burnt rice straw: N 0.8 g kg-1, P2O5 7.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.5 g kg-1. The experimental datas were estimated by analysis of variance, ANOVA and MANOVA. The main conclusions were as follows: 1. Mixture of 80% latossolo vermelho, 10% burnt rice straw and 10% farmyard manure were shown best performance on seed potato productivity. The piece of tubers with a 0-20 mm (consumption seeds) was increased by 77%. 2. Total seed potato number was reached maximum at 10.8 g pot-1 4N:14P:8K fertilizer regarding to average of treatments with a 33%. 3. Dry biomassa production plant-1 was decreased by high dose of 4N:14P:8K

  6. Seed-mediated biomineralizaton toward the high yield production of gold nanoprisms.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xi; Roth, Kristina L; Freyman, Megan C; Liu, Jianzhao; Grove, Tijana Z

    2016-07-28

    Gold nanotriangles (Au NTs) with tunable edge length were synthesized via a green chemical route in the presence of the designed consensus sequence tetratricopeptide repeat (CTPR) protein, halide anions (Br(-)) and CTPR-stabilized Ag seeds. The well-defined morphologies, tailored plasmonic absorbance from visible-light to the near infrared (NIR) region, colloidal stability and biocompatibility are attributed to the synergistic action of CTPR, halide ions, and CTPR-stabilized Ag seeds. PMID:27424736

  7. Perennially young: seed production and quality in controlled and natural populations of Cistus albidus reveal compensatory mechanisms that prevent senescence in terms of seed yield and viability.

    PubMed

    Müller, Maren; Siles, Laura; Cela, Jana; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2014-01-01

    The question of whether or not perennial plants senesce at the organism level remains unresolved. The aim of this study was to unravel whether or not plant age can influence the production and composition of seeds. Flower and seed production was examined in 3-, 8-, and 13-year-old Cistus albidus plants growing in experimental plots corresponding to the F2, F1, and F0 generations of the same population. Furthermore, the phytohormone, fatty acid, and vitamin E content of the seeds was evaluated, and their viability was examined. Whether or not age-related differences in seed quality were observed in a natural population in the Montserrat Mountains (NE Spain) was also tested. The results indicate that under controlled conditions, the oldest plants not only produced fewer flowers, but also had higher rates of embryo abortion in mature seeds. However, germination capacity was not negatively affected by plant ageing. Seeds of the oldest plants contained significantly higher salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and vitamin E levels compared with those from younger plants. Despite vigour (in terms of plant growth) being severely reduced due to harsh environmental conditions in the natural population, the oldest individuals produced seeds with no decline in viability. Seed biomass was instead positively correlated with seed viability. In conclusion, increased plant size may explain the loss of seed viability in the experimental field, but older smaller individuals in natural populations can escape senescence in terms of seed viability loss. PMID:24218328

  8. OPTIMIZING FERTILITY FOR SEED PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed corn production is a high input and high management endeavor that yields a high value product. Most seed production fields are managed as a unit in terms of cultivars, so timing of field operations follows the same scale. However, some producers are finding that spatial variability in soil prop...

  9. Peanut pod, seed, and oil yield for biofuel following conventional and organic production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increase in demand for organic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) makes it increasingly necessary to develop organic methods in their production. Corn gluten meal (CGM) and vinegar are materials used in organic weed control. These were used alone, or in conjunction with cultivation, to evaluate their ef...

  10. Interactive effects of pests increase seed yield.

    PubMed

    Gagic, Vesna; Riggi, Laura Ga; Ekbom, Barbara; Malsher, Gerard; Rusch, Adrien; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    Loss in seed yield and therefore decrease in plant fitness due to simultaneous attacks by multiple herbivores is not necessarily additive, as demonstrated in evolutionary studies on wild plants. However, it is not clear how this transfers to crop plants that grow in very different conditions compared to wild plants. Nevertheless, loss in crop seed yield caused by any single pest is most often studied in isolation although crop plants are attacked by many pests that can cause substantial yield losses. This is especially important for crops able to compensate and even overcompensate for the damage. We investigated the interactive impacts on crop yield of four insect pests attacking different plant parts at different times during the cropping season. In 15 oilseed rape fields in Sweden, we estimated the damage caused by seed and stem weevils, pollen beetles, and pod midges. Pest pressure varied drastically among fields with very low correlation among pests, allowing us to explore interactive impacts on yield from attacks by multiple species. The plant damage caused by each pest species individually had, as expected, either no, or a negative impact on seed yield and the strongest negative effect was caused by pollen beetles. However, seed yield increased when plant damage caused by both seed and stem weevils was high, presumably due to the joint plant compensatory reaction to insect attack leading to overcompensation. Hence, attacks by several pests can change the impact on yield of individual pest species. Economic thresholds based on single species, on which pest management decisions currently rely, may therefore result in economically suboptimal choices being made and unnecessary excessive use of insecticides. PMID:27099712

  11. Weed Research in Alfalfa Seed Production 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control in alfalfa seed production is important to produce high quality and high yield of alfalfa seed. Herbicides were tested on a commercial field of alfalfa seed in central Washington in 2007. Flumioxzin slightly injured alfalfa when applied at 0.125 and 0.25 lb ai/a. to dormant alfalfa in M...

  12. Seed yield, development, and variation in diverse poa pratensis accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Post harvest residue removal is critical for continued high seed production of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Previous work showed some accessions have little or no yield reduction with mechanical residue removal compared with the controversial practice of open field burning. Using 10 of t...

  13. Methods to assess factors that influence grass seed yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louhaichi, Mounir

    A greater than 10-fold increase in Canada goose (Branta canadensis ) populations over the past several years has resulted in concerns over grazing impacts on grass seed production in the mid-Willamette Valley, Oregon. This study was designed to develop methods to quantify and statistically analyze goose-grazing impacts on seed yields of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Yield-mapping-system equipped combines, incorporating global positioning system (GPS) technology, were used to measure and map yields. Image processing of ground-level photography to estimate crop cover and other relevant observations were spatially located via GPS to establish spatial-temporal goose grazing patterns. We sampled each field semi-monthly from mid-winter through spring. Spatially located yield data, soils information, exclosure locations, and grazing patterns were integrated via geographical information system (GIS) technology. To avoid concerns about autocorrelation, a bootstrapping procedure for subsampling spatially contiguous seed yield data was used to organize the data for appropriate use of analysis of variance. The procedure was used to evaluate grazing impacts on seed yield for areas of fields with different soils and with differential timing and intensity of goose grazing activity. We also used a standard paired-plot procedure, involving exclosures and associated plots available for grazing. The combination of spatially explicit photography and yield mapping, integrated with GIS, proved effective in establishing cause-and-effect relationships between goose grazing and seed yield differences. Exclosures were essential for providing nongrazed controls. Both statistical approaches were effective in documenting goose-grazing impacts. Paired-plots were restricted by small size and few numbers and did not capture grazing impacts as effectively as comparison of larger areas to exclosures. Bootstrapping to subsample larger areas of

  14. Two cytosolic glutamine synthetase isoforms play specific roles for seed germination and seed yield structure in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Guan, M.; Møller, I. S.; Schjoerring, J. K.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) remobilization from reserves to sinks is essential for seedling establishment and seed production. Cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1) is up-regulated during both seed germination and seed filling in plants. However, the specific roles of the individual GS1 isogenes with respect to N remobilization, early seedling vigour, and final seed productivity are not known. In this study, impairment of seed germination and seedling establishment is demonstrated in the single knockout mutant gln1;2, and the double knockout mutant gln1;1:gln1;2. The negative effect of Gln1;2 deficiency was associated with reduced N remobilization from the cotyledons and could be fully alleviated by exogenous N supply. Following reproductive growth, both the single and double Gln1;2-knockout mutants showed decreased seed yield due to fewer siliques, less seeds per silique, and lower dry weight per seed. The gln1;1 single mutant had normal seed yield structure but primary root development during seed germination was reduced in the presence of external N. Gln1;2 promoter–green fluorescent protein constructs showed that Gln1;2 localizes to the vascular cells of roots, petals, and stamens. It is concluded that Gln1;2 plays an important role in N remobilization for both seedling establishment and seed production in Arabidopsis. PMID:25316065

  15. Two cytosolic glutamine synthetase isoforms play specific roles for seed germination and seed yield structure in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Guan, M; Møller, I S; Schjoerring, J K

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) remobilization from reserves to sinks is essential for seedling establishment and seed production. Cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1) is up-regulated during both seed germination and seed filling in plants. However, the specific roles of the individual GS1 isogenes with respect to N remobilization, early seedling vigour, and final seed productivity are not known. In this study, impairment of seed germination and seedling establishment is demonstrated in the single knockout mutant gln1;2, and the double knockout mutant gln1;1:gln1;2. The negative effect of Gln1;2 deficiency was associated with reduced N remobilization from the cotyledons and could be fully alleviated by exogenous N supply. Following reproductive growth, both the single and double Gln1;2-knockout mutants showed decreased seed yield due to fewer siliques, less seeds per silique, and lower dry weight per seed. The gln1;1 single mutant had normal seed yield structure but primary root development during seed germination was reduced in the presence of external N. Gln1;2 promoter-green fluorescent protein constructs showed that Gln1;2 localizes to the vascular cells of roots, petals, and stamens. It is concluded that Gln1;2 plays an important role in N remobilization for both seedling establishment and seed production in Arabidopsis. PMID:25316065

  16. Path and Ridge Regression Analysis of Seed Yield and Seed Yield Components of Russian Wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea Nevski) under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Quanzhen; Zhang, Tiejun; Cui, Jian; Wang, Xianguo; Zhou, He; Han, Jianguo; Gislum, René

    2011-01-01

    The correlations among seed yield components, and their direct and indirect effects on the seed yield (Z) of Russina wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea Nevski) were investigated. The seed yield components: fertile tillers m-2 (Y1), spikelets per fertile tillers (Y2), florets per spikelet- (Y3), seed numbers per spikelet (Y4) and seed weight (Y5) were counted and the Z were determined in field experiments from 2003 to 2006 via big sample size. Y1 was the most important seed yield component describing the Z and Y2 was the least. The total direct effects of the Y1, Y3 and Y5 to the Z were positive while Y4 and Y2 were weakly negative. The total effects (directs plus indirects) of the components were positively contributed to the Z by path analyses. The seed yield components Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5 were significantly (P<0.001) correlated with the Z for 4 years totally, while in the individual years, Y2 were not significant correlated with Y3, Y4 and Y5 by Peason correlation analyses in the five components in the plant seed production. Therefore, selection for high seed yield through direct selection for large Y1, Y2 and Y3 would be effective for breeding programs in grasses. Furthermore, it is the most important that, via ridge regression, a steady algorithm model between Z and the five yield components was founded, which can be closely estimated the seed yield via the components. PMID:21533153

  17. Oil content and seed yield improvements of Lesquerella fendleri (Brassicaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement in seed oil content and seed yield of Lesquerella fendleri (Gray) Wats. (Brassicaceae) could have a large impact on attracting new markets for commercialization of this new oilseed crop. There have been several previous germplasm releases for public use with improvements of these traits....

  18. Using the candidate gene approach for detecting genes underlying seed oil concentration and yield in soybean.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, Mehrzad; Cober, Elroy R; Rajcan, Istvan

    2013-07-01

    Increasing the oil concentration in soybean seeds has been given more attention in recent years because of demand for both edible oil and biodiesel production. Oil concentration in soybean is a complex quantitative trait regulated by many genes as well as environmental conditions. To identify genes governing seed oil concentration in soybean, 16 putative candidate genes of three important gene families (GPAT: acyl-CoA:sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, DGAT: acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase, and PDAT: phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase) involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis pathways were selected and their sequences retrieved from the soybean database ( http://www.phytozome.net/soybean ). Three sequence mutations were discovered in either coding or noncoding regions of three DGAT soybean isoforms when comparing the parents of a 203 recombinant inbreed line (RIL) population; OAC Wallace and OAC Glencoe. The RIL population was used to study the effects of these mutations on seed oil concentration and other important agronomic and seed composition traits, including seed yield and protein concentration across three field locations in Ontario, Canada, in 2009 and 2010. An insertion/deletion (indel) mutation in the GmDGAT2B gene in OAC Wallace was significantly associated with reduced seed oil concentration across three environments and reduced seed yield at Woodstock in 2010. A mutation in the 3' untranslated (3'UTR) region of GmDGAT2C was associated with seed yield at Woodstock in 2009. A mutation in the intronic region of GmDGAR1B was associated with seed yield and protein concentration at Ottawa in 2010. The genes identified in this study had minor effects on either seed yield or oil concentration, which was in agreement with the quantitative nature of the traits. However, the novel gene-specific markers designed in the present study can be used in soybean breeding for marker-assisted selection aimed at increasing seed yield and oil

  19. Copyrolysis of Seyitomer-lignite and safflower seed: influence of the blending ratio and pyrolysis temperature on product yields and oil characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Ozlem Onay; Evren Bayram; O. Mete Kockar

    2007-09-15

    Pyrolytic behaviors of biomass/coal mixtures were investigated under a heating rate of 7{sup o}C min{sup -1}, over a range of pyrolysis temperatures between 400 and 700{sup o}C, and the blending ratio of coal in mixtures was varied between 0 and 100 wt %. The results indicated that considerable synergistic effects were observed during the copyrolysis in a fixed-bed reactor leading to an increase in the oil yield at lower than coal blending ratios of 33%. At the lower blending coal ratio conditions, the oil yields are higher than the expected ones, calculated as the sum of oil fractions produced by pyrolysis of each separated component. The maximum pyrolysis oil yield of 39.5% was obtained with 5% of lignite mixed with safflower seed. The obtained oils are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance, gas chromatography mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. These findings can potentially help to understand and predict the behavior of coal/biomass blends in practical liquefaction systems. 33 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Effects of climate change on phenological trends and seed cotton yields in oasis of arid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian; Ji, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the effects of climatic change on phenological phases of cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) in oasis of arid regions may help optimize management schemes to increase productivity. This study assessed the impacts of climatic changes on the phenological phases and productivity of spring cotton. The results showed that climatic warming led the dates of sowing seed, seeding emergence, three-leaf, five-leaf, budding, anthesis, full bloom, cleft boll, boll-opening, boll-opening filling, and stop-growing become earlier by 24.42, 26.19, 24.75, 23.28, 22.62, 15.75, 14.58, 5.37, 2.85, 8.04, and 2.16 days during the period of 1981-2010, respectively. The growth period lengths from sowing seed to seeding emergence and from boll-opening to boll-opening filling were shortened by 1.76 and 5.19 days, respectively. The other growth period lengths were prolonged by 2-9.71 days. The whole growth period length was prolonged by 22.26 days. The stop-growing date was delayed by 2.49-3.46 days for every 1 °C rise in minimum, maximum, and mean temperatures; however, other development dates emerged earlier by 2.17-4.76 days. Rising temperatures during the stage from seeding emergence to three-leaf reduced seed cotton yields. However, rising temperatures increased seed cotton yields in the two stages from anthesis to cleft boll and from boll-opening filling to the stop-growing. Increasing accumulated temperatures (AT) had different impacts on different development stages. During the vegetative phase, rising AT led to reduced seed cotton yields, but rising AT during reproductive stage increased seed cotton yields. In conclusion, climatic warming helpfully obtained more seed cotton yields in oasis of arid regions in northwest China. Changing the sowing date is another way to enhance yields for climate change in the future.

  1. Will selenium increase lentil (Lens culinaris Medik) yield and seed quality?

    PubMed

    Thavarajah, Dil; Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Vial, Eric; Gebhardt, Mary; Lacher, Craig; Kumar, Shiv; Combs, Gerald F

    2015-01-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik), a nutritious traditional pulse crop, has been experiencing a declining area of production in South East Asia, due to lower yields, and marginal soils. The objective of this study was to determine whether selenium (Se) fertilization can increase lentil yield, productivity, and seed quality (both seed Se concentration and speciation). Selenium was provided to five lentil accessions as selenate or selenite by foliar or soil application at rates of 0, 10, 20, or 30 kg Se/ha and the resulting lentil biomass, grain yield, seed Se concentration, and Se speciation was determined. Seed Se concentration was measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after acid digestion. Seed Se speciation was measured using ICP-mass spectrometry with a high performance liquid chromatography (ICP-MS-LC) system. Foliar application of Se significantly increased lentil biomass (5586 vs. 7361 kg/ha), grain yield (1732 vs. 2468 kg /ha), and seed Se concentrations (0.8 vs. 2.4 μg/g) compared to soil application. In general, both application methods and both forms of Se increased concentrations of organic Se forms (selenocysteine and selenomethionine) in lentil seeds. Not surprisingly, the high yielding CDC Redberry had the highest levels of biomass and grain yield of all varieties evaluated. Eston, ILL505, and CDC Robin had the greatest responses to Se fertilization with respect to both grain yield, seed Se concentration and speciation; thus, use of these varieties in areas with low-Se soils might require Se fertilization to reach yield potentials. PMID:26042141

  2. Will selenium increase lentil (Lens culinaris Medik) yield and seed quality?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik), a nutritious traditional pulse crop, has been experiencing a declining availability in Asia, due to lower yields and marginal soils. The objective of this study was to determine whether selenium (Se) fertilization can increase lentil yield, productivity, and seed quali...

  3. Soybean Growth and Seed Yield Response to Tillage and Compost

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant response to organic amendment often varies and may interact with tillage. The objectives of this research were to quantify soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] water use and nutrient uptake to understand whole-plant and seed yield response to compost amendment and tillage intensity. A corn (Zea ma...

  4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SEED YIELD AND SEED PROTEIN IN HIGH PROTEIN SOYBEAN POPULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean seed yield and protein concentration often show a strong negative correlation. Initial results of our study indicate that development of soybean lines with high yield and high protein concentration is possible by selecting for protein concentration first. We evaluated the relationship of yie...

  5. Seed potato production system in Japan, starting from foundation seed of potato

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Tsukasa; Oohori, Hidemiki; Tajima, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Potato is one of the staple crops cultivated in upland farming in Japan and is propagated vegetatively by means of tubers. However once infected with diseases, potato yield decreases significantly. And one seed potato can produce approximately only 10 potato tubers. To improve the production system of seed potatoes in Japan, Japanese government established a three-stage propagation system for the production and distribution of healthy and disease-free seed potatoes. The National Center for Seeds and Seedlings (NCSS) has a role for the production of foundation seed potatoes and strictly manages the production in isolated fields that are treated thoroughly to control pests and diseases. Recently though the distribution of foundation seed potatoes is decreasing, the number of varieties of foundation seed potatoes has increased steadily. And new varieties of potato adapted various requirements, including resistance of the golden potato cyst nematode, have been increasing. Therefore, NCSS is introducing a new method of producing minitubers (MnTs) by using hydroponic cultivation greenhouse to increase the efficiency of propagation and to rapidly disseminate these new potato varieties. In this review, we describe a seed potato production system in Japan and the production of foundation seed potatoes as an important role of NCSS. PMID:25931977

  6. Seed potato production system in Japan, starting from foundation seed of potato.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tsukasa; Oohori, Hidemiki; Tajima, Kazuyuki

    2015-03-01

    Potato is one of the staple crops cultivated in upland farming in Japan and is propagated vegetatively by means of tubers. However once infected with diseases, potato yield decreases significantly. And one seed potato can produce approximately only 10 potato tubers. To improve the production system of seed potatoes in Japan, Japanese government established a three-stage propagation system for the production and distribution of healthy and disease-free seed potatoes. The National Center for Seeds and Seedlings (NCSS) has a role for the production of foundation seed potatoes and strictly manages the production in isolated fields that are treated thoroughly to control pests and diseases. Recently though the distribution of foundation seed potatoes is decreasing, the number of varieties of foundation seed potatoes has increased steadily. And new varieties of potato adapted various requirements, including resistance of the golden potato cyst nematode, have been increasing. Therefore, NCSS is introducing a new method of producing minitubers (MnTs) by using hydroponic cultivation greenhouse to increase the efficiency of propagation and to rapidly disseminate these new potato varieties. In this review, we describe a seed potato production system in Japan and the production of foundation seed potatoes as an important role of NCSS. PMID:25931977

  7. Integrated utilization of red radish seeds for the efficient production of seed oil and sulforaphene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Xing; Fu, Min

    2016-02-01

    Supercritical CO2 was used to obtain seed oil from red radish seeds. The influence of pressure, temperature, CO2 flow rate and time on extraction yield of oil were investigated in detail. The maximum extraction yield of oil was 92.07 ± 0.76% at the optimal extraction conditions. The physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of oil indicated that the seed oil can be used as a dietary oil. Meanwhile, the high purity sulforaphene (96.84 ± 0.17%) was separated by solvent extraction coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography from red radish seed meal. The initial pH, R, extraction temperature and extraction time for each cycle had a considerable influence both on the extraction yield and purity of sulforaphene of crude product. The extraction of oil was directly responsible for an increase of 18.32% in the yield of sulforaphene. PMID:26304382

  8. Effect of high oleic acid soybean on seed oil, protein concentration, and yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybeans with high oleic acid content are desired by oil processors because of their improved oxidative stability for broader use in food, fuel and other products. However, non-GMO high-oleic soybeans have tended to have low seed yield. The objective of this study was to test non-GMO, high-oleic s...

  9. Responses of seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits to seed pretreatment in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Guan, Bo; Zhou, Daowei; Yu, Junbao; Li, Guangdi; Lou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P < 0.05). The recommended prime reagents were GA at 10 mg/L, NaCl at 50 mM, and PEG at 15% on account of germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50 mM), or PEG (15%) significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method. PMID:25093210

  10. Responses of Seed Germination, Seedling Growth, and Seed Yield Traits to Seed Pretreatment in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yu; Guan, Bo; Zhou, Daowei; Li, Guangdi; Lou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P < 0.05). The recommended prime reagents were GA at 10 mg/L, NaCl at 50 mM, and PEG at 15% on account of germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50 mM), or PEG (15%) significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method. PMID:25093210

  11. Influence of Seeding Rate and Row Spacing on Cuphea Seed Yield in the Northern Corn Belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cuphea (C. viscosissima Jacq. X C. lanceolata W.T. Aiton; PSR23) is a new oilseed crop adapted to temperate climates that provides a rich source of medium-chain triglycerides. Although prior research indicated cuphea seed yield is not greatly affected by row spacing due to its indeterminate growth, ...

  12. Field testing soybeans for residual effects of air pollution and seed size on crop yield

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, R.K.; Rose, L.P. Jr.; Leffel, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    Mean seed weights (g/100 seeds) for four soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), cultivars grown in 1973 and 1974 in cylindrical open-top field chambers that provided carbon-filtered air were significantly greater (17.2) than from plants grown in nonfiltered air in chambers (15.1), or in conventional plots without chambers (15.7). Using this seed, as experiment was designed to answer three questions: (i) does air quality influence seed yields from subsequent plants; (ii) do seed size differences, possibly induced by air pollutants, influence subsequent seed yields; (iii) is there a yield advantage from planting large seed vs an original lot of seed. This experiment was designed as a split-split plot with six replications. The whole plot treatments were the four cultivars; the split-plot treatments consisted of the nine factorial combinations of three seed sizes and three environments. The split-split plot treatment was a comparison between the specified seed size and an original lot of the seed from which the specific seed size was obtained. Six seeds per 30 cm of row were planted and evaluated in a field experiment near Queenstown, Maryland, in 1975. We found no residual air quality effects on subsequent seed yields. Differences in seed size observed for different air qualities did not significantly affect yields. In general, there was no significant yield advantage for plants grown from a selected seed size as compared with the original lot seed.

  13. Optimizing hill seeding density for high-yielding hybrid rice in a single rice cropping system in South China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Danying; Chen, Song; Wang, Zaiman; Ji, Chenglin; Xu, Chunmei; Zhang, Xiufu; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical hill direct seeding of hybrid rice could be the way to solve the problems of high seeding rates and uneven plant establishment now faced in direct seeded rice; however, it is not clear what the optimum hill seeding density should be for high-yielding hybrid rice in the single-season rice production system. Experiments were conducted in 2010 and 2011 to determine the effects of hill seeding density (25 cm×15 cm, 25 cm×17 cm, 25 cm×19 cm, 25 cm×21 cm, and 25 cm×23 cm; three to five seeds per hill) on plant growth and grain yield of a hybrid variety, Nei2you6, in two fields with different fertility (soil fertility 1 and 2). In addition, in 2012 and 2013, comparisons among mechanical hill seeding, broadcasting, and transplanting were conducted with three hybrid varieties to evaluate the optimum seeding density. With increases in seeding spacing from 25 cm×15 cm to 25 cm×23 cm, productive tillers per hill increased by 34.2% and 50.0% in soil fertility 1 and 2. Panicles per m2 declined with increases in seeding spacing in soil fertility 1. In soil fertility 2, no difference in panicles per m2 was found at spacing ranging from 25 cm×17 cm to 25 cm×23 cm, while decreases in the area of the top three leaves and aboveground dry weight per shoot at flowering were observed. Grain yield was the maximum at 25 cm×17 cm spacing in both soil fertility fields. Our results suggest that a seeding density of 25 cm×17 cm was suitable for high-yielding hybrid rice. These results were verified through on-farm demonstration experiments, in which mechanical hill-seeded rice at this density had equal or higher grain yield than transplanted rice. PMID:25290342

  14. [Comprehensive yield and quality comparison of Bupleurum chinense' s seeds of different harvesting time from Qingchuan County with Topsis approach].

    PubMed

    Yao, Ru-Yu; Chen, Xing-Fu; Ai, Li; Wang, Fei; Chen, Qiang; Yang, Xing-Wang

    2013-12-01

    In order to investigate the comprehensive quality differences of the seeds harvested in different growing time, and offer theoretical guide for the optimization of seeds' production technology, we analyzed the apparent size, 1 000-grain weight, water absorbency, germination indexes, postharvest embryo rate change, relatively contents of coumarins and the yield of single plant of its seeds of different harvesting time, and compared their comprehensive quality by Topsis analysis. The results showed that there existed obvious differences in yield and quality between seeds of 3 harvesting times. While the harvesting time postponed, the yield of single plant raised, and the shrunken seeds rate decreased, the quality of seedlings increased, while the contents of coumarins showed a steady increase, and the germination rate decreased. The comprehensive quality of the seeds harvested in the black ripe time rank the first place, followed by the brown ripe time and the yellow ripe time. As the harvesting time delays, the seeds' comprehensive quality increases, therefore, we could put off the seeds' harvesting time properly for the high efficient seed production. PMID:24791529

  15. High Yielding Microbubble Production Method

    PubMed Central

    Fiabane, Joe; Prentice, Paul; Pancholi, Ketan

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic approaches to microbubble production are generally disadvantaged by low yield and high susceptibility to (micro)channel blockages. This paper presents an alternative method of producing microbubbles of 2.6 μm mean diameter at concentrations in excess of 30 × 106 mL−1. In this method, the nitrogen gas flowing inside the liquid jet is disintegrated into spray of microbubble when air surrounding this coflowing nitrogen gas-liquid jet passes through a 100 μm orifice at high velocity. Resulting microbubble foam has the polydispersity index of 16%. Moreover, a ratio of mean microbubble diameter to channel width ratio was found to be less than 0.025, which substantially alleviates the occurrence of blockages during production. PMID:27034935

  16. Growth of multicrystalline silicon ingot with both enhanced quality and yield through quartz seeded method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huali; You, Da; Huang, Chunlai; Wu, Yihua; Xu, Yan; Wu, Peng

    2016-02-01

    An effective method for ingot quality control in directional solidification by using artificially designed quartz coating as seed is demonstrated in this paper. Quartz powders sprayed at the bottom of the crucible provided numerous nucleation points for the silicon grain growth. The quartz seeded growth ingot showed a large number of small and uniform silicon grains at the bottom, although the grain size increased with crystal growth. Comparatively less dislocation agglomerates and multiplication rate through bottom to top were observed through photoluminescence (PL) analysis. Crystals produced by quartz seeded method showed a higher and more uniform minority carrier lifetime distribution compared to that produced from normal method without seed, and shorter low lifetime area length at the bottom compared to that produced from mc-Si seed-assisted growth method, indicating larger production yield under the same feedstock charging weight. An enhanced average solar cell conversion efficiency of as high as 0.52% in absolute value was obtained compared to that made from seedless method under the same cell manufacture process line, very close to that made from mc-Si seed-assisted growth method.

  17. Alfalfa seed germination and yield ratio and alfalfa sprout microbial keeping quality following irradiation of seeds and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Rajkowski, K T; Thayer, D W

    2001-12-01

    Foods can be treated with gamma radiation, a nonthermal food process, to inactivate foodborne pathogens and fungi, to kill insects on or in fruits and vegetables, and to increase shelf life. Gamma irradiation is especially well suited for these treatments because of its ability to penetrate commercial pallets of foods. Irradiated fruits, vegetables, poultry, and hamburger have been received favorably by the public and are now available in supermarkets. The use of irradiation on fresh alfalfa sprouts was studied to determine its effect on keeping quality as related to aerobic microbial load. After an irradiation dose of 2 kGy, the total aerobic count decreased from 10(5-8) to 10(3-5) CFU/g, and the total coliform counts decreased from 10(5-8) to 10(3-0) CFU/g. The results showed that the sprouts maintained their structure after irradiation, and the keeping quality was extended to 21 days, which is an increase of 10 days from the usual shelf life. The effect of various doses of irradiation on alfalfa seeds as measured by percent germination and yield ratio (wt/wt) of sprouts was determined. There was little effect on the percent germination, but as the dose increased, the yield ratio of alfalfa sprouts decreased. As the length of growing time increased, so did the yield ratio of the lower dose irradiated seeds (1 to 2 kGy). The irradiation process can be used to increase the shelf life of alfalfa sprouts, and irradiating alfalfa seeds at doses up to 2 kGy does not unacceptably decrease the yield ratio for production of alfalfa sprouts. PMID:11770628

  18. Expanding Genetic Diversity to Increase Soybean Seed Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, fewer than 100 ancestral lines have contributed to currently grown cultivars and more than 50% of that contribution comes from only 5 lines. Based on national production statistics, the average rate of yield improvement from 1924 to 1978 is nearly identical to the rate of from ...

  19. SUSTAINABILITY IN SEED PRODUCTION ENTERPRISES – WHAT WE’VE LEARNED

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 18 years of field studies comparing water and soil quality along with seed yield in conservation and conventional grass seed production systems is described. In many cases, minimum tillage and direct seeding approaches could be successfully implemented in these systems, and that their implemen...

  20. Prickly lettuce control in alfalfa seed production.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weeds are particularly troublesome in alfalfa grown for seed due to the wider row spacing and the lack of multiple cuttings compared to alfalfa grown for hay. Prickly lettuce is often an escape weed in alfalfa seed production fields as it can germinate throughout the entire year and is naturally tol...

  1. Quantitative trait loci for seed yield and yield-related traits, and their responses to reduced phosphorus supply in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Guangda; Zhao, Zunkang; Liao, Yuan; Hu, Yifan; Shi, Lei; Long, Yan; Xu, Fangsen

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims One of the key targets of breeding programmes in rapeseed (Brassica napus) is to develop high-yield varieties. However, the lack of available phosphorus (P) in soils seriously limits rapeseed production. The aim of this study was to dissect the genetic control of seed yield and yield-related traits in B. napus grown with contrasting P supplies. Methods Two-year field trials were conducted at one site with normal and low P treatments using a population of 124 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between ‘B104-2’ and ‘Eyou Changjia’. Seed yield, seed weight, seed number, pod number, plant height, branch number and P efficiency coefficient (PEC) were investigated. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed by composite interval mapping. Key Results The phenotypic values of most of the tested traits were reduced under the low P conditions. In total, 74 putative QTLs were identified, contributing 7·3–25·4 % of the phenotypic variation. Of these QTLs, 16 (21·6 %) were detected in two seasons and in the mean value of two seasons, and eight QTLs for two traits were conserved across P levels. Low-P-specific QTLs were clustered on chromosomes A1, A6 and A8. By comparative mapping between Arabidopsis and B. napus, 161 orthologues of 146 genes involved in Arabidopsis P homeostasis and/or yield-related trait control were associated with 45 QTLs corresponding to 23 chromosomal regions. Four gene-based markers developed from genes involved in Arabidopsis P homeostasis were mapped to QTL intervals. Conclusions Different genetic determinants were involved in controlling seed yield and yield-related traits in B. napus under normal and low P conditions. The QTLs detected under reduced P supply may provide useful information for improving the seed yield of B. napus in soils with low P availability in marker-assisted selection. PMID:22234558

  2. Irrigation and cultivar effect on flax fiber and seed yield in the southeast USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a potential winter crop for the Southeast USA that can be grown for both seed and fiber. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of irrigation on flax straw, fiber, and seed yield of fiber-type and seed-type cultivars at different flax growth stage...

  3. [Optimal measure for cultivation of Artemisia annua with high seeds yield].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yekuan; Li, Longyun; Hu, Yingi

    2009-09-01

    The relationship of Artemisia annua seed yield with density, N, P and K fertilizer applied amount was studied, and a mathematical model involving the 4 factors affecting seed yield was established using the orthogonal rotation design of quadratic regression. The seed yield function model was established according to parameters through field tests and data treated by computer techniques. The best agronomic measures complex project was selected and developed by computer imitation. The effects on seed yield of A. annua are density > N > P > K in turn. To obtain the highest yield density should be 13 000-15 000 plants x hm(-2), Ureal 186-242 kg x hm(-2), calcium superphosphate 874-1 023 kg x hm(-2), potassium chloride 135-165 kg x hm(-2) in the experiment. Reasonable planting density and fertilizer application could improve the seed yield of A. annua. PMID:19943472

  4. A photorespiratory bypass increases plant growth and seed yield in biofuel crop Camelina sativa

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dalal, Jyoti; Lopez, Harry; Vasani, Naresh B.; Hu, Zhaohui; Swift, Jennifer E.; Yalamanchili, Roopa; Dvora, Mia; Lin, Xiuli; Xie, Deyu; Qu, Rongda; et al

    2015-10-29

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed crop with great potential for biofuel production on marginal land. The seed oil from camelina has been converted to jet fuel and improved fuel efficiency in commercial and military test flights. Hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel from camelina is environmentally superior to that from canola due to lower agricultural inputs, and the seed meal is FDA approved for animal consumption. However, relatively low yield makes its farming less profitable. Our study is aimed at increasing camelina seed yield by reducing carbon loss from photorespiration via a photorespiratory bypass. Genes encoding three enzymes of the Escherichia coli glycolatemore » catabolic pathway were introduced: glycolate dehydrogenase (GDH), glyoxylate carboxyligase (GCL) and tartronic semialdehyde reductase (TSR). These enzymes compete for the photorespiratory substrate, glycolate, convert it to glycerate within the chloroplasts, and reduce photorespiration. As a by-product of the reaction, CO2 is released in the chloroplast, which increases photosynthesis. Camelina plants were transformed with either partial bypass (GDH), or full bypass (GDH, GCL and TSR) genes. Furthermore, transgenic plants were evaluated for physiological and metabolic traits.« less

  5. Pollen- and Seed-Mediated Transgene Flow in Commercial Cotton Seed Production Fields

    PubMed Central

    Heuberger, Shannon; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Carrière, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Background Characterizing the spatial patterns of gene flow from transgenic crops is challenging, making it difficult to design containment strategies for markets that regulate the adventitious presence of transgenes. Insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton is planted on millions of hectares annually and is a potential source of transgene flow. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we monitored 15 non-Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.) seed production fields (some transgenic for herbicide resistance, some not) for gene flow of the Bt cotton cry1Ac transgene. We investigated seed-mediated gene flow, which yields adventitious Bt cotton plants, and pollen-mediated gene flow, which generates outcrossed seeds. A spatially-explicit statistical analysis was used to quantify the effects of nearby Bt and non-Bt cotton fields at various spatial scales, along with the effects of pollinator abundance and adventitious Bt plants in fields, on pollen-mediated gene flow. Adventitious Bt cotton plants, resulting from seed bags and planting error, comprised over 15% of plants sampled from the edges of three seed production fields. In contrast, pollen-mediated gene flow affected less than 1% of the seed sampled from field edges. Variation in outcrossing was better explained by the area of Bt cotton fields within 750 m of the seed production fields than by the area of Bt cotton within larger or smaller spatial scales. Variation in outcrossing was also positively associated with the abundance of honey bees. Conclusions/Significance A comparison of statistical methods showed that our spatially-explicit analysis was more powerful for understanding the effects of surrounding fields than customary models based on distance. Given the low rates of pollen-mediated gene flow observed in this study, we conclude that careful planting and screening of seeds could be more important than field spacing for limiting gene flow. PMID:21152426

  6. [Effects of single-seed sowing on canopy microenvironment, photosynthetic characteristics and pod yield of peanut (Arachis hypogaca)].

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao-yan; Guo, Feng; Zhang, Jia-lei; Meng, Jing-jing; Li, Lin; Wan, Shu-bo; Li, Xin-guo

    2015-12-01

    The large-seed peanut cultivar of Huayu 22 was used to study the differences of canopy microenvironment, photosynthetic characteristics, and pod yield at three single-seed sowing densities, i.e., 225000 (S₁), 195000 (S₂) and 165000 (S₃) holes per hectare, in field experiments. The results showed that the canopy light transmittance, canopy air temperature and canopy CO₂concentration all increased at these three single-seed sowing densities compared with those of double-seed sowing pattern (150000 holes per hectare), while the canopy humidity decreased. It seemed that single-seed sowing was helpful to improve microenvironment and the growth of peanut, especially at late growth stage. Meanwhile, the photosynthetic pigment contents and the net photosynthetic rate of peanut under single-seed sowing, especially in S₂ and S₃, were remarkably higher than those under traditional double-seed sowing. S₂ had the optimum population size with an equal distribution of individuals, which reduced the contradiction between individuals and population, optimized the canopy microenvironment, enhanced the photosynthetic characteristics, and increased the synthesis and accumulation of photosynthetic products to maximize the yield production of peanut. PMID:27112008

  7. Seed Quality and Plant Date Effects on Cotton Lint Yield Components, and Fiber Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Having to use poorer quality cotton seed, due to unfavorable growing conditions in seed production areas, complicates planting decisions for producers, particularly when higher priced transgenic cultivars are involved. This study investigated how varying planting dates and genetic backgrounds affec...

  8. Effects of fungicide seed treatments on germination, population, and yield of maize grown from seed infected with fungal pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedborne fungi can reduce survival, growth, and yield of maize (Zea mays L.). Laboratory, field, and growth chamber experiments were conducted to determine the effects of the seed treatment fungicides fludioxonil, mefenoxam, and azoxystrobin on germination, plant population, and grain yield of maiz...

  9. Effect of seeding rate on organic production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased demand for organic rice (Oryza sativa L.) has incentivized producer conversion from conventional to organically-managed rice production in the U.S. Little is known on the impacts of seeding rate on organic rice production. A completely randomized factorial design with four replications was...

  10. Increase of onion yield through low dose of gamma irradiation of its seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiendl, F. M.; Wiendl, F. W.; Wiendl, J. A.; Vedovatto, A.; Arthur, V.

    1995-02-01

    The increase of onions' yield could be achieved by the common farmer through the use of nuclear techniques. This report describes the results obtained with the irradiation of onion seeds, with low doses of gamma radiations (Cobalt-60), at doses of 0 (control), 150, 400 and 700 Gy. Beyond the proper onion's variety also the use of low dose rates of 13.1, 39.2 and 52.3 Gy per hour were of the great importance during irradiation. The results showed to be promising, both in laboratory studies and in the field, resulting in an increase of onions production: A greater number of seedlings, bulbs and a higher yield in weight per hectar were planted. In the field the most promising dose and dose rate to the variety "Super-X" were respectively 150 Gy and 13.1 Gy per hour, yielding an 24.9 percent heavier weight of onions than the control. The other tested variety was "Granex-33", which did not respond so favorable to irradiation. However, also with this variety we harvested a 2.1 percent heavier weight than its control, if the onion seeds were irradiated with the dose of 700 Gy at a dose dose rate of 13.1 Gy per hour.

  11. Reduction in soybean seed yields by ozone air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Heggestad, H.E.

    1988-08-01

    The National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN) determined that soybeans were more sensitive to ozone than other major agricultural crops, including corn, wheat, and cotton. The estimated production losses for soybeans at ambient levels of ozone ranged from 7.9 to 18.6 percent compared to 0.6 to 3.1 percent for corn. The research on soybeans was conducted in Illinois, North Carolina, Maryland, and New York. The loss estimates were obtained from field experiments using open-top chambers with charcoal-filtered (CF) air, nonfiltered (NF) air, and NF air with the addition of two or more increments of ozone. However, New Jersey scientists in two recent reports question the validity of the NCLAN results since the utilization of a different method to assess the impact of exposure of ambient O/sub 3/ on soybeans failed to show significant yield losses.

  12. Greenhouse Studies of Soybean Aphid Effects on Plant Growth, Seed Yield, and Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is little published information available that describes the effects of soybean aphids (Aphis glycines Matsumura) on soybean [Glycine max (L.) merr] growth, yield, and seed composition. The objective of this research was to measure how soybean growth, yield, and yield components are affected ...

  13. Indirect Effects of Field Management on Pollination Service and Seed Set in Hybrid Onion Seed Production.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Sandra; Long, Rachael; Williams, Neal

    2015-12-01

    Pollination in crops, as in native ecosystems, is a stepwise process that can be disrupted at any stage. Healthy pollinator populations are critical for adequate visitation, but pollination still might fail if crop management interferes with the attraction and retention of pollinators. Farmers must balance the direct benefits of applying insecticide and managing irrigation rates against their potential to indirectly interfere with the pollination process. We investigated these issues in hybrid onion seed production, where previous research has shown that high insecticide use reduces pollinator attraction. We conducted field surveys of soil moisture, nectar production, pollinator visitation, pollen-stigma interactions, and seed set at multiple commercial fields across 2 yr. We then examined how management actions, such as irrigation rate (approximated by soil moisture), or insecticide use could affect the pollination process. Onions produced maximum nectar at intermediate soil moisture, and high nectar production attracted more pollinators. Insecticide use weakly affected pollinator visitation, but when applied close to bloom reduced pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Ultimately, neither soil moisture nor insecticide use directly affected seed set, but the high correlation between pollinator visitation and seed set suggests that crop management will ultimately affect yields via indirect effects on the pollination process. PMID:26470371

  14. Optimal fertilizer N rates and yield-scaled global warming potential in drill seeded rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drill seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the dominant rice cultivation practice in the USA. Although drill seeded systems can lead to significant methane and nitrous oxide emissions due to the presence of both anaerobic and aerobic soil conditions, the relationship between high-yielding management pr...

  15. Possibility of sweet corn synthetic seed production.

    PubMed

    Thobunluepop, P; Pawelzik, E; Vearasilp, S

    2009-08-01

    Somatic embryogenesis in sweet corn has been reported by a number of workers. However, the knowledge maintaining storage life, vigor and viability of these somatic embryos are limited. A model system of synchronous somatic embryos production combined with encapsulation to synthetic seed was studied in sweet corn (Zea mays var. saccharata). In this study immature zygotic embryo cultured on N6 medium, contained 2, 4-D 2 mg L(-1) and sucrose 60 g L(-1) form the embryogenic callus. Higher 2, 4-D levels did not show increasing in inducing embryogenic callus. If the concentration of 2, 4-D decreased globular-stage, somatic zygote form the roots. Somatic embryo develop without surrounding nutritive tissues and protective seed coat has been devoted to causing somatic embryos to functionally mimic embryo, then was encapsulated by 3% (w/v) sodium alginate with 4-6 mm in diameter. It was found that when synthetic seed were treated with 60 g L(-1) sucrose and stored at 15+/-2 degree Celsius for 2 weeks, the survival rate of synthetic seed were 44%, after 8 days of germination test, it was found that there were 91% of which were normal seedling and 9% were abnormal seedling. This result indicated that there is a possibility in sweet corn synthetic seed production. Anyhow, more research for better technique are further required. PMID:19943466

  16. Boosting production yield of biomedical peptides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manatt, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique is employed to monitor synthesis of biomedical peptides. Application of NMR technique may improve production yields of insulin, ACTH, and growth hormones, as well as other synthesized biomedical peptides.

  17. Genetic variability on seed yield and related traits of elite faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Fikreselassie, Million; Seboka, Habtamu

    2012-04-15

    Faba bean is one of the most important cool season crops in the highlands of Ethiopia and the country is considered as the secondary center of diversity. This study was conducted at Haramaya, Boreda and Hirna districts of Eastern Hararghe from 2006 to 2008 cropping season using twenty five elite genotypes of faba bean to determine the extent and pattern of genetic diversity for seed yield and related traits. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The data were subjected to the analyses of variance using the SAS program. The mean squares due to genotypes were highly significant for seed yield (p < 0.01) indicating the existence of sufficient genetic variability for seed yield. Mean squares due to the interaction between year and location were highly significant for all the traits studied (p < 0.01). High genotypic coefficient of variation (10093.53%) was observed for seed yield followed by number of seeds per plant (325.45%). The estimated values of phenotypic variances were in the range of 0.60 for number of seeds per pods to 196564.64 for seed yield. Genetic gains that expected from selecting the top 5% of the genotypes, as a percent of the mean, varied from 12.32% for number of seeds per plant to 35.46% for seed yield. The average linkage technique of clustering produced a more understandable portrayal of the 25 faba bean genotypes by grouping them into five clusters. The maximum distance was found between cluster three and five (D2 = 691.47). Thus, the materials tested in the entire experiment will be maintained for further breeding program. PMID:24199467

  18. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) germplasm for non-burn seed production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A ban on open-field burning of post-harvest residue of grass seed production fields has been implemented in Washington, and restrictions are in place in Idaho and Oregon, USA. Our previous research showed that without post-harvest burning of residue, bluegrass seed yield decreased over time (Johnson...

  19. Systematics of Fission-Product Yields

    SciTech Connect

    A.C. Wahl

    2002-05-01

    Empirical equations representing systematics of fission-product yields have been derived from experimental data. The systematics give some insight into nuclear-structure effects on yields, and the equations allow estimation of yields from fission of any nuclide with atomic number Z{sub F} = 90 thru 98, mass number A{sub F} = 230 thru 252, and precursor excitation energy (projectile kinetic plus binding energies) PE = 0 thru {approx}200 MeV--the ranges of these quantities for the fissioning nuclei investigated. Calculations can be made with the computer program CYFP. Estimates of uncertainties in the yield estimates are given by equations, also in CYFP, and range from {approx} 15% for the highest yield values to several orders of magnitude for very small yield values. A summation method is used to calculate weighted average parameter values for fast-neutron ({approx} fission spectrum) induced fission reactions.

  20. Weed management research in alfalfa seed production in Washington state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is an important component of producing high quality and high yielding alfalfa seed. Alfalfa seed is produced with wider row and lower plant populations than alfalfa forage requiring greater weed management inputs. Flumioxazin was evaluated for weed control in alfalfa seed and forage pro...

  1. Gibberellic acid mediated co-ordination of calcium and magnesium ameliorate physiological activities, seed yield and fibre yield of Linum usitatissimum L.-a dual-purpose crop.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Nasir; Mohammad, Firoz; Siddiqui, Manzer H; Naeem, M

    2010-12-01

    Commercial cultivation of linseed for both seed and fibre is not keeping pace with increasing demand for linseed products. Although, different strategies are being adopted to produce a dual-purpose linseed crop with good yield of seed and fibre, little progress has been achieved. The present study was carried out to investigate whether application of gibberellic acid (GA3) along with CaCl2 and/or MgSO4 could ameliorate the seed yield in three linseed genotypes 'Parvati', 'Shekhar' and 'Shubhra' without compromising the fibre production. Before sowing the seeds of linseed genotypes were soaked for 8 h in 10(-6) M GA3. Forty days after sowing (DAS), the plants were sprayed with 10(-6) M GA3 along with 2 kg Ca/ha (Ca2) and/or 0.5 kg Mg/ha (Mg0.5). Treatments comprised of (1) 10(-6) M GA3 + Ca0Mg0 (control, T0); (2) 10(-6) M GA3 + Ca2Mg0 (T1); (3) 10(-6) M GA3 + Ca0Mg0.5 (T2) and (4) 10(-6) M GA3 + Ca2Mg0.5 (T3). Performance of the crop was assessed in terms of growth characteristics, physiological and biochemical parameters at 60 and 75 DAS and yield and quality attributes at harvest. Treatment T3 proved best, it enhanced dry weight per plant by 38.2 and 20.6%, P N by 20.7 and 19.1% and gs by 18.2 and 8.8% at 60 and 75 DAS, respectively and seed yield by 39.6%, oil yield by 46.9% and fibre yield by 36.9% at harvest. Further, a decrease in lodging by 13.9% was recorded. Of the three genotypes tested, all exhibited significant difference for all the parameters studied, except for leaf-N content, biological yield and iodine value which showed no difference. However, 'Shubhra' performed better than 'Parvati'. PMID:23572983

  2. 40 CFR 153.155 - Seed treatment products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seed treatment products. 153.155... REGISTRATION POLICIES AND INTERPRETATIONS Coloration and Discoloration of Pesticides § 153.155 Seed treatment products. (a) Pesticide products intended for use in treating seeds must contain an EPA-approved dye...

  3. 40 CFR 153.155 - Seed treatment products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seed treatment products. 153.155... REGISTRATION POLICIES AND INTERPRETATIONS Coloration and Discoloration of Pesticides § 153.155 Seed treatment products. (a) Pesticide products intended for use in treating seeds must contain an EPA-approved dye...

  4. 40 CFR 153.155 - Seed treatment products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... products. (a) Pesticide products intended for use in treating seeds must contain an EPA-approved dye to... the user to add an EPA-approved dye with the pesticide during the seed treatment process. (2) Products... in form or are used as fumigants. (c) EPA-approved dyes for seed treatment are listed in:...

  5. 40 CFR 153.155 - Seed treatment products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... products. (a) Pesticide products intended for use in treating seeds must contain an EPA-approved dye to... the user to add an EPA-approved dye with the pesticide during the seed treatment process. (2) Products... in form or are used as fumigants. (c) EPA-approved dyes for seed treatment are listed in:...

  6. 40 CFR 153.155 - Seed treatment products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... products. (a) Pesticide products intended for use in treating seeds must contain an EPA-approved dye to... the user to add an EPA-approved dye with the pesticide during the seed treatment process. (2) Products... in form or are used as fumigants. (c) EPA-approved dyes for seed treatment are listed in:...

  7. Confirmation of a seed yield QTL in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exotic germplasm can be an important source of genetic diversity for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] improvement. Previously, four yield quantitative trait loci (QTL) had been identified in a cross between the exotic soybean plant introduction (PI) 68658 and the U.S. cultivar Lawrence. The confirma...

  8. Soybean Aphid Feeding Injury and Soybean Yield and Seed Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate prediction of the level of yield loss caused by soybean aphid feeding is considered to be the crux of integrated pest management for these pests. Despite the accumulating literature on the soybean aphid, there are currently few published data on the effects of soybean aphid populations on ...

  9. Heterologous expression of chloroplast-localized geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase confers fast plant growth, early flowering and increased seed yield.

    PubMed

    Tata, Sandeep Kumar; Jung, Jihye; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Choi, Jun Young; Jung, Ji-Yul; Lee, In-Jung; Shin, Jeong Sheop; Ryu, Stephen Beungtae

    2016-01-01

    Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase (GGPS) is a key enzyme for a structurally diverse class of isoprenoid biosynthetic metabolites including gibberellins, carotenoids, chlorophylls and rubber. We expressed a chloroplast-targeted GGPS isolated from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The resulting transgenic tobacco plants expressing heterologous GGPS showed remarkably enhanced growth (an increase in shoot and root biomass and height), early flowering, increased number of seed pods and greater seed yield compared with that of GUS-transgenic lines (control) or wild-type plants. The gibberellin levels in HaGGPS-transgenic plants were higher than those in control plants, indicating that the observed phenotype may result from increased gibberellin content. However, in HaGGPS-transformant tobacco plants, we did not observe the phenotypic defects such as reduced chlorophyll content and greater petiole and stalk length, which were previously reported for transgenic plants expressing gibberellin biosynthetic genes. Fast plant growth was also observed in HaGGPS-expressing Arabidopsis and dandelion plants. The results of this study suggest that GGPS expression in crop plants may yield desirable agronomic traits, including enhanced growth of shoots and roots, early flowering, greater numbers of seed pods and/or higher seed yield. This research has potential applications for fast production of plant biomass that provides commercially valuable biomaterials or bioenergy. PMID:25644367

  10. Insect pollination enhances seed yield, quality, and market value in oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Bommarco, Riccardo; Marini, Lorenzo; Vaissière, Bernard E

    2012-08-01

    The relationships between landscape intensification, the abundance and diversity of pollinating insects, and their contributions to crop yield, quality, and market value are poorly studied, despite observed declines in wild and domesticated pollinators. Abundance and species richness of pollinating insects were estimated in ten fields of spring oilseed rape, Brassica napus var. SW Stratos™, located along a gradient of landscape compositions ranging from simple landscapes dominated by arable land to heterogeneous landscapes with extensive cover of semi-natural habitats. In each field, we assessed the contribution of wind and insect pollination to seed yield, seed quality (individual seed weight and oil and chlorophyll contents), and market value in a block experiment with four replicates and two treatments: (1) all flowers were accessible to insects, self and wind pollination, and (2) flowers enclosed in tulle net bags (mesh: 1 × 1 mm) were accessible only to wind and self pollination. Complex landscapes enhanced the overall abundance of wild insects as well as the abundance and species richness of hoverflies. This did not translate to a higher yield, probably due to consistent pollination by honey bees across all fields. However, the pollination experiment showed that insects increased seed weight per plant by 18% and market value by 20%. Seed quality was enhanced by insect pollination, rendering heavier seeds as well as higher oil and lower chlorophyll contents, clearly showing that insect pollination is required to reach high seed yield and quality in oilseed rape. Our study demonstrates considerable and previously underestimated contributions from pollinating insects to both the yield and the market value of oilseed rape. PMID:22311256

  11. Effect of nano silver and silver nitrate on seed yield of (Ocimum basilicum L.)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nano silver and silver nitrate on yield of seed in basil plant. The study was carried out in a randomized block design with three replications. Results Four levels of either silver nitrate (0, 100, 200 and 300 ppm) or nano silver (0, 20, 40, and 60 ppm) were sprayed on basil plant at seed growth stage. The results showed that there was no significant difference between 100 ppm of silver nitrate and 60 ppm concentration of nano silver on the shoot silver concentration. However, increasing the concentration of silver nitrate from 100 to 300 ppm caused a decrease in seed yield. In contrast, a raise in the concentration of nano silver from 20 to 60 ppm has led to an improvement in the seed yield. Additionally, the lowest amount of seed yield was found with control plants. Conclusions Finally, with increasing level of silver nitrate, the polyphenol compound content was raised but the enhancing level of nano silver resulting in the reduction of these components. In conclusion, nano silver can be used instead of other compounds of silver. PMID:25383311

  12. Cold tolerance, seed production and seed germination of a forage bermudagrass core collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage bermudagrass can be an important perennial warm-season forage for transitional zones of warm and cool season pastures. Cold-tolerant seeded varieties will be especially desirable. A forage bermudagrass core collection was assessed for seed production and seed germination. Also, a replicate...

  13. Pre-sowing magnetic treatments of tomato seeds increase the growth and yield of plants.

    PubMed

    De Souza, A; Garcí, D; Sueiro, L; Gilart, F; Porras, E; Licea, L

    2006-05-01

    The effects of pre-sowing magnetic treatments on growth and yield of tomato (cv Campbell-28) were investigated under field conditions. Tomato seeds were exposed to full-wave rectified sinusoidal non-uniform magnetic fields (MFs) induced by an electromagnet at 100 mT (rms) for 10 min and at 170 mT (rms) for 3 min. Non-treated seeds were considered as controls. Plants were grown in experimental plots (30.2 m(2)) and were cultivated according to standard agricultural practices. During the vegetative and generative growth stages, samples were collected at regular intervals for growth rate analyses, and the resistance of plants to geminivirus and early blight was evaluated. At physiological maturity, the plants were harvested from each plot and the yield and yield parameters were determined. In the vegetative stage, the treatments led to a significant increase in leaf area, leaf dry weight, and specific leaf area (SLA) per plant. Also, the leaf, stem, and root relative growth rates of plants derived from magnetically treated seeds were greater than those shown by the control plants. In the generative stage, leaf area per plant and relative growth rates of fruits from plants from magnetically exposed seeds were greater than those of the control plant fruits. At fruit maturity stage, all magnetic treatments increased significantly (P < .05) the mean fruit weight, the fruit yield per plant, the fruit yield per area, and the equatorial diameter of fruits in comparison with the controls. At the end of the experiment, total dry matter was significantly higher for plants from magnetically treated seeds than that of the controls. A significant delay in the appearance of first symptoms of geminivirus and early blight and a reduced infection rate of early blight were observed in the plants from exposed seeds to MFs. Pre-sowing magnetic treatments would enhance the growth and yield of tomato crop. PMID:16511881

  14. An Economic Analysis of Pigeonpea Seed Production Technology and Its Adoption Behavior: Indian Context

    PubMed Central

    Channanamchery, Radhika; Singh, R. K.; Kethineni, Udaya Bhaskar; Ram, H.; Prasad, S. Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    The present study was based on primary data collected from 100 farmers in Gulbarga district of Karnataka, India, during the agricultural year 2013-2014. Study shows that average land holding size of pigeonpea seed farmers was higher in comparison to grain farmers and district average. The study illustrates a ratio of 32 : 68 towards fixed and variable costs in pigeonpea certified seed production with a total cost of ₹ 39436 and the gross and net returns were ₹ 73300 and ₹ 33864 per hectare, respectively. The total cost of cultivation, gross return, and net return in pigeonpea seed production were higher by around 23, 32, and 44 percent than grain production, respectively. Hence, production of certified seed has resulted in a win-win situation for the farmers with higher yield and increased returns. The decision of the farmer on adoption of seed production technology was positively influenced by his education, age, land holding, irrigated land, number of crops grown, and extension contacts while family size was influencing negatively. Higher yield and profitability associated with seed production can be effectively popularized among farmers, resulting in increased certified seed production. PMID:27478865

  15. Effects of methanol-to-oil ratio, catalyst amount and reaction time on the FAME yield by in situ transesterification of rubber seeds (Hevea brasiliensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulkadir, Bashir Abubakar; Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Ramli, Anita; Osman, Noridah B.; Kusakabe, Katsuki; Kai, Takami

    2014-10-01

    In this research, biodiesel is produced by in situ transesterification (direct transesterification) method from the rubber seeds using KOH as a catalyst. The influence of methanol to seeds mass ratio, duration of reaction, and catalyst loading was investigated. The result shows that, the best ratio of seeds to methanol is 1:6 (10 g seeds with 60 g methanol), 120 minutes reaction time and catalyst loading of 3.0 g. The maximum FAME yield obtain was 70 %. This findings support FAME production from the seeds of rubber tree using direct transesterifcation method from the seeds of rubber tree as an alternative to diesel fuel. Also, significant properties of biodiesel such as cloud point, density, pour point, specific gravity, and viscosity were investigated.

  16. Cuphea nitrogen uptake and seed yield response to nitrogen fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cuphea (Cuphea viscosissima Jacq. x C. lanceolata W.T. Aiton, PSR23), is an oilseed crop that is a rich source of medium-chain fatty acids. Progress has been made on improving cuphea agronomically, but little is known about nitrogen fertility requirements for optimum cuphea production. The objective...

  17. CULTURAL METHODS FOR ENHANCING WYOMING BIG SAGEBRUSH SEED PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for sagebrush seed is expanding but wildland harvesting is impaired by several factors including loss of stands to weed invasions and fire. To increase the potential for seed production, sagebrush seed harvests were compared among cultural treatments for stands on a coal mine near Glenrock, W...

  18. Production of high levels of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate in plastids of Camelina sativa seeds.

    PubMed

    Malik, Meghna R; Yang, Wenyu; Patterson, Nii; Tang, Jihong; Wellinghoff, Rachel L; Preuss, Mary L; Burkitt, Claire; Sharma, Nirmala; Ji, Yuanyuan; Jez, Joseph M; Peoples, Oliver P; Jaworski, Jan G; Cahoon, Edgar B; Snell, Kristi D

    2015-06-01

    Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) production in plastids of Camelina sativa seeds was investigated by comparing levels of polymer produced upon transformation of plants with five different binary vectors containing combinations of five seed-specific promoters for expression of transgenes. Genes encoding PHB biosynthetic enzymes were modified at the N-terminus to encode a plastid targeting signal. PHB levels of up to 15% of the mature seed weight were measured in single sacrificed T1 seeds with a genetic construct containing the oleosin and glycinin promoters. A more detailed analysis of the PHB production potential of two of the best performing binary vectors in a Camelina line bred for larger seed size yielded lines containing up to 15% polymer in mature T2 seeds. Transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of distinct granules of PHB in the seeds. PHB production had varying effects on germination, emergence and survival of seedlings. Once true leaves formed, plants grew normally and were able to set seeds. PHB synthesis lowered the total oil but not the protein content of engineered seeds. A change in the oil fatty acid profile was also observed. High molecular weight polymer was produced with weight-averaged molecular weights varying between 600 000 and 1 500 000, depending on the line. Select lines were advanced to later generations yielding a line with 13.7% PHB in T4 seeds. The levels of polymer produced in this study are the highest reported to date in a seed and are an important step forward for commercializing an oilseed-based platform for PHB production. PMID:25418911

  19. Glyphosate Effect on Shikimate, Nitrate Reductase Activity, Yield, and Seed Composition in Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 2-yr field study investigated the effects of glyphosate drift rate on plant injury, shikimate accumulation, nitrate reductase activity, leaf nitrogen, yield, and seed composition in non-glyphosate-resistant (non-GR) corn (Zea mays L.) and the effects of glyphosate at label rates on nitrate reducta...

  20. Statistical Tests of the Apple IIe Random Number Generator Yield Suggestions from Generator Seeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, John M.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses flaws in the Apple IIe Applesoft random number generator, RND, and reports results of frequency and serial correlation tests of the generator. Suggestions of seeds that yield sequences of numbers which pass fundamental screening tests for randomness are presented. (Author/LRW)

  1. Dynamics of source strength, seed yield and C:N ratio in Cuphea spp. [abstract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dynamics of flowering and capsule formation (scaled as number of flowers or capsules per unit biomass), C:N ratio and seed yield per plant of an indeterminate Cuphea spp. germplasm line (C. lanceolata x C. viscosissima) were impacted by defoliation at 100, 200 or 300 growing degree days (GDD1, 2, an...

  2. Dryland Corn Seeding Rate and Row Configuration Impacts on Biomass, Grain Yield, and Water Use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lack of plant-available water reduces crop yield potential in the Northern Great Plains. Practices shown to improve soil water relationships in dryland corn include altering seeding rate and row configuration, though these have not been reported in regions that receive limited annual precipitati...

  3. Stand establishment and yield potential of organically grown seeded and transplanted medicinal herbs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted at Las Cruces, N.M., and Alcalde, N.M., to compare direct seeding to transplanting for stand establishment and yield estimates of calendula (Calendula officinalis L.), catnip (Nepeta cataria L.), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.), stinging nettles (Urtica dioica L.), a...

  4. EFFECTS OF UV-B RADIATION ON SOYBEAN YIELD AND SEED QUALITY: A 6-YEAR FIELD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two soybean, [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars, Essex and Williams, were grown in the field for 6 consecutive seasons under ambient and supplemental levels of ultraviolet B radiation to determine the potential for alterations in yield or seed quality with a reduction in the stra...

  5. Life cycle inventory for the production of germinated oil palm seeds at a selected seed production unit in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Ismail, B. S.; Muhamad, Halimah; May, Choo Yuen

    2013-11-01

    The increasing global demand for edible oil has encouraged Malaysia to increase the areas under oil palm cultivation. The total demand for germinated oil palm seeds in the years 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 were 86.4, 76.5, 72.6 and 75.2 million, respectively. Production of germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain. Therefore, good management practices at seed production stage is required to ensure only high quality germinated oil palm seeds are produced before sale to customers. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as a tool to assess environmental impact of the processes throughout a product's lifespan and this approach is an important tool for assessing green house gas (GHG) emission. For this study, a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a single germinated oil palm seed production unit was carried out. The functional unit used for this LCI was one germinated oil palm seed. To determine the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm seeds, information on the inputs were obtained. The inputs for the production of germinated oil palm seeds involved materials such as polyethylene bags, electricity, water, chemicals and fungicides. For this study, the system boundary involved seed germination process and management of germinated oil palm seeds. It was found that the amount of input such as materials and energy used in the production of germinated oil palm seeds was very minimal.

  6. Paclobutrazol treatment as a potential strategy for higher seed and oil yield in field-grown camelina sativa L. Crantz

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) is a non-food oilseed crop which holds promise as an alternative biofuel energy resource. Its ability to grow in a variety of climatic and soil conditions and minimal requirements of agronomical inputs than other oilseed crops makes it economically viable for advanced biofuel production. We designed a study to investigate the effect of paclobutrazol [2RS, 3RS)-1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pentan-3-ol] (PBZ), a popular plant growth regulator, on the seed and oil yield of Camelina sativa (cv. Celine). Results A field-based micro-trial setup was established in a randomized block design and the study was performed twice within a span of five months (October 2010 to February 2011) and five different PBZ treatments (Control: T0; 25 mg l-1: T1; 50 mg l-1: T2; 75 mg l-1: T3; 100 mg l-1: T4; 125 mg l-1: T5) were applied (soil application) at the time of initiation of flowering. PBZ at 100 mg l-1 concentration (T4) resulted in highest seed and oil yield by 80% and 15%, respectively. The seed yield increment was mainly due to enhanced number of siliques per plant when compared to control. The PBZ - treated plants displayed better photosynthetic leaf gas exchange characteristics, higher chlorophyll contents and possessed dark green leaves which were photosynthetically active for a longer period and facilitated higher photoassimilation. Conclusion We report for the first time that application of optimized PBZ dose can be a potential strategy to achieve higher seed and oil yield from Camelina sativa that holds great promise as a biofuel crop in future. PMID:22410213

  7. Glyphosate effect on shikimate, nitrate reductase activity, yield, and seed composition in corn.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Krishna N; Bellaloui, Nacer; Zablotowicz, Robert M

    2010-03-24

    When glyphosate is applied to glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, drift to nonglyphosate-resistant (non-GR) crops may cause significant injury and reduce yields. Tools are needed to quantify injury and predict crop losses. In this study, glyphosate drift was simulated by direct application at 12.5% of the recommended label rate to non-GR corn (Zea mays L.) at 3 or 6 weeks after planting (WAP) during two field seasons in the Mississippi delta region of the southeastern USA. Visual plant injury, shikimate accumulation, nitrate reductase activity, leaf nitrogen, yield, and seed composition were evaluated. Effects were also evaluated in GR corn and GR corn with stacked glufosinate-resistant gene at the recommended label rate at 3 and 6 WAP. Glyphosate at 105 g ae/ha was applied once at 3 or 6 weeks after planting to non-GR corn. Glyphosate at 840 (lower label limit) or 1260 (upper label limit) g ae/ha was applied twice at 3 and 6 WAP to transgenic corn. Glyphosate caused injury (45-55%) and increased shikimate levels (24-86%) in non-GR compared to nontreated corn. In non-GR corn, glyphosate drift did not affect starch content but increased seed protein 8-21% while reducing leaf nitrogen reductase activity 46-64%, leaf nitrogen 7-16%, grain yield 49-54%, and seed oil 18-23%. In GR and GR stacked with glufosinate-resistant corn, glyphosate applied at label rates did not affect corn yield, leaf and seed nitrogen, or seed composition (protein, oil, and starch content). Yet, nitrate reductase activity was reduced 5-19% with glyphosate at 840 + 840 g/ha rate and 8-42% with glyphosate at 1260 + 1260 g/ha rate in both GR and GR stacked corn. These results demonstrate the potential for severe yield loss in non-GR corn exposed to glyphosate drift. PMID:20180575

  8. Development of Kentucky Bluegrass for Non-Burn Seed Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A ban on burning of post-harvest grass seed residue has been implemented in Washington and Idaho and restrictions are in place in Oregon, USA. Without residue burning, Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) seed yield decreases over time. Growers have implemented yearly mechanical residue removal (ra...

  9. A photorespiratory bypass increases plant growth and seed yield in biofuel crop Camelina sativa

    SciTech Connect

    Dalal, Jyoti; Lopez, Harry; Vasani, Naresh B.; Hu, Zhaohui; Swift, Jennifer E.; Yalamanchili, Roopa; Dvora, Mia; Lin, Xiuli; Xie, Deyu; Qu, Rongda; Sederoff, Heike W.

    2015-10-29

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed crop with great potential for biofuel production on marginal land. The seed oil from camelina has been converted to jet fuel and improved fuel efficiency in commercial and military test flights. Hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel from camelina is environmentally superior to that from canola due to lower agricultural inputs, and the seed meal is FDA approved for animal consumption. However, relatively low yield makes its farming less profitable. Our study is aimed at increasing camelina seed yield by reducing carbon loss from photorespiration via a photorespiratory bypass. Genes encoding three enzymes of the Escherichia coli glycolate catabolic pathway were introduced: glycolate dehydrogenase (GDH), glyoxylate carboxyligase (GCL) and tartronic semialdehyde reductase (TSR). These enzymes compete for the photorespiratory substrate, glycolate, convert it to glycerate within the chloroplasts, and reduce photorespiration. As a by-product of the reaction, CO2 is released in the chloroplast, which increases photosynthesis. Camelina plants were transformed with either partial bypass (GDH), or full bypass (GDH, GCL and TSR) genes. Furthermore, transgenic plants were evaluated for physiological and metabolic traits.

  10. Chlorophyll content of soybean foliage in relation to seed yield and ambient ozone pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, E.; Leone, I.; Greenhalgh, B.; Smith, G.

    1987-12-01

    A field test was conducted to determine if ozone pollution adversely affected the chlorophyll content and seed yield of soybean. Eight soybean cultivars were grown to maturity in test plots in central New Jersey; one-half of the plots was treated with an antioxidant (ethylene-diurea) to protect the plants from the effects of ambient ozone and one half was left untreated. Periodic chlorophyll measurements revealed no significant difference between EDU-treated and untreated plots during the major part of plant growth. The absence of a yield effect predicated on the normal chlorophyll contents was corroborated by actual total seed measurement. Our results did not support predictive models that forecast a significant yield reduction from a 7-h seasonal mean of 0.058 ppm 0/sub 3/, but agreed with results obtained previously in Maryland and Georgia.

  11. Thiamethoxam Seed Treatments Have No Impact on Pest Numbers or Yield in Cultivated Sunflowers.

    PubMed

    Bredeson, Michael M; Lundgren, Jonathan G

    2015-12-01

    The use of neonicotinoid seed treatments is a nearly ubiquitous practice in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) pest management. Sunflowers have a speciose pest complex, but also harbor a diverse and abundant community of beneficial, nontarget organisms which may be negatively affected by pest management practices. Here, we investigate how the foliar and subterranean arthropod pest communities in sunflower fields were affected by a thiamethoxam seed treatment over three site years (two years on one farm, and another year at an additional field in the second year). Thiamethoxam and its metabolite clothianidin in leaf tissue were quantified throughout the growing season, and yield differences between treatments were measured. Across site years, foliar herbivores and key pests of sunflowers were unaffected by the seed treatment. Likewise, subterranean herbivores were unaffected. Thiamethoxam was measurable in leaf tissue through the R1 plant stage, while its metabolite clothianidin was detected throughout flowering (R6). No difference in sunflower yield was observed between treatments across site years. This research suggests that neonicotinoid seed treatments in sunflowers do not always provide economic benefits to farmers in the form of pest reductions or yield improvements. Future research should focus on sunflower integrated pest management strategies that limit nontarget effects of agrochemicals, while providing greater economic returns to farmers. PMID:26340223

  12. Super-optimal CO2 reduces seed yield but not vegetative growth in wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grotenhuis, T. P.; Bugbee, B.

    1997-01-01

    Although terrestrial atmospheric CO2 levels will not reach 1000 micromoles mol-1 (0.1%) for decades, CO2 levels in growth chambers and greenhouses routinely exceed that concentration. CO2 levels in life support systems in space can exceed 10000 micromoles mol-1(1%). Numerous studies have examined CO2 effects up to 1000 micromoles mol-1, but biochemical measurements indicate that the beneficial effects of CO2 can continue beyond this concentration. We studied the effects of near-optimal (approximately 1200 micromoles mol-1) and super-optimal CO2 levels (2400 micromoles mol-1) on yield of two cultivars of hydroponically grown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in 12 trials in growth chambers. Increasing CO2 from sub-optimal to near-optimal (350-1200 micromoles mol-1) increased vegetative growth by 25% and seed yield by 15% in both cultivars. Yield increases were primarily the result of an increased number of heads per square meter. Further elevation of CO2 to 2500 micromoles mol-1 reduced seed yield by 22% (P < 0.001) in cv. Veery-10 and by 15% (P < 0.001) in cv. USU-Apogee. Super-optimal CO2 did not decrease the number of heads per square meter, but reduced seeds per head by 10% and mass per seed by 11%. The toxic effect of CO2 was similar over a range of light levels from half to full sunlight. Subsequent trials revealed that super-optimal CO2 during the interval between 2 wk before and after anthesis mimicked the effect of constant super-optimal CO2. Furthermore, near-optimal CO2 during the same interval mimicked the effect of constant near-optimal CO2. Nutrient concentration of leaves and heads was not affected by CO2. These results suggest that super-optimal CO2 inhibits some process that occurs near the time of seed set resulting in decreased seed set, seed mass, and yield.

  13. Biomass, extracted liquid yields, sugar content or seed yields of biofuel feedstocks as affected by fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harvesting products from plants for conversion into renewable resources is increasing in importance. Determination of nutrition requirements for the applicable crops is necessary, especially in regions where the biofuel feedstock crops have not been grown historically. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus...

  14. The Effect of Soil Specific Seeding Rates on Water Stress and Cotton Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision management of cotton production can increase profitability by decreasing inputs. Reducing seeding rates in soils while maintaining production potential will decrease input costs and may improve lint quality in drought-stressed soils. The overall objective of this project is to improve co...

  15. Cross-country disparity in agricultural productivity: quantifying the role of modern seed adoption.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, Melanie; Pandey, Manish

    2010-01-01

    Inequality of agricultural labour productivity across the developing world has increased substantially over the past 40 years. This article asks: to what extent did the diffusion of Green Revolution seed varieties contribute to increasing agricultural labour productivity disparity across the developing countries? We find that 22 per cent of cross-country variation in agricultural labour productivity can be attributed to the diffusion of high-yielding seed varieties across countries, and that the impact of such diffusion differed significantly across regions. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy directed at increasing agricultural labour productivity in the developing world. PMID:21280414

  16. Insecticide use in hybrid onion seed production affects pre- and postpollination processes.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Sandra; Long, Rachael; Seitz, Nicola; Williams, Neal

    2014-02-01

    Research on threats to pollination service in agro-ecosystems has focused primarily on the negative impacts of land use change and agricultural practices such as insecticide use on pollinator populations. Insecticide use could also affect the pollination process, through nonlethal impacts on pollinator attraction and postpollination processes such as pollen viability or pollen tube growth. Hybrid onion seed (Allium cepa L., Alliaceae) is an important pollinator-dependent crop that has suffered yield declines in California, concurrent with increased insecticide use. Field studies suggest that insecticide use reduces pollination service in this system. We conducted a field experiment manipulating insecticide use to examine the impacts of insecticides on 1) pollinator attraction, 2) pollen/stigma interactions, and 3) seed set and seed quality. Select insecticides had negative impacts on pollinator attraction and pollen/stigma interactions, with certain products dramatically reducing pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Decreased pollen germination was not associated with reduced seed set; however, reduced pollinator attraction was associated with lower seed set and seed quality, for one of the two female lines examined. Our results highlight the importance of pesticide effects on the pollination process. Overuse may lead to yield reductions through impacts on pollinator behavior and postpollination processes. Overall, in hybrid onion seed production, moderation in insecticide use is advised when controlling onion thrips, Thrips tabaci, on commercial fields. PMID:24665681

  17. Seed yield and its components of indeterminate and determinate lines in recombinant inbred lines of soybean.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shin; Fujii, Kenichiro; Yumoto, Setsuzo; Ishimoto, Masao; Shiraiwa, Tatsuhiko; Sayama, Takashi; Kikuchi, Akio; Nishio, Takeshi

    2015-03-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the benefits of indeterminate growth habit in breeding to improve yield potential of Japanese soybean varieties, which exclusively have determinate growth habit. Two populations of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from crosses between determinate Japanese cultivars and indeterminate US cultivars were grown in Akita and Kyoto, and seed weight per plant (SW) and its components were compared between indeterminate and determinate RILs. The difference of SW between the two growth habits in RILs varied depending on maturation time. The SW of early indeterminate lines was significantly higher than that of early determinate ones in Akita, but not in Kyoto. Among yield components, the number of seeds per pod was constantly larger in indeterminate lines than that in determinate ones irrespective of maturation time. The number of seeds per plant and the number of pods per plant of the indeterminate lines were greater than those of the determinate lines in early maturation in Akita. These results suggest that the indeterminate growth habit is an advantageous characteristic in breeding for high yield of early maturing soybean varieties in the Tohoku region. PMID:26069445

  18. Improvement of plant growth and seed yield in Jatropha curcas by a novel nitrogen-fixing root associated Enterobacter species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Jatropha curcas L. is an oil seed producing non-leguminous tropical shrub that has good potential to be a fuel plant that can be cultivated on marginal land. Due to the low nutrient content of the targeted plantation area, the requirement for fertilizer is expected to be higher than other plants. This factor severely affects the commercial viability of J. curcas. Results We explored the feasibility to use endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria that are native to J. curcas to improve plant growth, biomass and seed productivity. We demonstrated that a novel N-fixing endophyte, Enterobacter sp. R4-368, was able to colonize in root and stem tissues and significantly promoted early plant growth and seed productivity of J. curcas in sterilized and non-sterilized soil. Inoculation of young seedling led to an approximately 57.2% increase in seedling vigour over a six week period. At 90 days after planting, inoculated plants showed an average increase of 25.3%, 77.7%, 27.5%, 45.8% in plant height, leaf number, chlorophyll content and stem volume, respectively. Notably, inoculation of the strain led to a 49.0% increase in the average seed number per plant and 20% increase in the average single seed weight when plants were maintained for 1.5 years in non-sterilized soil in pots in the open air. Enterobacter sp. R4-368 cells were able to colonize root tissues and moved systemically to stem tissues. However, no bacteria were found in leaves. Promotion of plant growth and leaf nitrogen content by the strain was partially lost in nifH, nifD, nifK knockout mutants, suggesting the presence of other growth promoting factors that are associated with this bacterium strain. Conclusion Our results showed that Enterobacter sp. R4-368 significantly promoted growth and seed yield of J. curcas. The application of the strains is likely to significantly improve the commercial viability of J. curcas due to the reduced fertilizer cost and improved oil yield. PMID:24083555

  19. Historical gains in soybean (Glycine max Merr.) seed yield are driven by linear increases in light interception, energy conversion, and partitioning efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Koester, Robert P; Skoneczka, Jeffrey A; Cary, Troy R; Diers, Brian W; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2014-07-01

    Soybean (Glycine max Merr.) is the world's most widely grown leguminous crop and an important source of protein and oil for food and feed. Soybean yields have increased substantially throughout the past century, with yield gains widely attributed to genetic advances and improved cultivars as well as advances in farming technology and practice. Yet, the physiological mechanisms underlying the historical improvements in soybean yield have not been studied rigorously. In this 2-year experiment, 24 soybean cultivars released between 1923 and 2007 were grown in field trials. Physiological improvements in the efficiencies by which soybean canopies intercepted light (εi), converted light energy into biomass (εc), and partitioned biomass into seed (εp) were examined. Seed yield increased by 26.5kg ha(-1) year(-1), and the increase in seed yield was driven by improvements in all three efficiencies. Although the time to canopy closure did not change in historical soybean cultivars, extended growing seasons and decreased lodging in more modern lines drove improvements in εi. Greater biomass production per unit of absorbed light resulted in improvements in εc. Over 84 years of breeding, soybean seed biomass increased at a rate greater than total aboveground biomass, resulting in an increase in εp. A better understanding of the physiological basis for yield gains will help to identify targets for soybean improvement in the future. PMID:24790116

  20. Historical gains in soybean (Glycine max Merr.) seed yield are driven by linear increases in light interception, energy conversion, and partitioning efficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Koester, Robert P.; Skoneczka, Jeffrey A.; Cary, Troy R.; Diers, Brian W.; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max Merr.) is the world’s most widely grown leguminous crop and an important source of protein and oil for food and feed. Soybean yields have increased substantially throughout the past century, with yield gains widely attributed to genetic advances and improved cultivars as well as advances in farming technology and practice. Yet, the physiological mechanisms underlying the historical improvements in soybean yield have not been studied rigorously. In this 2-year experiment, 24 soybean cultivars released between 1923 and 2007 were grown in field trials. Physiological improvements in the efficiencies by which soybean canopies intercepted light (εi), converted light energy into biomass (εc), and partitioned biomass into seed (εp) were examined. Seed yield increased by 26.5kg ha–1 year–1, and the increase in seed yield was driven by improvements in all three efficiencies. Although the time to canopy closure did not change in historical soybean cultivars, extended growing seasons and decreased lodging in more modern lines drove improvements in εi. Greater biomass production per unit of absorbed light resulted in improvements in εc. Over 84 years of breeding, soybean seed biomass increased at a rate greater than total aboveground biomass, resulting in an increase in εp. A better understanding of the physiological basis for yield gains will help to identify targets for soybean improvement in the future. PMID:24790116

  1. Characterization of Sucrose transporter alleles and their association with seed yield-related traits in Brassica napus L

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sucrose is the primary photosynthesis product and the principal translocating form within higher plants. Sucrose transporters (SUC/SUT) play a critical role in phloem loading and unloading. Photoassimilate transport is a major limiting factor for seed yield. Our previous research demonstrated that SUT co-localizes with yield-related quantitative trait loci. This paper reports the isolation of BnA7.SUT1 alleles and their promoters and their association with yield-related traits. Results Two novel BnA7.SUT1 genes were isolated from B. napus lines 'Eagle' and 'S-1300' and designated as BnA7.SUT1.a and BnA7.SUT1.b, respectively. The BnA7.SUT1 protein exhibited typical SUT features and showed high amino acid homology with related species. Promoters of BnA7.SUT1.a and BnA7.SUT1.b were also isolated and classified as pBnA7.SUT1.a and pBnA7.SUT1.b, respectively. Four dominant sequence-characterized amplified region markers were developed to distinguish BnA7.SUT1.a and BnA7.SUT1.b. The two genes were estimated as alleles with two segregating populations (F2 and BC1) obtained by crossing '3715'×'3769'. BnA7.SUT1 was mapped to the A7 linkage group of the TN doubled haploid population. In silico analysis of 55 segmental BnA7.SUT1 alleles resulted three BnA7.SUT1 clusters: pBnA7.SUT1.a- BnA7.SUT1.a (type I), pBnA7.SUT1.b- BnA7.SUT1.a (type II), and pBnA7.SUT1.b- BnA7.SUT1.b (type III). Association analysis with a diverse panel of 55 rapeseed lines identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in promoter and coding domain sequences of BnA7.SUT1 that were significantly associated with one of three yield-related traits: number of effective first branches (EFB), siliques per plant (SP), and seed weight (n = 1000) (TSW) across all four environments examined. SNPs at other BnA7.SUT1 sites were also significantly associated with at least one of six yield-related traits: EFB, SP, number of seeds per silique, seed yield per plant, block yield, and TSW. Expression levels

  2. Activity of meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) seed meal glucolimnanthin degradation products against soilborne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba L.) is a herbaceous winter-spring annual grown as a commercial oilseed crop. The meal remaining after oil extraction from the seed contains up to 4% of the glucosinolate glucolimnanthin. Degradation of glucolimnanthin yields toxic breakdown products, and therefore the mea...

  3. Alfalfa subsp. sativa by falcata intersubspecific semi-hybrid seed production using alfalfa leafcutter bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intersubspecific sativa by falcata alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hybrids offer a means of improving alfalfa dry matter yields. The alfalfa leafcutter bee (Megachile rotundata F.) is a major pollinator used in alfalfa seed production in North America. Alfalfa leafcutter bees have a pollinator prefer...

  4. Herbicide and Application Timing Influence Cutleaf Groundcherry Biomass and Seed Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate herbicide and application timing on cutleaf groundcherry population, biomass, seed production, and peanut yield. Treatments included: 1) a non-treated control; 2) hand pruning; 3) diclosulam applied preemergence (PRE) at 0.027 kg ai/ha alone; 4) paraquat...

  5. Phytotoxicity assay for seed production using Brassica rapa L.

    PubMed

    Olszyk, David; Pfleeger, Thomas; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2010-10-01

    Although pesticide drift can affect crop yield adversely, current plant testing protocols emphasize only the potential impacts on vegetative plant growth. The present study was conducted to determine whether a plant species with a short life cycle, such as Brassica rapa L. Wisconsin Fast Plants®, can be used to indicate potential effects on seed production of herbicides applied at relatively low levels (e.g., low field application rates [FAR]). The effects of ≤0.1 × FAR of aminopyralid, cloransulam, glyphosate, primisulfuron, or sulfometuron applied 14 d after emergence (DAE), were evaluated for B. rapa grown in mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Effects were expressed as the effective concentration of the herbicide producing a 25% reduction in a response (EC25) based on nonlinear regression. Brassica rapa seed dry weight was reduced by sulfometuron at an EC25 of 0.00014 × a field application rate (FAR) of 53 g active ingredient (a.i.) ha(-1), primisulfuron at 0.008 (experiment 1) or 0.0050 (experiment 2) × FAR of 40 g a.i. ha(-1), cloransulam at 0.022 × FAR of 18 g a.i. ha(-1), glyphosate at 0.0399 × FAR of 834 g a.i. ha(-1), and by aminopyralid at 0.005 × FAR of 123 g a.i. ha(-1), but only for 1 of 2 experiments. Reduced seed production occurred at less than the FAR that reduced shoot dry weight with sulfometuron and primisulfuron, whereas neither aminopyralid, cloransulam, nor glyphosate affected shoot dry weight. A short life cycle form of B. rapa could be used to indicate reduced seed production with plants grown only 1 week longer (∼35 DAE) than as the current vegetative vigor test for nontarget herbicide effects on plants. PMID:20872651

  6. Tomato seeds as a novel by-product feed for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cassinerio, C A; Fadel, J G; Asmus, J; Heguy, J M; Taylor, S J; DePeters, E J

    2015-07-01

    Whole tomato seeds, a novel by-product feedstuff, were fed to lactating Holstein cows to determine the nutritive value of whole tomato seeds by replacing whole cottonseed in the total mixed ration. Four primiparous and 4 multiparous Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design and fed 1 of 4 total mixed rations. Whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed on a weight-to-weight basis for lipid. The proportion of whole tomato seeds to whole cottonseed in the diets were 100:0, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100 on a lipid basis. Thus, tomato seeds were 4.0, 2.4, 1.1, and 0% of the ration dry matter, respectively. Milk yield and the concentrations and yields of protein, lactose, and solids-not-fat did not differ for the effect of diet. However, milk fat concentration decreased and milk fat yield tended to decrease as whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed. Intakes of dry matter, lipid, and crude protein did not differ. Whole-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter and ash-free neutral detergent fiber did not differ, but digestibility of total fatty acids and crude protein decreased with increasing proportion of whole tomato seeds. Urea concentration in milk and plasma both decreased with increasing whole tomato seeds. Fecal concentration of linoleic and α-linolenic acids increased with increasing whole tomato seeds, suggesting that seeds were passing out of the digestive tract undigested. The concentrations of C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 in milk fat had small increases, but their yields were not different, suggesting that only a small amount of whole-tomato-seed lipid might have been digested postruminally. Amounts of trans C18:1 fatty acids in milk fat were higher with increasing whole cottonseed, which might suggest a shift in rumen biohydrogenation pathways. At the level of feeding used in the current study, whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed in the diet of lactating dairy cows without a change in production. PMID:25981076

  7. Nectar and flower traits of different onion male sterile lines related to pollination efficiency and seed yield of F1 hybrids.

    PubMed

    Soto, Verónica C; Maldonado, Irma B; Gil, Raúl A; Peralta, Iris E; Silva, María F; Galmarini, Claudio R

    2013-06-01

    Honey bees are the main pollinators of onion crops for seed production, but owing to low attractiveness of flowers, pollination is often inadequate. Pollination problems result in low seed yields. This problem is accentuated when male sterile lines (MSL) are used to produce hybrid onion seeds. In this study, the effect of floral attributes and nectar composition on the preference of honey bees of four MSLs and one onion open pollinated cultivar were assessed. The chemical composition of nectar was described through the analysis of sugars, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, and phenol compounds. The samples studied showed qualitative and quantitative differences in the analyzed traits of flowers and nectar among the different lines. Furthermore, field observations showed a great difference on the number of bee visits and seed yield among the onion lines analyzed. For the first time, this study demonstrates that there are marked differences in the chemical composition of nectar and floral morphology between open pollinated and MSLs and also within MSLs. In addition, these differences were correlated with the number of visits and seed yield. Therefore, it would be possible to select indirectly the most promising productive MSL using simple determinations of chemical compounds or floral morphological characters. PMID:23865206

  8. Feasibility of Seed Production from Non-flowering Orchardgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-flowering or sparse flowering orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) would greatly simplify management of intensive rotational grazing systems. Our objective was to quantify seed production on non-flowering orchardgrass clones selected in cold-winter climates, but grown for seed in mild-winter cl...

  9. Organic matrix based slow release fertilizer enhances plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vinod K; Singh, Rana P

    2011-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of organic matrix based slow release fertilizers (SRFs) on plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield of Brassica juncea L. cv, pusa bold. The agro-waste materials like cow dung, clay soil, neem leaves and rice bran were mixed together in 2:2:1:1 ratio and used as organic matrix for the immobilization of chemical fertilizer nutrients with commercial grade saresh (Acacia gum, 15% solution) as binder. Different fertilizer treatments were organic matrix based slow release fertilizers, SRF-I (542.0 kg ha(-1)); SRF-II (736.5 kg ha(-1)) and chemical fertilizer combinations, boron (3 kg ha(-1))+sulphur (15 kg ha(-1))+nitrogen (80 kg ha(-1)) and boron (3 kg ha(-1)) + sulphur (15 kg ha(-1))+nitrogen (80 kg ha(-1))+phosphorus (15 kg ha(-1))+potassium (100 kg ha(-1)). Organic matrix based SRF-II released ammonium up to 50-d in wetsoil under laboratory conditions which showed maximum retention of the nutrients. Avery significant increase in plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield was recorded in organic matrix based SRF-II applied plants. The maximum percent increase in biomass production was observed with organic matrix based SRF-II (increase of 65.8% in root fresh weight, 38.0% in root dry weight, 45.9% in leaf fresh weight plant(-1) and 27.5 % in leaf dry weight plant(-1) in 60-d old plants). It also increased the acquisition and assimilation of nitrate from the plant's rhizosphere which was evident by 45.6% increase in nitrate, 27.5% in nitrite and 11.7% in nitrate reductase activity (NRA) in leaves of 45-d old plants over control. The organic matrix based SRF-II significantly increased the seed yield by 28% in Indian mustard. Cost analysis revealed thatthis formulation is cost effective as it is based on agro waste materials. PMID:22319878

  10. Ozone and density affect the response of biomass and seed yield to elevated CO2 in rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropospheric O3 reduces growth and yield of many crop species, whereas CO2 ameliorates the negative effects of O3. Thus in a combined elevated CO2 and O3 atmosphere, seed yield is at least restored to that of charcoal-filtered (CF) air at ambient CO2. The CO2-induced yield increase in CF air is hi...

  11. Canopy warming caused photosynthetic acclimation and reduced seed yield in maize grown at ambient and elevated [CO2 ].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Vera, Ursula M; Siebers, Matthew H; Drag, David W; Ort, Donald R; Bernacchi, Carl J

    2015-11-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2 ]) and attendant increases in growing season temperature are expected to be the most important global change factors impacting production agriculture. Although maize is the most highly produced crop worldwide, few studies have evaluated the interactive effects of elevated [CO2 ] and temperature on its photosynthetic physiology, agronomic traits or biomass, and seed yield under open field conditions. This study investigates the effects of rising [CO2 ] and warmer temperature, independently and in combination, on maize grown in the field throughout a full growing season. Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) technology was used to target atmospheric [CO2 ] to 200 μmol mol(-1) above ambient [CO2 ] and infrared heaters to target a plant canopy increase of 3.5 °C, with actual season mean heating of ~2.7 °C, mimicking conditions predicted by the second half of this century. Photosynthetic gas-exchange parameters, leaf nitrogen and carbon content, leaf water potential components, and developmental measurements were collected throughout the season, and biomass and yield were measured at the end of the growing season. As predicted for a C4 plant, elevated [CO2 ] did not stimulate photosynthesis, biomass, or yield. Canopy warming caused a large shift in aboveground allocation by stimulating season-long vegetative biomass and decreasing reproductive biomass accumulation at both CO2 concentrations, resulting in decreased harvest index. Warming caused a reduction in photosynthesis due to down-regulation of photosynthetic biochemical parameters and the decrease in the electron transport rate. The reduction in seed yield with warming was driven by reduced photosynthetic capacity and by a shift in aboveground carbon allocation away from reproduction. This field study portends that future warming will reduce yield in maize, and this will not be mitigated by higher atmospheric [CO2 ] unless appropriate adaptation traits can be introduced

  12. Registration of N6202 soybean germplasm with high protein, good yield potential, large seed and diverse pedigree

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘N6202’ soybean [Glycine max (L.,) Merr.] was cooperatively developed and released by the USDA-ARS and the North Carolina Agricultural Research Service in 2009 as a Maturity Group VI germplasm with high-protein seed, good yield potential, large-seed size, and diverse pedigree. The unusual combinati...

  13. Evaluating morpho-physiological and quality traits to compliment seed yield under changing climatic conditions in Brassicas.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pushp; Sardana, Virender

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted under irrigated conditions to test the performance of improved cultivars of Indian mustard (B. juncea), Gobhi sarson (B. napus) and African sarson (B. carinata) under changing climatic conditions. The effect of cultivar, environment and their interactions were significant in mustard and canola gobhi sarson. Environment had significant impact on all the studied traits except for leaf area index (LAI). Cultivar x Year (G x Y) interaction was significant for flowering behavior, days to maturity, SPAD, photosynthetic active radiations (PAR), growth parameters, yield components and yield except photosynthesis photochemical efficiency, relative water content (RWC) and LAI. Cultivar RLC1 surpassed other B. juncea cultivars for yield and had low erucic acid ('0') while GSL1 (non canola), Hyola PAC401 (hybrid canola) and GSC6 (canola) of B. napus were superior in performance for seed yield and possessed low erucic and glucosinolate content ('00'). Higher seed yield was associated with more number of total siliquae/plant, seed weight, biomass, seeds/siliqua, SPAD and RWC. Correlation coefficient revealed high positive association for seed yield with days to maturity (0.639**), plant height (0.982**), secondary branches (0.826**), total siliquae/plant (0.913**), seed weight (0.761**) andbiomass (0.891**). PMID:27498492

  14. Impact of Lygus spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) on damage, yield and quality of lesquerella (Physaria fendleri), a potential new oil-seed crop.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C; Dierig, David A

    2011-10-01

    Lesquerella, Physaria fendleri (A. Gray) S. Watson, is a mustard native to the western United States and is currently being developed as a commercial source of valuable hydroxy fatty acids that can be used in a number of industrial applications, including biolubricants, biofuel additives, motor oils, resins, waxes, nylons, plastics, corrosion inhibitors, cosmetics, and coatings. The plant is cultivated as a winter-spring annual and in the desert southwest it harbors large populations of arthropods, several of which could be significant pests once production expands. Lygus spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) are common in lesquerella and are known pests of a number of agronomic and horticultural crops where they feed primarily on reproductive tissues. A 4-yr replicated plot study was undertaken to evaluate the probable impact of Lygus spp. on production of this potential new crop. Plant damage and subsequent seed yield and quality were examined relative to variable and representative densities of Lygus spp. (0.3-4.9 insects per sweep net) resulting from variable frequency and timing of insecticide applications. Increasing damage to various fruiting structures (flowers [0.9-13.9%], buds [1.2-7.1%], and seed pods [19.4-42.5%]) was significantly associated with increasing pest abundance, particularly the abundance of nymphs, in all years. This damage, however, did not consistently translate into reductions in seed yield (481-1,336 kg/ha), individual seed weight (0.5-0.7 g per 1,000 seed), or seed oil content (21.8-30.4%), and pest abundance generally explained relatively little of the variation in crop yield and quality. Negative effects on yield were not sensitive to the timing of pest damage (early versus late season) but were more pronounced during years when potential yields were lower due to weed competition and other agronomic factors. Results suggest that if the crop is established and managed in a more optimal fashion, Lygus spp. may not significantly limit yield

  15. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-01-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change. PMID:27073598

  16. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds.

    PubMed

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-12-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change. PMID:27073598

  17. Stimulating Effects of Seed Treatment by Magnetized Plasma on Tomato Growth and Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Meiqiang; Huang, Mingjing; Ma, Buzhou; Ma, Tengcai

    2005-12-01

    Tomato seeds (Lycopersicon esculentum L. Mill. cv. zhongshu No. 6) were treated by magnetized plasma before being sown to investigate its effect on the growth and yield of tomatoes. Biochemical analysis showed that dehydrogenase activity increased with the increase of the current but decreased when the current was higher than 1.5 A. The activities of peroxidase (POD) isoenzyme changed in the same pattern. There was no difference in germination percentage between treatments and control, which were carried out in laboratory conditions. However, significant (α = 0.01) difference was observed in germination percentage in the pot experiment. In the pot experiment, the sprouting rate for the treatment with a 1.5 A current was 32.75%, whereas the untreated was only 4.75% on the eleventh day. Germination time is more than one day earlier than the control. The 1.5 A treatment increased the tomato yield by 20.7%.

  18. Gallium loading of gold seed for high yield of patterned GaAs nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Boulanger, J. P.; Chia, A. C. E.; LaPierre, R. R.

    2014-08-25

    A method is presented for maximizing the yield and crystal phase purity of vertically aligned Au-assisted GaAs nanowires grown with an SiO{sub x} selective area epitaxy mask on GaAs (111)B substrates. The nanowires were grown by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method in a gas source molecular beam epitaxy system. During annealing, Au VLS seeds will alloy with the underlying GaAs substrate and collect beneath the SiO{sub x} mask layer. This behavior is detrimental to obtaining vertically aligned, epitaxial nanowire growth. To circumvent this issue, Au droplets were pre-filled with Ga assuring vertical yields in excess of 99%.

  19. Impact of Biofumigation with Seed Meal on Plasticulture Strawberry Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was initiated in 2006 to study the effects of seed meals on weed control, soilborne diseases and strawberry yield. A trial with five replications and 13 treatments arranged in a randomized complete block design was established at the East Tennessee Research and Education Center in Knoxville...

  20. The Seeding and Cultivation of a Tropical Species of Filamentous Ulva for Algal Biomass Production

    PubMed Central

    Carl, Christina; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous species of Ulva are ideal for cultivation because they are robust with high growth rates and maintained across a broad range of environments. Temperate species of filamentous Ulva are commercially cultivated on nets which can be artificially ‘seeded’ under controlled conditions allowing for a high level of control over seeding density and consequently biomass production. This study quantified for the first time the seeding and culture cycle of a tropical species of filamentous Ulva (Ulva sp. 3) and identified seeding density and nursery period as key factors affecting growth and biomass yield. A seeding density of 621,000 swarmers m-1 rope in combination with a nursery period of five days resulted in the highest growth rate and correspondingly the highest biomass yield. A nursery period of five days was optimal with up to six times the biomass yield compared to ropes under either shorter or longer nursery periods. These combined parameters of seeding density and nursery period resulted in a specific growth rate of more than 65% day−1 between 7 and 10 days of outdoor cultivation post-nursery. This was followed by a decrease in growth through to 25 days. This study also demonstrated that the timing of harvest is critical as the maximum biomass yield of 23.0±8.8 g dry weight m−1 (228.7±115.4 g fresh weight m−1) was achieved after 13 days of outdoor cultivation whereas biomass degraded to 15.5±7.3 g dry weight m−1 (120.2±71.8 g fresh weight m−1) over a longer outdoor cultivation period of 25 days. Artificially seeded ropes of Ulva with high biomass yields over short culture cycles may therefore be an alternative to unattached cultivation in integrated pond-based aquaculture systems. PMID:24897115

  1. Herbicidal Activity of Glucosinolate Degradation Products in Fermented Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) Seed Meal

    PubMed Central

    STEVENS, JAN F.; REED, RALPH L.; ALBER, SUSAN; PRITCHETT, LARRY; MACHADO, STEPHEN

    2009-01-01

    Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) is an oilseed crop grown in western Oregon. After extraction of the oil from the seeds, the remaining seed meal contains 2-4% of the glucosinolate, glucolimnanthin. We investigated the effect of fermentation of seed meal on its chemical composition and the effect of the altered composition on downy brome (Bromus tectorum) coleoptile emergence. Incubation of enzyme-inactive seed meal with enzyme-active seeds (1% by weight) resulted in complete degradation of glucolimnanthin and formation of 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate in 28% yield. Fermentation in the presence of an aqueous solution of FeSO4 (10 mM) resulted in the formation of 3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile and 2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethanethioamide, a novel natural product. The formation of the isothiocyanate, the nitrile and the thioamide, as a total, correlated with an increase of herbicidal potency of seed meal (r2 = 0.96). The results of this study open new possibilities for the refinement of glucosinolate-containing seed meals for use as bioherbicides. PMID:19170637

  2. Hydrothermal transformation of Chinese privet seed biomass to gas-phase and semi-volatile products.

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, Thomas L; Catallo, W James; Shupe, Todd F

    2010-06-01

    Hydrothermal (HT) treatment of seeds from Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense), a non-native and invasive species in the southeastern United States, was examined with respect to the generation of gas-phase and semi-volatile organic chemicals of industrial importance from a lipid-rich biomass resource. Aqueous seed slurries were transformed into biphasic liquid systems comprised of a milky aqueous phase overlain by a black organic layer. Present in the headspace were elevated levels of CO(2) and acetic acid. Analysis of the semi-volatiles by GC-MS showed the formation of alkyl substituted benzenes, oxygenated cyclic alkenes, phenol, substituted phenolics, and alkyl substituted pyridines. Compared to immature seeds, mature seeds gave high relative amounts of oxygenated cyclic alkenes (cyclopentenones) and alkyl pyridines. The presence of fatty acids in the HT products likely resulted from both lipid hydrolysis reactions and the inherent stability of fatty acids under HT treatment conditions. Estimates of lignin and protein contents showed no definite trend that could be linked to the HT data. The proportion of aromatic HT products appeared to derive primarily from the proportion of extractives. Thus, variations in extractives yields impact HT product yields and thereby demonstrate the importance of timing in feedstock collection to favor targeted HT products. PMID:20149648

  3. Corn physiology, morphology, and yield response to hybrid and seeding rate in Mid-Missouri on a claypan soil: potential application for variable rate seeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn hybrids exhibit variable response of physiological, morphological, and yield parameters due to interactions with management factors such as seeding rate. The objective of this study was to examine corn development and physiological response across the growing season of multiple hybrids at a ran...

  4. The effect of organic solvent, temperature and mixing time on the production of oil from Moringa oleifera seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Q.; Yasin, N. H. M.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of three different organic solvent, temperature and mixing time on the production of oil from M.oleifera seeds were studied to evaluate the effectiveness in obtaining the high oil yield based on the percentage of oil production. The modified version of Soxhlet extraction method was carried out to extract the oil from M.oleifera seeds by using hexane, heptane and ethanol as the organic solvent. Among the three solvents, it is found that heptane yield higher oil from M.oleifera seeds with maximum oil yield of 36.37% was obtained followed by hexane and ethanol with 33.89% and 18.46%, respectively. By using heptane as a solvent, the temperature (60oC, 70oC, 80oC) and mixing time (6 h, 7 h, and 8 h) were investigated to ensure the high oil yield over the experimental ranges employed and high oil yield was obtained at 600C for 6 h with percentage oil yield of 36.37%. The fatty acid compositions of M.oleifera seeds oil were analyzed using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The main components of fatty acid contained in the oil extracted from M.oleifera seeds was oleic acid, followed by palmitic acid and arachidic acid, and small amount of behenic acid and margaric acid.

  5. Production of Biologically Active Cecropin A Peptide in Rice Seed Oil Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo, Esther; Campo, Sonia; Badosa, Esther; Rossignol, Michel; Montesinos, Emilio; San Segundo, Blanca; Coca, María

    2016-01-01

    Cecropin A is a natural antimicrobial peptide that exhibits fast and potent activity against a broad spectrum of pathogens and neoplastic cells, and that has important biotechnological applications. However, cecropin A exploitation, as for other antimicrobial peptides, is limited by their production and purification costs. Here, we report the efficient production of this bioactive peptide in rice bran using the rice oleosin 18 as a carrier protein. High cecropin A levels were reached in rice seeds driving the expression of the chimeric gene by the strong embryo-specific oleosin 18 own promoter, and targeting the peptide to the oil body organelle as an oleosin 18-cecropin A fusion protein. The accumulation of cecropin A in oil bodies had no deleterious effects on seed viability and seedling growth, as well as on seed yield. We also show that biologically active cecropin A can be easily purified from the transgenic rice seeds by homogenization and simple flotation centrifugation methods. Our results demonstrate that the oleosin fusion technology is suitable for the production of cecropin A in rice seeds, which can potentially be extended to other antimicrobial peptides to assist their exploitation. PMID:26760761

  6. Production of Biologically Active Cecropin A Peptide in Rice Seed Oil Bodies.

    PubMed

    Montesinos, Laura; Bundó, Mireia; Izquierdo, Esther; Campo, Sonia; Badosa, Esther; Rossignol, Michel; Montesinos, Emilio; San Segundo, Blanca; Coca, María

    2016-01-01

    Cecropin A is a natural antimicrobial peptide that exhibits fast and potent activity against a broad spectrum of pathogens and neoplastic cells, and that has important biotechnological applications. However, cecropin A exploitation, as for other antimicrobial peptides, is limited by their production and purification costs. Here, we report the efficient production of this bioactive peptide in rice bran using the rice oleosin 18 as a carrier protein. High cecropin A levels were reached in rice seeds driving the expression of the chimeric gene by the strong embryo-specific oleosin 18 own promoter, and targeting the peptide to the oil body organelle as an oleosin 18-cecropin A fusion protein. The accumulation of cecropin A in oil bodies had no deleterious effects on seed viability and seedling growth, as well as on seed yield. We also show that biologically active cecropin A can be easily purified from the transgenic rice seeds by homogenization and simple flotation centrifugation methods. Our results demonstrate that the oleosin fusion technology is suitable for the production of cecropin A in rice seeds, which can potentially be extended to other antimicrobial peptides to assist their exploitation. PMID:26760761

  7. High Yields for Enhanced Sustainable Feedstock Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globally, humankind is in the midst of one of the greatest technological, environmental, and social transitions since the industrial revolution as we strive to replace fossil energy with renewable sources. The Billion Ton Report established a target for U.S. bioenergy feedstock production and throug...

  8. Preparation of protein concentrates from whey and seed products

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, R.M.; Kohler, G.O.

    1980-01-01

    Whey is mixed with a seed product (e.g., cereal, legumes, oil seeds, flour, etc.) and the pH of the mixture adjusted to 9-10. The resultant mixture is treated to separate a juice from the fibrous residue; in a preferred embodiment of the subsequent process, a protein concentrate is recovered from the juice by adding an acid to it to adjust the pH to 3-4 and subsequently adding sodium hexametaphosphate in an amount sufficient to precipitate the protein product. After adjustment of the pH to 7, a protein concentrate may be obtained by drying the alkaline extract.

  9. Effect of enhanced UV-B radiation on pollen quantity, quality, and seed yield in Brassica rapa (Brassicaceae)

    SciTech Connect

    Demchik, S.M.; Day, T.A.

    1996-05-01

    Three experiments examined the influence of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B; 280-320 nm) exposure on reproduction in Brassica rapa (Brassicacaeae). Plants were grown in a greenhouse under three biologically effective UV-B levels that stimulated either an ambient stratospheric ozone level (control), 16% ({open_quotes}low enhanced{close_quotes}), or 32% ({open_quotes}high enhanced{close_quotes}) ozone depletion levels at Morgantown, WV, USA in mid-March. In the first experiment,pollen production and viability per flower were reduced by {approx}50% under both enhanced UV-B levels relative to ambient controls. While plants under high-enhanced UV-B produced over 40% more flowers than plants under the two lower UV-B treatments, whole-plant production of viable pollen was reduced under low-enhanced UV-B to 34% of ambient controls. In the second experiment, the influence of source-plant UV-B exposure on in vitro pollen from plants was examined and whether source-plant UV-B exposure influenced in vitro pollen germination and viability. Pollen from plants under both enhanced-UV-B was reduced from 65 to 18%. Viability of the pollen from plants grown under both enhanced UV-B treatments was reduced to a much lesser extent: only from {approx}43 to 22%. Thus, ambient source-plant pollen was more sensitive to enhanced UV-B levels to fertilize plants growing under ambient-UV-B levels, and assessed subsequent seed production and germination. Seed abortion rates were higher in plants pollinated with pollen from the enhanced UV-B treatments, than from ambient UV-B. Despite this, seed yield (number and mass) per plant was similar, regardless of the UV-B exposure of their pollen source. Our findings demonstrate that enhanced UV-B levels associated with springtime ozone depletion events have the capacity to substantially reduce viable pollen production, and could ultimately reduce reproductive success of B. rapa. 37 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. A substantial fraction of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) low phytic acid mutations have little or no effect on yield across diverse production environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential benefits of the low phytic acid (lpa) seed trait for human and animal nutrition, and for phosphorus management in non-ruminant animal production, are well documented. However, in many cases the lpa trait is associated with impaired seed or plant performance, resulting in reduced yield....

  11. Dependence of Isoprene SOA Yield on the Phase of Ammonium Sulfate Seed Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, J. P. S.; Lee, A.; Abbatt, J.

    2014-12-01

    Current atmospheric models have difficulty predicting the mass of ambient organic bearing particles, suggesting unidentified formation mechanisms. As well, there is growing evidence that the partitioning of water-soluble organic gases to particle-phase liquid water and their subsequent condensed-phase reactions can form additional SOA to that formed by more traditional mechanisms. While previous studies have investigated the formation of isoprene SOA under a range of relative humidity (RH) conditions, the role of particle-phase liquid water in SOA formation remains unclear. The objective of this work is to investigate the effects of particle-phase liquid water on isoprene SOA yield. SOA was generated from the OH oxidation of isoprene at RH 75% in the presence of either effloresced (i.e. dry) or deliquesced (i.e. wet) ammonium sulfate (AS) particles. Results suggest that SOA yield is enhanced for wet AS seed particles. The effects of particle acidity on SOA formation will be presented as well. These experimental results demonstrate the importance of particle-phase liquid water on the uptake of volatile organic gases and their contributions to SOA formation.

  12. [Effects of seeding-box total fertilization on rice yield and nitrogen loss].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ru-Liang; Li, You-Hong; Zhang, Ai-Ping; Wang, Fang; Zhao, Tian-Cheng; Chen, Chen; Hong, Yu; Yang, Zheng-Li

    2012-07-01

    By using seeding-box total fertilization technology, a two-year field plot experiment was conducted to study the effects of applying medium rate of controlled-release urea fertilizer (MN, 80 kg N x hm(-2)), high rate of controlled-release urea fertilizer (HN, 120 kg N x hm(-2)), and conventional urea fertilizer (FP, 300 kg N x hm(-2)) on rice yield and nitrogen loss. As compared with FP, HN did not decrease rice yield significantly, and MN and HN increased the two-year average nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) by 26.2% and 20.7%, respectively (the NUE in treatment FP was 33.2%). In treatment FP, the total N concentration in surface water peaked after 1-3 days of urea application; while in treatments MN and HN, the total N concentration in surfate water peaked after 7-9 days of urea application, and was significantly lower than that in treatment FP throughout the rice growth period. The nitrogen leaching loss in treatment FP mainly occurred at tillering stage, while that in treatments MN and HN delayed to tillering-flowering stage. In all treatments, the NO3(-)-N loss accounted for 59.7% - 64.2% of the total N loss. HN decreased the total N leaching loss by 51.8%, as compared with FP. PMID:23173459

  13. 7 CFR 201.72 - Production of all classes of certified seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production of all classes of certified seed. 201.72... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.72 Production of all classes of certified...

  14. 7 CFR 201.72 - Production of all classes of certified seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production of all classes of certified seed. 201.72... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.72 Production of all classes of certified...

  15. 7 CFR 201.72 - Production of all classes of certified seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production of all classes of certified seed. 201.72... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.72 Production of all classes of certified...

  16. 7 CFR 201.72 - Production of all classes of certified seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production of all classes of certified seed. 201.72... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.72 Production of all classes of certified...

  17. 7 CFR 201.72 - Production of all classes of certified seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production of all classes of certified seed. 201.72... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.72 Production of all classes of certified...

  18. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile.

    PubMed

    Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions. PMID:24152670

  19. Quantifying yield gaps in wheat production in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schierhorn, Florian; Faramarzi, Monireh; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Koch, Friedrich J.; Müller, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    Crop yields must increase substantially to meet the increasing demands for agricultural products. Crop yield increases are particularly important for Russia because low crop yields prevail across Russia’s widespread and fertile land resources. However, reliable data are lacking regarding the spatial distribution of potential yields in Russia, which can be used to determine yield gaps. We used a crop growth model to determine the yield potentials and yield gaps of winter and spring wheat at the provincial level across European Russia. We modeled the annual yield potentials from 1995 to 2006 with optimal nitrogen supplies for both rainfed and irrigated conditions. Overall, the results suggest yield gaps of 1.51-2.10 t ha-1, or 44-52% of the yield potential under rainfed conditions. Under irrigated conditions, yield gaps of 3.14-3.30 t ha-1, or 62-63% of the yield potential, were observed. However, recurring droughts cause large fluctuations in yield potentials under rainfed conditions, even when the nitrogen supply is optimal, particularly in the highly fertile black soil areas of southern European Russia. The highest yield gaps (up to 4 t ha-1) under irrigated conditions were detected in the steppe areas in southeastern European Russia along the border of Kazakhstan. Improving the nutrient and water supply and using crop breeds that are adapted to the frequent drought conditions are important for reducing yield gaps in European Russia. Our regional assessment helps inform policy and agricultural investors and prioritize research that aims to increase crop production in this important region for global agricultural markets.

  20. Reduced product yield in chemical processes by second law effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, C.; Funk, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of second law effects in chemical processes, where product yield is explicitly related to the individual irreversibilities within the process to indicate a maximum theoretical yield, is presented. Examples are given that indicate differences between first and second law approaches toward process efficiency and process yield. This analysis also expresses production capacity in terms of the heating value of a product. As a result, it is particularly convenient in analyzing fuel conversion plants and their potential for improvement. Relationships are also given for the effects of irreversibilities on requirements for process heat and for feedstocks.

  1. Reverse genetics vaccine seeds for influenza: Proof of concept in the source of PB1 as a determinant factor in virus growth and antigen yield.

    PubMed

    Gíria, Marta; Santos, Luís; Louro, João; Rebelo de Andrade, Helena

    2016-09-01

    Growth deficits of reverse genetics vaccine seeds have compromised effective immunization. The impairment has been attributed to sub-optimal protein interactions. Some level of dependence may exist between PB1 and antigenic glycoproteins, however, further research is necessary to clarify the extent to which it can be used in favor of seed production. Our objective was to establish proof of concept on the phenotypic outcome of PB1 source in the PR8: A(H1N1)pdm09 reassortants. Reassortants were generated with the gene constellation of the classical 6:2 PR8: HA, NApdm09 seed prototype and the 5:3 reassortant PR8: HA, NA, PB1pdm09. Viral growth and antigen yield were evaluated 12-60h post-infection. The 5:3 reassortant presented statistically significant growth and antigen yield improvements when compared to the 6:2. We believe these findings to be of promising value to vaccine research towards an improvement of reverse genetic seeds, an overall more cost-effective vaccine manufacture and timely delivery. PMID:27240145

  2. Effect of varying pH on protein composition and yield of amaranth seed (Amaranthus blitum).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Reema; Roy, Bijoy K

    2011-09-01

    The isolation procedure of the seed proteins of Amaranthus blitum have been analyzed at different pH conditions. Qualitative studies were carried out by using electrophoretic technique sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Mainly four protein fractions i.e. albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin were obtained. Protein isolates were prepared by (a) extraction at different alkaline pH (9, 10, 11 and 12) and precipitation atpH 5 and (b) extraction at pH 9 and precipitation atdifferentpH (4, 5, 6 and 7). The composition of isolates, prepared by method (a), depended on extraction pH. The isolate extracted at pH 8 was mainly composed of albumin and globulin, whereas at pH 9, 10 and 11 showed the presence of prolamin and glutelin. Electrophoretic pattern of different isolates had five major bands with molecular weight of 30, 45, 72, 84 and 90 kDt respectively. The increase of the extraction pH led to the increase in protein yield. With method (b) isolates obtained were variable in composition. At pH 7 albumin and prolamine were present, whereas at pH 4, 5 and 6 all 4 protein fractions were precipitated. According to the quantitative estimation of the albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin in the seed flour the contents were 26.4, 25, 5.81 and 42.7%, respectively. The results suggest that composition of protein isolates could be controlled by different extraction and precipitation pH. PMID:22319880

  3. The embryo and the endosperm contribute equally to argan seed oil yield but confer distinct lipid features to argan oil.

    PubMed

    Errouane, Kheira; Doulbeau, Sylvie; Vaissayre, Virginie; Leblanc, Olivier; Collin, Myriam; Kaid-Harche, Meriem; Dussert, Stéphane

    2015-08-15

    In the perspective of studying lipid biosynthesis in the argan seed, the anatomy, ploidy level and lipid composition of mature seed tissues were investigated using an experimental design including two locations in Algeria and four years of study. Using flow cytometry, we determined that mature argan seeds consist of two well-developed tissues, the embryo and the endosperm. The lipid content of the embryo was higher than that of the endosperm, but the dry weight of the endosperm was higher. Consequently, both tissues contribute equally to seed oil yield. Considerable differences in fatty acid composition were observed between the two tissues. In particular, the endosperm 18:2 percentage was twofold higher than that of the embryo. The tocopherol content of the endosperm was also markedly higher than that of the embryo. In contrast, the endosperm and the embryo had similar sterol and triterpene alcohol contents and compositions. PMID:25794750

  4. Deciphering and modifying LAFL transcriptional regulatory network in seed for improving yield and quality of storage compounds.

    PubMed

    Fatihi, Abdelhak; Boulard, Céline; Bouyer, Daniel; Baud, Sébastien; Dubreucq, Bertrand; Lepiniec, Loïc

    2016-09-01

    Increasing yield and quality of seed storage compounds in a sustainable way is a key challenge for our societies. Genome-wide analyses conducted in both monocot and dicot angiosperms emphasized drastic transcriptional switches that occur during seed development. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a reference species, genetic and molecular analyses have demonstrated the key role of LAFL (LEC1, ABI3, FUS3, and LEC2) transcription factors (TFs), in controlling gene expression programs essential to accomplish seed maturation and the accumulation of storage compounds. Here, we summarize recent progress obtained in the characterization of these LAFL proteins, their regulation, partners and target genes. Moreover, we illustrate how these evolutionary conserved TFs can be used to engineer new crops with altered seed compositions and point out the current limitations. Last, we discuss about the interest of investigating further the environmental and epigenetic regulation of this network for the coming years. PMID:27457996

  5. Cultural practices in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) affect weed seed production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Billions of dollars are lost annually due to weeds or weed control, but weeds persist. Successful weed management systems must reduce weed populations. The objectives of this research were to 1) determine if cotton row spacing has an impact on weed growth and seed production and 2) evaluate the infl...

  6. Competencies Needed by Seed Production and Distribution Company Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Charles Kendall

    To determine competencies needed by employees in the seed production and distribution industry, a questionnaire containing 49 competencies was compiled with the assistance of specialists and mailed to 100 company managers and 200 nonmanagerial employees. Returns from the 200 usable questionnaires indicate that the competencies needed most by…

  7. Seed Production from Non-flowering Orchardgrass: Proof of Concept

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-flowering or sparse flowering orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) would greatly simplify management of intensive rotational grazing systems in which flowering stems are an impediment to efficient pasture utilization. Our objective was to quantify seed production on non-flowering orchardgrass c...

  8. Allium acuminatum Seed Production: First Look at Cultural Parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a report on the first year data for a two year project assessing seed production parameters for the native forb Allium acuminatum. As a component of greater sage-grouse and Southern Idaho ground squirrel habitat, Allium acuminatum Hook. (Taper-tip onion) has been targeted for use in restor...

  9. Use of fiber and fuzz mutants to detect QTL for yield components, seed, and fiber traits of Upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the world’s leading fiber crop and an important source of protein and oil. The purpose of this research was to detect QTL or molecular markers associated with yield components, fiber, and seed traits within multiple fuzzless loci genetic backgrounds. Two F2 populations dev...

  10. Glufosinate effects on nitrogen nutrition growth yield and seed composition in glufosinate-resistant and glufosinate-sensitive soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glufosinate applied to glufosinate-resistant crops may drift and injure non-glufosinate-resistant crops. A 2-yr field study examined glufosinate effects on plant injury, chlorophyll content, nodulation, nitrogenase activity, leaf nitrogen, yield, and seed composition in soybean. Glufosinate drift wa...

  11. Ketocarotenoid Production in Soybean Seeds through Metabolic Engineering.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Emily C; LaFayette, Peter R; Ortega, María A; Joyce, Blake L; Kopsell, Dean A; Parrott, Wayne A

    2015-01-01

    The pink or red ketocarotenoids, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin, are used as feed additives in the poultry and aquaculture industries as a source of egg yolk and flesh pigmentation, as farmed animals do not have access to the carotenoid sources of their wild counterparts. Because soybean is already an important component in animal feed, production of these carotenoids in soybean could be a cost-effective means of delivery. In order to characterize the ability of soybean seed to produce carotenoids, soybean cv. Jack was transformed with the crtB gene from Pantoea ananatis, which codes for phytoene synthase, an enzyme which catalyzes the first committed step in the carotenoid pathway. The crtB gene was engineered together in combinations with ketolase genes (crtW from Brevundimonas sp. strain SD212 and bkt1 from Haematococcus pluvialis) to produce ketocarotenoids; all genes were placed under the control of seed-specific promoters. HPLC results showed that canthaxanthin is present in the transgenic seeds at levels up to 52 μg/g dry weight. Transgenic seeds also accumulated other compounds in the carotenoid pathway, such as astaxanthin, lutein, β-carotene, phytoene, α-carotene, lycopene, and β-cryptoxanthin, whereas lutein was the only one of these detected in non-transgenic seeds. The accumulation of astaxanthin, which requires a β-carotene hydroxylase in addition to a β-carotene ketolase, in the transgenic seeds suggests that an endogenous soybean enzyme is able to work in combination with the ketolase transgene. Soybean seeds that accumulate ketocarotenoids could potentially be used in animal feed to reduce or eliminate the need for the costly addition of these compounds. PMID:26376481

  12. Ketocarotenoid Production in Soybean Seeds through Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Emily C.; LaFayette, Peter R.; Ortega, María A.; Joyce, Blake L.; Kopsell, Dean A.; Parrott, Wayne A.

    2015-01-01

    The pink or red ketocarotenoids, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin, are used as feed additives in the poultry and aquaculture industries as a source of egg yolk and flesh pigmentation, as farmed animals do not have access to the carotenoid sources of their wild counterparts. Because soybean is already an important component in animal feed, production of these carotenoids in soybean could be a cost-effective means of delivery. In order to characterize the ability of soybean seed to produce carotenoids, soybean cv. Jack was transformed with the crtB gene from Pantoea ananatis, which codes for phytoene synthase, an enzyme which catalyzes the first committed step in the carotenoid pathway. The crtB gene was engineered together in combinations with ketolase genes (crtW from Brevundimonas sp. strain SD212 and bkt1 from Haematococcus pluvialis) to produce ketocarotenoids; all genes were placed under the control of seed-specific promoters. HPLC results showed that canthaxanthin is present in the transgenic seeds at levels up to 52 μg/g dry weight. Transgenic seeds also accumulated other compounds in the carotenoid pathway, such as astaxanthin, lutein, β-carotene, phytoene, α-carotene, lycopene, and β-cryptoxanthin, whereas lutein was the only one of these detected in non-transgenic seeds. The accumulation of astaxanthin, which requires a β-carotene hydroxylase in addition to a β-carotene ketolase, in the transgenic seeds suggests that an endogenous soybean enzyme is able to work in combination with the ketolase transgene. Soybean seeds that accumulate ketocarotenoids could potentially be used in animal feed to reduce or eliminate the need for the costly addition of these compounds. PMID:26376481

  13. Overexpression of the brassinosteroid biosynthetic gene DWF4 in Brassica napus simultaneously increases seed yield and stress tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, Sangita; Prasad, Bishun D.; Liu, Qing; Grbic, Vojislava; Sharpe, Andrew; Singh, Surinder P.; Krishna, Priti

    2016-01-01

    As a resource allocation strategy, plant growth and defense responses are generally mutually antagonistic. Brassinosteroid (BR) regulates many aspects of plant development and stress responses, however, genetic evidence of its integrated effects on plant growth and stress tolerance is lacking. We overexpressed the Arabidopsis BR biosynthetic gene AtDWF4 in the oilseed plant Brassica napus and scored growth and stress response phenotypes. The transgenic B. napus plants, in comparison to wild type, displayed increased seed yield leading to increased overall oil content per plant, higher root biomass and root length, significantly better tolerance to dehydration and heat stress, and enhanced resistance to necrotrophic fungal pathogens Leptosphaeria maculans and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Transcriptome analysis supported the integrated effects of BR on growth and stress responses; in addition to BR responses associated with growth, a predominant plant defense signature, likely mediated by BES1/BZR1, was evident in the transgenic plants. These results establish that BR can interactively and simultaneously enhance abiotic and biotic stress tolerance and plant productivity. The ability to confer pleiotropic beneficial effects that are associated with different agronomic traits suggests that BR–related genes may be important targets for simultaneously increasing plant productivity and performance under stress conditions. PMID:27324083

  14. Overexpression of the brassinosteroid biosynthetic gene DWF4 in Brassica napus simultaneously increases seed yield and stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Sahni, Sangita; Prasad, Bishun D; Liu, Qing; Grbic, Vojislava; Sharpe, Andrew; Singh, Surinder P; Krishna, Priti

    2016-01-01

    As a resource allocation strategy, plant growth and defense responses are generally mutually antagonistic. Brassinosteroid (BR) regulates many aspects of plant development and stress responses, however, genetic evidence of its integrated effects on plant growth and stress tolerance is lacking. We overexpressed the Arabidopsis BR biosynthetic gene AtDWF4 in the oilseed plant Brassica napus and scored growth and stress response phenotypes. The transgenic B. napus plants, in comparison to wild type, displayed increased seed yield leading to increased overall oil content per plant, higher root biomass and root length, significantly better tolerance to dehydration and heat stress, and enhanced resistance to necrotrophic fungal pathogens Leptosphaeria maculans and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Transcriptome analysis supported the integrated effects of BR on growth and stress responses; in addition to BR responses associated with growth, a predominant plant defense signature, likely mediated by BES1/BZR1, was evident in the transgenic plants. These results establish that BR can interactively and simultaneously enhance abiotic and biotic stress tolerance and plant productivity. The ability to confer pleiotropic beneficial effects that are associated with different agronomic traits suggests that BR-related genes may be important targets for simultaneously increasing plant productivity and performance under stress conditions. PMID:27324083

  15. Growth, pod, and seed yield, and gas exchange of hydroponically grown peanut in response to CO2 enrichment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanciel, K.; Mortley, D. G.; Hileman, D. R.; Loretan, P. A.; Bonsi, C. K.; Hill, W. A.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of elevated CO2 on growth, pod, and seed yield, and gas exchange of 'Georgia Red' peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) were evaluated under controlled environmental conditions. Plants were exposed to concentrations of 400 (ambient), 800, and 1200 micromoles mol-1 CO2 in reach-in growth chambers. Foliage fresh and dry weights increased with increased CO2 up to 800 micromoles mol-1, but declined at 1200 micromoles mol-1. The number and the fresh and dry weights of pods also increased with increasing CO2 concentration. However, the yield of immature pods was not significantly influenced by increased CO2. Total seed yield increased 33% from ambient to 800 micromoles mol-1 CO2, and 4% from 800 to 1200 micromoles mol-1 CO2. Harvest index increased with increasing CO2. Branch length increased while specific leaf area decreased linearly as CO2 increased from ambient to 1200 micromoles mol-1. Net photosynthetic rate was highest among plants grown at 800 micromoles mol-1. Stomatal conductance decreased with increased CO2. Carboxylation efficiency was similar among plants grown at 400 and 800 micromoles mol-1 and decreased at 1200 micromoles mol-1 CO2. These results suggest that CO2 enrichment from 400 to 800 micromoles mol-1 had positive effects on peanut growth and yield, but above 800 micromoles mol-1 enrichment seed yield increased only marginally.

  16. Seed Production Affects Maternal Growth and Senescence in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wuest, Samuel Elias; Philipp, Matthias Anton; Guthörl, Daniela; Schmid, Bernhard; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2016-05-01

    Correlative control (influence of one organ over another organ) of seeds over maternal growth is one of the most obvious phenotypic expressions of the trade-off between growth and reproduction. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we characterize the physiological and molecular effects of correlative inhibition by seeds on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inflorescences, i.e. global proliferative arrest (GPA) during which all maternal growth ceases upon the production of a given number of seeds. We observed transcriptional responses to growth- and branching-inhibitory hormones, and low mitotic activity in meristems upon GPA, but found that meristems retain their identity and proliferative potential. In shoot tissues, we detected the induction of stress- and senescence-related gene expression upon fruit production and GPA, and a drop in chlorophyll levels, suggestive of altered source-sink relationships between vegetative shoot and reproductive tissues. Levels of shoot reactive oxygen species, however, strongly decreased upon GPA, a phenomenon that is associated with bud dormancy in some perennials. Indeed, gene expression changes in arrested apical inflorescences after fruit removal resembled changes observed in axillary buds following release from apical dominance. This suggests that GPA represents a form of bud dormancy, and that dominance is gradually transferred from growing inflorescences to maturing seeds, allowing offspring control over maternal resources, simultaneously restricting offspring number. This would provide a mechanistic explanation for the constraint between offspring quality and quantity. PMID:27009281

  17. Estimating seed production of common plants in seasonally flooded wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laubhan, Murray K.; Fredrickson, Leigh H.

    1992-01-01

    We developed a technique to quickly estimate seed production of common moist-soil plants because previously reported methods were too time consuming to be of value to waterfowl resource managers. Eleven regression equations were developed for 13 plant species in the upper Mississippi Alluvial Valley and the Rio Grande Valley, New Mexico. Estimated time to collect a sample was 1.5 minutes. Easily measured vegetation characteristics such as inflorescence number, inflorescence length, and plant height were used as independent variables to estimate seed mass of known mass samples. Coefficients of determination (R2) ranged from 0.79 for rice flatsedge (Cyperus iria) to 0.96 for smartweeds (Polygonum spp.). The accuracy and precision of equations tested using independent data indicate that the technique can be used to detect changes in seed mass of moist-soil plants in seasonally flooded impoundments. Because of the small sample area per plot used (0.0625 m2) and changes in the density of plants within an impoundment, we recommend that as many samples as economically feasible be collected to reliably estimate seed production.

  18. Ascosporic fertilization of Epichloe typhina in Dactylis glomerata seed production fields in Oregon and implications for choke management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epichloe typhina, cause of choke disease of orchardgrass is a newly emerged fungal pathogen that causes significant yield losses in orchardgrass seed production fields in Oregon. Experiments were conducted to determine whether ascospores of E. typhina could function as spermatia and fertilize stroma...

  19. Cutleafgroundcherry (physalis angulata) density, biomass and seed production in peanut (arachis hypogaea L.) following regrowth due to inadequate control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate herbicide and application timing on cutleaf groundcherry density, biomass, seed production, and crop yield in a peanut system. Treatments included: 1) a non-treated control; 2) hand pruning; 3) diclosulam applied preemergence (PRE) alone at 0.027 kg ai h...

  20. Characterization of volatile production during storage of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The duration that seeds stay vigorous during storage is difficult to predict but critical to seed industry and conservation communities. Production of volatile compounds from lettuce seeds during storage was investigated as a non-invasive and early detection method of seed aging rates. Over thirty...

  1. Automated yield forecasting in a high product mix ASIC facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, Duane; Giewont, Mark; Hanson, Jeff; Shen, Jun

    2005-05-01

    Yield forecasting is a key component in running a successful semiconductor fab. It is also a significant challenge for facilities such as ASIC houses, which fabricate a wide range of devices using multiple technologies. Yield forecasting takes on increased significance in these environments, with new products introduced frequently and many products running only in small numbers. An accurate yield prediction system can greatly accelerate the process of identifying design bugs, test program issues and process integration problems. To this end, we have constructed a forecasting model geared for our ASIC manufacturing line. The model will accommodate an arbitrary number of design and/or process elements, each with an associated defectivity term. In addition, we have automated the generation of the yield forecast through passively linking to the already existing EDA design tools and scripts used by LSI Logic. Once the model is constructed, an automated query engine can extract the design and process parameters for any requested device, insert the data into the forecasting model, and deliver the resulting yield prediction. The actual yield for any lot or group of lots may thus be compared to the forecast, greatly assisting yield enhancement activities. This is especially useful for prototype lots and low-volume devices, for which it eliminates a great deal of manual computation and searching of design files. Using the model in conjunction with the query engine, any deviations from expected yield performance are generated automatically, quickly and efficiently highlighting opportunities for improvement.

  2. Heat stress yields a unique MADS box transcription factor in determining seed size and thermal sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Begcy, Kevin; Liu, Kan; Folsom, Jing J; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Chi; Walia, Harkamal

    2016-05-01

    Early seed development events are highly sensitive to increased temperature. This high sensitivity to a short-duration temperature spike reduces seed viability and seed size at maturity. The molecular basis of heat stress sensitivity during early seed development is not known. We selected rice (Oryza sativa), a highly heat-sensitive species, to explore this phenomenon. Here, we elucidate the molecular pathways that contribute to the heat sensitivity of a critical developmental window during which the endosperm transitions from syncytium to the cellularization stage in young seeds. A transcriptomic comparison of seeds exposed to moderate (35°C) and severe (39°C) heat stress with control (28°C) seeds identified a set of putative imprinted genes, which were down-regulated under severe heat stress. Several type I MADS box genes specifically expressed during the syncytial stage were differentially regulated under moderate and severe heat stress. The suppression and overaccumulation of these genes are associated with precocious and delayed cellularization under moderate and severe stress, respectively. We show that modulating the expression of OsMADS87, one of the heat-sensitive, imprinted genes associated with syncytial stage endosperm, regulates rice seed size. Transgenic seeds deficient in OsMADS87 exhibit accelerated endosperm cellularization. These seeds also have lower sensitivity to a moderate heat stress in terms of seed size reduction compared with seeds from wild-type plants and plants overexpressing OsMADS87 Our findings suggest that OsMADS87 and several other genes identified in this study could be potential targets for improving the thermal resilience of rice during reproductive development. PMID:26936896

  3. Yield and size of oyster mushroom grown on rice/wheat straw basal substrate supplemented with cotton seed hull.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenjie; Guo, Fengling; Wan, Zhengjie

    2013-10-01

    Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was cultivated on rice straw basal substrate, wheat straw basal substrate, cotton seed hull basal substrate, and wheat straw or rice straw supplemented with different proportions (15%, 30%, and 45% in rice straw substrate, 20%, 30%, and 40% in wheat straw substrate) of cotton seed hull to find a cost effective substrate. The effect of autoclaved sterilized and non-sterilized substrate on growth and yield of oyster mushroom was also examined. Results indicated that for both sterilized substrate and non-sterilized substrate, oyster mushroom on rice straw and wheat basal substrate have faster mycelial growth rate, comparatively poor surface mycelial density, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation, lower yield and biological efficiency, lower mushroom weight, longer stipe length and smaller cap diameter than that on cotton seed hull basal substrate. The addition of cotton seed hull to rice straw and wheat straw substrate slowed spawn running, primordial development and fruit body formation. However, increasing the amount of cotton seed hull can increase the uniformity and white of mycelium, yield and biological efficiency, and increase mushroom weight, enlarge cap diameter and shorten stipe length. Compared to the sterilized substrate, the non-sterilized substrate had comparatively higher mycelial growth rate, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation. However, the non-sterilized substrate did not gave significantly higher mushroom yield and biological efficiency than the sterilized substrate, but some undesirable characteristics, i.e. smaller mushroom cap diameter and relatively long stipe length. PMID:24235869

  4. Yield and size of oyster mushroom grown on rice/wheat straw basal substrate supplemented with cotton seed hull

    PubMed Central

    Yang, WenJie; Guo, FengLing; Wan, ZhengJie

    2013-01-01

    Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was cultivated on rice straw basal substrate, wheat straw basal substrate, cotton seed hull basal substrate, and wheat straw or rice straw supplemented with different proportions (15%, 30%, and 45% in rice straw substrate, 20%, 30%, and 40% in wheat straw substrate) of cotton seed hull to find a cost effective substrate. The effect of autoclaved sterilized and non-sterilized substrate on growth and yield of oyster mushroom was also examined. Results indicated that for both sterilized substrate and non-sterilized substrate, oyster mushroom on rice straw and wheat basal substrate have faster mycelial growth rate, comparatively poor surface mycelial density, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation, lower yield and biological efficiency, lower mushroom weight, longer stipe length and smaller cap diameter than that on cotton seed hull basal substrate. The addition of cotton seed hull to rice straw and wheat straw substrate slowed spawn running, primordial development and fruit body formation. However, increasing the amount of cotton seed hull can increase the uniformity and white of mycelium, yield and biological efficiency, and increase mushroom weight, enlarge cap diameter and shorten stipe length. Compared to the sterilized substrate, the non-sterilized substrate had comparatively higher mycelial growth rate, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation. However, the non-sterilized substrate did not gave significantly higher mushroom yield and biological efficiency than the sterilized substrate, but some undesirable characteristics, i.e. smaller mushroom cap diameter and relatively long stipe length. PMID:24235869

  5. The potential of residues of furfural and biogas as calcareous soil amendments for corn seed production.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunchen; Yan, Zhibin; Qin, Jiahai; Ma, Zhijun; Zhang, Youfu; Zhang, Li

    2016-04-01

    Intensive corn seed production in Northwest of China produced large amounts of furfural residues, which represents higher treatment cost and environmental issue. The broad calcareous soils in the Northwest of China exhibit low organic matter content and high pH, which led to lower fertility and lower productivity. Recycling furfural residues as soil organic and nutrient amendment might be a promising agricultural practice to calcareous soils. A 3-year field study was conducted to evaluate the effects of furfural as a soil amendment on corn seed production on calcareous soil with compared to biogas residues. Soil physical-chemical properties, soil enzyme activities, and soil heavy metal concentrations were assessed in the last year after the last application. Corn yield was determined in each year. Furfural residue amendments significantly decreased soil pH and soil bulk density. Furfural residues combined with commercial fertilizers resulted in the greater cumulative on soil organic matter, total phosphorus, available phosphorus, available potassium, and cation exchange capacity than that of biogas residue. Simultaneously, urease, invertase, catalase, and alkaline phosphatase increased even at the higher furfural application rates. Maize seed yield increased even with lower furfural residue application rates. Furfural residues resulted in lower Zn concentration and higher Cd concentration than that of biogas residues. Amendment of furfural residues led to higher soil electrical conductivity (EC) than that of biogas residues. The addition of furfural residues to maize seed production may be considered to be a good strategy for recycling the waste, converting it into a potential resource as organic amendment in arid and semi-arid calcareous soils, and may help to reduce the use of mineral chemical fertilizers in these soils. However, the impact of its application on soil health needs to be established in long-term basis. PMID:26606935

  6. Lesquerella seed yield estimation using color image segmentation to track flowering dynamics under water and nitrogen limitation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed oil from lesquerella (Physaria fendleri (Gray) O'Kane & Al-Shehbaz) can potentially supplement castor oil as a non-petroleum-based chemical feedstock in the production of many industrial products. However, before lesquerella will become commercially viable, further efforts are needed to address...

  7. Switchgrass yield on reclaimed surface mines for bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Marra, Michael; Keene, Travis; Skousen, Jeff; Griggs, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The high cost of transportation fuels and the environmental risks associated with acquiring and using nonrenewable energy sources have created a demand for developing renewable bioenergy crops. Switchgrass ( L.), a warm-season perennial grass, is a promising feedstock due to its high biomass production under a wide range of growing conditions and its satisfactory forage quality and chemical composition. West Virginia contains vast expanses of reclaimed surface mine lands that could be used to produce switchgrass as a bioenergy feedstock. This study determined dry matter yields of three switchgrass varieties (Cave-In-Rock, Shawnee, and Carthage) during the second to fourth years of production. Two research sites were established on reclaimed surface mines in southern West Virginia: Hobet and Hampshire. The Hobet site was prepared using crushed, unweathered sandstone as the soil material, and yields were significantly lower at 803 kg ha averaged across varieties and years than annual yields at Hampshire. The highest yield at Hobet, with Shawnee in the third year, was 1964 kg ha. The Hamphire site, which was reclaimed in the late 1990s using topsoil and treated municipal sludge, averaged 5760 kg ha of switchgrass across varieties and years. The highest yield, obtained with Cave-in-Rock during the third year, was 9222 kg ha. Switchgrass yields on agricultural lands in this region averaged 12,000 kg ha. Although average switchgrass yields at Hampshire were about 50% lower than agricultural lands, they were greater than a target yield of 5000 kg ha, a threshold for economically feasible production. Yields during the fourth year from a two-harvest per year system were not significantly different from a single, end-of-year harvest at both sites. Reclaimed lands show promise for growing bioenergy crops such as switchgrass on areas where topsoil materials are replaced and amended like that at the Hampshire site. PMID:23673936

  8. SU-E-T-602: Beryllium Seeds Implant for Photo-Neutron Yield Using External Beam Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Koren, S; Veltchev, I; Furhang, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the Neutron yield obtained during prostate external beam irradiation. Methods: Neutrons, that are commonly a radiation safety concern for photon beams with energy above 10 MV, are induced inside a PTV from Beryllium implemented seeds. A high megavoltage photon beam delivered to a prostate will yield neutrons via the reaction Be-9(γ,n)2?. Beryllium was chosen for its low gamma,n reaction cross-section threshold (1.67 MeV) to be combined with a high feasible 25 MV photon beam. This beam spectra has a most probable photon energy of 2.5 to 3.0 MeV and an average photon energy of about 5.8 MeV. For this feasibility study we simulated a Beryllium-made common seed dimension (0.1 cm diameter and 0.5 cm height) without taking into account encapsulation. We created a 0.5 cm grid loading pattern excluding the Urethra, using Variseed (Varian inc.) A total of 156 seeds were exported to a 4cm diameter prostate sphere, created in Fluka, a particle transport Monte Carlo Code. Two opposed 25 MV beams were simulated. The evaluation of the neutron dose was done by adjusting the simulated photon dose to a common prostate delivery (e.g. 7560 cGy in 42 fractions) and finding the corresponding neutron dose yield from the simulation. A variance reduction technique was conducted for the neutrons yield and transported. Results: An effective dose of 3.65 cGy due to neutrons was found in the prostate volume. The dose to central areas of the prostate was found to be about 10 cGy. Conclusion: The neutron dose yielded does not justify a clinical implant of Beryllium seeds. Nevertheless, one should investigate the Neutron dose obtained when a larger Beryllium loading is combined with commercially available 40 MeV Linacs.

  9. Seed-specific expression of the wheat puroindoline genes improves maize wet milling yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The texture of maize (Zea mays L.) seeds is important to seed processing properties, and soft dent maize is preferred for both wet-milling and livestock feed applications. The puroindoline genes (Pina and Pinb) are the functional components of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) hardness locus and tog...

  10. Variation in Yield of Near-isogenic Soybean Lines for High and Low Seed Coat Peroxidase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peroxidase is an enzyme present in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] seed coats and is characterized as either high (dominant allele) or low (recessive allele) activity. Cultivar Cutler 71 is a mixture of high and low seed coat peroxidase genotypes. Mechanical mixtures of 1 high: 1 low peroxidase...

  11. Transgenic tobacco overexpressing Brassica juncea HMG-CoA synthase 1 shows increased plant growth, pod size and seed yield.

    PubMed

    Liao, Pan; Wang, Hui; Wang, Mingfu; Hsiao, An-Shan; Bach, Thomas J; Chye, Mee-Len

    2014-01-01

    Seeds are very important not only in the life cycle of the plant but they represent food sources for man and animals. We report herein a mutant of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMGS), the second enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway that can improve seed yield when overexpressed in a phylogenetically distant species. In Brassica juncea, the characterisation of four isogenes encoding HMGS has been previously reported. Enzyme kinetics on recombinant wild-type (wt) and mutant BjHMGS1 had revealed that S359A displayed a 10-fold higher enzyme activity. The overexpression of wt and mutant (S359A) BjHMGS1 in Arabidopsis had up-regulated several genes in sterol biosynthesis, increasing sterol content. To quickly assess the effects of BjHMGS1 overexpression in a phylogenetically more distant species beyond the Brassicaceae, wt and mutant (S359A) BjHMGS1 were expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi) of the family Solanaceae. New observations on tobacco OEs not previously reported for Arabidopsis OEs included: (i) phenotypic changes in enhanced plant growth, pod size and seed yield (more significant in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1) in comparison to vector-transformed tobacco, (ii) higher NtSQS expression and sterol content in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1 corresponding to greater increase in growth and seed yield, and (iii) induction of NtIPPI2 and NtGGPPS2 and downregulation of NtIPPI1, NtGGPPS1, NtGGPPS3 and NtGGPPS4. Resembling Arabidopsis HMGS-OEs, tobacco HMGS-OEs displayed an enhanced expression of NtHMGR1, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Overall, increased growth, pod size and seed yield in tobacco HMGS-OEs were attributed to the up-regulation of native NtHMGR1, NtIPPI2, NtSQS, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Hence, S359A has potential in agriculture not only in improving phytosterol content but also seed yield, which may be desirable in food crops. This work further demonstrates HMGS function in plant reproduction

  12. Transgenic Tobacco Overexpressing Brassica juncea HMG-CoA Synthase 1 Shows Increased Plant Growth, Pod Size and Seed Yield

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Pan; Wang, Hui; Wang, Mingfu; Hsiao, An-Shan; Bach, Thomas J.; Chye, Mee-Len

    2014-01-01

    Seeds are very important not only in the life cycle of the plant but they represent food sources for man and animals. We report herein a mutant of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMGS), the second enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway that can improve seed yield when overexpressed in a phylogenetically distant species. In Brassica juncea, the characterisation of four isogenes encoding HMGS has been previously reported. Enzyme kinetics on recombinant wild-type (wt) and mutant BjHMGS1 had revealed that S359A displayed a 10-fold higher enzyme activity. The overexpression of wt and mutant (S359A) BjHMGS1 in Arabidopsis had up-regulated several genes in sterol biosynthesis, increasing sterol content. To quickly assess the effects of BjHMGS1 overexpression in a phylogenetically more distant species beyond the Brassicaceae, wt and mutant (S359A) BjHMGS1 were expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi) of the family Solanaceae. New observations on tobacco OEs not previously reported for Arabidopsis OEs included: (i) phenotypic changes in enhanced plant growth, pod size and seed yield (more significant in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1) in comparison to vector-transformed tobacco, (ii) higher NtSQS expression and sterol content in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1 corresponding to greater increase in growth and seed yield, and (iii) induction of NtIPPI2 and NtGGPPS2 and downregulation of NtIPPI1, NtGGPPS1, NtGGPPS3 and NtGGPPS4. Resembling Arabidopsis HMGS-OEs, tobacco HMGS-OEs displayed an enhanced expression of NtHMGR1, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Overall, increased growth, pod size and seed yield in tobacco HMGS-OEs were attributed to the up-regulation of native NtHMGR1, NtIPPI2, NtSQS, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Hence, S359A has potential in agriculture not only in improving phytosterol content but also seed yield, which may be desirable in food crops. This work further demonstrates HMGS function in plant reproduction

  13. Comparison of gamma ray and electron beam irradiation on extraction yield, morphological and antioxidant properties of polysaccharides from tamarind seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Srinivasan, Periasamy; Kim, Jae-Hun; Park, Hyun-Jin; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Tamarind ( Tamarindus indica L) seed polysaccharide (TSP) is of great important due to its various biological activities. The present investigation was carried out to compare extraction yield, morphological characteristics, average molecular weights and antioxidant activities of TSP from gamma- and electron beam (EB)-irradiated tamarind kernel powder. The tamarind kernel powder was irradiated with 0, 5 and 10 kGy by gamma ray (GR) and electron beam, respectively. The extraction yield of TSP was increased significantly by EB and GR irradiation, but there was no significant difference between irradiation types. Morphological studies by scanning electron microscope showed that TSP from GR-irradiated tamarind seed had a fibrous structure, different from that of EB irradiated with a particle structures. The average molecular weight of TSP was decreased by the irradiation, and EB treatment degraded more severely than GR. Superoxide radical scavenging ability and total antioxidant capacity of EB-treated TSP showed higher than those of GR-treated TSP.

  14. 7 CFR 52.1842 - Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds. 52.1842 Section 52.1842 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL... Raisins 1 § 52.1842 Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds. Raisins with Seeds...

  15. 7 CFR 52.1842 - Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds. 52.1842 Section 52.1842 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL... Raisins 1 § 52.1842 Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds. Raisins with Seeds...

  16. 7 CFR 52.1842 - Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds. 52.1842 Section 52.1842 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL... Raisins 1 § 52.1842 Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds. Raisins with Seeds...

  17. Effects of UV-B radiation on soybean yield and seed quality: A six-year field study

    SciTech Connect

    Teramura, A.H.; Sullivan, J.H.; Lydon, J.

    1990-01-01

    Two soybean, (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivars, Essex and Williams, were grown in the field for 6 consecutive seasons under ambient and supplemental levels of ultraviolet-B radiation to determine the potential for alterations in yield or seed quality with a reduction in the stratospheric ozone column. The supplemental UV-B fluences simulated a 16 or 25% ozone depletion. The data presented here represent the first field experiment conducted over multiple seasons which assesses the effects of increased UV-B radiation on seed yield. Overall, the cultivar Essex was found to be sensitive to UV-B radiation (yield reductions of 20%) while the cultivar Williams was tolerant. However, the effectiveness of UV-B radiation in altering yield was strongly influenced by the seasonal microclimate, and the 2 cultivars responded differently to these changing factors. Yield was reduced most in Essex during seasons in which water availability was high and was reduced in Williams only when water was severely limiting. The results of the experiments demonstrate the necessity for multiple-year experiments and the need to increase understanding of the interaction between UV-B radiation and other environmental stresses in order to assess the potential consequences of stratospheric ozone depletion.

  18. Products and yields from O3 photodissociation at 1576 A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taherian, M. R.; Slanger, T. G.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis has been made of the primary atomic and molecular products arising from O3 photodissociation at 1576 A. The yield of oxygen atoms is 1.90 + or - 0.30, of which 71 percent are O(3P) and 29 percent are O(1D). Since a primary yield greater than unity can only be a consequence of three-fragment dissociation, these results suggest that fragmentation into three O(3P) atoms, and production of O(1D) plus a singlet oxygen molecule, have comparable yields. Observation of prompt emission in the 7300-8100 A spectral region indicates that the singlet O2 is O2(b 1Sigma + g). Vibrational levels in the range v = 0-6 have been detected, the distribution corresponding to a vibrational temperature of 1000 K.

  19. Yields of Fission Products from Various Uranium and Thorium Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, Andreas; Spejewski, Eugene H.; Mervin, Brenden T.; Jost, Cara; Carter, H Kennon; Stracener, Daniel W; Greene, John P.; Nolen, Jerry A.; Talbert, Willard L.

    2008-01-01

    Yield measurements from proton-induced fission have been performed on a number of actinide targets, both Th and U, at the on-line test facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The results are discussed with a focus on the production process and physical and chemical properties of the targets.

  20. Yields of fission products from various uranium and thorium targets.

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, A.; Spejewski, E. H.; Mervin, B.; Jost, C.; Carter, H. K.; Stracener, D. W.; Greene, J. P.; Nolen, J. A.; Talbert, W. L.; Physics; Oak Ridge Associated Univ.; ORNL; TechSource, Inc.

    2008-10-31

    Yield measurements from proton-induced fission have been performed on a number of actinide targets, both Th and U, at the on-line test facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The results are discussed with a focus on the production process and physical and chemical properties of the targets.

  1. Production of biodiesel from winery waste: extraction, refining and transesterification of grape seed oil.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Carmen María; Ramos, María Jesús; Pérez, Angel; Rodríguez, Juan Francisco

    2010-09-01

    In regions with a large wine production the usage of their natural waste to make biodiesel can result an interesting alternative. In this work, different methods of extraction, refining and transesterification of grape seed oil were assayed. Two techniques of oil extraction were compared: solvent extraction and pressing. Two conventional transesterifications of the refined oil were carried out using methanol and bioethanol, being the methyl and ethyl ester contents higher than 97 wt.%. Finally, several in situ transesterifications were done. In situ transesterification did not reach either the oil yield extraction or the alkyl ester contents but the obtained biodiesel had better oxidation stability in comparison with the conventional process. PMID:20435475

  2. Comparison of Fission Product Yields and Their Impact

    SciTech Connect

    S. Harrison

    2006-02-01

    This memorandum describes the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) Space Nuclear Power Program (SNPP) interest in determining the expected fission product yields from a Prometheus-type reactor and assessing the impact of these species on materials found in the fuel element and balance of plant. Theoretical yield calculations using ORIGEN-S and RACER computer models are included in graphical and tabular form in Attachment, with focus on the desired fast neutron spectrum data. The known fission product interaction concerns are the corrosive attack of iron- and nickel-based alloys by volatile fission products, such as cesium, tellurium, and iodine, and the radiological transmutation of krypton-85 in the coolant to rubidium-85, a potentially corrosive agent to the coolant system metal piping.

  3. Effect of seeding density on biomass production in mussel bottom culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelle, Jacob J.; Wijsman, Jeroen W. M.; van Stralen, Marnix R.; Herman, Peter M. J.; Smaal, Aad C.

    2016-04-01

    Effects of seeding density on biomass production in mussel bottom culture are investigated by detailed monitoring of culture practice in the western Wadden Sea, The Netherlands. The seeds originate from different sources. The seeds differ in size and farmers apply seeding techniques dependent on the seed size resulting in different seed densities on the culture plots. We hypothesise growth to be density dependent and that biomass production is primarily determined by survival and is therefore a function of seed density which is related to the activities of the farmers. Data was collected from 42 different culture plots over a three year period (June 2009-June 2012). During this period, 66 sub-populations were followed from seeding until harvest. Seeding at the start of the culture resulted in an instantaneous drop in biomass production, caused by large losses in mussel number. These losses were on average 42% of the mussels seeded. This seeding loss decreased with mussel size and increased with seeding density. A subsequent density dependent loss of 1.8 mussels per day was found for smaller mussels (< 30 mm), and a non-density dependent loss of 0.8 mussels per day for larger mussels (> 30 mm) during grow out. Overall loss from seeding to harvest was high, from 92% for the smallest seeds collected from spat collectors, to 54% for half-grown mussels fished from natural beds in the spring. No indication was found that growth or mussel condition was affected by culture plot scale density. Growth was dependent on mussel size and age, and this largely determined the differences in biomass production between seed sources. The density dependent seeding loss associated with seeding activities largely determined survival, and hence overall biomass production.

  4. Herbivore and Fungal Pathogen Exclusion Affects the Seed Production of Four Common Grassland Species

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Timothy L.; Mitchell, Charles E.

    2010-01-01

    Insect herbivores and fungal pathogens can independently affect plant fitness, and may have interactive effects. However, few studies have experimentally quantified the joint effects of insects and fungal pathogens on seed production in non-agricultural populations. We examined the factorial effects of insect herbivore exclusion (via insecticide) and fungal pathogen exclusion (via fungicide) on the population-level seed production of four common graminoid species (Andropogon gerardii, Schizachyrium scoparium, Poa pratensis, and Carex siccata) over two growing seasons in Minnesota, USA. We detected no interactive effects of herbivores and pathogens on seed production. However, the seed production of all four species was affected by either insecticide or fungicide in at least one year of the study. Insecticide consistently doubled the seed production of the historically most common species in the North American tallgrass prairie, A. gerardii (big bluestem). This is the first report of insect removal increasing seed production in this species. Insecticide increased A. gerardii number of seeds per seed head in one year, and mass per seed in both years, suggesting that consumption of flowers and seed embryos contributed to the effect on seed production. One of the primary insect species consuming A. gerardii flowers and seed embryos was likely the Cecidomyiid midge, Contarinia wattsi. Effects on all other plant species varied among years. Herbivores and pathogens likely reduce the dispersal and colonization ability of plants when they reduce seed output. Therefore, impacts on seed production of competitive dominant species may help to explain their relatively poor colonization abilities. Reduced seed output by dominant graminoids may thereby promote coexistence with subdominant species through competition-colonization tradeoffs. PMID:20711408

  5. High environmental stress yields greater tocotrienol content while changing vitamin e profiles of wild emmer wheat seeds.

    PubMed

    Watts, Emily J; Shen, Yu; Lansky, Ephraim P; Nevo, Eviatar; Bobe, Gerd; Traber, Maret G

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin E is an essential human nutrient that was first isolated from wheat. Emmer wheat, the cereal of Old World agriculture and a precursor to durum wheat, grows wild in the Fertile Crescent. Evolution Canyon, Israel, provides a microsite that models effects of contrasting environments. The north-facing and south-facing slopes exhibit low and high stress environments, respectively. Wild emmer wheat seeds were collected from both slopes and seed tocochromanol contents measured to test the hypothesis that high stress alters emmer wheat seed tocol-omics. Seeds from high stress areas contained more total vitamin E (108±15 nmol/g) than seeds from low stress environments (80±17 nmol/g, P=.0004). Vitamin E profiles within samples from these different environments revealed significant differences in isoform concentrations. Within each region, β- plus γ-tocotrienols represented the highest concentration of wheat tocotrienols (high stress, P<.0001; low stress, P<.0001), while α-tocopherol represented the highest concentration of the tocopherols (high stress, P=.0002; low stress, P<.0001). Percentages of both δ-tocotrienol and δ-tocopherol increased in high stress conditions. Changes under higher stress apparently are due to increased pathway flux toward more tocotrienol production. The production of more δ-isoforms suggests increased flow through a divergent path controlled by the VTE1 gene. Hence, stress conditions alter plant responses such that vitamin E profiles are changed, likely an attempt to provide additional antioxidant activity to promote seed viability and longevity. PMID:25105230

  6. Evaluation and compilation of fission product yields 1993

    SciTech Connect

    England, T.R.; Rider, B.F.

    1995-12-31

    This document is the latest in a series of compilations of fission yield data. Fission yield measurements reported in the open literature and calculated charge distributions have been used to produce a recommended set of yields for the fission products. The original data with reference sources, and the recommended yields axe presented in tabular form. These include many nuclides which fission by neutrons at several energies. These energies include thermal energies (T), fission spectrum energies (F), 14 meV High Energy (H or HE), and spontaneous fission (S), in six sets of ten each. Set A includes U235T, U235F, U235HE, U238F, U238HE, Pu239T, Pu239F, Pu241T, U233T, Th232F. Set B includes U233F, U233HE, U236F, Pu239H, Pu240F, Pu241F, Pu242F, Th232H, Np237F, Cf252S. Set C includes U234F, U237F, Pu240H, U234HE, U236HE, Pu238F, Am241F, Am243F, Np238F, Cm242F. Set D includes Th227T, Th229T, Pa231F, Am241T, Am241H, Am242MT, Cm245T, Cf249T, Cf251T, Es254T. Set E includes Cf250S, Cm244S, Cm248S, Es253S, Fm254S, Fm255T, Fm256S, Np237H, U232T, U238S. Set F includes Cm243T, Cm246S, Cm243F, Cm244F, Cm246F, Cm248F, Pu242H, Np237T, Pu240T, and Pu242T to complete fission product yield evaluations for 60 fissioning systems in all. This report also serves as the primary documentation for the second evaluation of yields in ENDF/B-VI released in 1993.

  7. Soil Survey Grain Productivity and Productivity Risk Assessment with Yield Map Data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yield monitors and computational tools have improved our capability to assess the impact of soil-landscape and climate variability on grain yield and yield risk. The objective of our study is to generate productivity information for use in soil survey applications and to calibrate a soil productivit...

  8. Vegetable product containing caseinomacropeptide and germinated seed and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Karakaya, Sibel; El, Sedef Nehir; Simsek, Sebnem; Buyukkestelli, Hulya Ilyasoglu

    2016-01-01

    In this study vegetable product containing germinated seed and sprouts of lentils and cowpeas, and caseinomacropeptide isolated from whey is produced. Three different forms of vegetable product namely puree (VP), freeze-dried (FD) and drum-dried (DD) are produced. Freeze-dried and DD forms are produced to diversify forms of utilization and to improve functionality such as increased shelf life and decreased storage space. Their beneficial effects on health are determined using in vitro methods. All forms displayed antioxidant activities against DPPH radical and oxygen radical, α-amylase inhibitory activities, bile acid binding capacities, and angiotension converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities. Freeze-dried product exhibited the strongest inhibition on α-amylase and ACE with the IC50 value 0.09 μM total phenolic and 0.82 mg protein/g sample, respectively when evaluated on the basis of serving size. PMID:26788011

  9. Compilation of fission product yields Vallecitos Nuclear Center

    SciTech Connect

    Rider, B.F.

    1980-01-01

    This document is the ninth in a series of compilations of fission yield data made at Vallecitos Nuclear Center in which fission yield measurements reported in the open literature and calculated charge distributions have been utilized to produce a recommended set of yields for the known fission products. The original data with reference sources, as well as the recommended yields are presented in tabular form for the fissionable nuclides U-235, Pu-239, Pu-241, and U-233 at thermal neutron energies; for U-235, U-238, Pu-239, and Th-232 at fission spectrum energies; and U-235 and U-238 at 14 MeV. In addition, U-233, U-236, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Np-237 at fission spectrum energies; U-233, Pu-239, Th-232 at 14 MeV and Cf-252 spontaneous fission are similarly treated. For 1979 U234F, U237F, Pu249H, U234He, U236He, Pu238F, Am241F, Am243F, Np238F, and Cm242F yields were evaluated. In 1980, Th227T, Th229T, Pa231F, Am241T, Am241H, Am242Mt, Cm245T, Cf249T, Cf251T, and Es254T are also evaluated.

  10. Fungicide seed treatments for reducing yield losses caused by stripe rust on spring wheat, 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study was conducted in a field with Palous silt loam under natural infection of stripe rust near Pullman, WA. Urea (46-0-0) was applied at 11.3 kg/ha at the time of cultivation. Seed of susceptible 'Fielder' spring wheat was treated with Raxil, Dividend Extreme, Apron XL, and various rates of BA...

  11. Cuphea seed yield response to harvest methods applied on different dates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cuphea, Cuphea viscosissima Jacq. x C. lanceolata W.T. Aiton, is a new crop whose seed oil is rich in medium-chain fatty acids. Because cuphea has an indeterminate growth habit, timing of harvest is difficult to determine. The objective of this study was to determine the optimum harvest time and tec...

  12. Effect of seeding date and N rate on sunflower yields, oil content and composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is not a commonly grown crop in southeastern US. However, recent research has demonstrated the potential for sunflower to be grown as a cash crop in the region. Field experiment was conducted in 2007 to evaluate the effect of N (0, 67, 134, and 202 kg ha-1), seeding...

  13. Effects of seeding rate on the dry matter yield and nutritive value of fall-oat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several recent research projects have evaluated fall-grown oat as a fall-forage option for harvest as silage, or to extend the fall grazing season. Producers frequently ask about the appropriate seeding rates for fall-grown oat and whether or not it is the same as the traditional recommendation for ...

  14. Hydrodistillation time affects dill seed essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) essential oil is widely used by the food and pharmaceutical industries. We hypothesized that the chemical constituents of dill seed essential oil are eluted at different times during the hydrodistillation process, resulting in oils with different composition and bioactiv...

  15. Effects of nitrogen and planting seed size on cotton growth, development, and yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A standardized experiment was conducted during 2009 and 2010 at 20 location-years across U.S. cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)-producing states to compare the N use requirement of contemporary cotton cultivars based on their planting seed size. Treatments consisted of three cotton varieties with plant...

  16. 7 CFR 52.1842 - Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds. 52.1842 Section 52.1842 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL... seeds. Raisins with Seeds that are referred to as Layer or Cluster raisins means that the raisins...

  17. 7 CFR 52.1842 - Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds. 52.1842 Section 52.1842 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL... seeds. Raisins with Seeds that are referred to as Layer or Cluster raisins means that the raisins...

  18. Yield and yield gaps in central U.S. corn production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The magnitude of yield gaps (YG) (potential yield – farmer yield) provides some indication of the prospects for increasing crop yield. Quantile regression analysis was applied to county maize (Zea mays L.) yields (1972 – 2011) from Kentucky, Iowa and Nebraska (irrigated) (total of 115 counties) to e...

  19. The SPIDER fission fragment spectrometer for fission product yield measurements

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Meierbachtol, K.; Tovesson, F.; Shields, D.; Arnold, C.; Blakeley, R.; Bredeweg, T.; Devlin, M.; Hecht, A. A.; Heffern, L. E.; Jorgenson, J.; et al

    2015-04-01

    The SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) developed for measuring mass yield distributions of fission products from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. The 2E–2v method of measuring the kinetic energy (E) and velocity (v) of both outgoing fission products utilized, with the goal of measuring the mass of the fission products with an average resolution of 1 atomic mass unit (amu). The SPIDER instrument, consisting of detector components for time-of-flight, trajectory, and energy measurements, assembled and tested using 229Th and 252Cf radioactive decay sources. For commissioning, the fully assembled system measured fission products from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Finally,more » individual measurement resolutions were met for time-of-flight (250 ps FWHM), spacial resolution (2 mm FHWM), and energy (92 keV FWHM for 8.376 MeV). These mass yield results measured from 252Cf spontaneous fission products are reported from an E–v measurement.« less

  20. The SPIDER fission fragment spectrometer for fission product yield measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meierbachtol, K.; Tovesson, F.; Shields, D.; Arnold, C.; Blakeley, R.; Bredeweg, T.; Devlin, M.; Hecht, A. A.; Heffern, L. E.; Jorgenson, J.; Laptev, A.; Mader, D.; O`Donnell, J. M.; Sierk, A.; White, M.

    2015-07-01

    The SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) has been developed for measuring mass yield distributions of fission products from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. The 2E-2v method of measuring the kinetic energy (E) and velocity (v) of both outgoing fission products has been utilized, with the goal of measuring the mass of the fission products with an average resolution of 1 atomic mass unit (amu). The SPIDER instrument, consisting of detector components for time-of-flight, trajectory, and energy measurements, has been assembled and tested using 229Th and 252Cf radioactive decay sources. For commissioning, the fully assembled system measured fission products from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Individual measurement resolutions were met for time-of-flight (250 ps FWHM), spacial resolution (2 mm FHWM), and energy (92 keV FWHM for 8.376 MeV). Mass yield results measured from 252Cf spontaneous fission products are reported from an E-v measurement.

  1. The SPIDER fission fragment spectrometer for fission product yield measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Meierbachtol, K.; Tovesson, F.; Shields, D.; Arnold, C.; Blakeley, R.; Bredeweg, T.; Devlin, M.; Hecht, A. A.; Heffern, L. E.; Jorgenson, J.; Laptev, A.; Mader, D.; O׳Donnell, J. M.; Sierk, A.; White, M.

    2015-04-01

    The SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) developed for measuring mass yield distributions of fission products from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. The 2E–2v method of measuring the kinetic energy (E) and velocity (v) of both outgoing fission products utilized, with the goal of measuring the mass of the fission products with an average resolution of 1 atomic mass unit (amu). The SPIDER instrument, consisting of detector components for time-of-flight, trajectory, and energy measurements, assembled and tested using 229Th and 252Cf radioactive decay sources. For commissioning, the fully assembled system measured fission products from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Finally, individual measurement resolutions were met for time-of-flight (250 ps FWHM), spacial resolution (2 mm FHWM), and energy (92 keV FWHM for 8.376 MeV). These mass yield results measured from 252Cf spontaneous fission products are reported from an E–v measurement.

  2. A Covariance Generation Methodology for Fission Product Yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terranova, N.; Serot, O.; Archier, P.; Vallet, V.; De Saint Jean, C.; Sumini, M.

    2016-03-01

    Recent safety and economical concerns for modern nuclear reactor applications have fed an outstanding interest in basic nuclear data evaluation improvement and completion. It has been immediately clear that the accuracy of our predictive simulation models was strongly affected by our knowledge on input data. Therefore strong efforts have been made to improve nuclear data and to generate complete and reliable uncertainty information able to yield proper uncertainty propagation on integral reactor parameters. Since in modern nuclear data banks (such as JEFF-3.1.1 and ENDF/BVII.1) no correlations for fission yields are given, in the present work we propose a covariance generation methodology for fission product yields. The main goal is to reproduce the existing European library and to add covariance information to allow proper uncertainty propagation in depletion and decay heat calculations. To do so, we adopted the Generalized Least Square Method (GLSM) implemented in CONRAD (COde for Nuclear Reaction Analysis and Data assimilation), developed at CEA-Cadarache. Theoretical values employed in the Bayesian parameter adjustment are delivered thanks to a convolution of different models, representing several quantities in fission yield calculations: the Brosa fission modes for pre-neutron mass distribution, a simplified Gaussian model for prompt neutron emission probability, theWahl systematics for charge distribution and the Madland-England model for the isomeric ratio. Some results will be presented for the thermal fission of U-235, Pu-239 and Pu-241.

  3. Development of turf-type Poa pratensis l. germplasm for seed production without field burning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Open-field burning of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) post- harvest residue, which maintains grass seed yield and stand longevity, has been eliminated in Washington and is restricted in Idaho and Oregon, USA. Our objective was to develop Kentucky bluegrass germplasm that has sustainable seed y...

  4. Structural and functional properties of hemp seed protein products.

    PubMed

    Malomo, Sunday A; He, Rong; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2014-08-01

    The effects of pH and protein concentration on some structural and functional properties of hemp seed protein isolate (HPI, 84.15% protein content) and defatted hemp seed protein meal (HPM, 44.32% protein content) were determined. The HPI had minimum protein solubility (PS) at pH 4.0, which increased as pH was decreased or increased. In contrast, the HPM had minimum PS at pH 3.0, which increased at higher pH values. Gel electrophoresis showed that some of the high molecular weight proteins (>45 kDa) present in HPM were not well extracted by the alkali and were absent or present in low ratio in the HPI polypeptide profile. The amino acid composition showed that the isolation process increased the Arg/Lys ratio of HPI (5.52%) when compared to HPM (3.35%). Intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism data indicate that the HPI proteins had a well-defined structure at pH 3.0, which was lost as pH value increased. The differences in structural conformation of HPI at different pH values were reflected as better foaming capacity at pH 3.0 when compared to pH 5.0, 7.0, and 9.0. At 10 and 25 mg/mL protein concentrations, emulsions formed by the HPM had smaller oil droplet sizes (higher quality), when compared to the HPI-formed emulsions. In contrast at 50 mg/mL protein concentration, the HPI-formed emulsions had smaller oil droplet sizes (except at pH 3.0). We conclude that the functional properties of hemp seed protein products are dependent on structural conformations as well as protein concentration and pH. PMID:25048774

  5. Consumption of endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period does not decrease milk production in the following lactation.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Ransom L; Capuco, Anthony V; Evock-Clover, Christina M; Grossi, Paolo; Choudhary, Ratan K; Vanzant, Eric S; Elsasser, Theodore H; Bertoni, Giuseppe; Trevisi, Erminio; Aiken, Glen E; McLeod, Kyle R

    2016-09-01

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming these grasses. We investigated the effects of consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during late lactation and the dry period on mammary growth, differentiation, and milk production. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups. Starting at 90±4 d prepartum, cows were fed endophyte-free fescue seed (control; CON), endophyte-free fescue seed plus 3×/wk subcutaneous injections of bromocriptine (0.1mg/kg of body weight, positive control; BROMO), or endophyte-infected fescue seed (INF) as 10% of the diet on an as fed basis. Although milk yield of groups did not differ before treatment, at dry off (-60 d prepartum) INF and BROMO cows produced less milk than CON. Throughout the treatment period, basal concentrations of PRL and the prepartum increase in plasma PRL were reduced in INF and BROMO cows compared with CON cows. Three weeks after the end of treatment, circulating concentrations of PRL were equivalent across groups. In the subsequent lactation milk yield was not decreased; in fact, BROMO cows exhibited a 9% increase in milk yield relative to CON. Evaluation of mammary tissue during the dry period and the subsequent lactation, by quantitative histology and immunohistochemical analysis of proliferation markers and putative mammary stem or progenitor cell markers, indicated that feeding endophyte-infected fescue seed did not significantly affect mammary growth and development. Feeding endophyte-infected grasses during the dry period may permit effective utilization of feed resources without compromising milk production in the next lactation. PMID:27320660

  6. Effect of oxidant concentration, exposure time, and seed particles on secondary organic aerosol chemical composition and yield

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lambe, A. T.; Chhabra, P. S.; Onasch, T. B.; Brune, W. H.; Hunter, J. F.; Kroll, J. H.; Cummings, M. J.; Brogan, J. F.; Parmar, Y.; Worsnop, D. R.; et al

    2015-03-18

    sulfate seed particles on isoprene SOA yield measurements was examined in the flow reactor. The studies show that seed particles increase the yield of SOA produced in flow reactors by a factor of 3 to 5 and may also account in part for higher SOA yields obtained in the chambers, where seed particles are routinely used.« less

  7. Hybrid breeding in wheat: technologies to improve hybrid wheat seed production.

    PubMed

    Whitford, Ryan; Fleury, Delphine; Reif, Jochen C; Garcia, Melissa; Okada, Takashi; Korzun, Viktor; Langridge, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Global food security demands the development and delivery of new technologies to increase and secure cereal production on finite arable land without increasing water and fertilizer use. There are several options for boosting wheat yields, but most offer only small yield increases. Wheat is an inbred plant, and hybrids hold the potential to deliver a major lift in yield and will open a wide range of new breeding opportunities. A series of technological advances are needed as a base for hybrid wheat programmes. These start with major changes in floral development and architecture to separate the sexes and force outcrossing. Male sterility provides the best method to block self-fertilization, and modifying the flower structure will enhance pollen access. The recent explosion in genomic resources and technologies provides new opportunities to overcome these limitations. This review outlines the problems with existing hybrid wheat breeding systems and explores molecular-based technologies that could improve the hybrid production system to reduce hybrid seed production costs, a prerequisite for a commercial hybrid wheat system. PMID:24179097

  8. Microwave assisted alkali-catalyzed transesterification of Pongamia pinnata seed oil for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ritesh; Kumar, G Ravi; Chandrashekar, N

    2011-06-01

    In this study, microwave assisted transesterification of Pongamia pinnata seed oil was carried out for the production of biodiesel. The experiments were carried out using methanol and two alkali catalysts i.e., sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH). The experiments were carried out at 6:1 alcohol/oil molar ratio and 60°C reaction temperature. The effect of catalyst concentration and reaction time on the yield and quality of biodiesel was studied. The result of the study suggested that 0.5% sodium hydroxide and 1.0% potassium hydroxide catalyst concentration were optimum for biodiesel production from P. pinnata oil under microwave heating. There was a significant reduction in reaction time for microwave induced transesterification as compared to conventional heating. PMID:21482464

  9. Chemical Mass Production of Graphene Nanoplatelets in ∼100% Yield.

    PubMed

    Dimiev, Ayrat M; Ceriotti, Gabriel; Metzger, Andrew; Kim, Nam Dong; Tour, James M

    2016-01-26

    Successful application of graphene is hampered by the lack of cost-effective methods for its production. Here, we demonstrate a method of mass production of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) by exfoliation of flake graphite in the tricomponent system made by a combination of ammonium persulfate ((NH4)2S2O8), concentrated sulfuric acid, and fuming sulfuric acid. The resulting GNPs are tens of microns in diameter and 10-35 nm in thickness. When in the liquid phase of the tricomponent media, graphite completely loses its interlayer registry. This provides a ∼100% yield of GNPs from graphite in 3-4 h at room temperature or in 10 min at 120 °C. PMID:26580092

  10. Berseem clover seeding rate and harvest management effects on forage yields and nutrient uptake in a swine-effluent spray field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on how berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrium L.) seed rate (SR) affects winter and summer forage yields in swine-effluent spray fields is lacking for the southeastern USA. This 3-yr study determined optimum berseem SR for dry matter (DM) yield and nutrient uptake in the winter cover crop an...

  11. Seed set, berry weight, and yield interactions in highbush blueberry cultivars (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) ‘Bluecrop’ and ‘Duke’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yields and berry weights of two widely grown, commercial, highbush blueberry cultivars, ‘Bluecrop’ and ‘Duke’, were evaluated for 3 or more harvests every season over ten years, and seed set was determined at each harvest over the last four. Across 10 years, yield and berry weight had no significant...

  12. Foraging range of honey bees, Apis mellifera, in alfalfa seed production fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted in 2006 and 2007 designed to examine the foraging range of honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in a 15.2 km2 area dominated by a 128.9 ha glyphosate-resistant Roundup Ready® alfalfa seed production field and several non-Roundup Ready seed production fields (totalin...

  13. Genetic Dissection of Seed Production Traits and Identification of a Major-Effect Seed Retention QTL in Hybrid Leymus (Triticeae) Wildryes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many native grasses display seed shattering and other seed production problems. Basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus) and creeping wildrye (L. triticoides) are perennial Triticeae grasses native to western North America. In this study, variation in the number of florets per inflorescence, percent seed s...

  14. Biodiesel production from yellow horn (Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge.) seed oil using ion exchange resin as heterogeneous catalyst.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji; Fu, Yu-Jie; Qu, Xue-Jin; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Zhao, Chun-Jian; Zu, Yuan-Gang

    2012-03-01

    In this study, biodiesel production from yellow horn (Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge.) seed oil using ion exchange resin as heterogeneous catalyst was investigated. After illustration of the mechanisms of transesterification reactions catalyzed by typical ion exchange resins, the factors affecting microwave-assisted transesterification process were studied. A high conversion yield of about 96% was achieved under optimal conditions using high alkaline anion exchange resins as catalyst. Analyzing the FAMEs composition by GC-MS and main physical-chemical properties demonstrated that the biodiesel product prepared from yellow horn seed oil was of high quality. Compared with conventional alkali catalyst, the outstanding characteristics of reusability and operational stability made the resin catalyst more predominant for biodiesel production. In addition, a comprehensive kinetic model was established for analyzing the reaction. The results of present research showed that microwave-assisted transesterification process catalyzed by high alkaline anion exchange resin was a green, effective and economic technology for biodiesel industry. PMID:22284757

  15. Pea (Pisum sativum) seed production as an assay for reproductive effects due to herbicides.

    PubMed

    Olszyk, David; Pfleeger, Thomas; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2009-09-01

    Even though herbicide drift can affect plant reproduction, current plant testing protocols emphasize effects on vegetative growth. In this study, we determined whether a short-growing season plant can indicate potential effects of herbicides on seed production. Pea (Pisum sativum cv. Dakota) plants were grown in mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Plants were treated with a variety of herbicides (dicamba, clopyralid, glufosinate, glyphosate, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, primisulfuron, or sulfometuron) at below standard field application rates applied at a vegetative stage of growth (approximately 14 d after emergence) or at flowering (approximately 20 d after emergence). Pea seed production was greatly reduced by sulfometuron at the minimum concentration used (0.001 x field application rate), with an effective concentration producing a 25% reduction in seed dry weight of 0.00007 x field application rate. Primisulfuron and glyphosate had a 25% reduction in seed dry weight for seed dry weight of 0.0035 and 0.0096 x field application rate, respectively. Clopyralid and dicamba reduced pea seed dry weight at a 25% reduction in seed dry weight of approximately 0.07 x field application rate. Glufosinate only reduced pea seed weight in one experiment, with a 25% reduction in seed dry weight of 0.07 and 0.008 x field application rate at vegetative growth and flowering stages, respectively. Pea seed dry weight was not affected by 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid. Plant developmental stage had no consistent effect on herbicide responses. Reduced seed production occurred with some herbicides (especially acetolactate synthase inhibitors), which caused little or no reduction in plant height or shoot biomass and little visible injury. Thus, pea may be a model species to indicate seed reproductive responses to herbicides, with seed production obtained by extending plant growth for usually only 7 d longer than the period usually used in the vegetative vigor

  16. Elevated carbon dioxide and ozone effects on peanut. II. Seed yield and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropospheric O3 is an air pollutant that is toxic to plants, causing changes in leaf biochemistry and physiology that lead to reductions in growth and yield. In many O3-sensitive crops, the adverse effects of O3 are ameliorated by elevated CO2, although the extent of protection by elevated CO2 vari...

  17. Contrasting responses of seed yield to elevated carbon dioxide under field condition within Phaseolus vulgaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rising concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere represents an increase in a growth-limiting resource for many crop species. Identification of lines or characteristics of lines which have superior yield at elevated carbon dioxide could aid in adaptation to this global change. While int...

  18. Defoliation effects on Bromus tectorum seed production: Implications for grazing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hempy-Mayer, K.; Pyke, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) is an invasive annual grass that creates near-homogenous stands in areas throughout the Intermountain sagebrush steppe and challenges successful native plant restoration in these areas. A clipping experiment carried out at two cheatgrass-dominated sites in eastern Oregon (Lincoln Bench and Succor Creek) evaluated defoliation as a potential control method for cheatgrass and a seeding preparation method for native plant reseeding projects. Treatments involved clipping plants at two heights (tall = 7.6 cm, and short = 2.5 cm), two phenological stages (boot and purple), and two frequencies (once and twice), although purple-stage treatments were clipped only once. Treatments at each site were replicated in a randomized complete block design that included a control with no defoliation. End-of-season seed density (seeds??m-2) was estimated by sampling viable seeds from plants, litter, and soil of each treatment. Undipped control plants produced an average of approximately 13 000 and 20 000 seeds??m-2 at Lincoln Bench and Succor Creek, respectively. Plants clipped short at the boot stage and again 2 wk later had among the lowest mean seed densities at both sites, and were considered the most successful treatments (Lincoln Bench: F 6,45 = 47.07, P < 0.0001; Succor Creek: F6,40 = 19.60, P < 0.0001). The 95% confidence intervals for seed densities were 123-324 seeds??m-2 from the Lincoln Bench treatment, and 769-2256 seeds??m-2 from the Succor Creek treatment. Literature suggests a maximum acceptable cheatgrass seed density of approximately 330 seeds??m-2 for successful native plant restoration through reseeding. Thus, although this study helped pinpoint optimal defoliation parameters for cheatgrass control, it also called into question the potential for livestock grazing to be an effective seed-bed preparation technique in native plant reseeding projects in cheatgrass-dominated areas.

  19. Brassinosteroid functions in Arabidopsis seed development

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wen-Bo; Lin, Wen-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Seed development of flowering plant is a complicated process controlled by a signal network. Double fertilization generates 2 zygotic products (embryo and endosperm). Embryo gives rise to a daughter plant while endosperm provides nutrients for embryo during embryogenesis and germination. Seed coat differentiates from maternally derived integument and encloses embryo and endosperm. Seed size/mass and number comprise final seed yield, and seed shape also contributes to seed development and weight. Seed size is coordinated by communication among endosperm, embryo, and integument. Seed number determination is more complex to investigate and shows differencies between monocot and eudicot. Total seed number depends on sillique number and seed number per sillique in Arabidopsis. Seed comes from fertilized ovule, hence the ovule number per flower determines the maximal seed number per sillique. Early studies reported that engineering BR levels increased the yield of ovule and seed; however the molecular mechanism of BR regulation in seed development still remained unclear. Our recent studies demonstrated that BR regulated seed size, shape, and number by transcriptionally modulating specific seed developmental pathways. This review summarizes roles of BR in Arabidopsis seed development and gives clues for future application of BR in agricultural production. PMID:24270689

  20. Method for obtaining three products with different properties from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of distillation time (DT; 15-1080 min) on yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seed essential oil (EO) as well as on the yield, composition, and properties of lipids extracted from steam-distilled fenne...

  1. Nonequilibrium boundary layer of potassium-seeded combustion products

    SciTech Connect

    Benilov, M.S.; Pozdeev, P.A.; Rogov, B.V.; Sinel'shchikov, V.A. . Inst. for High Temperatures)

    1994-09-01

    Results are reported from numerical modeling and experimental study of a chemically reacting boundary layer, formed on a body inserted into a stream of potassium-seeded combustion products of gaseous hydrocarbon fuels. The numerical model developed in previous work is modified to incorporate current data on potassium chemical kinetics. The temperature and potassium atom number density profiles are measured across the boundary layer formed on a cylindrical specimen of Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] dense ceramics by flow of combustion products of a propane-air mixture. The numerical results are compared with present experimental data as well as those available from the literature. The comparison is carried out for a broad range of experimental conditions including the postflame burned-gas region, and the boundary layers on a cylinder and on a flat plate. It provides verification of the proposed model, revision of the rate constants of some reactions of potassium-containing species, and supports the value of potassium superoxide dissociation energy of 247 kJ/mol.

  2. Amaranth seed proteins: effect of defatting on extraction yield and on electrophoretic patterns.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Lopez, N E; Vasco, N; Barba de la Rosa, A P; Paredes-Lopez, O

    1995-01-01

    Acetone and hexane were used to know the effect of defatting amaranth flour on the extraction yield of protein fractions and on the electrophoretic patterns. It was found that albumins (33%) and globulins (20%) did not present yield changes when using these two solvents, but it was noted that with hexane compared to acetone, prolamins extraction was reduced by half (3.0 to 1.6%) whereas glutelins increased from 26.5 to 30%. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns of prolamins extracted with acetone and hexane showed one band of low molecular weight (22 KDa) and five bands between 52 to 22 KDa, respectively. No electrophoretic changes were observed in the remaining fractions. PMID:7784397

  3. A simple method to identify the unprocessed Strychnos seeds used in herbal medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Han, Quan-Bin; Li, Song-Lin; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Song, Jing-Zheng; Cai, Zong-Wei; Pui-Hay But, Paul; Shaw, Pang-Chui; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2008-03-01

    The seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica are popularly used in the treatment of arthritis. Being extremely toxic, the raw seeds are forbidden and must be processed before clinical use. The quality of crude and processed Strychnos seeds can be controlled by examining the toxic alkaloids using established HPLC methods. But this procedure does not work in the case where the seeds are powdered and mixed with other medicinal materials in proprietary production. In this quality control study on Strychnos seeds, the contents of two major toxic alkaloids (strychnine and brucine) and a major non-alkaloid constituent (loganic acid) in twenty-four samples of Strychnos seeds (nine processed and fifteen unprocessed) were compared using published HPLC-UV methods. The results showed that the better the seeds were processed, the less loganic acid was found. The alkaloids and non-alkaloid components simultaneously decreased in processed seeds. The content ratio between alkaloids and loganic acid was clearly different in well-processed and crude Strychnos seeds. Based on this interesting discovery, a simple chromatographic method was established which allows a simultaneous determination of loganic acid and the alkaloids strychnine and brucine. The relative peak area (RPA) of strychnine-to-loganic acid was revealed to be a reliable key quality control parameter in order to effectively identify the processed seeds. This new method has been successfully applied to detect the insufficiently processed Strychnos material in marketed herbal medicinal products. PMID:18484543

  4. Altered xylem-phloem transfer of amino acids affects metabolism and leads to increased seed yield and oil content in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lizhi; Tan, Qiumin; Lee, Raymond; Trethewy, Alexander; Lee, Yong-Hwa; Tegeder, Mechthild

    2010-11-01

    Seed development and nitrogen (N) storage depend on delivery of amino acids to seed sinks. For efficient translocation to seeds, amino acids are loaded into the phloem in source leaves and along the long distance transport pathway through xylem-phloem transfer. We demonstrate that Arabidopsis thaliana AMINO ACID PERMEASE2 (AAP2) localizes to the phloem throughout the plant. AAP2 T-DNA insertion lines showed changes in source-sink translocation of amino acids and a decrease in the amount of seed total N and storage proteins, supporting AAP2 function in phloem loading and amino acid distribution to the embryo. Interestingly, in aap2 seeds, total carbon (C) levels were unchanged, while fatty acid levels were elevated. Moreover, branch and silique numbers per plant and seed yield were strongly increased. This suggests changes in N and C delivery to sinks and subsequent modulations of sink development and seed metabolism. This is supported by tracer experiments, expression studies of genes of N/C transport and metabolism in source and sink, and by phenotypic and metabolite analyses of aap2 plants. Thus, AAP2 is key for xylem to phloem transfer and sink N and C supply; moreover, modifications of N allocation can positively affect C assimilation and source-sink transport and benefit sink development and oil yield. PMID:21075769

  5. Seed production areas for the global restoration challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed availability of wild species is fundamental to the conservation of biodiversity and the achievement of global ecosystem restoration or reforestation targets. The current and future demands for seeds for restoration and reforestation far exceed what can be practically, economically, and ethicall...

  6. Integration of brassicaceous seed meals into red raspberry production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassicaceous seed meals are an alternative to synthetic chemical fumigation for the pre-plant soil management of soil borne organisms. Greenhouse, microplot, and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of Brassica juncea and Sinapis alba seed meals on raspberry (Rubus idaeus) soil ...

  7. Carbon Fluxes And Yield Of Bioenergy Sorghum In An Extreme Desert Production Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grantz, D. A.; Oikawa, P. Y.; Jenerette, D.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon accumulation and agronomic yield of tropical C4 grasses are high under irrigated conditions in low desert, western U.S. production areas. These are candidate production systems for purpose-grown biofuel feedstocks. Here we report fluxes of carbon at leaf and canopy scales, along with above-ground biomass yield, in an irrigated, fertilized field (5.26 ha) in the low desert (Imperial Valley) of California. This is an uncommonly productive but environmentally extreme growth environment with typical Tsoil > 55 C and Tair > 42 C during the growing season. We monitored a single field under fallow conditions, followed by planting, growth, harvest, and re-growth from stubble of Sorghum bicolor. Carbon accumulation is one aspect of our developing sustainability metric that characterizes land use conversion to biofuel production. Following 96 days of growth from seed, the canopy was harvested by cutting at 15 cm above the soil surface, yielding 33.8 ± 2.4 dry ton/ha. Over the growth period this represents 35 g m-2 day-1 of average dry matter accumulation, including the cool early season. A second and third cutting are anticipated during the production year suggesting annualized yields more typical of tropical than temperate environments. Tower fluxes of C obtained by eddy covariance suggest maximal rates of C accumulation increased with temperature and canopy development from -17 μmol m-2 s-1 in March to -57 μmol m-2 s-1 in July. Leaf level C assimilation in July exceeded 40 μmol m-2 s-1 in sunlit leaves. Neither EC nor leaf level photosynthetic measurements indicated inhibition of carbon assimilation by the prevailing high temperatures, although it is anticipated that low temperatures will terminate the season. As with unmanaged systems in this environment, fluxes are highly sensitive to pulsed water availability, in this case through irrigation. These data will be used to constrain process models of canopy response to these unusual environmental conditions, in

  8. Effects of rutin and buckwheat seeds on energy metabolism and methane production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Stoldt, Ann-Kathrin; Derno, Michael; Das, Gürbüz; Weitzel, Joachim M; Wolffram, Siegfried; Metges, Cornelia C

    2016-03-01

    Flavonoids are secondary plant metabolites with several health promoting effects. As dairy cows often suffer from metabolic imbalance and health problems, interest is growing in health improvements by plant substances such as flavonoids. Our group has recently shown that the flavonoids quercetin and rutin (a glucorhamnoside of quercetin) are bioavailable in cows when given via a duodenal fistula or orally, respectively, affect glucose metabolism, and have beneficial effects on liver health. Furthermore, flavonoids may reduce rumen methane production in vitro through their antibacterial properties. To test the hypothesis that rutin has effects on energy metabolism, methane production, and production performance in dairy cows, we fed rutin trihydrate at a dose of 100mg/kg of body weight to a group of 7 lactating dairy cows for 2 wk in a crossover design. In a second experiment, 2 cows were fed the same ration but were supplemented with buckwheat seeds (Fagopyrum tartaricum), providing rutin at a dose comparable to the first experiment. Two other cows receiving barley supplements were used as controls in a change-over mode. Blood samples were taken weekly and respiration measurements were performed at the end of each treatment. Supplementation of pure rutin, but not of rutin contained in buckwheat seeds, increased the plasma quercetin content. Methane production and milk yield and composition were not affected by rutin treatment in either form. Plasma glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, and albumin were increased by pure rutin treatment, indicating a possible metabolic effect of rutin on energy metabolism of dairy cows. In addition, we did not show that in vivo ruminal methane production was reduced by rutin. In conclusion, we could not confirm earlier reports on in vitro methane reduction by rutin supplementation in dairy cows in established lactation. PMID:26805964

  9. Photomorphogenesis, photosynthesis, and seed yield of wheat plants grown under red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with and without supplemental blue lighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goins, G. D.; Yorio, N. C.; Sanwo, M. M.; Brown, C. S.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a potential light source for growing plants in spaceflight systems because of their safety, small mass and volume, wavelength specificity, and longevity. Despite these attractive features, red LEDs must satisfy requirements for plant photosynthesis and photomorphogenesis for successful growth and seed yield. To determine the influence of gallium aluminium arsenide (GaAlAs) red LEDs on wheat photomorphogenesis, photosynthesis, and seed yield, wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. 'USU-Super Dwarf') plants were grown under red LEDs and compared to plants grown under daylight fluorescent (white) lamps and red LEDs supplemented with either 1% or 10% blue light from blue fluorescent (BF) lamps. Compared to white light-grown plants, wheat grown under red LEDs alone demonstrated less main culm development during vegetative growth through preanthesis, while showing a longer flag leaf at 40 DAP and greater main culm length at final harvest (70 DAP). As supplemental BF light was increased with red LEDs, shoot dry matter and net leaf photosynthesis rate increased. At final harvest, wheat grown under red LEDs alone displayed fewer subtillers and a lower seed yield compared to plants grown under white light. Wheat grown under red LEDs+10% BF light had comparable shoot dry matter accumulation and seed yield relative to wheat grown under white light. These results indicate that wheat can complete its life cycle under red LEDs alone, but larger plants and greater amounts of seed are produced in the presence of red LEDs supplemented with a quantity of blue light.

  10. Production of functional pita bread using date seed powder.

    PubMed

    Platat, Carine; Habib, Hosam M; Hashim, Isameldin Bashir; Kamal, Hina; AlMaqbali, Fatima; Souka, Usama; Ibrahim, Wissam H

    2015-10-01

    Functional foods represent a novel approach to prevent diet-related diseases. Due to its excellent nutritional and antioxidant properties, date seed was used to develop functional pita bread. Flour was replaced by 5, 10, 15 and 20 % date seed powder. Regular and whole wheat pita breads were the references. Results clearly showed that date seed powder containing bread contained comparable dietary fibers levels as in whole wheat bread and higher levels of flavonoids and phenolics. Date seed powder containing breads were particularly rich in flavan-3-ols whereas reference breads did not contain any of them and only a limited amount of other phenolic compounds. They also exhibited a much higher antioxidant capacity. Additionally, compared to regular bread, acrylamide level was significantly lower in 5 % date seed powder containing bread, and lower in all date seed powder containing breads compared to whole wheat bread. Date seed powder supplemented bread appears as a promising functional ingredient to prevent chronic diseases. PMID:26396382

  11. The impact of sulfate restriction on seed yield and quality of winter oilseed rape depends on the ability to remobilize sulfate from vegetative tissues to reproductive organs

    PubMed Central

    Girondé, Alexandra; Dubousset, Lucie; Trouverie, Jacques; Etienne, Philippe; Avice, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Our current knowledge about sulfur (S) management by winter oilseed rape to satisfy the S demand of developing seeds is still scarce, particularly in relation to S restriction. Our goals were to determine the physiological processes related to S use efficiency that led to maintain the seed yield and quality when S limitation occurred at the bolting or early flowering stages. To address these questions, a pulse-chase 34SO2−4 labeling method was carried out in order to study the S fluxes from uptake and remobilization at the whole plant level. In response of S limitation at the bolting or early flowering stages, the leaves are the most important source organ for S remobilization during reproductive stages. By combining 34S-tracer with biochemical fractionation in order to separate sulfate from other S-compounds, it appeared that sulfate was the main form of S remobilized in leaves at reproductive stages and that tonoplastic SULTR4-type transporters were specifically involved in the sulfate remobilisation in case of low S availability. In response to S limitation at the bolting stage, the seed yield and quality were dramatically reduced compared to control plants. These data suggest that the increase of both S remobilization from source leaves and the root proliferation in order to maximize sulfate uptake capacities, were not sufficient to maintain the seed yield and quality. When S limitation occurred at the early flowering stage, oilseed rape can optimize the mobilization of sulfate reserves from vegetative organs (leaves and stem) to satisfy the demand of seeds and maintain the seed yield and quality. Our study also revealed that the stem may act as a transient storage organ for remobilized S coming from source leaves before its utilization by seeds. The physiological traits (S remobilization, root proliferation, transient S storage in stem) observed under S limitation could be used in breeding programs to select oilseed rape genotypes with high S use efficiency

  12. Potential Link Between Contents of Fatty Acids and Soybean Seed Germination Rate Under Early Production System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean seed produced from the Early Soybean Production System (ESPS) in the Midsouth often has low germination with poor seed quality. The mechanism of this phenomenon is not clear. A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 on a silt-loam -soil at the Delta Research and Extension Center, Stonevi...

  13. Lesquerella seed and oil yield response to split-applied N fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agronomic management information is critical for successfully commercial production of new crops such as lesquerella [lesquerella ferndleri Gray (Wats.)]. Response of lesquerella to six nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates under well-watered and water-stressed treatments were studied in irrigated desert co...

  14. Camelina water use and seed yield response to irrigation scheduling in an arid environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz is a promising, biodiesel-producing oilseed that could potentially be implemented as a low-input alternative crop for production in the arid southwestern USA. However, little is known about camelina’s water use, irrigation management, and agronomic characteristics in this...

  15. Expression of the nucleocapsid protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in soybean seed yields an immunogenic antigenic protein.

    PubMed

    Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Gasic, Ksenija; Soria-Guerra, Ruth; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia; Korban, Schuyler S

    2012-03-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), is a serious disease of swine and contributes to severe worldwide economic losses in swine production. Current vaccines against PRRS rely on the use of an attenuated-live virus; however, these are unreliable. Thus, alternative effective vaccines against PRRS are needed. Plant-based subunit vaccines offer viable, safe, and environmentally friendly alternatives to conventional vaccines. In this study, efforts have been undertaken to develop a soybean-based vaccine against PRRSV. A construct carrying a synthesized PRRSV-ORF7 antigen, nucleocapsid N protein of PRRSV, has been introduced into soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill. cvs. Jack and Kunitz, using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic plants carrying the sORF7 transgene have been successfully generated. Molecular analyses of T(0) plants confirmed integration of the transgene and transcription of the PRRSV-ORF7. Presence of a 15-kDa protein in seeds of T(1) transgenic lines was confirmed by Western blot analysis using PRRSV-ORF7 antisera. The amount of the antigenic protein accumulating in seeds of these transgenic lines was up to 0.65% of the total soluble protein (TSP). A significant induction of a specific immune response, both humoral and mucosal, against PRRSV-ORF7 was observed following intragastric immunization of BALB/c female mice with transgenic soybean seeds. These findings provide a 'proof of concept', and serve as a critical step in the development of a subunit plant-based vaccine against PRRS. PMID:21971995

  16. Lichen symbiosis: nature's high yielding machines for induced hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Kastanaki, Elizabeth; Pirintsos, Stergios; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939) and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont's and photobiont's consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration) establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont's hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein) to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state) constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications. PMID:25826211

  17. Lichen Symbiosis: Nature's High Yielding Machines for Induced Hydrogen Production

    PubMed Central

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Kastanaki, Elizabeth; Pirintsos, Stergios; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939) and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont’s and photobiont’s consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration) establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont’s hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein) to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state) constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications. PMID:25826211

  18. Practical considerations for maximizing heat production in a novel thermobrachytherapy seed prototype

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Bhoj; Warrell, Gregory; Shvydka, Diana; Subramanian, Manny; Ishmael Parsai, E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A combination of hyperthermia and radiation in the treatment of cancer has been proven to provide better tumor control than radiation administered as a monomodality, without an increase in complications or serious toxicities. Moreover, concurrent administration of hyperthermia and radiation displays synergistic enhancement, resulting in greater tumor cell killing than hyperthermia and radiation delivered separately. The authors have designed a new thermobrachytherapy (TB) seed, which serves as a source of both radiation and heat for concurrent brachytherapy and hyperthermia treatments when implanted in solid tumors. This innovative seed, similar in size and geometry to conventional seeds, will have self-regulating thermal properties. Methods: The new seed's geometry is based on the standard BEST Model 2301 125I seed, resulting in very similar dosimetric properties. The TB seed generates heat when placed in an oscillating magnetic field via induction heating of a ferromagnetic Ni–Cu alloy core that replaces the tungsten radiographic marker of the standard Model 2301. The alloy composition is selected to undergo a Curie transition near 50 °C, drastically decreasing power production at higher temperatures and providing for temperature self-regulation. Here, the authors present experimental studies of the magnetic properties of Ni–Cu alloy material, the visibility of TB seeds in radiographic imaging, and the ability of seed prototypes to uniformly heat tissue to a desirable temperature. Moreover, analyses are presented of magnetic shielding and thermal expansion of the TB seed, as well as matching of radiation dose to temperature distributions for a short interseed distance in a given treatment volume. Results: Annealing the Ni–Cu alloy has a significant effect on its magnetization properties, increasing the sharpness of the Curie transition. The TB seed preserves the radiographic properties of the BEST 2301 seed in both plain x rays and CT images

  19. Practical considerations for maximizing heat production in a novel thermobrachytherapy seed prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Gautam, Bhoj; Warrell, Gregory; Shvydka, Diana; Ishmael Parsai, E.; Subramanian, Manny

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: A combination of hyperthermia and radiation in the treatment of cancer has been proven to provide better tumor control than radiation administered as a monomodality, without an increase in complications or serious toxicities. Moreover, concurrent administration of hyperthermia and radiation displays synergistic enhancement, resulting in greater tumor cell killing than hyperthermia and radiation delivered separately. The authors have designed a new thermobrachytherapy (TB) seed, which serves as a source of both radiation and heat for concurrent brachytherapy and hyperthermia treatments when implanted in solid tumors. This innovative seed, similar in size and geometry to conventional seeds, will have self-regulating thermal properties. Methods: The new seed's geometry is based on the standard BEST Model 2301{sup 125}I seed, resulting in very similar dosimetric properties. The TB seed generates heat when placed in an oscillating magnetic field via induction heating of a ferromagnetic Ni–Cu alloy core that replaces the tungsten radiographic marker of the standard Model 2301. The alloy composition is selected to undergo a Curie transition near 50 °C, drastically decreasing power production at higher temperatures and providing for temperature self-regulation. Here, the authors present experimental studies of the magnetic properties of Ni–Cu alloy material, the visibility of TB seeds in radiographic imaging, and the ability of seed prototypes to uniformly heat tissue to a desirable temperature. Moreover, analyses are presented of magnetic shielding and thermal expansion of the TB seed, as well as matching of radiation dose to temperature distributions for a short interseed distance in a given treatment volume. Results: Annealing the Ni–Cu alloy has a significant effect on its magnetization properties, increasing the sharpness of the Curie transition. The TB seed preserves the radiographic properties of the BEST 2301 seed in both plain x rays and CT

  20. Pollen and seed mediated gene flow in commercial alfalfa seed production fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential for gene flow has been widely recognized since alfalfa is pollinated by bees. The Western US is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. Because of this, many alfalfa producers are impacted by market sen...

  1. Transgene movement in commercial alfalfa seed production: Implications for seed purity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. With the advent of genetically-engineered (GE) alfalfa concerns have risen regarding the coexistence of GE and non GE alfalfa since the crop is largely ou...

  2. Effects of pollination timing and distance on seed production in a dioecious weed Silene latifolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Jay F.; Duddu, Hema S. N.; Shirtliffe, Steven J.; Benaragama, Dilshan; Syrovy, Lena D.; Stanley, Katherine A.; Haile, Teketel A.

    2015-11-01

    Silene latifolia Poir. (white cockle or white campion) is an important invasive weed in North American agriculture. It exhibits dioecy, therefore, both male and female plants are required in order for seed production to occur. However, dioecious species being invasive is not common because of their limitations in pollination and subsequent seed production. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of pollination timing and distance on seed production of Silene latifolia. A series of experiments including pollination exclusion, timing and pollination distance were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at or around Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. For pollination exclusion, exclosures were built around the natural female plants for exclosure, sham-exclosure, and male and female combined treatments. Pollination timing was studied by applying exclosure, non-exclosure, night-exclosure, and day-exclosure treatments to individual female plants. Female plants were transplanted along a linear interval at six different distances from the pollen source to study the effect of pollination distance. S. latifolia was exclusively insect-pollinated and pollination occurred both day and night; however, in one year, pollination occurred mainly at night. Female plants that were in the range of 0-4 m from a compatible pollen source experienced no limitation to pollination. However, when the distance was increased further up to 128 m, pollination levels and subsequent seed production were declined. Moreover, there were differences in seed production between years suggesting that pollination was affected by the environmental conditions during pollination and the crop that white cockle was grown in. These experiments indicate that seed production in S. latifolia is limited by insect-pollination. Although there was pollination limitation for seed production at greater distances from a pollen source, the high fecundity rate (3000-18000 seeds per plant) resulted in a large seed output. Thus, we

  3. Enforced ATP futile cycling increases specific productivity and yield of anaerobic lactate production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hädicke, Oliver; Bettenbrock, Katja; Klamt, Steffen

    2015-10-01

    The manipulation of cofactor pools such as ATP or NAD(P)H has for long been recognized as key targets for metabolic engineering of microorganisms to improve yields and productivities of biotechnological processes. Several works in the past have shown that enforcing ATP futile cycling may enhance the synthesis of certain products under aerobic conditions. However, case studies demonstrating that ATP wasting may also have beneficial effects for anaerobic production processes are scarce. Taking lactic acid as an economically relevant product, we demonstrate that induction of ATP futile cycling in Escherichia coli leads to increased yields and specific production rates under anaerobic conditions, even in the case where lactate is already produced with high yields. Specifically, we constructed a high lactate producer strain KBM10111 (= MG1655 ΔadhE::Cam ΔackA-pta) and implemented an IPTG-inducible overexpression of ppsA encoding for PEP synthase which, together with pyruvate kinase, gives rise to an ATP consuming cycle. Under induction of ppsA, KBM10111 exhibits a 25% higher specific lactate productivity as well as an 8% higher lactate yield. Furthermore, the specific substrate uptake rate was increased by 14%. However, trade-offs between specific and volumetric productivities must be considered when ATP wasting strategies are used to shift substrate conversion from biomass to product synthesis and we discuss potential solutions to design optimal processes. In summary, enforced ATP futile cycling has great potential to optimize a variety of production processes and our study demonstrates that this holds true also for anaerobic processes. PMID:25899755

  4. Split-gene system for hybrid wheat seed production

    PubMed Central

    Kempe, Katja; Rubtsova, Myroslava; Gils, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid wheat plants are superior in yield and growth characteristics compared with their homozygous parents. The commercial production of wheat hybrids is difficult because of the inbreeding nature of wheat and the lack of a practical fertility control that enforces outcrossing. We describe a hybrid wheat system that relies on the expression of a phytotoxic barnase and provides for male sterility. The barnase coding information is divided and distributed at two loci that are located on allelic positions of the host chromosome and are therefore “linked in repulsion.” Functional complementation of the loci is achieved through coexpression of the barnase fragments and intein-mediated ligation of the barnase protein fragments. This system allows for growth and maintenance of male-sterile female crossing partners, whereas the hybrids are fertile. The technology does not require fertility restorers and is based solely on the genetic modification of the female crossing partner. PMID:24821800

  5. Yield and seed oil content response of dwarf, rapid-cycling Brassica to nitrogen treatments, planting density, and carbon dioxide enrichment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frick, J.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of N level (15 to 30 mM), time of N increase (14 to 28 days after planting), and planting density (1163 to 2093 plants/m2) were determined for crop yield responses of dwarf, rapid-cycling brassica (Brassica napus L., CrGC 5-2, Genome: ACaacc). Crops were grown in solid-matrix hydroponic systems and under controlled-environment conditions, including nonsupplemented (ambient) or elevated CO2 concentrations (998 +/- 12 micromoles mol-1). The highest seed yield rate obtained (4.4 g m-2 day-1) occurred with the lowest N level (15 mM) applied at the latest treatment time (day 28). In all trials, CO2 enrichment reduced seed yield rate and harvest index by delaying the onset of flowering and senescence and stimulating vegetative shoot growth. The highest shoot biomass accumulation rate (55.5 g m-2 day-1) occurred with the highest N level (30 mM) applied at the earliest time (day 14). Seed oil content was not significantly affected by CO2 enrichment. Maximum seed oil content (30% to 34%, dry weight basis) was obtained using the lowest N level (15 mM) initiated at the latest treatment time (day 28). In general, an increase in seed oil content was accompanied by a decrease in seed protein. Seed carbohydrate, moisture, and ash contents did not vary significantly in response to experimental treatments. Effects of N level and time of N increase were consistently significant for most crop responses. Planting density was significant only under elevated CO2 conditions.

  6. Salt sensitivity in chickpea: Growth, photosynthesis, seed yield components and tissue ion regulation in contrasting genotypes.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hammad Aziz; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Munir, Rushna; Colmer, Timothy David

    2015-06-15

    Chickpea is a relatively salt sensitive species but shows genotypic variation for salt tolerance, measured as grain yield per plant in mild-to-moderately saline soil. This experiment was designed to evaluate some physiological responses to salinity in three contrasting genotypes. One tolerant (Genesis836), one moderately tolerant (JG11) and one sensitive (Rupali) genotype were grown for 108d in non-saline nutrient solution (controls) and two levels of salinity treatment (30 and 60mM NaCl). No plants survived to maturity in the 60mM NaCl treatment; however, Genesis836 survived longer (87d) than JG11 (67d) while Rupali died after 27d; only Genesis836 flowered, but no pods were filled. At 30mM NaCl, Genesis836 produced a few filled pods, whereas JG11 and Rupali did not. Genotypic differences in plant dry mass at the vegetative stage were evident only at 60mM NaCl, while at maturity differences were evident at 30mM NaCl. Photosynthesis was maintained to different degrees by the three genotypes (e.g. at 30mM NaCl, 35-81% of controls; highest in Genesis836); photosynthesis was restricted predominately due to non-stomatal limitations as the intercellular CO2 concentration was only modestly affected (94-99% of controls). Photosystem II damage was evident in the less tolerant genotypes (e.g. at 30mM NaCl, actual quantum efficiency of photosystem II values were 63-96% of controls). Across treatments, shoot dry mass was negatively correlated with both Na(+) and Cl(-) shoot concentrations. However, the sensitive genotype (Rupali) had equal or lower concentrations of these ions in green leaves, stems or roots compared to tolerant genotypes (JG11 and Genesis836); ion 'exclusion' does not explain variation for salt tolerance among these three chickpea genotypes. The large difference between Rupali (sensitive) and Genesis836 (tolerant) in the salt-induced reduction in net photosynthesis via non-stomatal limitations and the assessed damage to photosystem II, but with similar leaf

  7. Functional properties of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed and its application as bakery product.

    PubMed

    Nyam, Kar-Lin; Leao, Sod-Ying; Tan, Chin-Ping; Long, Kamariah

    2014-12-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed is a valuable food resource as it has an excellent source of dietary fibre. Therefore, this study examined the functional properties of roselle seeds. Replacement of cookie flour with roselle seed powder at levels of 0-30 % was investigated for its effect on functional and nutritional properties of cookies. Among the four formulations cookies, the most preferred by panelists was 20 % roselle seed powder cookie (F3), followed by 10 % roselle seed powder cookie (F2) and 30 % roselle seed powder cookie (F4). The least preferred formulation among all was control cookie (F1). Cookie with 20 % roselle seed powder added showed higher content of total dietary fibre (5.6 g/100 g) as compared with control cookie (0.90 g/100 g). Besides that, cookies incorporated with roselle seed powder exhibited improved antioxidant properties. Thus, roselle seed powder can be used as a dietary fibre source and developed as a functional ingredient in food products. PMID:25477650

  8. Use of Direct and Indirect Estimates of Crown Dimensions to Predict One Seed Juniper Woody Biomass Yield for Alternative Energy Uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Throughout the western United States there is increased interest in utilizing woodland biomass as an alternative energy source. We conducted a pilot study to predict one seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma) chip yield from tree-crown dimensions measured on the ground or derived from Very Large Scale ...

  9. ANALYSIS OF GLUCOSINOLATES AND GLUCOSINOLATE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS IN SPROUTING BROCCOLI SEEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total glucosinolate content and glucosinolate degradation products were examined in unsprouted `Marathon' broccoli (Brassica oleracea L., Italica group) seeds and in 1-, 2-, 3-, 5-, 7-, and 10-day-old sprouts. Glucosinolates identified were glucoiberin, glucoraphanin, gluconapin, glucoiberverin, 4-...

  10. Potential treatments to reduce phorbol esters levels in jatropha seed cake for improving the value added product.

    PubMed

    Sadubthummarak, Umapron; Parkpian, Preeda; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Kongchum, Manoch; Delaune, R D

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha seed cake contains high amounts of protein and other nutrients, however it has a drawback due to toxic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the methods applied to detoxify the main toxin, phorbol esters in jatropha seed cake, to a safe and acceptable level by maintaining the nutritional values. Phorbol esters are tetracyclic diterpenoids-polycyclic compounds that are known as tumor promoters and hence exhibited the toxicity within a broad range of species. Mismanagement of the jatropha waste from jatropha oil industries would lead to contamination of the environment, affecting living organisms and human health through the food chain, so several methods were tested for reducing the toxicity of the seed cake. The results from this investigation showed that heat treatments at either 120°C or 220°C for 1 hour and then mixing with adsorbing bentonite (10%), nanoparticles of zinc oxide (100 μg/g) plus NaHCO3 at 4%, followed by a 4-week incubation period yielded the best final product. The remaining phorbol esters concentration (0.05-0.04 mg/g) from this treatment was less than that reported for the nontoxic jatropha varieties (0.11-0.27 mg/g). Nutritional values of the seed cake after treatment remained at the same levels found in the control group and these values were crude protein (20.47-21.40 + 0.17-0.25%), crude lipid (14.27-14.68 + 0.13-0.14%) and crude fiber (27.33-29.67 + 0.58%). A cytotoxicity test conducted using L929 and normal human dermal fibroblast cell lines confirmed that most of the toxic compounds, especially phorbol esters, were shown as completely eliminated. The results suggested that the detoxification of phorbol esters residues in the jatropha seed cake was possible while it also retained nutritional values. Therefore, the methods to detoxify phorbol esters are necessary to minimize the toxicity of jatropha seed cake. Further, it is essential to reduce the possible environmental impacts that may be generated

  11. Crushed sunflower, flax, or canola seeds in lactating dairy cow diets: effects on methane production, rumen fermentation, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M; Benchaar, C; Holtshausen, L

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of reducing enteric methane production from dairy cows by incorporating into the diet various sources of long-chain FA varying in their degree of saturation and ruminal availability. The experiment was conducted as a crossover design with 16 lactating dairy cows maintained in 2 groups and fed 4 dietary treatments in four 28-d periods. Eight ruminally cannulated primiparous cows (96 +/- 18 d in milk) were assigned to group 1 and 8 multiparous cows (130 +/- 31 d in milk) were assigned to group 2. The dietary treatments were: 1) a commercial source of calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (CTL), 2) crushed sunflower seeds (SS), 3) crushed flaxseed (FS), and 4) crushed canola seed (CS). The oilseeds added 3.1 to 4.2% fat to the diet (DM basis). All 3 oilseed treatments decreased methane production (g/d) by an average of 13%. When corrected for differences in dry matter intake (DMI), compared with CTL, methane production (g/kg of DM intake) was decreased by feeding FS (-18%) or CS (-16%) and was only numerically decreased (-10%) by feeding SS. However, compared with the CTL, feeding SS or FS lowered digestible DMI by 16 and 9%, respectively, because of lowered digestibility. Thus, only CS lowered methane per unit of digestible DM intake. Feeding SS and CS decreased rumen protozoal counts, but there were no treatment effects on mean ruminal pH or total volatile fatty acid concentration. Milk efficiency (3.5% fat corrected milk/DMI), milk yield, and component yield and concentrations were not affected by oilseed treatments. The study shows that adding sources of long-chain fatty acids to the diet in the form of processed oilseeds can be an effective means of reducing methane emissions. However, for some oilseeds such as SS or FS, the reduction in methane can be at the expense of diet digestibility. The use of crushed CS offers a means of mitigating methane without negatively affecting diet digestibility, and

  12. NEANDC specialists meeting on yields and decay data of fission product nuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.; Burrows, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 29 papers presented. Workshop reports on decay heat, fission yields, beta- and gamma-ray spectroscopy, and delayed neutrons are included. An appendix contains a survey of the most recent compilations and evaluations containing fission product yield, fission product decay data, and delayed neutron yield information. (WHK)

  13. Camelina production affected by seeding rate and depth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) is an oilseed that has shown potential as an alternative crop to diversify wheat-fallow systems in the northern Great Plains. However, agronomic information is lacking for management of this relatively new crop. The impact of seeding depth and rate were determined in s...

  14. A technique for estimating seed production of common moist soil plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laubhan, Murray K.

    1992-01-01

    Seeds of native herbaceous vegetation adapted to germination in hydric soils (i.e., moist-soil plants) provide waterfowl with nutritional resources including essential amino acids, vitamins, and minerals that occur only in small amounts or are absent in other foods. These elements are essential for waterfowl to successfully complete aspects of the annual cycle such as molt and reproduction. Moist-soil vegetation also has the advantages of consistent production of foods across years with varying water availability, low management costs, high tolerance to diverse environmental conditions, and low deterioration rates of seeds after flooding. The amount of seed produced differs among plant species and varies annually depending on environmental conditions and management practices. Further, many moist-soil impoundments contain diverse vegetation, and seed production by a particular plant species usually is not uniform across an entire unit. Consequently, estimating total seed production within an impoundment is extremely difficult. The chemical composition of seeds also varies among plant species. For example, beggartick seeds contain high amounts of protein but only an intermediate amount of minerals. In contrast, barnyardgrass is a good source of minerals but is low in protein. Because of these differences, it is necessary to know the amount of seed produced by each plant species if the nutritional resources provided in an impoundment are to be estimated. The following technique for estimating seed production takes into account the variation resulting from different environmental conditions and management practices as well as differences in the amount of seed produced by various plant species. The technique was developed to provide resource managers with the ability to make quick and reliable estimates of seed production. Although on-site information must be collected, the amount of field time required is small (i.e., about 1 min per sample); sampling normally is

  15. Nectar replenishment and pollen receipt interact in their effects on seed production of Penstemon roseus.

    PubMed

    Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Lara, Carlos

    2009-07-01

    Resource supply and pollen delivery are often thought to equally limit seed production in animal-pollinated plants. At equilibrium, plants should show no response to experimental pollen supplementation because resources limit seed set above the current level of pollen attraction, while experimental reduction in pollen deposition below the equilibrium level would reduce seed set. The predicted equilibrium may be disrupted, however, if plants expend additional energy to replenish removed nectar. We investigated the combined effects of nectar removal and pollen delivery on female reproductive success of Penstemon roseus (Plantaginaceae), a hummingbird-pollinated plant that replenishes removed nectar. We first documented that the frequency of experimental nectar removal was correlated with total nectar secretion; and increased frequency of nectar removal resulted in increased female reproductive costs to the plant. Trade-offs between investing resources in nectar and investing resources in seeds were then investigated in two contrasting natural populations by removing nectar from flowers at increasing frequencies while simultaneously hand-pollinating flowers with increasing amounts of pollen. Seed set was lowest at low levels of pollen deposition, highest at medium-sized pollen loads, and intermediate when pollen loads were highest. At both sites, the frequency of nectar removal and pollen deposition had an interactive effect on seed production, in that intermediate levels of nectar removal result in the absolute highest seed set, but only at intermediate pollen loads. At high pollen loads, seed set was higher following little to no nectar removal, and at low pollen loads, all rates of nectar removal affected fecundity equally. Seed mass responded to nectar removal and pollination differently than did seed set. High levels of nectar removal and pollen delivery both lowered seed mass, with little interaction between main effects. Our findings are among the first to

  16. Seed Production as Influenced by Glyphosate Applications Across a Weed Community

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Late-season weed infestations often do not affect yields and are allowed to mature and contribute seed to the soil seedbank, ensuring the future establishment of competitive weed communities. Effective long-term weed management strategies must incorporate practices to reduce the soil seedbank by re...

  17. Heat stress yields a unique MADS box transcription factor in determining seed size and thermal sensitivity1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Begcy, Kevin; Liu, Kan; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Chi

    2016-01-01

    Early seed development events are highly sensitive to increased temperature. This high sensitivity to a short-duration temperature spike reduces seed viability and seed size at maturity. The molecular basis of heat stress sensitivity during early seed development is not known. We selected rice (Oryza sativa), a highly heat-sensitive species, to explore this phenomenon. Here, we elucidate the molecular pathways that contribute to the heat sensitivity of a critical developmental window during which the endosperm transitions from syncytium to the cellularization stage in young seeds. A transcriptomic comparison of seeds exposed to moderate (35°C) and severe (39°C) heat stress with control (28°C) seeds identified a set of putative imprinted genes, which were down-regulated under severe heat stress. Several type I MADS box genes specifically expressed during the syncytial stage were differentially regulated under moderate and severe heat stress. The suppression and overaccumulation of these genes are associated with precocious and delayed cellularization under moderate and severe stress, respectively. We show that modulating the expression of OsMADS87, one of the heat-sensitive, imprinted genes associated with syncytial stage endosperm, regulates rice seed size. Transgenic seeds deficient in OsMADS87 exhibit accelerated endosperm cellularization. These seeds also have lower sensitivity to a moderate heat stress in terms of seed size reduction compared with seeds from wild-type plants and plants overexpressing OsMADS87. Our findings suggest that OsMADS87 and several other genes identified in this study could be potential targets for improving the thermal resilience of rice during reproductive development. PMID:26936896

  18. Photomorphogenesis, photosynthesis, and seed yield of wheat plants grown under red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with and without supplemental blue lighting.

    PubMed

    Goins, G D; Yorio, N C; Sanwo, M M; Brown, C S

    1997-07-01

    Red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a potential light source for growing plants in spaceflight systems because of their safety, small mass and volume, wavelength specificity, and longevity. Despite these attractive features, red LEDs must satisfy requirements for plant photosynthesis and photomorphogenesis for successful growth and seed yield. To determine the influence of gallium aluminium arsenide (GaAlAs) red LEDs on wheat photomorphogenesis, photosynthesis, and seed yield, wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. 'USU-Super Dwarf') plants were grown under red LEDs and compared to plants grown under daylight fluorescent (white) lamps and red LEDs supplemented with either 1% or 10% blue light from blue fluorescent (BF) lamps. Compared to white light-grown plants, wheat grown under red LEDs alone demonstrated less main culm development during vegetative growth through preanthesis, while showing a longer flag leaf at 40 DAP and greater main culm length at final harvest (70 DAP). As supplemental BF light was increased with red LEDs, shoot dry matter and net leaf photosynthesis rate increased. At final harvest, wheat grown under red LEDs alone displayed fewer subtillers and a lower seed yield compared to plants grown under white light. Wheat grown under red LEDs+10% BF light had comparable shoot dry matter accumulation and seed yield relative to wheat grown under white light. These results indicate that wheat can complete its life cycle under red LEDs alone, but larger plants and greater amounts of seed are produced in the presence of red LEDs supplemented with a quantity of blue light. PMID:11541074

  19. Production of seed samples for the effective molecular analysis of dormancy cycling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Footitt, Steven; Finch-Savage, William E

    2011-01-01

    Most often, the samples used for molecular analysis of dormancy are populations of seeds. An essential survival characteristic of seed populations inhabiting the variable surface layers of the soil is that individuals in the population do not behave uniformly. In addition, seed dormancy (SD) status of the whole population constantly changes even in the dry state. For these and other reasons, production of appropriate and adequately characterized seed samples is the key to the correct and most informative interpretation of molecular studies. This is particularly important when the aim is to describe and explain seed behaviour in the natural environment. Molecular studies of seed dormancy, and especially ecologically relevant behaviour, such as dormancy cycling, should therefore involve characterization of dormancy status based on a sound understanding of seed physiology. This chapter discusses the problems and pitfalls of using Arabidopsis and provides protocols devised for use with the Arabidopsis ecotype Cape Verde Islands for the production and characterization of samples to be used in molecular analysis of dormancy transitions and cycling. PMID:21898250

  20. Production of wax esters in plant seed oils by oleosomal cotargeting of biosynthetic enzymes[S

    PubMed Central

    Heilmann, Mareike; Iven, Tim; Ahmann, Katharina; Hornung, Ellen; Stymne, Sten; Feussner, Ivo

    2012-01-01

    Wax esters are neutral lipids exhibiting desirable properties for lubrication. Natural sources have traditionally been whales. Additionally some plants produce wax esters in their seed oil. Currently there is no biological source available for long chain length monounsaturated wax esters that are most suited for industrial applications. This study aimed to identify enzymatic requirements enabling their production in oilseed plants. Wax esters are generated by the action of fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR), generating fatty alcohols and wax synthases (WS) that esterify fatty alcohols and acyl-CoAs to wax esters. Based on their substrate preference, a FAR and a WS from Mus musculus were selected for this study (MmFAR1 and MmWS). MmWS resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), whereas MmFAR1 associates with peroxisomes. The elimination of a targeting signal and the fusion to an oil body protein yielded variants of MmFAR1 and MmWS that were cotargeted and enabled wax ester production when coexpressed in yeast or Arabidopsis. In the fae1 fad2 double mutant, rich in oleate, the cotargeted variants of MmFAR1 and MmWS enabled formation of wax esters containing >65% oleyl-oleate. The data suggest that cotargeting of unusual biosynthetic enzymes can result in functional interplay of heterologous partners in transgenic plants. PMID:22878160

  1. Efficacy of Selected Insecticides Applied to Hybrid Rice Seed.

    PubMed

    Adams, A; Gore, J; Musser, F; Cook, D; Catchot, A; Walker, T; Dobbins, C

    2016-02-01

    Hybrid rice and insecticide seed treatments targeting rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, have altered the landscape of rice production. The effect of reduced seeding rates on seed treatment efficacy in hybrid rice has not been studied. During 2011 and 2012, an experiment was conducted at seven locations to determine the relationship between low seeding rates used in hybrid rice and efficacy of selected insecticidal seed treatments as measured by rice water weevil densities and yield. Labeled rates of thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole, and clothianidin were compared with higher rates of these products to determine if labeled rates provide an acceptable level of control of the rice water weevil. Study locations were divided into low, moderate, and high groups based on rice water weevil larval densities. All seed treatments and seed treatment rates reduced rice water weevil densities. However, there was no observed yield or economic benefit from the use of an insecticidal seed treatment in areas of low pressure. Differences in yield were observed among seed treatments and seed treatment rates in moderate and high pressure locations, and all seed treatments yielded better than the untreated plots, but these differences were not always economical. All seed treatments showed an economic advantage in areas of high weevil pressure, and there were no differences among seed treatment products or rates, suggesting that currently labeled seed treatment rates in hybrid rice are effective for rice water weevil management. PMID:26537671

  2. Efficacy of Selected Insecticides Applied to Hybrid Rice Seed

    PubMed Central

    Adams, A.; Gore, J.; Musser, F.; Cook, D.; Walker, T.; Dobbins, C.

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid rice and insecticide seed treatments targeting rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, have altered the landscape of rice production. The effect of reduced seeding rates on seed treatment efficacy in hybrid rice has not been studied. During 2011 and 2012, an experiment was conducted at seven locations to determine the relationship between low seeding rates used in hybrid rice and efficacy of selected insecticidal seed treatments as measured by rice water weevil densities and yield. Labeled rates of thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole, and clothianidin were compared with higher rates of these products to determine if labeled rates provide an acceptable level of control of the rice water weevil. Study locations were divided into low, moderate, and high groups based on rice water weevil larval densities. All seed treatments and seed treatment rates reduced rice water weevil densities. However, there was no observed yield or economic benefit from the use of an insecticidal seed treatment in areas of low pressure. Differences in yield were observed among seed treatments and seed treatment rates in moderate and high pressure locations, and all seed treatments yielded better than the untreated plots, but these differences were not always economical. All seed treatments showed an economic advantage in areas of high weevil pressure, and there were no differences among seed treatment products or rates, suggesting that currently labeled seed treatment rates in hybrid rice are effective for rice water weevil management. PMID:26537671

  3. Production of Rice Seed-Based Allergy Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Hidenori; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant hypoallergenic derivative is the next generation of tolerogen replacing the natural allergen extract to increase safety and efficacy. Japanese cedar pollinosis is the predominant seasonal allergy disease in Japan. A rice seed-based oral vaccine containing the recombinant hypoallergens derived from these allergens was developed. Efficacy of this rice-based allergy vaccine was evaluated by oral administration in animal models. PMID:27076162

  4. Hair waving natural product: Dillenia indica seed sap.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Jyoti Prasad

    2013-02-01

    Knowing keratin is the main component and mechanical strength of hair a study was performed to evaluate whether Dillenia indica seed sap can affect molecular strength of hair or not. In the present study the human hair collected from barber shop waste were subjected to purified sap for 12 h and then analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for documenting evidence for keratin degradation. Further the deterioration was confirmed by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PMID:23124020

  5. Primary productivity, bacterial productivity and nitrogen uptake in response to iron enrichment during the SEEDS II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Isao; Noiri, Yoshifumi; Cochlan, William P.; Suzuki, Koji; Aramaki, Takafumi; Ono, Tsuneo; Nojiri, Yukihiro

    2009-12-01

    Primary productivity (PP), bacterial productivity (BP) and the uptake rates of nitrate and ammonium were measured using isotopic methods ( 13C, 3H, 15N) during a mesoscale iron (Fe)-enrichment experiment conducted in the western subarctic Pacific Ocean in 2004 (SEEDS II). PP increased following Fe enrichment, reached maximal rates 12 days after the enrichment, and then declined to the initial level on day 17. During the 23-day observation period, we observed the development and decline of the Fe-induced bloom. The surface mixed layer (SML) integrated PP increased by 3-fold, but was smaller than the 5-fold increase observed in the previous Fe-enrichment experiment conducted at almost the same location and season during 2001 (SEEDS). Nitrate uptake rates were enhanced by Fe enrichment but decreased after day 5, and became lower than ammonium uptake rates after day 17. The total nitrogenous nutrient uptake rate declined after the peak of the bloom, and accumulation of ammonium was obvious in the euphotic layer. Nitrate utilization accounted for all the requirements of N for the massive bloom development during SEEDS, whereas during SEEDS II, nitrate accounted for >90% of total N utilization on day 5, declining to 40% by the end of the observation period. The SML-integrated BP increased after day 2 and peaked twice on days 8 and 21. Ammonium accumulation and the delayed heterotrophic activity suggested active regeneration occurred after the peak of the bloom. The SML-integrated PP between days 0 and 23 was 19.0 g C m -2. The SML-integrated BP during the same period was 2.6 g C m -2, which was 14% of the SML-integrated PP. Carbon budget calculation for the whole experimental period indicated that 33% of the whole (particulate plus dissolved) PP (21.5 g C m -2) was exported below the SML and 18% was transferred to the meso-zooplankton (growth). The bacterial carbon consumption (43% of the whole PP) was supported by DOC or POC release from phytoplankton, zooplankton

  6. Antioxidant activities and phenolics of Passiflora edulis seed recovered from juice production residue.

    PubMed

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree

    2013-01-01

    Passion fruit seed was refluxed in methanolic water and further liquid - liquid extracted yielding n-Hexane, Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and aqueous (Aq.) extracts. The EtOAc part was the most potent antioxidant (IC 50DPPH = 2.7 ± 0.2 and IC 50ABTS = 9.0 ± 0.0 µg/mL) that significantly (p < 0.05) better than Aq. extract (IC 50DPPH = 177.8 ± 1.3 and IC 50ABTS = 15.4 ± 0.0 µg/mL). The antioxidant EtOAc exhibited ferric reducing powder (EC1mM FeSO4 = 2,813.9 ± 11.6) and tyrosinase inhibitory effect (39.9 ± 0.0 % at 1 mg/mL). The more potent active extract had significant higher total phenolic content than the Aq. one (p < 0.05). Sun protection factor of the EtOAc extract was comparable to ferulic acid. Chlorogenic acid, rosmarinic acid and quercetin were highly found in EtOAc extract, whereas kojic acid and gallic acid were largely determined in the Aq. part. The most potent biologically active fraction was non cytotoxic in vero cells at the highest test concentration (50 µg/mL). A process to minimize the waste from the fruit juice production is offered. Passion fruit value and profitability in agribusinesses will be increased by the biochemical transformation of the seed into active extracts appraisal for natural cosmetic as a multifunction ingredient. PMID:23535311

  7. Photofission observations in reactor environments using selected fission-product yields

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, R.; Ruddy, F.H.; Roberts, J.H.

    1982-01-22

    A new method for the observation of photofission in reactor environments is advanced. It is based on the in-situ observation of fission product yield. In fact, at a given in-situ reactor location, the fission product yield is simply a weighted linear combination of the photofission product yield, Y/sub gamma/, and the neutron induced fission product yield, Y/sub n. The weight factors arising in this linear combination are the photofission fraction and neutron induced fission fraction, respectively. This method can be readily implemented with established techniques for measuring in-situ reactor fission product yield. For example, one can use the method based on simultaneous irradiation of radiometric (RM) and solid state track recorder (SSTR) fission monitors. The sensitivity and accuracy and current knowledge of fission product yields. Unique advantages of this method for reactor applications are emphasized.

  8. Control of Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne hapla and Yield Response of Alfalfa Due to Oxamyl Seed Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Townshend, J. L.; Chiba, M.

    1987-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Saranac) seed were soaked for 20 minutes in water, acetone, or methanol containing 10 or 50 mg/ml of oxamyl (Vydate L) or coated with a 2% aqueous cellulose solution containing the same amounts of oxamyl. Seed were analyzed for oxamyl by HPLC immediately after treatment and after 9 and 26 months of storage. Oxamyl content of alfalfa seed did not decline after 26 months of storage. The effects of seed treatment on growth of alfalfa and nematode control were examined using soils infested with Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne hapla. Germination was not affected by any of the seed treatments. Twenty-one days after sowing, the total growth of alfalfa seedlings grown from seed treated with 50 mg/ml of oxamyl in P. penetrans-infested soils had increased by 62% over controls. Nodulation per pot increased by as much as 267%, and the densities of P. penetrans per gram of root were reduced by as much as 73% compared to control plants. In M. hapla-infested soils, increases in plant growth (32%) and nodulation (71%) also occurred with oxamyl-treated seeds. Root gall reduction (86%) was also substantial due to oxamyl seed treatment. PMID:19290170

  9. Effect of imazapic and 2,4-DB on peanut seed quality, yield, grade and tomato spotted wilt incidence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many factors contribute to peanut seed quality including maturity, genetics, and agronomic management during the growing season. The effect of herbicides on current peanut cultivar seed quality (germination and vigor) has not been studied. Small-plot, irrigated field trials were conducted at 2 lo...

  10. Engineering salt-tolerant Brassica plants: Characterization of yield and seed oil quality in transgenic plants with increased vacuolar sodium accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Xia; Hodson, Joanna N.; Williams, John P.; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2001-01-01

    Transgenic Brassica napus plants overexpressing AtNHX1, a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiport from Arabidopsis thaliana, were able to grow, flower, and produce seeds in the presence of 200 mM sodium chloride. Although the transgenic plants grown in high salinity accumulated sodium up to 6% of their dry weight, growth of the these plants was only marginally affected by the high salt concentration. Moreover, seed yields and the seed oil quality were not affected by the high salinity of the soil. Our results demonstrate the potential use of these transgenic plants for agricultural use in saline soils. Our findings, showing that the modification of a single trait significantly improved the salinity tolerance of this crop plant, suggest that with a combination of breeding and transgenic plants it could be possible to produce salt-tolerant crops with far fewer target traits than had been anticipated. PMID:11606781

  11. Boosting heterologous protein production in transgenic dicotyledonous seeds using Phaseolus vulgaris regulatory sequences.

    PubMed

    De Jaeger, Geert; Scheffer, Stanley; Jacobs, Anni; Zambre, Mukund; Zobell, Oliver; Goossens, Alain; Depicker, Ann; Angenon, Geert

    2002-12-01

    Over the past decade, several high value proteins have been produced in different transgenic plant tissues such as leaves, tubers, and seeds. Despite recent advances, many heterologous proteins accumulate to low concentrations, and the optimization of expression cassettes to make in planta production and purification economically feasible remains critical. Here, the regulatory sequences of the seed storage protein gene arcelin 5-I (arc5-I) of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) were evaluated for producing heterologous proteins in dicotyledonous seeds. The murine single chain variable fragment (scFv) G4 (ref. 4) was chosen as model protein because of the current industrial interest in producing antibodies and derived fragments in crops. In transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana seed stocks, the scFv under control of the 35S promoter of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) accumulated to approximately 1% of total soluble protein (TSP). However, a set of seed storage promoter constructs boosted the scFv accumulation to exceptionally high concentrations, reaching no less than 36.5% of TSP in homozygous seeds. Even at these high concentrations, the scFv proteins had antigen-binding activity and affinity similar to those produced in Escherichia coli. The feasibility of heterologous protein production under control of arc5-I regulatory sequences was also demonstrated in Phaseolus acutifolius, a promising crop for large scale production. PMID:12415287

  12. [Survey of synthetic disinfectants in grapefruit seed extract and its compounded products].

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Naoki; Tada, Atsuko; Kuroyanagi, Masanori; Yoneda, Yuko; Yun, Young Sook; Kunugi, Akira; Sato, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Ken-Ichi

    2008-02-01

    Grapefruit seed extract (GSE), derived from the seeds of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi MCAF.), is listed as a natural food additive in Japan. Products containing GSE are used as disinfectants made from only natural sources, especially after Japanese researchers found that GSE prevents the growth of norovirus. On the other hand, recent overseas studies indicated that synthetic disinfectants, such as benzalkonium and benzethonium chlorides, were present in some commercial GSE products. To confirm the quality of commercial GSE products available in Japanese markets, we carried out comprehensive research to identify the major constituents of commercial GSE products which are used as food additives (13 products from 6 manufacturers), dietary supplements (5 products from 4 manufacturers), cosmetic materials (16 products from 10 manufacturers) and disinfectant or deodorant sprays (7 products from 7 manufacturers). By means of NMR and LC/MS analysis, synthetic disinfectants such as benzethonium or benzalkonium salts were detected in most of the commercial GSE products. PMID:18344660

  13. Decreased seed oil production in FUSCA3 Brassica napus mutant plants.

    PubMed

    Elahi, Nosheen; Duncan, Robert W; Stasolla, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    Canola (Brassica napus L.) oil is extensively utilized for human consumption and industrial applications. Among the genes regulating seed development and participating in oil accumulation is FUSCA3 (FUS3), a member of the plant-specific B3-domain family of transcription factors. To evaluate the role of this gene during seed storage deposition, three BnFUSCA3 (BnFUS3) TILLING mutants were generated. Mutations occurring downstream of the B3 domain reduced silique number and repressed seed oil level resulting in increased protein content in developing seeds. BnFUS3 mutant seeds also had increased levels of linoleic acid, possibly due to the reduced expression of ω-3 FA DESATURASE (FAD3). These observed phenotypic alterations were accompanied by the decreased expression of genes encoding transcription factors stimulating fatty acid (FA) synthesis: LEAFY COTYLEDON1 and 2 (LEC1 and 2) ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE 3 (BnABI3) and WRINKLED1 (WRI1). Additionally, expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism, glycolysis, and FA modifications were down-regulated in developing seeds of the mutant plants. Collectively, these transcriptional changes support altered sucrose metabolism and reduced glycolytic activity, diminishing the carbon pool available for the synthesis of FA and ultimately seed oil production. Based on these observations, it is suggested that targeted manipulations of BnFUS3 can be used as a tool to influence oil accumulation in the economically important species B. napus. PMID:26302483

  14. Variability in pyrolysis product yield from novel shrub willow genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fast pyrolysis is becoming a more attractive conversion option for the production of biofuels, due to the potential for directly producing hydrocarbon fuels seamlessly compatible with petroleum products (drop-in fuels). Dedicated bioenergy crops, like perennial grasses and short-rotation woody crop...

  15. Radiation use efficiency, biomass production, and grain yield in two maize hybrids differing in drought tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought tolerant (DT) maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids have potential to increase yield under drought conditions. However, little information is known about the physiological determinations of yield in DT hybrids. Our objective was to assess radiation use efficiency (RUE), biomass production, and yield ...

  16. Characteristics of Surian Flower, Fruit and Seed Productions (Toona sinensis (A. Juss.) M. Roem.) in Sumedang, West Java.

    PubMed

    Pramono, Agus Astho; Palupi, Endah Retno; Siregar, Iskandar Zulkarnaen; Kusmana, Cecep

    2016-02-01

    Community forest development requires a constant supply of high-quality seeds. In addition, sound management of Toona sinensis (surian) seed sources requires a deep understanding of factors affecting seed production. This present study investigated the reproduction characteristics of surian, including flower, fruit and seed productions, variations in the productions of fruits and seeds among trees and among branches, and dendrometric factors that influence the productions of fruits and seeds. Flower production characteristics were observed in 99 panicles, fruit production characteristics were observed in 128 panicles, and seed characteristics were evaluated based on 890 fruits. The number of fruits per panicle ranged from 38 to 646. The number of seeds in fruits ranged from 1 to 35. Fruit size was correlated to the number of filled seeds following a quadratic regression equation. The optimal number of filled seeds was 20 per fruit. Stem diameter, crown width, crown base height, and the number of sub-branches positively influenced the production of panicles per tree, while the crown base height (of the tree) negatively affected the fruit set. PMID:27019683

  17. Characteristics of Surian Flower, Fruit and Seed Productions (Toona sinensis (A. Juss.) M. Roem.) in Sumedang, West Java

    PubMed Central

    Pramono, Agus Astho; Palupi, Endah Retno; Siregar, Iskandar Zulkarnaen; Kusmana, Cecep

    2016-01-01

    Community forest development requires a constant supply of high-quality seeds. In addition, sound management of Toona sinensis (surian) seed sources requires a deep understanding of factors affecting seed production. This present study investigated the reproduction characteristics of surian, including flower, fruit and seed productions, variations in the productions of fruits and seeds among trees and among branches, and dendrometric factors that influence the productions of fruits and seeds. Flower production characteristics were observed in 99 panicles, fruit production characteristics were observed in 128 panicles, and seed characteristics were evaluated based on 890 fruits. The number of fruits per panicle ranged from 38 to 646. The number of seeds in fruits ranged from 1 to 35. Fruit size was correlated to the number of filled seeds following a quadratic regression equation. The optimal number of filled seeds was 20 per fruit. Stem diameter, crown width, crown base height, and the number of sub-branches positively influenced the production of panicles per tree, while the crown base height (of the tree) negatively affected the fruit set. PMID:27019683

  18. Michigan Basin. Secondary recovery in reef trends yields more production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    Secondary recovery practices in reef trends in Michigan are described. Waterflooding in the Chester 18 Unit began in 1978; it currently has 6 injection wells and 11 production wells. The production wells use a submersible pumping unit, and current production levels are estimated at 3800 bopd. The present level of injection is ca. 17,000 bpd of water. The company operating the field has concluded that more barrels can be produced from a reef if a waterflood is started early. There are 55 to 60 such reefs with potential for supplemental recovery.

  19. Engineering Fluorometabolite Production: Fluorinase Expression in Salinispora tropica Yields Fluorosalinosporamide†

    PubMed Central

    Eustáquio, Alessandra S.; O'Hagan, David; Moore, Bradley S.

    2010-01-01

    Organofluorine compounds play an important role in medicinal chemistry where they are responsible for up to 15% of the pharmaceutical products on the market. While natural products are valuable sources of new chemical entities, natural fluorinated molecules are extremely rare and the pharmaceutical industry has not benefited from a microbial source of this class of compounds. Streptomyces cattleya is an unusual bacterium in that it elaborates fluoroacetate and the amino acid 4-fluorothreonine. The discovery in 2002 of the fluorination enzyme FlA responsible for C-F bond formation in S. cattleya, and its subsequent characterization, opened up for the first time the prospect of genetically engineering fluorometabolite production from fluoride ion in host organisms. As a proof of principle, we report here the induced production of fluorosalinosporamide by replacing the chlorinase gene salL from Salinispora tropica with the fluorinase gene flA. PMID:20085308

  20. Yield, irrigation response, and water productivity of deficit to fully irrigated spring canola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canola (Brassica napus) is an oil-seed crop that is adapted to the northern High Plains of the USA and is considered a viable rotational and biofuel crop. However, decreased ground water allocations have necessitated determining the impact of limited irrigation on canola productivity. The objectives...

  1. Soybean Seeds: A Practical Host for the Production of Functional Subunit Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Laura C.; Bost, Kenneth L.; Piller, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Soybean seeds possess several inherent qualities that make them an ideal host for the production of biopharmaceuticals when compared with other plant-based and non-plant-based recombinant expression systems (e.g., low cost of production, high protein to biomass ratio, long-term stability of seed proteins under ambient conditions, etc.). To demonstrate the practicality and feasibility of this platform for the production of subunit vaccines, we chose to express and characterize a nontoxic form of S. aureus enterotoxin B (mSEB) as a model vaccine candidate. We show that soy-mSEB was produced at a high vaccine to biomass ratio and represented ~76 theoretical doses of human vaccine per single soybean seed. We localized the model vaccine candidate both intracellularly and extracellularly and found no difference in mSEB protein stability or accumulation relative to subcellular environment. We also show that the model vaccine was biochemically and immunologically similar to native and recombinant forms of the protein produced in a bacterial expression system. Immunization of mice with seed extracts containing mSEB mounted a significant immune response within 14 days of the first injection. Taken together, our results highlight the practicality of soybean seeds as a potential platform for the production of functional subunit vaccines. PMID:24822195

  2. Soybean seeds: a practical host for the production of functional subunit vaccines.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Laura C; Garg, Renu; Bost, Kenneth L; Piller, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    Soybean seeds possess several inherent qualities that make them an ideal host for the production of biopharmaceuticals when compared with other plant-based and non-plant-based recombinant expression systems (e.g., low cost of production, high protein to biomass ratio, long-term stability of seed proteins under ambient conditions, etc.). To demonstrate the practicality and feasibility of this platform for the production of subunit vaccines, we chose to express and characterize a nontoxic form of S. aureus enterotoxin B (mSEB) as a model vaccine candidate. We show that soy-mSEB was produced at a high vaccine to biomass ratio and represented ~76 theoretical doses of human vaccine per single soybean seed. We localized the model vaccine candidate both intracellularly and extracellularly and found no difference in mSEB protein stability or accumulation relative to subcellular environment. We also show that the model vaccine was biochemically and immunologically similar to native and recombinant forms of the protein produced in a bacterial expression system. Immunization of mice with seed extracts containing mSEB mounted a significant immune response within 14 days of the first injection. Taken together, our results highlight the practicality of soybean seeds as a potential platform for the production of functional subunit vaccines. PMID:24822195

  3. Theoretical characterization of the reaction NH2 + O yields products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.

    1993-01-01

    The potential energy surface for NH2+O has been characterized using complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF)/derivative calculations to determine stationary point geometries and frequencies followed by internally contracted configuration interaction (ICCI) calculations to determine the energetics. The calculations predict a NO bond strength of 85.8 kcal/mol for NH2O. The barrier for isomerization of NH2O to trans-HNOH is predicted to be 48.0 kcal/mol and the barriers for H+HNO forming NH2O and NHOH are predicted to be 2.1 and 8.3 kcal/mol, respectively (all corrected for zero-point energy). The computed heats of formation for NH2O and cis- and trans-HNOH are in good agreement with the present results. The barrier for H + HNO yields H2 + NO is computed to be about 0.3 kcal/mol.

  4. Products and quantum yields for photolysis of chloroaromatics in water

    SciTech Connect

    Dulin, D.; Drossman, H.; Mill, T.

    1986-01-01

    Photolysis of chlorobenzene, 2- and 4-chlorobiphenyl, and 2- and 4-chlorobiphenyl ethers in water with 250-300-nm light produce corresponding phenols or, in the case of 2-chlorobiphenyl ether, dibenzofuran exclusively. Quantum yields in most cases are very similar to those reported in hexane for the reduction process. 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TC-DD) photolyze much less efficiently in water than in hexane. A common pathway for photolysis of monochloroaromatics involving aryl cations accounts well for the experimental observations. C-O rather than C-Cl cleavage in TCDD may be a major pathway for its loss. Half-lives for photolysis of these chloroaromatics in sunlight in water range from 460 years to 5 days; TCDD photolyzes in water with a half-life of about 4-5 days in summer at 40/sup 0/ latitude. 40 references, 1 figure, 8 tables.

  5. Increased Biomass, Seed Yield and Stress Tolerance Is Conferred in Arabidopsis by a Novel Enzyme from the Resurrection Grass Sporobolus stapfianus That Glycosylates the Strigolactone Analogue GR24

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Sharmin; Griffiths, Cara A.; Blomstedt, Cecilia K.; Le, Tuan-Ngoc; Gaff, Donald F.; Hamill, John D.; Neale, Alan D.

    2013-01-01

    Isolation of gene transcripts from desiccated leaf tissues of the resurrection grass, Sporobolus stapfianus, resulted in the identification of a gene, SDG8i, encoding a Group 1 glycosyltransferase (UGT). Here, we examine the effects of introducing this gene, under control of the CaMV35S promoter, into the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Results show that Arabidopsis plants constitutively over-expressing SDG8i exhibit enhanced growth, reduced senescence, cold tolerance and a substantial improvement in protoplasmic drought tolerance. We hypothesise that expression of SDG8i in Arabidopsis negatively affects the bioactivity of metabolite/s that mediate/s environmentally-induced repression of cell division and expansion, both during normal development and in response to stress. The phenotype of transgenic plants over-expressing SDG8i suggests modulation in activities of both growth- and stress-related hormones. Plants overexpressing the UGT show evidence of elevated auxin levels, with the enzyme acting downstream of ABA to reduce drought-induced senescence. Analysis of the in vitro activity of the UGT recombinant protein product demonstrates that SDG8i can glycosylate the synthetic strigolactone analogue GR24, evoking a link with strigolactone-related processes in vivo. The large improvements observed in survival of transgenic Arabidopsis plants under cold-, salt- and drought-stress, as well as the substantial increases in growth rate and seed yield under non-stress conditions, indicates that overexpression of SDG8i in crop plants may provide a novel means of increasing plant productivity. PMID:24224034

  6. Operational prediction of crop yields using MODIS data and products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Official crop progress, condition and production estimates for the United States are responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s, National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS). In addition to weekly and monthly survey-based data, biweekly composite maps of the normalized difference v...

  7. [Sex structure and seed productivity of Mentha canadensis L. from natural flora of primorye of Russia].

    PubMed

    Voronkova, T V; Shelepova, O V; Kondrat'eva, V V; Bidiukova, G F

    2014-01-01

    The sex structure and seed productivity of Mentha canadensis L. from different climatic regioins of Primorye of Russia was studied. We established that M. canadensis is characterized by a homogeneous population structure due to the formation of vegetative clones. The ratio of female and androgynous individuals was 1:5, and it is possible that this is a species-specific trait. Both sexual forms produced fruits under conditions of isolation from cross-pollination. We discuss the possibility of apomixis and the influence of climatic conditions on seed productivity and morphometric characteristics of plants. PMID:25720285

  8. Seed sprout production: Consumables and a foundation for higher plant growth in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Michelle; Thomas, Terri; Johnson, Steve; Luttges, Marvin

    1990-01-01

    Seed sprouts can be produced as a source of fresh vegetable materials and as higher plant seedlings in space. Sprout production was undertaken to evaluate the mass accumulations possible, the technologies needed, and the reliability of the overall process. Baseline experiments corroborated the utility of sprout production protocols for a variety of seed types. The automated delivery of saturated humidity effectively supplants labor intensive manual soaking techniques. Automated humidification also lend itself to modest centrifugal sprout growth environments. A small amount of ultraviolet radiation effectively suppressed bacterial and fungal contamination, and the sprouts were suitable for consumption.

  9. Dose dependence of the production yield of endohedral 133Xe-fullerene by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, S.; Ishioka, N. S.; Shimomura, H.; Muramatsu, H.; Sekine, T.

    2003-05-01

    The production yield of endohedral 133Xe-fullerene by ion implantation has been studied by taking advantage of the radioactivity of 133Xe. Fullerene targets, which were produced by vacuum evaporation of C 60 or C 70 on a Ni backing, were bombarded with 30-38 keV 133Xe ions by using an isotope separator at doses ranging from 1 × 10 12 to 1 × 10 14 cm -2. The production yield of endohedral 133Xe-fullerene was determined by an high performance liquid chromatography analysis following the dissolution of the targets in o-dichlorobenzene. It was found that the production yield decreased with increasing dose and incident energy, and the production yield of 133Xe@C 70 was higher than that of 133Xe@C 60 for the same dose and incident energy. Those production yields are discussed in connection with amorphization of fullerene molecules in collisions with 133Xe ions.

  10. Survival of bio-inoculants on fungicides-treated seeds of wheat, pea and chickpea and subsequent effect on chickpea yield.

    PubMed

    Gaind, Sunita; Rathi, Maheshwar S; Kaushik, Brahma D; Nain, Lata; Verma, Om P

    2007-08-01

    Survival of Mesorhizobium ciceri (SP(4)) and Azotobacter chroococcum (CBD-15 and M(4)) was tested on chickpea (Cicer arietinum) seeds treated with fungicides bavistin [methyl N-(1H-benzimidazol-2yl) carbamate] and thiram (tetramethyl-thiuram disulfide), whereas survival of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB), Pseudomonas striata (27) and Bacillus polymyxa (H(5)) was examined on two cultivars (Arkel and BV) of pea (Pisum sativum) seeds treated with thiram. Viability of Azotobacter chroococcum (W(5)) was also examined on wheat (Triticum aestivum) seeds treated with bavistin, captan (cis-N-trichloromethyl thio-4 cyclohexane-1, 2-dicarboximide) and thiram under laboratory conditions using standard dilution and the plate count technique. All the tested strains of diazotrophs and PSB showed decline in their viable population on prolonged contact with fungicides. However, PSB showed variation in their viable population even with the cultivar. BV cultivar of pea seeds showed better recovery of viable P. striata (10.75 to 10.61 log no. of viable cells with in 0-24 hrs) in the presence of thiram, whereas the Arkel cultivar of pea resulted in better recovery of viable B. polymyxa. Azotobacter chroococcum (W(5)), a potential strain for wheat, showed better survival in the presence of bavistin, compared to thiram and captan. Higher viable population of Mesorhizobium ciceri (SP(4)) and Azotobacter chroococcum (M(4)) was recovered from chickpea seeds treated with bavistin compared to thiram. However, thiram-treated seeds resulted in a greater number of extractable Azotobacter chroococcum (CBD-15). Under field conditions, adverse effect of thiram was reflected on the performance of Mesorhizobium ciceri (SP(4)) and A. chroococcum (M(4)) strains, resulting in reduced root and shoot biomass and grain yield, compared to bavistin treated and culture inoculated treatment. CBD-15 showed better performance in the presence of thiram compared to bavistin. PMID:17701702

  11. Phytotoxicity assay for seed production using Brassica rapa L.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although pesticide drift can affect crop yield adversely, current plant testing protocols emphasize only the potential impacts on vegetative plant growth. The present study was conducted to determine whether a plant species with a short life cycle, such as Brassica rapa L. Wiscon...

  12. The effect of dilute acid pre-treatment process in bioethanol production from durian (Durio zibethinus) seeds waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, K. A.; Salleh, S. F.; Riayatsyah, T. M. I.; Aditiya, H. B.; Mahlia, T. M. I.

    2016-03-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the promising feedstocks for bioethanol production. The process starts from pre-treatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and finally obtaining the final product, ethanol. The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass depends heavily on the effectiveness of the pre-treatment step which main function is to break the lignin structure of the biomass. This work aims to investigate the effects of dilute acid pre-treatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis of durian seeds waste to glucose and the subsequent bioethanol fermentation process. The yield of glucose from dilute acid pre-treated sample using 0.6% H2SO4 and 5% substrate concentration shows significant value of 23.4951 g/L. Combination of dilute acid pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis using 150U of enzyme able to yield 50.0944 g/L of glucose content higher compared to normal pre-treated sample of 8.1093 g/L. Dilute acid pre-treatment sample also shows stable and efficient yeast activity during fermentation process with lowest glucose content at 2.9636 g/L compared to 14.7583g/L for normal pre-treated sample. Based on the result, it can be concluded that dilute acid pre-treatment increase the yield of ethanol from bioethanol production process.

  13. Optimization of supercritical methanol reactive extraction by response surface methodology and product characterization from Jatropha curcas L. seeds.

    PubMed

    Lim, Steven; Lee, Keat Teong

    2013-08-01

    In this study, optimization of supercritical reactive extraction directly from Jatropha seeds in a high pressure batch reactor using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) coupled with Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) was performed. Four primary variables (methanol to solid ratio (SSR), reaction temperature, time and CO2 initial pressure) were investigated under the proposed constraints. It was found that all variables had significant effects towards fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) yield. Moreover, three interaction effects between the variables also played a major role in influencing the final FAME yield. Optimum FAME yield at 92.0 wt.% was achieved under the following conditions: 5.9 SSR, 300°C, 12.3 min and 20 bar CO2. Final FAME product was discovered to fulfil existing international standard. Preliminary characterization analysis proved that the solid residue can be burnt as solid fuel in the form of biochar while the liquid product can be separated as specialty chemicals or burned as bio-oil for energy production. PMID:23735793

  14. Production of 16.5% v/v ethanol from seagrass seeds.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Motoharu; Miyoshi, Tatsuo; Kaneniwa, Masaki; Ishihara, Kenji; Nakashimada, Yutaka; Urano, Naoto

    2014-12-01

    Ethanol fermentation on seeds of seagrass Zostera marina was studied. The seeds were collected from the annual plant colony of Z. marina at Hinase Bay, Okayama. The seeds contained 83.5% carbohydrates including 48.1% crude starch on a dry weight basis, which is comparable to cereals such as wheat flour and corns. The seeds were saccharified with glucoamylase (50°C, 96 h) and 103.4 g/l concentration of glucose juice was obtained. The glucose juice was further fermented (23°C-35°C, 15 days) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains NBRC10217(T) and Kyokai 7-go, and ethanol was obtained at a 65.0 g/l (82.3 ml/l) level by monographic double-fermentation and at a 130.4 g/l (165.1 ml/l) level by parallel double-fermentation. Fermented products of seagrass seeds containing such a high ethanol concentration as the present study have potential to be utilized not only for biofuel but also for foods and beverages in the future. Culturing of seagrass seeds as a crop may enable development of a new marine fermentation industry. PMID:24969514

  15. Tobacco seeds as efficient production platform for a biologically active anti-HBsAg monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Velázquez, Abel; López-Quesada, Alina; Ceballo-Cámara, Yanaysi; Cabrera-Herrera, Gleysin; Tiel-González, Kenia; Mirabal-Ortega, Liliana; Pérez-Martínez, Marlene; Pérez-Castillo, Rosabel; Rosabal-Ayán, Yamilka; Ramos-González, Osmani; Enríquez-Obregón, Gil; Depicker, Ann; Pujol-Ferrer, Merardo

    2015-10-01

    The use of plants as heterologous hosts is one of the most promising technologies for manufacturing valuable recombinant proteins. Plant seeds, in particular, constitute ideal production platforms for long-term applications requiring a steady supply of starting material, as they combine the general advantages of plants as bioreactors with the possibility of biomass storage for long periods in a relatively small volume, thus allowing manufacturers to decouple upstream and downstream processing. In the present work we have used transgenic tobacco seeds to produce large amounts of a functionally active mouse monoclonal antibody against the Hepatitis B Virus surface antigen, fused to a KDEL endoplasmic reticulum retrieval motif, under control of regulatory sequences from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seed storage proteins. The antibody accumulated to levels of 6.5 mg/g of seed in the T3 generation, and was purified by Protein A affinity chromatography combined with SEC-HPLC. N-glycan analysis indicated that, despite the KDEL signal, the seed-derived plantibody bore both high-mannose and complex-type sugars that indicate partial passage through the Golgi compartment, although its performance in the immunoaffinity purification of HBsAg was unaffected. An analysis discussing the industrial feasibility of replacing the currently used tobacco leaf-derived plantibody with this seed-derived variant is also presented. PMID:26109093

  16. Yield and Production Gaps in Rainfed Wheat, Barley, and Canola in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Chapagain, Tejendra; Good, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Improving crop yields are essential to meet the increasing pressure of global food demands. The loss of high quality land, the slowing in annual yield increases of major cereals, increasing fertilizer use, and the effect of this on the environment all indicate that we need to develop new strategies to increase grain yields with less impact on the environment. One strategy that could help address this concern is by narrowing the yield gaps of major crops using improved genetics and management. The objective of this study was to determine wheat (Triticum spp. L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and canola (Brassica napus L.) yields and production gaps in Alberta. We used 10 years of data (2005-2014) to understand yield variability and input efficiency at a farmers' specified level of management, and the yield potential under optimal management to suggest appropriate pathways for closing yield gaps. Significant management gaps were observed between attainable and actual yields of rainfed wheat (24%), barley (25%), and canola (30%). In addition, genetic gaps (i.e., gaps due to genetic selection) in wheat, barley, and canola were 18, 12, and 5%, respectively. Genetic selection with optimal crop management could increase yields of wheat, barley, and canola significantly, with estimated yield gains of 3.42, 1.92, and 1.65 million tons, respectively, each year under rainfed conditions in Alberta. This paper identifies yield gaps and offers suggestions to improve efficiency in crop production. PMID:26635824

  17. Yield and Production Gaps in Rainfed Wheat, Barley, and Canola in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Chapagain, Tejendra; Good, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Improving crop yields are essential to meet the increasing pressure of global food demands. The loss of high quality land, the slowing in annual yield increases of major cereals, increasing fertilizer use, and the effect of this on the environment all indicate that we need to develop new strategies to increase grain yields with less impact on the environment. One strategy that could help address this concern is by narrowing the yield gaps of major crops using improved genetics and management. The objective of this study was to determine wheat (Triticum spp. L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and canola (Brassica napus L.) yields and production gaps in Alberta. We used 10 years of data (2005–2014) to understand yield variability and input efficiency at a farmers’ specified level of management, and the yield potential under optimal management to suggest appropriate pathways for closing yield gaps. Significant management gaps were observed between attainable and actual yields of rainfed wheat (24%), barley (25%), and canola (30%). In addition, genetic gaps (i.e., gaps due to genetic selection) in wheat, barley, and canola were 18, 12, and 5%, respectively. Genetic selection with optimal crop management could increase yields of wheat, barley, and canola significantly, with estimated yield gains of 3.42, 1.92, and 1.65 million tons, respectively, each year under rainfed conditions in Alberta. This paper identifies yield gaps and offers suggestions to improve efficiency in crop production. PMID:26635824

  18. Impact of sustaining a controlled residual growth on polyhydroxybutyrate yield and production kinetics in Cupriavidus necator.

    PubMed

    Grousseau, Estelle; Blanchet, Elise; Déléris, Stéphane; Albuquerque, Maria G E; Paul, Etienne; Uribelarrea, Jean-Louis

    2013-11-01

    In this study a complementary modeling and experimental approach was used to explore how growth controls the NADPH generation and availability, and the resulting impact on PHB (polyhydroxybutyrate) yields and kinetics. The results show that the anabolic demand allowed the NADPH production through the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway, leading to a high maximal theoretical PHB production yield of 0.89 C mole C mole(-1); whereas without biomass production, NADPH regeneration is only possible via the isocitrate dehydrogenase leading to a theoretical yield of 0.67 C mole C mole(-1). Furthermore, the maximum specific rate of NADPH produced at maximal growth rate (to fulfil biomass requirement) was found to be the maximum set in every conditions, which by consequence determines the maximal PHB production rate. These results imply that sustaining a controlled residual growth improves the PHB specific production rate without altering production yield. PMID:24035890

  19. Inactivation of escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella on mung beans, alfalfa, and other seed types destined for sprout production by using an oxychloro-based sanitizer.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M; Hora, R; Kostrzynska, M; Waites, W M; Warriner, K

    2006-07-01

    The efficacy of a stabilized oxychloro-based food grade sanitizer to decontaminate seeds destined for sprout production has been evaluated. By using mung bean seeds as a model system, it was demonstrated that the sanitizer could be used to inactivate a five-strain cocktail of Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella introduced onto beans at 10(3) to 10(4) CFU/g. Salmonella was more tolerant to stabilized oxychloro than was E. coli O157:H7, with sanitizer levels of >150 and >50 ppm, respectively, being required to ensure pathogen-free sprouts. The decontamination efficacy was also found to be dependent on treatment time (>8 h optimal) and the seed-to-sanitizer ratio (>1:4 optimal). Stabilized oxychloro treatment did not exhibit phytotoxic effects, as germination and sprout yields were not significantly (P > 0.05) different as compared with untreated controls. Although human pathogens could be effectively eliminated from mung beans, the aerobic plate count of native microflora on sprouts grown from treated seed was not significantly (P > 0.05) different from the controls. The diversity of microbial populations (determined through 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis) associated with bean sprouts was not significantly affected by the sanitizer treatment. However, it was noted that Klebsiella and Herbasprillum (both common plant endophytes) were absent in sprouts derived from decontaminated seed but were present in control sprouts. When a further range of seed types was evaluated, it was found that alfalfa, cress, flax, and soybean could be decontaminated with the stabilized oxychloro sanitizer. However, the decontamination efficacy with other seed types was less consistent. It appears that the rate of seed germination and putative activity of sanitizer sequestering system(s), in addition to other factors, may limit the efficacy of the decontamination method. PMID:16865888

  20. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; Kholif, S M; Kholif, A E; Matloup, O H; Salem, A Z M; Elella, A Abu

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5) fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control) in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS) or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO) in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA), and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017) ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001) and acetate (p = 0.034) concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013) in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007) and milk fat content (p = 0.002). Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048) and feed efficiency (p = 0.046) compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05) milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021) C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3), without detrimental effects on animal performance. PMID:26104519

  1. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats

    PubMed Central

    Morsy, T. A.; Kholif, S. M.; Kholif, A. E.; Matloup, O. H.; Salem, A. Z. M.; Elella, A. Abu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5) fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control) in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS) or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO) in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA), and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017) ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001) and acetate (p = 0.034) concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013) in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007) and milk fat content (p = 0.002). Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048) and feed efficiency (p = 0.046) compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05) milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021) C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3), without detrimental effects on animal performance. PMID:26104519

  2. Processing of coriander fruits for the production of essential oil, triglyceride, and high protein seed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a summer annual traditionally grown for use as a fresh green herb or as a spice. The essential oil extracted from coriander fruit is also widely used as flavoring in a variety of food products. The fatty oil (triglyceride) fraction in the seed is rich in petrosel...

  3. Selfing rate in an alfalfa seed production field pollinated with leafcutter bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Self-pollination or “selfing” in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (2n = 4x = 32) leads to severe inbreeding depression. Investigating selfing in alfalfa seed production may allow mitigation strategy development against potential negative impacts of selfing on varietal performance. Using m...

  4. DIURON OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION IN SOIL AND SURFACE AND GROUND WATER ASSOCIATED WITH GRASS SEED PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea) is the principal herbicide used in grass seed production. The occurrence and distribution of diuron was investigated at a poorly-drained field site located along an intermittent tributary of Lake Creek in the southern Willamette ...

  5. Seeding cool-season grasses to suppress white locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) reestablishment and increase forage production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock poisoning can occur on short-grass prairies when locoweeds (Astragalus and Oxytropis spp.) are actively growing in spring before warm-season grasses begin growth. White locoweed grows in early spring, completes flowering and seed production by early summer, and goes dormant. Perennial co...

  6. Effects of growth regulator herbicide on downy brome (Bromus tectorum) seed production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research showed growth regulator herbicides, such as picloram and aminopyralid, have a sterilizing effect on Japanese brome (Bromus japonicus Thunb.) that can reduce this invasive annual grass’s seed production nearly 100%. This suggests growth regulators might be used to control invasive ...

  7. Pea (Pisum sativum) Seed Production as an Assay for Reproductive Effects Due to Herbicides.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Even though herbicide drift can affect plant reproduction, current plant testing protocols emphasize effects on vegetative growth. In this study, we determined whether a short–growing season plant can indicate potential effects of herbicides on seed production. Pea (Pisum sativum...

  8. Diversity of plant oil seed-associated fungi isolated from seven oil-bearing seeds and their potential for the production of lipolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Venkatesagowda, Balaji; Ponugupaty, Ebenezer; Barbosa, Aneli M; Dekker, Robert F H

    2012-01-01

    Commercial oil-yielding seeds (castor, coconut, neem, peanut, pongamia, rubber and sesame) were collected from different places in the state of Tamil Nadu (India) from which 1279 endophytic fungi were isolated. The oil-bearing seeds exhibited rich fungal diversity. High Shannon-Index H' was observed with pongamia seeds (2.847) while a low Index occurred for coconut kernel-associated mycoflora (1.018). Maximum Colonization Frequency (%) was observed for Lasiodiplodia theobromae (176). Dominance Index (expressed in terms of the Simpson's Index D) was high (0.581) for coconut kernel-associated fungi, and low for pongamia seed-borne fungi. Species Richness (Chao) of the fungal isolates was high (47.09) in the case of neem seeds, and low (16.6) for peanut seeds. All 1279 fungal isolates were screened for lipolytic activity employing a zymogram method using Tween-20 in agar. Forty isolates showed strong lipolytic activity, and were morphologically identified as belonging to 19 taxa (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chalaropsis, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor, Penicillium, Pestalotiopsis, Phoma, Phomopsis, Phyllosticta, Rhizopus, Sclerotinia, Stachybotrys and Trichoderma). These isolates also exhibited amylolytic, proteolytic and cellulolytic activities. Five fungal isolates (Aspergillus niger, Chalaropsis thielavioides, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Phoma glomerata) exhibited highest lipase activities, and the best producer was Lasiodiplodia theobromae (108 U/mL), which was characterized by genomic sequence analysis of the ITS region of 18S rDNA. PMID:22806781

  9. Crop protection by seed coating.

    PubMed

    Ehsanfar, S; Modarres-Sanavy, S A M

    2005-01-01

    Providence of sufficient and healthy food for increasing human population clears the importance of notice to increasing crop production in company with environmental loss reduction. Growth and yield of every plant with sexual reproduction, depends on germination & emergence of sown seeds. Seed is a small alive plant that its biological function is protection and nutrition of embryo. Biological, chemical and physiological characteristics of seed, affect on plant performance & its resistance to undesirable environmental conditions, and even on its total yield. So attention to seed and try to increase its performance is so important. One of the factors that cause reduction in germination percentage and seedling establishment, is seed disease. It's possible to control these diseases by treating the seed before planting it. Coating the seed with pesticides, is one of the ways to gain this goal. Seed coating is a technique in which several material as fertilizers, nutritional elements, moisture attractive or repulsive agents, plant growth regulators, rhizobium inocolum, chemical & pesticide etc, add to seed by adhesive agents and cause to increase seed performance and germination. Seed coating, leads to increase benefits in seed industry, because seeds can use all of their genetic vigor. This technique is used for seeds of many garden plants, valuable crops (such as corn, sunflower, canola, alfalfa,...) and some of the grasses. In this technique that was first used in coating cereal seeds in 1930, a thin and permeable layer of pesticide is stuck on seed surface and prevent damage of seedborn pathogens. This layer is melted or splited after absorption of moisture and suitable temperature by seed, and let the radical to exit the seed. In this approach materials are used accurately with seed, evaporation & leakage of pesticide and also adverse effects of some pesticides on seeds are diminished, and these factors cause to increase the accuracy and performance of pesticide

  10. Complete utilization of non-edible oil seeds of Cascabela thevetia through a cascade of approaches for biofuel and by-products.

    PubMed

    Sut, Debashis; Chutia, Rahul Singh; Bordoloi, Neonjyoti; Narzari, Rumi; Kataki, Rupam

    2016-08-01

    Lipid-rich biomass, generally opted for biodiesel production, produces a substantial amount of by-product (de-oiled cake and seed cover) during the process. Complete utilization of Cascabela thevetia seeds for biofuel production through both chemical and thermochemical conversion route is investigated in the present study. Various properties of biodiesel produced was characterized and compared with those obtained from similar oil seeds. The by-products of the chemical process were used as a feedstock for pyrolysis at different temperatures in a fixed bed reactor. Maximum bio-oil yields of 29.11% and 26.18% were observed at 500°C. The bio-oil obtained at optimum yield was characterized by CHN analyzer, NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The biochar produced was further characterized by SEM-EDX, XRD and FTIR along with elemental analysis to explore its utilization for various purposes. The present investigation depicts a new approach towards complete utilization of lipid-rich bio-resources to different types of biofuels and biochar. PMID:26927236

  11. Organic potato productionseed potato production and participatory variety trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes are vegetatively propagated, thus many pathogens can be transmitted in seed potatoes and affect the subsequent crop. Certified seed potatoes, which are inspected to ensure that pathogen levels are below a specified threshold, provide effective control of most tuber-borne diseases. Organic g...

  12. Genome-Wide Identification of QTL for Seed Yield and Yield-Related Traits and Construction of a High-Density Consensus Map for QTL Comparison in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Weiguo; Wang, Xiaodong; Wang, Hao; Tian, Jianhua; Li, Baojun; Chen, Li; Chao, Hongbo; Long, Yan; Xiang, Jun; Gan, Jianping; Liang, Wusheng; Li, Maoteng

    2016-01-01

    Seed yield (SY) is the most important trait in rapeseed, is determined by multiple seed yield-related traits (SYRTs) and is also easily subject to environmental influence. Many quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for SY and SYRTs have been reported in Brassica napus; however, no studies have focused on seven agronomic traits simultaneously affecting SY. Genome-wide QTL analysis for SY and seven SYRTs in eight environments was conducted in a doubled haploid population containing 348 lines. Totally, 18 and 208 QTLs for SY and SYRTs were observed, respectively, and then these QTLs were integrated into 144 consensus QTLs using a meta-analysis. Three major QTLs for SY were observed, including cqSY-C6-2 and cqSY-C6-3 that were expressed stably in winter cultivation area for 3 years and cqSY-A2-2 only expressed in spring rapeseed area. Trait-by-trait meta-analysis revealed that the 144 consensus QTLs were integrated into 72 pleiotropic unique QTLs. Among them, all the unique QTLs affected SY, except for uq.A6-1, including uq.A2-3, uq.C1-2, uq.C1-3, uq.C6-1, uq.C6-5, and uq.C6-6 could also affect more than two SYRTs. According to the constructed high-density consensus map and QTL comparison from literatures, 36 QTLs from five populations were co-localized with QTLs identified in this study. In addition, 13 orthologous genes were observed, including five each gene for SY and thousand seed weight, and one gene each for biomass yield, branch height, and plant height. The genomic information of these QTLs will be valuable in hybrid cultivar breeding and in analyzing QTL expression in different environments. PMID:26858737

  13. Managing phosphorus fertilizer to reduce algae, maintain water quality, and sustain yields in water-seeded rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In water-seeded rice systems blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) hinder early-season crop growth by dislodging rice seedlings and reducing light. Since algae are often phosphorus (P) limited, we investigated whether changing the timing of P fertilizer application could reduce algae without reducing cro...

  14. Growth, Physiological and Yield Responses to the Mid-Season Application of Moddus for Seed Cane Quality in Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moddus is a plant growth regulator for sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and has been used to produce high quality of seed cane in Florida by reducing internode length, mitigating plant lodging, and facilitating harvest in addition to commonly using as a ripener for improving sucrose content. But little is...

  15. Growth, yield and compositional characteristics of Jerusalem artichoke as it relates to biomass production

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, M.D.; Chubey, B.B.; Dorrell, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) has shown excellent potential as a carbohydrate-rich crop. Initial investigations determined inulin and tuber yields; however, when additional studies showed that good quality pulp remained after inulin extraction and high forage yields per hectare were obtainable, the scope of investigation was broadened to assess utilization of the total plant. Plant growth, yield and compositional characteristics of Jerusalem artichoke as they relate to biomass production will be reported.

  16. Intermediate pyrolysis of agro-industrial biomasses in bench-scale pyrolyser: Product yields and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Tinwala, Farha; Mohanty, Pravakar; Parmar, Snehal; Patel, Anant; Pant, Kamal K

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis of woody biomass, agro-residues and seed was carried out at 500 ± 10 °C in a fixed bed pyrolyser. Bio-oil yield was found varying from 20.5% to 47.5%, whereas the biochar and pyrolysis gas ranged from 27.5% to 40% and 24.5% to 40.5%, respectively. Pyrolysis gas was measured for flame temperature along with CO, CO2, H2, CH4 and other gases composition. HHV of biochar (29.4 MJ/kg) and pyrolitic gas (8.6 MJ/kg) of woody biomass was higher analogous to sub-bituminous coal and steam gasification based producer gas respectively, whereas HHV of bio-oil obtained from seed (25.6 MJ/kg) was significantly more than husks, shells and straws. TGA-DTG studies showed the husks as potential source for the pyrolysis. Bio-oils as a major by-product of intermediate pyrolysis have several applications like substitute of furnace oil, extraction of fine chemicals, whereas biochar as a soil amendment for enhancing soil fertility and gases for thermal application. PMID:25770670

  17. From seed production to seedling establishment: Important steps in an invasive process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreras, Ana Elisa; Galetto, Leonardo

    2010-03-01

    It is widely accepted that exotic invasive species are one of the most important ecological and economic problems. Reproductive and establishment traits are considered key features of a population expansion process, but few works have studied many of these simultaneously. This work examines how large the differences are in reproductive and establishment traits between two Fabaceae, the exotic invasive, Gleditsia triacanthos and the native, Acacia aroma. Gleditsia is a serious leguminous woody invader in various parts of the world and Acacia is a common native tree of Argentina. Both species have similar dispersal mechanisms and their reproductive phenology overlaps. We chose 17 plants of each species in a continuous forest of the Chaco Serrano Forest of Córdoba, Argentina. In each plant we measured fruit production, fruit removal (exclusion experiments), seed predation (pre- and post-dispersal), seed germination, seed bank (on each focal tree, three sampling periods during the year), and density of seedlings (around focal individuals and randomly in the study site). Gleditsia presented some traits that could favour the invasion process, such as a higher number of seeds per plant, percentage of scarified seed germination and density of seedlings around the focal individuals, than Acacia. On the other hand, Gleditsia presented a higher percentage of seed predation. The seed bank was persistent in both species and no differences were observed in fruit removal. This work highlights the importance of simultaneously studying reproductive and establishment variables involved in the spreading of an exotic invasive species. It also gives important insight into the variables to be considered when planning management strategies. The results are discussed from the perspective of some remarkable hypotheses on invasive species and may contribute to rethinking some aspects of the theory on invasive species.

  18. Production of protease and lipase by solvent tolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa PseA in solid-state fermentation using Jatropha curcas seed cake as substrate.

    PubMed

    Mahanta, Nilkamal; Gupta, Anshu; Khare, S K

    2008-04-01

    Deoiled Jatropha seed cake was assessed for its suitability as substrate for enzyme production by solid-state fermentation (SSF). Solvent tolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa PseA strain previously reported by us was used for fermentation. The seed cake supported good bacterial growth and enzyme production (protease, 1818 U/g of substrate and lipase, 625 U/g of substrate) as evident by its chemical composition. Maximum protease and lipase production was observed at 50% substrate moisture, a growth period of 72 and 120 h, and a substrate pH of 6.0 and 7.0, respectively. Enrichment with maltose as carbon source increased protease and lipase production by 6.3- and 1.6-fold, respectively. Nitrogen supplementation with peptone for protease and NaNO(3) for lipase production also enhanced the enzyme yield reaching 11,376 U protease activity and 1084 U lipase activity per gram of Jatropha seed cake. These results demonstrated viable approach for utilization of this huge biomass by solid-state fermentation for the production of industrial enzymes. This offers significant benefit due to low cost and abundant availability of cake during biodiesel production. PMID:17509877

  19. Pressure-Dependent Yields and Product Branching Ratios in the Broadband Photolysis of Chlorine Nitrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickolaisen, Scott L.; Sander, Stanley P.; Friedl, Randall R.

    1996-01-01

    The photolysis of chlorine nitrate was studied using broadband flash photolysis coupled with long-path ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. Branching ratios for the Cl + NO3 and ClO + NO2 product channels were determined from time-dependent measurements of ClO and NO3 concentrations. Yields of the ClO and NO3 products displayed a dependence on the bath gas density and the spectral distribution of the photolysis pulse. Product yields decreased with increasing bath gas density regardless of the spectral distribution of the photolysis pulse; however, the decrease in product yield was much more pronounced when photolysis was limited to longer wavelengths. For photolysis in a quartz cell (lambda > 200 nm) the yield decreased by a factor of 2 over the pressure 10-100 Torr. In a Pyrex cell (lambda > 300 nm), the yield decreased by a factor of 50 over the same pressure range. When photolysis was limited to lambda > 350 nm, the yield decreased by a factor of 250. Branching ratios for the photolysis channels [ClONO2 + h.nu yields ClO + NO2 (1a) and ClONO2 + h.nu yields Cl + NO3 (lb)] were determined from the relative ClO and NO3 product yields at various pressures. Although the absolute product yield displayed a pressure dependence, the branching between the two channels was independent of pressure. The relative branching ratios (assuming negligible contributions from other channels) are 0.61 +/- 0.20 for channel 1a and 0.39 +/- 0.20 for channel lb for photolysis with lambda > 200 nm and 0.44 +/- 0.08 for channel 1a and 0.56 +/- 0.08 for channel 1b for photolysis with lambda > 300 nm. The implications of these results for the chemistry of the lower stratosphere are discussed.

  20. Fruit production and predispersal seed fall and predation in Rhamnus alaternus (Rhamnaceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bas, Josep M.; Gómez, Crisanto; Pons, Pere

    2005-03-01

    In the reproductive cycle of fleshy-fruited plants, and before the seeds are dispersed, some fruits fall down or are predated on the branches. Here, we study the predispersal biology of Rhamnus alaternus in the north-east of the Iberian Peninsula over a 4-year period. Specifically, we examined fruit production, fructification and the phenology of ripening, together with the causes and the consequences of the predispersal loss in female plants. In addition, we evaluated the influence of the biometric traits and the spatial distribution of plants with regard to these aspects. The total estimated fruit production and fruiting phenology varied between localities and years, and there was no relation either to the plant biometry or to the spatial situation. The ripening period was between April and August, with a mean period of fruit permanence on the branches of 102 days. The maximum presence of ripe fruits was from early June to July, 54 days in average after fruit ripening began. The interaction of animals with the fruits has four important consequences: (a) losses in the initial production due to depredation of seeds, mainly by rodents; (b) direct fall of fruit and seeds under the cover of the female plants due to invertebrate predators of pulp; (c) reduction of the period of fruit availability on the branches; and (d) reduction of the proportion of ripe fruits on branches. In summary, the number of seeds available to be dispersed by frugivorous vertebrates is considerably reduced as a consequence of predispersal effects.

  1. Recombinant Antibody Production in Arabidopsis Seeds Triggers an Unfolded Protein Response1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    De Wilde, Kirsten; De Buck, Sylvie; Vanneste, Kevin; Depicker, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Among the many plant-based production systems that are being tested for molecular farming, seeds are very attractive, as they provide a stable environment in which the accumulating recombinant proteins can be stored. However, it is not known exactly how high production levels of recombinant antibodies influence the endogenous transcriptome and proteome of the developing seed. To address this question, we studied the transcriptomic status in developing Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds 13 d post anthesis of three transgenic lines, producing varying levels of recombinant VHH or single-chain Fv antibody fragments fused to the human immunoglobulin G1-derived Fc fragment under the control of the β-PHASEOLIN seed-specific promoter. Using genome-wide Tiling arrays, we demonstrated that only a small proportion of the transcriptome was significantly changed in each of the lines compared with the wild type. Strikingly, in all three lines, we found a large overlap of up-regulated genes corresponding to protein folding, glycosylation/modification, translocation, vesicle transport, and protein degradation, suggestive of a state of cellular stress called the unfolded protein response. Moreover, the gene up-regulation amplitude was similar in all three lines. We hypothesize that the production of recombinant antibodies in the endoplasmic reticulum triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress, causing a disturbance of the normal cellular homeostasis. PMID:23188806

  2. Environmental Effects of Nanoceria on Seed Production of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): A Proteomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Almeida, Igor C; Arigi, Emma A; Choi, Hyungwon; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Trujillo-Reyes, Jesica; Flores-Margez, Juan P; White, Jason C; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-11-17

    The rapidly growing literature on the response of edible plants to nanoceria has provided evidence of its uptake and bioaccumulation, which delineates a possible route of entry into the food chain. However, little is known about how the residing organic matter in soil may affect the bioavailability and resulting impacts of nanoceria on plants. Here, we examined the effect of nanoceria exposure (62.5-500 mg/kg) on kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) productivity and seed quality as a function of soil organic matter content. Cerium accumulation in the seeds produced from plants in organic matter enriched soil showed a dose-dependent increase, unlike in low organic matter soil treatments. Seeds obtained upon nanoceria exposure in soils with higher organic matter were more susceptible to changes in nutrient quality. A quantitative proteomic analysis of the seeds produced upon nanoceria exposure provided evidence for upregulation of stress-related proteins at 62.5 and 125 mg/kg nanoceria treatments. Although the plants did not exhibit overt toxicity, the major seed proteins primarily associated with nutrient storage (phaseolin) and carbohydrate metabolism (lectins) were significantly down-regulated in a dose dependent manner upon nanoceria exposure. This study thus suggests that nanoceria exposures may negatively affect the nutritional quality of kidney beans at the cellular and molecular level. More confirmatory studies with nanoceria along different species using alternative and orthogonal "omic" tools are currently under active investigation, which will enable the identification of biomarkers of exposure and susceptibility. PMID:26488752

  3. Protocols for In Vitro Propagation, Conservation, Synthetic Seed Production, Microrhizome Production, and Molecular Profiling in Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.).

    PubMed

    Nirmal Babu, K; Divakaran, Minoo; Pillai, Geetha S; Sumathi, V; Praveen, K; Raj, Rahul P; Akshita, H J; Ravindran, P N; Peter, K V

    2016-01-01

    Turmeric is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial but cultivated as annual, belonging to the family Zingiberaceae. It is a native of India and South East Asia. The tuberous rhizomes or underground stems of turmeric are used from antiquity as condiments, a dye and as an aromatic stimulant in several medicines. Turmeric is an important crop in India and it is used as a spice, food preservative, coloring agent, cosmetic as well as for its medicinal properties. Propagation is done vegetatively with rhizome bits as seed materials. It is plagued by rhizome rot diseases most of which are mainly spread through infected seed rhizomes. Micropropagation will help in production of disease-free seed. Sexual reproduction is rare in turmeric, making recombinant breeding very difficult. In vitro technology can thus become the preferred choice and it can be utilized for multiplication, conservation of genetic resources, generating variability, gene transfer, molecular tagging, and their utility in crop improvement. PMID:27108332

  4. The LANL C-NR counting room and fission product yields

    SciTech Connect

    Jackman, Kevin Richard

    2015-09-21

    This PowerPoint presentation focused on the following areas: LANL C-NR counting room; Fission product yields; Los Alamos Neutron wheel experiments; Recent experiments ad NCERC; and Post-detonation nuclear forensics

  5. Integrating Sunflower Oil Seed Crops into Florida Horticultural Production Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Locally produced biodiesel feedstock plant oil creates a unique possibility to integrate multiple-goal oriented cover crops into Florida horticultural production systems. Typically, cover crops are planted to improve soil fertility and the natural suppression of soilborne pests at times when fields...

  6. Processing of Brassica seeds for feedstock in biofuels production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several Brassica species are currently being evaluated to develop regionalized production systems based on their suitability to the environment and with the prevailing practices of growing commodity food crops like wheat, corn, and soybeans. This integrated approach to farming will provide high qual...

  7. Mapping swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) seed productivity using spectral values and vegetation indices in managed wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Rahilly, P.J.A.; Li, D.; Guo, Q.; Zhu, J.; Ortega, R.; Quinn, N.W.T.; Harmon, T.C.

    2010-01-15

    This work examines the potential to predict the seed productivity of a key wetland plant species using spectral reflectance values and spectral vegetation indices. Specifically, the seed productivity of swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) was investigated in two wetland ponds, managed for waterfowl habitat, in California's San Joaquin Valley. Spectral reflectance values were obtained and associated spectral vegetation indices (SVI) calculated from two sets of high resolution aerial images (May 11, 2006 and June 9, 2006) and were compared to the collected vegetation data. Vegetation data were collected and analyzed from 156 plots for total aboveground biomass, total aboveground swamp timothy biomass, and total swamp timothy seed biomass. The SVI investigated included the Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Transformed Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (TSAVI), Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI), and Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI). We evaluated the correlation of the various SVI with in situ vegetation measurements for linear, quadratic, exponential and power functions. In all cases, the June image provided better predictive capacity relative to May, a result that underscores the importance of timing imagery to coincide with more favorable vegetation maturity. The north pond with the June image using SR and the exponential function (R{sup 2}=0.603) proved to be the best predictor of swamp timothy seed productivity. The June image for the south pond was less predictive, with TSAVI and the exponential function providing the best correlation (R{sup 2}=0.448). This result was attributed to insufficient vegetal cover in the south pond (or a higher percentage of bare soil) due to poor drainage conditions which resulted in a delay in swamp timothy germination. The results of this work suggest that spectral reflectance can be used to estimate seed productivity in managed seasonal

  8. Effect of repetitive mowing on common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) pollen and seed production.

    PubMed

    Simard, Marie-Josée; Benoit, Diane Lyse

    2011-01-01

    Ambrosia artemisiifolia L (common ragweed) is a familiar roadside weed in southern Québec (Canada) that produces large amounts of airborne pollen responsible for multiple rhino-conjunctivitis (hay fever) cases. As roadside weeds are increasingly controlled by mowing alone, the effect of a mowing treatment on pollen production was evaluated. Ambrosia artemisiifolia plants were grown in a greenhouse at 4 densities (1, 3, 6 and 12 plants per 314 cm(2) pot) and either left intact or mowed (10 cm from the ground) when the plants reached 25 cm in height, i.e. twice during the life cycle of this annual plant. Pollen production per male inflorescence was collected in open-top bags and counted. Inflorescence mass, length, location on the plant and date of anthesis onset was noted. Above-ground plant biomass and seed production was also evaluated. Mowed plants produced less pollen per unit of inflorescence length than intact plants. Pollen production per plant was reduced by a factor of 8.84 by the double mowing treatment, while viable seed production per plant was reduced by a factor of 4.66, irrespective of density. Mowing twice has the potential to reduce airborne pollen loads but Ambrosia artemisiifolia seed banks are unlikely to be depleted by this management strategy. PMID:21736270

  9. Development of a Rapid Point-of-Use DNA Test for the Screening of Genuity® Roundup Ready 2 Yield® Soybean in Seed Samples.

    PubMed

    Chandu, Dilip; Paul, Sudakshina; Parker, Mathew; Dudin, Yelena; King-Sitzes, Jennifer; Perez, Tim; Mittanck, Don W; Shah, Manali; Glenn, Kevin C; Piepenburg, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Testing for the presence of genetically modified material in seed samples is of critical importance for all stakeholders in the agricultural industry, including growers, seed manufacturers, and regulatory bodies. While rapid antibody-based testing for the transgenic protein has fulfilled this need in the past, the introduction of new variants of a given transgene demands new diagnostic regimen that allows distinguishing different traits at the nucleic acid level. Although such molecular tests can be performed by PCR in the laboratory, their requirement for expensive equipment and sophisticated operation have prevented its uptake in point-of-use applications. A recently developed isothermal DNA amplification technique, recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), combines simple sample preparation and amplification work-flow procedures with the use of minimal detection equipment in real time. Here, we report the development of a highly sensitive and specific RPA-based detection system for Genuity Roundup Ready 2 Yield (RR2Y) material in soybean (Glycine max) seed samples and present the results of studies applying the method in both laboratory and field-type settings. PMID:27314015

  10. Development of a Rapid Point-of-Use DNA Test for the Screening of Genuity® Roundup Ready 2 Yield® Soybean in Seed Samples

    PubMed Central

    Chandu, Dilip; Paul, Sudakshina; Parker, Mathew; Dudin, Yelena; King-Sitzes, Jennifer; Perez, Tim; Mittanck, Don W.; Shah, Manali; Glenn, Kevin C.; Piepenburg, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Testing for the presence of genetically modified material in seed samples is of critical importance for all stakeholders in the agricultural industry, including growers, seed manufacturers, and regulatory bodies. While rapid antibody-based testing for the transgenic protein has fulfilled this need in the past, the introduction of new variants of a given transgene demands new diagnostic regimen that allows distinguishing different traits at the nucleic acid level. Although such molecular tests can be performed by PCR in the laboratory, their requirement for expensive equipment and sophisticated operation have prevented its uptake in point-of-use applications. A recently developed isothermal DNA amplification technique, recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), combines simple sample preparation and amplification work-flow procedures with the use of minimal detection equipment in real time. Here, we report the development of a highly sensitive and specific RPA-based detection system for Genuity Roundup Ready 2 Yield (RR2Y) material in soybean (Glycine max) seed samples and present the results of studies applying the method in both laboratory and field-type settings. PMID:27314015

  11. Seed Production Affects Maternal Growth and Senescence in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Philipp, Matthias Anton; Guthörl, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Correlative control (influence of one organ over another organ) of seeds over maternal growth is one of the most obvious phenotypic expressions of the trade-off between growth and reproduction. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we characterize the physiological and molecular effects of correlative inhibition by seeds on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inflorescences, i.e. global proliferative arrest (GPA) during which all maternal growth ceases upon the production of a given number of seeds. We observed transcriptional responses to growth- and branching-inhibitory hormones, and low mitotic activity in meristems upon GPA, but found that meristems retain their identity and proliferative potential. In shoot tissues, we detected the induction of stress- and senescence-related gene expression upon fruit production and GPA, and a drop in chlorophyll levels, suggestive of altered source-sink relationships between vegetative shoot and reproductive tissues. Levels of shoot reactive oxygen species, however, strongly decreased upon GPA, a phenomenon that is associated with bud dormancy in some perennials. Indeed, gene expression changes in arrested apical inflorescences after fruit removal resembled changes observed in axillary buds following release from apical dominance. This suggests that GPA represents a form of bud dormancy, and that dominance is gradually transferred from growing inflorescences to maturing seeds, allowing offspring control over maternal resources, simultaneously restricting offspring number. This would provide a mechanistic explanation for the constraint between offspring quality and quantity. PMID:27009281

  12. Aerosol-chamber study of the α-pinene/O 3 reaction: influence of particle acidity on aerosol yields and products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Böge, Olaf; Gnauk, Thomas; Herrmann, Hartmut

    α-Pinene ozonolysis was carried out in the presence of ammonium sulfate or sulfuric acid seed particles in a 9 m 3 Teflon chamber at the mixing ratios of 100 ppbv for α-pinene and about 70 ppbv for ozone. The evolution of size distribution was measured by means of a differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS). The resulting secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was sampled by a denuder/quartz fiber filter combination for the determination of the total organic carbon concentration (TOC) in the particle phase, using a thermographic method and by a denuder/PTFE filter combination for the analysis of individual chemical species in the particle phase using capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS). cis-Pinic acid ( m/ z 185) and another species tentatively identified at m/ z 171 and 199 were the major particle phase species for both seed particles although the product yields were different, indicating the influence of seed particle acidity. A thermographic method for the determination of TOC showed an increase of particle phase organics by 40% for the experiments with higher acidity. CE-ESI-MS analysis showed a large increase in the concentration of compounds with Mw>300 from the experiments with sulfuric acid seed particles. These results suggest that the seed particle acidity enhances the yield of SOA and plays an important role in the formation of larger molecules in the particle phase. Our results from direct particle phase chemical analysis suggest for the first time that condensation of smaller organics takes place by polymerization or aldol condensation following the formation of aldehydes, such as pinonaldehyde from the terpene ozonolysis.

  13. Developmental Genes Have Pleiotropic Effects on Plant Morphology and Source Capacity, Eventually Impacting on Seed Protein Content and Productivity in Pea1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Burstin, Judith; Marget, Pascal; Huart, Myriam; Moessner, Annie; Mangin, Brigitte; Duchene, Christiane; Desprez, Bruno; Munier-Jolain, Nathalie; Duc, Gérard

    2007-01-01

    Increasing pea (Pisum sativum) seed nutritional value and particularly seed protein content, while maintaining yield, is an important challenge for further development of this crop. Seed protein content and yield are complex and unstable traits, integrating all the processes occurring during the plant life cycle. During filling, seeds are the main sink to which assimilates are preferentially allocated at the expense of vegetative organs. Nitrogen seed demand is satisfied partly by nitrogen acquired by the roots, but also by nitrogen remobilized from vegetative organs. In this study, we evaluated the respective roles of nitrogen source capacity and sink strength in the genetic variability of seed protein content and yield. We showed in eight genotypes of diverse origins that both the maximal rate of nitrogen accumulation in the seeds and nitrogen source capacity varied among genotypes. Then, to identify the genetic factors responsible for seed protein content and yield variation, we searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed traits and for indicators of sink strength and source nitrogen capacity. We detected 261 QTL across five environments for all traits measured. Most QTL for seed and plant traits mapped in clusters, raising the possibility of common underlying processes and candidate genes. In most environments, the genes Le and Afila, which control internode length and the switch between leaflets and tendrils, respectively, determined plant nitrogen status. Depending on the environment, these genes were linked to QTL of seed protein content and yield, suggesting that source-sink adjustments depend on growing conditions. PMID:17449650

  14. Supercritical fluid extraction of grape seeds: extract chemical composition, antioxidant activity and inhibition of nitrite production in LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Concepción; Ruiz del Castillo, María Luisa; Gil, Carmen; Blanch, Gracia Patricia; Flores, Gema

    2015-08-01

    Grape by-products are a rich source of bioactive compounds having broad medicinal properties, but are usually wasted from juice/wine processing industries. The present study investigates the use of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for obtaining an extract rich in bioactive compounds. First, some variables involved in the extraction were applied. SFE conditions were selected based on the oil mass yield, fatty acid profile and total phenolic composition. As a result, 40 °C and 300 bar were selected as operational conditions. The phenolic composition of the grape seed oil was determined using LC-DAD. The antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS and DPPH assays. For the anti-inflammatory activity the inhibition of nitrite production was assessed. The grape seed oil extracted was rich in phenolic compounds and fatty acids with significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. From these results, added economic value to this agroindustrial residue is proposed using environmentally friendly techniques. PMID:26130020

  15. Production of Sporotrichum thermophile xylanase by solid state fermentation utilizing deoiled Jatropha curcas seed cake and its application in xylooligosachharide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sadaf, Ayesha; Khare, S K

    2014-02-01

    De-oiled Jatropha curcas seed cake, a plentiful by-product of biodiesel industry was used as substrate for the production of a useful xylanase from Sporotrichum thermophile in solid state fermentation. Under the optimized conditions, 1025U xylanase/g (deoiled seed cake) was produced. The xylanase exhibited half life of 4h at 45°C and 71.44min at 50°C respectively. It was stable in a broad pH range of 7.0-11.0. Km and Vmax were 12.54mg/ml and 454.5U/ml/min respectively. S. thermophile xylanase is an endoxylanase free of exoxylanase activity, hence advantageous for xylan hydrolysis to produce xylooligosachharides. Hydrolysis of oat spelt xylan by S. thermophile xylanase yielded 73% xylotetraose, 15.4% xylotriose and 10% xylobiose. The S. thermophile endoxylanase thus seem potentially useful in the food industries. PMID:24362246

  16. Use of Se-enriched mustard and canola seed meals as potential bioherbicides and green fertilizers in strawberry production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New plant-based products can be produced from seed harvested from Brassica species used for phytomanaging selenium (Se) in the westside of central California. We tested Se-enriched seed meals produced from canola (Brassica napus) and mustard (Sinapis alba) plants as potential bio-herbicides and as g...

  17. The role of competition and seed production environment on the success of two perennial grass species in a roadside restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When large-scale restorations are undertaken using local genotypes, wild-collected sources often undergo a generation in an agronomic environment for seed increase. We have little information on how a single generation of agronomic production can alter seed success in restoration. In this study, we...

  18. Greenhouse tomato limited cluster production systems: crop management practices affect yield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logendra, L. S.; Gianfagna, T. J.; Specca, D. R.; Janes, H. W.

    2001-01-01

    Limited-cluster production systems may be a useful strategy to increase crop production and profitability for the greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). In this study, using an ebb-and-flood hydroponics system, we modified plant architecture and spacing and determined the effects on fruit yield and harvest index at two light levels. Single-cluster plants pruned to allow two leaves above the cluster had 25% higher fruit yields than did plants pruned directly above the cluster; this was due to an increase in fruit weight, not fruit number. Both fruit yield and harvest index were greater for all single-cluster plants at the higher light level because of increases in both fruit weight and fruit number. Fruit yield for two-cluster plants was 30% to 40% higher than for single-cluster plants, and there was little difference in the dates or length of the harvest period. Fruit yield for three-cluster plants was not significantly different from that of two-cluster plants; moreover, the harvest period was delayed by 5 days. Plant density (5.5, 7.4, 9.2 plants/m2) affected fruit yield/plant, but not fruit yield/unit area. Given the higher costs for materials and labor associated with higher plant densities, a two-cluster crop at 5.5 plants/m2 with two leaves above the cluster was the best of the production system strategies tested.

  19. Limonene ozonolysis in the presence of nitric oxide: Gas-phase reaction products and yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Jason E.; Harrison, Joel C.; Jackson, Stephen R.; Wells, J. R.

    2016-05-01

    The reaction products from limonene ozonolysis were investigated using the new carbonyl derivatization agent, O-tert-butylhydroxylamine hydrochloride (TBOX). With ozone (O3) as the limiting reagent, five carbonyl compounds were detected. The yields of the carbonyl compounds are discussed with and without the presence of a hydroxyl radical (OHrad) scavenger, giving insight into the influence secondary OH radicals have on limonene ozonolysis products. The observed reaction product yields for limonaketone (LimaKet), 7-hydroxyl-6-oxo-3-(prop-1-en-2-yl)heptanal (7H6O), and 2-acetyl-5-oxohexanal (2A5O) were unchanged suggesting OHrad generated by the limonene + O3 reaction does not contribute to their formation. The molar yields of 3-isopropenyl-6-oxo-heptanal (IPOH) and 3-acetyl-6-oxoheptanal (3A6O) decreased by 68% and >95%; respectively, when OHrad was removed. This suggests that OHrad radicals significantly impact the formation of these products. Nitric oxide (NO) did not significantly affect the molar yields of limonaketone or IPOH. However, NO (20 ppb) considerably decreased the molar reaction product yields of 7H6O (62%), 2A5O (63%), and 3A6O (47%), suggesting NO reacted with peroxyl intermediates, generated during limonene ozonolysis, to form other carbonyls (not detected) or organic nitrates. These studies give insight into the transformation of limonene and its reaction products that can lead to indoor exposures.

  20. Limonene ozonolysis in the presence of nitric oxide: Gas-phase reaction products and yields

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Jason E.; Harrison, Joel C.; Jackson, Stephen R.; Wells, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    The reaction products from limonene ozonolysis were investigated using the new carbonyl derivatization agent, O-tert-butylhydroxylamine hydrochloride (TBOX). With ozone (O3) as the limiting reagent, five carbonyl compounds were detected. The yields of the carbonyl compounds are discussed with and without the presence of a hydroxyl radical (OH•) scavenger, giving insight into the influence secondary OH radicals have on limonene ozonolysis products. The observed reaction product yields for limonaketone (LimaKet), 7-hydroxyl-6-oxo-3-(prop-1-en-2-yl)heptanal (7H6O), and 2-acetyl-5-oxohexanal (2A5O) were unchanged suggesting OH• generated by the limonene + O3 reaction does not contribute to their formation. The molar yields of 3-isopropenyl-6-oxo-heptanal (IPOH) and 3-acetyl-6-oxoheptanal (3A6O) decreased by 68% and >95%; respectively, when OH• was removed. This suggests that OH• radicals significantly impact the formation of these products. Nitric oxide (NO) did not significantly affect the molar yields of limonaketone or IPOH. However, NO (20 ppb) considerably decreased the molar reaction product yields of 7H6O (62%), 2A5O (63%), and 3A6O (47%), suggesting NO reacted with peroxyl intermediates, generated during limonene ozonolysis, to form other carbonyls (not detected) or organic nitrates. These studies give insight into the transformation of limonene and its reaction products that can lead to indoor exposures. PMID:27346977

  1. Thermophysical characterization of the seeds of invasive Chinese tallow tree: importance for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Picou, Laura; Boldor, Doran

    2012-10-16

    The limited supply of traditional fossil based fuels, and increased concern about their environmental impact has driven the interest in the utilization of biomass based energy sources, including those that are underutilized or otherwise nuisance species such as Chinese tallow trees (Triadica sebifera [L.]). This species is a prolific seeds producer, and this paper shows that they contain more than 50% lipids by mass that are suitable for conversion into biodiesel. We present here, for the first time, the seeds' thermophysical properties important for biofuel production. The seeds were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and ultimate analysis; their thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and specific heat were determined. The characterization results were correlated to fatty acid composition and lipid content for whole seeds and individual layers, as well as to the protein, hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin content. The TGA analysis indicated the presence, in addition to lipids, of hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, and proteins, depending on the layer analyzed. Thermal conductivity and specific heat were, respectively 0.14 ± 0.007 W/mK and 3843.5 ± 171.16 J/kgK for wax, 0.20 ± 0.002 W/mK and 2018.7 ± 5.18 J/kgK for shells, 0.13 ± 0.0 W/mK and 1237 ± 3.15 J/kgK for internal kernel, and 0.13 ± 0.000 W/mK and 2833.9 ± 104.11 J/kgK for whole seeds. These properties and characterization method can be further used in engineering analysis used to determine the most optimum processing method for production of biofuels from this feedstock. PMID:23013244

  2. Beach almond (Terminalia catappa, Combretaceae) seed production and predation by scarlet macaws (Ara macao) and variegated squirrels (Sciurus variegatoides).

    PubMed

    Henn, Jonathan J; McCoy, Michael B; Vaughan, Christopher S

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of ecological impacts of exotic beach almond (Terminalia catappa) in the central Pacific of Costa Rica are little known, but studies have found this species to be a potentially important food source for endangered scarlet macaws (Ara macao). In this study, reproductive phenology and seed predation by variegated squirrels (Sciurus variegatoides) and scarlet macaws were measured during March and April 2011 on beaches of central Pacific coastal Costa Rica. Seed productivity and predation levels were quantified on a weekly basis for 111 beach almond trees to assess the importance of beach almond as a food source for scarlet macaws and the extent of resource partitioning between seed predators. Seed production of the trees was great (about 194 272 seeds) and approximately 67% of seeds were predated by seed predators. Macaws consumed an estimated 49% of seeds while squirrels consumed 18%. Additionally, evidence of resource partitioning between squirrels and macaws was found. Scarlet macaws preferred to feed on the northern side and edge of the canopy while squirrels preferred to feed on the southern and inside parts of the canopy. Both species ate most seeds on the ocean side of the tree. Despite the status of this tree as an exotic species, the beach almond appears to be an important resource for scarlet macaw population recovery. The resource produced by this tree should be taken into account as reforestation efforts continue in Costa Rica. PMID:25412525

  3. Seed coating with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as an ecotechnologicalapproach for sustainable agricultural production of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rui S; Rocha, Inês; Ma, Ying; Vosátka, Miroslav; Freitas, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi has become of great interest in agriculture due to their potential roles in reducing the need for agrochemicals, while improving plant growth and nutrition. Nevertheless, the application of AM fungi by dispersing inocula in granular form to open agricultural fields is not feasible because nontargeted spreading of inocula over large surface areas results in high cost per plant. Seed coating has the potential to significantly reduce the amount of inoculum needed, resulting in cost reduction and increased efficiency. The aim of this study was to assess whether seed coating with AM fungal inoculum is a feasible delivery system for production of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Wheat seeds were coated with inoculum of Rhizophagus irregularis BEG140 and grown under different fertilization conditions: (1) none, (2) partial, or (3) complete. Data indicated that mycorrhizal inoculation via seed coating significantly increased the dry weight of shoot and seed spikes of wheat associated with reduced fertilization. Assessment of nutritional status of wheat showed that plants inoculated with R. irregularis via seed coating displayed enhanced stem concentrations of potassium (K), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn). There were no significant differences in root colonization between plants conventionally inoculated with R. irregularis in soil and those inoculated via seed coating. Seed coating with AM fungi may be as effective as conventional soil inoculation and may contribute to reduce the utilization of chemical fertilizers. The application of AM via seed coating is proposed as an ecotechnological approach for sustainable agricultural wheat production. PMID:27077274

  4. Jointly assimilating MODIS LAI and ET products into SWAP model for winter wheat yield estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Evapotranspiration (ET) are two key biophysical variables related to crop growth and grain yield. This study presents a framework to assimilate MODIS LAI products (MCD15A3) and MODIS ET products (MOD16A2) into the soil water atmosphere plant (SWAP) model to improve estimate...

  5. Long-term Effects of Topsoil Removal on Soil Productivity Factors, Wheat Yield and Protein Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantifying long term effects of soil erosion on plant production and soil quality factors can aid in restoring degraded soils to production. The objectives of this study were to determine the long-term effects of topsoil removal (artificial erosion) on spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield, gra...

  6. Pyrimidine degradation influences germination seedling growth and production of Arabidopsis seeds

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Stefanie; Witz, Sandra; Rolletschek, Hardy; Möhlmann, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    PYD1 (dihydropyrimidine dehydogenase) initiates the degradation of pyrimidine nucleobases and is located in plastids. In this study, a physiological analysis of PYD1 employing T-DNA knockout mutants and overexpressors was carried out. PYD1 knockout mutants were restricted in degradation of exogenously provided uracil and accumulated high uracil levels in plant organs throughout development, especially in dry seeds. Moreover, PYD1 knockout mutants showed delayed germination which was accompanied by low invertase activity and decreased monosaccharide levels. Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important regulator of seed germination, and ABA-responsive genes were deregulated in PYD1 knockout mutants. Together with an observed increased PYD1 expression in wild-type seedlings upon ABA treatment, an interference of PYD1 with ABA signalling can be assumed. Constitutive PYD1 overexpression mutants showed increased growth and higher seed number compared with wild-type and knockout mutant plants. During senescence PYD1 expression increased to allow uracil catabolism. From this it is concluded that early in development and during seed production PYD1 is needed to balance pyrimidine catabolism versus salvage. PMID:21865177

  7. Aflatoxin B1 in sesame seeds and sesame products from the Greek market.

    PubMed

    Kollia, Eleni; Tsourouflis, Kyriakos; Markaki, Panagiota

    2016-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is considered as the most potent liver carcinogen for humans. A method for determination in sesame seeds was developed. AFB1 was extracted by methanol-water, cleaned by immunoaffinity columns and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The recovery factor and the limit of detection (LOD) of AFB1 in sesame seeds were 111.5% and 0.02 ng g(-1), respectively. Thirty samples of sesame products were examined for the presence of AFB1. After analysis, 77.6% of samples were found to be contaminated. Eight samples exceeded the European Union (EU) limit (2 µg AFB1 kg(-1)). In 15 samples, AFB1 was below the EU limit. Seven samples remained below the LOD. The most contaminated (14.49 ng AFB1 g(-1)) sample was unpeeled packaged sesame seeds. In all samples, aflatoxigenic Aspergilli fungi as well as the risk for AFB1 presence in sesame seed was investigated. PMID:27088795

  8. Bio-oil production via catalytic pyrolysis of Anchusa azurea: Effects of operating conditions on product yields and chromatographic characterization.

    PubMed

    Aysu, Tevfik; Durak, Halil; Güner, Serkan; Bengü, Aydın Şükrü; Esim, Nevzat

    2016-04-01

    Pyrolysis of Anchusa azurea, a lignocellulosic gramineous plant, was carried out in a tubular, fixed-bed reactor in the presence of four catalysts (Ca(OH)2, Na2CO3, ZnCl2, Al2O3). The influences of pyrolysis parameters such as catalyst and temperature on the yields of products were studied. It was found that higher temperature resulted in lower liquid (bio-oil) and solid (bio-char) yields and higher gas yields. Catalysts effected the yields of products differently and the composition of bio-oils. Liquid yields were increased in the presence of Na2CO3, ZnCl2 and Al2O3 and decreased with Ca(OH)2. The highest bio-oil yield (34.05%) by weight including aqueous phase was produced with Na2CO3 catalyst at 450°C. The yields of products (bio-char, bio-oil and gas) and the compositions of the resulting bio-oils were determined by GC-MS, FT-IR and elemental analysis. GC-MS identified 124 and 164 different compounds in the bio-oils obtained at 350 and 550°C respectively. PMID:26800388

  9. Ocular irritation from product of pesticide degradation among workers in a seed warehouse

    PubMed Central

    MATSUKAWA, Takehisa; YOKOYAMA, Kazuhito; ITOH, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Four workers at a seed supply warehouse in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, complained of ocular irritation on the job. Pesticide-coated seeds were stored in the warehouse but no significant amount of pesticide was detected in the air inside the warehouse. To identify the cause of the ocular irritation and to determine an appropriate solution to the problem, the authors used thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to analyze the profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the air of the two warehouses at the site—warehouse A, where the four workers experienced ocular irritation, and warehouse B, where no workers experienced ocular irritation. Comparing the profiles of VOCs in these warehouses indicated that n-butyl isocyanate, a hydrolyzed product of the fungicide benomyl, was the cause of the workers’ ocular irritation. n-Butyl isocyanate is known to be a contact irritant and if the benomyl-coated seeds were not properly dried before storage in the warehouse n-butyl isocyanate would have been produced. The results of the study suggest that more attention should be paid both to the pesticide itself and to the products of pesticide degradation. In this study, n-butyl isocyanate was identified as a product of pesticide degradation and a causative chemical affecting occupational health. PMID:25327297

  10. Production of hydrophobic amino acids from biobased resources: wheat gluten and rubber seed proteins.

    PubMed

    Widyarani; Sari, Yessie W; Ratnaningsih, Enny; Sanders, Johan P M; Bruins, Marieke E

    2016-09-01

    Protein hydrolysis enables production of peptides and free amino acids that are suitable for usage in food and feed or can be used as precursors for bulk chemicals. Several essential amino acids for food and feed have hydrophobic side chains; this property may also be exploited for subsequent separation. Here, we present methods for selective production of hydrophobic amino acids from proteins. Selectivity can be achieved by selection of starting material, selection of hydrolysis conditions, and separation of achieved hydrolysate. Several protease combinations were applied for hydrolysis of rubber seed protein concentrate, wheat gluten, and bovine serum albumin (BSA). High degree of hydrolysis (>50 %) could be achieved. Hydrophobic selectivity was influenced by the combination of proteases and by the extent of hydrolysis. Combination of Pronase and Peptidase R showed the highest selectivity towards hydrophobic amino acids, roughly doubling the content of hydrophobic amino acids in the products compared to the original substrates. Hydrophobic selectivity of 0.6 mol-hydrophobic/mol-total free amino acids was observed after 6 h hydrolysis of wheat gluten and 24 h hydrolysis of rubber seed proteins and BSA. The results of experiments with rubber seed proteins and wheat gluten suggest that this process can be applied to agro-industrial residues. PMID:27118013

  11. Effect of shade on seed protein oil fatty acids and minerals in soybean lines varying in seed germinability in the Early Soybean Production System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cause of poor seed quality (germination) of soybean produced in the Early Soybean Production System in the midsouth U.S.A. is still not completely understood. Temperature, solar radiation, and soybean genotype may all be important factors involved. The objective of this research was to evaluate...

  12. Corn yield estimation in Serbia using MODIS 13Q1 product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govedarica, Miro; Jovanović, Dušan; Sabo, Filip

    2015-06-01

    The aim of our study was to verify the accuracy and the usability of Moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) 13Q1 product for corn yield estimation on a local level for 2014 year. Product 13Q1 consists of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) 16-day composites with 250 m spatial resolution. The estimation is based on ground truth data (sowing structures for 8 years) which was provided by local agricultural organization in Vojvodina, Serbia. The indices were used in linear regression, where the average yield for corn was the dependent variable, NDVI and EVI were independent variables. Average corn yield was estimated approximately 15 days before the beginning of the harvest and compared with official results. Depending on the used linear method, relative errors ranged from 0.6 % to 7.4 %. Overall, coefficients of determination (R2) ranged from 0.66 to 0.75 and were significant at 0.05. The smallest difference between official results for corn yield and our estimate when using NDVI was 0.59 t/ha, when using EVI the smallest difference was 0.07 t/ha. Paper showed that NDVI and EVI from MODIS follow linear relationship with average corn yield and can be used in estimation of crop yields in Serbia and also that EVI produces better prediction results than NDVI. The crop yield estimation can be used for similar cultivated plants in Serbia and for longer period dataset.

  13. Ecological intensification of cereal production systems: Yield potential, soil quality, and precision agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Cassman, Kenneth G.

    1999-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), and maize (Zea mays L.) provide about two-thirds of all energy in human diets, and four major cropping systems in which these cereals are grown represent the foundation of human food supply. Yield per unit time and land has increased markedly during the past 30 years in these systems, a result of intensified crop management involving improved germplasm, greater inputs of fertilizer, production of two or more crops per year on the same piece of land, and irrigation. Meeting future food demand while minimizing expansion of cultivated area primarily will depend on continued intensification of these same four systems. The manner in which further intensification is achieved, however, will differ markedly from the past because the exploitable gap between average farm yields and genetic yield potential is closing. At present, the rate of increase in yield potential is much less than the expected increase in demand. Hence, average farm yields must reach 70–80% of the yield potential ceiling within 30 years in each of these major cereal systems. Achieving consistent production at these high levels without causing environmental damage requires improvements in soil quality and precise management of all production factors in time and space. The scope of the scientific challenge related to these objectives is discussed. It is concluded that major scientific breakthroughs must occur in basic plant physiology, ecophysiology, agroecology, and soil science to achieve the ecological intensification that is needed to meet the expected increase in food demand. PMID:10339523

  14. Mass production of multi-wall carbon nanotubes by metal dusting process with high yield

    SciTech Connect

    Ghorbani, H.; Rashidi, A.M.; Rastegari, S.; Mirdamadi, S.; Alaei, M.

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Synthesis of carbon nanotubes over Fe-Ni nanoparticles supported alloy 304L. {yields} Production of carbon nanotubes with high yield (700-1000%) and low cost catalyst. {yields} Optimum growth condition is CO/H{sub 2} = 1/1, 100 cm{sup 3}/min, at 620 {sup o}C under long term repetitive thermal cycling. {yields} Possibility of the mass production by metal dusting process with low cost. -- Abstract: Carbon nanotube materials were synthesized over Fe-Ni nanoparticles generated during disintegration of the surface of alloy 304L under metal dusting environment. The metal dusting condition was simulated and optimized through exposing stainless steel samples during long term repetitive thermal cycling in CO/H{sub 2} = 1/1, total gas flow rate 100 cm{sup 3}/min, at 620 {sup o}C for 300 h. After reaction, surface morphology of the samples and also carbonaceous deposition which had grown on sample surfaces were examined by stereoscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results revealed that multi-wall carbon nanotubes could be formed over nanocatalyst generated on the alloy surface by exploiting metal dusting process. By optimization of reaction parameters the yields of carbon nanotube materials obtained were 700-1000%. Also it has been shown herein that the amount of carbon nanotube materials remarkably increases when the reaction time is extended up to 300 h, indicating a possibility of the mass production by this easy method.

  15. Use of acid whey and mustard seed to replace nitrites during cooked sausage production.

    PubMed

    Wójciak, Karolina M; Karwowska, Małgorzata; Dolatowski, Zbigniew J

    2014-02-01

    The aim was to determine the effects of sea salt, acid whey, native and autoclaved mustard seed on the physico-chemical properties, especially colour formation, microbial stability and sensory evaluation of non-nitrite cooked sausage during chilling storage. The cooked pork sausages were divided into 4 groups (group I--control sausages with curing salt (2.8%) and water (5%) added; group II--sausages with sea salt (2.8%) and acid whey (5%) added; group III--sausages with sea salt (2.8%), acid whey (5%) and mustard seed (1%) added; group IV--sausages with sea salt (2.8%), acid whey (5%) and autoclaved mustard seed (1%) added). Instrumental colour (L*, a*, b*), oxygenation index (ΔR), 650/570 nm ratio, heme iron, pH value and water activity (aw) were determined 1 day after production and after 10, 20 and 30 days of refrigerated storage (4 °C). Sensory analysis was conducted immediately after production (day 1). Microbial analysis (lactic acid bacteria, total viable count, Clostridium spp.) was determinated at the end of storage (30 days). The autoclaved mustard with acid whey can be used at 1.0% (w/w) of model cooked sausages with beneficial effect on physico-chemical and sensory qualities of no-nitrite sausage. This product can be stored at refrigeration temperature for up to 30 days, in vacuum, with good acceptability. The colour, visual appearance and overall quality of samples with autoclaved mustard seed and acid whey were similar to the control with curing agent. PMID:24200566

  16. Biomass Production in Switchgrass across the United States: Database Description and Determinants of Yield

    SciTech Connect

    Wullschleger, Stan D; Davis, Ethan B.; Borsuk, Mark E.; Gunderson, Carla A; Lynd, L.

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental to deriving a sustainable supply of cellulosic feedstock for an emerging biofuels industry is understanding how biomass yield varies as a function of crop management, climate, and soils. Here we focus on the perennial switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and compile a database that contains 1190 observations of yield from 39 field trials conducted across the United States. Data include site location, stand age, plot size, cultivar, crop management, biomass yield, temperature, precipitation, and information on land quality. Statistical analysis revealed the major sources of variation in yield. Frequency distributions of yield for upland and lowland ecotypes were unimodal, with mean ({+-}SD) biomass yields of 8.7 {+-} 4.2 and 12.9 {+-} 5.9 Mg ha-1 for the two ecotypes, respectively. We looked for, but did not find, bias toward higher yields associated with small plots or preferential establishment of stands on high quality lands. A parametric yield model was fit to the data and accounted for one-third of the total observed variation in biomass yields, with an equal contribution of growing season precipitation, annual temperature, N fertilization, and ecotype. The model was used to predict yield across the continental United States. Mapped output was consistent with the natural range of switchgrass and, as expected, yields were shown to be limited by precipitation west of the Great Plains. Future studies should extend the geographic distribution of field trials and thus improve our understanding of biomass production as a function of soil, climate, and crop management for promising biofuels such as switchgrass.

  17. Production of active human glucocerebrosidase in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana complex-glycan-deficient (cgl) plants

    PubMed Central

    He, Xu; Galpin, Jason D; Tropak, Michael B; Mahuran, Don; Haselhorst, Thomas; von Itzstein, Mark; Kolarich, Daniel; Packer, Nicolle H; Miao, Yansong; Jiang, Liwen; Grabowski, Gregory A; Clarke, Lorne A; Kermode, Allison R

    2012-01-01

    There is a clear need for efficient methods to produce protein therapeutics requiring mannose-termination for therapeutic efficacy. Here we report on a unique system for production of active human lysosomal acid β-glucosidase (glucocerebrosidase, GCase, EC 3.2.1.45) using seeds of the Arabidopsis thaliana complex-glycan-deficient (cgl) mutant, which are deficient in the activity of N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase I (EC 2.4.1.101). Gaucher disease is a prevalent lysosomal storage disease in which affected individuals inherit mutations in the gene (GBA1) encoding GCase. A gene cassette optimized for seed expression was used to generate the human enzyme in seeds of the cgl (C5) mutant, and the recombinant GCase was mainly accumulated in the apoplast. Importantly, the enzymatic properties including kinetic parameters, half-maximal inhibitory concentration of isofagomine and thermal stability of the cgl-derived GCase were comparable with those of imiglucerase, a commercially available recombinant human GCase used for enzyme replacement therapy in Gaucher patients. N-glycan structural analyses of recombinant cgl-GCase showed that the majority of the N-glycans (97%) were mannose terminated. Additional purification was required to remove ~15% of the plant-derived recombinant GCase that possessed potentially immunogenic (xylose-and/or fucose-containing) N-glycans. Uptake of cgl-derived GCase by mouse macrophages was similar to that of imiglucerase. The cgl seed system requires no addition of foreign (non-native) amino acids to the mature recombinant GCase protein, and the dry transgenic seeds represent a stable repository of the therapeutic protein. Other strategies that may completely prevent plant-like complex N-glycans are discussed, including the use of a null cgl mutant. PMID:22061999

  18. Lime effects on soil acidity, crop yield and aluminum chemistry in inland Pacific Northwest direct-seed cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pH of agricultural soils in the Inland Pacific Northwest (IPNW) has declined below established critical levels for cereal and grain legume crops. Our objective was to assess the effects of broadcast or subsurface banded lime treatments on soil acidity, crop yield, and aluminum (Al) chemistry in ...

  19. Considerations for comparative tobacco product assessments based on smoke constituent yields.

    PubMed

    Belushkin, M; Jaccard, G; Kondylis, A

    2015-10-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture of more than 8000 smoke constituents. The quantification of selected mainstream smoke constituent yields is one of the methods to evaluating and comparing the performance of different products. Numerous regulatory and scientific advisory bodies have used cigarette smoke constituent yield data for reporting and product comparison purposes. For more than a decade limitations of the indiscriminate application of traditional statistical methods such as the t-test for differences in comparative smoke constituent yield assessments lacking a specific study design, have been highlighted. In the present study, the variability of smoke constituent yields is demonstrated with data obtained under the ISO smoking regime for the Kentucky reference cigarette 3R4F and one commercial brand, analyzed on several occasions between 2007 and 2014. Specifically it is shown that statistically significant differences in the yields of selected smoke constituents do not readily translate to differences between products, and that tolerances need to be defined. To this end, two approaches have been proposed in the literature--minimal detectable differences, and the statistical equivalence. It is illustrated how both approaches provide more meaningful comparison outcomes than the statistical t-test for differences. The present study provides considerations relevant for comparative tobacco product assessments both in the scientific and regulatory contexts. PMID:26140819

  20. Effect of Monascus purpureus inoculum concentration on pigment production in jackfruit seed flour substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdiyati, Yanti; Kusnadi, Yuliani, Lia Amelia

    2016-02-01

    The used of synthetic dyes have various negative effects on human health. Roomates pigment produced by Monascus purpureus mold can be used as an alternative natural food coloring. The research on the effect of inoculum concentration's M. purpureus to pigment production on the jackfruit seed flour has been done. The objective of research to is to investigate the effect of inoculum concentration's M. purpureus to the production of red, yellow and orange pigment on the jackfruit seed flour. The concentrations used were 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% (v/w). The result of the data analysed using One-Way ANOVA showed that the inoculum concentration affected the production of red pigment M. purpureus, as well as the data analysis using the Kruskal-Wallis showed that inoculum concentration has influence on the production of yellow and orange pigments. Inoculum concentration of 15% is the optimum concentration for the production of red, yellow and orange pigments with 0:10, 0:50 and 0:20 absorbance units per gram of sample respectively. Based on the results of the research, it can be concluded that inoculum concentration of M. purpureus influenced the production of red, yellow and orange pigments.

  1. Staged invasions across disparate grasslands: effects of seed provenance, consumers and disturbance on productivity and species richness.

    PubMed

    Maron, John L; Auge, Harald; Pearson, Dean E; Korell, Lotte; Hensen, Isabell; Suding, Katharine N; Stein, Claudia

    2014-04-01

    Exotic plant invasions are thought to alter productivity and species richness, yet these patterns are typically correlative. Few studies have experimentally invaded sites and asked how addition of novel species influences ecosystem function and community structure and examined the role of competitors and/or consumers in mediating these patterns. We invaded disturbed and undisturbed subplots in and out of rodent exclosures with seeds of native or exotic species in grasslands in Montana, California and Germany. Seed addition enhanced aboveground biomass and species richness compared with no-seeds-added controls, with exotics having disproportionate effects on productivity compared with natives. Disturbance enhanced the effects of seed addition on productivity and species richness, whereas rodents reduced productivity, but only in Germany and California. Our results demonstrate that experimental introduction of novel species can alter ecosystem function and community structure, but that local filters such as competition and herbivory influence the magnitude of these impacts. PMID:24467348

  2. Gas-phase products and secondary aerosol yields from the photooxidation of 16 different terpenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Anita; Goldstein, Allen H.; Kroll, Jesse H.; Ng, Nga L.; Varutbangkul, Varuntida; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2006-09-01

    The photooxidation of isoprene, eight monoterpenes, three oxygenated monoterpenes, and four sesquiterpenes were conducted individually at the Caltech Indoor Chamber Facility under atmospherically relevant HC:NOx ratios to monitor the time evolution and yields of SOA and gas-phase oxidation products using PTR-MS. Several oxidation products were calibrated in the PTR-MS, including formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, acetic acid, nopinone, methacrolein + methyl vinyl ketone; other oxidation products were inferred from known fragmentation patterns, such as pinonaldehyde; and other products were identified according to their mass to charge (m/z) ratio. Numerous unidentified products were formed, and the evolution of first- and second-generation products was clearly observed. SOA yields from the different terpenes ranged from 1 to 68%, and the total gas- plus particle-phase products accounted for ˜50-100% of the reacted carbon. The carbon mass balance was poorest for the sesquiterpenes, suggesting that the observed products were underestimated or that additional products were formed but not detected by PTR-MS. Several second-generation products from isoprene photooxidation, including m/z 113, and ions corresponding to glycolaldehyde, hydroxyacetone, methylglyoxal, and hydroxycarbonyls, were detected. The detailed time series and relative yields of identified and unidentified products aid in elucidating reaction pathways and structures for the unidentified products. Many of the unidentified products from these experiments were also observed within and above the canopy of a Ponderosa pine plantation, confirming that many products of terpene oxidation can be detected in ambient air using PTR-MS, and are indicative of concurrent SOA formation.

  3. Seed health and vigor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The health of lentil and chickpea seed greatly impacts the quality of the crop stand and yield. Healthy seed has a high germination rate, is whole (free of cracks or other damage), is free from foreign matter including weed seed and has limited seedborne pathogens. The health of the seed often dep...

  4. The optical, physical and chemical properties of the products of glyoxal uptake on ammonium sulfate seed aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainic, M.; Riziq, A. A.; Lavi, A.; Flores, J. M.; Rudich, Y.

    2011-07-01

    The heterogeneous reaction between gas phase glyoxal and ammonium sulfate (AS) aerosols, a proxy for inorganic atmospheric aerosol, was studied in terms of the dependence of the optical, physical and chemical properties of the product aerosols on initial particle size and ambient RH. The reactions were studied under different relative humidity (RH) conditions, varying from dry conditions (~20 % RH) and up to 90 % RH, covering conditions prevalent in many atmospheric environments. At λ = 355 nm, the reacted aerosols demonstrate a substantial growth in optical extinction cross section, as well as in mobility diameter under a broad range of RH values (35-90 %). The ratio of the product aerosol to seed aerosol geometric cross section reached up to ~3.5, and the optical extinction cross-section up to ~250. The reactions show a trend of increasing physical and optical growth with decreasing seed aerosol size, from 100nm to 300 nm, as well as with decreasing RH values from 90 % to ~40 %. Optically inactive aerosols, at the limit of the Mie range (100 nm diameter) become optically active as they grow due to the reaction. AMS analyses of the reaction of 300 nm AS at RH values of 50 %, 75 % and 90 % show that the main products of the reaction are glyoxal oligomers, formed by acetal formation in the presence of AS. In addition, imidazole formation, which is a minor channel, is observed for all reactions, yielding a product which absorbs at λ = 290 nm, with possible implications on the radiative properties of the product aerosols. The ratio of absorbing substances (C-N compounds, including imidazoles) increases with increasing RH value. A core/shell model used for the investigation of the optical properties of the reaction products of AS 300nm with gas phase glyoxal, shows that the refractive index (RI) of the reaction products are in the range between 1.57-1.71 for the real part and between 0-0.02 for the imaginary part of the RI at 355 nm. The observed increase in the

  5. Relative fission product yield determination in the USGS TRIGA Mark I reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehl, Michael A.

    Fission product yield data sets are one of the most important and fundamental compilations of basic information in the nuclear industry. This data has a wide range of applications which include nuclear fuel burnup and nonproliferation safeguards. Relative fission yields constitute a major fraction of the reported yield data and reduce the number of required absolute measurements. Radiochemical separations of fission products reduce interferences, facilitate the measurement of low level radionuclides, and are instrumental in the analysis of low-yielding symmetrical fission products. It is especially useful in the measurement of the valley nuclides and those on the extreme wings of the mass yield curve, including lanthanides, where absolute yields have high errors. This overall project was conducted in three stages: characterization of the neutron flux in irradiation positions within the U.S. Geological Survey TRIGA Mark I Reactor (GSTR), determining the mass attenuation coefficients of precipitates used in radiochemical separations, and measuring the relative fission products in the GSTR. Using the Westcott convention, the Westcott flux, modified spectral index, neutron temperature, and gold-based cadmium ratios were determined for various sampling positions in the USGS TRIGA Mark I reactor. The differential neutron energy spectrum measurement was obtained using the computer iterative code SAND-II-SNL. The mass attenuation coefficients for molecular precipitates were determined through experiment and compared to results using the EGS5 Monte Carlo computer code. Difficulties associated with sufficient production of fission product isotopes in research reactors limits the ability to complete a direct, experimental assessment of mass attenuation coefficients for these isotopes. Experimental attenuation coefficients of radioisotopes produced through neutron activation agree well with the EGS5 calculated results. This suggests mass attenuation coefficients of molecular

  6. Gas-phase products and secondary aerosol yields from the ozonolysis of ten different terpenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Anita; Goldstein, Allen H.; Keywood, Melita D.; Gao, Song; Varutbangkul, Varuntida; Bahreini, Roya; Ng, Nga L.; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2006-04-01

    The ozonolyses of six monoterpenes (α-pinene, β-pinene, 3-carene, terpinolene, α-terpinene, and myrcene), two sesquiterpenes (α-humulene and β-caryophyllene), and two oxygenated terpenes (methyl chavicol and linalool) were conducted individually in Teflon chambers to examine the gas-phase oxidation product and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields from these reactions. Particle size distribution and number concentration were monitored and allowed for the calculation of the SOA yield from each experiment, which ranged from 1 to 54%. A proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) was used to monitor the evolution of gas-phase products, identified by their mass to charge ratio (m/z). Several gas-phase oxidation products, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, acetic acid, and nopinone, were identified and calibrated. Aerosol yields, and the yields of these identified and calibrated oxidation products, as well as many higher m/z oxidation products observed with the PTR-MS, varied significantly between the different parent terpene compounds. The sum of measured oxidation products in the gas and particle phase ranged from 33 to 77% of the carbon in the reacted terpenes, suggesting there are still unmeasured products from these reactions. The observations of the higher molecular weight oxidation product ions provide evidence of previously unreported compounds and their temporal evolution in the smog chamber from multistep oxidation processes. Many of the observed ions, including m/z 111 and 113, have also been observed in ambient air above a Ponderosa pine forest canopy, and our results confirm they are consistent with products from terpene + O3 reactions. Many of these products are stable on the timescale of our experiments and can therefore be monitored in field campaigns as evidence for ozone oxidative chemistry.

  7. Effect of guar crispbread with cereal products and leguminous seeds on blood glucose concentrations of diabetics.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D J; Wolever, T M; Taylor, R H; Barker, H M; Fielden, H; Jenkins, A L

    1980-11-01

    To compare the effect on blood glucose concentrations of guar incorporated into crispbreads with that of unprocessed high-fibre foods groups of four to six diabetics took a total of seven test breakfasts on separate days. By comparison with a breakfast of wholemeal bread and cheese, guar crispbread combined with bread reduced the area under the glucose response curve to 51% (p < 0.05); bread and soya beans reduced the area to 65% (p < 0.05); guar crispbread with soya beans to 25% (p < 0.002); and soya beans with lentils to 29% (p < 0.002). Porridge and cornflake breakfasts showed no difference. The favourable results with leguminous seeds may not make such meals more acceptable than meals of guar products, but a combination of leguminous seeds and guar may allow smaller and more acceptable amounts of both to be used. PMID:6253021

  8. Amygdalin content of seeds, kernels and food products commercially-available in the UK.

    PubMed

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

    2014-01-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are a large group of secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, including many plants that are commonly consumed by humans. The diverse chemical nature of cyanogenic glycosides means that extraction and analysis of individual compounds can be difficult. In addition, degradation can be rapid under appropriate conditions. Amygdalin is one of the cyanogenic glycosides found, for example, in apples, apricots and almonds. We have developed and applied a high performance liquid chromatographic procedure for amygdalin quantification to investigate extraction efficiency and to determine levels in a range of commercially-available foods for the first time. Our results show that seed from Rosaceae species contained relatively high amounts (range 0.1-17.5 mg g(-1)) of amygdalin compared to seed from non-Rosaceae species (range 0.01-0.2 mg g(-1)). The amygdalin content of processed food products was very low. PMID:24444917

  9. Diuron occurrence and distribution in soil and surface and ground water associated with grass seed production.

    PubMed

    Field, Jennifer A; Reed, Ralph L; Sawyer, Thomas E; Griffith, Steven M; Wigington, P J

    2003-01-01

    Little is known about the occurrence and distribution of the herbicide diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea] in soil, ground water, and surface water in areas affected by grass-seed production. A field study was designed to investigate the occurrence and distribution of diuron and its transformation products at a poorly drained field site located along an intermittent tributary of Lake Creek in the southern Willamette Valley of Oregon. The experimental sites consisted of a field under commercial grass seed production with a cultivated riparian zone and a second site that was part of the same grass seed field but with a noncultivated riparian zone. Diuron and its transformation product DCPMU [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-methylurea] were the only significant residues detected in this study. Concentrations of diuron in surface water declined from a maximum of 28 microg/L immediately following application to low levels that persisted as long as flow was present. Diuron and DCPMU concentrations in shallow ground water (15-36 cm below ground surface) were highest (2-13 microg/L) in the zone immediately adjacent (0.5 m) to Lake Creek and indicated the influence of stream water on shallow ground water near the stream. Diuron and DCPMU detected in soil prior to the second season's application indicated the persistence of diuron and DCPMU from the previous year's application. Surface runoff during the rainy season removes only a very small percentage (<1%) of the applied herbicide. In addition, no evidence was obtained for the downward transport of diuron or its transformation products to deep ground water. PMID:12549556

  10. Ethanol, feed components and fungal biomass production from field bean (Vicia faba var. equina) seeds in an integrated process.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Witold; Kawa-Rygielska, Joanna; Król, Barbara; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-09-01

    The use of field beans, a non-food leguminous crop, was studied for ethanol, feed components and fungal biomass production. The seeds were hydrolyzed using enzymes or with combination of acid (H3PO4) and alkaline (Ca(OH)2) pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with or without removal of suspended solids, yielded 38.3-42.5gL(-1) ethanol (71.3-79.2% efficiency). The filtration residues contained ca. 247-326gkg(-1) crude protein, 10.6-15.5% acid detergent fiber and 19.9-29.1% neutral detergent fiber. They were enriched in phenolics (by up to 93.4%) and depleted in condensed tannin (by up to 59.3%) in comparison to the raw material. The thin stillages were used for cultivation of edible fungus Neurospora intermedia which produced 8.5-15.9gL(-1) ethanol and 4.8-16.2gL(-1) biomass containing over 62% protein. The mass balances showed that fermentation of unfiltered mashes was more efficient yielding up to 195.9gkg(-1) ethanol and 84.4% of protein recovery. PMID:27233099

  11. Establishment of a standard seed lot system of an Iranian Mumps virus strain; RS-12, for mass production of mumps and MMR vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Shahkarami, M K; Mokhtari Azad, T; Aghaiypour, K; Shafyi, A; Taqavian, M; Mohammadi, A

    2012-01-01

    Background At present the mumps virus strain used for production of mumps vaccine for our local use is Hoshino strain. However, according to our National public health policies, this strain should be replaced with a safer strain. Based on our previous data, the Iranian mumps strain; RS-12 has been proved to be the most suitable alternative to Hoshino strain with little or no adverse events following vaccination Methods The aim of the present study was to optimize propagation of RS-12 strain and prepare standard seeds for vaccine mass production. The virus was inoculated to cells using different methods and different multiplicity of infection (MOI). The viral suspensions were harvested using different methods. Quality control tests were run at different stages. Results Maximum viral yield was achieved when cell suspensions were inoculated at MOI of 1:10 and incubated at 36-37ºC for 48 hours, followed by replacement of the media and incubation at 33-34 ºC for 5-7 days. Filtration did not affect the viral titre. A standard seed lot system was successfully established and experimental batches of MMR vaccines were produced. Conclusion The established seed lot system has met all requirements of WHO regulations and could be used in mass production of safe and efficacious mumps and MMR vaccines. Clinical trials are in progress for this newly produced vaccine. PMID:23115712

  12. Understanding polysaccharide production and properties using seed coat mutants: future perspectives for the exploitation of natural variants

    PubMed Central

    North, Helen M.; Berger, Adeline; Saez-Aguayo, Susana; Ralet, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidermal cells of the seed coat of certain species accumulate polysaccharides during seed development for cell wall reinforcement or release on imbibition to form mucilage. Seed-coat epidermal cells show natural variation in their structure and mucilage production, which could explain the diverse ecophysiological roles proposed for the latter. Arabidopsis mucilage mutants have proved to be an important tool for the identification of genes involved in the production of seed-coat polysaccharides. Scope This review documents genes that have been characterized as playing a role in the differentiation of the epidermal cells of the arabidopsis seed coat, the natural variability in polysaccharide features of these cells and the physiological roles attributed to seed mucilage. Conclusions Seed-coat epidermal cells are an excellent model for the study of polysaccharide metabolism and properties. Intra- and interspecies natural variation in the differentiation of these epidermal cells is an under-exploited resource for such studies and promises to play an important part in improving our knowledge of polysaccharide production and ecophysiological function. PMID:24607722

  13. Land application of sugar beet by-products: effects on nitrogen mineralization and crop yields.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kuldip; Rosen, Carl J; Gupta, Satish C; McNearney, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Land application of food processing wastes has become an acceptable practice because of the nutrient value of the wastes and potential cost savings in their disposal. Spoiled beets and pulp are among the main by-products generated by the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) processing industry. Farmers commonly land apply these by-products at rates >224 Mg ha(-1) on a fresh weight basis. However, information on nutrient release in soils treated with these by-products and their subsequent impacts on crop yield is lacking. Field studies were conducted to determine the effects of sugar beet by-product application on N release and crop yields over two growing seasons. Treatments in the first year were two rates (224 and 448 Mg ha(-1) fresh weight) of pulp and spoiled beets and a nonfertilized control. In the second year after by-product application, the control treatment was fertilized with N fertilizer and an additional treatment was added as a nonfertilized control in buffer areas. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was grown in the year of by-product application and sugar beet in the subsequent year. By-product treatments caused a significant reduction in wheat grain yield compared with the control. This was due to a decline in N availability as a result of immobilization. Based on microplots receiving 15N labeled beets, wheat took up <1% of spoiled beet-N (approximately 4.7 kg ha(-1)) during the year of by-product application. In the second cropping year, sugar beet root yields were significantly higher in the fertilized control and by-product treatments than the nonfertilized control. The lack of significant difference in sugar beet yield between the fertilized control and by-product treatments was likely due to the greater availability of N in the second year. Labeled 15N data also showed that the sugar beet crop recovered a 17% of sugar beet-N, an equivalent of 86 kg N ha(-1), during the second cropping year. There was no difference in sugar beet root yield, N uptake, or

  14. Quantum yield for carbon monoxide production in the 248 nm photodissociation of carbonyl sulfide (OCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Z.; Stickel, R. E.; Wine, P. H.

    1995-01-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy has been coupled with excimer laser flash photolysis to measure the quantum yield for CO production from 248 nm photodissociation of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) relative to the well-known quantum yield for CO production from 248 nm photolysis of phosgene (Cl2CO2). The temporal resolution of the experiments was sufficient to distinguish CO formed directly by photodissociation from that formed by subsequent S((sup 3)P(sub J)) reaction with OCS. Under the experimental conditions employed, CO formation via the fast S((sup 1)D(sub 2)) + OCS reaction was minimal. Measurements at 297K and total pressures from 4 to 100 Torr N2 + N2O show the CO yield to be greater than 0.95 and most likely unity. This result suggests that the contribution of OCS as a precursor to the lower stratospheric sulfate aerosol layer is somewhat larger than previously thought.

  15. Effects of Increased Nitrogen Deposition and Precipitation on Seed and Seedling Production of Potentilla tanacetifolia in a Temperate Steppe Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Yang, Haijun; Xia, Jianyang; Zhang, Wenhao; Wan, Shiqiang; Li, Linghao

    2011-01-01

    Background The responses of plant seeds and seedlings to changing atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition and precipitation regimes determine plant population dynamics and community composition under global change. Methodology/Principal Findings In a temperate steppe in northern China, seeds of P. tanacetifolia were collected from a field-based experiment with N addition and increased precipitation to measure changes in their traits (production, mass, germination). Seedlings germinated from those seeds were grown in a greenhouse to examine the effects of improved N and water availability in maternal and offspring environments on seedling growth. Maternal N-addition stimulated seed production, but it suppressed seed mass, germination rate and seedling biomass of P. tanacetifolia. Maternal N-addition also enhanced responses of seedlings to N and water addition in the offspring environment. Maternal increased-precipitation stimulated seed production, but it had no effect on seed mass and germination rate. Maternal increased-precipitation enhanced seedling growth when grown under similar conditions, whereas seedling responses to offspring N- and water-addition were suppressed by maternal increased-precipitation. Both offspring N-addition and increased-precipitation stimulated growth of seedlings germinated from seeds collected from the maternal control environment without either N or water addition. Our observations indicate that both maternal and offspring environments can influence seedling growth of P. tanacetifolia with consequent impacts on the future population dynamics of this species in the study area. Conclusion/Significance The findings highlight the importance of the maternal effects on seed and seedling production as well as responses of offspring to changing environmental drivers in mechanistic understanding and projecting of plant population dynamics under global change. PMID:22194863

  16. Magnetic field dependence of the product yields of cycloheptanone photolysis in the dilute gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stich, E. M.; Baumeister, W. F.; Huber, J. Robert

    1984-07-01

    The product yields of the gas-phase photolysis of cycloheptanone were measured in magnetic fields up to 10 kG. The magnetic-field effect is explained in terms of the radical pair model. A reaction mechanism is proposed that explains the magnetic field dependence, pressure dependence, and excitation enegy dependence of the gas-phase photochemistry of cycloheptanone.

  17. Disease severity and yield potential of rice cultivars in organic production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The market demand for organically produced rice has driven the steady increase in the acreage of organic rice in the U. S., with Texas and California being the largest states. Yield potential and disease management are among the principal challenges associated with organic rice production. We evalua...

  18. Destiny-yield relationship for channel catfish reared in a biofloc technology production system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of stocking density on yield of stocker channel catfish and water quality in a biofloc technology production system was studied in this completely randomized design experiment. Fingerling channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus; 48.0 g/fish, 17.8 cm/fish) were stocked into nine continuously ...

  19. Impacts of humic product application on yields of potato and other field crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial humic products are extracts from organic materials, including immature coals (lignite, leonardite) and composted plant residues. Their application to field crops has been claimed to promote increased crop growth and economic yield, although little published evidence exists. In two indepen...

  20. Impacts of Strobilurin Fungicides on Yield and Soil Microbial Processes for Minnesota Strawberry Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article will describe the preliminary results of the ongoing research into the impacts of strobilurin fungicides both on yield as well as soil microbial processes for strawberry production in Minnesota. The research is being conducted with an on-farm collaborator. This article will present the ...

  1. Increasing plant density in eastern United States broccoli production systems to maximize marketable head yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased demand for fresh market broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has led to increased production along the eastern seaboard of the United States. Maximizing broccoli yields is a primary concern for quickly expanding eastern commercial markets. Thus, a plant density study was carried ...

  2. Water productivity, yield, and berry composition in sustained versus regulated deficit irrigation of Merlot grapevines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wine grape cultivar Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.) was irrigated at incremental fractions of estimated crop evapotranspiration or a regulated deficit (RDI) regime to identify which practice best optimized water productivity and berry composition without compromising yield. Three severities of susta...

  3. Impact of varying planting dates and irrigation regimes on cotton growth and lint yield production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yield enhancements can be obtained in the Mississippi Delta by planting irrigated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) during the first week of April rather than the first week of May. Because it avoids some late season drought stress, early planting might also work for dryland production. Objectives we...

  4. Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pimpinella anisum L. seeds on milk production in rats.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Abedzadeh, Shirin; Taghiabadi, Elahe

    2014-08-01

    Pimpinella anisum L. (P. anisum) is used as a galactagogue in traditional medicine; hence, the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. anisum seeds on milk production in rats was evaluated. The milk production was assessed by measuring the pups' weights during the suckling period. The intraperitoneal LD(50) values of P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts were 4.93 and 3.77 g/kg, respectively. The aqueous (1 g/kg) and ethanolic extracts (1 g/kg) increased the milk production significantly (p < 0.001), with about 68.1% and 81% more milk being produced, respectively, than in the control group. The pups gained weight during the study period with the aqueous (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p < 0.05) and ethanolic (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p < 0.01) extracts. Thus, P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts can increase milk production in rats. PMID:25151455

  5. Bioenergy potential of Ulva lactuca: biomass yield, methane production and combustion.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Annette; Dahl, Jonas; Nielsen, Henrik Bangsø; Nikolaisen, Lars; Rasmussen, Michael Bo; Markager, Stiig; Olesen, Birgit; Arias, Carlos; Jensen, Peter Daugbjerg

    2011-02-01

    The biomass production potential at temperate latitudes (56°N), and the quality of the biomass for energy production (anaerobic digestion to methane and direct combustion) were investigated for the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca. The algae were cultivated in a land based facility demonstrating a production potential of 45T (TS) ha(-1) y(-1). Biogas production from fresh and macerated U. lactuca yielded up to 271 ml CH(4) g(-1) VS, which is in the range of the methane production from cattle manure and land based energy crops, such as grass-clover. Drying of the biomass resulted in a 5-9-fold increase in weight specific methane production compared to wet biomass. Ash and alkali contents are the main challenges in the use of U. lactuca for direct combustion. Application of a bio-refinery concept could increase the economical value of the U. lactuca biomass as well as improve its suitability for production of bioenergy. PMID:21044839

  6. Characterization of Hanwoo Bovine By-products by Means of Yield, Physicochemical and Nutritional Compositions

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sung Sil

    2014-01-01

    Though the edible bovine by-products are widely used for human consumption in most countries worldwide but the scientific information regarding the nutritional quality of these by-products is scarce. In the present study, the basic information regarding the yields, physicochemical and nutritional compositions of edible Hanwoo bovine by-products was studied. Our results showed that the yields, physicochemical and nutritional composition widely varied between the by-products examined. The highest pH values were found in rumen, reticulum, omasum and reproductive organ. Heart, liver, kidney and spleen had the lowest CIE L* values and highest CIE a* values. Liver had the highest vitamin A, B2 and niacin contents whereas the highest B1 and B5 contents were found in kidney. The highest Ca content was found in rumen, reticulum, omasum, head and leg while the highest Mn and Fe contents were found in rumen, omasum and spleen, respectively. Liver had the highest Cu content. Total essential amino acids (EAA)/amino acids (AA) ratios ranged between the by-products from 38.37% to 47.41%. Total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) levels ranged between the by-products from 2.26% to 26.47%, and most by-products showed favorable PUFA/SFA ratios. It is concluded that most of by-products examined are good sources of essential nutrients and these data will be of great importance for promotion of consumption and utilization of beef by-products in future. PMID:26761281

  7. Metabolic Energy-Based Modelling Explains Product Yielding in Anaerobic Mixed Culture Fermentations

    PubMed Central

    González-Cabaleiro, Rebeca; Lema, Juan M.; Rodríguez, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The fermentation of glucose using microbial mixed cultures is of great interest given its potential to convert wastes into valuable products at low cost, however, the difficulties associated with the control of the process still pose important challenges for its industrial implementation. A deeper understanding of the fermentation process involving metabolic and biochemical principles is very necessary to overcome these difficulties. In this work a novel metabolic energy based model is presented that accurately predicts for the first time the experimentally observed changes in product spectrum with pH. The model predicts the observed shift towards formate production at high pH, accompanied with ethanol and acetate production. Acetate (accompanied with a more reduced product) and butyrate are predicted main products at low pH. The production of propionate between pH 6 and 8 is also predicted. These results are mechanistically explained for the first time considering the impact that variable proton motive potential and active transport energy costs have in terms of energy harvest over different products yielding. The model results, in line with numerous reported experiments, validate the mechanistic and bioenergetics hypotheses that fermentative mixed cultures products yielding appears to be controlled by the principle of maximum energy harvest and the necessity of balancing the redox equivalents in absence of external electron acceptors. PMID:25992959

  8. Phospholipase Dε enhances Braasca napus growth and seed production in response to nitrogen availability.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shaoping; Yao, Shuaibing; Wang, Geliang; Guo, Liang; Zhou, Yongming; Hong, Yueyun; Wang, Xuemin

    2016-03-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD), which hydrolyses phospholipids to produce phosphatidic acid, has been implicated in plant response to macronutrient availability in Arabidopsis. This study investigated the effect of increased PLDε expression on nitrogen utilization in Brassica napus to explore the application of PLDε manipulation to crop improvement. In addition, changes in membrane lipid species in response to nitrogen availability were determined in the oil seed crop. Multiple PLDε over expression (PLDε-OE) lines displayed enhanced biomass accumulation under nitrogen-deficient and nitrogen-replete conditions. PLDε-OE plants in the field produced more seeds than wild-type plants but have no impact on seed oil content. Compared with wild-type plants, PLDε-OE plants were enhanced in nitrate transporter expression, uptake and reduction, whereas the activity of nitrite reductase was higher under nitrogen-depleted, but not at nitrogen-replete conditions. The level of nitrogen altered membrane glycerolipid metabolism, with greater impacts on young than mature leaves. The data indicate increased expression of PLDε has the potential to improve crop plant growth and production under nitrogen-depleted and nitrogen-replete conditions. PMID:26260942

  9. Elimination of metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products increases ethanol yields in Clostridium thermocellum

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Papanek, Beth A.; Biswas, Ranjita; Rydzak, Thomas; Guss, Adam M.

    2015-09-12

    Clostridium thermocellum has the natural ability to convert cellulose to ethanol, making it a promising candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of cellulosic biomass to biofuels. To further improve its CBP capabilities, we study a mutant strain of C. thermocellum that was constructed (strain AG553; C. thermocellum Δhpt ΔhydG Δldh Δpfl Δpta-ack) to increase flux to ethanol by removing side product formation. Strain AG553 showed a two- to threefold increase in ethanol yield relative to the wild type on all substrates tested. On defined medium, strain AG553 exceeded 70% of theoretical ethanol yield on lower loadings of the model crystalline cellulosemore » Avicel, effectively eliminating formate, acetate, and lactate production and reducing H2 production by fivefold. On 5 g/L Avicel, strain AG553 reached an ethanol yield of 63.5% of the theoretical maximum compared with 19.9% by the wild type, and it showed similar yields on pretreated switchgrass and poplar. The elimination of organic acid production suggested that the strain might be capable of growth under higher substrate loadings in the absence of pH control. Final ethanol titer peaked at 73.4 mM in mutant AG553 on 20 g/L Avicel, at which point the pH decreased to a level that does not allow growth of C. thermocellum, likely due to CO2 accumulation. In comparison, the maximum titer of wild type C. thermocellum was 14.1 mM ethanol on 10 g/L Avicel. In conclusion, with the elimination of the metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products other than ethanol, AG553 is the best ethanol-yielding CBP strain to date and will serve as a platform strain for further metabolic engineering for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass.« less

  10. Elimination of metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products increases ethanol yields in Clostridium thermocellum.

    PubMed

    Papanek, Beth; Biswas, Ranjita; Rydzak, Thomas; Guss, Adam M

    2015-11-01

    Clostridium thermocellum has the natural ability to convert cellulose to ethanol, making it a promising candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of cellulosic biomass to biofuels. To further improve its CBP capabilities, a mutant strain of C. thermocellum was constructed (strain AG553; C. thermocellum Δhpt ΔhydG Δldh Δpfl Δpta-ack) to increase flux to ethanol by removing side product formation. Strain AG553 showed a two- to threefold increase in ethanol yield relative to the wild type on all substrates tested. On defined medium, strain AG553 exceeded 70% of theoretical ethanol yield on lower loadings of the model crystalline cellulose Avicel, effectively eliminating formate, acetate, and lactate production and reducing H2 production by fivefold. On 5 g/L Avicel, strain AG553 reached an ethanol yield of 63.5% of the theoretical maximum compared with 19.9% by the wild type, and it showed similar yields on pretreated switchgrass and poplar. The elimination of organic acid production suggested that the strain might be capable of growth under higher substrate loadings in the absence of pH control. Final ethanol titer peaked at 73.4mM in mutant AG553 on 20 g/L Avicel, at which point the pH decreased to a level that does not allow growth of C. thermocellum, likely due to CO2 accumulation. In comparison, the maximum titer of wild type C. thermocellum was 14.1mM ethanol on 10 g/L Avicel. With the elimination of the metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products other than ethanol, AG553 is the best ethanol-yielding CBP strain to date and will serve as a platform strain for further metabolic engineering for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:26369438

  11. Assessment of fission product yields data needs in nuclear reactor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, K.; Becker, M.; Broeders, C.

    2012-07-01

    Studies on the build-up of fission products in fast reactors have been performed, with particular emphasis on the effects related to the physics of the nuclear fission process. Fission product yields, which are required for burn-up calculations, depend on the proton and neutron number of the target nucleus as well as on the incident neutron energy. Evaluated nuclear data on fission product yields are available for all relevant target nuclides in reactor applications. However, the description of their energy dependence in evaluated data is still rather rudimentary, which is due to the lack of experimental fast fission data and reliable physical models. Additionally, physics studies of evaluated JEFF-3.1.1 fission yields data have shown potential improvements, especially for various fast fission data sets of this evaluation. In recent years, important progress in the understanding of the fission process has been made, and advanced model codes are currently being developed. This paper deals with the semi-empirical approach to the description of the fission process, which is used in the GEF code being developed by K.-H. Schmidt and B. Jurado on behalf of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, and with results from the corresponding author's diploma thesis. An extended version of the GEF code, supporting the calculation of spectrum weighted fission product yields, has been developed. It has been applied to the calculation of fission product yields in the fission rate spectra of a MOX fuelled sodium-cooled fast reactor. Important results are compared to JEFF-3.1.1 data and discussed in this paper. (authors)

  12. Characterization of Edible Pork By-products by Means of Yield and Nutritional Composition

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sung Sil

    2014-01-01

    Basic information regarding the yield and nutritional composition of edible pork by-products, namely heart, liver, lung, stomach, spleen, uterus, pancreas, and small and large intestines, was studied. Our results revealed that the yields varied widely among the pork by-products examined; in particular, liver had the highest yield (1.35%); whereas, spleen had the lowest yield (0.16%). The approximate composition range (minimum to maximum) of these by-products was found to be: moisture 71.59-82.48%; fat 0.28-19.54%; ash 0.155-1.34%, and protein 8.45-22.05%. The highest protein, vitamin A, B2, B6, and total essential amino acid (EAA) contents were found in liver. Large intestine had the highest fat content and lowest EAA content. Heart had the highest vitamin B1 content, whereas pancreas had the highest niacin and vitamin B3 contents. The concentrations of Fe and Zn were highest in liver and pancreas. Total saturated fatty acids (SFA) levels and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) levels between the by-products ranged from 43.15-50.48%, and 14.92-30.16%, respectively. Furthermore, with the exception of large intestine, all the by-products showed favorable PUFA/SFA ratios. The study indicated that almost all of the pork by-products examined were good sources of important nutrients, and that these data will be of great importance in the promotion of the consumption of edible pork by-products, as well as their utilization in meat processing. PMID:26761170

  13. Constitutive or seed-specific overexpression of Arabidopsis G-protein γ subunit 3 (AGG3) results in increased seed and oil production and improved stress tolerance in Camelina sativa.

    PubMed

    Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Riesselman, Adam J; Pandey, Sona

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins consisting of Gα, Gβ and Gγ subunits play an integral role in mediating multiple signalling pathways in plants. A novel, recently identified plant-specific Gγ protein, AGG3, has been proposed to be an important regulator of organ size and mediator of stress responses in Arabidopsis, whereas its potential homologs in rice are major quantitative trait loci for seed size and panicle branching. To evaluate the role of AGG3 towards seed and oil yield improvement, the gene was overexpressed in Camelina sativa, an oilseed crop of the Brassicaceae family. Analysis of multiple homozygous T4 transgenic Camelina lines showed that constitutive overexpression of AGG3 resulted in faster vegetative as well as reproductive growth accompanied by an increase in photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, when expressed constitutively or specifically in seed tissue, AGG3 was found to increase seed size, seed mass and seed number per plant by 15%-40%, effectively resulting in significantly higher oil yield per plant. AGG3 overexpressing Camelina plants also exhibited improved stress tolerance. These observations draw a strong link between the roles of AGG3 in regulating two critical yield parameters, seed traits and plant stress responses, and reveal an effective biotechnological tool to dramatically increase yield in agricultural crops. PMID:24102738

  14. The role of climate in balancing soil production and sediment yield in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, K. P.

    2013-12-01

    New Zealand hosts some of the highest specific sediment yields on the planet reaching up to nearly 30,000 t km-2 yr-1. Sediment yields measure the export of sediment from a basin and give an indication of erosion from hillslopes. In New Zealand high sediment yields correlate with high annual precipitation and high rates of tectonic strain (Hicks et al., 1996). It is, however, unclear how soil production keeps pace with such extreme erosion. Here, this question is investigated by modelling soil production as a function of local climate parameters. Two simple models for building climate into soil production are through effective energy and mass transfer, EEMT, (Rasmussen and Tabor, 2007) and primary chemical weathering. When applied to ~30 year climate data, these models highlight the variability of potential soil production across New Zealand. Due partially to high annual rainfall, some of the fastest erosion rates on the west coast of the South Island are nearly in balance with soil production. In other regions such as the east coast of the North Island, hotspots exist where annual sediment yields exceed reasonable soil production rates such that additional mechanisms must operate to generate sediment and make up this deficit. Globally, precipitation tends to increase and temperature decreases with increasing elevation. In New Zealand, increasing elevations also roughly correlate with an increase in mean basin slope angle and the percent of a basin at >30° slopes. As a result, modelled soil production also tends to increase with increasing mean basin slope angle. This correlation occurs independent of erosion feedbacks on the modelled soil production rates. This relationship presents an intriguing scenario in which the topography of the mountain range may be maintained by climate through variations in soil production. Even with rapid modelled soil production at high precipitation rates and/or high temperatures and/or high temperatures, many basins cannot keep pace

  15. A novel male sterility-fertility restoration system in plants for hybrid seed production

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surendra Pratap; Singh, Sudhir P.; Pandey, Tripti; Singh, Ram Rakshpal; Sawant, Samir V.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid seeds are used for stimulated crop production, as they harness heterosis. The achievement of complete male-sterility in the female-parent and the restored-fertility in F1-hybrids are the major bottlenecks in the commercial hybrid seed production. Here, we report a male sterility–fertility restoration system by engineering the inmost nutritive anther wall layer tapetum of female and male parents. In the female parent, high–level, and stringent expression of Arabidopsis autophagy–related gene BECLIN1 was achieved in the tapetum, which altered the tapetal degeneration program, leading to male sterility. This works on our previously demonstrated expression cassette based on functional complementation of TATA-box mutant (TGTA) promoter and TATA-binding protein mutant3 (TBPm3), with modification by conjugating Long Hypocotyle in Far-Red1 fragment (HFR1NT131) with TBPm3 (HFR1NT131-TBPm3) to exercise regulatory control over it. In the male parent, tapetum–specific Constitutive photo-morphogenesis1 (COP1) was expressed. The F1 obtained by crossing these engineered parents showed decreased BECLIN1 expression, which was further completely abolished when COP1-mutant (COP1L105A) was used as a male parent, leading to normal tapetal development and restored fertility. The system works on COP1-HFR1 interaction and COP1–mediated degradation of TBPm3 pool (HFR1NT131-TBPm3). The system can be deployed for hybrid seed production in agricultural crops. PMID:26073981

  16. Estimation efficiency of usage satellite derived and modelled biophysical products for yield forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolotii, Andrii; Kussul, Nataliia; Skakun, Sergii; Shelestov, Andrii; Ostapenko, Vadim; Oliinyk, Tamara

    2015-04-01

    Efficient and timely crop monitoring and yield forecasting are important tasks for ensuring of stability and sustainable economic development [1]. As winter crops pay prominent role in agriculture of Ukraine - the main focus of this study is concentrated on winter wheat. In our previous research [2, 3] it was shown that usage of biophysical parameters of crops such as FAPAR (derived from Geoland-2 portal as for SPOT Vegetation data) is far more efficient for crop yield forecasting to NDVI derived from MODIS data - for available data. In our current work efficiency of usage such biophysical parameters as LAI, FAPAR, FCOVER (derived from SPOT Vegetation and PROBA-V data at resolution of 1 km and simulated within WOFOST model) and NDVI product (derived from MODIS) for winter wheat monitoring and yield forecasting is estimated. As the part of crop monitoring workflow (vegetation anomaly detection, vegetation indexes and products analysis) and yield forecasting SPIRITS tool developed by JRC is used. Statistics extraction is done for landcover maps created in SRI within FP-7 SIGMA project. Efficiency of usage satellite based and modelled with WOFOST model biophysical products is estimated. [1] N. Kussul, S. Skakun, A. Shelestov, O. Kussul, "Sensor Web approach to Flood Monitoring and Risk Assessment", in: IGARSS 2013, 21-26 July 2013, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 815-818. [2] F. Kogan, N. Kussul, T. Adamenko, S. Skakun, O. Kravchenko, O. Kryvobok, A. Shelestov, A. Kolotii, O. Kussul, and A. Lavrenyuk, "Winter wheat yield forecasting in Ukraine based on Earth observation, meteorological data and biophysical models," International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, vol. 23, pp. 192-203, 2013. [3] Kussul O., Kussul N., Skakun S., Kravchenko O., Shelestov A., Kolotii A, "Assessment of relative efficiency of using MODIS data to winter wheat yield forecasting in Ukraine", in: IGARSS 2013, 21-26 July 2013, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 3235 - 3238.

  17. Testing hypotheses for excess flower production and low fruit-to-flower ratios in a pollinating seed-consuming mutualism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; Bronstein, Judith L.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    Pollinator attraction, pollen limitation, resource limitation, pollen donation and selective fruit abortion have all been proposed as processes explaining why hermaphroditic plants commonly produce many more flowers than mature fruit. We conducted a series of experiments in Arizona to investigate low fruit-to-flower ratios in senita cacti, which rely exclusively on pollinating seed-consumers. Selective abortion of fruit based on seed predators is of particular interest in this case because plants relying on pollinating seed-consumers are predicted to have such a mechanism to minimize seed loss. Pollinator attraction and pollen dispersal increased with flower number, but fruit set did not, refuting the hypothesis that excess flowers increase fruit set by attracting more pollinators. Fruit set of natural- and hand-pollinated flowers were not different, supporting the resource, rather than pollen, limitation hypothesis. Senita did abort fruit, but not selectively based on pollen quantity, pollen donors, or seed predators. Collectively, these results are consistent with sex allocation theory in that resource allocation to excess flower production can increase pollen dispersal and the male fitness function of flowers, but consequently results in reduced resources available for fruit set. Inconsistent with sex allocation theory, however, fruit production and the female fitness function of flowers may actually increase with flower production. This is because excess flower production lowers pollinator-to-flower ratios and results in fruit abortion, both of which limit the abundance and hence oviposition rates, of pre-dispersal seed predators.

  18. Yield Trends Are Insufficient to Double Global Crop Production by 2050.

    PubMed

    Ray, Deepak K; Mueller, Nathaniel D; West, Paul C; Foley, Jonathan A

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that global crop production needs to double by 2050 to meet the projected demands from rising population, diet shifts, and increasing biofuels consumption. Boosting crop yields to meet these rising demands, rather than clearing more land for agriculture has been highlighted as a preferred solution to meet this goal. However, we first need to understand how crop yields are changing globally, and whether we are on track to double production by 2050. Using ∼2.5 million agricultural statistics, collected for ∼13,500 political units across the world, we track four key global crops-maize, rice, wheat, and soybean-that currently produce nearly two-thirds of global agricultural calories. We find that yields in these top four crops are increasing at 1.6%, 1.0%, 0.9%, and 1.3% per year, non-compounding rates, respectively, which is less than the 2.4% per year rate required to double global production by 2050. At these rates global production in these crops would increase by ∼67%, ∼42%, ∼38%, and ∼55%, respectively, which is far below what is needed to meet projected demands in 2050. We present detailed maps to identify where rates must be increased to boost crop production and meet rising demands. PMID:23840465

  19. High-Yield Hydrogen Production from Starch and Water by a Synthetic Enzymatic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y.-H. Percival; Evans, Barbara R.; Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Hopkins, Robert C.; Adams, Michael W.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background The future hydrogen economy offers a compelling energy vision, but there are four main obstacles: hydrogen production, storage, and distribution, as well as fuel cells. Hydrogen production from inexpensive abundant renewable biomass can produce cheaper hydrogen, decrease reliance on fossil fuels, and achieve zero net greenhouse gas emissions, but current chemical and biological means suffer from low hydrogen yields and/or severe reaction conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we demonstrate a synthetic enzymatic pathway consisting of 13 enzymes for producing hydrogen from starch and water. The stoichiometric reaction is C6H10O5 (l)+7 H2O (l)→12 H2 (g)+6 CO2 (g). The overall process is spontaneous and unidirectional because of a negative Gibbs free energy and separation of the gaseous products with the aqueous reactants. Conclusions Enzymatic hydrogen production from starch and water mediated by 13 enzymes occurred at 30°C as expected, and the hydrogen yields were much higher than the theoretical limit (4 H2/glucose) of anaerobic fermentations. Significance The unique features, such as mild reaction conditions (30°C and atmospheric pressure), high hydrogen yields, likely low production costs ($∼2/kg H2), and a high energy-density carrier starch (14.8 H2-based mass%), provide great potential for mobile applications. With technology improvements and integration with fuel cells, this technology also solves the challenges associated with hydrogen storage, distribution, and infrastructure in the hydrogen economy. PMID:17520015

  20. Yield Trends Are Insufficient to Double Global Crop Production by 2050

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Deepak K.; Mueller, Nathaniel D.; West, Paul C.; Foley, Jonathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that global crop production needs to double by 2050 to meet the projected demands from rising population, diet shifts, and increasing biofuels consumption. Boosting crop yields to meet these rising demands, rather than clearing more land for agriculture has been highlighted as a preferred solution to meet this goal. However, we first need to understand how crop yields are changing globally, and whether we are on track to double production by 2050. Using ∼2.5 million agricultural statistics, collected for ∼13,500 political units across the world, we track four key global crops—maize, rice, wheat, and soybean—that currently produce nearly two-thirds of global agricultural calories. We find that yields in these top four crops are increasing at 1.6%, 1.0%, 0.9%, and 1.3% per year, non-compounding rates, respectively, which is less than the 2.4% per year rate required to double global production by 2050. At these rates global production in these crops would increase by ∼67%, ∼42%, ∼38%, and ∼55%, respectively, which is far below what is needed to meet projected demands in 2050. We present detailed maps to identify where rates must be increased to boost crop production and meet rising demands. PMID:23840465

  1. Photofission product yields of 238U and 239Pu with 22-MeV bremsstrahlung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xianfei; Yang, Haori

    2016-06-01

    In homeland security and nuclear safeguards applications, non-destructive techniques to identify and quantify special nuclear materials are in great demand. Although nuclear materials naturally emit characteristic radiation (e.g. neutrons, γ-rays), their intensity and energy are normally low. Furthermore, such radiation could be intentionally shielded with ease or buried in high-level background. Active interrogation techniques based on photofission have been identified as effective assay approaches to address this issue. In designing such assay systems, nuclear data, like photofission product yields, plays a crucial role. Although fission yields for neutron-induced reactions have been well studied and readily available in various nuclear databases, data on photofission product yields is rather scarce. This poses a great challenge to the application of photofission techniques. In this work, short-lived high-energy delayed γ-rays from photofission of 238U were measured in between linac pulses. In addition, a list-mode system was developed to measure relatively long-lived delayed γ-rays from photofission of 238U and 239Pu after the irradiation. Time and energy information of each γ-ray event were simultaneously recorded by this system. Cumulative photofission product yields were then determined using the measured delayed γ-ray spectra.

  2. [Production of pectinases by Penicillium simplicissimum A3263 in an amaranth-seed flour medium].

    PubMed

    Pastor, M D; Lorda, G S; Balatti, A

    2002-01-01

    The present work studies the production of pectinases using a strain of Penicillium simplicissimum A3263 and considering the influence of adding Amaranthus cruentus seed meal in a selected medium. We also considered the influence of aeration on enzyme production. Research was oriented towards the production of pectin lyase, the enzyme having the highest commercial value. This work was carried out in Erlenmeyer flasks in rotary shaker to select the medium and in a mechanically stirred fermentor to study aeration. The microorganism was developed as pellets of 1 mm diameter. Enzyme levels were of the order of 8216.21 pectin lyase units and 167.57 polygalacturonase units per gram of fungal biomass, respectively, using a medium containing 40 g/l of amaranth seed meal. As for the influence of aeration, it was determined that the higher values were obtained at 750 rpm corresponding to an oxygen absorption rate of 2691 ml O2/lh for an air flow of 1 l/l.min. The results obtained are considered very important in view of the fact that they exceeded in 550% those obtained by other authors. PMID:11942079

  3. Growth and productivity of different Pleurotus ostreatus strains on sunflower seed hulls supplemented with N-NH4+ and/or Mn(II).

    PubMed

    Curvetto, N R; Figlas, D; Devalis, R; Delmastro, S

    2002-09-01

    The mycelial growth rates in lineal growth assay, yield, and production rate of five Pleurotus ostreatus strains were evaluated in response to different levels of Mn(II) and/or NH4+ in a substrate containing sunflower seed hulls as a main energy and nutritional component. Each strain showed different basal values for mycelial growth rate and biological efficiency on sunflower seed-hull substrate. Adding growth limiting mineral nutrients increased the mycelial growth rate by 13-25%. Primordia initiation for the first flush appeared between day 24 and 28 and days to the second crop ranged from 39 to 51. Biological efficiency increased over control values and reached 60-112%, depending on the strain and the concentration of Mn(II) and NH4+. This study demonstrated the advantage of selecting the most productive P. ostreatus strains in a substrate formulated with sunflower seed hulls to provide the main energy and nutritional ingredients and supplemented with Mn(II) and/or NH4+. PMID:12139334

  4. Simultaneous quantification of sinigrin, sinalbin, and anionic glucosinolate hydrolysis products in Brassica juncea and Sinapis alba seed extracts using ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Popova, Inna E; Morra, Matthew J

    2014-11-01

    Although mustards such as Sinapis alba and Brassica juncea contain glucosinolates (sinalbin and sinigrin, respectively) that hydrolyze to form biopesticidal products, routine quality control methods to measure active ingredients in seed and seed meals are lacking. We present a simple and fast ion chromatography method for the simultaneous quantification of sinigrin, sinalbin, and anionic hydrolysis products in mustard seed to assess biological potency. Optimum conditions include isocratic elution with 100 mM NaOH at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min on a 4 × 210 mm hydroxide-selective anion-exchange column. All anion analytes including sinigrin, sinalbin, SO4(2-), and SCN(-) yielded recoveries ranging from 83 to 102% and limits of detection ≤0.04 mM, with samples displaying little interference from plant matrix components. Sample preparation is minimized and analysis times are shortened to <90 min as compared with previous methods that took days and multiple instruments. PMID:25314611

  5. Influence of genotype and sowing date on camelina seed yield and oil content in the northern Corn Belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) has recently gained considerable attention in the U.S. as a potential oilseed feedstock for advanced biofuels and bioproducts. Although progress has been made towards characterizing camelina’s production potential for the western U.S. and Canada, very little research ha...

  6. Canopy warming caused photosynthetic acclimation and reduced seed yield in maize grown at ambient and elevated [CO2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and attendant increases in growing season temperature are expected be the most important global change factors impacting production agriculture. Although maize is the most highly produced crop worldwide, few studies have evaluated the interactive effects ...

  7. Effects of Chronic Elevated Ozone Concentration on Antioxidant Capacity, Photosynthesis and Seed Yield of 10 Soybean Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crops losses due to ozone (O3) in the United States are estimated to cost $1-3 billion annually, making it the most damaging air pollutant to plants. This challenge to crop production is expected to increase as O3 levels rise over the next half-century, particularly in sensitive crop species like so...

  8. Nutritional value of broad bean seeds. Part 3: Changes of dietary fibre and starch in the production of commercial flours.

    PubMed

    Giczewska, Anna; Borowska, Julitta

    2004-04-01

    We report on the impact of flour production from small- and large-seed varieties of broad bean on the quantitative and qualitative distribution of dietary fibre and starch. The experimental material consisted of the seeds of small-seed varieties of broad bean: Gobik and Goral, large-seed varieties of broad bean: Windsor Bialy and Bartom, and pea seeds of Albatros, Karat and Miko varieties (for comparison). The seeds were at full physiological maturity. Soaking and hydrothermal processing were shown to cause multidirectional, statistically significant changes in dietary fibre and starch, depending on both parameters of the process and type of the seeds. The flours of both small-seed broad bean varieties contained 20.15%-28.31%, flours of the large-seed broad bean 23.10%-27.50%, and those from pea seeds 20.13%-22.81% total dietary fibre. Attention should be paid to the considerable, approximately 2-fold increase in the soluble dietary fibre (SDF) content, compared to the raw material. The processing of seeds caused significant changes also with reference to starch. The most considerable changes were observed when the variant with the longest times of soaking (18 h) and heating (45 min) was applied. In the broad bean flours, the content of analytically available starch decreased by 22.94-30.60% and its digestibility was observed to decrease up to 30.25%. The pea flours, however, were characterised by an increased concentration of both forms of starch, especially significant for the digestible starch. The calculated content of resistant starch (RS) differentiated, to a high extent, the flours obtained. Under the same processing conditions, the flours of small-seed Gobik and Goral varieties of broad bean were characterised by a significantly higher RS content than those obtained from the large-seed varieties. A decrease in the starch digestibility rate index (SDRI) values, especially high for the small-seed varieties, should also be emphasised. The results obtained

  9. Investigation of inconsistent ENDF/B-VII.1 independent and cumulative fission product yields with proposed revisions

    SciTech Connect

    Pigni, Marco T; Francis, Matthew W; Gauld, Ian C

    2015-01-01

    A recent implementation of ENDF/B-VII. independent fission product yields and nuclear decay data identified inconsistencies in the data caused by the use of updated nuclear scheme in the decay sub-library that is not reflected in legacy fission product yield data. Recent changes in the decay data sub-library, particularly the delayed neutron branching fractions, result in calculated fission product concentrations that are incompatible with the cumulative fission yields in the library, and also with experimental measurements. A comprehensive set of independent fission product yields was generated for thermal and fission spectrum neutron induced fission for 235,238U and 239,241Pu in order to provide a preliminary assessment of the updated fission product yield data consistency. These updated independent fission product yields were utilized in the ORIGEN code to evaluate the calculated fission product inventories with experimentally measured inventories, with particular attention given to the noble gases. An important outcome of this work is the development of fission product yield covariance data necessary for fission product uncertainty quantification. The evaluation methodology combines a sequential Bayesian method to guarantee consistency between independent and cumulative yields along with the physical constraints on the independent yields. This work was motivated to improve the performance of the ENDF/B-VII.1 library in the case of stable and long-lived cumulative yields due to the inconsistency of ENDF/B-VII.1 fission p;roduct yield and decay data sub-libraries. The revised fission product yields and the new covariance data are proposed as a revision to the fission yield data currently in ENDF/B-VII.1.

  10. Future consequences of decreasing marginal production efficiency in the high-yielding dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Moallem, U

    2016-04-01

    The objectives were to examine the gross and marginal production efficiencies in high-yielding dairy cows and the future consequences on dairy industry profitability. Data from 2 experiments were used in across-treatments analysis (n=82 mid-lactation multiparous Israeli-Holstein dairy cows). Milk yields, body weights (BW), and dry matter intakes (DMI) were recorded daily. In both experiments, cows were fed a diet containing 16.5 to 16.6% crude protein and net energy for lactation (NEL) at 1.61 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM). The means of milk yield, BW, DMI, NEL intake, and energy required for maintenance were calculated individually over the whole study, and used to calculate gross and marginal efficiencies. Data were analyzed in 2 ways: (1) simple correlation between variables; and (2) cows were divided into 3 subgroups, designated low, moderate, and high DMI (LDMI, MDMI, and HDMI), according to actual DMI per day: ≤ 26 kg (n=27); >26 through 28.2 kg (n=28); and >28.2 kg (n=27). The phenotypic Pearson correlations among variables were analyzed, and the GLM procedure was used to test differences between subgroups. The relationships between milk and fat-corrected milk yields and the corresponding gross efficiencies were positive, whereas BW and gross production efficiency were negatively correlated. The marginal production efficiency from DM and energy consumed decreased with increasing DMI. The difference between BW gain as predicted by the National Research Council model (2001) and the present measurements increased with increasing DMI (r=0.68). The average calculated energy balances were 1.38, 2.28, and 4.20 Mcal/d (standard error of the mean=0.64) in the LDMI, MDMI, and HDMI groups, respectively. The marginal efficiency for milk yields from DMI or energy consumed was highest in LDMI, intermediate in MDMI, and lowest in HDMI. The predicted BW gains for the whole study period were 22.9, 37.9, and 75.8 kg for the LDMI, MDMI, and HDMI groups, respectively. The

  11. Production of arabitol from glycerol: strain screening and study of factors affecting production yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glycerol is a major byproduct from biodiesel production, and developing new uses for glycerol is imperative to overall economics and sustainability of the biodiesel industry. With the aim of producing xylitol and/or arabitol as the value-added products from glycerol, 214 yeast strains, many osmotole...

  12. The effect of particle inlet conditions on FCC riser hydrodynamics and product yields.

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S. L.; Golchert, B.; Lottes, S. A.; Zhou, C. Q.; Huntsinger, A.; Petrick, M.

    1999-10-11

    Essential to today's modern refineries and the gasoline production process are fluidized catalytic cracking units. By using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code developed at Argonne National Laboratory to simulate the riser, parametric and sensitivity studies were performed to determine the effect of catalyst inlet conditions on the riser hydrodynamics and on the product yields. Simulations were created on the basis of a general riser configuration and operating conditions. The results of this work are indications of riser operating conditions that will maximize specific product yields. The CFD code is a three-dimensional, multiphase, turbulent, reacting flow code with phenomenological models for particle-solid interactions, droplet evaporation, and chemical kinetics. The code has been validated against pressure, particle loading, and product yield measurements. After validation of the code, parametric studies were performed on various parameters such as the injection velocity of the catalyst, the angle of injection, and the particle size distribution. The results indicate that good mixing of the catalyst particles with the oil droplets produces a high degree of cracking in the riser.

  13. Coexistence in tropical forests through asynchronous variation in annual seed production.

    PubMed

    Usinowicz, Jacob; Wright, S Joseph; Ives, Anthony R

    2012-09-01

    The storage effect is a mechanism that can facilitate the coexistence of competing species through temporal fluctuations in reproductive output. Numerous natural systems have the prerequisites for the storage effect, yet it has rarely been quantitatively assessed. Here, we investigate the possible importance of the storage effect in explaining the coexistence of tree species in the diverse tropical forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. This tropical forest has been monitored for more than 20 years, and annual seed production is asynchronous among species, a primary requirement for the storage effect. We constructed a model of forest regeneration that includes species-specific recruitment through seed, sapling, and adult stages, and we parameterized the model using data for 28 species for which information is known about seedling germination and survival. Simulations of the model demonstrated that the storage effect alone can be a strong mechanism allowing long-term persistence of species. We also developed a metric to quantify the strength of the storage effect in a way comparable to classical resource partitioning. Applying this metric to seed production data from 108 species, the storage effect reduces the strength of pairwise interspecific competition to 11-43% of the strength of intraspecific competition, thereby demonstrating strong potential to facilitate coexistence. Finally, for a subset of 51 species whose phylogenetic relationships are known, we compared the strength of the storage effect between pairs of species to their phylogenetic similarity. The strength of the storage effect between closely related species was on average no different from distantly related species, implying that the storage effect can be important in promoting the coexistence of even closely related species. PMID:23094379

  14. Soil Texture and Cultivar Effects on Rice (Oryza sativa, L.) Grain Yield, Yield Components and Water Productivity in Three Water Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Fugen; Soriano, Junel; Tabien, Rodante E.; Chen, Kun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of water regime/soil condition (continuous flooding, saturated, and aerobic), cultivar (‘Cocodrie’ and ‘Rondo’), and soil texture (clay and sandy loam) on rice grain yield, yield components and water productivity using a greenhouse trial. Rice grain yield was significantly affected by soil texture and the interaction between water regime and cultivar. Significantly higher yield was obtained in continuous flooding than in aerobic and saturated soil conditions but the latter treatments were comparable to each other. For Rondo, its grain yield has decreased with soil water regimes in the order of continuous flooding, saturated and aerobic treatments. The rice grain yield in clay soil was 46% higher than in sandy loam soil averaged across cultivar and water regime. Compared to aerobic condition, saturated and continuous flooding treatments had greater panicle numbers. In addition, panicle number in clay soil was 25% higher than in sandy loam soil. The spikelet number of Cocodrie was 29% greater than that of Rondo, indicating that rice cultivar had greater effect on spikelet number than soil type and water management. Water productivity was significantly affected by the interaction of water regime and cultivar. Compared to sandy loam soil, clay soil was 25% higher in water productivity. Our results indicated that cultivar selection and soil texture are important factors in deciding what water management option to practice. PMID:26978525

  15. Unexpected high yields of carbonyl and peroxide products of aqueous isoprene ozonolysis and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. L.; Huang, D.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, Y.; Chen, Z. M.

    2012-03-01

    The aqueous phase reaction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has not been considered in most analyses of atmospheric chemical processes. However, some experimental evidence has shown that, compared to the corresponding gas phase reaction, the aqueous chemical processes of VOCs in the bulk solutions and surfaces of ambient wet particles (cloud, fog, and wet aerosols) may potentially contribute to the products and formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). In the present study, we performed a laboratory experiment of the aqueous ozonolysis of isoprene at different pHs (3-7) and temperatures (4-25 °C). We detected three important kinds of products, including carbonyl compounds, peroxide compounds, and organic acids. Our results showed that the molar yields of these products were nearly independent of the investigated pHs and temperatures. These products included (1) carbonyls: 56.7 ± 6.7% formaldehyde, 42.8 ± 2.5% methacrolein (MAC), and 57.7 ± 3.4% methyl vinyl ketone (MVK); (2) peroxides: 53.4 ± 4.1% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and 15.1 ± 3.1% hydroxylmethyl hydroperoxide (HMHP); and (3) organic acids: undetectable (< 1% estimated by the detection limit). Based on the amounts of products formed and the isoprene consumed, the total carbon yield was estimated to be 95 ± 4%. This implied that most of the products in the reaction system were detected. Of note, the combined yields of both MAC + MVK and H2O2 + HMHP in the aqueous isoprene ozonolysis were much higher than those observed in the corresponding gas phase reaction. We suggested that these unexpected high yields of carbonyls and peroxides were related to the greater capability of condensed water, compared to water vapor, to stabilize energy-rich Criegee radicals. This aqueous ozonolysis of isoprene (and possibly other biogenic VOCs) could potentially occur on the surfaces of ambient wet particles and plants. Moreover, the high-yield carbonyl and peroxide products might provide a considerable source of

  16. Assessing the Effects of Climate Variability on Orange Yield in Florida to Reduce Production Forecast Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concha Larrauri, P.

    2015-12-01

    Orange production in Florida has experienced a decline over the past decade. Hurricanes in 2004 and 2005 greatly affected production, almost to the same degree as strong freezes that occurred in the 1980's. The spread of the citrus greening disease after the hurricanes has also contributed to a reduction in orange production in Florida. The occurrence of hurricanes and diseases cannot easily be predicted but the additional effects of climate on orange yield can be studied and incorporated into existing production forecasts that are based on physical surveys, such as the October Citrus forecast issued every year by the USDA. Specific climate variables ocurring before and after the October forecast is issued can have impacts on flowering, orange drop rates, growth, and maturation, and can contribute to the forecast error. Here we present a methodology to incorporate local climate variables to predict the USDA's orange production forecast error, and we study the local effects of climate on yield in different counties in Florida. This information can aid farmers to gain an insight on what is to be expected during the orange production cycle, and can help supply chain managers to better plan their strategy.

  17. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)). Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit". PMID:21299842

  18. Phenology, fruit production and seed dispersal of Astrocaryum jauari (Arecaceae) in Amazonian black water floodplains.

    PubMed

    Piedade, Maria Teresa F; Parolin, Pia; Junk, Wolfgang J

    2006-12-01

    Astrocaryum jauari Mart. (Arecaceae) is one of the commonest palm species occurring in nutritionally poor Amazonian black water floodplains. It is an emergent or subcanopy tree that grows on river banks and islands, with a wide distribution along the entire flooding gradient, tolerating flood durations between 30 and 340 days. The species is important for fish nutrition in the floodplains, and is also used for hearts of palm. In the present study, the auto-ecology of A. jauari was analysed over a period of two years in the Anavilhanas Archipelago, Rio Negro, Brazil, with a focus on phenology, fruit production, and seed dispersal. Fruit fall is annual and synchronized with high water levels, with a production of 1.6 ton of fruit ha(-1). The fruits are eaten by at least 16 species of fish which either gnaw the pulp, fragment the seed, or ingest the entire fruit, thus acting as dispersal agents. Besides ichthyocory, barochory (with subsequent vegetative propagation) is an important dispersal mode, enhancing the occurrence of large masses of individuals in the Anavilhanas islands and in the region of maximum palm heart extraction near Barcelos. PMID:18457155

  19. Evaluation of preservation methods for improving biogas production and enzymatic conversion yields of annual crops

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of energy crops and agricultural residues is expected to increase to fulfil the legislative demands of bio-based components in transport fuels. Ensiling methods, adapted from the feed sector, are suitable storage methods to preserve fresh crops throughout the year for, for example, biogas production. Various preservation methods, namely ensiling with and without acid addition for whole crop maize, fibre hemp and faba bean were investigated. For the drier fibre hemp, alkaline urea treatment was studied as well. These treatments were also explored as mild pretreatment methods to improve the disassembly and hydrolysis of these lignocellulosic substrates. Results The investigated storage treatments increased the availability of the substrates for biogas production from hemp and in most cases from whole maize but not from faba bean. Ensiling of hemp, without or with addition of formic acid, increased methane production by more than 50% compared to fresh hemp. Ensiling resulted in substantially increased methane yields also from maize, and the use of formic acid in ensiling of maize further enhanced methane yields by 16%, as compared with fresh maize. Ensiled faba bean, in contrast, yielded somewhat less methane than the fresh material. Acidic additives preserved and even increased the amount of the valuable water-soluble carbohydrates during storage, which affected most significantly the enzymatic hydrolysis yield of maize. However, preservation without additives decreased the enzymatic hydrolysis yield especially in maize, due to its high content of soluble sugars that were already converted to acids during storage. Urea-based preservation significantly increased the enzymatic hydrolysability of hemp. Hemp, preserved with urea, produced the highest carbohydrate increase of 46% in enzymatic hydrolysis as compared to the fresh material. Alkaline pretreatment conditions of hemp improved also the methane yields. Conclusions The results of the present

  20. Yucca brevifolia fruit production, predispersal seed predation, and fruit removal by rodents during two years of contrasting reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borchert, Mark I.; DeFalco, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The distribution of Yucca brevifolia, a keystone species of the Mojave Desert, may contract with climate change, yet reproduction and dispersal are poorly understood. We tracked reproduction, seed predation, and fruit dispersal for two years and discuss whether Y. brevifolia is a masting species. METHODS: Fruit maturation, seed predation (larval yucca moths), and fruit dispersal (rodents) were monitored on a random sample of panicles during 2013 and 2014, which were years of high and low reproduction, respectively. Fates of fruits placed on the ground and in canopies were also tracked. Rodents were live-trapped to assess abundance and species composition. KEY RESULTS: In 2013, 66% of inflorescences produced fruit of which 53% escaped larval predation; 19.5% of seeds were destroyed in infested fruits. Total seed production was estimated to be >100 times greater in 2013 than 2014. One-third of the fruit crop fell to the ground and was removed by rodents over the course of 120 d. After ground fruits became scarce, rodents exploited canopy fruits. Rodent numbers were low in 2013, so fruits remained in canopies for 370 d. In 2014, fruit production was approximately 20% lower. Larvae infested the majority of fruits, and almost twice the number of seeds were damaged. Fruits were exploited by rodents within 65 d. CONCLUSIONS: High fertilization, prolific seed production, and low predispersal predation in 2013 suggests that pollinator attraction and satiation of seed predators influence masting in Y. brevifolia. Abundant, prolonged fruit availability to seed-dispersing rodents likely extends recruitment opportunities during mast years.

  1. Optimization of biohydrogen yield produced by bacterial consortia using residual glycerin from biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Faber, Mariana de Oliveira; Ferreira-Leitão, Viridiana Santana

    2016-11-01

    The aims of this study were to simplify the fermentation medium and to optimize the conditions of dark fermentation of residual glycerin to produce biohydrogen. It was possible to remove all micronutrients of fermentation medium and improve biohydrogen production by applying residual glycerin as feedstock. After statistical analysis of the following parameters pH, glycerin concentration and volatile suspended solids, the values of 5.5; 0.5g.L(-1) and 8.7g.L(-1), respectively, were defined as optimum condition for this process. It generated 2.44molH2/molglycerin, an expressive result when compared to previous results reported in literature and considering that theoretical yield of H2 from glycerol in dark fermentation process is 3molH2/molglycerol. This study allowed the improvement of yield and productivity by 68% and 67%, respectively. PMID:27501033

  2. High yield production and purification of few layer graphene by Gum Arabic assisted physical sonication

    PubMed Central

    Chabot, Victor; Kim, Brian; Sloper, Brent; Tzoganakis, Costas; Yu, Aiping

    2013-01-01

    Exploiting the emulsification properties of low cost, environmentally safe Gum Arabic we demonstrate a high yield process to produce a few layer graphene with a low defect ratio, maintaining the pristine graphite structure. In addition, we demonstrate the need for and efficacy of an acid hydrolysis treatment to remove the polymer residues to produce 100% pure graphene. The scalable process gives yield of up to 5 wt% graphene based on 10 g starting graphite. The graphene product is compared with reduced graphene oxide produced through Hummer's method using UV-visible spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, and Raman spectroscopy. The two graphene materials show significant difference in these characterizations. Further, the film fabricated from this graphene exhibits 20 times higher electrical conductivity than that of the reduced graphene oxide. Sonication processing of graphite with environmentally approved biopolymers such as Gum Arabic opens up a scalable avenue for production of cheap graphene. PMID:23478744

  3. Alfalfa forage and seed crop tolerance to flumioxazin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is an important component of producing high quality and high yielding alfalfa seed and forage. Flumioxazin was evaluated for weed control in alfalfa forage and seed production in 2007 and 2008 in Washington State. Flumioxazin applied at 0.14 and 0.28 kg ai/ha plus paraquat in February t...

  4. Slow pyrolysis of rice straw: analysis of products properties, carbon and energy yields.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinje; Lee, Yongwoon; Ryu, Changkook; Park, Young-Kwon

    2014-03-01

    Among many uses of rice straw, application of its biochar from pyrolysis to the soil is receiving greater interest for increased crop productivity and sequestration of CO2. This study investigated slow pyrolysis of rice straw at 300-700°C to characterize the yields and detailed composition of the biochar, bio-oil and non-condensable gases. Biochar was analyzed for pH, microscopic surface area and pore volume distribution. Although the mass yield for the organic fraction was only about 25% above 500°C, biochar was the primary product of pyrolysis containing 40% of energy and 45% of carbon from the straw. The utilization of by-products (bio-oil and gases) as energy resources was essential, since the sum of energy yield was about 60%. The gases could be burned to produce the heat for an auto-thermal pyrolysis process, but the heat balance was significantly influenced by the moisture content of the raw material. PMID:24423650

  5. Optimization of grapevine yield by applying mathematical models to obtain quality wine products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alina, Dobrei; Alin, Dobrei; Eleonora, Nistor; Teodor, Cristea; Marius, Boldea; Florin, Sala

    2016-06-01

    Relationship between the crop load and the grape yield and quality is a dynamic process, specific for wine cultivars and for fresh consumption varieties. Modeling these relations is important for the improvement of technological works. This study evaluated the interrelationship of crop load (B - buds number) and several production parameters (Y - yield; S - sugar; A - acidity; GaI - Glucoacidimetric index; AP - alcoholic potential; F - flavorings, WA - wine alcohol; SR - sugar residue, in Muscat Ottonel wine cultivar and Y - yield; S - sugar; A - acidity; GaI - Glucoacidimetric Index; CP - commercial production; BS - berries size in the Victoria table grape cultivar). In both varieties have been identified correlations between the independent variable (B - buds number as a result of pruning and training practices) and quality parameters analyzed (r = -0.699 for B vsY relationship; r = 0.961 for the relationship B vs S; r = -0.959 for B vs AP relationship; r = 0.743 for the relationship Y vs S, p <0.01, in the Muscat Ottonel cultivar, respectively r = -0.907 for relationship B vs Y; r = -0.975 for B vs CP relationship; r = -0.971 for relationship B vs BS; r = 0.990 for CP vs BS relationship in the Victoria cultivar. Through regression analysis were obtained models that describe the variation concerning production and quality parameters in relation to the independent variable (B - buds number) with statistical significance results.

  6. Ozone deposition velocities, reaction probabilities and product yields for green building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamble, S. P.; Corsi, R. L.; Morrison, G. C.

    2011-12-01

    Indoor surfaces can passively remove ozone that enters buildings, reducing occupant exposure without an energy penalty. However, reactions between ozone and building surfaces can generate and release aerosols and irritating and carcinogenic gases. To identify desirable indoor surfaces the deposition velocity, reaction probability and carbonyl product yields of building materials considered green (listed, recycled, sustainable, etc.) were quantified. Nineteen separate floor, wall or ceiling materials were tested in a 10 L, flow-through laboratory reaction chamber. Inlet ozone concentrations were maintained between 150 and 200 ppb (generally much lower in chamber air), relative humidity at 50%, temperature at 25 °C and exposure occurred over 24 h. Deposition velocities ranged from 0.25 m h -1 for a linoleum style flooring up to 8.2 m h -1 for a clay based paint; reaction probabilities ranged from 8.8 × 10 -7 to 6.9 × 10 -5 respectively. For all materials, product yields of C 1 thru C 12 saturated n-aldehydes, plus acetone ranged from undetectable to greater than 0.70 The most promising material was a clay wall plaster which exhibited a high deposition velocity (5.0 m h -1) and a low product yield (

  7. 7 CFR 1412.34 - Submitting production evidence for establishing direct payment yields for oilseeds and pulse crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... direct payment yields for oilseeds and pulse crops. 1412.34 Section 1412.34 Agriculture Regulations of... ELECTION PROGRAM FOR THE 2008 AND SUBSEQUENT CROP YEARS Establishment of Yields for Direct and Counter-Cyclical Payments § 1412.34 Submitting production evidence for establishing direct payment yields...

  8. Evaluating the Role of Seed Treatments in Canola/Oilseed Rape Production: Integrated Pest Management, Pollinator Health, and Biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Sekulic, Gregory; Rempel, Curtis B

    2016-01-01

    The use patterns and role of insecticide seed treatments, with focus on neonicotinoid insecticides, were examined for canola/oilseed rape production in Canada and the EU. Since nearly all planted canola acres in Western Canada and, historically, a majority of planted oilseed acres in the EU, use seed treatments, it is worth examining whether broad use of insecticidal seed treatments (IST) is compatible with principles of integrated pest management (IPM). The neonicotinoid insecticide (NNI) seed treatment (NNI ST) use pattern has risen due to effective control of several early season insect pests, the most destructive being flea beetles (Phyllotreta sp.). Negative environmental impact and poor efficacy of foliar applied insecticides on flea beetles led growers to look for better alternatives. Due to their biology, predictive models have been difficult to develop for flea beetles, and, therefore, targeted application of seed treatments, as part of an IPM program, has contributed to grower profitability and overall pollinator success for canola production in Western Canada. Early evidence suggests that the recent restriction on NNI may negatively impact grower profitability and does not appear to be having positive impact on pollinator health. Further investigation on impact of NNI on individual bee vs. hive health need to be conducted. Predictive models for flea beetle emergence/feeding activity in canola/oilseed rape need to be developed, as broad acre deployment of NNI seed treatments may not be sustainable due to concerns about resistance/tolerance in flea beetles and other pest species. PMID:27527233

  9. The effect of row spacing and seeding rate on biomass production and plant stand characteristics of non-irrigated photoperiod-sensitive sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the effect of row spacing and seeding rate on yield and plant stand characteristics of high-biomass sorghum, a photoperiod-sensitive sorghum cultivar was sown at three different row spacings and seeding rates for four site-years from 2009 to 2010 in Alabama and Arkansas, USA. Measurement...

  10. High-yield production of biosugars from Gracilaria verrucosa by acid and enzymatic hydrolysis processes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Won; Hong, Chae-Hwan; Jeon, Sung-Wan; Shin, Hyun-Jae

    2015-11-01

    Gracilaria verrucosa, the red alga, is a suitable feedstock for biosugar production. This study analyzes biosugar production by the hydrolysis of G. verrucosa conducted under various conditions (i.e., various acid concentrations, substrate concentrations, reaction times, and enzyme dosages). The acid hydrolysates of G. verrucosa yielded a total of 7.47g/L (37.4%) and 10.63g/L (21.26%) of reducing sugars under optimal small (30mL) and large laboratory-scale (1L) hydrolysis processes, respectively. Reducing sugar obtained from acid and enzymatic hydrolysates were 10% higher, with minimum by-products, than those reported in other studies. The mass balance for the small laboratory-scale process showed that the acid and enzymatic hydrolysates had a carbohydrate conversion of 57.2%. The mass balance approach to the entire hydrolysis process of red seaweed for biosugar production can be applied to other saccharification processes. PMID:26299978

  11. Hypergravity prevents seed production in Arabidopsis by disrupting pollen tube growth.

    PubMed

    Musgrave, Mary E; Kuang, Anxiu; Allen, Joan; van Loon, Jack J W A

    2009-10-01

    How tightly land plants are adapted to the gravitational force (g) prevailing on Earth has been of interest because unlike many other environmental factors, g presents as a constant force. Ontogeny of mature angiosperms begins with an embryo that is formed after tip growth by a pollen tube delivers the sperm nucleus to the egg. Because of the importance to plant fitness, we have investigated how gravity affects these early stages of reproductive development. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants were grown for 13 days prior to being transferred to growth chambers attached to a large diameter rotor, where they were continuously exposed to 2-g or 4-g for the subsequent 11 days. Plants began flowering 1 day after start of the treatments, producing hundreds of flowers for analysis of reproductive development. At 4-g, Arabidopsis flowers self-pollinated normally but did not produce seeds, thus derailing the entire life cycle. Pollen viability and stigma esterase activity were not compromised by hypergravity; however, the growth of pollen tubes into the stigmas was curtailed at 4-g. In vitro pollen germination assays showed that 4-g average tube length was less than half that for 1-g controls. Closely related Brassica rapa L., which produces seeds at 4-g, required forces in excess of 6-g to slow in vitro tube growth to half that at 1-g. The results explain why seed production is absent in Arabidopsis at 4-g and point to species differences with regard to the g-sensitivity of pollen tube growth. PMID:19649651

  12. Influence of solid-liquid separation strategy on biogas yield from a stratified swine production system.

    PubMed

    Cestonaro do Amaral, André; Kunz, Airton; Radis Steinmetz, Ricardo Luis; Scussiato, Lucas Antunes; Tápparo, Deisi Cristina; Gaspareto, Taís Carla

    2016-03-01

    As the fourth largest swine producer and exporter, Brazil has increased its participation in the global swine production market. Generally, these units concentrate a large number of animals and generate effluents that must be correctly managed to prevent environmental impacts, being anaerobic digestion is an interesting alternative for treating these effluents. The low-volatile solid concentration in the manure suggests the need for solid-liquid separation as a tool to improve the biogas generation capacity. This study aimed to determine the influence of simplified and inexpensive solid-liquid separation strategies (screening and settling) and the different manures produced during each swine production phase (gestating and farrowing sow houses, nursery houses and finishing houses) on biogas and methane yield. We collected samples in two gestating sow houses (GSH-a and GSH-b), two farrowing sow houses (FSH-a and FSH-b), a nursery house (NH) and a finishing house (FH). Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were performed according to international standard procedures. The settled sludge fraction comprised 20-30% of the raw manure volume, which comprises 40-60% of the total methane yield. The methane potential of the settled sludge fraction was approximately two times higher than the methane potential of the supernatant fraction. The biogas yield differed among the raw manures from different swine production phases (GSH-a 326.4 and GSH-b 577.1; FSH-a 860.1 and FSH-b 479.2; NH -970.2; FH 474.5 NmLbiogas.gVS(-1)). The differences were relative to the production phase (feed type and feeding techniques) and the management of the effluent inside the facilities (water management). Brazilian swine production has increased his participation in the global market, been the fourth producer and the fourth exporter. The segregation of swine production in multiple sites has increased its importance, due to the possibilities to have more specialized units. Generally, these units

  13. Production of bermudagrass for bio-fuels: effect of two genotypes on pyrolysis product yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bermudagrass is the perennial grass used as forage for livestock and harvested as hay on 10 to 15 million acres in Southern United States. It has potential as an energy crop for the production of biofuels through the lignocellulosic conversion program. Coastal was released in 1943 and was the pri...

  14. Investigation of Inconsistent ENDF/B-VII.1 Independent and Cumulative Fission Product Yields with Proposed Revisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigni, M. T.; Francis, M. W.; Gauld, I. C.

    2015-01-01

    A recent implementation of ENDF/B-VII.1 independent fission product yields and nuclear decay data identified inconsistencies in the data caused by the use of updated nuclear schemes in the decay sub-library that are not reflected in legacy fission product yield data. Recent changes in the decay data sub-library, particularly the delayed neutron branching fractions, result in calculated fission product concentrations that do not agree with the cumulative fission yields in the library as well as with experimental measurements. To address these issues, a comprehensive set of independent fission product yields was generated for thermal and fission spectrum neutron-induced fission for 235,238U and 239,241Pu in order to provide a preliminary assessment of the updated fission product yield data consistency. These updated independent fission product yields were utilized in the ORIGEN code to compare the calculated fission product inventories with experimentally measured inventories, with particular attention given to the noble gases. Another important outcome of this work is the development of fission product yield covariance data necessary for fission product uncertainty quantification. The evaluation methodology combines a sequential Bayesian method to guarantee consistency between independent and cumulative yields along with the physical constraints on the independent yields. This work was motivated to improve the performance of the ENDF/B-VII.1 library for stable and long-lived fission products. The revised fission product yields and the new covariance data are proposed as a revision to the fission yield data currently in ENDF/B-VII.1.

  15. Investigation of Inconsistent ENDF/B-VII.1 Independent and Cumulative Fission Product Yields with Proposed Revisions

    SciTech Connect

    Pigni, M.T. Francis, M.W.; Gauld, I.C.

    2015-01-15

    A recent implementation of ENDF/B-VII.1 independent fission product yields and nuclear decay data identified inconsistencies in the data caused by the use of updated nuclear schemes in the decay sub-library that are not reflected in legacy fission product yield data. Recent changes in the decay data sub-library, particularly the delayed neutron branching fractions, result in calculated fission product concentrations that do not agree with the cumulative fission yields in the library as well as with experimental measurements. To address these issues, a comprehensive set of independent fission product yields was generated for thermal and fission spectrum neutron-induced fission for {sup 235,238}U and {sup 239,241}Pu in order to provide a preliminary assessment of the updated fission product yield data consistency. These updated independent fission product yields were utilized in the ORIGEN code to compare the calculated fission product inventories with experimentally measured inventories, with particular attention given to the noble gases. Another important outcome of this work is the development of fission product yield covariance data necessary for fission product uncertainty quantification. The evaluation methodology combines a sequential Bayesian method to guarantee consistency between independent and cumulative yields along with the physical constraints on the independent yields. This work was motivated to improve the performance of the ENDF/B-VII.1 library for stable and long-lived fission products. The revised fission product yields and the new covariance data are proposed as a revision to the fission yield data currently in ENDF/B-VII.1.

  16. Seed vigour and crop establishment: extending performance beyond adaptation.

    PubMed

    Finch-Savage, W E; Bassel, G W

    2016-02-01

    Seeds are central to crop production, human nutrition, and food security. A key component of the performance of crop seeds is the complex trait of seed vigour. Crop yield and resource use efficiency depend on successful plant establishment in the field, and it is the vigour of seeds that defines their ability to germinate and establish seedlings rapidly, uniformly, and robustly across diverse environmental conditions. Improving vigour to enhance the critical and yield-defining stage of crop establishment remains a primary objective of the agricultural industry and the seed/breeding companies that support it. Our knowledge of the regulation of seed germination has developed greatly in recent times, yet understanding of the basis of variation in vigour and therefore seed performance during the establishment of crops remains limited. Here we consider seed vigour at an ecophysiological, molecular, and biomechanical level. We discuss how some seed characteristics that serve as adaptive responses to the natural environment are not suitable for agriculture. Past domestication has provided incremental improvements, but further actively directed change is required to produce seeds with the characteristics required both now and in the future. We discuss ways in which basic plant science could be applied to enhance seed performance in crop production. PMID:26585226

  17. Salinity affects production and salt tolerance of dimorphic seeds of Suaeda salsa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengxia; Xu, Yan-Ge; Wang, Shuai; Shi, Weiwei; Liu, Ranran; Feng, Gu; Song, Jie

    2015-10-01

    The effect of salinity on brown seeds/black seeds ratio, seed weight, endogenous hormone concentrations, and germination of brown and black seeds in the euhalophyte Suaeda salsa was investigated. The brown seeds/black seeds ratio, seed weight of brown and black seeds and the content of protein increased at a concentration of 500 mM NaCl compared to low salt conditions (1 mM NaCl). The germination percentage and germination index of brown seeds from plants cultured in 500 mM NaCl were higher than those cultured in 1 mM NaCl, but it was not true for black seeds. The concentrations of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), ZR (free zeatin riboside) and ABA (abscisic acid) in brown seeds were much greater than those in black seeds, but there were no differences in the level of GAs (gibberellic acid including GA1 and GA3) regardless of the degree of salinity. Salinity during plant culture increased the concentration of GAs, but salinity had no effect on the concentrations of the other three endogenous hormones in brown seeds. Salinity had no effect on the concentration of IAA but increased the concentrations of the other three endogenous hormones in black seeds. Accumulation of endogenous hormones at different concentrations of NaCl during plant growth may be related to seed development and to salt tolerance of brown and black S. salsa seeds. These characteristics may help the species to ensure seedling establishment and population succession in variable saline environments. PMID:26184090

  18. Use of transgenic seeds in Brazilian agriculture and concentration of agricultural production to large agribusinesses.

    PubMed

    Marinho, C D; Martins, F J O; Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; Amaral, S C S; de Mello, M P

    2012-01-01

    We identified the commercial releases of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in Brazil, their characteristics, the types of genetic transformation used, and the companies responsible for the development of these GMOs, classifying them into two categories: private companies, subdivided into multinational and national, and public institutions. The data came from the data bank of the national registration of cultivars and the service of national protection of cultivars of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fishing and Supply (MAPA). This survey was carried out from 1998 to February 12, 2011. Until this date, 27 GMOs had been approved, including five for soybean, 15 for maize and seven for cotton cultivars. These GMOs have been used for the development of 766 cultivars, of which, 305 are soybean, 445 are maize, and 13 are cotton cultivars. The Monsato Company controls 73.2% of the transgenic cultivars certified by the MAPA; a partnership between Dow AgroSciences and DuPont accounts for 21.4%, and Syngenta controls 4.96%. Seed supply by these companies is almost a monopoly supported by law, giving no choice for producers and leading to the fast replacement of conventional cultivars by transgenic cultivars, which are expensive and exclude small producers from the market, since seeds cannot be kept for later use. This situation concentrates production in the hands of a few large national agribusiness entrepreneurs. PMID:22869542

  19. Identification and phytotoxicity of a new glucosinolate breakdown product from Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) seed meal.

    PubMed

    Intanon, Suphannika; Reed, Ralph L; Stevens, Jan F; Hulting, Andrew G; Mallory-Smith, Carol A

    2014-07-30

    Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba Hartw. ex Benth.) is an oilseed crop grown in the Willamette Valley of Oregon. Meadowfoam seed meal (MSM), a byproduct after oil extraction, contains 2-4% glucosinolate (glucolimnanthin). Activated MSM, produced by adding freshly ground myrosinase-active meadowfoam seeds to MSM, facilitates myrosinase-mediated formation of glucosinolate-derived degradation products with herbicidal activity. In the activated MSM, glucolimnanthin was converted into 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate ("isothiocyanate") within 24 h and was degraded by day three. 3-Methoxyphenylacetonitrile ("nitrile") persisted for at least 6 days. Methoxyphenylacetic acid (MPAA), a previously unknown metabolite of glucolimnanthin, appeared at day three. Its identity was confirmed by LC-UV and high resolution LC-MS/MS comparisons with a standard of MPAA. Isothiocyanate inhibited lettuce germination 8.5- and 14.4-fold more effectively than MPAA and nitrile, respectively. Activated MSM inhibited lettuce germination by 58% and growth by 72% compared with the control. Results of the study suggest that MSM has potential uses as a pre-emergence bioherbicide. PMID:24998843

  20. Simulation of Biomass Yield and Soil Organic Carbon under Bioenergy Sorghum Production

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Fugen; Wight, Jason P.; Wilson, Lloyd T.; Storlien, Joseph O.; Hons, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    Developing sustainable management practices including appropriate residue removal and nitrogen (N) fertilization for bioenergy sorghum is critical. However, the effects of residue removal and N fertilization associated with bioenergy sorghum production on soil organic carbon (SOC) are less studied compared to other crops. The objective of our research was to assess the impacts of residue removal and N fertilization on biomass yield and SOC under biomass sorghum production. Field measurements were used to calibrate the DNDC model, then verified the model by comparing simulated results with measured results using the field management practices as agronomic inputs. Both residue removal and N fertilization affected bioenergy sorghum yields in some years. The average measured SOC at 0–50 cm across the treatments and the time-frame ranged from 47.5 to 78.7 Mg C ha−1, while the simulated SOC was from 56.3 to 67.3 Mg C ha−1. The high correlation coefficients (0.65 to 0.99) and low root mean square error (3 to 18) between measured and simulated values indicate the DNDC model accurately simulated the effects of residue removal with N fertilization on bioenergy sorghum production and SOC. The model predictions revealed that there is, in the long term, a trend for higher SOC under bioenergy sorghum production regardless of residue management. PMID:25531758

  1. Steam gasification of waste tyre: Influence of process temperature on yield and product composition

    SciTech Connect

    Portofino, Sabrina; Donatelli, Antonio; Iovane, Pierpaolo; Innella, Carolina; Civita, Rocco; Martino, Maria; Matera, Domenico Antonio; Russo, Antonio; Cornacchia, Giacinto; Galvagno, Sergio

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Steam gasification of waste tyre as matter and energy recovery treatment. ► Process temperature affects products yield and gas composition. ► High temperature promotes hydrogen production. ► Char exploitation as activated carbon or carbon source. - Abstract: An experimental survey of waste tyre gasification with steam as oxidizing agent has been conducted in a continuous bench scale reactor, with the aim of studying the influence of the process temperature on the yield and the composition of the products; the tests have been performed at three different temperatures, in the range of 850–1000 °C, holding all the other operational parameters (pressure, carrier gas flow, solid residence time). The experimental results show that the process seems promising in view of obtaining a good quality syngas, indicating that a higher temperature results in a higher syngas production (86 wt%) and a lower char yield, due to an enhancement of the solid–gas phase reactions with the temperature. Higher temperatures clearly result in higher hydrogen concentrations: the hydrogen content rapidly increases, attaining values higher than 65% v/v, while methane and ethylene gradually decrease over the range of the temperatures; carbon monoxide and dioxide instead, after an initial increase, show a nearly constant concentration at 1000 °C. Furthermore, in regards to the elemental composition of the synthesis gas, as the temperature increases, the carbon content continuously decreases, while the oxygen content increases; the hydrogen, being the main component of the gas fraction and having a small atomic weight, is responsible for the progressive reduction of the gas density at higher temperature.

  2. Estimating fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds for ruminants using in vitro gas production technique

    PubMed Central

    Taher-Maddah, M.; Maheri-Sis, N.; Salamatdoustnobar, R.; Ahmadzadeh, A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition and estimation of fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds using in vitro gas production technique. Samples were collected, mixed, processed (ensiled and dried) and incubated in vitro with rumen liquor taken from three fistulated Iranian native (Taleshi) steers at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h. The results showed that ensiling lead to significant increase in gas production of pomegranate seeds at all incubation times. The gas volume at 24 h incubation, were 25.76 and 17.91 ml/200mg DM for ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds, respectively. The gas production rate (c) also was significantly higher for ensiled groups than dried (0.0930 vs. 0.0643 ml/h). The organic matter digestibility (OMD), metabolizable energy (ME), net energy for lactation (NEL) and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) of ensiled pomegranate seeds were significantly higher than that of dried samples (43.15%, 6.37 MJ/kg DM, 4.43 MJ/kg DM, 0.5553 mmol for ensiled samples vs. 34.62%, 5.10 MJ/kg DM, 3.56 MJ/kg DM, 0.3680 mmol for dried samples, respectively). It can be concluded that ensiling increases the nutritive value of pomegranate seeds. PMID:26623290

  3. A quantum yield determination of O/1D/ production from ozone via laser flash photolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philen, D. L.; Davis, D. D.; Watson, R. T.

    1977-01-01

    The quantum yield of electronically excited atomic oxygen produced from ozone photolysis was measured at 298 K from wavelengths of 293.0 to 316.5 nm. The reaction of the atomic oxygen with N2O to form excited NO2 was used to monitor the O production; a frequency-doubled flashlamp-pumped dye laser which provided tunable ultraviolet in the desired spectral region with 0.1-nm linewidth served as the photolysis source. The atomic oxygen quantum yield was found to be constant below 300 nm, with a sharp decrease centered at 308 nm and a diminution to less than one tenth of the constant value by 313.5 nm.

  4. Reduction of lunar basalt 70035: Oxygen yield and reaction product analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Michael A.; Knudsen, Christian W.; Bruenemen, David J.; Allen, Carlton C.; Kanamori, Hiroshi; Mckay, David S.

    1994-01-01

    Oxygen production from a lunar rock has been experimentally demonstrated for the first time. A 10 g sample of high-Ti basalt 70035 was reduced with hydrogen in seven experiments at temperatures of 900-1050 C and pressures of 14.7-150 psia. In all experiments, water evolution began almost immediately and was essentially complete in tens of minutes. Oxygen yields ranged from 2.93 to 4.61% of the starting sample weight, and showed weak dependence on temperature and pressure. Analysis of the solid samples demonstrated total reduction of Fe(2+) in ilmenite and small degrees of reduction in olivine and pyroxene. Ti O2 was also partially reduced to one or more suboxides. Data from these experiments provide a basis for predicting the yield of oxygen from lunar basalt as well as new constraints on natural reduction in the lunar regolith.

  5. Consumption and quantitation of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in commercially available hemp seed oil products.

    PubMed

    Bosy, T Z; Cole, K A

    2000-10-01

    There has been a recent and significant increase in the use and availability of hemp seed oil products. These products are being marketed as a healthy source of essential omega fatty acids when taken orally. Although the health aspects of these oils is open to debate, the probability that oils derived from the hemp seed will contain delta9-tetrahyrdocannabinol (THC) is noteworthy. Recent additions to the literature cite a number of studies illustrating that the ingestion of these products results in urinary levels of the THC metabolite, delta9-tetrahyrdocannabinol carboxylic acid (THCA), well above the administrative cutoff (50 ng/mL) used during random drug screens. Testing performed by our laboratory found that the concentration of THC in hemp oil products has been reduced considerably since the publication of earlier studies. The purpose of this study is to quantitate the THC levels in commercially available hemp oils and to administer those oils tested to THC-free volunteers to determine urine metabolite levels following several 15-g doses. Two extraction protocols were evaluated for removing THC from the oil matrix: a single step liquid-liquid extraction was compared to a two-phase process using both liquid-liquid and solid-phase techniques. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine THC levels in several products: four from Spectrum Essentials (3 bottled oils and 1-g capsules), two from Health from the Sun (1-g capsules and bottled oil) oils, and single samples of both Hempstead and Hempola hemp oils. These hemp oil products contained THC concentrations of 36.0, 36.4, 117.5, 79.5, 48.6, 45.7, 21.0, and 11.5 mg/g, respectively. The Abbott AxSYM FPIA and Roche On-Line KIMS immunoassays were used to screen the urine samples, and GC-MS was used to determine the amount of THC in each oil as well as confirm and quantitate THCA in the urine of study participants immediately before and 6 h after each dose. Peak THCA levels in the participants' urine

  6. Thalassic biogas production from sea wrack biomass using different microbial seeds: cow manure, marine sediment and sea wrack-associated microflora.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Gian Powell B; Reichardt, Wolfgang T; Azanza, Rhodora V; Klocke, Michael; Montaño, Marco Nemesio E

    2013-04-01

    Sea wrack (dislodged sea grasses and seaweeds) was used in biogas production. Fresh water scarcity in island communities where sea wrack could accumulate led to seawater utilization as liquid substrate. Three microbial seeds cow manure (CM), marine sediment (MS), and sea wrack-associated microflora (SWA) were explored for biogas production. The average biogas produced were 2172±156 mL (MS), 1223±308 mL (SWA) and 551±126 mL (CM). Though methane potential (396.9 mL(CH4) g(-1) volatile solid) computed from sea wrack proximate values was comparable to other feedstocks, highest methane yield was low (MS=94.33 mL(CH4) g(-1) VS). Among the microbial seeds, MS proved the best microbial source in utilizing sea wrack biomass and seawater. However, salinity (MS=42‰) observed exceeded average seawater salinity (34‰). Hence, methanogenic activity could have been inhibited. This is the first report on sea wrack biomass utilization for thalassic biogas production. PMID:23453978

  7. Methyl ester of [Maclura pomifera (Rafin.) Schneider] seed oil: biodiesel production and characterization.

    PubMed

    Saloua, Fatnassi; Saber, Chatti; Hedi, Zarrouk

    2010-05-01

    Oil extracted from seeds of Maclura pomifera fruits grown in Tunisia was investigated as an alternative feedstock for the production of biodiesel fuel. Biodiesel was prepared by transesterification of the crude oil with methanol in the presence of NaOH as catalyst. Maximum oil to ester conversion was 90%. The viscosity of the biodiesel oil (4.66 cSt) is similar to that of petroleum diesel (2.5-3.5 cSt). The density (0.889 g/cm(3)), kinematic viscosity (4.66 cSt), flash point (180 degrees Celsius), iodine number (125 degrees Celsius), neutralization number (0.4), pour point (-9 degrees Celsius), cloud point (-5 degrees Celsius), cetane number (48) are very similar to the values set forth by the ASTM and EN biodiesel standards for petroleum diesel (No. 2). The comparison shows that the methyl esters of M. pomifera oil could be possible diesel fuel replacements. PMID:20060293

  8. Statistical studies on high molecular weight pullulan production in solid state fermentation using jack fruit seed.

    PubMed

    Sugumaran, K R; Sindhu, R V; Sukanya, S; Aiswarya, N; Ponnusami, V

    2013-10-15

    The purpose of the work was to optimize the medium variables for maximizing pullulan production using jack fruit seed as a low cost substrate by Aureobasidium pullulans in solid state fermentation. Effects of K2HPO4, KH2PO4, ZnSO4·5H2O, MgSO4·7H2O, NaCl, (NH4)2SO4·5H2O, yeast extract, moisture content (%, w/w) in the production medium on pullulan production were studied using Plackett-Burman design. Production of pullulan was significantly affected by the medium variables namely KH2PO4, ZnSO4·5H2O, NaCl and moisture content (%, w/w). Then screened variables were optimized by Box Behnken experiment design. The pullulan obtained was characterized and confirmed by FTIR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. Molecular weight of pullulan was found to be 1.733×10(6) g/mol by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). PMID:23987421

  9. A comprehensive assessment of the correlations between field crop yields and commonly used MODIS products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David M.

    2016-10-01

    An exploratory assessment was undertaken to determine the correlation strength and optimal timing of several commonly used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) composited imagery products against crop yields for 10 globally significant agricultural commodities. The crops analyzed included barley, canola, corn, cotton, potatoes, rice, sorghum, soybeans, sugarbeets, and wheat. The MODIS data investigated included the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR), Leaf Area Index (LAI), and Gross Primary Production (GPP), in addition to daytime Land Surface Temperature (DLST) and nighttime LST (NLST). The imagery utilized all had 8-day time intervals, but NDVI had a 250 m spatial resolution while the other products were 1000 m. These MODIS datasets were also assessed from both the Terra and Aqua satellites, with their differing overpass times, to document any differences. A follow-on analysis, using the Terra 250 m NDVI data as a benchmark, looked at the yield prediction utility of NDVI at two spatial scales (250 m vs. 1000 m), two time precisions (8-day vs. 16-day), and also assessed the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, at 250 m, 16-day). The analyses spanned the major farming areas of the United States (US) from the summers of 2008-2013 and used annual county-level average crop yield data from the US Department of Agriculture as a basis. All crops, except rice, showed at least some positive correlations to each of the vegetation related indices in the middle of the growing season, with NDVI performing slightly better than FPAR. LAI was somewhat less strongly correlated and GPP weak overall. Conversely, some of the crops, particularly canola, corn, and soybeans, also showed negative correlations to DLST mid-summer. NLST, however, was never correlated to crop yield, regardless of the crop or seasonal timing. Differences between the Terra and Aqua results were found to be minimal. The 1000 m

  10. The optical, physical and chemical properties of the products of glyoxal uptake on ammonium sulfate seed aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainic, M.; Abo Riziq, A.; Lavi, A.; Flores, J. M.; Rudich, Y.

    2011-09-01

    The heterogeneous reaction between gas phase glyoxal and ammonium sulfate (AS) aerosols, a proxy for inorganic atmospheric aerosol, was studied in terms of the dependence of the optical, physical and chemical properties of the product aerosols on initial particle size and ambient relative humidity (RH). Our experiments imitate an atmospheric scenario of a dry particle hydration at ambient RH conditions in the presence of glyoxal gas followed by efflorescence due to decrease of the ambient RH. The reactions were studied under different RH conditions, starting from dry conditions (~20% RH) and up to 90% RH, covering conditions prevalent in many atmospheric environments, and followed by consequent drying of the reacted particles before their analysis by the aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), cavity ring down (CRD) and scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) systems. At λ = 355 nm, the reacted aerosols demonstrate a substantial growth in optical extinction cross section, as well as in mobility diameter under a broad range of RH values (35-90%). The ratio of the product aerosol to seed aerosol geometric cross section reached up to ~3.5, and the optical extinction cross-section up to ~250. The reactions show a trend of increasing physical and optical growth with decreasing seed aerosol size, from 100 nm to 300 nm, as well as with decreasing RH values from 90% to ~40%. Optically inactive aerosols, at the limit of the Mie range (100 nm diameter) become optically active as they grow due to the reaction. AMS analyses of the reaction of 300 nm AS at RH values of 50%, 75% and 90% show that the main products of the reaction are glyoxal oligomers, formed by acetal formation in the presence of AS. In addition, imidazole formation, which is a minor channel, is observed for all reactions, yielding a product which absorbs at λ = 290 nm, with possible implications on the radiative properties of the product aerosols. The ratio of absorbing substances (C-N compounds, including

  11. Evolved beta-galactosidases from Geobacillus stearothermophilus with improved transgalactosylation yield for galacto-oligosaccharide production.

    PubMed

    Placier, Gaël; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Rabiller, Claude; Mattes, Ralf

    2009-10-01

    A mutagenesis approach was applied to the beta-galactosidase BgaB from Geobacillus stearothermophilus KVE39 in order to improve its enzymatic transglycosylation of lactose into oligosaccharides. A simple screening strategy, which was based on the reduction of the hydrolysis of a potential transglycosylation product (lactosucrose), provided mutant enzymes possessing improved synthetic properties for the autocondensation product from nitrophenyl-galactoside and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) from lactose. The effects of the mutations on enzyme activity and kinetics were determined. An change of one arginine to lysine (R109K) increased the oligosaccharide yield compared to that for the wild-type BgaB. Subsequently, saturation mutagenesis at this position demonstrated that valine and tryptophan further increased the transglycosylation performance of BgaB. During the transglycosylation reaction with lactose of the evolved beta-galactosidases, a major trisaccharide was formed. Its structure was characterized as beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->4)-D-glucopyranoside (3'-galactosyl-lactose). At the lactose concentration of 18% (wt/vol), this trisaccharide was obtained in yields of 11.5% (wt/wt) with GP21 (BgaB R109K), 21% with GP637.2 (BgaB R109V), and only 2% with the wild-type BgaB enzyme. GP643.3 (BgaB R109W) was shown to be the most efficient mutant, with a 3'-galactosyl-lactose production of 23%. PMID:19666723

  12. Foraging range of honey bees, Apis mellifera, in alfalfa seed production fields.

    PubMed

    Hagler, James R; Mueller, Shannon; Teuber, Larry R; Machtley, Scott A; Van Deynze, Allen

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted in 2006 and 2007 designed to examine the foraging range of honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in a 15.2 km(2) area dominated by a 128.9 ha glyphosate-resistant Roundup Ready® alfalfa seed production field and several non-Roundup Ready alfalfa seed production fields (totaling 120.2 ha). Each year, honey bee self-marking devices were placed on 112 selected honey bee colonies originating from nine different apiary locations. The foraging bees exiting each apiary location were uniquely marked so that the apiary of origin and the distance traveled by the marked (field-collected) bees into each of the alfalfa fields could be pinpointed. Honey bee self-marking devices were installed on 14.4 and 11.2% of the total hives located within the research area in 2006 and 2007, respectively. The frequency of field-collected bees possessing a distinct mark was similar, averaging 14.0% in 2006 and 12.6% in 2007. A grand total of 12,266 bees were collected from the various alfalfa fields on seven sampling dates over the course of the study. The distances traveled by marked bees ranged from a minimum of 45 m to a maximum of 5983 m. On average, marked bees were recovered ~ 800 m from their apiary of origin and the recovery rate of marked bees decreased exponentially as the distance from the apiary of origin increased. Ultimately, these data will be used to identify the extent of pollen-mediated gene flow from Roundup Ready to conventional alfalfa. PMID:22224495

  13. Foraging Range of Honey Bees, Apis mellifera, in Alfalfa Seed Production Fields

    PubMed Central

    Hagler, James R.; Mueller, Shannon; Teuber, Larry R.; Machtley, Scott A.; Van Deynze, Allen

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted in 2006 and 2007 designed to examine the foraging range of honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in a 15.2 km2 area dominated by a 128.9 ha glyphosate-resistant Roundup Ready® alfalfa seed production field and several non-Roundup Ready alfalfa seed production fields (totaling 120.2 ha). Each year, honey bee self-marking devices were placed on 112 selected honey bee colonies originating from nine different apiary locations. The foraging bees exiting each apiary location were uniquely marked so that the apiary of origin and the distance traveled by the marked (field-collected) bees into each of the alfalfa fields could be pinpointed. Honey bee self-marking devices were installed on 14.4 and 11.2% of the total hives located within the research area in 2006 and 2007, respectively. The frequency of field-collected bees possessing a distinct mark was similar, averaging 14.0% in 2006 and 12.6% in 2007. A grand total of 12,266 bees were collected from the various alfalfa fields on seven sampling dates over the course of the study. The distances traveled by marked bees ranged from a minimum of 45 m to a maximum of 5983 m. On average, marked bees were recovered ∼ 800 m from their apiary of origin and the recovery rate of marked bees decreased exponentially as the distance from the apiary of origin increased. Ultimately, these data will be used to identify the extent of pollen-mediated gene flow from Roundup Ready to conventional alfalfa. PMID:22224495

  14. Radical product yields from the ozonolysis of short chain alkenes under atmospheric boundary layer conditions.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohammed S; Rickard, Andrew R; Camredon, Marie; Wyche, Kevin P; Carr, Timo; Hornsby, Karen E; Monks, Paul S; Bloss, William J

    2013-11-27

    The gas-phase reaction of ozone with unsaturated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), alkenes, is an important source of the critical atmospheric oxidant OH, especially at night when other photolytic radical initiation routes cannot occur. Alkene ozonolysis is also known to directly form HO2 radicals, which may be readily converted to OH through reaction with NO, but whose formation is poorly understood. We report a study of the radical (OH, HO2, and RO2) production from a series of small alkenes (propene, 1-butene, cis-2-butene, trans-2-butene, 2-methylpropene, 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene (tetramethyl ethene, TME), and isoprene). Experiments were performed in the European Photoreactor (EUPHORE) atmospheric simulation chamber, with OH and HO2 levels directly measured by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and HO2 + ΣRO2 levels measured by peroxy-radical chemical amplification (PERCA). OH yields were found to be in good agreement with the majority of previous studies performed under comparable conditions (atmospheric pressure, long time scales) using tracer and scavenger approaches. HO2 yields ranged from 4% (trans-2-butene) to 34% (2-methylpropene), lower than previous experimental determinations. Increasing humidity further reduced the HO2 yields obtained, by typically 50% for an RH increase from 0.5 to 30%, suggesting that HOx production from alkene ozonolysis may be lower than current models suggest under (humid) ambient atmospheric boundary layer conditions. The mechanistic origin of the OH and HO2 production observed is discussed in the context of previous experimental and theoretical studies. PMID:24171583

  15. Seasonality of Leaf and Fig Production in Ficus squamosa, a Fig Tree with Seeds Dispersed by Water

    PubMed Central

    Pothasin, Pornwiwan; Compton, Stephen G.; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

    2016-01-01

    The phenology of plants reflects selection generated by seasonal climatic factors and interactions with other plants and animals, within constraints imposed by their phylogenetic history. Fig trees (Ficus) need to produce figs year-round to support their short-lived fig wasp pollinators, but this requirement is partially de-coupled in dioecious species, where female trees only develop seeds, not pollinator offspring. This allows female trees to concentrate seed production at more favorable times of the year. Ficus squamosa is a riparian species whose dispersal is mainly by water, rather than animals. Seeds can float and travel in long distances. We recorded the leaf and reproductive phenology of 174 individuals for three years in Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand. New leaves were produced throughout the year. Fig production occurred year-round, but with large seasonal variations that correlated with temperature and rainfall. Female and male trees initiated maximal fig crops at different times, with production in female trees confined mainly to the rainy season and male figs concentrating fig production in the preceding months, but also often bearing figs continually. Ficus squamosa concentrates seed production by female plants at times when water levels are high, favouring dispersal by water, and asynchronous flowering within male trees allow fig wasps to cycle there, providing them with potential benefits by maintaining pollinators for times when female figs become available to pollinate. PMID:27010540

  16. Seasonality of Leaf and Fig Production in Ficus squamosa, a Fig Tree with Seeds Dispersed by Water.

    PubMed

    Pothasin, Pornwiwan; Compton, Stephen G; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

    2016-01-01

    The phenology of plants reflects selection generated by seasonal climatic factors and interactions with other plants and animals, within constraints imposed by their phylogenetic history. Fig trees (Ficus) need to produce figs year-round to support their short-lived fig wasp pollinators, but this requirement is partially de-coupled in dioecious species, where female trees only develop seeds, not pollinator offspring. This allows female trees to concentrate seed production at more favorable times of the year. Ficus squamosa is a riparian species whose dispersal is mainly by water, rather than animals. Seeds can float and travel in long distances. We recorded the leaf and reproductive phenology of 174 individuals for three years in Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand. New leaves were produced throughout the year. Fig production occurred year-round, but with large seasonal variations that correlated with temperature and rainfall. Female and male trees initiated maximal fig crops at different times, with production in female trees confined mainly to the rainy season and male figs concentrating fig production in the preceding months, but also often bearing figs continually. Ficus squamosa concentrates seed production by female plants at times when water levels are high, favouring dispersal by water, and asynchronous flowering within male trees allow fig wasps to cycle there, providing them with potential benefits by maintaining pollinators for times when female figs become available to pollinate. PMID:27010540

  17. Method for improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system

    DOEpatents

    Shelnutt, J.A.

    1984-11-29

    A method is disclosed improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system for hydrogen generation. The method comprises forming an aqueous solution comprising an electron donor, methylviologen, and certain metalloporphyrins and metallochlorins, and irradiating said aqueous solution with light in the presence of a catalyst. In the photosynthesis process, solar energy is collected and stored in the form of a hydrogen. Ligands attached above and below the metalloporphyrin and metallochlorin plane are capable of sterically blocking photochemically inactive electrostatically bound ..pi..-..pi.. complexes which can develop.

  18. Compilation of Data on Radionuclide Data for Specific Activity, Specific Heat and Fission Product Yields

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, A.; Thomason, R.S.

    2000-09-05

    This compilation was undertaken to update the data used in calculation of curie and heat loadings of waste containers in the Solid Waste Management Facility. The data has broad general use and has been cross-checked extensively in order to be of use in the Materials Accountability arena. The fission product cross-sections have been included because they are of use in the Environmental Remediation and Waste Management areas where radionuclides which are not readily detectable need to be calculated from the relative fission yields and material dispersion data.

  19. Method for improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system

    DOEpatents

    Shelnutt, John A.

    1986-01-01

    A method for improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system for hydrogen generation which comprises forming an aqueous solution comprising an electron donor, methylviologen, and certain metalloporphyrins and metallochlorins, and irradiating said aqueous solution with light in the presence of a catalyst. In the photosynthesis process, solar energy is collected and stored in the form of a gas hydrogen. Ligands attached above and below the metalloporphyrin and metallochlorin plane are capable of sterically blocking photochemically inactive electrostatically bound .pi.--.pi. complexes which can develop.

  20. Magnitude and Timing of Leaf Damage Affect Seed Production in a Natural Population of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Reiko; Ågren, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Background The effect of herbivory on plant fitness varies widely. Understanding the causes of this variation is of considerable interest because of its implications for plant population dynamics and trait evolution. We experimentally defoliated the annual herb Arabidopsis thaliana in a natural population in Sweden to test the hypotheses that (a) plant fitness decreases with increasing damage, (b) tolerance to defoliation is lower before flowering than during flowering, and (c) defoliation before flowering reduces number of seeds more strongly than defoliation during flowering, but the opposite is true for effects on seed size. Methodology/Principal Findings In a first experiment, between 0 and 75% of the leaf area was removed in May from plants that flowered or were about to start flowering. In a second experiment, 0, 25%, or 50% of the leaf area was removed from plants on one of two occasions, in mid April when plants were either in the vegetative rosette or bolting stage, or in mid May when plants were flowering. In the first experiment, seed production was negatively related to leaf area removed, and at the highest damage level, also mean seed size was reduced. In the second experiment, removal of 50% of the leaf area reduced seed production by 60% among plants defoliated early in the season at the vegetative rosettes, and by 22% among plants defoliated early in the season at the bolting stage, but did not reduce seed output of plants defoliated one month later. No seasonal shift in the effect of defoliation on seed size was detected. Conclusions/Significance The results show that leaf damage may reduce the fitness of A. thaliana, and suggest that in this population leaf herbivores feeding on plants before flowering should exert stronger selection on defence traits than those feeding on plants during flowering, given similar damage levels. PMID:22276140

  1. Transgenic rice seed synthesizing diverse flavonoids at high levels: a new platform for flavonoid production with associated health benefits.

    PubMed

    Ogo, Yuko; Ozawa, Kenjiro; Ishimaru, Tsutomu; Murayama, Tsugiya; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2013-08-01

    Flavonoids possess diverse health-promoting benefits but are nearly absent from rice, because most of the genes encoding enzymes for flavonoid biosynthesis are not expressed in rice seeds. In the present study, a transgenic rice plant producing several classes of flavonoids in seeds was developed by introducing multiple genes encoding enzymes involved in flavonoid synthesis, from phenylalanine to the target flavonoids, into rice. Rice accumulating naringenin was developed by introducing phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS) genes. Rice producing other classes of flavonoids, kaempferol, genistein, and apigenin, was developed by introducing, together with PAL and CHS, genes encoding flavonol synthase/flavanone-3-hydroxylase, isoflavone synthase, and flavone synthases, respectively. The endosperm-specific GluB-1 promoter or embryo- and aleurone-specific 18-kDa oleosin promoters were used to express these biosynthetic genes in seed. The target flavonoids of naringenin, kaempferol, genistein, and apigenin were highly accumulated in each transgenic rice, respectively. Furthermore, tricin was accumulated by introducing hydroxylase and methyltransferase, demonstrating that modification to flavonoid backbones can be also well manipulated in rice seeds. The flavonoids accumulated as both aglycones and several types of glycosides, and flavonoids in the endosperm were deposited into PB-II-type protein bodies. Therefore, these rice seeds provide an ideal platform for the production of particular flavonoids due to efficient glycosylation, the presence of appropriate organelles for flavonoid accumulation, and the small effect of endogenous enzymes on the production of flavonoids by exogenous enzymes. PMID:23551455

  2. Enhancing fermentable sugar yield from cassava pulp for bioethanol production: microwave-coupled enzymatic hydrolysis approach.

    PubMed

    Sudha, A; Sivakumar, V; Sangeetha, V; Devi, K S Priyenka

    2015-08-01

    Cassava pulp, a potential biological feedstock for ethanol production has been subjected to microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment and microwave-coupled enzymatic hydrolysis. Microwave pretreatment may be a good alternative as it can reduce the pretreatment time and improve the enzymatic activity during hydrolysis. Liquid to solid ratio for the pretreatment of cassava pulp was found to be 20:1. Cassava pulp was pretreated at various NaOH concentration, microwave temperature and gave maximum yield of reducing sugar with 1.5% NaOH at 90 °C in 30 min than conventional alkali pretreatment after enzymatic hydrolysis. The subsequent enzymatic saccharification of pretreated cassava pulp using α amylase dosage of 400 IU at microwave temperature of 90 °C resulted in highest reducing sugar yield of 723 mg/g pulp. Microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment improved the enzymatic saccharification of cassava pulp by increasing its accessibility to hydrolytic enzymes. Microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment and microwave-coupled enzymatic hydrolysis are found to be efficient for improving the yield of reducing sugar. PMID:25832789

  3. Photochemistry of matrix-isolated and thin film acid chlorides: Quantum yields and product structures

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, B.; Hess, W.P.; Winter, P.R.; Ellison, G.B.; Radziszewski, J.G.

    1999-02-18

    Ultraviolet photoexcitation of matrix-isolated CH{sub 3}COCl, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}COCl, and CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COCl produces HCl{center_dot}CH{sub 2}{double_bond}C{double_bond}O, HCl{center_dot}CH{sub 3}CHC{double_bond}C{double_bond}O, and HCl{center_dot}CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CHC{double_bond}C{double_bond}O complexes. The authors report precursor and matrix dependent reaction quantum yields. Quantum yield values decrease with increasing alkyl chain length due to a reduced number of {alpha} H-atoms available for the elimination reaction and steric considerations. The authors found quantum yields in neat matrixes to be roughly half that in argon or xenon matrixes and assign structures for HCL and ketene complexes in argon and xenon matrixes by comparing IR spectra ab initio electronic structure calculations. In argon matrixes, the product complex HCl frequently is strongly shifted whereas the ketene remains unshifted with respect to matrix-isolated ketene. In xenon matrixes, HCl{center_dot}ketene complexes display absorption bands indicative of two distinct structures. Differences between HCl{center_dot}ketene structures in argon and xenon matrixes are attributed to size differences of the matrix lattice.

  4. Spontaneous high-yield hydrogen production from cellulosic materials and water catalyzed by enzyme cocktail

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Xinhao; Wang, Yiran; Hopkins, Robert C.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Evans, Barbara R; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Zhang, Y.-H. Percival

    2009-01-01

    Carbon-neutral hydrogen gas is a compelling energy carrier, especially for the transportation section. Low-cost hydrogen can be produced from abundant renewable lignocellulosic biomass through a number of methods employing chemical catalysis, biocatalysis or a combination of both, but these technologies suffer from low hydrogen yields (well below the theoretical yield of 12 H2 per glucose), undesired side-products and/or required severe reaction conditions. Here we present a novel in vitro synthetic biology approach for producing near theoretical hydrogen yields from cellulosic materials (cellodextrins) and water at 32oC and 1 atm. These non-natural catabolic pathways containing up to 14 enzymes and one coenzyme degrade cellodextrins initially to glucose-1-phosphate and eventually to CO2, split water and finally release the chemical energy in the form of hydrogen gas. Up to 11.2 H2 per anhydroglucose was produced in a batch reaction. This spontaneous endothermic reaction is driven by entropy gain, suggesting that the thermal energy is adsorbed for generating more chemical energy (hydrogen gas) than that in cellodextrins, i.e., output/input of chemical energy > 1, with an input of ambient-temperature thermal energy.

  5. Strong sexual selection in males against a mutation load that reduces offspring production in seed beetles.

    PubMed

    Grieshop, K; Stångberg, J; Martinossi-Allibert, I; Arnqvist, G; Berger, D

    2016-06-01

    Theory predicts that sexual reproduction can increase population viability relative to asexual reproduction by allowing sexual selection in males to remove deleterious mutations from the population without large demographic costs. This requires that selection acts more strongly in males than females and that mutations affecting male reproductive success have pleiotropic effects on population productivity, but empirical support for these assumptions is mixed. We used the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus to implement a three-generation breeding design where we induced mutations via ionizing radiation (IR) in the F0 generation and measured mutational effects (relative to nonirradiated controls) on an estimate of population productivity in the F1 and effects on sex-specific competitive lifetime reproductive success (LRS) in the F2 . Regardless of whether mutations were induced via F0 males or females, they had strong negative effects on male LRS, but a nonsignificant influence on female LRS, suggesting that selection is more efficient in removing deleterious alleles in males. Moreover, mutations had seemingly shared effects on population productivity and competitive LRS in both sexes. Thus, our results lend support to the hypothesis that strong sexual selection on males can act to remove the mutation load on population viability, thereby offering a benefit to sexual reproduction. PMID:26991346

  6. Seed Oil from Ten Algerian Peanut Landraces for Edible Use and Biodiesel Production.

    PubMed

    Giuffrè, Angelo Maria; Tellah, Sihem; Capocasale, Marco; Zappia, Clotilde; Latati, Mourad; Badiani, Maurizio; Ounane, Sidi Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    As a result of a recent ad hoc prospection of the Algerian territory, a collection of peanut (groundnut; Arachis hypogaea L.) landraces was established, covering a remarkable array of diversity in terms of morphological and physiological features, as well as of adaptation to local bioclimatic conditions. In the present work, the oils extracted from the seeds of these landraces were evaluated in terms of edible properties and suitability for biodiesel production. As for edible use, a low free acidity (ranging from 0.62 to 1.21%) and a high oleic acid content (44.61-50.94%) were common features, although a poor stability to oxidation [high peroxide values, high spectrophotometric indices, and low % of inhibition in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH)· test] was observed in a few cases. As for biodiesel production, low values of acidity [1.23-2.40 mg KOH (g oil)(-1)], low iodine values [90.70-101.54 g I2 (g oil)(-1)], high cetane numbers (56.95-58.88) and high calorific values (higher heating value 37.34-39.27 MJ kg(-1)) were measured. Edible properties and suitability for biodiesel production were discussed with respect to the German standard DIN 51605 for rapeseed oil and to the EN 14214 standard, respectively. One way ANOVA and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis showed significant differences among the oils from the Algerian peanut landraces. PMID:26743667

  7. Mitragyna speciosa: hairy root culture for triterpenoid production and high yield of mitragynine by regenerated plants.

    PubMed

    Phongprueksapattana, Siriwan; Putalun, Waraporn; Keawpradub, Niwat; Wungsintaweekul, Juraithip

    2008-01-01

    Hairy root cultures of Mitragyna speciosa were established by infection of Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC 15834 and maintained in McCown woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with 0.5 mg/1 naphthaleneacetic acid. The hairy roots were identified for the rooting genes loci of rolA and rolB by polymerase chain reaction. For studying the secondary metabolite production, the n-hexane extract of the hairy roots was prepared and the compounds were isolated by silica gel column chromatography, affording triterpenoids (ursolic acid and oleanolic acid) and phytosterols (beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol). The shoots from the hairy root cultures were regenerated and differentiated to the plantlets. For micropropagation, shoot multiplication was successfully induced from the axillary buds of the regenerated plantlets in WPM supplemented with 0.1 mg/l thidiazuron. The mitragynine contents of 5-month-old regenerated plants and in vitro plantlets (germinated from seeds) were determined using the TLC-densitometric method. The regenerated plants contained (14.25 +/- 0.25) mg/g dry wt mitragynine, whereas the in vitro plantlets contained (4.45 +/- 0.09) mg/g dry wt. PMID:19040109

  8. A review on biomass production from C4 grasses: yield and quality for end-use.

    PubMed

    Tubeileh, Ashraf; Rennie, Timothy J; Goss, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    With a dry biomass production exceeding 40Mgha(-1) in many environments, Miscanthus spp. is the most productive perennial C4 grass species thanks to five advantages over North American prairie tallgrasses. However, miscanthus has a slower nutrient remobilization system, resulting in higher nutrient concentrations at harvest. Perennial C4 grasses benefit from soil microbial associations, reducing their nutrient needs. For combustion purposes, grasses with low moisture content, high lignin and low nutrients are desired. For ethanol, preferred feedstock will have lower lignin, higher sugars, starch, or cellulose/hemicellulose depending on the conversion method. Species with high stem-to-leaf ratio provide better biofuel conversion efficiency and quality. Recently-developed transgenic switchgrass lines have much higher ethanol yields and lower transformation costs. Further selection and breeding are needed to optimize biomass quality and nutrient cycling. PMID:27258573

  9. Impact of the lignocellulosic material on fast pyrolysis yields and product quality.

    PubMed

    Carrier, Marion; Joubert, Jan-Erns; Danje, Stephen; Hugo, Thomas; Görgens, Johann; Knoetze, Johannes Hansie

    2013-12-01

    The paper describes the fast pyrolysis conversion of lignocellulosic materials inside a bubbling fluidized bed. The impact of biopolymers distribution in the biomass feed, namely hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin, on the yields and properties of pyrolytic bio-oils and chars was investigated. Although it is not possible to deconvoluate chemical phenomena from transfer phenomena using bubbling fluidized bed reactors, the key role of hemicelluloses in biomass feedstocks was illustrated by: (i) its influence on the production of pyrolytic water, (ii) its impact on the production of organics, apparently due to its bonding relationship with the lignin and (iii) its ability to inhibit the development of chars porosity, while the cellulose appeared to be the precursor for the microporous character of the biochars. These results are of interest for the selection of suitable feedstocks aimed at producing bio-oil and char as fuels and soil amendment, respectively. PMID:24161551

  10. High-yield production of manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, and versatile peroxidase in Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Coconi-Linares, Nancy; Magaña-Ortíz, Denis; Guzmán-Ortiz, Doralinda A; Fernández, Francisco; Loske, Achim M; Gómez-Lim, Miguel A

    2014-11-01

    The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium secretes extracellular oxidative enzymes during secondary metabolism, but lacks versatile peroxidase, an enzyme important in ligninolysis and diverse biotechnology processes. In this study, we report the genetic modification of a P. chrysosporium strain capable of co-expressing two endogenous genes constitutively, manganese peroxidase (mnp1) and lignin peroxidase (lipH8), and the codon-optimized vpl2 gene from Pleurotus eryngii. For this purpose, we employed a highly efficient transformation method based on the use of shock waves developed by our group. The expression of recombinant genes was verified by PCR, Southern blot, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and assays of enzymatic activity. The production yield of ligninolytic enzymes was up to four times higher in comparison to previously published reports. These results may represent significant progress toward the stable production of ligninolytic enzymes and the development of an effective fungal strain with promising biotechnological applications. PMID:25269601

  11. The Adoption Process of Ricefield-Based Fish Seed Production in Northwest Bangladesh: An Understanding through Quantitative and Qualitative Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haque, Mohammad Mahfujul; Little, David C.; Barman, Benoy K.; Wahab, Md. Abdul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to understand the adoption process of ricefield based fish seed production (RBFSP) that has been developed, promoted and established in Northwest Bangladesh. Design/Methodology/Approach: Quantitative investigation based on regression analysis and qualitative investigation using semi-structured interview were…

  12. Increase of Farmers' Knowledge through Farmer Seed Production Schools in Vietnam as Assessed on the Basis of Ex-Ante and Ex-Post Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tin, Huynh Q.; Struik, Paul C.; Price, Lisa L.; Tuyen, Nguyen P.; Hoan, Nguyen P.; Bos, Heleen

    2010-01-01

    The study was designed to assess changes in farmers' knowledge of farmer seed production through schools (FSPSs) in Vietnam. A set of 25 questions covering five technical areas of the seed production process was used for pre and post knowledge testing at 12 FSPSs in the provinces Binh Dinh, Nam Dinh, Nghe An and Dong Thap. The main findings show…

  13. Evapotranspiration partitioning and variation of sap flow in female and male parents of maize for hybrid seed production in arid region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the variation of sap flow in female and male parents of maize for hybrid seed production and evapotranspiration (ET) partitioning is useful in accurately determining water use of the female and male parents and improving irrigation management of maize for hybrid seed production. Sap fl...

  14. Enterovirus 71 virus-like particle vaccine: improved production conditions for enhanced yield.

    PubMed

    Chung, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Chi-Yuan; Lin, Shih-Yeh; Chung, Yao-Chi; Chiu, Hsin-Yi; Chi, Wei-Kuang; Lin, Yu-Li; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Chen, Wei-Jheng; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2010-10-01

    To develop the enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine, we previously constructed a recombinant baculovirus (Bac-P1-3CD) co-expressing EV71 P1 (under polyhedrin promoter) and 3CD (under p10 promoter) proteins, which caused P1 cleavage by 3CD protease and self-assembly of virus-like particles (VLPs) in Sf-9 cells. Assuming that reducing the 3CD expression can alleviate the competition with P1 expression and elevate the VLPs yield, hereby we constructed Bac-P1-C3CD and Bac-P1-I3CD expressing 3CD under weaker CMV and IE-1 promoters, respectively. Western blot and ELISA analyses revealed that Bac-P1-C3CD and Bac-P1-I3CD led to the VLPs release into the supernatant and enhanced the extracellular VLPs yield in Sf-9 cells, but gave poor VLPs production in High Five™ (Hi-5) cells. By optimizing the process parameters including host cells, cell density, culture mode and dissolved oxygen (DO), the best extracellular VLPs yield was achieved by infecting Sf-9 cells (4 × 10(6)cells/mL) cultured in the bioreactor (DO=30%) with Bac-P1-C3CD, which approached ≈64.3mg/L and represented a ≈43-fold increase over the yield (1.5mg/L) attained using the old process (Bac-P1-3CD infection of Sf-9 cells in the spinner flasks). The resultant VLPs not only resembled the VLPs produced from Bac-P1-3CD infection in density, size and shape, but also induced potent antibody responses in mouse models. The antibodies neutralized EV71 strains of homologous and heterologous genogroups, implicating the potential of the VLPs to confer cross-protection for the prevention of future epidemics. Altogether, Bac-P1-C3CD and the bioprocess render mass production more economical, obviate the need for cell lysis and hold promise for future industrial vaccine production. PMID:20797455

  15. Fruit peels support higher yield and superior quality bacterial cellulose production.

    PubMed

    Kumbhar, Jyoti Vasant; Rajwade, Jyutika Milind; Paknikar, Kishore Madhukar

    2015-08-01

    Fruit peels, also known as rinds or skins, are wastes readily available in large quantities. Here, we have used pineapple (PA) and watermelon (WM) peels as substrates in the culture media (containing 5 % sucrose and 0.7 % ammonium sulfate) for production of bacterial cellulose (BC). The bacterial culture used in the study, Komagataeibacter hansenii produced BC under static conditions as a pellicle at the air-liquid interface in standard Hestrin and Schramm (HS) medium. The yield obtained was ~3.0 g/100 ml (on a wet weight basis). The cellulosic nature of the pellicle was confirmed by CO2, H2O, N2, and SO2 (CHNS) analysis and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) of the pellicle revealed the presence of flat twisted ribbonlike fibrils (70-130 nm wide). X-ray diffraction analysis proved its crystalline nature (matching cellulose I) with a crystallinity index of 67 %. When K. hansenii was grown in PA and WM media, BC yields were threefolds or fourfolds higher than those obtained in HS medium. Interestingly, textural characterization tests (viz., SEM, crystallinity index, resilience, hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, springiness, shear energy and stress, and energy required for puncturing the pellicle) proved that the quality of BC produced in PA and WM media was superior to the BC produced in HS medium. These findings demonstrate the utility of the newly designed media for getting higher yields and better quality of BC, which could make fermentative production of BC more attractive on a commercial scale. PMID:25957154

  16. Thick target spallation product yields from 800 MeV protons on tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    Ullmann, J.L.; Staples, P.; Butler, G.

    1994-07-01

    A number of newly-conceived accelerator based technologies will employ medium-energy particles stopping in thick targets to produce large numbers of neutrons. It is important to quantify the residual radionuclides in the target because one must understand what nuclei and decay gammas are produced in order to design adequate shielding, to estimate ultimate waste disposal problems, and to predict possible effects of accidental dispersion during operation. Because stopping-length targets are considered, radionuclide production must be known as a function of energy. Moreover, secondary particle production, mostly neutrons, implies a need to be able to calculate particle transport. To test the overall ability to calculate radionuclide yields, a thick-target measurement was carried out and the results compared to detailed calculations. Although numerous measurements of thin-target spallation yields have been made, there have been only a few measurements on thick systems. The most complete study showed results for Pb and U systems. In this contribution, the authors report on measurements made for a stopping-length W target. Special efforts were made to measure short-lived isotopes, and reliable data on isotopes with two or three minute half-lives were obtained.

  17. Kinetics and Product Yields of the Gas-Phase Reactions of Isoprene Hydroxynitrates and Isoprene Carbonynitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelhamid, A.; Addala, R.; Vizenor, N.; Scruggs, A.; Tyndall, G. S.; Orlando, J. J.; Le, T.; Cardenas, E.; Maitra, S.; Hasson, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    Isoprene nitrates are formed in the troposphere from the reactions of isoprene with OH in the presence of NOx during the day and with NO3 during the night. Depending on their subsequent reactions, these compounds may be reservoirs or sinks for NOx, and may contribute to secondary organic aerosol formation. In this work, two isoprene hydroxynitrates (CH2=CHC(ONO2)(CH3)CH2OH, 1,2-IHN and CH2OHCH(ONO2)C(CH3)=CH2, 4,3-IHN ) and one isoprene carbonyl nitrate (CH2=CHC(ONO2)(CH3)CHO, ICN)) were synthesized. The kinetics and product yields from their reaction with O3, OH, NO3 and Cl were then investigated in a photochemical reactor using a combination of long-path Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Measured rate coefficients are consistent with reaction with OH and NO3 as the major chemical sinks for these compounds. Measured product yields imply that NOx is not released from these compounds in their reactions with atmospheric oxidants.

  18. Steam gasification of waste tyre: influence of process temperature on yield and product composition.

    PubMed

    Portofino, Sabrina; Donatelli, Antonio; Iovane, Pierpaolo; Innella, Carolina; Civita, Rocco; Martino, Maria; Matera, Domenico Antonio; Russo, Antonio; Cornacchia, Giacinto; Galvagno, Sergio

    2013-03-01

    An experimental survey of waste tyre gasification with steam as oxidizing agent has been conducted in a continuous bench scale reactor, with the aim of studying the influence of the process temperature on the yield and the composition of the products; the tests have been performed at three different temperatures, in the range of 850-1000°C, holding all the other operational parameters (pressure, carrier gas flow, solid residence time). The experimental results show that the process seems promising in view of obtaining a good quality syngas, indicating that a higher temperature results in a higher syngas production (86 wt%) and a lower char yield, due to an enhancement of the solid-gas phase reactions with the temperature. Higher temperatures clearly result in higher hydrogen concentrations: the hydrogen content rapidly increases, attaining values higher than 65% v/v, while methane and ethylene gradually decrease over the range of the temperatures; carbon monoxide and dioxide instead, after an initial increase, show a nearly constant concentration at 1000°C. Furthermore, in regards to the elemental composition of the synthesis gas, as the temperature increases, the carbon content continuously decreases, while the oxygen content increases; the hydrogen, being the main component of the gas fraction and having a small atomic weight, is responsible for the progressive reduction of the gas density at higher temperature. PMID:22749720

  19. Patterns of Cereal Yield Growth across China from 1980 to 2010 and Their Implications for Food Production and Food Security

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoyun; Liu, Nianjie; You, Liangzhi; Ke, Xinli; Liu, Haijun; Huang, Malan; Waddington, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    After a remarkable 86% increase in cereal production from 1980 to 2005, recent crop yield growth in China has been slow. County level crop production data between 1980 and 2010 from eastern and middle China were used to analyze spatial and temporal patterns of rice, wheat and maize yield in five major farming systems that include around 90% of China's cereal production. Site-specific yield trends were assessed in areas where those crops have experienced increasing yield or where yields have stagnated or declined. We find that rice yields have continued to increase on over 12.3 million hectares (m. ha) or 41.8% of the rice area in China between 1980 and 2010. However, yields stagnated on 50% of the rice area (around 14.7 m. ha) over this time period. Wheat yields increased on 13.8 m. ha (58.2% of the total harvest area), but stagnated on around 3.8 m. ha (15.8% of the harvest area). Yields increased on a smaller proportion of the maize area (17.7% of harvest area, 5.3 m. ha), while yields have stagnated on over 54% (16.3 m. ha). Many parts of the lowland rice and upland intensive sub-tropical farming systems were more prone to stagnation with rice, the upland intensive sub-tropical system with wheat, and maize in the temperate mixed system. Large areas where wheat yield continues to rise were found in the lowland rice and temperate mixed systems. Land and water constraints, climate variability, and other environmental limitations undermine increased crop yield and agricultural productivity in these systems and threaten future food security. Technology and policy innovations must be implemented to promote crop yields and the sustainable use of agricultural resources to maintain food security in China. In many production regions it is possible to better match the crop with input resources to raise crop yields and benefits. Investments may be especially useful to intensify production in areas where yields continue to improve. For example, increased support to maize

  20. Patterns of Cereal Yield Growth across China from 1980 to 2010 and Their Implications for Food Production and Food Security.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyun; Liu, Nianjie; You, Liangzhi; Ke, Xinli; Liu, Haijun; Huang, Malan; Waddington, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    After a remarkable 86% increase in cereal production from 1980 to 2005, recent crop yield growth in China has been slow. County level crop production data between 1980 and 2010 from eastern and middle China were used to analyze spatial and temporal patterns of rice, wheat and maize yield in five major farming systems that include around 90% of China's cereal production. Site-specific yield trends were assessed in areas where those crops have experienced increasing yield or where yields have stagnated or declined. We find that rice yields have continued to increase on over 12.3 million hectares (m. ha) or 41.8% of the rice area in China between 1980 and 2010. However, yields stagnated on 50% of the rice area (around 14.7 m. ha) over this time period. Wheat yields increased on 13.8 m. ha (58.2% of the total harvest area), but stagnated on around 3.8 m. ha (15.8% of the harvest area). Yields increased on a smaller proportion of the maize area (17.7% of harvest area, 5.3 m. ha), while yields have stagnated on over 54% (16.3 m. ha). Many parts of the lowland rice and upland intensive sub-tropical farming systems were more prone to stagnation with rice, the upland intensive sub-tropical system with wheat, and maize in the temperate mixed system. Large areas where wheat yield continues to rise were found in the lowland rice and temperate mixed systems. Land and water constraints, climate variability, and other environmental limitations undermine increased crop yield and agricultural productivity in these systems and threaten future food security. Technology and policy innovations must be implemented to promote crop yields and the sustainable use of agricultural resources to maintain food security in China. In many production regions it is possible to better match the crop with input resources to raise crop yields and benefits. Investments may be especially useful to intensify production in areas where yields continue to improve. For example, increased support to maize

  1. Wheat Brassinosteroid-Insensitive1 (TaBRI1) Interacts with Members of TaSERK Gene Family and Cause Early Flowering and Seed Yield Enhancement in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Akanksha; Breja, Priyanka; Khurana, Jitendra P.; Khurana, Paramjit

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) hormones are important for plant growth, development and immune responses. They are sensed by the transmembrane receptor kinase Brassinosteroid-Insensitive 1 (BRI1) when they bind to its extracellular Leu-rich repeat (LRR) domain. We cloned and characterized the TaBRI1 from T. aestivum and raised overexpression transgenics in Arabidopsis to decipher its functional role. TaBRI1 protein consists of a putative signal peptide followed by 25 leucine rich repeats (LRR), a transmembrane domain and a C-terminal kinase domain. The analysis determined the interaction of TaBRI1 with five members of the wheat Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinase (TaSERKs) gene family (TaSERK1, TaSERK2, TaSERK3, TaSERK4 and TaSERK5), at the plasma membrane. Furthermore, overexpression of TaBRI1 in Arabidopsis leads to the early flowering, increased silique size and seed yield. Root growth analysis of TaBRI1 overexpressing transgenic plants showed hypersensitivity to epi-brassinolide (epi-BL) hormone in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, transgenic Arabidopsis plants show thermotolerance phenotype at the seedling stages as revealed by chlorophyll content, photosystem II activity and membrane stability. The transcriptome profiling on the basis of microarray analysis indicates up-regulation of several genes related to brassinosteroid signaling pathway, abiotic stress response, defense response and transcription factors. These studies predict the possible role of TaBRI1 gene in plant growth and development imparting tolerance to thermal stress. PMID:27322749

  2. Wheat Brassinosteroid-Insensitive1 (TaBRI1) Interacts with Members of TaSERK Gene Family and Cause Early Flowering and Seed Yield Enhancement in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Akanksha; Breja, Priyanka; Khurana, Jitendra P; Khurana, Paramjit

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) hormones are important for plant growth, development and immune responses. They are sensed by the transmembrane receptor kinase Brassinosteroid-Insensitive 1 (BRI1) when they bind to its extracellular Leu-rich repeat (LRR) domain. We cloned and characterized the TaBRI1 from T. aestivum and raised overexpression transgenics in Arabidopsis to decipher its functional role. TaBRI1 protein consists of a putative signal peptide followed by 25 leucine rich repeats (LRR), a transmembrane domain and a C-terminal kinase domain. The analysis determined the interaction of TaBRI1 with five members of the wheat Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinase (TaSERKs) gene family (TaSERK1, TaSERK2, TaSERK3, TaSERK4 and TaSERK5), at the plasma membrane. Furthermore, overexpression of TaBRI1 in Arabidopsis leads to the early flowering, increased silique size and seed yield. Root growth analysis of TaBRI1 overexpressing transgenic plants showed hypersensitivity to epi-brassinolide (epi-BL) hormone in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, transgenic Arabidopsis plants show thermotolerance phenotype at the seedling stages as revealed by chlorophyll content, photosystem II activity and membrane stability. The transcriptome profiling on the basis of microarray analysis indicates up-regulation of several genes related to brassinosteroid signaling pathway, abiotic stress response, defense response and transcription factors. These studies predict the possible role of TaBRI1 gene in plant growth and development imparting tolerance to thermal stress. PMID:27322749

  3. Genistein production in rice seed via transformation with soybean IFS genes.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Soo-In; Kim, Yul-Ho; Kim, Sun-Lim; Lee, Jang-Yong; Oh, Young-Ju; Chung, Joo-Hee; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol

    2014-03-01

    To produce genistein in rice, the isoflavone synthase (IFS) genes, SpdIFS1 and SpdIFS2 were cloned from the Korean soybean cultivar, Sinpaldalkong II as it has a higher genistein content than other soybean varieties. SpdIFS1 and SpdIFS2 show a 99.6% and 98.2% identity at the nucleotide level and 99.4% and 97.9% identity at the amino acid level, respectively, with IFS1 and IFS2 from soybean (GenBank accession Nos. AF195798 and AF195819). Plant expression vectors were constructed harboring SpdIFS1 or SpdIFS2 under the control of a rice globulin promoter that directs seed specific expression, and used to transform two rice varieties, Heugnam, a black rice, and Nakdong, a normal rice cultivar without anthocyanin pigment. Because naringenin, the substrate of SpdIFS1 and SpdIFS2, is on the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway, the relative production rate of genistein was compared between SpdIFS-expressing transgenic Heugnam and Nakdong. Southern blot analysis of eight of the resulting transgenic rice plants revealed that the T0 plants had one to three copies of the SpdIFS1 or SpdIFS2 gene. The highest level of genistein content found in rice seeds was 103 μg/g. These levels were about 30-fold higher in our transgenic rice lines than the genistein aglycon content of a non-leguminous IFS-expressing transgenic tobacco petal, equaling about 12% of total genistein content of Sinpaldalkong II. There were no significant differences found between the genistein content in Heugnam and Nakdong transgenic rice plants. PMID:24467893

  4. HPLC-DAD-q-TOF-MS as a powerful platform for the determination of phenolic and other polar compounds in the edible part of mango and its by-products (peel, seed, and seed husk).

    PubMed

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; López-Cobo, Ana; Verardo, Vito; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Free and bound phenolic and other polar compounds in mango edible fraction and its by-products (peel, seed, and seed husk) have been determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-qTOF-MS. This analytical technique has demonstrated to be a valuable platform for the identification and quantification of these compounds in mango. In fact, UV-Vis and mass spectra data allowed the determination of 91 free compounds and 13 bound (cell wall linked) compounds taking into account the four fractions of mango. To our knowledge, this is the first time that mango seed husk has been studied regarding its phenolic compounds. The method proposed showed LODs between 0.006 and 0.85 μg/mL and accuracy ranged from 94.8 and 100.7%. Mango peel presented the highest concentration of free polar compounds followed by seed, pulp, and seed husk. It is also important to highlight that bound phenolic compounds had never been determined in mango pulp, seed, and seed husk before. Furthermore, ellagic acid was the most abundant bound compound in the four mango fractions analyzed. These results show that mango pulp and its by-products are a good source of phenolic and other polar compounds. In particular, mango seed contains a high total concentration of ellagic acid (650 mg/100 g dry weight). PMID:26703086

  5. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Stephanie L.; Kesoju, Sandya R.; Martin, Ruth C.; Kramer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1) evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2) determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal. PMID:26699337

  6. Transgenic Production of Epoxy Fatty Acids by Expression of a Cytochrome P450 Enzyme from Euphorbia lagascae Seed

    PubMed Central

    Cahoon, Edgar B.; Ripp, Kevin G.; Hall, Sarah E.; McGonigle, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Seed oils of a number of Asteraceae and Euphorbiaceae species are enriched in 12-epoxyoctadeca-cis-9-enoic acid (vernolic acid), an unusual 18-carbon Δ12-epoxy fatty acid with potential industrial value. It has been previously demonstrated that the epoxy group of vernolic acid is synthesized by the activity of a Δ12-oleic acid desaturase-like enzyme in seeds of the Asteraceae Crepis palaestina and Vernonia galamensis. In contrast, results from metabolic studies have suggested the involvement of a cytochrome P450 enzyme in vernolic acid synthesis in seeds of the Euphorbiaceae species Euphorbia lagascae. To clarify the biosynthetic origin of vernolic acid in E. lagascae seed, an expressed sequence tag analysis was conducted. Among 1,006 randomly sequenced cDNAs from developing E. lagascae seeds, two identical expressed sequence tags were identified that encode a cytochrome P450 enzyme classified as CYP726A1. Consistent with the seed-specific occurrence of vernolic acid in E. lagascae, mRNA corresponding to the CYP726A1 gene was abundant in developing seeds, but was not detected in leaves. In addition, expression of the E. lagascae CYP726A1 cDNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was accompanied by production of vernolic acid in cultures supplied with linoleic acid and an epoxy fatty acid tentatively identified as 12-epoxyoctadeca-9,15-dienoic acid (12-epoxy-18:2Δ9,15) in cultures supplied with α-linolenic acid. Consistent with this, expression of CYP726A1 in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) callus or somatic soybean (Glycine max) embryos resulted in the accumulation of vernolic acid and 12-epoxy-18:2Δ9,15. Overall, these results conclusively demonstrate that Asteraceae species and the Euphorbiaceae E. lagascae have evolved structurally unrelated enzymes to generate the Δ12-epoxy group of vernolic acid. PMID:11842164

  7. Production of extremely low volatile organic compounds from biogenic emissions: Measured yields and atmospheric implications

    PubMed Central

    Jokinen, Tuija; Berndt, Torsten; Makkonen, Risto; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Junninen, Heikki; Stratmann, Frank; Herrmann, Hartmut; Guenther, Alex B.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Kulmala, Markku; Ehn, Mikael; Sipilä, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    Oxidation products of monoterpenes and isoprene have a major influence on the global secondary organic aerosol (SOA) burden and the production of atmospheric nanoparticles and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Here, we investigate the formation of extremely low volatility organic compounds (ELVOC) from O3 and OH radical oxidation of several monoterpenes and isoprene in a series of laboratory experiments. We show that ELVOC from all precursors are formed within the first minute after the initial attack of an oxidant. We demonstrate that under atmospherically relevant concentrations, species with an endocyclic double bond efficiently produce ELVOC from ozonolysis, whereas the yields from OH radical-initiated reactions are smaller. If the double bond is exocyclic or the compound itself is acyclic, ozonolysis produces less ELVOC and the role of the OH radical-initiated ELVOC formation is increased. Isoprene oxidation produces marginal quantities of ELVOC regardless of the oxidant. Implementing our laboratory findings into a global modeling framework shows that biogenic SOA formation in general, and ELVOC in particular, play crucial roles in atmospheric CCN production. Monoterpene oxidation products enhance atmospheric new particle formation and growth in most continental regions, thereby increasing CCN concentrations, especially at high values of cloud supersaturation. Isoprene-derived SOA tends to suppress atmospheric new particle formation, yet it assists the growth of sub-CCN-size primary particles to CCN. Taking into account compound specific monoterpene emissions has a moderate effect on the modeled global CCN budget. PMID:26015574

  8. Production of extremely low volatile organic compounds from biogenic emissions: Measured yields and atmospheric implications.

    PubMed

    Jokinen, Tuija; Berndt, Torsten; Makkonen, Risto; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Junninen, Heikki; Paasonen, Pauli; Stratmann, Frank; Herrmann, Hartmut; Guenther, Alex B; Worsnop, Douglas R; Kulmala, Markku; Ehn, Mikael; Sipilä, Mikko

    2015-06-01

    Oxidation products of monoterpenes and isoprene have a major influence on the global secondary organic aerosol (SOA) burden and the production of atmospheric nanoparticles and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Here, we investigate the formation of extremely low volatility organic compounds (ELVOC) from O3 and OH radical oxidation of several monoterpenes and isoprene in a series of laboratory experiments. We show that ELVOC from all precursors are formed within the first minute after the initial attack of an oxidant. We demonstrate that under atmospherically relevant concentrations, species with an endocyclic double bond efficiently produce ELVOC from ozonolysis, whereas the yields from OH radical-initiated reactions are smaller. If the double bond is exocyclic or the compound itself is acyclic, ozonolysis produces less ELVOC and the role of the OH radical-initiated ELVOC formation is increased. Isoprene oxidation produces marginal quantities of ELVOC regardless of the oxidant. Implementing our laboratory findings into a global modeling framework shows that biogenic SOA formation in general, and ELVOC in particular, play crucial roles in atmospheric CCN production. Monoterpene oxidation products enhance atmospheric new particle formation and growth in most continental regions, thereby increasing CCN concentrations, especially at high values of cloud supersaturation. Isoprene-derived SOA tends to suppress atmospheric new particle formation, yet it assists the growth of sub-CCN-size primary particles to CCN. Taking into account compound specific monoterpene emissions has a moderate effect on the modeled global CCN budget. PMID:26015574

  9. Chemical composition and bile acid binding activity of products obtained from amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) seeds.

    PubMed

    Tiengo, Andréa; Motta, Eliana Maria Pettirossi; Netto, Flavia Maria

    2011-11-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are currently the greatest cause of mortality in the world, and dislipidemia is appearing as one of the most important risk factors. The binding of bile acids (BAs) has been hypothesized as a possible mechanism by which dietary fibers lower blood cholesterol levels. Besides the fibers, other components in the amaranth seeds may be related to this hypocholesterolemic effect. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the BA binding capacity of some products obtained from defatted amaranth flour (DAF) and from the amaranth protein concentrate (APC). The alkaline residue, rich in fibers (8.6%), presented the lowest binding activity for the BAs tested, with the exception of glycocholic acid. The DAF showed intermediary binding activity for all the BAs tested, although similar to that of the APC for deoxycholic acid, and to that of the amaranth protein hydrolysate (APH) for taurocholic acid. The DAF and APC showed binding activity for secondary bile acids toxic to the intestinal mucus. From the results, amaranth products were shown to have the ability to bind BAs, but it was not possible to affirm whether the main component responsible for this activity was the proteins, fibers or eventually some other non-evaluated component. PMID:21901402

  10. New neolignans from the seeds of Myristica fragrans that inhibit nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Cao, Gui-Yun; Xu, Wei; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Gonzalez, Frank J; Li, Fei

    2015-04-15

    Five new 8-O-4' type neolignans, named myrifralignan A-E (1-5), together with five known analogues (6-10), were isolated from the seeds of Myristica fragrans Houtt. Their chemical structures were determined using several spectroscopic methods. Compounds 3-10 exhibited potent inhibitory activity against the production of nitric oxide (NO) in the RAW264.7 cell line stimulated by lipopolysaccaride. Myrislignan (7) and machilin D (10) were the most potent inhibitors of NO production amongst these compounds. The IC50 values of myrislignan and machilin D were 21.2 and 18.5 μM. And, their inhibitory activity was more than L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine, a selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (IC50=27.1 μM). Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis revealed that these neolignans could significantly suppress the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA. These results demonstrated that the 8-O-4' type neolignans are promising candidates as anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:25466017

  11. Measurement of Short-Lived Fission-Product Yields of URANIUM-235 Using High-Resolution Gamma Spectra.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipnis, Sameer Vijay

    Independent yields of short-lived fission products produced by the thermal neutron induced fission of ^{235}U were determined from the measurements of high resolution gamma spectra. Comparisons were made to the recommended yield values tabulated in the ENDF/B-VI evaluated fission-product data base. Measurements of the gamma spectra were made with a high purity germanium detector (HPGe) using a NaI(Tl) annulus for Compton suppression. Use of beta-gamma coincidence reduced the random background and also allowed a precise definition of the delay time. The experiment was carried out at the 5.5 MV Van de Graaff facility at the University of Massachusetts Lowell. Rapid transfer of the fission fragments to a low background counting environment, a crucial factor in determining the yields of short-lived fission products, was enabled by a helium -jet tape transport system. The recommended yields in the evaluated data file are a combination of experimental and model-predicted values. The latter source is used since data from many short-lived fission products is still missing or poorly known. The results presented here, especially the ones for the very short-lived isotopes may be used to reduce the uncertainties associated with some of the existing values or to replace model-predicted yields. Gaussian distributions of elemental yields, based on the set of experimentally determined independent yields were examined. The feasibility of predicting unmeasured yields on the basis of charge and mass complementarity was also addressed.

  12. THE GAS PHASE REACTION OF OZONE WITH 1,3-BUTADIENE: FORMATION YIELDS OF SOME TOXIC PRODUCTS. (R826236)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formation yields of acrolein, 1,2-epoxy-3-butene and OH radicals have been measured from reaction of ozone with 1,3-butadiene at room temperature and atmosphere pressure. 1,3,5-Trimethyl benzene was added to scavenge OH radicals in measurements of product yields. In separa...

  13. Large area aggregation and mean-squared prediction error estimation for LACIE yield and production forecasts. [wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chhikara, R. S.; Feiveson, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    Aggregation formulas are given for production estimation of a crop type for a zone, a region, and a country, and methods for estimating yield prediction errors for the three areas are described. A procedure is included for obtaining a combined yield prediction and its mean-squared error estimate for a mixed wheat pseudozone.

  14. 7 CFR 1412.34 - Submitting production evidence for establishing direct payment yields for oilseeds and pulse crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... oilseeds and pulse crops. (a)(1) Reports of production evidence must be submitted when the owner elects to... designated oilseeds for which a yield was not established by September 30, 2007, and for pulse crops must be... direct payment yields for oilseeds and pulse crops. 1412.34 Section 1412.34 Agriculture Regulations...

  15. 7 CFR 1412.34 - Submitting production evidence for establishing direct payment yields for oilseeds and pulse crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... oilseeds and pulse crops. (a)(1) Reports of production evidence must be submitted when the owner elects to... designated oilseeds for which a yield was not established by September 30, 2007, and for pulse crops must be... direct payment yields for oilseeds and pulse crops. 1412.34 Section 1412.34 Agriculture Regulations...

  16. 7 CFR 1412.34 - Submitting production evidence for establishing direct payment yields for oilseeds and pulse crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... oilseeds and pulse crops. (a)(1) Reports of production evidence must be submitted when the owner elects to... designated oilseeds for which a yield was not established by September 30, 2007, and for pulse crops must be... direct payment yields for oilseeds and pulse crops. 1412.34 Section 1412.34 Agriculture Regulations...

  17. Biomass production of 12 winter cereal cover crop cultivars and their effect on subsequent no-till corn yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops can improve the sustainability and resilience of corn and soybean production systems. However, there have been isolated reports of corn yield reductions following winter rye cover crops. Although there are many possible causes of corn yield reductions following winter cereal cover crops,...

  18. Hydrotreating of waste cooking oil for biodiesel production. Part I: Effect of temperature on product yields and heteroatom removal.

    PubMed

    Bezergianni, Stella; Dimitriadis, Athanasios; Kalogianni, Aggeliki; Pilavachi, Petros A

    2010-09-01

    Hydrotreating of waste cooking oil (WCO) was studied as a process for biofuels production. The hydrotreatment temperature is the most dominant operating parameter which defines catalyst performance as well as catalyst life. In this analysis, a hydrotreating temperature range of 330-398 degrees C was explored via a series of five experiments (330, 350, 370, 385 and 398 degrees C). Several parameters were considered for evaluating the effect of temperature including product yields, conversion, selectivity (diesel and gasoline), heteroatom removal (sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen) and saturation of double bonds. For all experiments the same commercial hydrotreating catalyst was utilized, while the remaining operating parameters were constant (pressure=1200 psig, LHSV=1.0 h(-1), H(2)/oil ratio=4000 scfb, liquid feed=0.33 ml/min and gas feed=0.4 scfh). It was observed that higher reactor temperatures are more attractive when gasoline production is of interest, while lower reaction temperatures are more suitable when diesel production is more important. PMID:20395136

  19. Quantum yields for photochemical production of NO2 from organic nitrates at tropospherically relevant wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Christina M; Evans, Louise A; Lloyd-Jones, Guy C; Shallcross, Dudley E; Tew, David P; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J

    2014-04-17

    Absorption cross-sections and quantum yields for NO2 production (ΦNO2) are reported for gaseous methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, and isopropyl nitrate at 294 K. Absorption cross-sections in the wavelength range of 240-320 nm agree well with prior determinations. NO2 quantum yields at photoexcitation wavelengths of 290, 295, and 315 nm are unity within experimental uncertainties for all of the alkyl nitrates studied and are independent of bath gas (N2) pressure for total sample pressures in the range of 250-700 Torr. When averaged over all wavelengths and sample pressures, values of ΦNO2 are 1.03 ± 0.05 (methyl nitrate), 0.98 ± 0.09 (ethyl nitrate), 1.01 ± 0.04 (n-propyl nitrate), and 1.00 ± 0.05 (isopropyl nitrate), with uncertainties corresponding to 1 standard deviation. Absorption cross-sections for ethyl nitrate, isopropyl nitrate, and two unsaturated dinitrate compounds, but-3-ene-1,2-diyl dinitrate and (Z)-but-2-ene-1,4-diyl dinitrate in acetonitrile solution, are compared to gas-phase values, and over the wavelength range of 260-315 nm, the gas-phase values are well-reproduced by dividing the liquid-phase cross-sections by 2.0, 1.6, 1.7, and 2.2, respectively. Reasonable estimates of the gas-phase absorption cross-sections for low-volatility organic nitrates can therefore be obtained by halving the values for acetonitrile solutions. The quantum yield for NO2 formation from photoexcitation of but-3-ene-1,2-diyl dinitrate at 290 nm is significantly lower than those for the alkyl (mono) nitrates: a best estimate of ΦNO2 ≤ 0.25 is obtained from the experimental measurements. PMID:24684215

  20. Transcriptional silencing of heterologous anther promoters in maize: a genetic method to replace detasseling for seed production.

    PubMed

    Cigan, A Mark; Haug-Collet, Kristin; Clapp, Joshua

    2014-09-01

    The promoter of the maize male fertility gene ZmMs45, and other anther-specific maize promoters, was previously shown to be transcriptionally silenced by constitutively expressed promoter-inverted repeat RNAs (pIRs). In addition, ZmMS45pIR-mediated male sterility was reversed by co-expression of Ms45 transcribed by promoters not targeted by pIR RNA silencing. In this report, male fertility was restored to ms45 maize by fusing non-maize inflorescence promoters to the ZmMS45 coding region. This complementation assay also established that these rice or Arabidopsis promoters, when expressed as pIRs, functioned to silence sequence identical promoters. These observations were exploited to develop a genetic method to replace maize detasseling during hybrid seed production. In this system, the ZmMS45 coding region was fused to one of two dissimilar non-maize promoters to generate paired sets of ms45 recessive inbred parents which could be self-pollinated and maintained independently. Linked to each unique Ms45 gene was a non-maize pIR which targeted the promoter transcribing the Ms45 copy contained in the paired inbred parent plant. A cross of these pairs brings the dissimilar pIR cassettes together and resulted in silencing both transformed copies of Ms45. The net result uncovers the ms45 allele carried by the inbreds yielding male sterile progeny. The application of heterologous promoters and transcriptional silencing in plants provides an alternative to post-transcriptional gene silencing as a means to restore and silence gene function in plants. PMID:24966130