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1

The professional responsibility model of physician leadership.  

PubMed

The challenges physician leaders confront today call to mind Odysseus' challenge to steer his fragile ship successfully between Scylla and Charybdis. The modern Scylla takes the form of ever-increasing pressures to provide more resources for professional liability, compliance, patient satisfaction, central administration, and a host of other demands. The modern Charybdis takes the form of ever-increasing pressures to procure resources when fewer are available and competition is continuously increasing the need for resources, including managed care, hospital administration, payers, employers, patients who are uninsured or underinsured, research funding, and philanthropy. This publication provides physician leaders with guidance for identifying and managing common leadership challenges on the basis of the professional responsibility model of physician leadership. This model is based on Plato's concept of leadership as a life of service and the professional medical ethics of Drs John Gregory and Thomas Percival. Four professional virtues should guide physician leaders: self-effacement, self-sacrifice, compassion, and integrity. These professional virtues direct physician leaders to treat colleagues as ends in themselves, to provide justice-based resource management, to use power constrained by medical professionalism, and to prevent and respond effectively to organizational dysfunction. The professional responsibility model guides physician leaders by proving an explicit "tool kit" to complement managerial skills. PMID:22483086

Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B; Brent, Robert L

2013-02-01

2

Evaluating professionalism in medical undergraduates using selected response questions: findings from an item response modelling study  

PubMed Central

Background Professionalism is a difficult construct to define in medical students but aspects of this concept may be important in predicting the risk of postgraduate misconduct. For this reason attempts are being made to evaluate medical students' professionalism. This study investigated the psychometric properties of Selected Response Questions (SRQs) relating to the theme of professional conduct and ethics comparing them with two sets of control items: those testing pure knowledge of anatomy, and; items evaluating the ability to integrate and apply knowledge ("skills"). The performance of students on the SRQs was also compared with two external measures estimating aspects of professionalism in students; peer ratings of professionalism and their Conscientiousness Index, an objective measure of behaviours at medical school. Methods Item Response Theory (IRT) was used to analyse both question and student performance for SRQs relating to knowledge of professionalism, pure anatomy and skills. The relative difficulties, discrimination and 'guessabilities' of each theme of question were compared with each other using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Student performance on each topic was compared with the measures of conscientiousness and professionalism using parametric and non-parametric tests as appropriate. A post-hoc analysis of power for the IRT modelling was conducted using a Monte Carlo simulation. Results Professionalism items were less difficult compared to the anatomy and skills SRQs, poorer at discriminating between candidates and more erratically answered when compared to anatomy questions. Moreover professionalism item performance was uncorrelated with the standardised Conscientiousness Index scores (rho = 0.009, p = 0.90). In contrast there were modest but significant correlations between standardised Conscientiousness Index scores and performance at anatomy items (rho = 0.20, p = 0.006) though not skills (rho = .11, p = .1). Likewise, students with high peer ratings for professionalism had superior performance on anatomy SRQs but not professionalism themed questions. A trend of borderline significance (p = .07) was observed for performance on skills SRQs and professionalism nomination status. Conclusions SRQs related to professionalism are likely to have relatively poor psychometric properties and lack associations with other constructs associated with undergraduate professional behaviour. The findings suggest that such questions should not be included in undergraduate examinations and may raise issues with the introduction of Situational Judgement Tests into Foundation Years selection. PMID:21714870

2011-01-01

3

Evaluating professionalism in medical undergraduates using selected response questions: findings from an item response modelling study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Professionalism is a difficult construct to define in medical students but aspects of this concept may be important in predicting\\u000a the risk of postgraduate misconduct. For this reason attempts are being made to evaluate medical students' professionalism.\\u000a This study investigated the psychometric properties of Selected Response Questions (SRQs) relating to the theme of professional\\u000a conduct and ethics comparing them with

Paul A Tiffin; Gabrielle M Finn; John C McLachlan

2011-01-01

4

Social Need, Public Response: The Volunteer Professional Model for Human Services Agencies and Counselors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a model process of assessment and integration that allows community agencies and professional counselors to engage in more effective volunteer activity. Outlines agency development by stages, using the experiences of agencies providing domestic violence services. (JAC)

Lenihan, Genie O.; Jackson, Louise

1984-01-01

5

2011 Faculty Handbook Professional Responsibilities  

E-print Network

D R A F T 2011 Faculty Handbook Professional Responsibilities Academic Workload University with the goals and mission of the University of Houston, it is expected that the academic workload of faculty faculty activities and to assist in the accountability of individual faculty workloads, activities

Azevedo, Ricardo

6

Professionalism: Mother of Responsible Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The initial enchantment with the natural insight of the indigeneous paraprofessionsl is reexamined in this article. Funding has been cut from mental health programs whose originators and employees are too close to their work to examine its effectiveness objectively. Rather than viewing professionalism as an unfeeling state, the author recognizes…

Archibald, Charles W., Jr.

7

Wenchuan earthquake: response of Chinese dental professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 12 May 2008, an earthquake with a magnitude of 8.0 on the Richter scale hit Wenchuan, China. In the aftermath of this natural disaster, Chinese dental professionals actively participated in the first emergency medical response team, definitive dental treatment, oral health services and education, and the recovery of local oral care infrastructure and resources. Learning from the experience and

J. Dai; Y. Zhao; G. Li

2009-01-01

8

Corporate social responsibility of future radiology professionals.  

PubMed

Plagued by difficult economic times, many radiology managers may find themselves faced with ethical dilemmas surrounding ongoing organizational pressures to maintain high levels of productivity with restricted resources. This often times tests the level of moral resilience and corporate social consciousness of even the most experienced radiology professionals. A study was conducted to determine what Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) orientation and viewpoint future radiology professionals may have. The results of the study indicate that these study participants may initially consider patient care more important than profit maximization. Study results indicate that these specific future radiology professionals will not need laws, legal sanctions, and intensified rules to force them to act ethically. However,they may need ongoing training as to the necessity of profit maximization if they seek the highest quality of care possible for their patients. PMID:21366145

Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S

2011-01-01

9

Corporate social responsibility: issues for human resource development professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent human resource development (HRD) scholarship has called for greater focus on social responsibility and ecological sustainability. The purpose of this article is to explore the engagement of HRD professionals in corporate social responsibility (CSR), examining one central question: how do HRD professionals perceive their roles and challenges in implementing CSR in organizations that claim CSR to be a key

Tara Fenwick; Laura Bierema

2008-01-01

10

Teacher Leadership: Professional Right and Responsibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

National reports and educational reform initiatives such as professionalization and school restructuring continue to link teacher leadership with educational improvement. Longstanding obstacles to universal understanding and application of teacher leadership extend beyond conflicting views of leadership to the unwillingness and unpreparedness on the part of many teachers to effectively fulfill a leadership function, a function inherent in their role as

Eloise M. Forster

1997-01-01

11

Balancing Personal and Professional Responsibilities. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A high school principal seldom has a day that goes according to plan. The principal's schedule more often than not, is dictated by others and routinely extends several hours beyond a regular school day. It is a job that could easily consume one's life, to the detriment of finding and maintaining any semblance of balance between their professional

Walker, Karen

2008-01-01

12

The Professional Context as a Predictor for Response Distortion in the Adaption-Innovation Inventory--An Investigation Using Mixture Distribution Item Response Theory Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Adaption-Innovation Inventory (AII), originally developed by Kirton (1976), is a widely used self-report instrument for measuring problem-solving styles at work. The present study investigates how scores on the AII are affected by different response styles. Data are collected from a combined sample (N = 738) of students, employees, and…

Fischer, Sebastian; Freund, Philipp Alexander

2014-01-01

13

Professional Learning Communities: A Middle School Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research project explored the transition from a traditional model to a Professional Learning Community model in a NJ Middle School. The administration overcame obstacles during the transition such as scheduling conflicts, teacher apathy, and resistance. This action research study gathered data to determine how to best structure the…

Gentile, David N.

2010-01-01

14

Child welfare professionals' responses to domestic violence exposure among children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child welfare professionals are expected to promptly assess the current safety and future risks of children reported to them. Developing more accurate assessment methods has been a growing concern in child welfare. The presence of domestic violence and children's exposure to it are factors that have been included in many current risk assessment models used by child welfare professionals.An online

Traci LaLiberte; Jessie Bills; Narae Shin; Jeffrey L. Edleson

2010-01-01

15

Model Professional Development Programs Win Recognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin is designed to illustrate the broad range of research and improvement activities supported by the Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Contents include: "Model Professional Development Programs Win Recognition,""Are Our Schools Safe?,""Charter Schools on the Rise,""What to Expect Your First Year of Teaching,""Evaluating…

Price, Kathleen C., Ed.; Quinn, Peggy, Ed.

1999-01-01

16

Wanted: role models - medical students' perceptions of professionalism  

PubMed Central

Background Transformation of medical students to become medical professionals is a core competency required for physicians in the 21st century. Role modeling was traditionally the key method of transmitting this skill. Medical schools are developing medical curricula which are explicit in ensuring students develop the professional competency and understand the values and attributes of this role. The purpose of this study was to determine student perception of professionalism at the University of Ottawa and gain insights for improvement in promotion of professionalism in undergraduate medical education. Methods Survey on student perception of professionalism in general, the curriculum and learning environment at the University of Ottawa, and the perception of student behaviors, was developed by faculty and students and sent electronically to all University of Ottawa medical students. The survey included both quantitative items including an adapted Pritzker list and qualitative responses to eight open ended questions on professionalism at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa. All analyses were performed using SAS version 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC, USA). Chi-square and Fischer’s exact test (for cell count less than 5) were used to derive p-values for categorical variables by level of student learning. Results The response rate was 45.6% (255 of 559 students) for all four years of the curriculum. 63% of the responses were from students in years 1 and 2 (preclerkship). Students identified role modeling as the single most important aspect of professionalism. The strongest curricular recommendations included faculty-led case scenario sessions, enhancing interprofessional interactions and the creation of special awards to staff and students to “celebrate” professionalism. Current evaluation systems were considered least effective. The importance of role modeling and information on how to report lapses and breaches was highlighted in the answers to the open ended questions. Conclusions Students identify the need for strong positive role models in their learning environment, and for effective evaluation of the professionalism of students and teachers. Medical school leaders must facilitate development of these components within the MD education and faculty development programs as well as in clinical milieus where student learning occurs. PMID:23153359

2012-01-01

17

14 CFR 120.113 - Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities...113 Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities...specimen test result. (c) Substance Abuse Professional (SAP)....

2013-01-01

18

14 CFR 120.113 - Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities...113 Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities...specimen test result. (c) Substance Abuse Professional (SAP)....

2010-01-01

19

14 CFR 120.113 - Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities...113 Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities...specimen test result. (c) Substance Abuse Professional (SAP)....

2012-01-01

20

14 CFR 120.113 - Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities...113 Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities...specimen test result. (c) Substance Abuse Professional (SAP)....

2011-01-01

21

14 CFR 120.113 - Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities.  

...false Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities...113 Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities...specimen test result. (c) Substance Abuse Professional (SAP)....

2014-01-01

22

Cultivating professional responsibility in a dental hygiene curriculum.  

PubMed

To prepare dental hygienists for future roles in the health care system, dental hygiene education must prepare graduates with skills, ethics, and values that align with professional responsibility. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of curricular changes designed to develop professional identity and responsibility over the entire span of the dental hygiene curriculum. Twenty-four dental hygiene students at the University of Minnesota were surveyed about their attitudes toward access to dental care, society's and health professionals' responsibility to care for the underserved, and their personal efficacy to provide care for the underserved. Surveys were conducted at three time points in the curriculum. The Attitudes Toward Health Care instrument adapted by Holtzman for dental use was used to survey the students. The findings indicate that this institution's curricular changes were effective in cultivating professional responsibility among these students. Their attitude scores increased across the six-semester curriculum, and students in their last semester of the program believed that all individuals have a right to dental care and that society has an obligation to provide dental care. These students' sense of obligation to care for the needy became stronger and their perceptions of their own ability to impact the community and act as an agent of change also increased. PMID:23929574

Blue, Christine M

2013-08-01

23

Overlooked aspects in the education of science professionals: Mentoring, ethics, and professional responsibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science as profession is generally defined narrowly as research. Science education as preparation for a profession in research is usually perceived as course work and laboratory training, even though the necessary knowledge and skills to pursue a research career are more extensive and diverse and are learned in one-on-one interaction with mentors. A complete education of science professionals includes the values, ethical standards and conventions of the discipline since they are fundamental to the profession. Mentoring and education in the responsible conduct and reporting of research and in the ethical dimensions of science are among the professional responsibilities of scientists and need to be discussed as part of science education. Moreover, science as an enterprise is much more than research and includes a number of other components, including science teaching, science journalism, and science policy. Each of these contributes to the nature of science and its role in society.

Bird, Stephanie J.

1994-03-01

24

A Model for Research-Based State Professional Development Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Federal, State and school-based professional development has become a multi-million dollar educational enterprise in Australia. Yet there are no published models for the making of systems-level professional development policy. Reviewing the literature on the characteristics of effective professional development programs, this paper proposes a…

Luke, Allan; McArdle, Felicity

2009-01-01

25

Expanding the Responsibility of Architectural Education: Civic Professionalism in Two Schools of Architecture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been a renewed interest in the purposes of professional education and the teaching of civic professionalism, whereby future professionals are exposed to their responsibility to use their specialized skills and knowledge to serve the public good. Recent studies on civic purposes in professional education, however, have largely ignored the…

Rinehart, Michelle A.

2010-01-01

26

Our Professional Responsibilities Relative to Human-Animal Interactions  

PubMed Central

An interesting area with great potential for benefiting and enriching the lives and conditions of people and animals is opening to us in research, service and teaching. By working with colleagues in other disciplines, we can develop new and creative ways to realize the great promise inherent in people-animal interactions properly studied and utilized. Veterinarians who understand that a strong human-companion animal bond can augment people's mental and physical states will help develop sound and effective companion animal programs for individuals who are lonely or handicapped and for persons in the school systems of the community, as well as its hospices, nursing and convalescent homes, prisons and other institutions. Children experiencing the deep satisfaction of interacting with animals while young will more likely become responsible pet owners and advocates as adults. The image of the profession is enhanced when children and adults see veterinarians as concerned teachers and compassionate health professionals. We as professionals will be required not only to update our knowledge and skills, but to acquire new knowledge in fields of animal and human behavior, psychology and sociology. We are needed on interdisciplinary research teams to study human-animal interactions. We will also be asked to commit time and personal energies in community programs, sometimes with no remuneration. But if skilled health professionals like veterinarians do not take the lead in establishing sound, long-term companion animal programs in their own communities, everyone will suffer including the animals. How we, as individual professionals, respond will be an important reflection of our compassion and our humanity. PMID:17422458

Bustad, L. K.; Hines, L.

1984-01-01

27

The Collaborative Apprenticeship Model: Situated Professional Development within School Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professional learning is a social enterprise where peers rely on the expertise and support of one another to adopt innovative practices. Reciprocal interactions in a community of practice, where teachers take responsibility for each other's learning and development, may provide an effective means of supporting situated professional learning. We…

Glazer, Evan M.; Hannafin, Michael J.

2006-01-01

28

Response to Section II: What's Needed Now--Professional Development Schools and the Professionalization of Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The professional development schools (PDS) effort, which grew out of the groundbreaking work of the Holmes Group (1986), was deliberately focused on the support and advancement of teachers as professionals and the professionalization of teaching, so the author argues that it is ironic that a volume about PDS might be seen as voicing an opinion…

Goodwin, A. Lin

2011-01-01

29

Institutional leadership and faculty response: fostering professionalism at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine.  

PubMed

Fostering professionalism requires institutional leadership and faculty buy-in. At the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, policies and educational programs were developed to enhance professionalism in three areas: conduct of clinical trials, relations with pharmaceutical manufacturers, and the clinical and teaching environment. Responsible conduct of clinical trials has been addressed with mandatory online education and certification for clinical investigators, but some still fail to recognize conflicts of interest. Activity of pharmaceutical representatives has been strictly regulated, meals and gifts from pharmaceutical companies prohibited, and the role of the pharmaceutical industry in the formulary process and in continuing medical education curtailed. Some faculty members have resented such restrictions, particularly in regard to their opportunity to give paid lectures. Professionalism in the clinical and teaching environment has been addressed with interdisciplinary rounding, experiential learning for medical students and residents in small groups, increased recognition of role models of professionalism, and active management of disruptive physicians. Leadership has been exerted through policy development, open communications, and moral suasion and example. Faculty members have expressed both their support and their reservations. Development of communication strategies continues, including town hall meetings, small groups and critical incident narratives, and individual feedback. The understanding and endorsement of faculty, staff, and trainees are an essential element of the professionalism effort. PMID:17971690

Wasserstein, Alan G; Brennan, Patrick J; Rubenstein, Arthur H

2007-11-01

30

The Arctic Climate Modeling Program: Professional Development for Rural Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Arctic Climate Modeling Program (ACMP) offered yearlong science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) professional development to teachers in rural Alaska. Teacher training focused on introducing youth to workforce technologies used in Arctic research. Due to challenges in making professional development accessible to rural teachers, ACMP…

Bertram, Kathryn Berry

2010-01-01

31

Professional versus Occupational Models of Work Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In addition to the familiar occupational standards that underpin National Vocational Qualifications, the UK has a parallel if less complete system of competence or practice standards that are developed and controlled by professional bodies. While there is a certain amount of overlap between the two types of standard, recent research points to a…

Lester, Stan

2014-01-01

32

The corporate organization of hospital work: balancing professional and administrative responsibilities.  

PubMed

The development of the hospital into a corporation has influenced the care of patients and the work of the professional staff. As a corporate enterprise, the modern hospital has a private agenda aimed at increasing growth and efficiency with an emphasis on technical services, professionals as employees, and patients as customers. These changes have resulted in a decrease in trustee and professional authority and an increase in administrative control. This shift in the control structure has continued in response to the need for accounting and regulation of services and in response to demands for increased growth and efficiency made by an increasingly competitive market environment. Strategies for the reorganization of hospital staff aimed at improving both inpatient and outpatient care are reviewed. The reorganization of the institution and staff, using either a staff group-practice corporation or an administrative staff model, is proposed. Clinicians have new responsibilities for developing collective arrangements for institutional governance, for allocating institutional resources, for providing public accountability regarding the use of these resources, and for defining the missions of care. PMID:1736774

Stoeckle, J D; Reiser, S J

1992-03-01

33

Bereavement Photography for Children: Program Development and Healthcare Professionals' Response  

PubMed Central

Reports of in-hospital bereavement photography focus largely on stillborns and neonates. Empiric data regarding the implementation of bereavement photography in pediatrics beyond the neonatal period and the impact of such programs on healthcare professionals (HCPs) is lacking. We describe the implementation of a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) bereavement photography program and use questionnaire data from HCPs to describe HCPs’ reflections on the program and to identify program barriers. From July, 2007 through April, 2010 families of 59 (36%) of the 164 patients who died in the PICU participated in our bereavement photography program. Forty questionnaires from 29 HCPs caring for 39 participating patients/families indicated that families seemed grateful for the service (n=34, 85%) and that the program helped HCPs feel better about their role (n=30, 70%). Many HCPs disagreed that the program consumed too much of his/her time (n=34, 85%) and that the photographer made his/her job difficult (n=37, 92.5%). Qualitative analysis of responses to open ended questions revealed four categories: the program’s general value; positive aspects of the program; negative aspects of the program; and suggestions for improvements. Implementing bereavement photography in the PICU is feasible though some barriers exist. HCPs may benefit from such programs. PMID:24520925

Michelson, Kelly Nicole; Blehart, Kathleen; Hochberg, Todd; James, Kristin; Frader, Joel

2013-01-01

34

Professional decisions: the central role of models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering is largely concerned with models and modelling. Models provide a context in which decisions are made. Here, the modelling process is considered in a general sense and then the relationship with engineering models is developed. For understanding, a first step is to differentiate and categorise. Thus, 10 types of engineering models are proposed and their purposes with respect to

David G. Elms; Colin B. Brown

2012-01-01

35

The Social Responsibility Performance Outcomes Model: Building Socially Responsible Companies through Performance Improvement Outcomes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the role of performance improvement professionals and human resources development professionals in helping organizations realize the ethical and financial power of corporate social responsibility. Explains the social responsibility performance outcomes model, which incorporates the concepts of societal needs and outcomes. (LRW)

Hatcher, Tim

2000-01-01

36

Modeling Instruction: The Impact of Professional Development on Instructional Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Modeling Instruction holds the potential for transforming science instruction and improving student achievement. Key to the success of Modeling Instruction, however, is the fidelity of implementation of its curriculum. This qualitative study examined the impact of Modeling Instruction professional development on participating teachers'…

Barlow, Angela T.; Frick, Tasha M.; Barker, Heather L.; Phelps, Amy J.

2014-01-01

37

Pikes Peak Model for Training in Professional Geropsychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aging of the population will increase demand for psychological services for older adults, which challenges the profession of psychology to provide those services. In response to that challenge, professional geropsychology has been developing over the past few decades to meet current and prepare for anticipated future demand. The development of…

Knight, Bob G.; Karel, Michele J.; Hinrichsen, Gregory A.; Qualls, Sara H.; Duffy, Michael

2009-01-01

38

Clinical professional governance for detailed clinical models.  

PubMed

This chapter describes the need for Detailed Clinical Models for contemporary Electronic Health Systems, data exchange and data reuse. It starts with an explanation of the components related to Detailed Clinical Models with a brief summary of knowledge representation, including terminologies representing clinic relevant "things" in the real world, and information models that abstract these in order to let computers process data about these things. Next, Detailed Clinical Models are defined and their purpose is described. It builds on existing developments around the world and accumulates in current work to create a technical specification at the level of the International Standards Organization. The core components of properly expressed Detailed Clinical Models are illustrated, including clinical knowledge and context, data element specification, code bindings to terminologies and meta-information about authors, versioning among others. Detailed Clinical Models to date are heavily based on user requirements and specify the conceptual and logical levels of modelling. It is not precise enough for specific implementations, which requires an additional step. However, this allows Detailed Clinical Models to serve as specifications for many different kinds of implementations. Examples of Detailed Clinical Models are presented both in text and in Unified Modelling Language. Detailed Clinical Models can be positioned in health information architectures, where they serve at the most detailed granular level. The chapter ends with examples of projects that create and deploy Detailed Clinical Models. All have in common that they can often reuse materials from earlier projects, and that strict governance of these models is essential to use them safely in health care information and communication technology. Clinical validation is one point of such governance, and model testing another. The Plan Do Check Act cycle can be applied for governance of Detailed Clinical Models. Finally, collections of clinical models do require a repository in which they can be stored, searched, and maintained. Governance of Detailed Clinical Models is required at local, national, and international levels. PMID:24018520

Goossen, William; Goossen-Baremans, Anneke

2013-01-01

39

The Practitioner's Model: Designing a Professional Development Program for Online Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the experiences of staff responsible for developing and delivering professional development (PD) in online teaching in three universities in the same Australian state. Each university draws on a similar pool of staff and students, and operates under the same government regulations, but has used different models of policy and…

Weaver, Debbi; Robbie, Diane; Borland, Rosemary

2008-01-01

40

Eating disorders among professional fashion models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fashion models are thought to be at an elevated risk for eating disorders, but few methodologically rigorous studies have explored this assumption. We have investigated the prevalence of eating disorders in a group of 55 fashion models born in Sardinia, Italy, comparing them with a group of 110 girls of the same age and of comparable social and cultural backgrounds.

Antonio Preti; Ambra Usai; Paola Miotto; Donatella Rita Petretto; Carmelo Masala

2008-01-01

41

Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

2010-01-01

42

Te Kotahitanga: Culturally Responsive Professional Development for Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Te Kotahitanga is a research and professional development project that aims to support teachers to raise the achievement of New Zealand's indigenous Maori students in public/mainstream classrooms. An Effective Teaching Profile, developed from the voices of Maori students, their families, principals and some of their teachers, provides direction…

Bishop, Russell; Berryman, Mere

2010-01-01

43

A call for responsibility in ethical issues for IS professionals  

SciTech Connect

In recent years there has been increased interest in the ethical values, beliefs and behavior of persons in the business world. Public abhorrence of questionable behavior of politicians, the savings and loan scandal and insider trading violations are just a few examples of many problems in business and professional life. A 1992 study by the Josephson Institute of Ethics involving 9,000 young people and adults revealed alarmingly low ethical characteristics in American institutions. Ferrell and Fraedrick have concluded that {open_quotes}business ethics is one of the most important concerns in today`s business world.{close_quote} A few professional organizations have tried to comprehend the ethical values, beliefs and behavior of their constituents. Vittrell has studied the frequency of ethical behavior for management information specialists. Martin and Peterson have examined the ethical issues of insider trading. Fimbel and Burstein have investigated the ethical values of technology professionals. Thornburg made use of a survey concerning the ethical beliefs and practices of human resources professionals. On a preliminary basis, these studies indicate the various ethical issues and uncertainties which are problematic for members of the various professions. Most business people are ethical segregationists, that is they tend to segregate their ethical values into one type of behavior for business and another type of behavior away from business. Managers accused of unethical behavior respond with, III am not that type of person. I am active in my church, in community affairs, a good family man, and so on.

Palmiter, C.W.

1994-12-31

44

Ethical Issues in Professionals' Response to Child Maltreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many ethical dilemmas confront professionals in the field of child maltreatment. These include (a) moving from a minimal standard of what is adequate to a higher standard of good care; (b) weighing the needs and interests of children and parents; (c) determining what should be disclosed to families, for research and clinical purposes; (d) handling information that may be considered

Howard Dubowitz

1997-01-01

45

Safety, celebration, and risk: educator responses to LGBTQ professional development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has explored multicultural teacher education from multiple, sometimes divergent perspectives; yet, these studies agree that what passes for multicultural education fails to address issues of educational inequity. This paper is part of a larger evaluation study of Reduction of Stigma in Schools (RSIS) – a professional development program aiming to empower educators to create affirming environments for Lesbian, Gay,

Elizabethe C. Payne; Melissa J. Smith

2012-01-01

46

Safety, Celebration, and Risk: Educator Responses to LGBTQ Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has explored multicultural teacher education from multiple, sometimes divergent perspectives; yet, these studies agree that what passes for multicultural education fails to address issues of educational inequity. This paper is part of a larger evaluation study of Reduction of Stigma in Schools (RSIS)--a professional development program…

Payne, Elizabethe C.; Smith, Melissa J.

2012-01-01

47

Teaching Online: A Professional Development Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the faculty training model utilized in the development and/or conversion of course materials to be delivered on the World Wide Web. A description of the online learning environment (WTOnline) is provided, as well as the process by which faculty members in the West Texas A&M University College of Education interact with that…

McCallie, Trey; McKinzie, LeAnn

48

Inclusion Professional Development Model and Regular Middle School Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a professional development model on regular education middle school teachers' knowledge of best practices for teaching inclusive classes and attitudes toward teaching these classes. There were 19 regular education teachers who taught the core subjects. Findings for Research Question 1…

Royster, Otelia; Reglin, Gary L.; Losike-Sedimo, Nonofo

2014-01-01

49

Professional Learning: A Fuzzy Logic-Based Modelling Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies have suggested that professional learning is influenced by two key parameters, i.e., climate and planning, and their associated variables (mutual respect, collaboration, mutual trust, supportiveness, openness). In this paper, we applied analysis of the relationships between the proposed quantitative, fuzzy logic-based model and a series of…

Gravani, M. N.; Hadjileontiadou, S. J.; Nikolaidou, G. N.; Hadjileontiadis, L. J.

2007-01-01

50

Evaluation of Professional Development: Deploying a Process-Focused Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This evaluation used a change transition model to explore the processes of development of a three-phase professional programme devised by two teams of researchers to support teachers' expertise in six domains of science teaching. The full programme operated over two years. Interviews with developers at the end of each phase (21 interviews) and…

Hanley, Pam; Maringe, Felix; Ratcliffe, Mary

2008-01-01

51

28 CFR 16.80 - Exemption of Office of Professional Responsibility System-limited access.  

...Professional Responsibility System—limited access. (a) The following system of records is exempt from...extent that information in the system is subject to exemption pursuant...subsection (c)(3) because release of the disclosure...

2014-07-01

52

Beyond the Game: Perceptions and Practices of Corporate Social Responsibility in the Professional Sport Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is an area of great interest, yet little is known about how CSR is perceived and practiced\\u000a in the professional sport industry. This study employs a mixed-methods approach, including a survey, and a qualitative content\\u000a analysis of responses to open-ended questions, to explore how professional sport executives define CSR, and what priorities\\u000a teams have regarding their

Hela Sheth; Kathy M. Babiak

2010-01-01

53

Nitrogen Crop Response Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This on-line dynamic model from Horticulture Research International (HRI) "simulates the growth response of 25 crops to applications of nitrogen fertilizer." The model incorporates the effects of climate, organic material and leaching. Users select a region of the world, enter input into the model (e.g., crop type, date of sowing, weather conditions, nitrogen applications, etc.), and run the model for numeric and graphical output. Substantial effort has been made to describe the model's behavior and to present useful output; interested users may select the "advanced" or "detailed" options for further information on each model.

Aycott, Ann.; Greenwood, Duncan J.; Rahn, Clive R.

54

Preparing culturally responsive teachers of science, technology, engineering, and math using the Geophysical Institute Framework for Professional Development in Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geophysical Institute (GI) Framework for Professional Development was designed to prepare culturally responsive teachers of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Professional development programs based on the framework are created for rural Alaskan teachers who instruct diverse classrooms that include indigenous students. This dissertation was written in response to the question, "Under what circumstances is the GI Framework for Professional Development effective in preparing culturally responsive teachers of science, technology, engineering, and math?" Research was conducted on two professional development programs based on the GI Framework: the Arctic Climate Modeling Program (ACMP) and the Science Teacher Education Program (STEP). Both programs were created by backward design to student learning goals aligned with Alaska standards and rooted in principles of indigenous ideology. Both were created with input from Alaska Native cultural knowledge bearers, Arctic scientists, education researchers, school administrators, and master teachers with extensive instructional experience. Both provide integrated instruction reflective of authentic Arctic research practices, and training in diverse methods shown to increase indigenous student STEM engagement. While based on the same framework, these programs were chosen for research because they offer distinctly different training venues for K-12 teachers. STEP offered two-week summer institutes on the UAF campus for more than 175 teachers from 33 Alaska school districts. By contrast, ACMP served 165 teachers from one rural Alaska school district along the Bering Strait. Due to challenges in making professional development opportunities accessible to all teachers in this geographically isolated district, ACMP offered a year-round mix of in-person, long-distance, online, and local training. Discussion centers on a comparison of the strategies used by each program to address GI Framework cornerstones, on methodologies used to conduct program research, and on findings obtained. Research indicates that in both situations the GI Framework for Professional Development was effective in preparing culturally responsive STEM teachers. Implications of these findings and recommendations for future research are discussed in the conclusion.

Berry Bertram, Kathryn

55

Redox status and antioxidant response in professional cyclists during training.  

PubMed

Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate whether different phases of training affect oxidative stress and antioxidant defences in professional cyclists. Ten professional cyclists, aged 21.8 ± 2.5 years, were enrolled in the study. They were classified into two groups of five athletes each one with similar nutritional intake excepting for the overload of vitamin C (1000 mg day(-1)) and E (400 mg day(-1)) supplementation in one of them. The cyclists of both groups performed the same exercise design, consisting of hard, tapering and recovery training periods. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the diet, plasma oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), lipid peroxidation (LPO), DNA damage (8-OHdG) and erythrocyte glutathione disulfide/glutathione ratio (GSSG:GSH(-1)) were measured. During the intense exercise trainings, the cyclists without vitamin supplements had the TAC of diet significantly lower than the supplemented group. Plasma ORAC, LPO and 8-OHdG were similar in both groups of athletes. Athletes with supplements had a basal LPO:ORAC(-1) ratio lower than that without supplements, but this ratio converged to the same level at the end of the training in both groups of cyclists. Both groups of cyclists showed similar changes in GSSG:GSH(-1) ratio and in GSSG and GSH levels along the study. The data suggest that well-trained athletes with suitable ultra-endurance training volume and intensity do not require antioxidant vitamin supplements to adapt their endogenous antioxidant defenses to exercise-induced ROS. PMID:24803271

Leonardo-Mendonça, Roberto Carlos; Concepción-Huertas, Melquiades; Guerra-Hernández, Eduardo; Zabala, Mikel; Escames, Germaine; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío

2014-11-01

56

Modeling Response Signal and Response Time Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The diffusion model (Ratcliff, 1978) and the leaky competing accumulator model (LCA, Usher & McClelland, 2001) were tested against two-choice data collected from the same subjects with the standard response time procedure and the response signal procedure. In the response signal procedure, a stimulus is presented and then, at one of a number of…

Ratcliff, Roger

2006-01-01

57

Annex 1. Guidelines for Professional Standards of Responsible Conduct  

E-print Network

for responsible conduct of research at Health 3.1 Ethical requirements for human and animal studies Any test person and any test animal shall be treated with respect and care. The safety, health or welfare of test in the following sections on Responsible Scientific Practice and Data. Use of test animals for research purposes

58

Time Work by Overworked Professionals: Strategies in Response to the Stress of Higher Status  

PubMed Central

How are professionals responding to the time strains brought on by the stress of their higher status jobs? Qualitative data from professionals reveal (a) general acceptance of the emerging temporal organization of professional work, including rising time demands and blurred boundaries around work/ nonwork times and places, and (b) time work as strategic responses to work intensification, overloads, and boundarylessness. We detected four time-work strategies: prioritizing time, scaling back obligations, blocking out time, and time shifting of obligations. These strategies are often more work-friendly than family-friendly, but “blocking out time” and “time shifting” suggest promising avenues for work-time policy and practice. PMID:24039337

Moen, Phyllis; Lam, Jack; Ammons, Samantha; Kelly, Erin L.

2013-01-01

59

Item Response Theory Modeling  

Cancer.gov

Item Response Theory (IRT) modeling is a statistical technique that is applied after data have been collected. IRT represents the field of psychometrics -- that is, evaluation of the degree of precision and breadth of scales that are used to measure latent constructs, or underlying traits of concepts that are not directly observable and must therefore be measured indirectly.

60

Adaptive response modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cellular response to radiation is often modified by a previous delivery of a small "priming" dose: a smaller amount of damage, defined by the end point being investigated, is observed, and for this reason the effect is called adaptive response. An improved understanding of this effect is essential (as much as for the case of the bystander effect) for a reliable radiation risk assessment when low dose irradiations are involved. Experiments on adaptive response have shown that there are a number of factors that strongly influence the occurrence (and the level) of the adaptation. In particular, priming doses and dose rates have to fall in defined ranges; the same is true for the time interval between the delivery of the small priming dose and the irradiation with the main, larger, dose (called in this case challenging dose). Different hypotheses can be formulated on the main mechanism(s) determining the adaptive response: an increased efficiency of DNA repair, an increased level of antioxidant enzymes, an alteration of cell cycle progression, a chromatin conformation change. An experimental clearcut evidence going definitely in the direction of one of these explanations is not yet available. Modelling can be done at different levels. Simple models, relating the amount of damage, through elementary differential equations, to the dose and dose rate experienced by the cell, are relatively easy to handle, and they can be modified to account for the priming irradiation. However, this can hardly be of decisive help in the explanation of the mechanisms, since each parameter of these models often incorporates in an effective way several cellular processes related to the response to radiation. In this presentation we show our attempts to describe adaptive response with models that explicitly contain, as a dynamical variable, the inducible adaptive agent. At a price of a more difficult treatment, this approach is probably more prone to give support to the experimental studies. This work is supported by the NOTE Project (FP6-36465).

Campa, Alessandro; Esposito, Giuseppe; Belli, Mauro

61

DECLARATION OF PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY MEDICINE'S SOCIAL CONTRACT WITH HUMANITY  

E-print Network

. As physicians, we are bound in our response by a common heritage of caring for the sick and the suffering and compassion and without prejudice. IV. Apply our knowledge and skills when needed, though doing so may put us at risk. V. Protect the privacy and confidentiality of those for whom we care and breach that confidence

Gilbert, Matthew

62

Assuming Responsibility: Teachers Taking Charge of Their Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper reports on some of the findings of an extensive study undertaken in Victoria as part of a national Science, ICT and Mathematics Education in Rural and Regional Australia (SiMERR) project. One of the significant findings of the study was the extent to which teachers in the schools where the study data were collected took responsibility

Tytler, Russell; Symington, David; Malcolm, Cliff; Kirkwood, Valda

2009-01-01

63

A Hybrid Evaluation Model for Evaluating Online Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online professional development is multidimensional. It encompasses: a) an online, web-based format; b) professional development; and most likely c) specific objectives tailored to and created for the respective online professional development course. Evaluating online professional development is therefore also multidimensional and as such both…

Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie; Zygouris-Coe, Vicky; Fiedler, Rebecca

2007-01-01

64

The transformational model for professional practice: a system integration focus.  

PubMed

Healthcare organizations face the increasingly difficult challenge of providing services that are of high quality, reasonable cost, and easy accessibility for their constituents. Mergers and acquisitions are one strategy for accomplishing this, but in doing so it is critical to have a "road map" to create an integrated system, rather than merely a consortium of hospitals. The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has successfully created an integrated healthcare system of 19 hospitals. The authors describe the professional practice model used as a framework for success in integrating patient care. PMID:15097213

Wolf, Gail A; Hayden, Margaret; Bradle, Judith A

2004-04-01

65

Population, professional, and client support for different models of managing addictive behaviors.  

PubMed

This study, funded by the Academy of Finland, explores how different stakeholder groups in Finland attribute responsibility for various addictions. A random general population survey and surveys with addiction treatment professionals and clients (n = 1,338) were conducted in 2007-2008. The data were analyzed with analyses of variance and logistic regression analysis. Individual responsibility was emphasized by all groups. The Moral model dominated in behavioral and the Enlightenment model in hard drug addictions, views on other substance addictions varied more. Some signs of the actor-observer asymmetry were observed. Personal addiction experiences and sex were the major predictors of the average response tendencies. The heavy emphasis on individual responsibility may prevent help-seeking. PMID:22217128

Koski-Jännes, Anja; Hirschovits-Gerz, Tanja; Pennonen, Marjo

2012-02-01

66

Culturally Responsive Teaching: Awareness and Professional Growth through a School-University Collaboration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preparing in-service and pre-service teachers to effectively work with culturally diverse students is an ongoing challenge for schools and universities alike. This article reports on a University-Professional Development School (PDS) initiative designed to enhance an awareness of culturally responsive pedagogy. This article describes a yearlong…

McCormick, Theresa M.; Eick, Charles J.; Womack, Janet S.

2013-01-01

67

Rural High School Mathematics Teachers' Response to Mathematics Reform Curriculum Integration and Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine rural high school mathematics teachers' responses to the initial implementation of Louisiana's "Comprehensive Curriculum" during their second year of involvement in a professional development program. The curriculum changes were the culmination of an alignment between standards, curriculum,…

Cox, Teodora B.

2009-01-01

68

Are CFOs professional responsibilities overloaded in Chinese listed firms: A grounded theory application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The professional responsibilities of CFOs in Chinese listed firms have been growing dramatically, as supervision rules improve and market competition gets fierce. In this context few academic studies on CFOs roles drive this paper to adopt grounded theory approach to explore this topic. By grounded theory guidance, an analytical framework is established, based on the survey and interview data. The

Dai Lu; Tang Gu-liang

2009-01-01

69

Enhancing the Quality of Care in Residential and Nursing Homes: More than Just a Professional Responsibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article highlights a range of issues considered essential to improving the quality of care received by older people in residential and nursing home settings. It is argued that improving such care represents a societal as well as a professional responsibility and that remedial action is needed at a number of levels. Five ‘routes’ to achieving quality are outlined, and

Mike Nolan

1999-01-01

70

Learning Agreements and Socially Responsible Approaches to Professional and Human Resource Development in the United Kingdom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws upon original qualitative data to present an initial assessment of the significance of learning agreements for the development of socially responsible approaches to professional and human resource development within the workplace. The article suggests that the adoption of a partnership-based approach to learning is more…

Wallis, Emma

2008-01-01

71

Mainstreaming in Secondary Schools: A Shared Professional Responsibility. OATE-OACTE Monograph Series No. 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools have fostered a strong tradition of separatism in services, personnel, and settings between regular and special education. This tradition of separatism cannot easily or quickly be displaced, nor can one of shared professional responsibility be easily established. This volume contains papers dealing with the problem of building such a…

Reed, Patricia L., Ed.

72

Constructing a professional identity: how young female managers use role models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how young career-minded women use role models. It draws on previous research into how professionals experimented with their identity projections to become partners in US professional service firms. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A theoretical paper with in-depth interviews with ten young professional women. Findings – The women revealed that they actively draw

Val Singh; Susan Vinnicombe; Kim James

2006-01-01

73

The PKRC's Value as a Professional Development Model Validated  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a brief review of the 4-H professional development standards, a new model for determining the value of continuing professional development is introduced and applied to the 4-H standards. The validity of the 4-H standards is affirmed. 4-H Extension professionals are encouraged to celebrate the strength of their standards and to engage the…

Larson, Dale

2013-01-01

74

Enhancing surveys of health care professionals: a meta-analysis of techniques to improve response.  

PubMed

Surveys involving health care providers are characterized by low and declining response rates (RRs), and researchers have utilized various strategies to increase survey RRs among health professionals. Based on 48 studies with 156 subgroups of within-study conditions, a multilevel meta-regression analysis was conducted to summarize the effects of different strategies employed in surveys of health professionals. An estimated overall survey RR among health professionals was 0.53 with a significant downward trend during the last half century. Of the variables that were examined, mode of data collection, incentives, and number of follow-up attempts were all found to be significantly related to RR. The mail survey mode was more effective in improving RR, compared to the online or web survey mode. Relative to the non-incentive subgroups, subgroups receiving monetary incentives were more likely to respond, while nonmonetary incentive groups were not significantly different from non-incentive groups. When number of follow-ups was considered, the one or two attempts of follow-up were found to be effective in increasing survey RR among health professionals. Having noted challenges associated with surveying health professionals, researchers must make every effort to improve access to their target population by implementing appropriate incentive- and design-based strategies demonstrated to improve participation rates. PMID:23975761

Cho, Young Ik; Johnson, Timothy P; Vangeest, Jonathan B

2013-09-01

75

The Happy Hooker in the Classroom: Female Rights and Professional Responsibilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the question of whether professional women present the best models for the young to follow, suggesting that perhaps women do much to substantiate the very myths that destroy them. Images that are used by women to amuse, bewilder, or infuriate their male counterparts (and that perpetuate sexist stereotypes) include (1) the…

Richardson, Betty

76

Physiological responses to simulated stair climbing in professional firefighters wearing rubber and leather boots.  

PubMed

No studies have considered whether a firefighter's boots are a factor influencing physiological responses. The purpose of this study was to examine physiological responses to a fire simulation activity (stair climb) in professional firefighters wearing rubber boots (RB) and leather boots (LB). Twelve professional firefighters participated in two counterbalanced simulated firefighter stair climb (SFSC) sessions, one wearing RB and the other wearing LB. Heart rate, oxygen uptake (VO(2)), expiratory ventilation (V(E)), blood lactate (BLa), salivary cortisol (SCORT), and leg strength were assessed prior to and following a SFSC. LB elicited significantly greater SCORT values and knee flexion time to peak torque. Furthermore, RB revealed significantly greater ankle dorsiflexion peak torque after SFSC. BLa was positively related to knee flexion peak torque after SFSC in the RB. Firefighters when wearing the RB may be more effective at resisting fatigue and increase more force production. PMID:19543910

Huang, Chun-Jung; Garten, Ryan S; Wade, Chip; Webb, Heather E; Acevedo, Edmund O

2009-09-01

77

Managing professional work: three models of control for health organizations.  

PubMed Central

Three arrangements for structuring the work of professional participants in professional organizations are described, contrasted and evaluated. Arguments are illustrated by application to the organization of physicians within hospitals. The primary rationale, the support structures that have fostered its development, the key structural features and the advantages and disadvantages of each arrangement are described. The effect on these arrangements of structures and forces external to any particular professional organization is emphasized. PMID:6749761

Scott, W R

1982-01-01

78

Randomized Item Response Theory Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The randomized response (RR) technique is often used to obtain answers on sensitive questions. A new method is developed to measure latent variables using the RR technique because direct questioning leads to biased results. Within the RR technique is the probability of the true response modeled by an item response theory (IRT) model. The RR…

Fox, Jean-Paul

2005-01-01

79

Instructional Technology Professional Development Evaluation: Developing a High Quality Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The literature contains very few studies that focused on evaluating the impact of professional development activities on student learning. And, many of these studies failed to determine whether the professional development activities met their primary goal--to improve the learning process. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to use…

Gaytan, Jorge A.; McEwen, Beryl C.

2010-01-01

80

Role and models for compensation of tobacco use prevention and cessation by oral health professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appropriate compensation of tobacco use prevention and cessation (TUPAC) would give oral health professionals better incentives to provide TUPAC, which is considered part of their professional and ethical responsibility and improves quality of care. Barriers for compensation are that tobacco addiction is not recognised as a chronic disease but rather as a behavioural disorder or merely as a risk factor

Jon Crail; Aira Lahtinen; Johann Beck-Mannagetta; Birgitta Enmark; Tony Jenner; Ron Knevel; Martina Lulic; Seppo Wickholm

2010-01-01

81

European Religious Education Teachers' Perceptions of and Responses to Classroom Diversity and Their Relationship to Personal and Professional Biographies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on teachers of secondary level religious education in England, Estonia, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Norway. It presents a study of the teachers' perceptions of and responses to the diversity within their classes, in relation to their professional role and their personal and professional biographies. The study employed…

Everington, Judith; ter Avest, Ina; Bakker, Cok; van der Want, Anna

2011-01-01

82

Student perceptions of a community engagement experience: exploration of reflections on social responsibility and professional formation.  

PubMed

Physical therapy educators are challenged to emphasize the importance of social responsibility as a vital curricular element of professional development. Through reflection, students are able to identify core values, beliefs, and attitudes as part of the professional development process. The purpose of this study was to explore student perceptions and values of a community engagement experience based upon frequency of participation. This qualitative research report investigated student perceptions of the community experience following participation. Data collection tools included an open-ended questionnaire and focus group interviews. Comparisons were made across data for participants who engaged in the activity one time versus multiple times. Data analysis revealed participation in the community engagement experience had a positive impact on most participants. One time only participants demonstrated increased self-awareness, contemplating change, and capacity to serve while more than one time participants described a deeper understanding of community, impact on others, and professional transformation. Student involvement in community engagement activities combined with structured reflection provided meaningful insight into participants' personal beliefs. The results suggest incorporation of community-based learning experiences into academic curriculum may be beneficial in the students' preliminary understanding of social responsibility. PMID:20946070

Furze, Jennifer; Black, Lisa; Peck, Kirk; Jensen, Gail M

2011-08-01

83

Expanding the Professional Development School Model: Developing Collaborative Partnerships with School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Professional Development School (PDS) model, a successful collaborative partnership model between university teacher education programs and P-12 schools, focuses on ''preparing future educators, providing current educators with ongoing professional development, encouraging joint school-university faculty investigation of…

Foust, Gretchen E.; Goslee, Patricia A.

2014-01-01

84

Police and mental health professionals. Collaborative responses to the impact of violence on children and families.  

PubMed

Coordinating responses through the Child Development-Community Policing Program has led to multiple changes in the delivery of clinical and police services. Mental health clinicians and police officers have developed a common language for assessing and responding to the needs of children and families who have been exposed to or involved in violence. Learning from each other, these unlikely partners have established close working relationships that improve and expand the range of interventions they are able to provide while preserving the areas of expertise and responsibilities of each professional group. The immediate access to witnesses, victims, and perpetrators of violent crimes through the consultation service provides a unique opportunity to expand the understanding of clinical phenomena from the acute traumatic moment to longer-term adaptation, symptom formation, and recovery. In turn, the initiative introduces the systematic study of basic psychological and neurobiologic functions involved in traumatization as well as the investigation of psychotherapeutic and pharmacologic therapies. Similarly, program involvement with juvenile offenders has led to a coordinated response from the police, mental health, and juvenile justice systems. This project provides an opportunity to develop detailed psychological profiles and typologies of children engaged in different levels of antisocial behavior as well as to determine the characteristics that might predict with whom community-based interventions might be most successful. A recent survey of New Haven public school students has yielded promising evidence that community policing and the program are having a positive impact on the quality of life. In a survey of sixth-, eighth-, and tenth-grade students there were substantial improvements in students' sense of safety and experience of violence between 1992 and 1996. When asked if they felt safe in their neighborhood, there was an increase in the percentage of positive responses from 57% to 62% for sixth-grade students, 48% to 66% for eighth-grade students, and 53% to 73% for tenth-grade students, and when asked if they had seen someone shot or stabbed there was a decrease in positive responses from 43% to 28% for sixth-grade students, 46% to 31% for eighth-grade students, and 34% to 28% for tenth-grade students. Today, we are all too familiar with the developmental trajectory that leads children into violent crime. Newspaper articles and clinical case reports have taken on a dreary repetitiveness. These young criminals are often poor, minority, inner-city children who are known to many agencies to be at risk because of family disorganization, neglect, and abuse. They are failing in school or are already on the streets. One day they are victims and the very next they are assailants. We are all familiar with the inadequacies in the social response to these children, from their preschool years through the point at which they become assailants themselves. What is shocking is that the age at which children make the transition from being abused to being abusive seems to be getting earlier, and the number appears to be increasing. On the positive side, there is an increased awareness of the need and the ability of the various sectors of society to respond in concert. The institutions that function in the inner city--schools, police, mental health and child welfare agencies, churches--are all concerned about the same children and families. By working together, with a shared orientation to the best interests of the children, they can intervene earlier and more effectively: first, to disrupt the trajectory leading to violence; and, second, to help those children who are already caught in the web of exposure to violent crime and inner-city trauma. The experience with community-based policing and mental health in New Haven, now being replicated throughout the United States, can thus stand as a model of an active social response to an overwhel PMID:9894059

Marans, S; Berkowitz, S J; Cohen, D J

1998-07-01

85

A Primer on Responsibility Centre Budgeting and Responsibility Centre Management. Professional File, Winter 1999, Number 17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph is a "how-to" manual on responsibility center budgeting (RCB) and responsibility center management (RCM) in the context of Canadian and U.S. institutions. It explains how RCB/RCM works in practice and discusses some of the problems encountered in implementing this strategy at a number of Canadian and U.S. universities. The paper…

Lang, Daniel W.

86

Unitary Response Regression Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dependent variable in a regular linear regression is a numerical variable, and in a logistic regression it is a binary or categorical variable. In these models the dependent variable has varying values. However, there are problems yielding an identity output of a constant value which can also be modelled in a linear or logistic regression with…

Lipovetsky, S.

2007-01-01

87

An interventional model to develop health professionals in West Africa  

PubMed Central

The health sector is characterized by a human resource base lacking in numbers, specialized skills, and management skills. West African Health Organization (WAHO) recognizes the need within the West Africa sub-region for bilingual professionals who are skilled in public health, management, leadership, and information technology to build human capacity in public health and developed the Young Professionals Internship Program (YPIP). Our study explores the evolution of the programme. YPIP program has successfully carried out its original aims and objectives to equip young professionals with basic principles of public health, management, and leadership, acquire competence in a second official language (French, English, and Portuguese), information and communication technology. Contributing factors towards this successful evaluation included positive ratings and commentary from previous interns about the relevance, usefulness, and quality of the programme, encouraging feedback from WAHO management, trainers, administrators, and intern employers on the impact of the YPIP program on young professionals, supporting evidence that demonstrates increased knowledge in professional skills and language competency.

Sanou, Anselme Simeon; Awoyale, Florence Adeola; Diallo, Abdoulaye

2014-01-01

88

Information Literacy for Health Professionals: Teaching Essential Information Skills with the Big6 Information Literacy Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Health professionals frequently do not possess the necessary information-seeking abilities to conduct an effective search in databases and Internet sources. Reference librarians may teach health professionals these information and technology skills through the Big6 information literacy model (Big6). This article aims to address this issue. It also…

Santana Arroyo, Sonia

2013-01-01

89

MyTeachingPartner: An Innovative Model of Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professional Development is an ideal way to ensure that early childhood teachers have the skills and knowledge they need to improve student achievement. Unfortunately, many teachers report that the workshops and in-services typically offered are of minimal value because they often do not relate to what is actually going on in their classrooms…

Hadden, D. Sarah; Pianta, Robert C.

2006-01-01

90

EFL Teachers' Professional Development: A Concept, a Model, and Tools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this article is to propose the Distance Professional Development and Support System (DPDS), an approach specifically designed to help non-native speakers of English teach English-as-a-Foreign Language (EFL) in a non-English-speaking setting. English has become the primary language of international communication, and there is a…

Serdiukov, Peter; Tarnopolsky, Oleg

91

Technology Academies: A Professional Development Model for Technology Integration Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the Maryland Technology Academy Leadership Program which was launched in summer 1999 to build technology integration leaders who could promote and support the use of technology in schools throughout Maryland. For over four years of operation, the program provided an intensive professional development experience to more than…

McPherson, Sarah; Wizer, David; Pierrel, Elaine

2006-01-01

92

Models of professional preparation: Pharmacy, nursing and teacher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study focuses on three areas of initial professional education at degree level—pharmacy, nursing and teacher education. All three are associated with professions where individual clients' needs are significant—the so-called caring professions. The project was conducted largely through interviews with teaching staff in both university and public sector institutions. The interviews focused on the interests, activities and values of the

R. A. Barnett; R. A. Becher; N. M. Cork

1987-01-01

93

Integration of the thiol redox status with cytokine response to physical training in professional basketball players.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to evaluate the plasma markers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity and cytokines, and their relationship with thiol redox status of basketball players during training. Sixteen professional players of the Polish Basketball Extraleague participated in the study. The study was performed during the preparatory period and the play-off round. Markers of ROS activity (lipid peroxidation TBARS, protein carbonylation PC) and reduced glutathione (GSH) demonstrated regularity over time, i.e. TBARS, PC and GSH were elevated at the beginning and decreased at the end of training periods. Oxidized glutathione (GSSG) was not affected by exercise training. Thiol redox status (GSH(total)-2GSSG/GSSG) correlated with TBARS and PC in both training periods. The level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) was increased and positively correlated with thiol redox (r=0.423) in the preparatory period, whereas tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) was increased and inversely correlated with thiol redox (r= 0.509) in the play-off round. The present study showed significant shifts in markers of ROS activity, thiol redox status and inflammatory mediators (IL-6, TNFalpha) following professional sport training as well as correlation between changes in thiol redox and cytokine response. PMID:19537921

Zembron-Lacny, A; Slowinska-Lisowska, M; Ziemba, A

2010-01-01

94

Legal Implications of Models of Individual and Group Treatment by Professionals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although medical malpractice suits are based on a model of treatment of an individual by a professional, educational malpractice suits are based on a group treatment model. When the medical model and the teaching model are compared, the contrasts are so great that medical malpractice principles are not a reliable guide to the emerging law of…

Lynch, Patrick D.

95

Beyond Climate Focus and Disciplinary Myopia. The Roles and Responsibilities of Hospitals and Healthcare Professionals  

PubMed Central

This paper calls for the need to address climate change within the concept of sustainable development, in recognition of the interrelationships between environmental, economic and social systems. So far, health- providing organizations such as hospitals have paid surprisingly little attention to the relationships between environmental change (e.g. climate change) and human health, or between hospitals (as professional organizations) and their impact on sustainable development. Although it is usually such industries as the chemical, extractive and metal industries, etc., that are associated with environmentally harmful activities, there is also an urgent need to emphasize the roles and responsibilities of hospitals and their embeddedness in a wider ecological, economic and social context. The key objective here is to discuss the relevance of sustainability and environmental management issues in a sector that until now has conveniently ignored its roles and responsibilities in relation to sustainability issues. The paper concludes that arguments based on systems theory, environment, medicine, economics and innovation strongly urge hospitals to reconsider their present roles and environmental responsibilities. PMID:19440441

Ulh?i, John P.; Ulh?i, Benedicte P.

2009-01-01

96

Body image concerns in professional fashion models: are they really an at-risk group?  

PubMed

Although professional models are thought to be a high-risk group for body image concerns, only a handful of studies have empirically investigated this possibility. The present study sought to overcome this dearth of information by comparing professional models and a matched sample on key indices of body image and appeared-related concerns. A group of 52 professional fashion models was compared with a matched sample of 51 non-models from London, England, on indices of weight discrepancy, body appreciation, social physique anxiety, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, internalization of sociocultural messages about appearance, and dysfunctional investment in appearance. Results indicated that professional models only evidenced significantly higher drive for thinness and dysfunctional investment in appearance than the control group. Greater duration of engagement as a professional model was associated with more positive body appreciation but also greater drive for thinness. These results indicate that models, who are already underweight, have a strong desire to maintain their low body mass or become thinner. Taken together, the present results suggest that interventions aimed at promoting healthy body image among fashion models may require different strategies than those aimed at the general population. PMID:23017651

Swami, Viren; Szmigielska, Emilia

2013-05-15

97

A Model of Clinical Supervision for Preservice Professionals in Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors present a model of clinical supervision to guide preservice professionals embarking on a career in early intervention and early childhood special education. Established models of clinical supervision in the general education field are described, followed by a description of the clinical supervision model used by the University of…

Clifford, Jantina R.; Macy, Marisa G.; Albi, Linda D.; Bricker, Diane D.; Rahn, Naomi L.

2005-01-01

98

Integrating human caring science into a professional nursing practice model.  

PubMed

This article shares the results of a 4-year project to reduce work intensity for hospital nurses and create a human caring environment in the acute care workplace. The research consisted of a two-phase interventional study using four medical units and four surgical comparison units at four hospitals within the Inova Health System. Key caring interventions were selected for implementation into professional nursing practice with measurement of patient satisfaction, nurse satisfaction and turnover, and registered nurses' vacancy rates on the pilot units. Results revealed a statistically significant increase in the nurses' perception of the health care environment overall, improvement in relationships with coworkers, and improvement in workload perception. Qualitative data revealed themes of improvement in nurses' job fulfillment because of the ability to spend time caring for their patients. PMID:19007706

Drenkard, Karen Neil

2008-12-01

99

Teaching Professional Writing in an Academic Health Sciences Center: The Writing Center Model at the Medical University of South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Writing is taught as professional competency in higher education generally, but the health science education literature emphasizes writing as a pedagogical means rather than a professional end. The Medical University of South Carolina established a Writing Center in 1994 to teach professional writing. Summary: This report describes the rationale for profession-specific, graduate-level writing instruction; summarizes the Writing Center model;

Tom G. Smith; Jennie Ariail; Shannon Richards-Slaughter; Lisa Kerr

2011-01-01

100

The emergence of new 'professional' and 'associate professional' roles in the children's workforce - A rhetorical device or a new model of professionalism?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DfES have outlined specific growth in terms of almost 800,000 new jobs in 'associate professional and higher technician' occupations by 2010 putting this employment category amongst the biggest and fastest growth sectors in the UK. The public sector, in particular, is important as a context in which the need for associate professional and higher technician skills has grown markedly

Nadia Edmond

101

A Professional Development Model: Building Word Knowledge for Middle Level Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a professional development model to support the implementation of word study in the middle school grades. The first section provides a rationale and considerations for the model. The following section discusses the theory and instructional methods of word study focusing on word sorting and word hunts. To confirm the…

McCord, Kathryn L.

2009-01-01

102

Flexible Programmes in Higher Professional Education: Expert Validation of a Flexible Educational Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a preceding case study, a process-focused demand-driven approach for organising flexible educational programmes in higher professional education (HPE) was developed. Operations management and instructional design contributed to designing a flexible educational model by means of discrete-event simulation. Educational experts validated the model

Schellekens, Ad; Paas, Fred; Verbraeck, Alexander; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

2010-01-01

103

The Effect of a Professional Development Classroom Management Model on At-Risk Elementary Students' Misbehaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem in the study was that at-risk elementary school students had too many classroom disruptive behaviors. The purpose was to investigate the effect a Professional Development Classroom Management Model would have on reducing these students' misbehaviors. The study implemented a classroom management model to improve the classroom management…

Reglin, Gary; Akpo-Sanni, Joretta; Losike-Sedimo, Nonofo

2012-01-01

104

Evaluating the Usability of a Professional Modeling Tool Repurposed for Middle School Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the results of a three-stage usability test of a modeling tool designed to support learners' deep understanding of the impacts of climate change on ecosystems. The design process involved repurposing an existing modeling technology used by professional scientists into a learning tool specifically designed for middle school…

Peters, Vanessa L.; Songer, Nancy Butler

2013-01-01

105

A model curriculum of health care informatics for Dutch higher professional education.  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the results of a two year project to design a model curriculum of health care informatics for Dutch higher professional education. The core of the curriculum are sixteen modules which cover the broad range of medical informatics and which are closely related to the profiles of the professions involved (nursing, physiotherapy, speech therapy, occupational therapy and dietetics). The curriculum emphasizes the need of using structured data and information to perform tasks in health care delivery and management, for which modern information technology is indispensable. The model curriculum will enable faculty to redesign existing undergraduate programs and to select the contents they see appropriate. In this way we hope that the model curriculum will contribute to an innovative attitude of future graduating health care professionals. A new three year project just has started to develop learning materials using professional health care software based on the sixteen modules of the curriculum. PMID:8563329

Aarts, J.

1995-01-01

106

Bereavement photography for children: program development and health care professionals' response.  

PubMed

Reports of in-hospital bereavement photography focus largely on stillborns and neonates. Empiric data regarding the implementation of bereavement photography in pediatrics beyond the neonatal period and the impact of such programs on healthcare professionals (HCPs) is lacking. The authors describe the implementation of a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) bereavement photography program and use questionnaire data from HCPs to describe HCPs' reflections on the program and to identify program barriers. From July 2007 through April 2070, families of 59 (36%) of the 164 patients who died in the PICU participated in our bereavement photography program. Forty questionnaires from 29 HCPs caring for 39 participating patients/families indicated that families seemed grateful for the service (n = 34; 85%) and that the program helped HCPs feel better about their role (n = 30; 70%). Many HCPs disagreed that the program consumed too much of his/her time (n = 34; 85%) and that the photographer made his/her job difficult (n = 37; 92.5%). Qualitative analysis of responses to open-ended questions revealed 4 categories: the program's general value; positive aspects of the program; negative aspects of the program; and suggestions for improvements. Implementing bereavement photography in the PICU is feasible though some barriers exist. HCPs may benefit from such programs. PMID:24520925

Michelson, Kelly Nicole; Blehart, Kathleen; Hochberg, Todd; James, Kristin

2013-07-01

107

Termination of professional responsibility: exploring the process of discharging patients with heart failure from hospitals.  

PubMed

Despite the emphasized importance of the discharge process for patients with heart failure, this process is not taken as seriously as it should be. The objective of this qualitative study is to explore the concept of discharge and its associated factors in 42 experienced patients, family members, nurses and cardiologists at two educational hospitals in Tehran, Iran. The content analysis of the data indicates that the participants consider hospital discharge as the termination of professional responsibility on the part of physicians and nurses as far as health-care support is involved. Three themes were identified as factors related to the treating team, health-care system and patients and their families. Adverse outcomes of inappropriate discharge planning which manifested as incompliance with 'diet and medical regimen' and lack of lifestyle modification were also noted. It seems proper to try and change the attitude of physicians and nurses towards the concept of discharge, and raise their sensitivity to organizing and executing discharge plans. It is also recommended that postdischarge care should be established. PMID:20649671

Hekmatpou, Davood; Mohammadi, Eesa; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Arefi, Sayed Hassan

2010-08-01

108

The Congruence between Industry Demand and Professional School Response in Architecture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought insight into the congruence between knowledge, skills and attitudes required by architecture practitioners and the benefits of professional school education. Twenty-four senior architects from Los Angeles architecture firms and 11 professional school deans and faculty members from the Graduate School of Architecture and Urban…

Hansen, Ronald

109

The Brazilian Football Association (CBF) model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish a national methodological model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries and to describe the numerous relevant studies previously published on this topic. INTRODUCTION: The risk of injury in professional soccer is high. However, previous studies of injury risk in Brazil and other countries have been characterized by large variations in study design and data collection methods as well as definitions of injury, standardized diagnostic criteria, and recovery times. METHODS: A system developed by the Union of European Football for epidemiological studies on professional soccer players is being used as a starting point to create a methodological model for the Brazilian Football Association. To describe the existing studies on professional soccer player injuries, we developed a search strategy to identify relevant epidemiological studies. We included the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and Medline databases in our study. RESULTS: We considered 60 studies from Medline and 16 studies from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences in the final analysis. Twelve studies were selected for final inclusion in this review: seven from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and five from Medline. We identified a lack of uniformity in the study design, data collection methods, injury definitions, standardized diagnostic criteria, and the definition of recovery time. Based on the information contained within these articles, we developed a model for epidemiological studies for the Brazilian Football Association. CONCLUSIONS: There is no uniform model for epidemiological studies of professional soccer injuries. Here, we propose a novel model to be applied for epidemiological studies of professional soccer player injuries in Brazil and throughout the world. PMID:22012041

Arliani, Gustavo Goncalves; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Runco, Jose Luiz; Cohen, Moises

2011-01-01

110

Hf MUF (maximum usable frequencies) model uncertainty assessment. Professional paper  

SciTech Connect

To assess the accuracy of MUF model prediction, a statistical analysis of observed oblique sounder median maximum observed frequencies (MOF) and predicted maximum usable frequencies (MUF) was conducted. A data base consisting of 13,054 hours of oblique sounder MOFs measured on 70 paths were compared against the predicted MUF values from MINIMUF-3.5, MINIMUF 85 and an unrelated MUF model, the HF Broadcast WARC Model (HFBC 84). The data were screened into subsets to determine the effect of particular paths, path length and orientation, season, month, latitude, sunspot number, diurnal trends, geographic region and sounder type. The accuracy of all three models was very close, with the MINIMUF-3.5 model having the lowest rms error of 4.44 MHz. MINIMUF 85 was next with an rms error of 4.58 MHz and HFBC 84 was last with an error of 4.67 MHz. Correlation was good for all three models. Coefficients were .824, .819 and .827 for MINIMUF-3.5, MINIMUF 85 and HFBC 84, respectively. The primary difference between MINIMUF-3.5 and MINIMUF 85 appeared when detailed analysis of the accuracies was conducted. When the variation in error was noted as a function of season, sunspot number, or range, for instance, there was less variation in the accuracy of MINIMUF 85.

Roy, T.N.; Sailors, D.B.

1987-01-01

111

Redesigning Professional Self-Presentation: A Model for Electronic Portfolios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic portfolios are essential for communicators. Faculty members at Clarkson University have developed a model electronic portfolio for Technical Communications majors to emulate, in order for the students to best present to prospective employers the work they have accomplished in their academic careers. Other higher education institutions make use of electronic portfolios-largely for individual course requirements or for assessment purposes,

Christa J. Carroll

1998-01-01

112

Peer Partnerships in Teaching: Evaluation of a Voluntary Model of Professional Development in Tertiary Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes work over a three-year period to develop a peer partnership approach to professional development at a dual sector university. The aim of the program, arising initially in one school and then piloted in 5 schools, was to support staff in their teaching practice. Emphasis was on the development of a sustainable model of…

Chester, Andrea

2012-01-01

113

Integrating Professional and Folk Models of HIV Risk: YMSM's Perceptions of High-Risk Sex  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Risks associated with HIV are well documented in research literature. Although a great deal has been written about high-risk sex, little research has been conducted to examine how young men who have sex with men (YMSM) perceive and define high-risk sexual behavior. In this study, we compare the "professional" and "folk" models of HIV risk based on…

Kubicek, Katrina; Carpineto, Julie; McDavitt, Bryce; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen F.; Au, Chi-Wai; Kerrone, Dustin; Martinez, Miguel; Kipke, Michele D.

2008-01-01

114

A Strong Core of Qualities--A Model of the Professional Educator that Moves beyond Reflection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consideration of the qualities of good teaching leads to a new model that emphasizes the importance of sense making to professional development. A strong core of qualities that assist teachers in using sense making includes strength, confidence, balance, ballast, and value maturity. (Contains 27 references.) (SK)

McArdle, Karen; Coutts, Norman

2003-01-01

115

Teachers' Continuing Professional Development: Framing a Model of Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to contribute towards the construction of an empirically-grounded theory of effective continuing professional development (CPD), this paper seeks to develop a model of the effects of teachers' CPD or in-service education and training (INSET). It builds on an earlier typology of INSET outcomes and compares it to two previous…

Harland, John; Kinder, Kay

2014-01-01

116

Role modeling in physicians' professional formation: reconsidering an essential but untapped educational strategy.  

PubMed

Forming technically proficient, professional, and humanistic physicians for the 21st century is no easy task. Mountains of biomedical knowledge must be acquired, diagnostic competence achieved, effective communication skills developed, and a solid and applicable understanding of the practice and role of physicians in society today must be reached. The central experience for learners in this complex and challenging terrain is the "modeling of" and "learning how to be" a caregiver and health professional. Role modeling remains one crucial area where standards are elusive and where repeated negative learning experiences may adversely impact the development of professionalism in medical students and residents. The literature is mainly descriptive, defining the attributes of good role models from both learners and practitioners' perspectives. Because physicians are not "playing a role" as an actor might, but "embodying" different types of roles, the cognitive and behavioral processes associated with successfully internalizing roles (e.g., the good doctor/medical educator) are important. In this article, the authors identify foundational questions regarding role models and professional character formation; describe major social and historical reasons for inattention to character formation in new physicians; draw insights about this important area from ethics and education theory (philosophical inquiry, apprenticeship, situated learning, observational learning, reflective practice); and suggest the practical consequences of this work for faculty recruitment, affirmation, and development. PMID:14660418

Kenny, Nuala P; Mann, Karen V; MacLeod, Heather

2003-12-01

117

Enhancing Teachers' Application of Inquiry-Based Strategies Using a Constructivist Sociocultural Professional Development Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This two-year school-wide initiative to improve teachers' pedagogical skills in inquiry-based science instruction using a constructivist sociocultural professional development model involved 30 elementary teachers from one school, three university faculty, and two central office content supervisors. Research was conducted for investigating the…

Brand, Brenda R.; Moore, Sandra J.

2011-01-01

118

National Models for Continuing Professional Development: The Challenges of Twenty-First-Century Knowledge Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If teacher quality is the most critical factor in improving educational outcomes, then why is so little attention drawn to the knowledge and evidence base available to support teachers in improving the quality of their professional knowledge? This paper draws together findings from a range of sources to propose national models for continuing…

Leask, Marilyn; Younie, Sarah

2013-01-01

119

Models of Professional and Paraprofessional Training in Refugee Mental Health. Task VI--Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pursuant to the mission of the University of Minnesota's Mental Health Technical Assistance Center for the state refugee assistance programs, this report presents models of culturally sensitive training for professional and paraprofessional personnel who provide mental health service to refugees. After an introduction which places this report in…

Hoshino, George; Bamford, Pauline

120

A unique drug distribution process for radium ra 223 dichloride injection and its implication for product quality, patient privacy, and delineation of professional responsibilities.  

PubMed

On May 15, 2013, Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals announced that it had received marketing approval for the therapeutic radioactive medication radium Ra 223 dichloride injection (Xofigo; Ra 223). The product acquisition and distribution process for hospital-based nuclear pharmacies and nuclear medicine services is unlike any other. The product is distributed as a low-risk compounded sterile preparation through a single compounding nuclear pharmacy located in Denver, Colorado, pursuant to a prescription. This model for drug distribution and delivery to the user institution has implications for product quality, patient privacy, and delineation of professional responsibilities. PMID:25301826

Dansereau, Raymond N

2014-11-01

121

An Innovative Model of Professional Development to Enhance the Teaching and Learning of Primary Science in Irish Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the influence of a two-year professional development programme on primary teachers' attitudes towards primary science, their confidence and competence in teaching science, and pupils' attitudes towards school science. Unlike the traditional "one-size-fits all" model of professional development, the model

Smith, Greg

2014-01-01

122

Beyond altruistic and commercial contract motherhood: the professional model.  

PubMed

It has become common to distinguish between altruistic and commercial contract motherhood (or 'surrogacy'). Altruistic arrangements are based on the 'gift relationship': a woman is motivated by altruism to have a baby for an infertile couple, who are free to reciprocate as they see fit. By contrast, in commercial arrangements both parties are motivated by personal gain to enter a legally enforceable agreement, which stipulates that the contract mother or 'surrogate' is to bear a child for the intending parents in exchange for a fee. She is required to undergo medical examinations and to refrain from behaviour that could harm the foetus. The intending parents are the child's legal parents from the outset. The parties to the contract can, but are not expected to, maintain contact after the transaction is completed. We argue that contract motherhood should not be organized according to the norms of the gift relationship, and that contract mothers should be compensated for their labour. However, we accept that there are good reasons for rejecting the commercial model as a suitable framework for contract pregnancy, and argue, instead, in favour of viewing it as a profession. PMID:22500585

Van Zyl, Liezl; Walker, Ruth

2013-09-01

123

Teaching and Teaming More Responsively: Case Studies in Professional Growth at the Middle Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study examined the experiences of two middle level teachers as they worked with a literacy coach and university partners in an instructional improvement initiative. Robert and Janice worked together as a two-teacher team. Across the three years of the study, they collaborated with Melissa, the literacy coach, to integrate reading and writing across the curriculum and to create connections with reluctant students. Analysis of observations, interviews, and archival documents showed that professional growth accelerated with discussions of instructional practices and student performance, guided by informal assessments of student achievement. Patterns of professional growth and student accomplishment document the power of collaboration and suggest possibilities for supporting professional development more productively through interdisciplinary teamwork.

Strahan, David; Hedt, Melissa

2009-01-01

124

Measuring the Impact of Student Interaction with Student Affairs Professionals on Socially Responsible Leadership Development in the First Year of College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using longitudinal data from the Wabash National Study on Liberal Arts Education, this research explored the impact of students' interactions with student affairs professionals on socially responsible leadership development during the first year of college. Overall, students' interactions with student affairs professionals were…

Martin, Georgianna L.

2013-01-01

125

Literacy Coaching as a Component of Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current debates concerning effective professional development for teachers of early reading have focused on the potential benefits of a literacy coach in providing sustained support and guidance for teachers' learning from a professional development program. In this study, we compare the response of first-grade teachers to a model of professional

Carlisle, Joanne F.; Berebitsky, Dan

2011-01-01

126

Are health professionals responsible for the shortage of organs from deceased donors in Malaysia?  

PubMed

The rate of organ donations from deceased donors in Malaysia is among the lowest in the world. This may be because of the passivity among health professionals in approaching families of potential donors. A questionnaire-based study was conducted amongst health professionals in two tertiary hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Four hundred and sixty-two questionnaires were completed. 93.3% of health professionals acknowledged a need for organ transplantation in Malaysia. 47.8% were willing to donate their organs (with ethnic and religious differences). Factors which may be influencing the shortage of organs from deceased donors include: nonrecognition of brainstem death (38.5%), no knowledge on how to contact the Organ Transplant Coordinator (82.3%), and never approaching families of a potential donor (63.9%). There was a general attitude of passivity in approaching families of potential donors and activating transplant teams among many of the health professionals. A misunderstanding of brainstem death and its definition hinder identification of a potential donor. Continuing medical education and highlighting the role of the Organ Transplant Coordinator, as well as increasing awareness of the public through religion and the media were identified as essential in improving the rate of organ donations from deceased donors in Malaysia. PMID:23199156

Abidin, Zada L Zainal; Ming, Wee Tong; Loch, Alexander; Hilmi, Ida; Hautmann, Oliver

2013-02-01

127

“Well Enough to Execute”: The Health Professional's Responsibility to the Death Row Inmate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capital punishment is one of the most controversial issues in America and also creates unique problems for the medical professionals who care for persons sentenced to death. An introductory true case vignette describes a death row inmate who overdosed on sedative medication 48 hours before his scheduled execution and was rushed to a university hospital for care. After treatment and

Eugene V. Boisaubin; Alexander G. Duarte; Patricia Blair; T. Howard Stone

2004-01-01

128

Ethics for the New Political Economy: What Can it Mean to be Professionally Responsible? Presidential Address  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this address, the author builds the case that a new political economy of education, dominated by what Pauline Lipman calls the "neo-liberal social imaginary," is changing the moral context in which educators imagine their professional roles. The author argues that educators are placed in relation to others in rather complicated…

Gunzenhauser, Michael G.

2013-01-01

129

Shaping Our Future: What Are Our Professional Responsibilities to Art Therapy Students?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the results of a workshop with two groups of art therapists who met to gain a better understanding of the knowledge base of art therapy and professional identity, and the importance of including prescribed content area in curricula. Attempts to offer valuable perspectives by including both art therapy educators and practitioners.…

Gonzalez-Dolginko, Beth

2000-01-01

130

Shaping Our Future: What Are Our Professional Responsibilities to Art Therapy Students?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results of a workshop with two groups representing a total of 25 art therapists who met to gain a better understanding of the knowledge base of art therapy and professional identity, and the importance of including prescribed content area in curricula. Although recognizing the limited scope of the survey, the paper attempts to offer valuable perspectives

Beth Gonzalez-Dolginko

2000-01-01

131

Up, Close and Personal: Teachers' Responses to an Individualised Professional Learning Opportunity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides an account of professional learning in action through documenting the experiences of three upper primary teachers as they engaged in reflection-on-action with the assistance of an academic mentor. Video-stimulated recall was used as a mechanism to encourage productive reflective practice, using video footage of each teacher's…

Muir, Tracey; Beswick, Kim; Williamson, John

2010-01-01

132

Tensions across Federalism, Localism, and Professional Autonomy: Social Media and Stakeholder Response to Increased Accountability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing upon research on federalism, localism, and professional autonomy, this article explores how educational stakeholders used social media to discuss and organize against the implementation of Differentiated Accountability in a large Florida school district. The results showed that the stakeholders used social media to engage in sense making…

Berry, Kimberly Scriven; Herrington, Carolyn D.

2013-01-01

133

Responses of established healthcare to the professionalization of complementaryand alternative medicine in Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the reactions of leaders of established health professions in Ontario, Canada to the efforts of selected complementaryand alternative (CAM) occupational groups (chiropractors, naturopaths, acupuncture\\/ traditional Chinese doctors, homeopaths and Reiki practitioners) to professionalize. Stakeholder theoryprovides the framework for analysis of competing interests among the various groups in the healthcare system. The data are derived from personal interviews

Heather Boonb

134

Preparing technical communicators for future workplaces: a model that integrates teaming, professional communication skills, and a software development process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines a model that uses teaming as a framework to support professional communication and process to improve student performance, as measured by the quality of output. It describes a pedagogical approach used in a computer science undergraduate senior class that integrates teaming, professional communication and a software development process. The approach demonstrates the importance of team instruction and

Margaret R. Heil

1999-01-01

135

The Impact of Professional Development: A Theoretical Model for Empirical Research, Evaluation, Planning and Conducting Training and Development Programmes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers several trends in professional development programmes found internationally. The use of multiple learning approaches and of different modes and types of learning in PD is described. Various theories and models of evaluation are discussed in the light of common professional development activities. Several recommendations are…

Huber, Stephan Gerhard

2011-01-01

136

Proposal for Professional Development Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the reluctance of Israeli inservice teachers to assume the role of mentor to student teachers in their classrooms, proposing an alternative Professional Development School (PDS) model as a starting point for rethinking ways to recruit teachers into this role. In this model, two student teachers assume full responsibility for 1…

Rajuan, Maureen

137

Do all health care professionals have a responsibility to prescribe and promote regular physical activity: or let us carry on doing nothing.  

PubMed

Physical inactivity's propensity to cause preventable morbidity and mortality grossly is under-recognized by both the public and by health care professionals. If health care professionals are serious about doing the best for every patient every patient visit, then we must be skilled in assessing physical activity levels as well as providing appropriate advice and must be able to guide patients through options and to activity. We have a professional duty and responsibility to know and deliver best treatments as well as keep ourselves up to date with and strive for the current best practice. Physical activity is central to health, and doing nothing is not a responsible option for our patients or health care professionals. More importantly, there is an urgent need for all health care professionals to embrace physical activity and strive for systems change, at governmental, organizational, educational, and medical leadership levels. PMID:23851415

Weiler, Richard; Murray, Andrew; Joy, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

138

Monitoring Physiology Trainee Needs to Focus Professional Society Responses: The APS Trainee Needs Surveys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article presents results from the 2004 and 2007 American Physiological Society (APS) Trainee Advisory Committee (TAC) surveys of graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and new investigators in physiology to identify topics and issues important to those trainees. Two major trends emerged from the data. First, trainees in 2007 expressed somewhat greater interest in professional development information than did those in 2004. Second, needs expressed by trainees in both years were closely related to their specific career development stage.

PhD Marsha L Matyas (American Physiological Society Education); PhD Karen L Sweazea (Arizona State University College od Nursing and Health Innovation)

2011-06-01

139

ePMV Embeds Molecular Modeling into Professional Animation Software Environments  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Increasingly complex research has made it more difficult to prepare data for publication, education, and outreach. Many scientists must also wade through black-box code to interface computational algorithms from diverse sources to supplement their bench work. To reduce these barriers, we have developed an open-source plug-in, embedded Python Molecular Viewer (ePMV), that runs molecular modeling software directly inside of professional 3D animation applications (hosts) to provide simultaneous access to the capabilities of these newly connected systems. Uniting host and scientific algorithms into a single interface allows users from varied backgrounds to assemble professional quality visuals and to perform computational experiments with relative ease. By enabling easy exchange of algorithms, ePMV can facilitate interdisciplinary research, smooth communication between broadly diverse specialties and provide a common platform to frame and visualize the increasingly detailed intersection(s) of cellular and molecular biology. PMID:21397181

Johnson, Graham T.; Autin, Ludovic; Goodsell, David S.; Sanner, Michel F.; Olson, Arthur J.

2011-01-01

140

Air Quality Response Modeling for Decision Support  

EPA Science Inventory

Air quality management relies on photochemical models to predict the responses of pollutant concentrations to changes in emissions. Such modeling is especially important for secondary pollutants such as ozone and fine particulate matter which vary nonlinearly with changes in emis...

141

Response Surface Modeling Using Multivariate Orthogonal Functions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A nonlinear modeling technique was used to characterize response surfaces for non-dimensional longitudinal aerodynamic force and moment coefficients, based on wind tunnel data from a commercial jet transport model. Data were collected using two experimental procedures - one based on modem design of experiments (MDOE), and one using a classical one factor at a time (OFAT) approach. The nonlinear modeling technique used multivariate orthogonal functions generated from the independent variable data as modeling functions in a least squares context to characterize the response surfaces. Model terms were selected automatically using a prediction error metric. Prediction error bounds computed from the modeling data alone were found to be- a good measure of actual prediction error for prediction points within the inference space. Root-mean-square model fit error and prediction error were less than 4 percent of the mean response value in all cases. Efficacy and prediction performance of the response surface models identified from both MDOE and OFAT experiments were investigated.

Morelli, Eugene A.; DeLoach, Richard

2001-01-01

142

Generalized IRT Models for Extreme Response Style  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extreme response style (ERS) is a systematic tendency for a person to endorse extreme options (e.g., strongly disagree, strongly agree) on Likert-type or rating-scale items. In this study, we develop a new class of item response theory (IRT) models to account for ERS so that the target latent trait is free from the response style and the tendency…

Jin, Kuan-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung

2014-01-01

143

A model and typology of collaboration between professionals in healthcare organizations  

PubMed Central

Background The new forms of organization of healthcare services entail the development of new clinical practices that are grounded in collaboration. Despite recent advances in research on the subject of collaboration, there is still a need for a better understanding of collaborative processes and for conceptual tools to help healthcare professionals develop collaboration amongst themselves in complex systems. This study draws on D'Amour's structuration model of collaboration to analyze healthcare facilities offering perinatal services in four health regions in the province of Quebec. The objectives are to: 1) validate the indicators of the structuration model of collaboration; 2) evaluate interprofessional and interorganizational collaboration in four health regions; and 3) propose a typology of collaboration Methods A multiple-case research strategy was used. The cases were the healthcare facilities that offer perinatal services in four health regions in the province of Quebec (Canada). The data were collected through 33 semi-structured interviews with healthcare managers and professionals working in the four regions. Written material was also analyzed. The data were subjected to a "mixed" inductive-deductive analysis conducted in two main stages: an internal analysis of each case followed by a cross-sectional analysis of all the cases. Results The collaboration indicators were shown to be valid, although some changes were made to three of them. Analysis of the data showed great variation in the level of collaboration between the cases and on each dimension. The results suggest a three-level typology of collaboration based on the ten indicators: active collaboration, developing collaboration and potential collaboration. Conclusion The model and the typology make it possible to analyze collaboration and identify areas for improvement. Researchers can use the indicators to determine the intensity of collaboration and link it to clinical outcomes. Professionals and administrators can use the model to perform a diagnostic of collaboration and implement interventions to intensify it. PMID:18803881

D'Amour, Danielle; Goulet, Lise; Labadie, Jean-Francois; Martin-Rodriguez, Leticia San; Pineault, Raynald

2008-01-01

144

The Arctic Climate Modeling Program: K-12 Geoscience Professional Development for Rural Educators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helping teachers and students connect with scientists is the heart of the Arctic Climate Modeling Program (ACMP), funded from 2005-09 by the National Science Foundation’s Innovative Technology Experience for Students and Teachers. ACMP offered progressive yearlong science, technology and math (STM) professional development that prepared teachers to train youth in workforce technologies used in Arctic research. ACMP was created for the Bering Strait School District, a geographically isolated area with low standardized test scores, high dropout rates, and poverty. Scientists from around the globe have converged in this region and other areas of the Arctic to observe and measure changes in climate that are significant, accelerating, and unlike any in recorded history. Climate literacy (the ability to understand Earth system science and to make scientifically informed decisions about climate changes) has become essential for this population. Program resources were designed in collaboration with scientists to mimic the processes used to study Arctic climate. Because the Bering Strait School District serves a 98 percent Alaska Native student population, ACMP focused on best practices shown to increase the success of minority students. Significant research indicates that Alaska Native students succeed academically at higher rates when instruction addresses topics of local interest, links education to the students’ physical and cultural environment, uses local knowledge and culture in the curriculum, and incorporates hands-on, inquiry-based lessons in the classroom. A seven-partner consortium of research institutes and Alaska Native corporations created ACMP to help teachers understand their role in nurturing STM talent and motivating students to explore geoscience careers. Research underscores the importance of increasing school emphasis in content areas, such as climate, that facilitate global awareness and civic responsibility, and that foster critical thinking and other 21st century learning skills. Climate studies offer insight into a broad cross-section of STM careers, and provide a natural forum for helping students develop problem-solving skills inherent in STM research. Climate research involves sophisticated technology, a complex set of 21st century skills, and the ability to collaborate with an international community. Professional development that trains teachers in these skills is essential considering that recent research shows 90 percent of U.S. secondary students are taught Earth and physical science by a teacher lacking STM certification. ACMP summative evaluation posed three questions: 1) Did ACMP training meet teachers’ needs? 2) Did ACMP involvement result in more effective teachers and teaching? 3) Did participation in ACMP result in higher Bering Strait School District student achievement? Teachers and students were evaluated using a mixed method design incorporating descriptive components with a before/after design to measure what teachers and students learned. Community members, 165 teachers, and 1,738 individual students participated in the program, which was successful in its goals overall.

Bertram, K. B.

2009-12-01

145

Market response models and marketing practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Market response models are intended to help scholars and managers understand how consumers individually and collectively respond to marketing activities, and how competitors interact. Appropriately estimated effects constitute a basis for improved decision making in marketing. We review the demand and supply of market response models and we highlight areas of future growth. We discuss two characteristics that favour

Dominique M. Hanssens; Peter S. H. Leeflang; Dick R. Wittink

2005-01-01

146

Identification of a Semiparametric Item Response Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We consider the identification of a semiparametric multidimensional fixed effects item response model. Item response models are typically estimated under parametric assumptions about the shape of the item characteristic curves (ICCs), and existing results suggest difficulties in recovering the distribution of individual characteristics under…

Peress, Michael

2012-01-01

147

On Compensation in Multidimensional Response Modeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of compensation in multidimensional response modeling is addressed. We show that multidimensional response models are compensatory in their ability parameters if and only if they are monotone. In addition, a minimal set of assumptions is presented under which the MLEs of the ability parameters are also compensatory. In a recent series of…

van der Linden, Wim J.

2012-01-01

148

Influence of Constructivist Professional Development on Chemistry Content Knowledge and Scientific Model Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between teachers’ ( N = 69) participation in constructivist chemistry professional development (PD) and enhancement of content (CK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) (representational thinking and conceptual change strategies) and self-efficacy (PSTE). Quantitative measures assessed CK, PCK, and PSTE. Document analysis focused on PCK. Elementary teachers gained CK, PCK, PSTE, and designed lessons to advance thinking from macroscopic to abstract models. Middle/secondary teachers gained PSTE, PCK, and introduced macroscopic models to develop understanding of previously taught abstract models. All implemented representational thinking and conceptual change strategies. Results suggest that: (1) constructivist PD meets the needs of teachers of varying CK, and (2) instruction should connect representational models with alternative conceptions, integrating radical and social constructivism.

Khourey-Bowers, Claudia; Fenk, Christopher

2009-10-01

149

Analysis of the Response Speed of Musculature of the Knee in Professional Male and Female Volleyball Players  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the normalized response speed (Vrn) of the knee musculature (flexor and extensor) in high competitive level volleyball players using tensiomyography (TMG) and to analyze the muscular response of the vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris (BF) in accordance with the specific position they play in their teams. One hundred and sixty-six players (83 women and 83 men) were evaluated. They belonged to eight teams in the Spanish women's superleague and eight in the Spanish men's superleague. The use of Vrn allows avoiding possible sample imbalances due to anatomical and functional differences and demands. We found differences between Vrn in each of the muscles responsible for extension (VM, RF, and VL) and flexion (BF) regardless of the sex. Normalized response speed differences seem to be larger in setters, liberos and outside players compared to middle blockers and larger in males when compared to females. These results of Vrn might respond to the differences in the physical and technical demands of each specific position, showing an improved balance response of the knee extensor and flexor musculature in male professional volleyball players. PMID:25003109

Rodriguez-Ruiz, D.; Diez-Vega, I.; Rodriguez-Matoso, D.; Fernandez-del-Valle, M.; Sagastume, R.; Molina, J. J.

2014-01-01

150

Professional Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews "Investigating Mathematics with Young Children" (Althouse); "Homecoming for Babies after the Neonatal Intensive Care Nursery: A Guide for Parents," with companion guide for professionals (Hanson and VandenBerg); "HIV/AIDS: A Challenge to Us All," with companion video (Pediatric AIDS Foundation); and "Modeling Healthy Behavior: Actions and…

Shaw, Jean M.; And Others

1995-01-01

151

Mixed MNL models for discrete response  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers mixed, or random coefficients, multinomial logit (MMNL) models for discrete response, and establishes the following results. Under mild regularity conditions, any discrete choice model derived from random utility maximization has choice probabilities that can be approximated as closely as one pleases by a MMNL model. Practical estimation of a parametric mixing family can be carried out by

Daniel McFadden; Kenneth Train

2000-01-01

152

An Adolescent-targeted HIV Prevention Project Using African Professional Soccer Players as Role Models and Educators in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calamitous effects of HIV in Africa demand novel approaches to prevention. Young people are an ideal target as early intervention\\u000a may have long-term benefits. Given their high social status, professional soccer players may be effective in HIV education\\u000a as role models and educators. In our study, professional soccer players provided HIV education in an interactive curriculum\\u000a for 7th grade

Thomas S. Clark; Gerhard K. Friedrich; Methembe Ndlovu; Torsten B. Neilands; Willi McFarland

2006-01-01

153

Teachers, Families, and Communities Supporting English Language Learners in Inclusive Pre-Kindergartens: An Evaluation of a Professional Development Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the Teachers, Families, and Communities Supporting English Language Learners (TFC) project was to implement and evaluate a sustainable model of high-quality professional development focused on improving inclusive pre-kindergarten services for English Language Learners (ELL) and their families. The professional development program consisted of three interactive training sessions and on-site classroom coaching visits. The project evaluation consisted of

Belinda J. Hardin; Joanna K. Lower; Gretchen Robinson Smallwood; Swetha Chakravarthi; Linlin Li; Carol Jordan

2010-01-01

154

Modelling event-related skin conductance responses.  

PubMed

Analytic tools for psychophysiological signals often make implicit assumptions that are unspecified. In developing a mathematical framework for analysis of skin conductance responses [SCRs], we formalise our assumptions by positing that SCRs can be regarded as the output of a linear time-invariant filter. Here, we provide an empirical test of these assumptions. Our findings indicate that a large component of the variance in SCRs can be explained by one response function per individual. We note that baseline variance (i.e. variance in the absence of evoked responses) is higher than variance that could not be explained by a linear time-invariant model of evoked responses. Furthermore, there was no evidence for nonlinear interactions among evoked responses that depended on their temporal overlap. We develop a canonical response function and show that it can be used for signals from different recording sites. We discuss the implications of these observations for model-based analysis of SCRs. PMID:20093150

Bach, Dominik R; Flandin, Guillaume; Friston, Karl J; Dolan, Raymond J

2010-03-01

155

Bayesian Estimation and Model Choice in Item Response Models  

E-print Network

Bayesian Estimation and Model Choice in Item Response Models Sujit K. Sahu Faculty of Mathematical Studies, University of Southampton, High#12;eld, Southampton, UK. Email: S.K.Sahu@maths.soton.ac.uk April

Sahu, Sujit K

156

Convolution models for induced electromagnetic responses  

PubMed Central

In Kilner et al. [Kilner, J.M., Kiebel, S.J., Friston, K.J., 2005. Applications of random field theory to electrophysiology. Neurosci. Lett. 374, 174–178.] we described a fairly general analysis of induced responses—in electromagnetic brain signals—using the summary statistic approach and statistical parametric mapping. This involves localising induced responses—in peristimulus time and frequency—by testing for effects in time–frequency images that summarise the response of each subject to each trial type. Conventionally, these time–frequency summaries are estimated using post?hoc averaging of epoched data. However, post?hoc averaging of this sort fails when the induced responses overlap or when there are multiple response components that have variable timing within each trial (for example stimulus and response components associated with different reaction times). In these situations, it is advantageous to estimate response components using a convolution model of the sort that is standard in the analysis of fMRI time series. In this paper, we describe one such approach, based upon ordinary least squares deconvolution of induced responses to input functions encoding the onset of different components within each trial. There are a number of fundamental advantages to this approach: for example; (i) one can disambiguate induced responses to stimulus onsets and variably timed responses; (ii) one can test for the modulation of induced responses—over peristimulus time and frequency—by parametric experimental factors and (iii) one can gracefully handle confounds—such as slow drifts in power—by including them in the model. In what follows, we consider optimal forms for convolution models of induced responses, in terms of impulse response basis function sets and illustrate the utility of deconvolution estimators using simulated and real MEG data. PMID:22982359

Litvak, Vladimir; Jha, Ashwani; Flandin, Guillaume; Friston, Karl

2013-01-01

157

Equating Tests under the Graded Response Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The procedure of M.L. Stocking and F.M. Lord (1983) for computing equating coefficients for tests having dichotomously scored items is extended to the case of graded response items. A system of equations for obtaining the equating coefficients under the graded response model is derived. (SLD)

Baker, Frank B.

1992-01-01

158

Closing the Gap: The Impact of Professional Development on Faculty Attitudes toward Culturally Responsive Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a yearlong case study on the impact of a faculty development program designed to improve learning opportunities for Latina women by encouraging the use of culturally responsive pedagogy. Although the study concluded before changes in faculty practice could be documented, it did find evidence of changes in faculty attitudes…

Haviland, Don; Rodriguez-Kiino, Diane

2009-01-01

159

Addressing the Gap between Case Law and Professional Practice: A Response to Zirkel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, authors Carl Smith, Antonis Katsiyannis, and Joseph Ryan respond to Zirkel's most recent article, "The Law in the Special Education Literature: A Brief Legal Critique," published in this issue of "Behavioral Disorders." Smith, Katsiyannis, and Ryan begin their response by saying that "The Law in the…

Smith, Carl; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ryan, Joseph

2014-01-01

160

Evaluation of an Audience Response System for the Continuing Education of Health Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Continuing medical education (CME) for physicians and other health personnel is becoming increasingly important in light of recertification requirements. Interactive learning is more effective and may be useful in a continuing education setting. This study examines the use of an audience response system (ARS) as an interactive…

Miller, Redonda G.; Ashar, Bimal H.; Getz, Kelly J.

2003-01-01

161

Stiffening Response of a Cellular Tensegrity Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Living cells exhibit, as most biological tissues, a stiffening (strain-hardening) response which reflects the nonlinearity of the stress–strain relationship. Tensegrity structures have been proposed as a comprehensive model of such a cell's mechanical response. Based on a theoretical model of a 30-element tensegrity structure, we propose a quantitative analysis of its nonlinear mechanical behavior under static conditions and large deformations.

Sylvie Wendling; Christian Oddou; Daniel Isabey

1999-01-01

162

Implementing inquiry-based kits within a professional development school model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implementation of guided inquiry teaching for the first time carries inherent problems for science teachers. Reform efforts on inquiry-based science teaching are often unsustainable and are not sensitive to teachers' needs and abilities as professionals. Professional development schools are meant to provide a research-based partnership between a public school and a university. These collaborations can provide support for the professional

Mark Thomas Jones

2005-01-01

163

Implementing inquiry-based kits within a professional development school model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Implementation of guided inquiry teaching for the first time carries inherent problems for science teachers. Reform efforts on inquiry-based science teaching are often unsustainable and are not sensitive to teachers' needs and abilities as professionals. Professional development schools are meant to provide a research-based partnership between a public school and a university. These collaborations can provide support for the professional development of teachers. This dissertation reports a study focused on the implementation of inquiry-based science kits within the support of one of these collaborations. The researcher describes the difficulties and successful adaptations experienced by science teachers and how a coteaching model provided support. These types of data are needed in order to develop a bottom-up, sustainable process that will allow teachers to implement inquiry-based science. A qualitative methodology with "researcher as participant" was used in this study of two science teachers during 2002--2003. These two teachers were supported by a coteaching model, which included preservice teachers for each teacher as well as a supervising professor. Data were collected from the researcher's direct observations of coteachers' practice. Data were also collected from interviews and reflective pieces from the coteachers. Triangulation of the data on each teacher's case supported the validity of the findings. Case reports were prepared from these data for each classroom teacher. These case reports were used and cross-case analysis was conducted to search for major themes and findings in the study. Major findings described the hurdles teachers encounter, examples of adaptations observed in the teachers' cases and the supportive interactions with their coteachers while implementing the inquiry-based kits. In addition, the data were used to make recommendations for future training and use of the kits and the coteaching model. Results from this study showed that the kit's guided structure of inquiry and the collaboration both affected the inservice teachers in the following ways: The coteaching model supported behavioral and material management issues caused by the implementation of the kits; collaboration with preservice teachers created a "smaller-class-size" effect, which allowed teachers to attend to a smaller number of students for cooperative learning and assessment, and the elementary inservice teachers learned pedagogical strategies and science content from collaborating with secondary preservice teachers in kit use and from the kits' curriculum. Results were used as a self-study for future training and support for implementation of inquiry-based kits.

Jones, Mark Thomas

164

Development and evaluation of an innovative model of inter-professional education focused on asthma medication use  

PubMed Central

Background Inter-professional learning has been promoted as the solution to many clinical management issues. One such issue is the correct use of asthma inhaler devices. Up to 80% of people with asthma use their inhaler device incorrectly. The implications of this are poor asthma control and quality of life. Correct inhaler technique can be taught, however these educational instructions need to be repeated if correct technique is to be maintained. It is important to maximise the opportunities to deliver this education in primary care. In light of this, it is important to explore how health care providers, in particular pharmacists and general medical practitioners, can work together in delivering inhaler technique education to patients, over time. Therefore, there is a need to develop and evaluate effective inter-professional education, which will address the need to educate patients in the correct use of their inhalers as well as equip health care professionals with skills to engage in collaborative relationships with each other. Methods This mixed methods study involves the development and evaluation of three modules of continuing education, Model 1, Model 2 and Model 3. A fourth group, Model 4, acting as a control. Model 1 consists of face-to-face continuing professional education on asthma inhaler technique, aimed at pharmacists, general medical practitioners and their practice nurses. Model 2 is an electronic online continuing education module based on Model 1 principles. Model 3 is also based on asthma inhaler technique education but employs a learning intervention targeting health care professional relationships and is based on sociocultural theory. This study took the form of a parallel group, repeated measure design. Following the completion of continuing professional education, health care professionals recruited people with asthma and followed them up for 6 months. During this period, inhaler device technique training was delivered and data on patient inhaler technique, clinical and humanistic outcomes were collected. Outcomes related to professional collaborative relationships were also measured. Discussion Challenges presented included the requirement of significant financial resources for development of study materials and limited availability of validated tools to measure health care professional collaboration over time. PMID:24708800

2014-01-01

165

The Safe Environment for Every Kid Model: Impact on Pediatric Primary Care Professionals  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the Safe Environment for Every Kid (SEEK) model of enhanced primary care would improve the attitudes, knowledge, comfort, competence, and behavior of child health care professionals (HPs) regarding addressing major risk factors for child maltreatment (CM). METHODS: In a cluster randomized controlled trial, 18 private practices were assigned to intervention (SEEK) or control groups. SEEK HPs received training on CM risk factors (eg, maternal depression). The SEEK model included the parent screening questionnaire and the participation of a social worker. SEEK's impact was evaluated in 3 ways: (1) the health professional questionnaire (HPQ), which assessed HPs' attitudes and practice regarding the targeted problems; (2) observations of HPs conducting checkups; and (3) review of children's medical records. RESULTS: The 102 HPs averaged 45 years of age; 68% were female, and 74% were in suburban practices. Comparing baseline scores with 6-, 18-, and 36-month follow-up data, the HPQ revealed significant (P < .05) improvement in the SEEK group compared with controls on addressing depression (6 months), substance abuse (18 months), intimate partner violence (6 and 18 months), and stress (6, 18, and 36 months), and in their comfort level and perceived competence (both at 6, 18, and 36 months). SEEK HPs screened for targeted problems more often than did controls based on observations 24 months after the initial training and the medical records (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The SEEK model led to significant and sustained improvement in several areas. This is a crucial first step in helping HPs address major psychosocial problems that confront many families. SEEK offers a modest yet promising enhancement of primary care. PMID:21444590

Lane, Wendy G.; Semiatin, Joshua N.; Magder, Laurence S.; Venepally, Mamata; Jans, Merel

2011-01-01

166

Professional responsibilities versus familial responsibilities: an examination of role conflict among first responders during the Hurricane Katrina disaster.  

PubMed

In the event of a human-caused or natural disaster, the police are essential front-line first responders. The ability of police departments to provide adequate services is contingent upon critical response personnel working and functioning in an efficient manner. Currently, it is assumed that first responders will continue to work in the event of a disaster, even if they are personally impacted by the disaster to which they are expected to respond. This study examines role conflict among police officers who served as first responders during the Hurricane Katrina disaster. PMID:24691915

Adams, Terri; Turner, Mila

2014-01-01

167

Teaching Science Using Guided Inquiry as the Central Theme: A Professional Development Model for High School Science Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author describes a professional development model for high school science teachers based on the framework of inquiry and science standards. The "Learn-Teach-Assess Inquiry" model focuses on guided inquiry labs as the central theme and builds on these labs to reinforce science concepts and abilities to understand and engage in inquiry in…

Banerjee, Anil

2010-01-01

168

Early transcriptional responses of internalization defective Brucella abortus mutants in professional phagocytes, RAW 264.7  

PubMed Central

Background Brucella abortus is an intracellular zoonotic pathogen which causes undulant fever, endocarditis, arthritis and osteomyelitis in human and abortion and infertility in cattle. This bacterium is able to invade and replicate in host macrophage instead of getting removed by this defense mechanism. Therefore, understanding the interaction between virulence of the bacteria and the host cell is important to control brucellosis. Previously, we generated internalization defective mutants and analyzed the envelope proteins. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the changes in early transcriptional responses between wild type and internalization defective mutants infected mouse macrophage, RAW 264.7. Results Both of the wild type and mutant infected macrophages showed increased expression levels in proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, apoptosis and G-protein coupled receptors (Gpr84, Gpr109a and Adora2b) while the genes related with small GTPase which mediate intracellular trafficking was decreased. Moreover, cytohesin 1 interacting protein (Cytip) and genes related to ubiquitination (Arrdc3 and Fbxo21) were down-regulated, suggesting the survival strategy of this bacterium. However, we could not detect any significant changes in the mutant infected groups compared to the wild type infected group. Conclusions In summary, it was very difficult to clarify the alterations in host cellular transcription in response to infection with internalization defective mutants. However, we found several novel gene changes related to the GPCR system, ubiquitin-proteosome system, and growth arrest and DNA damages in response to B. abortus infection. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying host-pathogen interactions and need to be studied further. PMID:23802650

2013-01-01

169

The sweating response of elite professional soccer players to training in the heat.  

PubMed

Sweat rate and sweat composition vary extensively between individuals, and quantification of these losses has a role to play in the individualisation of a hydration strategy to optimise training and competitive performance. Data were collected from 26 male professional football (soccer) players during one 90 min pre-season training session. This was the 2nd training session of the day, carried out between 19.30 and 21.00 h when the mean +/- SD environment was 32 +/- 3 degrees C, 20 +/- 5 %rh and WBGT 22 +/- 2 degrees C. Training consisted of interval running and 6-a-side games during which the average heart rate was 136 +/- 7 bpm with a maximum rate of 178 +/- 7 bpm (n = 19). Before and after training all players were weighed nude. During training all players had free access to sports drinks (Gatorade) and mineral water (Solan de Cabras). All drink bottles were weighed before and after training. Players were instructed to drink only from their own bottles and not to spit out any drink. No player urinated during the training session. Sweat was collected by patches from the chest, arm, back, and thigh of a subgroup of 7 players. These remained in place for the first 15 - 30 min of the training session, and sweat was analysed for sodium (Na (+)) and potassium (K (+)) concentration. Body mass loss was 1.23 +/- 0.50 kg (ranging from 0.50 to 2.55 kg), equivalent to dehydration of 1.59 +/- 0.61 % of pre-training body mass. The sweat volume lost was 2193 +/- 365 ml (1672 to 3138 ml), but only 972 +/- 335 ml (239 to 1724 ml) of fluid was consumed. 45 +/- 16 % of the sweat volume loss was replaced, but this ranged from 9 % to 73 %. The Na (+) concentration of the subgroup's sweat was 30.2 +/- 18.8 mmol/l (15.5 to 66.3 mmol/l) and Na (+) losses averaged 67 +/- 37 mmol (26 to 129 mmol). The K (+) concentration of the sweat was 3.58 +/- 0.56 mmol/l (2.96 to 4.50 mmol/l) and K (+) losses averaged 8 +/- 2 mmol (5 to 12 mmol). The drinking employed by these players meant that only 23 +/- 21 % of the sweat Na (+) losses were replaced: This ranged from replacing virtually none (when water was the only drink) to replacing 62 % when the sports drink was consumed. These elite soccer players did not drink sufficient volume to replace their sweat loss. This, however, is in accord with data in the literature from other levels of soccer players and athletes in other events. These measurements allow for an individualisation of the club's hydration strategy. PMID:15726482

Shirreffs, S M; Aragon-Vargas, L F; Chamorro, M; Maughan, R J; Serratosa, L; Zachwieja, J J

2005-03-01

170

Neglected ethical dimensions of the professional liability crisis.  

PubMed

In response to the professional liability crisis, self-interest can become dominant and displace fiduciary professionalism from its central place in the moral lives of physicians and physician leaders. We provide preventive ethics tools to address this neglected ethical dimension of the professional liability crisis. We develop these tools on the basis of the concept of the physician as fiduciary of the patient, which was introduced in the English-language literature of medical ethics by Dr John Gregory (1714-1773). These tools are designed to preserve and strengthen 4 professional virtues: integrity, compassion, self-effacement, and self-sacrifice. Acceptable and unacceptable responses to the professional liability crisis are identified with the use of these 4 virtues. These virtues should be supported by an organizational culture of fiduciary professionalism. An organizational culture that is shaped by these 4 professional virtues should be used by physicians and physician leaders to create ethical best-practice models. PMID:15167818

Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B

2004-05-01

171

Shell model response analysis of buried pipelines  

SciTech Connect

A shell model analysis can calculate the cross-sectional deformation and hoop stress of buried pipelines. This paper proposes an analytical method to calculate the response of buried straight and bent pipelines modeled as cylindrical shell structures. A modified transfer matrix method is employed instead of a stiffness matrix method to avoid the problem of computational memory caused by huge matrixes. Results calculated by the developed program are compared with experimental ones obtained by a pipe bending test of straight and bent pipe segments. In addition, several differences of the pipe response between the beam model and the shell model are examined through response simulations of straight and bent pipelines subjected to ground subsidence.

Takada, Shiro [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Architecture; Katagiri, Shin [Kubota Co., Ltd., Sakai, Osaka (Japan). Plastic Pipe R and D Dept.; Shinmi, Tatsuhiko [Kobe City Office (Japan)

1995-12-31

172

Responsibilities in Mentoring and Advising of International Students: Graduate and Professional Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the dynamism and productive qualities of multicultural interaction, a chromosomal bivalency model was borrowed from the biological sciences. Dilemmas inherent in contact between cultures emerge from the sites of multicultural conflict. Understanding these dilemmas allows interactants to have insights into other cultures as well as into…

Shaver, Paul M.

173

Program evaluation of a model to integrate internationally educated health professionals into clinical practice  

PubMed Central

Background The demand for health professionals continues to increase, partially due to the aging population and the high proportion of practitioners nearing retirement. The University of British Columbia (UBC) has developed a program to address this demand, by providing support for internationally trained Physiotherapists in their preparation for taking the National Physiotherapy competency examinations. The aim was to create a program comprised of the educational tools and infrastructure to support internationally educated physiotherapists (IEPs) in their preparation for entry to practice in Canada and, to improve their pass rate on the national competency examination. Methods The program was developed using a logic model and evaluated using program evaluation methodology. Program tools and resources included educational modules and curricular packages which were developed and refined based on feedback from clinical experts, IEPs and clinical physical therapy mentors. An examination bank was created and used to include test-enhanced education. Clinical mentors were recruited and trained to provide clinical and cultural support for participants. Results The IEP program has recruited 124 IEPs, with 69 now integrated into the Canadian physiotherapy workforce, and more IEPs continuing to apply to the program. International graduates who participated in the program had an improved pass rate on the national Physiotherapy Competency Examination (PCE); participation in the program resulted in them having a 28% (95% CI, 2% to 59%) greater possibility of passing the written section than their counterparts who did not take the program. In 2010, 81% of all IEP candidates who completed the UBC program passed the written component, and 82% passed the clinical component. Conclusion The program has proven to be successful and sustainable. This program model could be replicated to support the successful integration of other international health professionals into the workforce. PMID:24119470

2013-01-01

174

An entrustable professional activity (EPA) for handoffs as a model for EPA assessment development.  

PubMed

Medical education is moving toward assessment of educational outcomes rather than educational processes. The American Board of Internal Medicine and American Board of Pediatrics milestones and the concept of entrustable professional activities (EPA)--skills essential to the practice of medicine that educators progressively entrust learners to perform--provide new approaches to assessing outcomes. Although some defined EPAs exist for internal medicine and pediatrics, the continued development and implementation of EPAs remains challenging. As residency programs are expected to begin reporting milestone-based performance, however, they will need examples of how to overcome these challenges. The authors describe a model for the development and implementation of an EPA using the resident handoff as an example. The model includes nine steps: selecting the EPA, determining where skills are practiced and assessed, addressing barriers to assessment, determining components of the EPA, determining needed assessment tools, developing new assessments if needed, determining criteria for advancement through entrustment levels, mapping milestones to the EPA, and faculty development. Following implementation, 78% of interns at the University of Minnesota Medical School were observed giving handoffs and provided feedback. The authors suggest that this model of EPA development--which includes engaging stakeholders, an iterative process to describing the behavioral characteristics of each domain at each level of entrustment, and the development of specific assessment tools that support both formative feedback and summative decisions about entrustment--can serve as a model for EPA development for other clinical skills and specialty areas. PMID:24892402

Aylward, Michael; Nixon, James; Gladding, Sophia

2014-10-01

175

Evaluating the Culturally Relevant and Responsive Education Professional Development Program at the Elementary School Level in the Los Angeles Unified School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The overall effectiveness of the culturally relevant and responsive education (CRRE) professional development program in the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) was evaluated. Recruitment procedures included general and special educators and school administrators as participants. The "CRRE Observation Coding Scheme" and reflective field…

Patton, Daniel C.

2011-01-01

176

Combustion response modeling for composite solid propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computerized mathematical model of the combustion response function of composite solid propellants was developed with particular attention to the contributions of the solid phase heterogeneity. The one-dimensional model treats the solid phase as alternating layers of ammonium perchlorate and binder, with an exothermic melt layer at the surface. Solution of the Fourier heat equation in the solid provides temperature and heat flux distributions with space and time. The problem is solved by conserving the heat flux at the surface from that produced by a suitable model of the gas phase. An approximation of the BDP flame model is utilized to represent the gas phase. By the use of several reasonable assumptions, it is found that a significant portion of the problem can be solved in closed form. A method is presented by which the model can be applied to tetramodal particle size distributions. A computerized steady-state version of the model was completed, which served to validate the various approximations and lay a foundation for the combustion response modeling. The combustion response modeling was completed in a form which does not require an iterative solution, and some preliminary results were acquired.

1977-01-01

177

Modeling satellite drag coefficients with response surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite drag coefficients are a major source of uncertainty in predicting the drag force on satellites in low Earth orbit. Among other things, accurately predicting the orbit requires detailed knowledge of the satellite drag coefficient. Computational methods are an important tool in computing the drag coefficient but are too intensive for real-time and predictive applications. Therefore, analytic or empirical models that can accurately predict drag coefficients are desired. This work uses response surfaces to model drag coefficients. The response surface methodology is validated by developing a response surface model for the drag coefficient of a sphere where the closed-form solution is known. The response surface model performs well in predicting the drag coefficient of a sphere with a root mean square percentage error less than 0.3% over the entire parameter space. For more complex geometries, such as the GRACE satellite, the Hubble Space Telescope, and the International Space Station, the model errors are only slightly larger at about 0.9%, 0.6%, and 1.0%, respectively.

Mehta, Piyush M.; Walker, Andrew; Lawrence, Earl; Linares, Richard; Higdon, David; Koller, Josef

2014-10-01

178

Market Response ModelsMarket Response Models Demand CreationDemand Creation  

E-print Network

;8 The New Marketing StrategyThe New Marketing Strategy Importance of Marketing InvestmentsMarket Response ModelsMarket Response Models andand Demand CreationDemand Creation Dominique M 2005 UCLA Anderson School of Management and Marketing Science Institute #12;2 OverviewOverview What

Brock, David

179

Case Study -Hypothetical Immunological Response Model Graph Transformation Rules  

E-print Network

Case Study - Hypothetical Immunological Response Model Graph Transformation Rules Mayur Bapodra of a hypothetical model of cellular viral infection and subsequent immunological response for some imagined multi

St Andrews, University of

180

Affective-Cognitive Training (ACT). A Professional Development Model for Career Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description is given of an inservice faculty development model for career education awareness which successfully produced affective and cognitive training by developing (1) awareness of and (2) response to the career education movement, and (3) knowledge of and (4) application of career education concepts, issues, and materials. (MJB)

Urbach, Floyd D.

1977-01-01

181

The Adaptive Calibration Model of stress responsivity  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the Adaptive Calibration Model (ACM), an evolutionary-developmental theory of individual differences in the functioning of the stress response system. The stress response system has three main biological functions: (1) to coordinate the organism’s allostatic response to physical and psychosocial challenges; (2) to encode and filter information about the organism’s social and physical environment, mediating the organism’s openness to environmental inputs; and (3) to regulate the organism’s physiology and behavior in a broad range of fitness-relevant areas including defensive behaviors, competitive risk-taking, learning, attachment, affiliation and reproductive functioning. The information encoded by the system during development feeds back on the long-term calibration of the system itself, resulting in adaptive patterns of responsivity and individual differences in behavior. Drawing on evolutionary life history theory, we build a model of the development of stress responsivity across life stages, describe four prototypical responsivity patterns, and discuss the emergence and meaning of sex differences. The ACM extends the theory of biological sensitivity to context (BSC) and provides an integrative framework for future research in the field. PMID:21145350

Ellis, Bruce J.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.

2010-01-01

182

Modeling and Measuring the Structure of Professional Vision in Preservice Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professional vision has been identified as an important element of teacher expertise that can be developed in teacher education. It describes the use of knowledge to notice and interpret significant features of classroom situations. Three aspects of professional vision have been described by qualitative research: describe, explain, and predict…

Seidel, Tina; Stürmer, Kathleen

2014-01-01

183

Sport Education for Teachers: Professional Development when Introducing a Novel Curriculum Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to provide a description of an on-site professional development program for Russian teachers as they learned to teach Sport Education. A concurrent objective was to investigate the effectiveness of this professional development opportunity. Participants were two physical education teachers (one with 27 and one with 3…

Sinelnikov, Oleg A.

2009-01-01

184

Sport Education for Teachers: Professional Development When Introducing a Novel Curriculum Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to provide a description of an on-site professional development program for Russian teachers as they learned to teach Sport Education. A concurrent objective was to investigate the effectiveness of this professional development opportunity. Participants were two physical education teachers (one with 27 and one with 3 years of experience) who taught separate sixth grade

Oleg A. Sinelnikov

2009-01-01

185

Evaluation of Online, On-Demand Science Professional Development Material Involving Two Different Implementation Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents pilot-test results for a science professional development program featuring online, on-demand materials developed by the National Science Teachers Association. During the spring 2006 semester, 45 middle school teachers from three different school districts across the United States participated in a professional development…

Sherman, Greg; Byers, Al; Rapp, Steve

2008-01-01

186

Constructing a Flexible Model of Integrated Professional Practice: Part 3--The Model in Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the third in a series of papers exploring the Constructionist Model of Informed Reasoned Action (COMOIRA). The first two papers articulated the theoretical and conceptual issues underpinning the model and explored some important process and practice issues associated with it. Initially, this paper discusses two important concepts that…

Rhydderch, Gillian; Gameson, John

2010-01-01

187

Human genome education model project. Ethical, legal, and social implications of the human genome project: Education of interdisciplinary professionals  

SciTech Connect

This meeting was held June 10, 1996 at Georgetown University. The purpose of this meeting was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the human genome education model. Topics of discussion include the following: psychosocial issues; ethical issues for professionals; legislative issues and update; and education issues.

Weiss, J.O. [Alliance of Genetic Support Groups, Chevy Chase, MD (United States); Lapham, E.V. [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States). Child Development Center

1996-12-31

188

Linkage analysis in cases of serial burglary: comparing the performance of university students, police professionals, and a logistic regression model  

Microsoft Academic Search

University students, police professionals, and a logistic regression model were provided with information on 38 pairs of burglaries, 20% of which were committed by the same offender, in order to examine their ability to accurately identify linked serial burglaries. For each offense pair, the information included: (1) the offense locations as points on a map, (2) the distance (in km)

Craig Bennell; Sarah Bloomfield; Brent Snook; Paul Taylor; Carolyn Barnes

2010-01-01

189

Turning the Corner: Towards a Model of Sustainable Collaborative Partnerships in Master's-Level Postgraduate Professional Development in England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines the approach of one higher education institution in England to the research dialogue involved in designing an M.A. Education programme that focuses on partnership collaborations in postgraduate professional development with school-based staff groups as a catalyst to sustainable school improvement. The paper draws on the model

Ibbotson, Julia

2008-01-01

190

Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the author's response to the reviews of his book, "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice." He begins by highlighting some of the main concerns of his book. He then offers a brief response, doing his best to address the main criticisms of his argument and noting where the four reviewers (Charlene…

Higgins, Chris

2012-01-01

191

Te Kotahitanga: A Case Study of a Repositioning Approach to Teacher Professional Development for Culturally Responsive Pedagogies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a case study of a unique New Zealand professional development programme, Te Kotahitanga, for mainstream secondary school teachers. Findings discussed are drawn from an independent evaluation of the programme across 22 secondary schools. The professional development approach attempted to reposition the relationship between…

Hynds, Anne; Sleeter, Christine; Hindle, Rawiri; Savage, Catherine; Penetito, Wally; Meyer, Luanna H.

2011-01-01

192

Professional development for teachers' improvement and students' outcomes in elementary schools: Responses of teachers, coaches, and administrative staff  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to explore why some elementary ETS benefited from professional development in terms of increased students' outcomes, while other ETS did not produce the same gains. The aim of this research was to analyze the degree of satisfaction and effectiveness of professional development by interviewing coaches, administrative staff and teachers to ascertain the extent to

Neelawattie Arjoon

2011-01-01

193

Lawyer Proliferation and the Social Responsibility Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on the model of social responsibility that colleges of business have been teaching, the boom in lawyer education is examined. It is argued that law schools are irresponsible in overselling the benefits of law school graduation, creating a surplus of lawyers whose abilities could be used as well elsewhere. (MSE)

Wines, William A.

1989-01-01

194

A Ballistic Model of Choice Response Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Almost all models of response time (RT) use a stochastic accumulation process. To account for the benchmark RT phenomena, researchers have found it necessary to include between-trial variability in the starting point and/or the rate of accumulation, both in linear (R. Ratcliff & J. N. Rouder, 1998) and nonlinear (M. Usher & J. L. McClelland, 2001)…

Brown, Scott; Heathcote, Andrew

2005-01-01

195

Testing Linear Models for Ability Parameters in Item Response Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methods for testing hypotheses concerning the regression parameters in linear models for the latent person parameters in item response models are presented. Three tests are outlined: A likelihood ratio test, a Lagrange multiplier test and a Wald test. The tests are derived in a marginal maximum likelihood framework. They are explicitly formulated…

Glas, Cees A. W.; Hendrawan, Irene

2005-01-01

196

Modeling the mechanical response of PBX 9501  

SciTech Connect

An engineering overview of the mechanical response of Plastic-Bonded eXplosives (PBXs), specifically PBX 9501, will be provided with emphasis on observed mechanisms associated with different types of mechanical testing. Mechanical tests in the form of uniaxial tension, compression, cyclic loading, creep (compression and tension), and Hopkinson bar show strain rate and temperature dependence. A range of mechanical behavior is observed which includes small strain recoverable response in the form of viscoelasticity; change in stiffness and softening beyond peak strength due to damage in the form microcracks, debonding, void formation and the growth of existing voids; inelastic response in the form of irrecoverable strain as shown in cyclic tests, and viscoelastic creep combined with plastic response as demonstrated in creep and recovery tests. The main focus of this paper is to elucidate the challenges and issues involved in modeling the mechanical behavior of PBXs for simulating thermo-mechanical responses in engineering components. Examples of validation of a constitutive material model based on a few of the observed mechanisms will be demonstrated against three point bending, split Hopkinson pressure bar and Brazilian disk geometry.

Ragaswamy, Partha [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lewis, Matthew W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liu, Cheng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, Darla G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

197

Modeling heterogeneous responsiveness of intrinsic apoptosis pathway  

PubMed Central

Background Apoptosis is a cell suicide mechanism that enables multicellular organisms to maintain homeostasis and to eliminate individual cells that threaten the organism’s survival. Dependent on the type of stimulus, apoptosis can be propagated by extrinsic pathway or intrinsic pathway. The comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanism of apoptotic signaling allows for development of mathematical models, aiming to elucidate dynamical and systems properties of apoptotic signaling networks. There have been extensive efforts in modeling deterministic apoptosis network accounting for average behavior of a population of cells. Cellular networks, however, are inherently stochastic and significant cell-to-cell variability in apoptosis response has been observed at single cell level. Results To address the inevitable randomness in the intrinsic apoptosis mechanism, we develop a theoretical and computational modeling framework of intrinsic apoptosis pathway at single-cell level, accounting for both deterministic and stochastic behavior. Our deterministic model, adapted from the well-accepted Fussenegger model, shows that an additional positive feedback between the executioner caspase and the initiator caspase plays a fundamental role in yielding the desired property of bistability. We then examine the impact of intrinsic fluctuations of biochemical reactions, viewed as intrinsic noise, and natural variation of protein concentrations, viewed as extrinsic noise, on behavior of the intrinsic apoptosis network. Histograms of the steady-state output at varying input levels show that the intrinsic noise could elicit a wider region of bistability over that of the deterministic model. However, the system stochasticity due to intrinsic fluctuations, such as the noise of steady-state response and the randomness of response delay, shows that the intrinsic noise in general is insufficient to produce significant cell-to-cell variations at physiologically relevant level of molecular numbers. Furthermore, the extrinsic noise represented by random variations of two key apoptotic proteins, namely Cytochrome C and inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAP), is modeled separately or in combination with intrinsic noise. The resultant stochasticity in the timing of intrinsic apoptosis response shows that the fluctuating protein variations can induce cell-to-cell stochastic variability at a quantitative level agreeing with experiments. Finally, simulations illustrate that the mean abundance of fluctuating IAP protein is positively correlated with the degree of cellular stochasticity of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. Conclusions Our theoretical and computational study shows that the pronounced non-genetic heterogeneity in intrinsic apoptosis responses among individual cells plausibly arises from extrinsic rather than intrinsic origin of fluctuations. In addition, it predicts that the IAP protein could serve as a potential therapeutic target for suppression of the cell-to-cell variation in the intrinsic apoptosis responsiveness. PMID:23875784

2013-01-01

198

Solar-stellar Coffee: A Model For Informal Interdisciplinary Professional Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Initiated at NCAR more than two years ago, solar-stellar coffee is a weekly informal discussion of recent papers that are relevant to solar and stellar physics. The purpose is to generate awareness of new papers, to discuss their connections to past and current work, and to encourage a broader and more interdisciplinary view of solar physics. The discussion is local, but traffic to the website (http://coffee.solar-stellar.org/) is global -- suggesting that solar and stellar astronomers around the world find value in this intelligent pre-filter for astro-ph and other sources (papers are selected by local participants). In addition to enhancing the preprint posting and reading habits of solar physicists (with the associated boost in citation rates), the weekly discussion also provides an interdisciplinary professional development opportunity for graduate students, postdocs, and early career scientists. The web page is driven by a simple set of scripts (available on request), so this interaction model can easily be replicated at other institutions for topics of local interest. The concept of solar-stellar coffee began with support from an NSF Astronomy & Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship under award AST-0401441. The National Center for Atmospheric Research is a federally funded research and development center sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

Metcalfe, Travis S.

2007-12-01

199

Models for institutional and professional accreditation of haemophilia centres in Italy.  

PubMed

The Health Commission of the Conference between the Italian State and Regions recognized the need to establish an institutional accreditation model for Haemophilia Centres (HCs) to be implemented by 21 Regions in order to provide patients with haemophilia and allied inherited coagulations disorders with high and uniform standards of care. The Italian National Blood Centre, on behalf of the Commission, convened a panel of clinicians, patients, experts, representatives from Regions and Ministry of Health. The agreed methodology included: systematic literature review and best practice collection, analysis of provisions and regulations of currently available services, priority setting, definition of principles and criteria for the development of recommendations on the optimal requirements for HCs. The result was the formulation of two recommendations sets. Two sets of recommendations were produced. The first concerns regional policy planning, in which the following aspects of comprehensive haemophilia care should be considered for implementation: monitoring and auditing, multidisciplinary approach to clinical care, protocols for emergency management, home treatment and its monitoring, patient registries, drug availability and procurement, recruitment and training of health care professionals. The second set concerns the accreditation process and lists 23 organizational requirements for level 1 HCs and 4 additional requirements for level 2 HCs. These recommendations help to provide Italian Regional Health Authorities with an organizational framework for the provision of comprehensive care to patients with inherited coagulation disorders based on current scientific evidence. PMID:23556420

Calizzani, G; Vaglio, S; Arcieri, R; Menichini, I; Tagliaferri, A; Antoncecchi, S; Carloni, M T; Breda, A; Santagostino, E; Ghirardini, A; Tamburrini, M R; Morfini, M; Mannucci, P M; Grazzini, G

2013-07-01

200

Organizational and media stress among professional football players: testing an achievement goal theory model.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate media and coach-athlete stress experienced by professional football players and their relationship to motivational variables by testing an achievement goal theory (AGT) stress model. In order to do so, we developed scales specifically designed to assess media and coach-athlete stress. Eighty-two elite football players (M(age) =25.17 years, SD=5.19) completed a series of questionnaires. Correlations and bootstrapping were used as primary statistical analyses, supplemented by LISREL, to test the hypotheses. Results revealed that a mastery climate was directly and negatively associated with coach-athlete stress, while a performance climate was directly and positively associated with coach-athlete stress. In addition, an indirect positive path between the performance climate and media stress was revealed through ego orientation. These findings support some of the key postulates of AGT; a mastery climate reduces the perception of stress among athletes, and the converse is true for a performance climate. Coaches of elite footballers are advised to try to reduce the emphasis on performance criteria because of its stress-reducing effects. PMID:21210857

Kristiansen, E; Halvari, H; Roberts, G C

2012-08-01

201

An accumulator model for responses and response times in tests based on the proportional hazards model.  

PubMed

Latent trait models for responses and response times in tests often lack a substantial interpretation in terms of a cognitive process model. This is a drawback because process models are helpful in clarifying the meaning of the latent traits. In the present paper, a new model for responses and response times in tests is presented. The model is based on the proportional hazards model for competing risks. Two processes are assumed, one reflecting the increase in knowledge and the second the tendency to discontinue. The processes can be characterized by two proportional hazards models whose baseline hazard functions correspond to the temporary increase in knowledge and discouragement. The model can be calibrated with marginal maximum likelihood estimation and an application of the ECM algorithm. Two tests of model fit are proposed. The amenability of the proposed approaches to model calibration and model evaluation is demonstrated in a simulation study. Finally, the model is used for the analysis of two empirical data sets. PMID:23992122

Ranger, Jochen; Kuhn, Jörg-Tobias

2014-11-01

202

A Flexible Latent Trait Model for Response Times in Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latent trait models for response times in tests have become popular recently. One challenge for response time modeling is the fact that the distribution of response times can differ considerably even in similar tests. In order to reduce the need for tailor-made models, a model is proposed that unifies two popular approaches to response time…

Ranger, Jochen; Kuhn, Jorg-Tobias

2012-01-01

203

Multiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation Response Effects of Radiation Quality and HypoxiaEffects of Radiation Quality and Hypoxia  

E-print Network

Multiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation Response Effects of Radiation Quality and HypoxiaEffects of Radiation Quality and Hypoxia Robert D. Stewart, Ph.D.Robert D. Stewart, Ph

Stewart, Robert D.

204

NGC1300 dynamics - II. The response models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the stellar response in a spectrum of potentials describing the barred spiral galaxy NGC1300. These potentials have been presented in a previous paper and correspond to three different assumptions as regards the geometry of the galaxy. For each potential we consider a wide range of ?p pattern speed values. Our goal is to discover the geometries and the ?p supporting specific morphological features of NGC1300. For this purpose we use the method of response models. In order to compare the images of NGC1300 with the density maps of our models, we define a new index which is a generalization of the Hausdorff distance. This index helps us to find out quantitatively which cases reproduce specific features of NGC1300 in an objective way. Furthermore, we construct alternative models following a Schwarzschild-type technique. By this method we vary the weights of the various energy levels, and thus the orbital contribution of each energy, in order to minimize the differences between the response density and that deduced from the surface density of the galaxy, under certain assumptions. We find that the models corresponding to ?p ~ 16 and 22 kms-1kpc-1 are able to reproduce efficiently certain morphological features of NGC1300, with each one having its advantages and drawbacks. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile: programme ESO 69.A-0021. E-mail: ckalapot@phys.uoa.gr (CK); patsis@academyofathens.gr (PAP); pgrosbol@eso.org (PG)

Kalapotharakos, C.; Patsis, P. A.; Grosbøl, P.

2010-10-01

205

Developing research capacity in the social sciences: a professionality-based model  

E-print Network

It is argued in this article that the shortcomings of social science research stem fundamentally from the lack of a developmentalist culture, which manifests itself by researchers’ inadequate interest and participation in continuing professional...

Evans, Linda

2009-01-01

206

Population-expression models of immune response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The immune response to a pathogen has two basic features. The first is the expansion of a few pathogen-specific cells to form a population large enough to control the pathogen. The second is the process of differentiation of cells from an initial naive phenotype to an effector phenotype which controls the pathogen, and subsequently to a memory phenotype that is maintained and responsible for long-term protection. The expansion and the differentiation have been considered largely independently. Changes in cell populations are typically described using ecologically based ordinary differential equation models. In contrast, differentiation of single cells is studied within systems biology and is frequently modeled by considering changes in gene and protein expression in individual cells. Recent advances in experimental systems biology make available for the first time data to allow the coupling of population and high dimensional expression data of immune cells during infections. Here we describe and develop population-expression models which integrate these two processes into systems biology on the multicellular level. When translated into mathematical equations, these models result in non-conservative, non-local advection-diffusion equations. We describe situations where the population-expression approach can make correct inference from data while previous modeling approaches based on common simplifying assumptions would fail. We also explore how model reduction techniques can be used to build population-expression models, minimizing the complexity of the model while keeping the essential features of the system. While we consider problems in immunology in this paper, we expect population-expression models to be more broadly applicable.

Stromberg, Sean P.; Antia, Rustom; Nemenman, Ilya

2013-06-01

207

Rethinking the Response of Part-Time Professionals: The Case of the Part-Time Police Officer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite marginalisation in the workplace, the part-time professional has been found to express acceptance towards their position. It has been suggested that the part-time professional chooses to prioritise non-work activities and is therefore untroubled by their marginal status. This paper however, adopts a social constructionist approach and considers the way in which choices are influenced by societal and discursive forces.

Rosie Hyde

2008-01-01

208

Modelling the human response to saltiness.  

PubMed

Eating is a complex process with a range of phenomena occurring simultaneously, including fracture, temperature changes, mixing with saliva, flavour and aroma release. Sensory perception as experienced in the oral cavity has a strong effect on the overall acceptability of the food. Thus in an engineering sense one would want to be able to understand and predict phenomena for different food matrices in order to design more palatable foods through understanding food oral processing without the health concerns of adding salt, fat and sugar. In this work we seek to obtain such an understanding for salt release from food matrices and perception viewing the oral processing as a physical/chemical reactor. A set of equations was developed to account for mass balance and transfer. Data required for the model such as effective diffusivity and mixing times were obtained from the chemical engineering literature. The model predictions compared favourably with published TI data, managing to capture key phenomena including response to pulsed salt release. The model was used to predict response to a range of food matrices and indicated that for solids and thickened liquid food products there is the potential to modulate consumer response by pulsing the release of sodium. PMID:23639956

Le Révérend, Benjamin J D; Norton, Ian T; Bakalis, Serafim

2013-06-01

209

Modeling listeners' emotional response to music.  

PubMed

An overview of the computational prediction of emotional responses to music is presented. Communication of emotions by music has received a great deal of attention during the last years and a large number of empirical studies have described the role of individual features (tempo, mode, articulation, timbre) in predicting the emotions suggested or invoked by the music. However, unlike the present work, relatively few studies have attempted to model continua of expressed emotions using a variety of musical features from audio-based representations in a correlation design. The construction of the computational model is divided into four separate phases, with a different focus for evaluation. These phases include the theoretical selection of relevant features, empirical assessment of feature validity, actual feature selection, and overall evaluation of the model. Existing research on music and emotions and extraction of musical features is reviewed in terms of these criteria. Examples drawn from recent studies of emotions within the context of film soundtracks are used to demonstrate each phase in the construction of the model. These models are able to explain the dominant part of the listeners' self-reports of the emotions expressed by music and the models show potential to generalize over different genres within Western music. Possible applications of the computational models of emotions are discussed. PMID:22389191

Eerola, Tuomas

2012-10-01

210

Restoring medical professionalism.  

PubMed

The essence of medical professionalism is placing dedication to the welfare of patients above physicians' personal or proprietary interests. Medicine has become deprofessionalized as a consequence of socioeconomic factors leading to increasing commercialization and perverse financial incentives converting it into a business, the presence of unmanaged conflicts of interest, challenges to medical authority by insurance companies and the consumerism movement, and by gradual changes in the attitudes of physicians. Organized medicine has responded by making explicit its standards of professionalism and its dedication to preserving them. Medical educators have studied the means to develop professional attitudes and behaviors among medical students and residents. Modeling the characteristics of professional behavior by virtuous physicians remains the most effective method to instill professional behaviors in trainees. Restoring professionalism may be abetted by changes in physicians' financial incentives through innovative models of health care delivery, by physicians reducing their conflicts of interest, and by medical societies rejecting a guild identity. PMID:22915177

Bernat, James L

2012-08-21

211

Research-design model for professional development of teachers: Designing lessons with physics education research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can one increase the awareness of teachers to the existence and importance of knowledge gained through physics education research (PER) and provide them with capabilities to use it? How can one enrich teachersâ physics knowledge and the related pedagogical content knowledge of topics singled out by PER? In this paper we describe a professional development model that attempts to respond to these needs. We report on a study of the modelâs implementation in a program for 22 high-school experienced physics teachers. In this program teachers (in teams of 5-6) developed during a year and a half (about 330 h ), several lessons (minimodules) dealing with a topic identified as problematic by PER. The teachers employed a systematic research-based approach and used PER findings. The program consisted of three stages, each culminating with a miniconference: 1. Defining teaching and/or learning goals based on content analysis and diagnosis of studentsâ prior knowledge. 2. Designing the lessons using PER-based instructional strategies. 3. Performing a small-scale research study that accompanies the development process and publishing the results. We describe a case study of one of the groups and bring evidence that demonstrates how the workshop advanced: (a) Teachersâ awareness of deficiencies in their own knowledge of physics and pedagogy, and their perceptions about their studentsâ knowledge; (b) teachersâ knowledge of physics and physics pedagogy; (c) a systematic research-based approach to the design of lessons; (d) the formation of a community of practice; and (e) acquaintance with central findings of PER. There was a clear effect on teachersâ practice in the context of the study as indicated by the materials brought to the workshop. The teachers also reported that they continued to use the insights gained, mainly in the topics that were investigated by themselves and by their peers.

Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Bagno, Esther

2007-04-24

212

The Graded Unfolding Model: A Unidimensional Item Response Model for Unfolding Graded Responses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Binary or graded disagree-agree responses to attitude items are often collected for the purpose of attitude measurement. Although such data are sometimes analyzed with cumulative measurement models, recent investigations suggest that unfolding models are more appropriate (J. S. Roberts, 1995; W. H. Van Schuur and H. A. L. Kiers, 1994). Advances in…

Roberts, James S.; Laughlin, James E.

213

The influence of personal and environmental factors on professionalism in medical education  

PubMed Central

Background Professionalism is a critical quality for physicians to possess. Physician professionalism has received increased attention in recent years, with many authorities suggesting that professionalism is in decline. An understanding of the factors contributing to professionalism may allow the development of more effective approaches to promoting this quality in medical education. Discussion We propose a model of personal and environmental factors that contribute to physician professionalism. Personal factors include distress/well-being, individual characteristics, and interpersonal qualities. Environmental factors include institutional culture, formal and informal curricula, and practice characteristics. Promotion of professionalism requires efforts directed at each of these elements. Summary One responsibility of medical education is to foster the development of professionalism among its learners. Both personal and environmental factors play a role in physician professionalism. Accordingly, institutions should consider these factors as efforts to promote physician professionalism evolve. PMID:17760986

West, Colin P; Shanafelt, Tait D

2007-01-01

214

Case Study -Hypothetical Immunological Response Model Graph Transformation Rules  

E-print Network

Case Study - Hypothetical Immunological Response Model Graph Transformation Rules Mayur Bapodra immunological response for some imagined multi- cellular organism. Section 2 presents the graph transformation

St Andrews, University of

215

A critique of the descriptive power of the private interest model of professional accounting ethics : An examination over time in the Irish context  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary aim of this study is to examine the descriptive power of the private interest model of professional accounting ethics developed by Parker in 1994. This examination is undertaken over an extended time period in the Irish context. It develops prior research which concluded that the operation of the professional ethics machinery of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in

Mary Canning; Brendan O’Dwyer

2003-01-01

216

Office of the State Controller Code of Professional Ethics  

E-print Network

Office of the State Controller Code of Professional Ethics All government accounting professionals persons engaged in public accounting. I. Personal Standards Government accounting professionals shall and recommended standards. II. Responsibility as Public Officials Government accounting professionals shall

Thaxton, Christopher S.

217

Modelling the vestibular head tilt response.  

PubMed

This paper attempts to verify the existence of potentially diagnostically significant periodic signals thought to exist in recordings of neural activity originating from the vestibular nerve, following a single tilt of the head. It then attempts to find the physiological basis of this signal, in particular focusing on the mechanical response of the vestibular system. Simple mechanical models of the semi circular canals having angular velocities applied to them were looked at. A simple single canal model was simulated using CFX software. Finally, a simple model of all three canals with elastic duct walls and a moving cupula was constructed. Pressure waves within the canals were simulated using water hammer or pressure transient theory. In particular, it was investigated whether pressure waves within the utricle following a square pulse angular velocity applied to the canal(s) may be responsible for quasi-periodic oscillatory signals. The simulations showed that there are no pressure waves resonating within the canals following a square pulse angular velocity applied to the canal(s). The results show that the oscillatory signals are most likely not mechanical in origin. It was concluded that further investigation is required. PMID:15920988

Heibert, D; Lithgow, B

2005-03-01

218

Professional Development  

E-print Network

Professional Development An Introduction to Social Media: Networking on the Web Communicating for Excellence in Written Professional Communication Transforming Your Research into Commercially Viable and Debt Tomorrow in Focus: Saving for Your Ideal Retirement University Business and Financial Services

Sibille, Etienne

219

Professionalism Among Criminal Justice Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professionalism and its relationship to scholarly productivity was studied. Specific areas of analysis were the degree of professionalism of criminal justice educators, rankings of a series of selected publications, and the relationship between professionalism level and journal productivity. Data were derived from responses by 1,028 of 1,274…

Regoli, Robert M.; Miracle, Andrew W., Jr.

220

RRAWFLOW: Rainfall-Response Aquifer and Watershed Flow Model (v1.11)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rainfall-Response Aquifer and Watershed Flow Model (RRAWFLOW) is a lumped-parameter model that simulates streamflow, springflow, groundwater level, solute transport, or cave drip for a measurement point in response to a system input of precipitation, recharge, or solute injection. The RRAWFLOW open-source code is written in the R language and is included in the Supplement to this article along with an example model of springflow. RRAWFLOW includes a time-series process to estimate recharge from precipitation and simulates the response to recharge by convolution; i.e., the unit hydrograph approach. Gamma functions are used for estimation of parametric impulse-response functions (IRFs); a combination of two gamma functions results in a double-peaked IRF. A spline fit to a set of control points is introduced as a new method for estimation of nonparametric IRFs. Other options include the use of user-defined IRFs and different methods to simulate time-variant systems. For many applications, lumped models simulate the system response with equal accuracy to that of distributed models, but moreover, the ease of model construction and calibration of lumped models makes them a good choice for many applications. RRAWFLOW provides professional hydrologists and students with an accessible and versatile tool for lumped-parameter modeling.

Long, A. J.

2014-09-01

221

CONSTRUCTION PROFESSIONAL  

E-print Network

CONSTRUCTION Management HUMAN RESOURCE Management NEW! PROFESSIONAL SOCIAL MEDIA Certificate NEW about this program go to: http://www.sonoma.edu/exed/htp/ PROFESSIONAL SOCIAL MEDIA CERTIFICATE The Professional Social Media Certificate provides participants with training and experience developing a social

Ravikumar, B.

222

Modeling of Cardiovascular Response to Weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was the hypothesis of this Project that the Simple lack of hydrostatic pressure in microgravity generates several purely physical reactions that underlie and may explain, in part, the cardiovascular response to weightlessness. For instance, hydrostatic pressure within the ventricles of the heart may improve cardiac performance by promoting expansion of ventricular volume during diastole. The lack of hydrostatic pressure in microgravity might, therefore, reduce diastolic filling and cardiac performance. The change in transmural pressure is possible due to the difference in hydrostatic pressure gradients between the blood inside the ventricle and the lung tissue surrounding the ventricle due to their different densities. On the other hand, hydrostatic pressure within the vasculature may reduce cardiac inlet pressures because of the typical location of the heart above the hydrostatic indifference level (the level at which pressure remains constant throughout changes in gravity). Additional physical responses of the body to changing gravitational conditions may influence cardiovascular performance. For instance, fluid shifts from the lower body to the thorax in microgravity may serve to increase central venous pressure (CVP) and boost cardiac output (CO). The concurrent release of gravitational force on the rib cage may tend to increase chest girth and decrease pedcardial pressure, augmenting ventricular filling. The lack of gravity on pulmonary tissue may allow an upward shifting of lung mass, causing a further decrease in pericardial pressure and increased CO. Additional effects include diuresis early in the flight, interstitial fluid shifts, gradual spinal extension and movement of abdominal mass, and redistribution of circulatory impedance because of venous distention in the upper body and the collapse of veins in the lower body. In this project, the cardiovascular responses to changes in intraventricular hydrostatic pressure, in intravascular hydrostatic pressure and, to a limited extent, in extravascular and pedcardial hydrostatic pressure were investigated. A complete hydraulic model of the cardiovascular system was built and flown aboard the NASA KC-135 and a computer model was developed and tested in simulated microgravity. Results obtained with these models have confirmed that a simple lack of hydrostatic pressure within an artificial ventricle causes a decrease in stroke volume. When combined with the acute increase in ventricular pressure associated with the elimination of hydrostatic pressure within the vasculature and the resultant cephalad fluid shift with the models in the upright position, however, stroke volume increased in the models. Imposition of a decreased pedcardial pressure in the computer model and in a simplified hydraulic model increased stroke volume. Physiologic regional fluid shifting was also demonstrated by the models. The unifying parameter characterizing of cardiac response was diastolic ventricular transmural pressure (DVDELTAP) The elimination of intraventricular hydrostatic pressure in O-G decreased DVDELTAP stroke volume, while the elimination of intravascular hydrostatic pressure increased DVDELTAP and stroke volume in the upright posture, but reduced DVDELTAP and stroke volume in the launch posture. The release of gravity on the chest wall and its associated influence on intrathoracic pressure, simulated by a drop in extraventricular pressure4, increased DVDELTAP ans stroke volume.

Sharp, M. Keith

1999-01-01

223

Ethical Decision Making: A Teaching and Learning Model for Graduate Students and New Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student affairs practitioners are inundated with a variety of ethical considerations when making day-to-day decisions regarding the welfare of students and colleagues. There is every reason to believe that confronting ethical issues will be an increasingly difficult issue for student affairs professionals in the future. This article provides a…

McDonald, William M.; Ebelhar, Marcus Walker; Orehovec, Elizabeth R.; Sanderson, Robyn H.

2006-01-01

224

Differential Effects of Three Professional Development Models on Teacher Knowledge and Student Achievement in Elementary Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To identify links among professional development, teacher knowledge, practice, and student achievement, researchers have called for study designs that allow causal inferences and that examine relationships among features of interventions and multiple outcomes. In a randomized experiment implemented in six states with over 270 elementary teachers…

Heller, Joan I.; Daehler, Kirsten R.; Wong, Nicole; Shinohara, Mayumi; Miratrix, Luke W.

2012-01-01

225

A Co-Teaching Model: Committed Professionals, High Expectations, and the Inclusive Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article relates the story of a first grade teacher and a child who was the only deaf student in the entire school. Because he had no one who could communicate with him--not teachers, not students, no one, this situation tugged at the hearts of a committed team of professionals. A teacher of the deaf, a first grade general education teacher, a…

Lindeman, Karen Wise; Magiera, Kathleen

2014-01-01

226

Toward Conceptual Clarity: A Multidimensional, Multilevel Model of Professional Learning Communities in Dutch Elementary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the popularity of professional learning communities (PLCs) among researchers, practitioners, and educational policy makers, studies on PLCs differ significantly on the dimensions and capacities used to conceptualize them. Further, the interrelatedness of different dimensions and capacities within PLCs is not often well conceived nor…

Sleegers, Peter; den Brok, Perry; Verbiest, Eric; Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Daly, Alan J.

2013-01-01

227

Integrative Psycho-Pedagogical Model of Early Childhood Education Professionals in the Kibbutzim in Israel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The changes in the kibbutzim went through a transition from a collectivistic society to an individualistic one, with an emphasis on family units. Parents found themselves in a new role that was not passed to them by inter-generational transfer, while caregivers lost their socialisation roles, expressed by exhaustion and low professional

Plotnik, Ronit; Wahle, Nira

2010-01-01

228

Training in sexology for medical and paramedical professionals: a model for the rehabilitation setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rehabilitation sexology addresses the sexual difficulties of physically disabled people. Sexual dysfunction is prevalent among the patient population of rehabilitation clinics, which work with physical problems such as spinal cord injury, stroke and multiple sclerosis. However, the majority of rehabilitation professionals find sexuality and the sexual issues of their patients difficult to address. Two different surveys showed that 73% of

Woet L. Gianotten; Jim L. Bender

2006-01-01

229

"Drama for Schools": Teacher Change in an Applied Theatre Professional Development Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applied theatre often draws upon critical pedagogy and constructivist methodology as a way to bring participants into direct engagement with their own learning experiences. As learners, adults bring a wealth of perspectives that further affect how they interact with an applied theatre experience. "Drama for Schools" (DFS) is a professional

Dawson, Kathryn; Cawthon, Stephanie W.; Baker, Sally

2011-01-01

230

Between Two Worlds: A Bi-class Identity Development Model for Professionals From Working Class Backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bi-class identity is a phenomenon in the United States that has yet to be explained.The experiences of a person who has been raised in a working-class culture without exposure to college educated professional norms who then makes the social, emotional, and psychological \\

Debra Ann Clark

1998-01-01

231

Role Modeling Attitudes and Physical Activity and Fitness Promoting Behaviors of HPERD Professionals and Preprofessionals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the physical activity and fitness promoting behaviors of health, physical education, recreation, and dance professionals and preprofessionals. Survey data indicated that most respondents were physically active. Overall, overweight and obesity rates were considerably lower than rates reported in the general U.S. adult population. Role…

Cardinal, Bradley J.

2001-01-01

232

‘Train the Trainer’ Model: Implications for Health Professionals and Farm Family Health in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australia is a large country with 60% of land used for agricultural production. Its interior is sparsely populated, with higher morbidity and mortality recorded in rural areas, particularly farmers, farm families, and agricultural workers. Rural health professionals in addressing health education gaps of farming groups have reported using behavioralist approaches. These approaches in isolation have been criticized as disempowering for

Susan Brumby; Andrew Smith

2009-01-01

233

Promoting the Development of Professional Identity of Gerontologists: An Academic/Experiential Learning Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graduate education in gerontology has an essential role in providing the foundational knowledge required to work with a diverse aging population. It can also play an essential role in promoting best-practice approaches for the development of professional identity as a gerontologist. The primary goal of this study was to determine what factors…

Gendron, Tracey L.; Myers, Barbara J.; Pelco, Lynn E.; Welleford, E. Ayn

2013-01-01

234

Managing invasive alien species with professional and hobby farmers: Insights from ecological-economic modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosecurity is a great challenge to policy-makers globally. Biosecurity policies aim to either prevent invasions before they occur or to eradicate and\\/or effectively manage the invasive species and diseases once an invasion has occurred. Such policies have traditionally been directed towards professional producers in natural resource based sectors, including agriculture. Given the wide scope of issues threatened by invasive species

M. G. Ceddia; J. Heikkilä; J. Peltola

2009-01-01

235

Articulating the Relationships Between Theory and Practice in Science Teaching: A model for teacher professional development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-depth analysis of science teachers' idiosyncratic instructional behaviors combined with the notion of deliberated 'teacher reflection' as a means of improving professional teaching practice has become one of the most pervasive concepts to influence science teacher education during the past decade. Sweeney and coworkers have described how the notion of teacher reflection and Lytle and Cochran-Smith's typology of teacher research

Aldrin E. Sweeney

2003-01-01

236

Roles and responsibilities of health care professionals in combating environmental degradation and social injustice: education and activism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the causes and health consequences of environmental degradation and social injustice. These issues, which impact primarily on the poor and underserved (both in the United States and internationally) are rarely or inadequately covered in the curriculums of traditional health care professions. The discussion offers ways for health care professionals to promote equality and justice and uses the

MARTIN DONOHOE

237

Ovine model for studying pulmonary immune responses  

SciTech Connect

Anatomical features of the sheep lung make it an excellent model for studying pulmonary immunity. Four specific lung segments were identified which drain exclusively to three separate lymph nodes. One of these segments, the dorsal basal segment of the right lung, is drained by the caudal mediastinal lymph node (CMLN). Cannulation of the efferent lymph duct of the CMLN along with highly localized intrabronchial instillation of antigen provides a functional unit with which to study factors involved in development of pulmonary immune responses. Following intrabronchial immunization there was an increased output of lymphoblasts and specific antibody-forming cells in efferent CMLN lymph. Continuous divergence of efferent lymph eliminated the serum antibody response but did not totally eliminate the appearance of specific antibody in fluid obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. In these studies localized immunization of the right cranial lobe served as a control. Efferent lymphoblasts produced in response to intrabronchial antigen were labeled with /sup 125/I-iododeoxyuridine and their migrational patterns and tissue distribution compared to lymphoblasts obtained from the thoracic duct. The results indicated that pulmonary immunoblasts tend to relocate in lung tissue and reappear with a higher specific activity in pulmonary lymph than in thoracic duct lymph. The reverse was observed with labeled intestinal lymphoblasts. 35 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

Joel, D.D.; Chanana, A.D.

1984-11-25

238

Occupational stress and psychopathology in health professionals: an explorative study with the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) model approach.  

PubMed

Occupational stress is a multivariate process involving sources of pressure, psycho-physiological distress, locus of control, work dissatisfaction, depression, anxiety, mental health disorders, hopelessness, and suicide ideation. Healthcare professionals are known for higher rates of occupational-related distress (burnout and compassion fatigue) and higher rates of suicide. The purpose of this study was to explain the relationships between occupational stress and some psychopathological dimensions in a sample of health professionals. We investigated 156 nurses and physicians, 62 males and 94 females, who were administered self-report questionnaires to assess occupational stress [occupational stress inventory (OSI)], temperament (temperament evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego autoquestionnaire), and hopelessness (Beck hopelessness scale). The best Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes model with five OSI predictors yielded the following results: ?2(9) = 14.47 (p = 0.11); ?2/df = 1.60; comparative fit index = 0.99; root mean square error of approximation = 0.05. This model provided a good fit to the empirical data, showing a strong direct influence of casual variables such as work dissatisfaction, absence of type A behavior, and especially external locus of control, psychological and physiological distress on latent variable psychopathology. Occupational stress is in a complex relationship with temperament and hopelessness and also common among healthcare professionals. PMID:22632290

Iliceto, Paolo; Pompili, Maurizio; Spencer-Thomas, Sally; Ferracuti, Stefano; Erbuto, Denise; Lester, David; Candilera, Gabriella; Girardi, Paolo

2013-03-01

239

Improving Item Response Theory Model Calibration by Considering Response Times in Psychological Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research findings indicate that response times in personality scales are related to the trait level according to the so-called speed-distance hypothesis. Against this background, Ferrando and Lorenzo-Seva proposed a latent trait model for the responses and response times in a test. The model consists of two components, a standard item response

Ranger, Jochen; Kuhn, Jorg-Tobias

2012-01-01

240

Teacher Professional Continuum (TPC)  

NSF Publications Database

1. The Research Studies category now includes three levels of projects: Exploratory Research Projects that are limited in scope, Full Scale Research Projects that are larger studies, and Research on Models for Professional Learning that study professional development models. Full Scale Research Projects, Research on Models and Full Development Resource projects should also budget for the participation an additional project team member. TPC supports three subcategories of research projects: ...

241

BridgeGreen : bridging the disconnect between design professionals and resources fro environmentally, socially, and economically responsive architecture  

E-print Network

Sustainable design, whether referred to as green, high performing, responsible, or environmentally, socially, and economically responsive architecture, is influencing the global building industry. Most major firms of ...

Elbaum, Meredith Sue, 1975-

2003-01-01

242

Science Teacher Efficacy and Extrinsic Factors Toward Professional Development Using Video Games in a Design-Based Research Model: The Next Generation of STEM Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Designed-based research principles guided the study of 51 secondary-science teachers in the second year of a 3-year professional development project. The project entailed the creation of student-centered, inquiry-based, science, video games. A professional development model appropriate for infusing innovative technologies into standards-based curricula was employed to determine how science teacher's attitudes and efficacy where impacted while designing science-based video games. The study's mixed-method design ascertained teacher efficacy on five factors (General computer use, Science Learning, Inquiry Teaching and Learning, Synchronous chat/text, and Playing Video Games) related to technology and gaming using a web-based survey). Qualitative data in the form of online blog posts was gathered during the project to assist in the triangulation and assessment of teacher efficacy. Data analyses consisted of an Analysis of Variance and serial coding of teacher reflective responses. Results indicated participants who used computers daily have higher efficacy while using inquiry-based teaching methods and science teaching and learning. Additional emergent findings revealed possible motivating factors for efficacy. This professional development project was focused on inquiry as a pedagogical strategy, standard-based science learning as means to develop content knowledge, and creating video games as technological knowledge. The project was consistent with the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) framework where overlapping circles of the three components indicates development of an integrated understanding of the suggested relationships. Findings provide suggestions for development of standards-based science education software, its integration into the curriculum and, strategies for implementing technology into teaching practices.

Annetta, Leonard A.; Frazier, Wendy M.; Folta, Elizabeth; Holmes, Shawn; Lamb, Richard; Cheng, Meng-Tzu

2013-02-01

243

Human responses to augmented virtual scaffolding models.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of adding real planks, in virtual scaffolding models of elevation, on human performance in a surround-screen virtual reality (SSVR) system. Twenty-four construction workers and 24 inexperienced controls performed walking tasks on real and virtual planks at three virtual heights (0, 6 m, 12 m) and two scaffolding-platform-width conditions (30, 60 cm). Gait patterns, walking instability measurements and cardiovascular reactivity were assessed. The results showed differences in human responses to real vs. virtual planks in walking patterns, instability score and heart-rate inter-beat intervals; it appeared that adding real planks in the SSVR virtual scaffolding model enhanced the quality of SSVR as a human - environment interface research tool. In addition, there were significant differences in performance between construction workers and the control group. The inexperienced participants were more unstable as compared to construction workers. Both groups increased their stride length with repetitions of the task, indicating a possibly confidence- or habit-related learning effect. The practical implications of this study are in the adoption of augmented virtual models of elevated construction environments for injury prevention research, and the development of programme for balance-control training to reduce the risk of falls at elevation before workers enter a construction job. PMID:16253942

Hsiao, Hongwei; Simeonov, Peter; Dotson, Brian; Ammons, Douglas; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Chiou, Sharon

2005-08-15

244

Are we proper role models for students? Interns' perception of faculty and residents' professional behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimThis study was conducted to assess interns' level of exposure to different aspects of professional attitude and behaviour among faculty and residents.MethodsIn this descriptive study, 218 interns in surgery and internal medicine wards at four teaching hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences were enrolled during the first semester of the 2007\\/2008 academic year. Each intern completed one questionnaire for

Fariba Asghari; Nazila Nikravan Fard; Arash Atabaki

2011-01-01

245

Perspective: Organizational professionalism: relevant competencies and behaviors.  

PubMed

The professionalism behaviors of physicians have been extensively discussed and defined; however, the professionalism behaviors of health care organizations have not been systemically categorized or described. Defining organizational professionalism is important because the behaviors of a health care organization may substantially impact the behaviors of physicians and others within the organization as well as other institutions and the larger community. In this article, the authors discuss the following competencies of organizational professionalism, derived from ethical values: service, respect, fairness, integrity, accountability, mindfulness, and self-motivation. How nonprofit health care organizations can translate these competencies into behaviors is described. For example, incorporating metrics of population health into assessments of corporate success may increase collaboration among regional health care organizations while also benefiting the community. The unique responsibilities of leadership to model these competencies, promote them in the community, and develop relevant organizational strategies are clarified. These obligations elevate the importance of the executive leadership's capacity for self-reflection and the governing boards' responsibility for mapping operational activities to organizational mission. Lastly, the authors consider how medical organizations are currently addressing professionalism challenges. In an environment made turbulent by regulatory change and financial constraints, achieving proficiency in professionalism competencies can assist nonprofit health care organizations to promote population health and the well-being of their workforces. PMID:22450182

Egener, Barry; McDonald, Walter; Rosof, Bernard; Gullen, David

2012-05-01

246

Effect of work stressors, personal strain, and coping resources on burnout in Chinese medical professionals: a structural equation model.  

PubMed

The present study analyzes the effect of work stressors, personal strain and coping resources on burnout among Chinese medical professionals. A total of 2,721 medical professionals were selected using the stratified cluster sampling method. A Chinese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey was used to measure burnout, whereas the Occupation Stress Inventory-Revised Edition was used to evaluate work stressors, personal strain, and coping resources. The structural equation model (SEM) was established to test the effect of work stressors, personal strain, and coping resources on burnout. Among the predictive factors for burnout, work stressors and personal strain were the primary risk factors, whereas coping resources make up the important protective factor. The result from SEM indicated that work stressors had both direct and indirect effects on burnout, with the indirect effect mediated by both personal strain and coping resources. Coping resources only affected burnout indirectly, as mediated by personal strain, whereas personal strain affected burnout independently. The results suggest that work stressors, personal strain, and coping resources play important roles in burnout among medical professionals. To prevent burnout, such countermeasures as controlling the work stressors, reducing personal strain, and strengthening coping resources are recommended. PMID:22673361

Wu, Siying; Li, Huangyuan; Zhu, Wei; Lin, Shaowei; Chai, Wenli; Wang, Xiaorong

2012-01-01

247

Reflective professionalism: interpreting CanMEDS' "professionalism"  

PubMed Central

Residency training in the Netherlands is to be restructured over the coming years. To this end a general competence profile for medical specialists has been introduced. This profile is nearly the same as the Canadian CanMEDS 2000 model, which describes seven general areas of medical specialist competence, one of which is professionalism. In order to establish a training programme for residents and their instructors based on this competence, it is necessary to develop a vision that does justice to everyday medical practice. The two most prevailing views of professionalism—as personal, or as a behavioural characteristic—fall short of this. Only when professionalism is understood as reflective professionalism does it encompass the fundamental contextuality of medical treatment. This means that the focus of training and assessment must be shifted to accountability for treatment. PMID:17971471

Verkerk, M A; de Bree, M J; Mourits, M J E

2007-01-01

248

The workout responses of salivary-free testosterone and cortisol concentrations and their association with the subsequent competition outcomes in professional rugby league.  

PubMed

This study assessed the responses of salivary-free testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations across selected training workouts and their association with the subsequent competition outcomes in professional rugby league. Thirteen rugby league players were assessed for salivary-free T and C concentrations across 5 training workouts performed 3-4 days before a competitive game. The game outcomes included wins and losses and game-ranked performance (1-5) based on the number of points scored, the points differential, and a coach rating. Data were pooled across the winning (n = 3) and losing (n = 2) outcomes. Pooled free T concentrations (absolute and relative changes) were significantly (p < 0.01) elevated across those workouts that preceded winning games, but not the losses, and the relative (percent) T changes were significantly (p < 0.05) higher before winning (30.9%) than before losing (3.4%). Both outcomes were associated with workout decreases in pooled free C concentrations and the relative C changes were not significantly different between wins (-22.9%) and losses (-25.6%). In conclusion, the free T responses to selected training workouts showed some association with subsequent winning (being elevated) and losing (no change) during a limited number of competitive games in professional rugby league. Speculatively, the free T responses to a midweek workout might provide an early sign of team readiness to compete or to recovery state, thereby providing a novel format for implementing training or management strategies to improve the competition outcomes. PMID:22505132

Crewther, Blair T; Sanctuary, Colin E; Kilduff, Liam P; Carruthers, Jamie S; Gaviglio, Chris M; Cook, Christian J

2013-02-01

249

Forming and Developing Your Professional Identity: Easy as PI.  

PubMed

Health education and promotion specialists and professional organizations have worked hard to successfully establish and maintain the status of health education/promotion (HE/P) as a unique and essential profession and to solidify practitioners' sense of professional identity. A professional identity is critical to a person's sense of self: It is about connecting with roles, responsibilities, values, and ethical standards unique to a specific profession. Professional identity is a complex issue in the HE/P profession; the distinction between personal and professional identities has been debated repeatedly over the years (e.g., should HE/P professionals be role models for clients?). The purpose of this Tool is to explain the concept of professional identity; provide new, emerging, and experienced HE/P with a greater understanding of what it means to have a professional identity; present processes and benchmarks of professional identity development; and offer specific tips and strategies for developing and enhancing an HE/P professional identity. PMID:25015568

Goltz, Heather Honoré; Smith, Matthew Lee

2014-11-01

250

Managing professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  The argument here has been that professionals are increasingly subject to management control, but a different type than that\\u000a experienced by industrial workers. The distinction between ideological and technical proletarianization points to both parallels\\u000a and contrasts between industrial and professional workers and suggests limitations of the Marxist and post-industrial theories\\u000a of professionals as currently formulated. Some theoretical implications and directions

Charles Derber

1983-01-01

251

TIDALLY HEATED TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANETS: VISCOELASTIC RESPONSE MODELS  

SciTech Connect

Tidal friction in exoplanet systems, driven by orbits that allow for durable nonzero eccentricities at short heliocentric periods, can generate internal heating far in excess of the conditions observed in our own solar system. Secular perturbations or a notional 2:1 resonance between a hot Earth and hot Jupiter can be used as a baseline to consider the thermal evolution of convecting bodies subject to strong viscoelastic tidal heating. We compare results first from simple models using a fixed Quality factor and Love number, and then for three different viscoelastic rheologies: the Maxwell body, the Standard Anelastic Solid (SAS), and the Burgers body. The SAS and Burgers models are shown to alter the potential for extreme tidal heating by introducing the possibility of new equilibria and multiple response peaks. We find that tidal heating tends to exceed radionuclide heating at periods below 10-30 days, and exceed insolation only below 1-2 days. Extreme cases produce enough tidal heat to initiate global-scale partial melting, and an analysis of tidal limiting mechanisms such as advective cooling for earthlike planets is discussed. To explore long-term behaviors, we map equilibria points between convective heat loss and tidal heat input as functions of eccentricity. For the periods and magnitudes discussed, we show that tidal heating, if significant, is generally detrimental to the width of habitable zones.

Henning, Wade G.; O'Connell, Richard J. [Earth and Planetary Science Department, Harvard University, 20 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Sasselov, Dimitar D., E-mail: henning@fas.harvard.ed [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2009-12-20

252

MULTIVARIATE VARYING COEFFICIENT MODEL FOR FUNCTIONAL RESPONSES  

PubMed Central

Motivated by recent work studying massive imaging data in the neuroimaging literature, we propose multivariate varying coefficient models (MVCM) for modeling the relation between multiple functional responses and a set of covariates. We develop several statistical inference procedures for MVCM and systematically study their theoretical properties. We first establish the weak convergence of the local linear estimate of coefficient functions, as well as its asymptotic bias and variance, and then we derive asymptotic bias and mean integrated squared error of smoothed individual functions and their uniform convergence rate. We establish the uniform convergence rate of the estimated covariance function of the individual functions and its associated eigenvalue and eigenfunctions. We propose a global test for linear hypotheses of varying coefficient functions, and derive its asymptotic distribution under the null hypothesis. We also propose a simultaneous confidence band for each individual effect curve. We conduct Monte Carlo simulation to examine the finite-sample performance of the proposed procedures. We apply MVCM to investigate the development of white matter diffusivities along the genu tract of the corpus callosum in a clinical study of neurodevelopment. PMID:12926711

Zhu, Hongtu; Li, Runze; Kong, Linglong

2012-01-01

253

MULTIVARIATE VARYING COEFFICIENT MODEL FOR FUNCTIONAL RESPONSES  

PubMed Central

Motivated by recent work studying massive imaging data in the neuroimaging literature, we propose multivariate varying coefficient models (MVCM) for modeling the relation between multiple functional responses and a set of covariates. We develop several statistical inference procedures for MVCM and systematically study their theoretical properties. We first establish the weak convergence of the local linear estimate of coefficient functions, as well as its asymptotic bias and variance, and then we derive asymptotic bias and mean integrated squared error of smoothed individual functions and their uniform convergence rate. We establish the uniform convergence rate of the estimated covariance function of the individual functions and its associated eigenvalue and eigenfunctions. We propose a global test for linear hypotheses of varying coefficient functions, and derive its asymptotic distribution under the null hypothesis. We also propose a simultaneous confidence band for each individual effect curve. We conduct Monte Carlo simulation to examine the finite-sample performance of the proposed procedures. We apply MVCM to investigate the development of white matter diffusivities along the genu tract of the corpus callosum in a clinical study of neurodevelopment. PMID:23645942

Zhu, Hongtu; Li, Runze; Kong, Linglong

2012-01-01

254

Nested Logit Models for Multiple-Choice Item Response Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nested logit item response models for multiple-choice data are presented. Relative to previous models, the new models are suggested to provide a better approximation to multiple-choice items where the application of a solution strategy precedes consideration of response options. In practice, the models also accommodate collapsibility across all…

Suh, Youngsuk; Bolt, Daniel M.

2010-01-01

255

Professionalism in emergency medicine.  

PubMed

At its root, medical professionalism is service delivered according to patient's interest. It is essential to reinforce this notion because financial pressures threaten the integrity of the patient-physician relationship. Excessive commercialism directly contrasts the ideals of medical professionalism. This fact necessitates re-examination and reaffirmation of professional behavior. If historical standards of professionalism give way to market-driven incentives, the provision of medical care will become a commodity and the practitioners will be only agents of service delivery. Such a model not only threatens the the physician's identity, but also threatens the patient's interests. Medicine can never succeed as a transaction; it can only succeed as a partnership, a trusting exchange with patients, which is the hallmark of professionalism. PMID:10429639

Finkel, M A; Adams, J G

1999-05-01

256

Development and Calibration of an Item Response Model That Incorporates Response Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes an item response model that incorporates response time. A parameter estimation procedure using the EM algorithm is developed. The procedure is evaluated with both real and simulated test data. The results suggest that the estimation procedure works well in estimating model parameters. By using response time data, estimation…

Wang, Tianyou; Hanson, Bradley H.

2005-01-01

257

EXPLANATORY MODELS FOR ECOLOGICAL RESPONSE SURFACES  

EPA Science Inventory

It is often spatial patterns in environmental and ecological variables that arouse interest and demand explanation. or environmental response variables, the causal influences of interacting environmental factors produce the patterns of interest. cological response variables by de...

258

A Beta unfolding model for continuous bounded responses.  

PubMed

An unfolding model for continuous bounded responses is proposed, derived both from a hypothetical interpolation response mechanism and from the hypothesis of two opposite sources of item refusal being collapsed. These two sources of refusal are made explicit in a three-component Dirichlet response model and then collapsed to obtain a (two-component) beta response model. The two natural parameters of the beta are interpreted as acceptance and refusal parameters and expressed as functions of person-item distances on a latent continuum. The potentially bimodal shape of the beta is exploited to model chaotic response choices among ambivalent subjects. PMID:24327063

Noel, Yvonnick

2014-10-01

259

Modeling Item Responses When Different Subjects Employ Different Solution Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model is presented for item responses when different examinees use different strategies to arrive at their answers and when only those answers, not choice or strategy or subtask results, can be observed. Using substantive theory to differentiate the likelihoods of response vectors under a fixed set of solution strategies, responses are modeled

Mislevy, Robert J.; Verhelst, Norman

260

Modeling mechanical response of heterogeneous materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterogeneous materials are ubiquitous in nature and as synthetic materials. These materials provide unique combination of desirable mechanical properties emerging from its heterogeneities at different length scales. Future structural and technological applications will require the development of advanced light weight materials with superior strength and toughness. Cost effective design of the advanced high performance synthetic materials by tailoring their microstructure is the challenge facing the materials design community. Prior knowledge of structure-property relationships for these materials is imperative for optimal design. Thus, understanding such relationships for heterogeneous materials is of primary interest. Furthermore, computational burden is becoming critical concern in several areas of heterogeneous materials design. Therefore, computationally efficient and accurate predictive tools are highly essential. In the present study, we mainly focus on mechanical behavior of soft cellular materials and tough biological material such as mussel byssus thread. Cellular materials exhibit microstructural heterogeneity by interconnected network of same material phase. However, mussel byssus thread comprises of two distinct material phases. A robust numerical framework is developed to investigate the micromechanisms behind the macroscopic response of both of these materials. Using this framework, effect of microstuctural parameters has been addressed on the stress state of cellular specimens during split Hopkinson pressure bar test. A voronoi tessellation based algorithm has been developed to simulate the cellular microstructure. Micromechanisms (microinertia, microbuckling and microbending) governing macroscopic behavior of cellular solids are investigated thoroughly with respect to various microstructural and loading parameters. To understand the origin of high toughness of mussel byssus thread, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) based optimization framework has been developed. It is found that two different material phases (collagens) of mussel byssus thread are optimally distributed along the thread. These applications demonstrate that the presence of heterogeneity in the system demands high computational resources for simulation and modeling. Thus, Higher Dimensional Model Representation (HDMR) based surrogate modeling concept has been proposed to reduce computational complexity. The applicability of such methodology has been demonstrated in failure envelope construction and in multiscale finite element techniques. It is observed that surrogate based model can capture the behavior of complex material systems with sufficient accuracy. The computational algorithms presented in this thesis will further pave the way for accurate prediction of macroscopic deformation behavior of various class of advanced materials from their measurable microstructural features at a reasonable computational cost.

Pal, Siladitya

261

Robust Estimation of Latent Ability in Item Response Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of response disturbances such as guessing, cheating, or carelessness, item response models often can only approximate the "true" individual response probabilities. As a consequence, maximum-likelihood estimates of ability will be biased. Typically, the nature and extent to which response disturbances are present is unknown, and, therefore,…

Schuster, Christof; Yuan, Ke-Hai

2011-01-01

262

Professional Development  

E-print Network

Professional Development Advanced Public Speaking in a Nutshell An Introduction to Social Media for Excellence in Professional Communication Transforming Your Research into Commercially Viable Innovations and Achieving Your Long-Term Financial Goals University Business and Financial Services Basics of Federal

Sibille, Etienne

263

Item Response Modeling with Sum Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the distinctions between classical test theory and item response theory is that the former focuses on sum scores and their relationship to true scores, whereas the latter concerns item responses and their relationship to latent scores. Although item response theory is often viewed as the richer of the two theories, sum scores are still…

Johnson, Timothy R.

2013-01-01

264

Scientific profile and professional responsibility of Court-appointed Medical Technical Consultants in Italy: time for a specific educational curriculum?  

PubMed

Court-appointed Technical Consultants (CTCs) are fundamental figures in the Italian judicial system. CTCs are experts appointed by judges in order to supplement their activities by ascertaining, collecting and analyzing facts concerning the specific subject of a lawsuit. These experts formulate opinions, gather motivations and perform checks to provide clear, objective and irrefutable answers to the questions posed by judges. With direct reference to the medical field, while police doctors (specialists in forensic medicine) follow an academic, dedicated, well-structured educational curriculum, the University specialty school in Forensic Medicine, other medical CTCs, though not infrequently luminaries with one or many medical specialties and professional acknowledgments, may have no specific legal-medicine and juridical expertise, precisely because a similar expertise is not formally required of them. In the light of these considerations, in Italy some professionals of the legal world, and of the health context too, have proposed for medical CTCs targeted educational pathways, which would provide these experts with formal specific qualifications. In synthesis and in conclusion, a full knowledge and a rigorous respect of the rules of legal proceedings emerge as increasingly important characteristics for current and future Court-appointed Technical Consultants, together with a specific educational curriculum. PMID:25245656

Conti, Andrea Alberto

2014-01-01

265

Multivariate point process models for response times in multiprogrammed systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the formulation of marked multivariate point process models for job response times in multiprogrammed computer systems. Complementing queueing network representation of the structure of the system to be modeled, the particularR-process (Response time process) model we propose permits representation of resource contention, facilitates the incorporation of realistic workload characteristics into system performance predictions, and can reproduce inhomogeneities observed

David W. Hunter; Gerald S. Shedler

1978-01-01

266

The Gradual Increase of Responsibility Model: Coaching for Teacher Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the gradual increase of responsibility (GIR) model for teacher coaching (Collet, 2008), an adaptation of Pearson and Gallagher's (1983) Gradual Release of Responsibility model. In GIR, instructional coaches model, make recommendations, ask probing questions, affirm teachers' appropriate decisions, and praise in order to provide decreasing scaffolding, which moves teachers toward interdependence and collaboration.

Vicki S. Collet

2012-01-01

267

Hierarchical Diffusion Models for Two-Choice Response Times  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two-choice response times are a common type of data, and much research has been devoted to the development of process models for such data. However, the practical application of these models is notoriously complicated, and flexible methods are largely nonexistent. We combine a popular model for choice response times--the Wiener diffusion…

Vandekerckhove, Joachim; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Lee, Michael D.

2011-01-01

268

The Professional Career Of Sociologists: A Graphical Chain Model Reflecting Early Influences And Associations  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper we analyze data on the occupationalcareers of sociologists. The complexity of the underlying research questionis taken into account by modelling the associations using so--calledgraphical chain models. These models are in general constructed suchthat conditional independencies can be concluded from the correspondinggraph. We present the different steps in formulating the dependencestructure. For checking its appropriateness, a model selection strategy

Iris Pigeot; Astrid Heinicke; Angelika Caputo; Josef Brüderl

1997-01-01

269

Professional Development  

E-print Network

Professional Development An Introduction to Social Media: Networking on the Web COI Management and Effective Talent Development Managing Incivility and the Bystander Effect in the Workplace Leadership Workers' Compensation for Supervisors Health and Safety Health and Fitness Program Protecting Children

Jiang, Huiqiang

270

Professional Development  

E-print Network

Professional Development An Introduction to Social Media: Networking on the Web Annual Conflict Leadership and Effective Talent Development Managing Incivility and the Bystander Effect in the Workplace for Supervisors Organization Development Customer Service Training Group Dynamics Using Myers Briggs Type

Sibille, Etienne

271

Professional Development  

E-print Network

Professional Development An Introduction to Social Media: Networking on the Web Basics Leadership Leadership and Effective Talent Development Ethical Leadership within Hyper- Competitive Keeping Human Resources Behavioral-Based Interviewing Compensation Administration for Supervisors

Sibille, Etienne

272

Professional Development  

E-print Network

Professional Development Advanced Public Speaking in a Nutshell An Introduction to Social Media Presentation Identifying Opportunities for Using Social Media for Business Purposes Public Speaking Leadership and Ethics (COLE) Principles & Practices of Servant Leadership Leadership & Effective Talent

Sibille, Etienne

273

CHARACTERIZATION OF A DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICOLOGY DOSE-RESPONSE MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The Rai and Van Ryzin dose-response model (1) proposed for teratology experiments has been characterized for its appropriateness and applicability in modeling developmental toxicity data. odifications were made in the initial probability statements to reflect more accurately biol...

274

Responsibility-Driven Explanation Engineering for Cognitive Models  

E-print Network

model behaviors within aspects. Soar is used an example cognitive architecture, but the methodsResponsibility-Driven Explanation Engineering for Cognitive Models Steven R. Haynes, Isaac G for developing explanation facilities for cognitive architectures based on techniques drawn from object

Ritter, Frank

275

Mathematical Model of Cardiovascular Response to Dynamic Exercise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A mathematical model of cardiovascular response to dynamic exercise is presented, The model includes the pulsating heart, the systemic and pulmonary, circulation, a functional description of muscle exercise hyperemia, the mechanical effects of muscle cont...

E. Magosso, A. Felicani, M. Ursino

2001-01-01

276

The Achieving Success Everyday Group Counseling Model: Implications for Professional School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the Achieving Success Everyday (ASE) group counseling model, which is designed to help school counselors integrate students' academic and personal-social development into their group work. We first describe this group model in detail and then offer one case example of a middle school counselor using the ASE model to…

Steen, Sam; Henfield, Malik S.; Booker, Beverly

2014-01-01

277

Integrating professional behavior development across a professional allied health curriculum.  

PubMed

Professional behaviors are an integral part of clinical practice in all allied health and medical fields. A systematic process for instruction, the education, and development of professional behaviors, cannot be taught in the same way that memorization of human anatomy or medical terminology is taught. One cannot expect professional behaviors to just appear in an individual upon graduation and entry into a health care field. Professional behavior development is an essential component of physical therapy professional education and is clearly defined through the guiding documents of the American Physical Therapy Association, which include 'A Normative Model of Physical Therapist Professional Education,' 'Evaluative Criteria for Accreditation of Education Programs for the Preparation of Physical Therapists,' and the 'Guide to Physical Therapist Practice.' Building a comprehensive and progressive curricular thread for professional behaviors can pose a challenge for a professional program and the core faculty. This paper will present a curricular model of weaving professional behaviors into a core entry-level professional curriculum using a specific curricular thread, activities for different levels of students, and assessment at each point in the path. This paper will demonstrate the potential for universal application of a professional behaviors. PMID:19759999

Tsoumas, Linda J; Pelletier, Deborah

2007-01-01

278

The 4I Model for Scaffolding the Professional Development of Experienced Teachers in the Use of Virtual Learning Environments for Classroom Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Models of professional development for teachers have been criticized for not being embedded in the context in which teachers are familiar, namely their own classrooms. This paper discusses an adapted-Continuous Practice Improvement model, which qualitative findings indicate was effective in facilitating the transfer of creative and innovative…

Cowan, Pamela

2013-01-01

279

Control with Building Mass— Part I: Thermal Response Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we derive a general model and reliable iden- tification procedures that can be applied autonomously for on- line forecasting of wall, zone, and whole building transient thermal responses. Several important aspects of building HVAC operation—fault detection, curtailment, verification, model-based control, and commissioning—are enabled or facilitated by use of accurate building-specific models. The methods of thermal response model

Peter R. Armstrong; Steven B. Leeb; Leslie K. Norford

280

Item Response Models for Local Dependence among Multiple Ratings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ratings given to the same item response may have a stronger correlation than those given to different item responses, especially when raters interact with one another before giving ratings. The rater bundle model was developed to account for such local dependence by forming multiple ratings given to an item response as a bundle and assigning…

Wang, Wen-Chung; Su, Chi-Ming; Qiu, Xue-Lan

2014-01-01

281

Random uncertainties modelling for vibroacoustic frequency response functions of cars  

E-print Network

Random uncertainties modelling for vibroacoustic frequency response functions of cars J.F. Durand with the numerical prediction of the vibroacoustic frequency response functions of cars. In such a complex frequency response functions. The method is applied to a simplified car body with an inter- nal acoustic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

282

New disruptive technologies: the information professional’s role  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is noted how the traditional role of the information professional has been changed by the responsibility for assessing and introducing the wide range of new information technologies (IT). In addition to considering the content and value to the organization of new information resources, information professionals must also consider the readiness of the organization to accept their introduction and the

Susan Hallam

2001-01-01

283

The social environment during a post-match video presentation affects the hormonal responses and playing performance in professional male athletes.  

PubMed

This study examined the social environment effects during a post-match video presentation on the hormonal responses and match performance in professional male rugby union players. The study participants (n=12) watched a 1-hour video of mixed content (player mistakes and successes) from a match played 1 day earlier in the presence of; (1) strangers who were bigger (SB), (2) strangers who were smaller (SS), (3) friends who were bigger (FB) and (4) friends who were smaller (FS). The salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) responses to a physical stress test were assessed 3 days later, along with pre-match T levels and match-ranked performance 6-7 days later. All treatments were associated with elevated T responses (% change from baseline) to the stress test with SS>SB and FB>FS. The C stress responses after the SS and SB interventions were both greater than FS and FB. On match-day, the FB approach was linked to higher T concentrations than SB and better ranked performance than FS and SS. The subsequent testing of a population sub-group (n=8) across a video (V) and a non-video (NV) presentation in a neutral social environment produced similar stress-test and performance outcomes, but pre-match T concentrations differed (V>NV). In conclusion, the presence of other males during a post-match video assessment had some influence on the hormonal responses of male athletes and match performance in the week that followed. Thus, the social environment during a post-match assessment could moderate performance and recovery in elite sport and, in a broader context, could be a possible modulator of human stress responses. PMID:24726389

Cook, Christian J; Crewther, Blair T

2014-05-10

284

Modeling Neuronal Response to Disparity Gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a rich literature of physiological studies that a subset of neurons in visual cortices is discriminative of 3-D surface orientation using only the disparity gradient information. One of the physiological models to account for this sensibility to surface slant is the dif-frequency disparity model. Although this model is physiologically plausible, no computational analysis is available to explain how

Lianqing Yu; Zhanyi Hu

2008-01-01

285

Speed-Accuracy Response Models: Scoring Rules Based on Response Time and Accuracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Starting from an explicit scoring rule for time limit tasks incorporating both response time and accuracy, and a definite trade-off between speed and accuracy, a response model is derived. Since the scoring rule is interpreted as a sufficient statistic, the model belongs to the exponential family. The various marginal and conditional distributions…

Maris, Gunter; van der Maas, Han

2012-01-01

286

Item Response Modeling of Forced-Choice Questionnaires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multidimensional forced-choice formats can significantly reduce the impact of numerous response biases typically associated with rating scales. However, if scored with classical methodology, these questionnaires produce ipsative data, which lead to distorted scale relationships and make comparisons between individuals problematic. This research demonstrates how item response theory (IRT) modeling may be applied to overcome these problems. A multidimensional IRT model

Anna Brown; Alberto Maydeu-Olivares

2011-01-01

287

HERBIVORE FUNCTIONAL RESPONSE IN HETEROGENEOUS ENVIRONMENTS: A CONTEST AMONG MODELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in the spatial arrangement of plant tissue modifies the functional response of herbivores. In heterogeneous environments, this variation can occur at multiple spatial scales. We used likelihood-based approaches to examine the strength of evidence in data for models of herbivore functional response to spatial variation in plants. These models represented different hypotheses about plant characteristics controlling intake rate, including

N. Thompson Hobbs; John E. Gross; Lisa A. Shipley; Donald E. Spalinger; Bruce A. Wunder

2003-01-01

288

Projective Item Response Model for Test-Independent Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem of fitting unidimensional item-response models to potentially multidimensional data has been extensively studied. The focus of this article is on response data that contains a major dimension of interest but that may also contain minor nuisance dimensions. Because fitting a unidimensional model to multidimensional data results in…

Ip, Edward Hak-Sing; Chen, Shyh-Huei

2012-01-01

289

A Mixture Rasch Model with Item Response Time Components  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An examinee faced with a test item will engage in solution behavior or rapid-guessing behavior. These qualitatively different test-taking behaviors bias parameter estimates for item response models that do not control for such behavior. A mixture Rasch model with item response time components was proposed and evaluated through application to real…

Meyer, J. Patrick

2010-01-01

290

Investigating the LGBTQ Responsive Model for Supervision of Group Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports an investigation of the LGBTQ Responsive Model for Supervision of Group Work, a trans-theoretical supervisory framework to address the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) persons (Goodrich & Luke, 2011). Findings partially supported applicability of the LGBTQ Responsive Model for Supervision…

Luke, Melissa; Goodrich, Kristopher M.

2013-01-01

291

Shape-preserving response prediction for microwave circuit modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new and simple surrogate modeling technique for microwave devices is presented. Our method exploits a recently introduced shape-preserving response prediction procedure that allows us to estimate the response (e.g., S-parameters over certain frequency range) of the computationally expensive microwave structure by examining the response of the computationally cheap (e.g., circuit equivalent) model of the structure. It is demonstrated that

Slawomir Koziel

2010-01-01

292

Unified constitutive modeling for proportional and nonproportional cyclic plasticity responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several features of cyclic plasticity, e.g. cyclic hardening\\/softening, ratcheting, relaxation, and their dependence on strain range, nonproportionality of loading, time, and temperature determine the stress-strain responses of materials under cyclic loading. Numerous efforts have been made in the past decades to characterize and model these responses. Many of these responses can be simulated reasonably by the existing constitutive models, but

Shree Krishna

2009-01-01

293

Universal response model for a corona charged aerosol detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The universality of the response of the Corona Charged Aerosol Detector (CoronaCAD) has been investigated under flow-injection and gradient HPLC elution conditions. A three-dimensional model was developed which relates the CoronaCAD response to analyte concentration and the mobile phase composition used. The model was developed using the response of four probe analytes which displayed non-volatile behavior in the CoronaCAD and

Joseph P. Hutchinson; Jianfeng Li; William Farrell; Elizabeth Groeber; Roman Szucs; Greg Dicinoski; Paul R. Haddad

2010-01-01

294

Posterior Predictive Model Checking for Multidimensionality in Item Response Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If data exhibit multidimensionality, key conditional independence assumptions of unidimensional models do not hold. The current work pursues posterior predictive model checking, a flexible family of model-checking procedures, as a tool for criticizing models due to unaccounted for dimensions in the context of item response theory. Factors…

Levy, Roy; Mislevy, Robert J.; Sinharay, Sandip

2009-01-01

295

Bulgarian emergency response models–validation against ETEX first release  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper, the performance of two Bulgarian dispersion models is tested against European Tracer Experiment (ETEX) first release data base. The first one is the LED puff model which was the core of the Bulgarian Emergency Response System during all releases of ETEX. The second one is the newly created Eulerian dispersion model EMAP. These models have two important

D. Syrakov; M. Prodanova

1998-01-01

296

Target Practice: Reader Response Theory and Teachers' Interpretations of Students' SAT 10 Scores in Data-Based Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reported in this article examines how teachers read and respond to their students' Stanford Achievement Test 10 (SAT 10) scores with the goal of investigating the assumption that data-based teaching practice is more "objective" and less susceptible to divergent teacher interpretation. The study uses reader response theory to frame…

Atkinson, Becky M.

2012-01-01

297

THE QUALIFICATIONS AND PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF VOCATIONAL DIRECTORS AT THE LOCAL DISTRICT LEVEL IN THE STATE OF UTAH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

BECAUSE UTAH REQUIRES LOCAL SCHOOL DISTRICTS TO EMPLOY VOCATIONAL DIRECTORS, A STUDY WAS UNDERTAKEN TO DETERMINE THEIR QUALIFICATIONS, RESPONSIBILITIES, AND DUTIES. DATA WERE OBTAINED FROM PERSONNEL IN 37 OF THE 40 SCHOOL DISTRICTS IN UTAH, 37 OF 50 STATE VOCATIONAL EDUCATION DIRECTORS, 48 TEACHER TRAINING INSTITUTIONS IN THE NATION, THE U.S.…

EDMUNDS, NIEL A.

298

Professional Development for Culturally Responsive and Relationship-Based Pedagogy. Black Studies and Critical Thinking. Volume 24  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The work presented here is a large-scale evaluation of a theory-driven school reform project in New Zealand, which focuses on improving the educational achievement of Maori students in public secondary schools. The project's conceptual underpinnings are based on Kaupapa Maori research, culturally responsive teaching, student voice, and…

Sleeter, Christine E., Ed.

2011-01-01

299

Toward Pride and Professionalism: Increasing Personal Responsibility. Thirty-Six Hour Substance Abuse Curriculum. Facilitator Guide. Student Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a 36-hour curriculum of the Navy Alcohol and Drug Safety Action Program designed to reduce drug and alcohol related problems in the Navy by increasing resistance to addiction. The responsibility each person holds for his or her own health and well-being as a member of the United States Navy is emphasized throughout the…

Hartmann, Barbara Reed

300

Modeling the Universe: Professional Development for Teachers Designed by NASA's Universe Forum Education and Outreach Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a targeted set of activities, presentations, and assessments that immerse teachers in learning about two key themes from the National Science Education Standards: origin and evolution of the universe, and the unifying concept of models, evidence, and explanation in science. Students of all ages come to the astronomy classroom with their own ideas and internal models of

B. J. Mendez; L. Bartolone; N. Craig; M. Dussault; R. R. Gould; J. A. Grier; K. Lestition; J. Lochner; P. Plait; I. Porro; S. Range; E. Reinfeld; S. Silva; S. J. Steel

2005-01-01

301

Modeling the Universe: Professional Development for Teachers Designed by NASA's Universe Forum Education and Outreach Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a targeted set of activities, presentations, and assessments that immerse teachers in learning about two key themes from the National Science Education Standards: origin and evolution of the universe, and the unifying concept of models, evidence, and explanation in science. Students of all ages come to the astronomy classroom with their own ideas and internal models of how the universe works. Our strategy for addressing these prior notions is to elicit ideas up front, prompt a discussion of the nature of models in astronomy, and then illustrate how models change as new evidence and ideas are brought to bear. Our "Modeling the Universe" investigations provide a context and motivation for learning about NASA's Structure and Evolution of the Universe space science missions as tools for testing astronomical models and theories. This poster will outline the educational materials and resources we have developed, and will demonstrate how these can be adapted or enhanced in various classroom environments. Visit the "Modeling the Universe" website at http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/seuforum/mtu/ "Modeling the Universe" is supported by NASA's Universe Education Forum, Chandra, CHIPS, GLAST, GP-B, HEASARC, HETE, Swift, XMM and WMAP Mission E/PO programs.

Mendez, B. J.; Bartolone, L.; Craig, N.; Dussault, M.; Gould, R. R.; Grier, J. A.; Lestition, K.; Lochner, J.; Plait, P.; Porro, I.; Range, S.; Reinfeld, E.; Silva, S.; Steel, S. J.; Universe Forum; Universe EPO Team

2005-05-01

302

Evaluation of Information Professionals Competency Face Validity Test Using Rasch Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of Rasch Measurement Model in social science educational measurement has rapidly expanded to other areas of education including technical and engineering fields. Originally, there was substantial controversy between those who saw Rasch Model as a relevant method of measurement in technical fields and those who saw them as essentially different. This paper is an attempt of a paradigm

AZRILAH ABD AZIZ; AZLINAH MOHAMED; AZAMI ZAHARIM

2008-01-01

303

Revisiting Professional Dispositions: Research Redux  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the authors progressed through their research agenda last year, they contributed an article to "School Library Monthly" entitled "Forecasting Professional Dispositions of School Librarians" (January 2011, 54-56) wherein they described a Delphi study they conducted in the fall of 2009 that identified professional dispositions based on responses

Bush, Gail; Jones, Jami L.

2011-01-01

304

Modeling neuronal response to disparity gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a rich literature of physiological studies that a subset of neurons in visual cortices is discriminative of 3-D surface\\u000a orientation using only the disparity gradient information. One of the physiological models to account for this sensibility\\u000a to surface slant is the dif-frequency disparity model. Although this model is physiologically plausible, no computational\\u000a analysis is available to explain how

Lianqing Yu; Zhanyi Hu

2009-01-01

305

Response to Intervention and the Pyramid Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Response to Intervention (RtI) is a systematic decision-making process that has gained widespread popularity as a problem-solving framework for organizing hierarchies of evidence-based interventions in the context of ongoing progress monitoring. Initially applied to literacy instruction, RtI is being incorporated into an expanding breadth of…

Fox, Lise; Carta, Judith; Strain, Phillip S.; Dunlap, Glen; Hemmeter, Mary Louise

2010-01-01

306

Mathematical models of the acute inflammatory response  

E-print Network

response precludes the efficient development of therapies for sepsis and multiple organ failure until of Trauma, Cook County Hospital, Chicago, Illinois, USA Correspondence to Yoram Vodovotz, Department clinical challenge in critical care [1]. Similarly, the search for effective phar- macologic therapies

307

MODEL OF TOXICANT RESPONSE IN ENGINEERED LIVER  

EPA Science Inventory

This project proposes to: engineer a tissue to mimic liver behavior (a so-called 3-Dimensional or 3D liver model); simulate liver toxicity by exposing the 3D liver model to two known toxicants ( carbon tetrachloride and 1,2 dichloroethylene); and ...

308

The Hormetic Dose-Response Model Is More Common than the Threshold Model in Toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The threshold dose-response model is widely viewed as the most dominant model in toxicology. The present study was designed to test the validity of the threshold model by assessing the responses of doses below the toxicological NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level) in relationship to the control response (i.e., unexposed group). Nearly 1800 doses below the NOAEL, from 664 dose-

Edward J. Calabrese; Linda A. Baldwin

2003-01-01

309

A Systematic Quantitative-Qualitative Model: How To Evaluate Professional Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proposed evaluation model provides for the assignment of relative weights to each criterion, and establishes a weighting system for calculating a quantitative-qualitative raw score for each service activity of a faculty member being reviewed. (Author)

Yoda, Koji

1973-01-01

310

Managing and Modeling the Combination of Resources in Professional Sporting Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a With a view towards integrating the Business Model concept into Resource-Based thinking, this research paper questions the\\u000a concept with respect to its potential for formalizing a firm’s resource arrangement and control methods. The clinical study\\u000a of three cases of international sporting event organization (Roland Garros, BNP Paribas Masters and Open13) enables a comparison\\u000a of Business Models which rely on the

Lionel Maltese; Lucien Veran

311

[Professional views of pharmacy faculty graduates].  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to define new professional ideals of pharmacists and to prove or refute a hypothesis stating that role model of the representatives of this profession is currently changing. In a survey a group of Pharmacy Faculty graduates were asked about the motives for the choice of their pharmacy studies, constancy of the conviction of this choice's validity, the desired place of work, expectations concerning their professional function, the opinion on the future of that profession in Poland, the attitude to pharmacists' chamber and to the phenomenon of self-therapy. The responses collected provided information on the professional views of the queried group. The author also defined the notion of professional views themselves, vocation, professional attitude and professional model. The results show that the respondents in their majority wish to become pharmacists (64%). High estimation of this profession influenced their choice of studies (71%). Only 18% felt called to do it. The queried group, as a whole, are not satisfied with their pharmacy studies, and only 38% would firmly undertake to study it again. The subjects declare to be fairly active in performing their civic duties (58% take part in elections), yet remain relatively passive within the context of their own professional government (15%). From their professional activity they expect personal satisfaction and money. Most subjects predict that adverse changes are going to take place in pharmacy (to 2005): pharmaceutical concerns will buy out pharmacies, the number of pharmaceutical wholesale stores will decrease considerably, pharmaceuticals will be delivered straight to patient's door, the system of obtaining drugs on doctor's prescription will decline. However, they doubt that the physicians are going to take over the sale of pharmaceuticals, that the number of new pharmacies is going to increase, that few will become owners of most pharmacies, and that the Polish pharmaceutical industry will collapse. Pessimistic views of the respondents outnumber the optimistic ones, however only 4% are doubtful about their own, professional success. In evaluating the phenomenon of self-therapy the respondents show judiciousness, perceiving more negative than positive aspects of it. The views of the studied group are precise and clear, while in the assessment of own professional role the pro-social attitude prevails. PMID:17017472

Bartkowiak, Leszek E

2006-01-01

312

Assessment of Response Surface Models using Independent Confirmation Point Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper highlights various advantages that confirmation-point residuals have over conventional model design-point residuals in assessing the adequacy of a response surface model fitted by regression techniques to a sample of experimental data. Particular advantages are highlighted for the case of design matrices that may be ill-conditioned for a given sample of data. The impact of both aleatory and epistemological uncertainty in response model adequacy assessments is considered.

DeLoach, Richard

2010-01-01

313

Modeling rate sensitivity of exercise transient responses to limb motion.  

PubMed

Transient responses of ventilation (V?e) to limb motion can exhibit predictive characteristics. In response to a change in limb motion, a rapid change in V?e is commonly observed with characteristics different than during a change in workload. This rapid change has been attributed to a feed-forward or adaptive response. Rate sensitivity was explored as a specific hypothesis to explain predictive V?e responses to limb motion. A simple model assuming an additive feed-forward summation of V?e proportional to the rate of change of limb motion was studied. This model was able to successfully account for the adaptive phase correction observed during human sinusoidal changes in limb motion. Adaptation of rate sensitivity might also explain the reduction of the fast component of V?e responses previously reported following sudden exercise termination. Adaptation of the fast component of V?e response could occur by reduction of rate sensitivity. Rate sensitivity of limb motion was predicted by the model to reduce the phase delay between limb motion and V?e response without changing the steady-state response to exercise load. In this way, V?e can respond more quickly to an exercise change without interfering with overall feedback control. The asymmetry between responses to an incremental and decremental ramp change in exercise can also be accounted for by the proposed model. Rate sensitivity leads to predicted behavior, which resembles responses observed in exercise tied to expiratory reserve volume. PMID:25103968

Yamashiro, Stanley M; Kato, Takahide

2014-10-01

314

Human teeth model using photoacoustic frequency response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a novel photo-acoustic technique modality utilizing a frequency- modulated Q-switch Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm and coherent frequency domain signal processing is introduced for impulse and frequency responses of biological tissues. We present a photoacoustic technique to monitor the temporal behavior of temperature and pressure in an excised sample of human teeth after either a single laser pulse or during multiple laser pulses at pulse repetition frequencies (PRF) from 5 Hz to 100 Hz. Knowledge of the dynamic characteristics of structural elements often means the difference between normal and abnormal tissue. The determination of the resonance characteristics of structures is termed "modal analysis." The results of our study suggest that it is possible to identify the impulse, frequency response and resonance modes of simplified human teeth. This data provided a powerful tool to differentiate between normal and decay teeth.

El-Sharkawy, Yasser H.; El-Sherif, Ashraf F.

2012-03-01

315

Implementation of Neuropsychological Testing Models for the High School, Collegiate, and Professional Sport Settings  

PubMed Central

Objective: To review models for the use of neuropsychological testing in the management of sport-related concussion at various levels of competition. Background: As we come to understand the natural history of sport-related concussive brain injury, it is increasingly evident that significant neurologic risks are associated with this type of injury. These risks include (1) acute intracranial pathology, (2) catastrophic brain swelling from second-impact syndrome, and (3) the potential risk for markedly prolonged recovery or permanent cognitive dysfunction associated with multiple concussions. Description: Neuropsychological testing has proved to be a useful tool in the medical management of sport-related concussion. In this paper, I describe a systematic model for the implementation of neuropsychological assessment of athletes at various levels of competition. Clinical Advantages: The systematic model was designed to incorporate state-of-the-art techniques for the detection and tracking of neurocognitive deficits associated with concussion into recently formulated guidelines for the medical management of sport-related concussion. Current applications of the model are discussed, as well as ongoing studies designed to elaborate the empirical underpinnings of the model and refine clinical decision making in this area. PMID:12937498

2001-01-01

316

ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS: MODELING THE INTRACELLULAR RESPONSE  

EPA Science Inventory

WE ARE DEVELOPING A MECHANISTIC MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE INTRATESTICULAR AND INTRAOVARIAN METABOLIC NETWORK THAT MEDICATES STEROID SYNTHESIS TO IDENTIFY A LINK NEW ROBUST MOLECULAR BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE THAT ARE INDICATIVE OF THE ULTIMATE ADVERSE EFFECTS....

317

Facilitating Lewin's change model with collaborative evaluation in promoting evidence based practices of health professionals.  

PubMed

Evidence based practices (EBPs) in clinical settings interact with and adapt to host organizational characteristics. The contextual factors themselves, surrounding health professions' practices, also adapt as practices become sustained. The authors assert the need for better planning models toward these contextual factors, the influence of which undergird a well-documented science to practice gap in literature on EBPs. The mechanism for EBP planners to anticipate contextual effects as programs Unfreeze their host settings, create Movement, and become Refrozen (Lewin, 1951) is present in Lewin's 3-step change model. Planning for contextual change appears equally important as planning for the actual practice outcomes among providers and patients. Two case studies from a Geriatric Education Center network will illustrate the synthesis of Lewin's three steps with collaborative evaluation principles. The use of the model may become an important tool for continuing education evaluators or organizations beginning a journey toward EBP demonstration projects in clinical settings. PMID:25192609

Manchester, Julianne; Gray-Miceli, Deanna L; Metcalf, Judith A; Paolini, Charlotte A; Napier, Anne H; Coogle, Constance L; Owens, Myra G

2014-12-01

318

Unified constitutive modeling for proportional and nonproportional cyclic plasticity responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several features of cyclic plasticity, e.g. cyclic hardening/softening, ratcheting, relaxation, and their dependence on strain range, nonproportionality of loading, time, and temperature determine the stress-strain responses of materials under cyclic loading. Numerous efforts have been made in the past decades to characterize and model these responses. Many of these responses can be simulated reasonably by the existing constitutive models, but the same models would fail in simulating the structural responses, local stress-strain or global deformation. One of the reasons for this deficiency is that the constitutive models are not robust enough to simulate the cyclic plasticity responses when they interact with each other. This deficiency can be understood better or resolved by developing and validating constitutive models against a broad set of experimental responses and two or more of the responses interacting with each other. This dissertation develops a unified constitutive model by studying the cyclic plasticity features in an integrated manner and validating the model by simulating a broad set of proportional and nonproportional cyclic plasticity responses. The study demonstrates the drawbacks of the existing nonlinear kinematic hardening model originally developed by Chaboche and then develop and incorporate novel ideas into the model for improving its cyclic response simulations. The Chaboche model is modified by incorporating strain-range dependent cyclic hardening/softening through the kinematic hardening rule parameters, in addition to the conventional method of using only the isotropic hardening parameters. The nonproportional loading memory parameters of Tanaka and of Benallal and Marquis are incorporated to study the influence of nonproportionality. The model is assessed by simulating hysteresis loop shape, cyclic hardening-softening, cross-effect, cyclic relaxation, subsequent cyclic softening, and finally a series of ratcheting responses under uniaxial and biaxial loading responses. Next, it is demonstrated that the hysteresis loop shape and width can be improved by incorporation of time dependence (visco-effect) and a novel modeling scheme of backstress shift. Overall, this dissertation demonstrates a methodical and systematic development of a constitutive model for simulating a broad set of low-cycle fatigue responses.

Krishna, Shree

319

Professional support framework: improving access to professional support for professionals.  

PubMed

From an organisational point of view, professional support is an important aspect of clinical governance and a tool for maximising service delivery quality. As a key factor in staff retention and recruitment, access to professional support is also regarded as an important tool for facilitating workforce growth in a competitive health workforce market. While some work units provide appropriate professional support such as in-service, professional supervision is a key challenge for a large organisation employing many health professionals to ensure equitable and relevant access to finite professional support resources. The goal of this paper is to describe the Professional Support Program designed and implemented by Queensland Health. This program seeks to support professionals who may not previously have had optimal engagement in professional support and to enhance the quality of professional support activities available. Evaluation indicates that the Professional Support Program has been successful in facilitating participation in, and quality of professional support activities. PMID:23680624

Hall, Fiona; Bell, Karen

2013-11-01

320

Modeling human response errors in synthetic flight simulator domain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a control theoretic approach to modeling human response errors (HRE) in the flight simulation domain. The human pilot is modeled as a supervisor of a highly automated system. The synthesis uses the theory of optimal control pilot modeling for integrating the pilot's observation error and the error due to the simulation model (experimental error). Methods for solving the HRE problem are suggested. Experimental verification of the models will be tested in a flight quality handling simulation.

Ntuen, Celestine A.

1992-01-01

321

Professional & Continuing  

E-print Network

& Professional Development Trey Martindale State Laws & Regulations Update State Board Staff Communication Styles Fred Ellrich PSI Update Lynn Thomas Cutting & Barbering Antonio Terrell Ask the Experts Panel Moderator Board and the Tennessee State Board of Cosmetology, these sessions will provide you with the latest

Dasgupta, Dipankar

322

Professional Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews 12 professional books dealing with the following topes: (1) children's literature; (2) literacy development; (3) young writers; (4) discovery science and nature; (5) whole-language resources on butterflies and on dinosaurs; (6) mathematics; (7) engaging children in literacy; (8) early childhood curriculum; (9) the High/Scope Perry…

Willoughby-Herb, Sara; And Others

1994-01-01

323

Professional Bookshelf  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exemplary professional development publications in the areas of general instruction, science education, and literacy instruction in the elementary grades are described in each issue of Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle. This free, online magazine is structured around the seven essential principles of climate literacy and emphasizes integrating science and literacy skills in grades K-5.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2011-07-01

324

Professional Technician  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video from SpaceTEC National Aerospace Technical Education Center explains various aspects of being a professional technician such as tool controls, security and safety, team qualifications, equipment care and calibration, certifications and job qualifications, systems thinking and troubleshooting, and personal integrity and ethics. This one minute video is one of the aerospace certification readiness courses.

2011-07-27

325

Lesson Study: An Effective School-Based Teacher Professional Learning Model for Teachers of Mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on ongoing research in a cluster of schools in the outer south-eastern suburbs of Melbourne which is utilising Lesson Study as a peer observation model for mathematics teaching. The findings from nine initial Lesson Study sessions undertaken by cluster teachers to develop a Fractions Teaching Program are presented. The results indicate the success of the fractions tasks

Peter Sanders

326

Satisfaction with Components of the Therapeutic Model: Perspectives of Consumers and Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We provide information about consumer and provider perceptions using a mixed-model pilot study within the Intensive Mental Health Project (IMHP), a school-based treatment service for children with SED and their families. Caregiver, youth, and provider questionnaires developed for this project elicited quantitative and qualitative information on…

Lazicki, Tammy A.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Roberts, Michael C.; Benson, Eric R.

2008-01-01

327

Work in Progress: Modeling Employer Assessments Using Professionalism in Computer Science Courses  

E-print Network

to replicate a manager's perception of an employee's reputation which starts out high and sinks with the employee's unprofessional behavior. By modeling this perception, our program has begun to increase strategy is to use that assessment as a small portion (5-15%) of the final grade. II. MOTIVATION A

Armstrong, Alice

328

Internationally-educated health professionals: a distance education multiple cultures model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to explore issues that must be addressed in post-secondary educational planning and delivery such that social cultural factors within the learning environment are recognized in ways that affirm the learner's cultural traditions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The adoption of a multiple cultures model of instructional design with an emphasis on implementing flexible learning using instructional technology is

Lillie Lum

2006-01-01

329

Trust, Accountability, Autonomy: Building a Teacher-Driven Professional Growth Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Faculty evaluation--arguably no other topic in independent education evokes as much passionate discourse--mostly negative, or at least freighted with anxiety. But, in the authors' experience, it does not have to be this way. At their school, Berkeley Preparatory School (Florida), they have recently developed a teacher evaluation model that is…

Jebson, Hugh; DiNota, Carlo

2011-01-01

330

Brains Rule!: A Model Program for Developing Professional Stewardship among Neuroscientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brains Rule! Neuroscience Expositions, funded through a National Institute on Drug Abuse Science Education Drug Abuse Partnership Award, has developed a successful model for informal neuroscience education. Each Exposition is a "reverse science fair" in which neuroscientists present short neuroscience teaching modules to students. This study…

Zardetto-Smith, Andrea M.; Mu, Keli; Carruth, Laura L.; Frantz, Kyle J.

2006-01-01

331

Prediction of Participation in Continuing Professional Education: A Test of Two Behavioral Intention Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of 551 Alberta veterinarians' intention to participate in continuing education revealed that the Triandis model of behavioral intention had greater predictive utility than the Fishbein-Azjen. Participation was largely determined by behavioral intention, which was influenced by attitude toward the program. (SK)

Yang, Baiyn; And Others

1994-01-01

332

Modeling crop responses to environmental change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potential biophysical responses of crops to climate change are studied focusing on the primary environmental variables which define the limits to agricultural crop growth and production, and the principal methods for predicting climate change impacts on crop geography and production. It is concluded that the principal uncertainties in the prediction of the impacts of climate change on agriculture reside in the contribution of the direct effects of increasing CO2, in potential changes inclimate variability, and the effects of adjustments mechanisms in the context of climatic changes.

Rosenzweig, Cynthia

1993-01-01

333

Formation of medical student professional identity: categorizing lapses of professionalism, and the learning environment  

PubMed Central

Background Acquiring the values of medical professionalism has become a critical issue in medical education. The purpose of this study was to identify lapses in professionalism witnessed by medical students during their four year MD curriculum, and to categorize, from the students’ perspective, who was responsible and the settings in which these occurred. Methods An electronic survey, developed by faculty and medical students, was sent to all students with two email reminders. It included quantitative responses and some open-ended opportunities for comments. All analyses were performed with SAS version 9.1. Results The response rate was 45.6% (255 of 559 students) for all four years of the medical school curriculum. Thirty six percent of students had witnessed or been part of an exemplary demonstration of professionalism; 64% responded that they had witnessed a lapse of professionalism. At the pre-clerkship level, the most frequent lapses involved students: arrogance (42.2%), impairment (24.2%), followed by cultural or religious insensitivity (20.5%). At the clerkship level of training, where students are exposed to real clinical situations, the lapses involved primarily faculty (including preceptor and clinician) or other staff; these included arrogance (55.3%), breach of confidentiality (28.3%), and cultural or religious insensitivity (26.6%); impairment involved mostly students (25.5%). These findings are analyzed from the perspective of role modeling by faculty and in the context of the learning environment. Conclusions Medical students witnessed a lapse of professionalism involving both fellow students as well as faculty and administrative staff, in several domains. Results from this study emphasize the importance of role modeling and the need for faculty development, to improve the learning environment. This study adds to the limited emerging literature on the forces that influence medical student professional identity formation. PMID:25004924

2014-01-01

334

A model of plant canopy polarization response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensors to remotely measure the linear polarization of ground scenes have been proposed for the Multispectral Resource Sampler (MRS), a satellite sensor system proposed to complement the Thematic Mapper. At present justification for a sensor on MRS to measure scene polarization is limited. This paper discusses a model for the amount of linearly polarized light reflected by the shiny leaves of such crops as wheat, corn, and sorghum. The theory demonstrates that, potentially, measurements of the linearly polarized light from a crop canopy may be used as an additional feature to discriminate between crops. Examination of the model suggests that, potentially, satellite polarization measurements may be used to monitor crop development stage, leaf water content, leaf area index, hail damage, and certain plant diseases. The model adds to the understanding of the potential information content of scene polarization measurements acquired by future satellite sensor systems such as MRS.

Vanderbilt, V. C.

1980-01-01

335

Item Response Modeling of Paired Comparison and Ranking Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The comparative format used in ranking and paired comparisons tasks can significantly reduce the impact of uniform response biases typically associated with rating scales. Thurstone's (1927, 1931) model provides a powerful framework for modeling comparative data such as paired comparisons and rankings. Although Thurstonian models are generally…

Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto; Brown, Anna

2010-01-01

336

Modeling South China Sea circulation: Response to seasonal forcing regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional ocean model has been utilized to study circulation and its seasonal variation in the South China Sea (SCS) in response to the forcing of the Asian monsoon and the Kuroshio intrusion. The SCS ocean model has a resolution of approximately 10 km horizontal spacing and 30 vertical levels with a realistic bottom topography. The model is forced with

Jianping Gan; H. Li; E. N. Curchitser; D. B. Haidvogel

2006-01-01

337

A Bayesian Semiparametric Item Response Model with Dirichlet Process Priors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Item Response Theory (IRT), item characteristic curves (ICCs) are illustrated through logistic models or normal ogive models, and the probability that examinees give the correct answer is usually a monotonically increasing function of their ability parameters. However, since only limited patterns of shapes can be obtained from logistic models

Miyazaki, Kei; Hoshino, Takahiro

2009-01-01

338

Leveraging First Response Time into the Knowledge Tracing Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The field of educational data mining has been using the Knowledge Tracing model, which only look at the correctness of student first response, for tracking student knowledge. Recently, lots of other features are studied to extend the Knowledge Tracing model to better model student knowledge. The goal of this paper is to analyze whether or not the…

Wang, Yutao; Heffernan, Neil T.

2012-01-01

339

Modelling and Validation of Response Times in Zoned RAID  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present and validate an enhanced analytical queueing network model of zoned RAID. The model focuses on RAID levels 01 and 5, and yields the distribution of I\\/O request response time. Whereas our previous work could only sup- port arrival streams of I\\/O requests of the same type, the model presented here supports heterogeneous streams with a mixture of read

Abigail S. Lebrecht; Nicholas J. Dingle; William J. Knottenbelt

2008-01-01

340

Improving student professionalism during experiential learning.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to serve as a tool for preceptors to aid in pharmacy students' development of professionalism. Specifically, the article defines professionalism, describes it in the context of contemporary pharmacy practice, discusses the professional socialization process of students, and suggests strategies for preceptors to facilitate improvement in professionalism among students during experiential training. While numerous suggestions are presented, positive role modeling is considered the most important means of improving professionalism among students. PMID:17136180

Hammer, Dana

2006-06-15

341

A Model for Using a Concept Inventory as a Tool for Students' Assessment and Faculty Professional Development  

PubMed Central

This essay describes how the use of a concept inventory has enhanced professional development and curriculum reform efforts of a faculty teaching community. The Host Pathogen Interactions (HPI) teaching team is composed of research and teaching faculty with expertise in HPI who share the goal of improving the learning experience of students in nine linked undergraduate microbiology courses. To support evidence-based curriculum reform, we administered our HPI Concept Inventory as a pre- and postsurvey to approximately 400 students each year since 2006. The resulting data include student scores as well as their open-ended explanations for distractor choices. The data have enabled us to address curriculum reform goals of 1) reconciling student learning with our expectations, 2) correlating student learning with background variables, 3) understanding student learning across institutions, 4) measuring the effect of teaching techniques on student learning, and 5) demonstrating how our courses collectively form a learning progression. The analysis of the concept inventory data has anchored and deepened the team's discussions of student learning. Reading and discussing students' responses revealed the gap between our understanding and the students' understanding. We provide evidence to support the concept inventory as a tool for assessing student understanding of HPI concepts and faculty development. PMID:21123686

McAdams, Katherine C.; Benson, Spencer; Briken, Volker; Cathcart, Laura; Chase, Michael; El-Sayed, Najib M.; Frauwirth, Kenneth; Fredericksen, Brenda; Joseph, Sam W.; Lee, Vincent; McIver, Kevin S.; Mosser, David; Quimby, B. Booth; Shields, Patricia; Song, Wenxia; Stein, Daniel C.; Stewart, Richard; Thompson, Katerina V.

2010-01-01

342

Mentor teachers' perceptions of their own professional development within a secondary science professional development school  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mentor teachers' perceptions of their professional development within a secondary science professional development school were studied using grounded theory within a postmodern lens. The driving questions which framed this study were: How do mentor teachers' perceive their own professional development in the context of an emerging secondary science Professional Development School? How is mentor professional development supported or inhibited in this secondary science PDS? How do mentor teachers' perceive teaching science through inquiry in the context of this secondary science Professional Development School? In what ways do mentor teachers view themselves as participants in a community of learners within the PDS context? Seven secondary science mentor teachers were purposefully selected as participants based on their commitment to mentor a pre-service science education intern for one school year. The primary sources of data were two semi-structured interviews, one taken early in the school year, and the other taken near or at the end of the school year. Other sources of data were participant mentor journal entries, focus group notes, written mentor responses to an inquiry prompt and professional development prompt, and the Secondary Science Professional Development Handbook which the participant/focus group generated. These additional data sources were used to help reach consensus as well as add richness to the study. Data were analyzed initially using the grounded theory qualitative software ATLASti (1997), to discover codes and patterns of connectivity. Results of initial analysis were compared with subsequent data analysis, and member check for clarification and consensus. Mentors in this study identified six dimensions which influenced their professional development. Five of these enhanced their practice. These were: benefits, roles, goals, preparation, and support. Participants also identified barriers which inhibited their professional growth. The most significant of these was isolation. In addition, multiple and diverse patterns of connectivity which cut across all six of the previous dimensions and changed with time were identified. These were: (1) Mentors' reflection on their practice, and (2) Mentors' focus and self-view which connected them to their interns and their practice. The theory generated from this study is: Mentor teachers' professional development is mediated by interns in the context of a science PDS. The three supporting assertions for this theory are: (1) Mentors' reflection, focus and self-view influenced the extent of their professional development, (2) The PDS partnership mentor/intern pair successfully negotiated and collaborated, but in isolation, and (3) Mentor/intern pairs developed models of teaching science through inquiry. This study's finding were used as a basis of recommendations for research and practice.

Kreamer, Sherry Maureen

343

APPLYING NOVAK'S NEW MODEL OF EDUCATION TO FACILITATE ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS, PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND CAPACITY-BUILDING FOR THE NEW TEACHER ALLIANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing a multi-stakeholder, complex statewide teacher improvement project presents many challenges. Fostering effectiveness and sharing lessons learned among the partners and stakeholders is essential. Concept maps and Novak's New Model of Education (2004) are being used to facilitate organizational effectiveness, professional development, and capacity building for The New Teacher Alliance (NTA). NTA is a partnership of seven (7) school districts

Barbara Bowen; Mindy Meyer

344

Sports Need You. A Working Model for the Equity Professional. How to Increase the Number of Women and Minorities in Athletic Coaching, Officiating, Administration, and Governance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed for the equity professional who wishes to increase the participation of women and minority groups in leadership roles in athletics. The model was developed by Educators for Athletic Equity (EAE) and provides a data and knowledge base necessary for implementing a successful athletic equity project. The specific goals…

Schafer, Susan P.

345

Assessment of Professional Development for Teachers in the Vocational Education and Training Sector: An Examination of the Concerns Based Adoption Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to describe the use of the Concerns Based Adoption Model (Hall & Hord, 2006) as a conceptual lens and practical methodology for professional development program assessment in the vocational education and training (VET) sector. In this sequential mixed-methods study, findings from the first two phases (two of five) of…

Saunders, Rebecca

2012-01-01

346

Modeling the host response to inhalation anthrax  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhalation anthrax, an often fatal infection, is initiated by endospores of the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, which are introduced into the lung. To better understand the pathogenesis of an inhalation anthrax infection, we propose a two-compartment mathematical model that takes into account the documented early events of such an infection. Anthrax spores, once inhaled, are readily taken up by alveolar phagocytes,

Judy Day; Avner Friedman; Larry S Schlesinger

2011-01-01

347

Responsive Therapy and Personal Commitment: Integrative Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple triadic model suggests that problems or circumstances come in three varieties: cognitive, affective, and behavioral. Likewise, client style might be categorized by the same three labels. If the therapist can correctly identify the client's circumstance and style, then the approach can be chosen that seems most likely to produce the most…

Gerber, Sterling

348

Adding heat to the live-high train-low altitude model: a practical insight from professional football  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine with a parallel group study design the performance and physiological responses to a 14-day off-season ‘live high-train low in the heat’ training camp in elite football players. Methods Seventeen professional Australian Rules Football players participated in outdoor football-specific skills (32±1°C, 11.5?h) and indoor strength (23±1°C, 9.3?h) sessions and slept (12 nights) and cycled indoors (4.3?h) in either normal air (NORM, n=8) or normobaric hypoxia (14±1?h/day, FiO2 15.2–14.3%, corresponding to a simulated altitude of 2500–3000?m, hypoxic (HYP), n=9). They completed the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 (Yo-YoIR2) in temperate conditions (23±1°C, normal air) precamp (Pre) and postcamp (Post). Plasma volume (PV) and haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) were measured at similar times and 4?weeks postcamp (4WPost). Sweat sodium concentration ((Na+)sweat) was measured Pre and Post during a heat-response test (44°C). Results Both groups showed very large improvements in Yo-YoIR2 at Post (+44%; 90% CL 38, 50), with no between-group differences in the changes (?1%; ?9, 9). Postcamp, large changes in PV (+5.6%; ?1.8, 5.6) and (Na+)sweat (?29%; ?37, ?19) were observed in both groups, while Hbmass only moderately increased in HYP (+2.6%; 0.5, 4.5). At 4WPost, there was a likely slightly greater increase in Hbmass (+4.6%; 0.0, 9.3) and PV (+6%; ?5, 18, unclear) in HYP than in NORM. Conclusions The combination of heat and hypoxic exposure during sleep/training might offer a promising ‘conditioning cocktail’ in team sports. PMID:24282209

Buchheit, M; Racinais, S; Bilsborough, J; Hocking, J; Mendez-Villanueva, A; Bourdon, P C; Voss, S; Livingston, S; Christian, R; Periard, J; Cordy, J; Coutts, A J

2013-01-01

349

A mediation model of professional psychological help seeking for suicide ideation among Asian American and white American college students.  

PubMed

This study examined professional psychological help seeking among 1,045 white American and Asian American students from 70 U.S. colleges and universities who had seriously considered attempting suicide. The authors found that Asian American college students had lower rates of professional psychological help seeking for their suicide ideation than White American college students. Guided by social network perspectives on professional psychological help seeking, the authors also tested mediators of this racial disparity. Relative to white Americans, Asian Americans were advised by fewer people (especially fewer family members) to seek professional help, which was, in turn, associated with lower rates of professional psychological help seeking for suicide ideation. These findings underscore the importance of gatekeeping as a suicide prevention strategy for Asian American college students. PMID:24620900

Wong, Joel; Brownson, Chris; Rutkowski, Leslie; Nguyen, Chi P; Becker, Marty Swanbrow

2014-01-01

350

Modeling Effective Dosages in Hormetic Dose-Response Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Two hormetic modifications of a monotonically decreasing log-logistic dose-response function are most often used to model stimulatory effects of low dosages of a toxicant in plant biology. As just one of these empirical models is yet properly parameterized to allow inference about quantities of interest, this study contributes the parameterized functions for the second hormetic model and compares the estimates of effective dosages between both models based on 23 hormetic data sets. Based on this, the impact on effective dosage estimations was evaluated, especially in case of a substantially inferior fit by one of the two models. Methodology/Principal Findings The data sets evaluated described the hormetic responses of four different test plant species exposed to 15 different chemical stressors in two different experimental dose-response test designs. Out of the 23 data sets, one could not be described by any of the two models, 14 could be better described by one of the two models, and eight could be equally described by both models. In cases of misspecification by any of the two models, the differences between effective dosages estimates (0–1768%) greatly exceeded the differences observed when both models provided a satisfactory fit (0–26%). This suggests that the conclusions drawn depending on the model used may diverge considerably when using an improper hormetic model especially regarding effective dosages quantifying hormesis. Conclusions/Significance The study showed that hormetic dose responses can take on many shapes and that this diversity can not be captured by a single model without risking considerable misinterpretation. However, the two empirical models considered in this paper together provide a powerful means to model, prove, and now also to quantify a wide range of hormetic responses by reparameterization. Despite this, they should not be applied uncritically, but after statistical and graphical assessment of their adequacy. PMID:22438929

Belz, Regina G.; Piepho, Hans-Peter

2012-01-01

351

A simple model for strong ground motions and response spectra  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A simple model for the description of strong ground motions is introduced. The model shows that response spectra can be estimated by using only four parameters of the ground motion, the RMS acceleration, effective duration and two corner frequencies that characterize the effective frequency band of the motion. The model is windowed band-limited white noise, and is developed by studying the properties of two functions, cumulative squared acceleration in the time domain, and cumulative squared amplitude spectrum in the frequency domain. Applying the methods of random vibration theory, the model leads to a simple analytical expression for the response spectra. The accuracy of the model is checked by using the ground motion recordings from the aftershock sequences of two different earthquakes and simulated accelerograms. The results show that the model gives a satisfactory estimate of the response spectra.

Safak, Erdal; Mueller, Charles; Boatwright, John

1988-01-01

352

Professional practice skills for nurses.  

PubMed

Nurses work in a healthcare system in which different partners in care have different expectations of them. Demands to provide compassionate care that is patient-centred and responsive while adhering to budget constraints are contributing to 'compassion fatigue' and adversely affecting nurses' mood and effectiveness. This article discusses how an understanding of professional practice skills, communication skills and teamwork can help nurses to cope with these conflicting demands and compassion fatigue while performing their professional roles and responsibilities. This approach is discussed in the context of nursing discourse and related professional and government recommendations. PMID:25182923

Groves, Winnifred

2014-09-01

353

Teaching and learning of professionalism in medical schools.  

PubMed

Concerns about professionalism in medicine have made necessary the explicit teaching and learning of ethics, professionalism and personal development. The noble profession of medicine, taken up as a "calling" by those who are expected to put the needs of the patient above their own, appears to have become a fees-for-service business model and trade. Parental expectations, the diminishing sense of responsibility in teachers, lack of role models, technological advancements, sub-specialisation and third-party involvement in the healthcare delivery system have been identified as reasons for these concerns. The General Medical Council in the United Kingdom, and other professional bodies in both Europe and the Americas, have emphasised the need to enhance the teaching and learning of professionalism in medical schools, particularly the development of good attitudes, appropriate and competent skills, and the inculcation of a value system that reflects the tenets of professionalism in medicine. The medical curriculum will need to be scrutinised so as to introduce the subject of professionalism at all levels of training and education. Barriers to learning professionalism have been identified and students need to be equipped to resolve conflicts and to put the needs of others above their own. PMID:15608822

Sivalingam, N

2004-11-01

354

Modeling the cytotoxic T cell response Dennis Lai Chao  

E-print Network

are interested in manipulating and enhancing the CTL response to these diseases, whether by vaccination or drug impossible, to perform in the laboratory. For example, in a computer model one can replicate experiments

Forrest, Stephanie

355

A Common Process Model for Incident Response and Computer Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incident Response and Computer Forensics are two areas with similar goals but distinct process models. While in both cases the goal is to investigate computer se- curity incidents and contain their effects, Incident Response focusses more on restora- tion of normal service and Computer Forensics on the provision of evidence that can be used in a court of law. In

Felix C. Freiling; Bastian Schwittay

2007-01-01

356

A Dispatch-Mediated Communication Model for Emergency Response Systems  

E-print Network

2 A Dispatch-Mediated Communication Model for Emergency Response Systems ROHIT VALECHA and RAJ of emergency communication is dispatch-mediated (the messages from the scene are directed towards, dispatch-mediated communication, emergency response systems ACM Reference Format: Valecha, R., Sharman, R

Upadhyaya, Shambhu

357

Compartmental-model response function for dendritic trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The membrane-potential response function of a dendritic tree is constructed using a compartmental model. It is shown that if certain conditions are imposed on the compartments at branching nodes and terminals of an arbitrary tree, then the response function has a simple matrix solution that may be evaluated explicitly. Moreover, it reduces to the corresponding path-integral expression of cable theory

Paul C. Bressloff; John G. Taylor

1993-01-01

358

Modeling sequence-sequence interactions for drug response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: Genetic interactions or epistasis may play an important role in the genetic etiology of drug response. With the availability of large-scale, high-density single nucleotide polymorphism markers, a great challenge is how to associate haplotype structures and complex drug response through its underlying pharmacodynamic mechanisms. Results: We have derived a general statistical model for detecting an interactive network of DNA

Min Lin; Hongying Li; Wei Hou; Julie A. Johnson; Rongling Wu

2007-01-01

359

The Professional Phagocyte Dictyostelium discoideum as a Model Host for Bacterial Pathogens  

PubMed Central

The use of simple hosts such as Dictyostelium discoideum in the study of host pathogen interactions offers a number of advantages and has steadily increased in recent years. Infection-specific genes can often only be studied in a very limited way in man and even in the mouse model their analysis is usually expensive, time consuming and technically challenging or sometimes even impossible. In contrast, their functional analysis in D. discoideum and other simple model organisms is often easier, faster and cheaper. Because host-pathogen interactions necessarily involve two organisms, it is desirable to be able to genetically manipulate both the pathogen and its host. Particularly suited are those hosts, like D. discoideum, whose genome sequence is known and annotated and for which excellent genetic and cell biological tools are available in order to dissect the complex crosstalk between host and pathogen. The review focusses on host-pathogen interactions of D. discoideum with Legionella pneumophila, mycobacteria, and Salmonella typhimurium which replicate intracellularly. PMID:21366522

Bozzaro, Salvatore; Eichinger, Ludwig

2011-01-01

360

Responsibility-Driven Explanation Engineering for Cognitive Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an approach for developing explanation facilities for cognitive architectures based on techniques drawn from object- and aspect-oriented software engineering. We examine the use of responsibility-driven design augmented with scenario-based techniques and class- responsibility-collaboration (CRC) cards to identify explanation behaviors for cognitive model elements, and discuss the explanation benefits derived from encapsulating model behaviors within aspects. Soar is used

Steven R. Haynes; Isaac G. Councill; Frank E. Ritter

2004-01-01

361

Modelling the Control of an Immune Response Through Cytokine Signalling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the computer aided simulation of a model for the control of an immune response. This model has been developed\\u000a to investigate the proposed hypothesis that the same cytokine that amplifies an initiated response can eventually lead to\\u000a its downregulation, if it can act on more than one cell type. The simulation environment is composed of effector cells

Thiago S. Guzella; Tomaz A. Mota-santos; Joaquim Quinteiro Uchôa; Walmir M. Caminhas

2006-01-01

362

Examination of wind turbine generator models response to disturbances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses wind turbine generator (WTG) dynamic models intended for power system stability simulations. Presented are results of an examination performed for models of different variable-speed pitch-regulated WTGs. Subject to examination were models' dynamic response to grid-side and wind-side disturbances and models' sensitivity to parameter values. Discussed are phenomena observed in simulations and related concerns in regard to the

M. Y. Borodulin

2009-01-01

363

Ground-penetrating radar responses of dispersive models  

SciTech Connect

Using a three-layer 1-D model and a 3-D model the authors have demonstrated that GPR (ground penetrating radar) waves are greatly attenuated in dispersive media because dispersion results in increased effective conductivities and reduced effective permittivities. This can be further illustrated by using equivalent conductivities and equivalent permittivities that are the effective conductivities and effective permittivities of dispersive models at the principal GPR frequency. Dispersive model responses are very similar to their nondispersive equivalents.

Xiong, Z.; Tripp, A.C. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics] [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

1997-07-01

364

NASA's Student Airborne Research Program as a model for effective professional development experience in Oceanography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With over half of the current earth and space science workforce expected to retire within the next 15 years, NASA has responded by cultivating young minds through programs such as the Student Airborne Research Program (SARP). SARP is a competitive internship that introduces upper-level undergraduates and early graduate students to Earth System Science research and NASA's Airborne Science Program. The program serves as a model for recruitment of very high caliber students into the scientific workforce. Its uniqueness derives from total vertical integration of hands-on experience at every stage of airborne science: aircraft instrumentation, flight planning, mission participation, field-work, analysis, and reporting of results in a competitive environment. At the conclusion of the program, students presented their work to NASA administrators, faculty, mentors, and the other participants with the incentive of being selected as best talk and earning a trip to the fall AGU meeting to present their work at the NASA booth. We hope lessons learned can inform the decisions of scientists at the highest levels seeking to broaden the appeal of research. In 2011, SARP was divided into three disciplinary themes: Oceanography, Land Use, and Atmospheric Chemistry. Each research group was mentored by an upper-level graduate student who was supervised by an expert faculty member. A coordinator managed the program and was supervised by a senior research scientist/administrator. The program is a model of knowledge transfer among the several levels of research: agency administration to the program coordinator, established scientific experts to the research mentors, and the research mentors to the pre-career student participants. The outcomes from this program include mission planning and institutional knowledge transfer from administrators and expert scientists to the coordinator and research mentors; personnel and project management from the coordinator and expert scientists to the research mentors; and scholarship and training in specific analytical techniques for Earth Science research from the mentors to the student participants. Across every level, the program allowed for networking and career advice to help students gain entry to future job or graduate school opportunities. This poster details "engaging the next generation" by highlighting specific research questions proposed and developed by the students in the Oceanography group.

Palacios, S. L.; Kudela, R. M.; Clinton, N. E.; Atkins, N.; Austerberry, D.; Johnson, M.; McGonigle, J.; McIntosh, K.; O'Shea, J. J.; Shirshikova, Z.; Singer, N.; Snow, A.; Woods, R.; Schaller, E.; Shetter, R. E.

2011-12-01

365

Moral and Instructional Influences of Teachers in Professional Development Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used case studies to examine teachers' motivation and instructional style in relationship to their progress in Professional Development School staff development. Field observations of teachers examined the effectiveness of the Teacher Instructional Orientation and Motivation model in predicting teachers' responses to staff development. Data…

Campoy, Renee W.; Hoewisch, Allison

1998-01-01

366

Music Teacher Practice and Identity in Professional Development Partnerships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1995, the author has been the university music educator responsible to a professional development partnership. Over an 8-year span, she has collected narratives of experience from approximately 100 pre-service music teachers, following, to some extent, the research model of Connelly and Clandinin. In developing their notion of "personal…

Conkling, Susan Wharton

2004-01-01

367

Modeling the T cell immune response: a fascinating challenge.  

PubMed

The immune system is designed to protect the organism from infection and to repair damaged tissue. An effective response requires recognition of the threat, the appropriate effector mechanism to clear the pathogen and a return to homeostasis with minimal damage to self-tissues. T cells play a central role in orchestrating the immune response at all stages of the response and have been the subject of intense study by both experimental immunologists and modelers. This review examines some of the more critical questions in T cell biology and describes the latest attempts to address those questions using approaches that combine mathematical modeling and experiments. PMID:25155903

Morel, Penelope A; Faeder, James R; Hawse, William F; Miskov-Zivanov, Natasa

2014-10-01

368

Systematics of the models of immune response and autoimmune disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dynamical model of normal immune response has been formulated in terms of cellular automata by Kaufman et al. We generalize this model incorporating the antigens as a dynamical variable. This generalized model not only describes the kinetics of primary and secondary responses of humoral immunity, together with the appropriate memory cells, but also describes the vaccinated state as well as the states of low-dose and high-dose paralysis. Recently models of autoimmune response have also been developed in terms of discrete automata. But the models are underdetermined by the experimental facts, i.e., several models can account for the same set of observed biological facts. With an aim to find out how large this underdeterminacy is and how it can be reduced systematically, we have carried out an exhaustive computer-aided search of all those discrete three-cell and five-cell models of autoimmune response which at present cannot be ruled out by the existing biological informations. Out of the 325 possible five-cell models, only one fulfilled our criteria. We also carried out simulations of the dynamics of some of these models on a discrete lattice. We discuss the relevance of random interactions in the context of autoimmune disease.

Chowdhury, Debashish; Stauffer, Dietrich

1990-05-01

369

Improved Professional Development Through Teacher Leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research suggests the need to provide leadership opportunities for teachers within school settings in order to increase professional collaboration and community. This research explored one rural district's professional development model, which was evaluated to determine its potential in developing teacher leaders. This district's professional development model utilized their exemplary teachers to develop other teachers through formal presentations that were traditionally

Wesley D. Hickey; Sandra Harris

370

A Model of Placebo Response in Antidepressant Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Placebo response in clinical trials of antidepressant medications is substantial and increasing. High placebo response rates hamper efforts to detect signals of efficacy for new antidepressant medications, contributing to more failed trials and delaying the delivery of new treatments to market. Media reports seize upon increasing placebo response and modest advantages for active drugs as reasons to question the value of antidepressant medication, which may further stigmatize treatments for depression and dissuade patients from accessing mental health care. Conversely, enhancing the factors responsible for placebo response may represent a strategy for improving available treatments for Major Depressive Disorder. A conceptual framework describing the causes of placebo response is needed in order to develop strategies for minimizing placebo response in clinical trials, maximizing placebo response in clinical practice, and talking with depressed patients about the risks and benefits of antidepressant medications. This review examines contributors to placebo response in antidepressant clinical trials and proposes an explanatory model. Research aimed at reducing placebo response should focus on limiting patient expectancy and the intensity of therapeutic contact in antidepressant clinical trials, while the optimal strategy in clinical practice may be to combine active medication with a presentation and level of therapeutic contact that enhances treatment response. PMID:23318413

Rutherford, Bret R; Roose, Steven P.

2012-01-01

371

A dynamic causal model for evoked and induced responses  

PubMed Central

Neuronal responses exhibit two stimulus or task-related components: evoked and induced. The functional role of induced responses has been ascribed to ‘top-down’ modulation through backward connections and lateral interactions; as opposed to the bottom-up driving processes that may predominate in evoked components. The implication is that evoked and induced components may reflect different neuronal processes. The conventional way of separating evoked and induced responses assumes that they can be decomposed linearly; in that induced responses are the average of the power minus the power of the average (the evoked component). However, this decomposition may not hold if both components are generated by nonlinear processes. In this work, we propose a Dynamic Causal Model that models evoked and induced responses at the same time. This allows us to explain both components in terms of shared mechanisms (coupling) and changes in coupling that are necessary to explain any induced components. To establish the face validity of our approach, we used Bayesian Model Selection to show that the scheme can disambiguate between models of synthetic data that did and did not contain induced components. We then repeated the analysis using MEG data during a hand grip task to ask whether induced responses in motor control circuits are mediated by ‘top-down’ or backward connections. Our result provides empirical evidence that induced responses are more likely to reflect backward message passing in the brain, while evoked and induced components share certain characteristics and mechanisms. PMID:21835251

Chen, Chun-Chuan; Kiebel, Stefan J.; Kilner, James M.; Ward, Nick S.; Stephan, Klaas E.; Wang, Wei- Jen; Friston, Karl J.

2012-01-01

372

Modelling and validation of magnetorheological brake responses using parametric approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetorheological brake (MR Brake) is one x-by-wire systems which performs better than conventional brake systems. MR brake consists of a rotating disc that is immersed with Magnetorheological Fluid (MR Fluid) in an enclosure of an electromagnetic coil. The applied magnetic field will increase the yield strength of the MR fluid where this fluid was used to decrease the speed of the rotating shaft. The purpose of this paper is to develop a mathematical model to represent MR brake with a test rig. The MR brake model is developed based on actual torque characteristic which is coupled with motion of a test rig. Next, the experimental are performed using MR brake test rig and obtained three output responses known as angular velocity response, torque response and load displacement response. Furthermore, the MR brake was subjected to various current. Finally, the simulation results of MR brake model are then verified with experimental results.

Z, Zainordin A.; A, Abdullah M.; K, Hudha

2013-12-01

373

Modelling tropical forests response to logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical rainforests are among the most threatened ecosystems by large-scale fragmentation due to human activity such as heavy logging and agricultural clearance. Although, they provide crucial ecosystem goods and services, such as sequestering carbon from the atmosphere, protecting watersheds and conserving biodiversity. In several countries forest resource extraction has experienced a shift from clearcutting to selective logging to maintain a significant forest cover and understock of living biomass. However the knowledge on the short and long-term effects of removing selected species in tropical rainforest are scarce and need to be further investigated. One of the main effects of selective logging on forest dynamics seems to be the local disturbance which involve the invasion of open space by weed, vines and climbers at the expense of the late-successional state cenosis. We present a simple deterministic model that describes the dynamics of tropical rainforest subject to selective logging to understand how and why weeds displace native species. We argue that the selective removal of tallest tropical trees carries out gaps of light that allow weeds, vines and climbers to prevail on native species, inhibiting the possibility of recovery of the original vegetation. Our results show that different regime shifts may occur depending on the type of forest management adopted. This hypothesis is supported by a dataset of trees height and weed/vines cover that we collected from 9 plots located in Central and West Africa both in untouched and managed areas.

Cazzolla Gatti, Roberto; Di Paola, Arianna; Valentini, Riccardo; Paparella, Francesco

2013-04-01

374

Staking a Claim for Social Responsibility: An Argument for the Dual Responsibility Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 50 years ago, Siebert, Peterson and Schramm (1956) penned their groundbreaking work, Four Theories of the Press, in which they articulated the ideals of social responsibility. However, the economic model for the media in the United States has changed dramatically since Four Theories was written. Consequently, there is a need for a new model that combines the high

Terry Adams-Bloom; Johanna Cleary

2009-01-01

375

Bridging Scientific Model Outputs with Emergency Response Needs in Catastrophic Earthquake Responses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In emergency management, scientific models are widely used for running hazard simulations and estimating losses often in support of planning and mitigation efforts. This work expands utility of the scientific model into the response phase of emergency management. The focus is on the common operating picture as it gives context to emergency…

Johannes, Tay W.

2010-01-01

376

Modeling the Mixture of IRT and Pattern Responses by a Modified HYBRID Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study demonstrates the utility of a HYBRID psychometric model, which incorporates both item response theoretic and latent class models, for detecting test speededness. The model isolates where in a sequence of test items examinee response patterns shift from one providing reasonable estimates of ability to those best characterized by a random…

Yamamoto, Kentaro; Everson, Howard T.

377

Modeling of a rotor speed transient response with radial rubbing  

E-print Network

by an accidental blade­off imbalance. In order to assess the angular deceleration of the rotor due to rubbingModeling of a rotor speed transient response with radial rubbing Sébastien Roques1 Institut deGill Univer- sity, 817 Sherbrooke St West, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2K6, Canada Abstract A rotor­stator model

Boyer, Edmond

378

Separability of Item and Person Parameters in Response Time Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses two forms of separability of item and person parameters in the context of response time models. The first is "separate sufficiency," and the second is "ranking independence." For each form a theorem stating sufficient conditions is proved. The two forms are shown to include several cases of models from psychometric and biometric…

Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.

1997-01-01

379

An ordered response model of test cricket performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyses the prediction of test cricket outcomes using an ordered response model. The results, based on data over the period 1994 to 1999, suggest that the ordered categorized production outcome of test cricket (win, draw, loss) can be explained by simple measures of the batting and bowling labour inputs. For example, across all countries the model correctly predicts

Robert D. Brooks; Robert W. Faff; David Sokulsky

2002-01-01

380

Modeling and simulation of truck with random vibration response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking a two-axle truck for research object, a mathematic model and FEA model of 10 degrees of freedom finished automobile are established to describe the vibration of the truck. Virtual excitation of road is constructed through the basic theory of virtual excitation method and its statistical properties of the actual response are obtained. FEM theory is used in discrete the

Wu Yong-hai; Fan Qin-man

2011-01-01

381

The LGBTQ Responsive Model for Supervision of Group Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although supervision of group work has been linked to the development of multicultural and social justice competencies, there are no models for supervision of group work specifically designed to address the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) persons. This manuscript presents the LGBTQ Responsive Model for Supervision of Group Work (RMSGW), offering a trans-theoretical framework through which

Kristopher M. Goodrich; Melissa Luke

2011-01-01

382

The LGBTQ Responsive Model for Supervision of Group Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although supervision of group work has been linked to the development of multicultural and social justice competencies, there are no models for supervision of group work specifically designed to address the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) persons. This manuscript presents the LGBTQ Responsive Model for…

Goodrich, Kristopher M.; Luke, Melissa

2011-01-01

383

Minimax D-Optimal Designs for Item Response Theory Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposed minimax designs for item response theory (IRT) models to overcome the problem of local optimality. Compared minimax designs to sequentially constructed designs for the two parameter logistic model. Results show that minimax designs can be nearly as efficient as sequentially constructed designs. (Author/SLD)

Berger, Martjin P. F.; King, C. Y. Joy; Wong, Weng Kee

2000-01-01

384

Modeling HIV Immune Response and Validation with Clinical Data  

E-print Network

Modeling HIV Immune Response and Validation with Clinical Data H. T. Banksa,1 , M. Davidiana,2 equations is formulated to describe the pathogenesis of HIV infection, wherein certain important features, and stimulation by antigens other than HIV. A stability analysis illustrates the capability of this model

385

Frequency response modeling and control of flexible structures: Computational methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamics of vibrations in flexible structures can be conventiently modeled in terms of frequency response models. For structural control such models capture the distributed parameter dynamics of the elastic structural response as an irrational transfer function. For most flexible structures arising in aerospace applications the irrational transfer functions which arise are of a special class of pseudo-meromorphic functions which have only a finite number of right half place poles. Computational algorithms are demonstrated for design of multiloop control laws for such models based on optimal Wiener-Hopf control of the frequency responses. The algorithms employ a sampled-data representation of irrational transfer functions which is particularly attractive for numerical computation. One key algorithm for the solution of the optimal control problem is the spectral factorization of an irrational transfer function. The basis for the spectral factorization algorithm is highlighted together with associated computational issues arising in optimal regulator design. Options for implementation of wide band vibration control for flexible structures based on the sampled-data frequency response models is also highlighted. A simple flexible structure control example is considered to demonstrate the combined frequency response modeling and control algorithms.

Bennett, William H.

1989-01-01

386

A Dynamic Dose-Response Model for Modeling Infection Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most transmission models do not explicitly include the multiple environmental pathways that mediate the transmission from person to person. These models also assume that dose accumulates over time, assuming that pathogen exposure risks are independent of the temporal patterns of inoculation. Immune particle neutralization of pathogens, however, should create strong time dependence; i.e., temporally clustered pathogens have a better chance

Josep M. Pujol; Joseph E. Eisenberg; James S. Koopman

387

STELLOPT Modeling of the 3D Diagnostic Response in ITER  

SciTech Connect

The ITER three dimensional diagnostic response to an n=3 resonant magnetic perturbation is modeled using the STELLOPT code. The in-vessel coils apply a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fi eld which generates a 4 cm edge displacement from axisymmetry as modeled by the VMEC 3D equilibrium code. Forward modeling of flux loop and magnetic probe response with the DIAGNO code indicates up to 20 % changes in measured plasma signals. Simulated LIDAR measurements of electron temperature indicate 2 cm shifts on the low field side of the plasma. This suggests that the ITER diagnostic will be able to diagnose the 3D structure of the equilibria.

Lazerson, Samuel A

2013-05-07

388

Modeling the responses of TSM resonators under various loading conditions  

SciTech Connect

The authors developed a general model that describes the electrical responses of thickness shear mode resonators subject to a variety of surface conditions. The model incorporates a physically diverse set of single component loadings, including rigid solids, viscoelastic media, and fluids (Newtonian or Maxwellian). The model allows any number of these components to be combined in any configuration. Such multiple loadings are representative of a variety of physical situations encountered in electrochemical and other liquid phase applications, as well as gas phase applications. In the general case, the response of the composite load is not a linear combination of the individual component responses. The authors discuss application of the model in a qualitative diagnostic fashion to gain insight into the nature of the interfacial structure, and in a quantitative fashion to extract appropriate physical parameters such as liquid viscosity and density, and polymer shear moduli.

BANDEY,HELEN L.; MARTIN,STEPHEN J.; CERNOSEK,RICHARD W.; HILLMAN,A. ROBERT

1999-03-01

389

Modeling the Responses of TSM Resonators under Various Loading Conditions  

SciTech Connect

We develop a general model that describes the electrical responses of thickness shear mode resonators subject to a variety of surface loadkgs. The model incorporates a physically diverse set of single component loadings, including rigid solids, viscoelastic media and fluids (Newtonian or Maxwellian). The model allows any number of these components to be combined in any configuration. Such multiple loadings are representative of a variety of physical situations encountered in electrochemical and other liquid phase applications, as well as gas phase applications. In the general case, the response of the composite is not a linear combination of the individual component responses. We discuss application of the model in a qualitative diagnostic fashion, to gain insight into the nature of the interracial structure, and in a quantitative fashion, to extract appropriate physical parameters, such as liquid viscosity and density and polymer shear moduli.

Bandey, H.L.; Cernosek, R.W.; Hillman, A.R.; Martin, S.J.

1998-12-04

390

Comparison of stream invertebrate response models for bioassessment metric  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We aggregated invertebrate data from various sources to assemble data for modeling in two ecoregions in Oregon and one in California. Our goal was to compare the performance of models developed using multiple linear regression (MLR) techniques with models developed using three relatively new techniques: classification and regression trees (CART), random forest (RF), and boosted regression trees (BRT). We used tolerance of taxa based on richness (RICHTOL) and ratio of observed to expected taxa (O/E) as response variables and land use/land cover as explanatory variables. Responses were generally linear; therefore, there was little improvement to the MLR models when compared to models using CART and RF. In general, the four modeling techniques (MLR, CART, RF, and BRT) consistently selected the same primary explanatory variables for each region. However, results from the BRT models showed significant improvement over the MLR models for each region; increases in R2 from 0.09 to 0.20. The O/E metric that was derived from models specifically calibrated for Oregon consistently had lower R2 values than RICHTOL for the two regions tested. Modeled O/E R2 values were between 0.06 and 0.10 lower for each of the four modeling methods applied in the Willamette Valley and were between 0.19 and 0.36 points lower for the Blue Mountains. As a result, BRT models may indeed represent a good alternative to MLR for modeling species distribution relative to environmental variables.

Waite, Ian R.; Kennen, Jonathan G.; May, Jason T.; Brown, Larry R.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Jones, Kimberly A.; Orlando, James L.

2012-01-01

391

Mouse models of human AML accurately predict chemotherapy response  

PubMed Central

The genetic heterogeneity of cancer influences the trajectory of tumor progression and may underlie clinical variation in therapy response. To model such heterogeneity, we produced genetically and pathologically accurate mouse models of common forms of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and developed methods to mimic standard induction chemotherapy and efficiently monitor therapy response. We see that murine AMLs harboring two common human AML genotypes show remarkably diverse responses to conventional therapy that mirror clinical experience. Specifically, murine leukemias expressing the AML1/ETO fusion oncoprotein, associated with a favorable prognosis in patients, show a dramatic response to induction chemotherapy owing to robust activation of the p53 tumor suppressor network. Conversely, murine leukemias expressing MLL fusion proteins, associated with a dismal prognosis in patients, are drug-resistant due to an attenuated p53 response. Our studies highlight the importance of genetic information in guiding the treatment of human AML, functionally establish the p53 network as a central determinant of chemotherapy response in AML, and demonstrate that genetically engineered mouse models of human cancer can accurately predict therapy response in patients. PMID:19339691

Zuber, Johannes; Radtke, Ina; Pardee, Timothy S.; Zhao, Zhen; Rappaport, Amy R.; Luo, Weijun; McCurrach, Mila E.; Yang, Miao-Miao; Dolan, M. Eileen; Kogan, Scott C.; Downing, James R.; Lowe, Scott W.

2009-01-01

392

Professional hazards? The impact of models' body size on advertising effectiveness and women's body-focused anxiety in professions that do and do not emphasize the cultural ideal of thinness.  

PubMed

Previous experimental research indicates that the use of average-size women models in advertising prevents the well-documented negative effect of thin models on women's body image, while such adverts are perceived as equally effective (Halliwell & Dittmar, 2004). The current study extends this work by: (a) seeking to replicate the finding of no difference in advertising effectiveness between average-size and thin models (b) examining level of ideal-body internalization as an individual, internal factor that moderates women's vulnerability to thin media models, in the context of (c) comparing women in professions that differ radically in their focus on, and promotion of, the sociocultural ideal of thinness for women--employees in fashion advertising (n = 75) and teachers in secondary schools (n = 75). Adverts showing thin, average-size and no models were perceived as equally effective. High internalizers in both groups of women felt worse about their body image after exposure to thin models compared to other images. Profession affected responses to average-size models. Teachers reported significantly less body-focused anxiety after seeing average-size models compared to no models, while there was no difference for fashion advertisers. This suggests that women in professional environments with less focus on appearance-related ideals can experience increased body-esteem when exposed to average-size models, whereas women in appearance-focused professions report no such relief. PMID:15601505

Dittmar, Helga; Howard, Sarah

2004-12-01

393

Smoking, reward responsiveness, and response inhibition: tests of an incentive motivational model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Incentive-motivation models of addiction suggest impairment of functional activity in mesocorticolimbic reward pathways during abstinence. This study tested implications for subjective and behavioral responses to nondrug incentives, cue-elicited craving, and prefrontal cognitive functions, particularly response inhibition.Methods: We tested 26 smokers after smoking and after overnight abstinence in counterbalanced order; 26 nonsmokers were also tested twice. Measures included a simple

Jane Powell; Lynne Dawkins; Robert E Davis

2002-01-01

394

Professional Guideline Series: Guidelines for Professional Employment  

E-print Network

Professional Guideline Series: Guidelines for Professional Employment A Framework For Communication Prepared by IEEE-USA's Career and Employment Services Committee #12;IEEE-USA Professional Guideline Series TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 3 I. CAREER OUTLOOK 4 II. RECRUITMENT 6 III. PROFESSIONAL EMPLOYMENT 8

395

Immune Response to Electromagnetic Fields through Cybernetic Modeling  

SciTech Connect

We study the optimality of the humoral immune response through a mathematical model, which involves the effect of electromagnetic fields over the large lymphocytes proliferation. Are used the so called cybernetic variables in the context of the matching law of microeconomics or mathematical psychology, to measure the large lymphocytes population and to maximize the instantaneous antibody production rate in time during the immunologic response in order to most efficiently inactivate the antigen.

Godina-Nava, J. J.; Segura, M. A. Rodriguez [Depto. de Fisica, CINVESTAV-IPN, Ap. Post. 14-740, Mexico, D.F. 07000 (Mexico); Cadena, S. Reyes [Lab. de Bioquimica Muscular, Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitacion, C.P.14389, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Sierra, L. C. Gaitan [Centro Gestalt, C.P. 11590, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

2008-08-11

396

Aggregate Model for Heterogeneous Thermostatically Controlled Loads with Demand Response  

SciTech Connect

Due to the potentially large number of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) – demand response, distributed generation, distributed storage - that are expected to be deployed, it is impractical to use detailed models of these resources when integrated with the transmission system. Being able to accurately estimate the fast transients caused by demand response is especially important to analyze the stability of the system under different demand response strategies. On the other hand, a less complex model is more amenable to design feedback control strategies for the population of devices to provide ancillary services. The main contribution of this paper is to develop aggregated models for a heterogeneous population of Thermostatic Controlled Loads (TCLs) to accurately capture their collective behavior under demand response and other time varying effects of the system. The aggregated model efficiently includes statistical information of the population and accounts for a second order effect necessary to accurately capture the collective dynamic behavior. The developed aggregated models are validated against simulations of thousands of detailed building models using GridLAB-D (an open source distribution simulation software) under both steady state and severe dynamic conditions caused due to temperature set point changes.

Zhang, Wei; Kalsi, Karanjit; Fuller, Jason C.; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Chassin, David P.

2012-07-22

397

Genomic responses in mouse models poorly mimic human inflammatory diseases.  

PubMed

A cornerstone of modern biomedical research is the use of mouse models to explore basic pathophysiological mechanisms, evaluate new therapeutic approaches, and make go or no-go decisions to carry new drug candidates forward into clinical trials. Systematic studies evaluating how well murine models mimic human inflammatory diseases are nonexistent. Here, we show that, although acute inflammatory stresses from different etiologies result in highly similar genomic responses in humans, the responses in corresponding mouse models correlate poorly with the human conditions and also, one another. Among genes changed significantly in humans, the murine orthologs are close to random in matching their human counterparts (e.g., R(2) between 0.0 and 0.1). In addition to improvements in the current animal model systems, our study supports higher priority for translational medical research to focus on the more complex human conditions rather than relying on mouse models to study human inflammatory diseases. PMID:23401516

Seok, Junhee; Warren, H Shaw; Cuenca, Alex G; Mindrinos, Michael N; Baker, Henry V; Xu, Weihong; Richards, Daniel R; McDonald-Smith, Grace P; Gao, Hong; Hennessy, Laura; Finnerty, Celeste C; López, Cecilia M; Honari, Shari; Moore, Ernest E; Minei, Joseph P; Cuschieri, Joseph; Bankey, Paul E; Johnson, Jeffrey L; Sperry, Jason; Nathens, Avery B; Billiar, Timothy R; West, Michael A; Jeschke, Marc G; Klein, Matthew B; Gamelli, Richard L; Gibran, Nicole S; Brownstein, Bernard H; Miller-Graziano, Carol; Calvano, Steve E; Mason, Philip H; Cobb, J Perren; Rahme, Laurence G; Lowry, Stephen F; Maier, Ronald V; Moldawer, Lyle L; Herndon, David N; Davis, Ronald W; Xiao, Wenzhong; Tompkins, Ronald G

2013-02-26

398

Theoretical and Empirical Comparisons between Two Models for Continuous Item Responses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed the relations between two continuous response models intended for typical response items: the linear congeneric model and Samejima's continuous response model (CRM). Illustrated the relations described using an empirical example and assessed the relations through a simulation study. (SLD)

Ferrando, Pere J.

2002-01-01

399

Finite Element Modeling of the Buckling Response of Sandwich Panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparative study of different modeling approaches for predicting sandwich panel buckling response is described. The study considers sandwich panels with anisotropic face sheets and a very thick core. Results from conventional analytical solutions for sandwich panel overall buckling and face-sheet-wrinkling type modes are compared with solutions obtained using different finite element modeling approaches. Finite element solutions are obtained using layered shell element models, with and without transverse shear flexibility, layered shell/solid element models, with shell elements for the face sheets and solid elements for the core, and sandwich models using a recently developed specialty sandwich element. Convergence characteristics of the shell/solid and sandwich element modeling approaches with respect to in-plane and through-the-thickness discretization, are demonstrated. Results of the study indicate that the specialty sandwich element provides an accurate and effective modeling approach for predicting both overall and localized sandwich panel buckling response. Furthermore, results indicate that anisotropy of the face sheets, along with the ratio of principle elastic moduli, affect the buckling response and these effects may not be represented accurately by analytical solutions. Modeling recommendations are also provided.

Rose, Cheryl A.; Moore, David F.; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Rankin, Charles C.

2002-01-01

400

FAST Mast Structural Response to Axial Loading: Modeling and Verification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station s solar array wing mast shadowing problem is the focus of this paper. A building-block approach to modeling and analysis is pursued for the primary structural components of the solar array wing mast structure. Starting with an ANSYS (Registered Trademark) finite element model, a verified MSC.Nastran (Trademark) model is established for a single longeron. This finite element model translation requires the conversion of several modeling and analysis features for the two structural analysis tools to produce comparable results for the single-longeron configuration. The model is then reconciled using test data. The resulting MSC.Nastran (Trademark) model is then extended to a single-bay configuration and verified using single-bay test data. Conversion of the MSC. Nastran (Trademark) single-bay model to Abaqus (Trademark) is also performed to simulate the elastic-plastic longeron buckling response of the single bay prior to folding.

Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Templeton, Justin D.; Song, Kyongchan; Rayburn, Jeffery T.

2012-01-01

401

Nurses' professional and personal values.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to measure professional and personal values among nurses, and to identify the factors affecting these values. The participants were 323 Israeli nurses, who were asked about 36 personal values and 20 professional values. The three fundamental professional nursing values of human dignity, equality among patients, and prevention of suffering, were rated first. The top 10 rated values all concerned nurses' responsibility towards patients. Altruism and confidentiality were not highly rated, and health promotion and nursing research were rated among the last three professional values. For personal (instrumental) values, honesty, responsibility and intelligence were rated first, while ambition and imagination were rated 14th and 16th respectively out of 18. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found among some personal and professional values rated as functions of culture, education, professional seniority, position and field of expertise. The results may assist in understanding the motives of nurses with different characteristics and help to promote their work according to professional ethical values. PMID:18687816

Rassin, Michal

2008-09-01

402

Ship response using a compact wave spectrum model  

E-print Network

: Ocean Engineering SHIP RESPONSE USIN6 A COMPACT 'NAVE SPECTRUN MODEL A Thesis by LARRY DONALD LINN Approved as to style and content by: John M. Niedzwec i (Chairman of Committee) Lee L. Lowery (Member) John M. Klinck (Member) Donald Mc... response, pitch CSF1 and pitch operator (RAO set 1) using the Ochi-Hubble wave data base Ship pitch response, pitch CSF1 and pitch operator (RAO set 1) using the real wave data base . 47 48 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The random behavior of the ocean...

Linn, Larry Donald

2012-06-07

403

Parameter variability estimation using stochastic response surface model updating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From a practical point of view, uncertainties existing in structural parameters and measurements must be handled in order to provide reliable structural condition evaluations. At this moment, deterministic model updating loses its practicability and a stochastic updating procedure should be employed seeking for statistical properties of parameters and responses. Presently this topic has not been well investigated on account of its greater complexity in theoretical configuration and difficulty in inverse problem solutions after involving uncertainty analyses. Due to it, this paper attempts to develop a stochastic model updating method for parameter variability estimation. Uncertain parameters and responses are correlated through stochastic response surface models, which are actually explicit polynomial chaos expansions based on Hermite polynomials. Then by establishing a stochastic inverse problem, parameter means and standard deviations are updated in a separate and successive way. For the purposes of problem simplification and optimization efficiency, in each updating iteration stochastic response surface models are reconstructed to avoid the construction and analysis of sensitivity matrices. Meanwhile, in the interest of investigating the effects of parameter variability on responses, a parameter sensitivity analysis method has been developed based on the derivation of polynomial chaos expansions. Lastly the feasibility and reliability of the proposed methods have been validated using a numerical beam and then a set of nominally identical metal plates. After comparing with a perturbation method, it is found that the proposed method can estimate parameter variability with satisfactory accuracy and the complexity of the inverse problem can be highly reduced resulting in cost-efficient optimization.

Fang, Sheng-En; Zhang, Qiu-Hu; Ren, Wei-Xin

2014-12-01

404

Soccer endurance development in professionals.  

PubMed

The development of intermittent endurance capacity, its underlying mechanisms and role in reaching professional level in soccer was investigated. The sample included 130 talented youth soccer players aged 14-18, who became professional (n = 53) or non-professional (n = 77) players in adulthood. In total 229 Interval Shuttle Run Test (ISRT) scores were taken over five years. Players who became professionals improved from age 14 to 18 on average from 68 to 109 runs in contrast to players who remained amateurs (from 73 to 93 runs). A longitudinal model was developed using linear mixed models procedures. Intermittent endurance capacity can be predicted adequately with a two-level hierarchical model (p < 0.05). Anthropometric characteristics and playing position did not improve model fit (p > 0.05). The estimated ISRT score necessary to reach professional level is: ISRT=-375.77-62.89+(51.20+4.20)* age-1.50* age (2)+3.54* hours of soccer training+1.18* additional training hours. In conclusion, intermittent endurance capacity improves with age in talented youth soccer players. From age 15 players who reached the professional level show a faster development than their non-professional counterparts. This development is positively influenced by both soccer specific and additional training. PMID:20157870

Roescher, C R; Elferink-Gemser, M T; Huijgen, B C H; Visscher, C

2010-03-01

405

Professionals’ views on interprofessional stroke team functioning  

PubMed Central

Introduction The quality of integrated stroke care depends on smooth team functioning but professionals may not always work well together. Professionals’ perspectives on the factors that influence stroke team functioning remain largely unexamined. Understanding their experiences is critical to indentifying measures to improve team functioning. The aim of this study was to identify the factors that contributed to the success of interprofessional stroke teams as perceived by team members. Methods We distributed questionnaires to professionals within 34 integrated stroke care teams at various health care facilities in 9 Dutch regions. 558 respondents (response rate: 39%) completed the questionnaire. To account for the hierarchical structure of the study design we fitted a hierarchical random-effects model. The hierarchical structure comprised 558 stroke team members (level 1) nested in 34 teams (level 2). Results Analyses showed that personal development, social well-being, interprofessional education, communication, and role understanding significantly contributed to stroke team functioning. Team-level constructs affecting interprofessional stroke team functioning were communication and role understanding. No significant relationships were found with individual-level personal autonomy and team-level cohesion. Discussion and conclusion Our findings suggest that interventions to improve team members’ social well-being, communication, and role understanding will improve teams’ performance. To further advance interprofessional team functioning, healthcare organizations should pay attention to developing professionals’ interpersonal skills and interprofessional education. PMID:23390409

Cramm, Jane M; Nieboer, Anna P

2011-01-01

406

[Essential professional core competencies for nurses].  

PubMed

Core competency is vital to the nursing profession. Such helps guarantee the high quality and effectiveness of delivered care and maintains the social value and status of the nursing profession. This article introduces the definition of nursing core competency and its connotations. The core competency profile for the nursing profession embraces basic behavioral attributes as well as mastery of advanced practice skills. The former include such attributes as gentleness, willingness to serve, keen observation and judgment, efficiency, skillfulness, responsibility and accountability. The latter embraces skills in general care, communication and collaboration, management, self-development, innovation and research, and stress-adjustment. To cultivate competent nurses, academic education should emphasize critical thinking skills, integrate problem-based and evidence-based learning approaches into curricula, and use objective structured clinical examination to evaluate learning outcomes. In the healthcare sector, systematic professional training models such as the clinical ladder with multidiscipline rotation hold the potential to train novice nurses as expert professionals. Meanwhile, to advance the professional capabilities of nurses, nursing administrators should provide a positive work environment to fuel and maintain learning motivation. Education and healthcare systems should work closely together to promote the professional competence of nurses and to strengthen the value of the nursing profession. PMID:20878605

Chen, Yu-Chih

2010-10-01

407

Benchmarking nuclear models for Gamow-Teller response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparative study of the nuclear Gamow-Teller response (GTR) within conceptually different state-of-the-art approaches is presented. Three nuclear microscopic models are considered: (i) the recently developed charge-exchange relativistic time blocking approximation (RTBA) based on the covariant density functional theory, (ii) the shell model (SM) with an extended “jj77” model space and (iii) the non-relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) with a Brueckner G-matrix effective interaction. We study the physics cases where two or all three of these models can be applied. The Gamow-Teller response functions are calculated for 208Pb, 132Sn and 78Ni within both RTBA and QRPA. The strengths obtained for 208Pb are compared to data that enable a firm model benchmarking. For the nucleus 132Sn, also SM calculations are performed within the model space truncated at the level of a particle-hole (ph) coupled to vibration configurations. This allows a consistent comparison to the RTBA where ph?phonon coupling is responsible for the spreading width and considerable quenching of the GTR. Differences between the models and perspectives of their future developments are discussed.

Litvinova, E.; Brown, B. A.; Fang, D.-L.; Marketin, T.; Zegers, R. G. T.

2014-03-01

408

Benchmarking nuclear models for Gamow-Teller response  

E-print Network

A comparative study of the nuclear Gamow-Teller response (GTR) within conceptually different state-of-the-art approaches is presented. Three nuclear microscopic models are considered: (i) the recently developed charge-exchange relativistic time blocking approximation (RTBA) based on the covariant density functional theory, (ii) the shell model (SM) with an extended "jj77" model space and (iii) the non-relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) with a Brueckner G-matrix effective interaction. We study the physics cases where two or all three of these models can be applied. The Gamow-Teller response functions are calculated for 208-Pb, 132-Sn and 78-Ni within both RTBA and QRPA. The strengths obtained for 208-Pb are compared to data that enables a firm model benchmarking. For the nucleus 132-Sn, also SM calculations are performed within the model space truncated at the level of a particle-hole (ph) coupled to vibration configurations. This allows a consistent comparison to the RTBA where ph+phonon coupling is responsible for the spreading width and considerable quenching of the GTR. Differences between the models and perspectives of their future developments are discussed.

E. Litvinova; B. A. Brown; D. -L. Fang; T. Marketin; R. G. T. Zegers

2014-02-04

409

Resilience and professional chaplaincy: a paradigm shift in focus.  

PubMed

Research into the area of resilience provides a challenge and a great opportunity for professional chaplaincy. In this article, we will consider the challenge that the research primarily of George Bonanno of Columbia University offers to the traditional, clinical perspectives and assessments of professional chaplains serving in health care. Secondly, we will propose the practical implications for a wider paradigm and an expanded focus on intentionality and interventions of chaplains. Resilience is seen as a positive response possibility for those facing potentially traumatic events. It is understood to be a predominant response to traumatic events more often than the grief recovery model usually presumed to be active. Resilience has heuristic value and merits being factored in to professional chaplaincy as it relates to patient assessment, interventions, interdisciplinary care, staff and corporate support, and transcultural usefulness. PMID:24579955

Spidell, Steven

2014-01-01

410

Radiation Storm vs. The Magnetic Shield: Superheroes of Magnetism & Space Weather Education - A Model for Teacher Professional Development Workshops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic and electric fields and phenomena play important roles in various situations in astronomy, planetary science, and Earth science. Students often lack an intuitive sense of electromagnetic phenomena, and therefore struggle with the complexities of planetary and stellar magnetic fields. Hands-on magnetism activities can provide students with an intuitive grasp of the basics of magnetism, preparing them for more challenging conceptual studies of magnetic phenomena. For the past six years, we have been presenting a professional development workshop for teachers covering the topics of magnetism and space weather. The workshop, which has been conducted more than 20 times for a range of audiences, blends together several simple hands-on activities, background information on space weather and geomagnetism, a collection of images, animations, and interactives that illustrate important concepts, and guidance about specific links between these topics and national science education standards. These workshops have been very well-received, and have consistently been rated highly by participants in surveys. We believe the methods used in these workshops can be applied to other topics in science education and to astronomy and Earth science education specifically. In this presentation, we will describe our magnetism and space weather workshop, including some of the hands-on activities. We will describe successful aspects of the workshop and comment on ways we think this approach could be replicated for other topics. We will also display some of the interactives, graphics, and animations shown during the workshops. Resources have been added to the workshop over the years in response to recurring questions from teachers; we will comment on this process and how it might be applied to other topics. The activities and extensive background content used or referenced in the workshop are available for free on the Windows to the Universe web site (www.windows2universe.org). Hands on activities can help students gain an intuitive grasp for natural phenomena. Iron filings and a horseshoe magnet help learners comprehend the magnetic fields above sunspot pairs.

Russell, R. M.; Johnson, R. M.

2010-12-01

411

Animal and human dose-response models for Brucella species.  

PubMed

Human Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases worldwide. Disease transmission often occurs through the handling of domestic livestock, as well as ingestion of unpasteurized milk and cheese, but can have enhanced infectivity if aerosolized. Because there is no human vaccine available, rising concerns about the threat of Brucellosis to human health and its inclusion in the Center for Disease Control's Category B Bioterrorism/Select Agent List make a better understanding of the dose-response relationship of this microbe necessary. Through an extensive peer-reviewed literature search, candidate dose-response data were appraised so as to surpass certain standards for quality. The statistical programming language, "R," was used to compute the maximum likelihood estimation to fit two models, the exponential and the approximate beta-Poisson (widely used for quantitative risk assessment) to dose-response data. Dose-response models were generated for prevalent species of Brucella: Br. suis, Br. melitensis, and Br. abortus. Dose-response models were created for aerosolized Br. suis exposure to guinea pigs from pooled studies. A parallel model for guinea pigs inoculated through both aerosol and subcutaneous routes with Br. melitensis showed that the median infectious dose corresponded to a 30 colony-forming units (CFU) dose of Br. suis, much less than the N(50) dose of about 94 CFU for Br. melitensis organisms. When Br. melitensis was tested subcutaneously on mice, the N(50) dose was higher, 1,840 CFU. A dose-response model was constructed from pooled data for mice, rhesus macaques, and humans inoculated through three routes (subcutaneously/aerosol/intradermally) with Br. melitensis. PMID:21449960

Teske, Sondra S; Huang, Yin; Tamrakar, Sushil B; Bartrand, Timothy A; Weir, Mark H; Haas, Charles N

2011-10-01

412

Additive and Subtractive Scrambling in Optional Randomized Response Modeling  

PubMed Central

This article considers unbiased estimation of mean, variance and sensitivity level of a sensitive variable via scrambled response modeling. In particular, we focus on estimation of the mean. The idea of using additive and subtractive scrambling has been suggested under a recent scrambled response model. Whether it is estimation of mean, variance or sensitivity level, the proposed scheme of estimation is shown relatively more efficient than that recent model. As far as the estimation of mean is concerned, the proposed estimators perform relatively better than the estimators based on recent additive scrambling models. Relative efficiency comparisons are also made in order to highlight the performance of proposed estimators under suggested scrambling technique. PMID:24421893

Hussain, Zawar; Al-Sobhi, Mashail M.; Al-Zahrani, Bander

2014-01-01

413

Climate model response from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)  

E-print Network

Climate model response from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) Ben Kravitz,1 Received 7 January 2013; revised 3 July 2013; accepted 10 July 2013. [1] Solar geoengineering Experiment G1 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project, in which 12 climate models have simulated

Moore, John

414

Climate model response from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)1! Ben Kravitz,1*  

E-print Network

! 1 Climate model response from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)1! 2! Ben, MSIN K9-24, Richland, WA32! 99352, ben.kravitz@pnnl.gov.33! #12;! 2 Abstract34! Solar geoengineering of the Geoengineering Model37! Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP), in which 12 climate models have simulated the climate38

Robock, Alan

415

Increasing Professionalism and Targeting Effort: Recent Books on the Training and Development of Continuing Education Professionals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews three recent books (by Gessner, Calvert, and Nowlen) that investigate how the changing economic, political, and social context affects continuing professional education. The focus of each book on individualistic responses to professionalism suggests that professional continuing educators need to be sensitive to the culture of their…

Hedberg, John G.

1990-01-01

416

Key models for delivering sector-level corporate responsibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a blueprint for an optimal model of sectoral corporate responsibility (CR), through exploring a variety of current approaches. The necessity for a more sector-wide approach is discussed and the best way to make it happen identified. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An exploration of the models for industry-wide CR, based on practical experience

Stephanie Draper

2006-01-01

417

Chemical Leasing business models and corporate social responsibility.  

PubMed

Chemical Leasing is a service-oriented business model that shifts the focus from increasing sales volume of chemicals towards a value-added approach. Recent pilot projects have shown the economic benefits of introducing Chemical Leasing business models in a broad range of sectors. A decade after its introduction, the promotion of Chemical Leasing is still predominantly done by the public sector and international organizations. We show in this paper that awareness-raising activities to disseminate information on this innovative business model mainly focus on the economic benefits. We argue that selling Chemical Leasing business models solely on the grounds of economic and ecological considerations falls short of branding it as a corporate social responsibility initiative, which, for this paper, is defined as a stakeholder-oriented concept that extends beyond the organization's boundaries and is driven by an ethical understanding of the organization's responsibility for the impact of its business activities. For the analysis of Chemical Leasing business models, we introduce two case studies from the water purification and metal degreasing fields, focusing on employees and local communities as two specific stakeholder groups of the company introducing Chemical Leasing. The paper seeks to demonstrate that Chemical Leasing business models can be branded as a corporate social responsibility initiative by outlining the vast potential of Chemical Leasing to improve occupational health and safety and to strengthen the ability of companies to protect the environment from the adverse effects of the chemicals they apply. PMID:24943884

Moser, Frank; Jakl, Thomas; Joas, Reihard; Dondi, Francesco

2014-11-01

418

Assessing item fit for unidimensional item response theory models using residuals from estimated item response functions.  

PubMed

Residual analysis (e.g. Hambleton & Swaminathan, Item response theory: principles and applications, Kluwer Academic, Boston, 1985; Hambleton, Swaminathan, & Rogers, Fundamentals of item response theory, Sage, Newbury Park, 1991) is a popular method to assess fit of item response theory (IRT) models. We suggest a form of residual analysis that may be applied to assess item fit for unidimensional IRT models. The residual analysis consists of a comparison of the maximum-likelihood estimate of the item characteristic curve with an alternative ratio estimate of the item characteristic curve. The large sample distribution of the residual is proved to be standardized normal when the IRT model fits the data. We compare the performance of our suggested residual to the standardized residual of Hambleton et al. (Fundamentals of item response theory, Sage, Newbury Park, 1991) in a detailed simulation study. We then calculate our suggested residuals using data from an operational test. The residuals appear to be useful in assessing the item fit for unidimensional IRT models. PMID:25106393

Haberman, Shelby J; Sinharay, Sandip; Chon, Kyong Hee

2013-07-01

419

Model-Based Collaborative Filtering Analysis of Student Response Data: Machine-Learning Item Response Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We apply collaborative filtering (CF) to dichotomously scored student response data (right, wrong, or no interaction), finding optimal parameters for each student and item based on cross-validated prediction accuracy. The approach is naturally suited to comparing different models, both unidimensional and multidimensional in ability, including a…

Bergner, Yoav; Droschler, Stefan; Kortemeyer, Gerd; Rayyan, Saif; Seaton, Daniel; Pritchard, David E.

2012-01-01

420

New Model for Europa's Tidal Response Based after Laboratory Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the application of the Andrade model to the modeling of Europa’s tidal response at the orbital period and for different librations. Previous models have generally assumed that the satellite behaves as a Maxwell body. However, at the frequencies exciting Europa’s tides and librations, material anelasticity tends to dominate the satellite’s response for a wide range of temperatures, a feature that is not accounted for by the Maxwell model. Many experimental studies on the anelasticity of rocks, ice, and hydrates, suggest that the Andrade model usually provides a good fit to the dissipation spectra obtained for a wide range of frequencies, encompassing the tidal frequencies of most icy satellites. These data indicate that, at Europa’s orbital frequency, the Maxwell model overestimates water ice attenuation at temperature warmer than ~240 K, while it tends to significantly underestimate it at lower temperatures. Based on the available data we suggest an educated extrapolation of available data to Europa’s conditions. We compute the tidal response of a model of Europa differentiated in a rocky core and a water-rich shell. We assume various degrees of stratification of the core involving hydrated and anhydrous silicates, as well as an iron core. The water-rich shell of Europa is assumed to be fully frozen, or to have preserved a deep liquid layer. In both cases we consider a range of thermal structures, based on existing models. These structures take into account the presence of non-ice materials, especially hydrated salts. This new approach yields a greater tidal response (amplitude and phase lag) than previously expected. This is due to the fact that a greater volume of material dissipates tidal energy in comparison to models assuming a Maxwell body. Another feature of interest is that the tidal stress expected in Europa is at about the threshold between a linear and non-linear mechanical response of water ice as a function of stress. Increased stress at a time when Europa’s eccentricity was greater than its current value is likely to have resulted in significant dissipation increase. We will assess how this new approach affects our understanding of Europa, and we will quantify the tidal response of this satellite and the amount of tidal heating available to its evolution. Acknowledgements: Part of this work has been conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged. Part of the experimental work was conducted at Brown University, funded by NASA. MC is supported by a NASA Postdoctoral Fellowship, administered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities.

Castillo, J. C.; McCarthy, C.; Choukroun, M.; Rambaux, N.

2009-12-01

421

Modelling climate response to historical land cover change  

Microsoft Academic Search

climate with other forcings, climate responses to the changing atmospheric CO2 concentration and In order to estimate the eVect of historical land solar irradiance are also analysed. When all three cover change (deforestation) on climate, we perform factors are taken into account, dynamics of northern a set of experiments with a climate system model hemisphere temperature during the last 300

VICTOR B ROVKIN; M ARTIN CLAUSSEN; VLADIMIR PETOUKHOV

422

Item Response Theory Models for Performance Decline during Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sometimes, test-takers may not be able to attempt all items to the best of their ability (with full effort) due to personal factors (e.g., low motivation) or testing conditions (e.g., time limit), resulting in poor performances on certain items, especially those located toward the end of a test. Standard item response theory (IRT) models fail to…

Jin, Kuan-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung

2014-01-01

423

Multilevel Higher-Order Item Response Theory Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the social sciences, latent traits often have a hierarchical structure, and data can be sampled from multiple levels. Both hierarchical latent traits and multilevel data can occur simultaneously. In this study, we developed a general class of item response theory models to accommodate both hierarchical latent traits and multilevel data. The…

Huang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung

2014-01-01

424

COLLISION DETECTION AND RESPONSE OF SKELETALLY ANIMATED MODELS  

E-print Network

of skinned and skeletally animated models in an interactive and physically realistic 3d environment. A large part of the project consisted of creating a 3d soccer simulation to demonstrate the methods that were physics engine ­ in order to provide physically realistic responses to collisions was also explored

Goodman, James R.

425

A Probabilistic Model for Simulating Magnetoacoustic Emission Responses in Ferromagnets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetoacoustic emission (MAE) is a phenomenon where acoustic noise is generated due to the motion of non-180 magnetic domain walls in a ferromagnet with non-zero magnetostrictive constants. MAE has been studied extensively for many years and has even been applied as an NDE tool for characterizing the heat treatment of high-yield low carbon steels. A complete theory which fully accounts for the magnetoacoustic response, however, has not yet emerged. The motion of the domain walls appears to be a totally random process, however, it does exhibit features of regularity which have been identified by studying phenomena such as 1/f flicker noise and self-organized criticality (SOC). In this paper, a probabilistic model incorporating the effects of SOC has been developed to help explain the MAE response. The model uses many simplifying assumptions yet yields good qualitative agreement with observed experimental results and also provides some insight into the possible underlying mechanisms responsible for MAE. We begin by providing a brief overview of magnetoacoustic emission and the experimental set-up used to obtain the MAE signal. We then describe a pseudo-probabilistic model used to predict the MAE response and give an example of the predicted result. Finally, the model is modified to account for SOC and the new predictions are shown and compared with experiment.

Namkung, M.; Fulton, J. P.; Wincheski, B.

1993-01-01

426

A model of ponderosa pine growth response to prescribed burning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to model the radial growth response of individual ponderosa pines to prescribed burning in northern Arizona. We sampled 188 trees from two study areas, which were burned in 1976. Within each study area, control and burned trees were of similar age, vigor, height, and competition index. At Chimney Spring, trees were older, less vigorous, and taller and

Elaine Kennedy Sutherland; W. Wallace Covington; Steve Andariese

1991-01-01

427

Graded Response Modeling of the Quality of Life Interview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlined a graded response model and applied it to an aggregated data set from four studies involving subjective items from the Quality of Life Interview (QOLI) (A. Lehman, 1988). Used the results to create customized QOLI scales. Discusses the use of this methodology for scales involving ordered, graded categories. (SLD)

Uttaro, Thomas; Lehman, Anthony

1999-01-01

428

A Framework for Dimensionality Assessment for Multidimensional Item Response Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A framework is introduced for considering dimensionality assessment procedures for multidimensional item response models. The framework characterizes procedures in terms of their confirmatory or exploratory approach, parametric or nonparametric assumptions, and applicability to dichotomous, polytomous, and missing data. Popular and emerging…

Svetina, Dubravka; Levy, Roy

2014-01-01

429

An Operational Model for Optimal NonDispatchable Demand Response  

E-print Network

FACTS, $ Demand Response Energy Storage HVDC Industrial Customer PEV Renewable Energy Source: U.S.-Canada Power Due to Air Separation Plant Liquid Oxygen Due to compressors! Electricity costs Liquid Nitrogen) (Air separation) Goal of our current research: Develop a generic model for Air Products, Lehigh (2010

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

430

A simulation model of quick response replenishment of seasonal clothing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stochastic computer-simulation models have been constructed of the clothing supply chain and applied to retail inventory control. This quantifies the performance of quick response procedures for seasonal merchandise, thus creating an analytical tool. They are designed to investigate the effects of improved retailing and supply procedures on financial and other performance measures using two supply strategies: fixed quantity re-ordering and

Hassan Al-Zubaidi; David Tyler

2004-01-01

431

Parallel Finite Element Modeling of Earthquake Ground Response and Liquefaction  

E-print Network

1 Parallel Finite Element Modeling of Earthquake Ground Response and Liquefaction Jinchi Lu1 , Jun approach to alleviate the computational demand in conducting large- scale finite element analyses the parallel nonlinear finite element program, ParCYCLIC, which is designed for distributed-memory message

Stanford University

432

Special Education Eligibility Decision Making in Response to Intervention Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The response to intervention model (RTI) represents a promising framework for the early identification and prevention of learning and behavior problems for students struggling in school. If RTI is properly implemented, it should reduce unnecessary referrals and placements into special education, and increase the accuracy of special education…

Hoover, John J.

2010-01-01

433

Building Mental Health Professionals' Decisional Models into Tests of Predictive Validity: The Accuracy of Contextualized Predictions of Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

To safely manage potentially violent patients in the community, mental health professionals (MHPs) must assess when and under what conditions a patient may be involved in a violent act. This study applies a more ecologically sensitive approach than past research by building the conditions that MHPs believe make patient violence more likely into tests of their predictive validity. In specific,

Jennifer L. Skeem; Edward P. Mulvey; Charles W. Lidz

2000-01-01

434

Changes in Student Attitudes Regarding Science When Taught by Teachers without Experiences with a Model Professional Development Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on two main issues concerning changes in student attitudes toward science study and their perceptions of its usefulness in their lives. Information has been gathered concerning how student attitudes toward science have changed for teachers and schools not involved with any funded professional development project. Pretesting and…

Ali, Mohamed Moustafa; Yager, Robert; Hacieminoglu, Esme; Caliskan, Ilke

2013-01-01

435

AC 2007-1098: ON PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF ENGINEERING EDUCATORS IN THE ARAB GULF STATES: RETHINKING THE MENTAL MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Engineering education in the Arab Gulf States ((Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Oman) faces significant challenges as it seeks to meet the demands on the engineering profession in the years to come. Engineering faculty and the young in particular, need to expand their technical knowledge,and develop new competencies,to further their technical professional development. This paper

Waddah Akili

2007-01-01

436

A Model (Based upon Open Systems Organizational Theory) for Continuous Educational Needs Assessment in Continuing Professional Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper suggests that since continuing professional educators must address the ever present gap between new knowledge and practitioner competence, accurate identification and prioritization of practitioners' educational needs must be maintained on a continuous basis. Describing an adult education agency as an open system whose output depends on…

Mazmanian, Paul E.

437

A Qualitative Case Study Analysis for a Potential Model for a K-12 Professional Development Using Virtual Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine three e-learning technologies based on a pedagogical framework for virtual learning environments, and to explore how these technologies could be used to facilitate extended professional learning opportunities whereby K-12 educators could communicate, collaborate, and reflect on their practice. This…

Santacroce-Tejedor, Andrea

2011-01-01

438

The Reduction of Stigma in Schools: A New Professional Development Model for Empowering Educators to Support LGBTQ Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the rationale and design of The Reduction of Stigma in Schools--an innovative professional development program that aims to empower educators to create supportive learning environments for LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer) students. Part of a larger evaluation study, the authors illustrate how the core…

Payne, Elizabethe C.; Smith, Melissa

2011-01-01

439

The Reduction of Stigma in Schools: A New Professional Development Model for Empowering Educators to Support LGBTQ Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the rationale and design of The Reduction of Stigma in Schools—an innovative professional development program that aims to empower educators to create supportive learning environments for LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer) students. Part of a larger evaluation study, the authors illustrate how the core design components are visible in participants’ experiences with the program itself and

Elizabethe C. Payne; Melissa Smith

2011-01-01

440

A Computational Model of Cellular Response to Modulated Radiation Fields  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To develop a model to describe the response of cell populations to spatially modulated radiation exposures of relevance to advanced radiotherapies. Materials and Methods: A Monte Carlo model of cellular radiation response was developed. This model incorporated damage from both direct radiation and intercellular communication including bystander signaling. The predictions of this model were compared to previously measured survival curves for a normal human fibroblast line (AGO1522) and prostate tumor cells (DU145) exposed to spatially modulated fields. Results: The model was found to be able to accurately reproduce cell survival both in populations which were directly exposed to radiation and those which were outside the primary treatment field. The model predicts that the bystander effect makes a significant contribution to cell killing even in uniformly irradiated cells. The bystander effect contribution varies strongly with dose, falling from a high of 80% at low doses to 25% and 50% at 4 Gy for AGO1522 and DU145 cells, respectively. This was verified using the inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor aminoguanidine to inhibit the bystander effect in cells exposed to different doses, which showed significantly larger reductions in cell killing at lower doses. Conclusions: The model presented in this work accurately reproduces cell survival following modulated radiation exposures, both in and out of the primary treatment field, by incorporating a bystander component. In addition, the model suggests that the bystander effect is responsible for a significant portion of cell killing in uniformly irradiated cells, 50% and 70% at doses of 2 Gy in AGO1522 and DU145 cells, respectively. This description is a significant departure from accepted radiobiological models and may have a significant impact on optimization of treatment planning approaches if proven to be applicable in vivo.

McMahon, Stephen J., E-mail: stephen.mcmahon@qub.ac.uk [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Butterworth, Karl T. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)] [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); McGarry, Conor K. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom) [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Radiotherapy Physics, Northern Ireland Cancer Centre, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Trainor, Colman [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)] [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); O'Sullivan, Joe M. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom) [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Clinical Oncology, Northern Ireland Cancer Centre, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Hounsell, Alan R. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom) [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Radiotherapy Physics, Northern Ireland Cancer Centre, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Prise, Kevin M. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)] [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

2012-09-01

441

A Cognitive Computational Model Inspired by the Immune System Response  

PubMed Central

The immune system has a cognitive ability to differentiate between healthy and unhealthy cells. The immune system response (ISR) is stimulated by a disorder in the temporary fuzzy state that is oscillating between the healthy and unhealthy states. However, modeling the immune system is an enormous challenge; the paper introduces an extensive summary of how the immune system response functions, as an overview of a complex topic, to present the immune system as a cognitive intelligent agent. The homogeneity and perfection of the natural immune system have been always standing out as the sought-after model we attempted to imitate while building our proposed model of cognitive architecture. The paper divides the ISR into four logical phases: setting a computational architectural diagram for each phase, proceeding from functional perspectives (input, process, and output), and their consequences. The proposed architecture components are defined by matching biological operations with computational functions and hence with the framework of the paper. On the other hand, the architecture focuses on the interoperability of main theoretical immunological perspectives (classic, cognitive, and danger theory), as related to computer science terminologies. The paper presents a descriptive model of immune system, to figure out the nature of response, deemed to be intrinsic for building a hybrid computational model based on a cognitive intelligent agent perspective and inspired by the natural biology. To that end, this paper highlights the ISR phases as applied to a case study on hepatitis C virus, meanwhile illustrating our proposed architecture perspective. PMID:25003131

Abdo Abd Al-Hady, Mohamed; Badr, Amr Ahmed; Mostafa, Mostafa Abd Al-Azim

2014-01-01

442

Association Models for Clustered Data with Binary and Continuous Responses  

PubMed Central

Summary We consider analysis of clustered data with mixed bivariate responses, i.e., where each member of the cluster has a binary and a continuous outcome. We propose a new bivariate random effects model that induces associations among the binary outcomes within a cluster, among the continuous outcomes within a cluster, between a binary outcome and a continuous outcome from different subjects within a cluster, as well as the direct association between the binary and continuous outcomes within the same subject. For the ease of interpretations of the regression effects, the marginal model of the binary response probability integrated over the random effects preserves the logistic form and the marginal expectation of the continuous response preserves the linear form. We implement maximum likelihood estimation of our model parameters using standard software such as PROC NLMIXED of SAS. Our simulation study demonstrates the robustness of our method with respect to the misspecification of the regression model as well as the random effects model. We illustrate our methodology by analyzing a developmental toxicity study of ethylene glycol in mice. PMID:19432772

Lin, Lanjia; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Lipsitz, Stuart R.; Sinha, Debajyoti

2010-01-01

443

Modeling auditory evoked brainstem responses to transient stimuli.  

PubMed

A quantitative model is presented that describes the formation of auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to tone pulses, clicks, and rising chirps as a function of stimulation level. The model computes the convolution of the instantaneous discharge rates using the "humanized" nonlinear auditory-nerve model of Zilany and Bruce [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122, 402-417 (2007)] and an empirically derived unitary response function which is assumed to reflect contributions from different cell populations within the auditory brainstem, recorded at a given pair of electrodes on the scalp. It is shown that the model accounts for the decrease of tone-pulse evoked wave-V latency with frequency but underestimates the level dependency of the tone-pulse as well as click-evoked latency values. Furthermore, the model correctly predicts the nonlinear wave-V amplitude behavior in response to the chirp stimulation both as a function of chirp sweeping rate and level. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that the pattern of ABR generation is strongly affected by the nonlinear and dispersive processes in the cochlea. PMID:22559366

Rønne, Filip Munch; Dau, Torsten; Harte, James; Elberling, Claus

2012-05-01

444

Portrait professional.  

PubMed

Most medical photographers, unless working as dedicated ophthalmic photographers or retinal screeners, will shoot portraits or publicity pictures. Many will spend a proportion of their time producing brochure shots for patient information material or their Trust's Annual Report. High-quality images of staff at work are often required by the strategic planning departments of Trusts to support bids for business from service commissioners. This "non-clinical" work is in reality commercial work - the jobs that high street portrait and general practice photographers would undertake in different settings. Medical photographers use many of the same tools as their commercial cousins. They use the same DSLR cameras and lenses. They use Adobe Photoshop to manipulate images. However, one software tool extensively used by portrait and social photographers, but possibly unfamiliar to many medical photographers, is Portrait Professional. Currently in its 10th version, it is produced by Anthropics Technology ( http://www.anthropics.com ), a London-based company specialising in image manipulation software. PMID:22229529

Vernon, Tim

2011-12-01

445

A Two-Decision Model for Responses to Likert-Type Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extreme response set, the tendency to prefer the lowest or highest response option when confronted with a Likert-type response scale, can lead to misfit of item response models such as the generalized partial credit model. Recently, a series of intrinsically multidimensional item response models have been hypothesized, wherein tendency toward…

Thissen-Roe, Anne; Thissen, David

2013-01-01

446

Thermal Response Modeling System for a Mars Sample Return Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-dimensional, coupled thermal response modeling system for analysis of hypersonic entry vehicles is presented. The system consists of a high fidelity Navier-Stokes equation solver (GIANTS), a two-dimensional implicit thermal response, pyrolysis and ablation program (TITAN), and a commercial finite-element thermal and mechanical analysis code (MARC). The simulations performed by this integrated system include hypersonic flowfield, fluid and solid interaction, ablation, shape change, pyrolysis gas eneration and flow, and thermal response of heatshield and structure. The thermal response of the heatshield is simulated using TITAN, and that of the underlying structural is simulated using MARC. The ablating heatshield is treated as an outer boundary condition of the structure, and continuity conditions of temperature and heat flux are imposed at the interface between TITAN and MARC. Aerothermal environments with fluid and solid interaction are predicted by coupling TITAN and GIANTS through surface energy balance equations. With this integrated system, the aerothermal environments for an entry vehicle and the thermal response of the entire vehicle can be obtained simultaneously. Representative computations for a flat-faced arc-jet test model and a proposed Mars sample return capsule are presented and discussed.

Chen, Y.-K.; Miles, Frank S.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

447

A hypothesized model of Korean women's responses to abuse.  

PubMed

Many abused married Korean women have a strong desire to leave their abusive husbands but remain in the abusive situations because of the strong influence of their sociocultural context. The article discusses Korean women's responses to spousal abuse in the context of patriarchal, cultural, and social exchange theory. Age, education, and income as component elements share common effects on the emergent variable, sociostructural power. Gender role attitudes, traditional family ideology, individualism/collectivism, marital satisfaction, and marital conflict predict psychological-relational power as a latent variable. Sociostructural, patriarchal, cultural, and social exchange theories are reconceptualized to generate the model of Korean women's responses to abuse. PMID:15189642

Choi, Myunghan; Harwood, Jake

2004-07-01

448

Concept analysis of professional commitment in Iranian nurses  

PubMed Central

Aim: Professional commitment has been widely discussed during the last decade. There is no comprehensive definition about “professional commitment in Iranian nurses.” Hence, this study was conducted with the aim of analyzing the concept of professional commitment in Iranian nurses. Materials and Methods: Hybrid model was used in three phases. Firstly, in the theoretical phase, data were retrieved from the CINHAl, MEDLINE, PubMed, OVID, Google scholar, and SID databases. The literature search used the keywords “professional commitment” and “nursing.” The final sample included 27 papers published in English between 2001 and 2011.Secondly, in the fieldwork phase, deep interviews with five clinical nurses were carried out, and thirdly, in the final analytical phase, the obtained data from theoretical and fieldwork phases were combined and a comprehensive analysis was conducted. Results: Loyalty and tendency to remain in the profession and responsibility to the professional issues were extracted in theoretical phase. Commitment to promote caring abilities, satisfying of being a nurse, and belonging to the nursing profession were obtained in fieldwork phase. Finally, two main themes including “commitment to offering the best nursing care” and “commitment to promotion of the nursing profession” were extracted. Conclusion: Nursing is a humanistic profession; it has some particular characteristics due to the profession’s nature. In this paper, a definition composed of two main dimensions of professional commitment in nursing has been introduced. PMID:23922592

Jafaragaee, Fateme; Parvizy, Soroor; Mehrdad, Neda; Rafii, Forough

2012-01-01

449

Mathematical Modeling of Heterogeneous Electrophysiological Responses in Human ?-Cells  

PubMed Central

Electrical activity plays a pivotal role in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic -cells. Recent findings have shown that the electrophysiological characteristics of human -cells differ from their rodent counterparts. We show that the electrophysiological responses in human -cells to a range of ion channels antagonists are heterogeneous. In some cells, inhibition of small-conductance potassium currents has no effect on action potential firing, while it increases the firing frequency dramatically in other cells. Sodium channel block can sometimes reduce action potential amplitude, sometimes abolish electrical activity, and in some cells even change spiking electrical activity to rapid bursting. We show that, in contrast to L-type -channels, P/Q-type -currents are not necessary for action potential generation, and, surprisingly, a P/Q-type -channel antagonist even accelerates action potential firing. By including SK-channels and dynamics in a previous mathematical model of electrical activity in human -cells, we investigate the heterogeneous and nonintuitive electrophysiological responses to ion channel antagonists, and use our findings to obtain insight in previously published insulin secretion measurements. Using our model we also study paracrine signals, and simulate slow oscillations by adding a glycolytic oscillatory component to the electrophysiological model. The heterogenous electrophysiological responses in human -cells must be taken into account for a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying insulin secretion in health and disease, and as shown here, the interdisciplinary combination of experiments and modeling increases our understanding of human -cell physiology. PMID:24391482

Riz, Michela; Braun, Matthias; Pedersen, Morten Gram

2014-01-01

450

Neuronal modelling of baroreflex response to orthostatic stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accelerations experienced in aerial combat can cause pilot loss of consciousness (GLOC) due to a critical reduction in cerebral blood circulation. The development of smart protective equipment requires understanding of how the brain processes blood pressure (BP) information in response to acceleration. We present a biologically plausible model of the Baroreflex to investigate the neural correlates of short-term BP control under acceleration or orthostatic stress. The neuronal network model, which employs an integrate-and-fire representation of a biological neuron, comprises the sensory, motor, and the central neural processing areas that form the Baroreflex. Our modelling strategy is to test hypotheses relating to the encoding mechanisms of multiple sensory inputs to the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), the site of central neural processing. The goal is to run simulations and reproduce model responses that are consistent with the variety of available experimental data. Model construction and connectivity are inspired by the available anatomical and neurophysiological evidence that points to a barotopic organization in the NTS, and the presence of frequency-dependent synaptic depression, which provides a mechanism for generating non-linear local responses in NTS neurons that result in quantifiable dynamic global baroreflex responses. The entire physiological range of BP and rate of change of BP variables is encoded in a palisade of NTS neurons in that the spike responses approximate Gaussian 'tuning' curves. An adapting weighted-average decoding scheme computes the motor responses and a compensatory signal regulates the heart rate (HR). Model simulations suggest that: (1) the NTS neurons can encode the hydrostatic pressure difference between two vertically separated sensory receptor regions at +Gz, and use changes in that difference for the regulation of HR; (2) even though NTS neurons do not fire with a cardiac rhythm seen in the afferents, pulse-rhythmic activity is regained downstream provided the input phase information in preserved centrally; (3) frequency-dependent synaptic depression, which causes temporal variations in synaptic strength due to changes in input frequency, is a possible mechanism of non-linear dynamic baroreflex gain control. Synaptic depression enables the NTS neuron to encode dBP/dt but to lose information about the steady state firing of the afferents.

Samin, Azfar

451

Climate model response from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)  

E-print Network

Climate model response from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) Ben Kravitz,1 geoengineering--deliberate reduction in the amount of solar radiation retained by the Earth--has been proposed present results from Experiment G1 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project, in which 12

Robock, Alan

452

A new emergency response model for MACCS. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Under DOE sponsorship, as directed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the MACCS code (version 1.5.11.1) [Ch92] was modified to implement a series of improvements in its modeling of emergency response actions. The purpose of this effort has been to aid the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) in its performance of the Level III analysis for the Savannah River Site (SRS) probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) of K Reactor [Wo90]. To ensure its usefulness to WSRC, and facilitate the new model`s eventual merger with other MACCS enhancements, close cooperation with WSRC and the MACCS development team at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) was maintained throughout the project. These improvements are intended to allow a greater degree of flexibility in modeling the mitigative actions of evacuation and sheltering. The emergency response model in MACCS version 1.5.11.1 was developed to support NRC analyses of consequences from severe accidents at commercial nuclear power plants. The NRC code imposes unnecessary constraints on DOE safety analyses, particularly for consequences to onsite worker populations, and it has therefore been revamped. The changes to the code have been implemented in a manner that preserves previous modeling capabilities and therefore prior analyses can be repeated with the new code.

Chanin, D.I.

1992-11-11

453

Benchmarking nuclear models for Gamow-Teller response  

E-print Network

A comparative study of the nuclear Gamow-Teller response (GTR) within conceptually different state-of-the-art approaches is presented. Three nuclear microscopic models are considered: (i) the recently developed charge-exchange relativistic time blocking approximation (RTBA) based on the covariant density functional theory, (ii) the shell model (SM) with an extended "jj77" model space and (iii) the non-relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) with a Brueckner G-matrix effective interaction. We study the physics cases where two or all three of these models can be applied. The Gamow-Teller response functions are calculated for 208-Pb, 132-Sn and 78-Ni within both RTBA and QRPA. The strengths obtained for 208-Pb are compared to data that enables a firm model benchmarking. For the nucleus 132-Sn, also SM calculations are performed within the model space truncated at the level of a particle-hole (ph) coupled to vibration configurations. This allows a consistent comparison to the RTBA where ph+ph...

Litvinova, E; Fang, D -L; Marketin, T; Zegers, R G T

2014-01-01

454

Professional Environment for Teacher Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction. Teaching and training are at the heart of the knowledge society where the continuing professional development of teachers and trainers provides the cornerstone for the development of a high quality education and training systems. The Aim of the Study. To identify a design of professional environment for teacher professional

Zascerinska, Jelena

2010-01-01

455

Counseling: Issues of Professionalism and Professionalization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professionalism and professionalization are two issues important to the field of counseling. A basic definition of a profession is necessary in order to understand the role of counseling as a profession. One theory on the development of professions in the western world begins with the priest as the prototypical professional. Professions then…

Canada, Theresa J.

456

Computational fluid dynamics modeling for emergency preparedness and response  

SciTech Connect

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has (CFD) has played an increasing in the improvement of atmospheric dispersion modeling. This is because many dispersion models are now driven by meteorological fields generated from CFD models or, in numerical weather prediction`s terminology, prognostic models. Whereas most dispersion models typically involve one or a few scalar, uncoupled equations, the prognostic equations are a set of highly-couple equations whose solution requires a significant level of computational power. Recent advances in computer hardware and software have enabled modestly-priced, high performance, workstations to exhibit the equivalent computation power of some mainframes. Thus desktop-class machines that were limited to performing dispersion calculations driven by diagnostic wind fields may now be used to calculate complex flows using prognostic CFD models. The Release and Advisory Capability (ARAC) program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has, for the past several years, taken advantage of the improvements in hardware technology to develop a national emergency response capability based on executing diagnostic models on workstations. Diagnostic models that provide wind fields are, in general, simple to implement, robust and require minimal time for execution. Because these models typically contain little physics beyond mass-conservation, their performance is extremely sensitive to the quantity and quality of input meteorological data and, in spite of their utility, can be applied with confidence to only modestly complex flows. We are now embarking on a development program to incorporate prognostic models to generate, in real-time, the meteorological fields for the dispersion models. In contrast to diagnostic models, prognostic models are physically-based and are capable of incorporating many physical processes to treat highly complex flow scenarios.

Lee, R.L.; Albritton, J.R.; Ermak, D.L.; Kim, J.

1995-02-01

457

A basic mathematical model of the immune response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interaction of the immune system with a target population of, e.g., bacteria, viruses, antigens, or tumor cells must be considered as a dynamic process. We describe this process by a system of two ordinary differential equations. Although the model is strongly idealized it demonstrates how the combination of a few proposed nonlinear interaction rules between the immune system and its targets are able to generate a considerable variety of different kinds of immune responses, many of which are observed both experimentally and clinically. In particular, solutions of the model equations correspond to states described by immunologists as ``virgin state,'' ``immune state'' and ``state of tolerance.'' The model successfully replicates the so-called primary and secondary response. Moreover, it predicts the existence of a threshold level for the amount of pathogen germs or of transplanted tumor cells below which the host is able to eliminate the infectious organism or to reject the tumor graft. We also find a long time coexistence of targets and immune competent cells including damped and undamped oscillations of both. Plausibly the model explains that if the number of transformed cells or pathogens exeeds definable values (poor antigenicity, high reproduction rate) the immune system fails to keep the disease under control. On the other hand, the model predicts apparently paradoxical situations including an increased chance of target survival despite enhanced immune activity or therapeutically achieved target reduction. A further obviously paradoxical behavior consists of a positive effect for the patient up to a complete cure by adding an additional target challenge where the benefit of the additional targets depends strongly on the time point and on their amount. Under periodically pulsed stimulation the model may show a chaotic time behavior of both target growth and immune response.

Mayer, H.; Zaenker, K. S.; an der Heiden, U.

1995-03-01

458

Modeling the adaptive immune response in HBV infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to investigate a new mathematical model that describes the interactions between Hepatitis B virus\\u000a (HBV), liver cells (hepatocytes), and the adaptive immune response. The qualitative analysis of this as cytotoxic T lymphocytes\\u000a (CTL) cells and the antibodies. These outcomes are (1) a disease free steady state, which its local stability is characterized\\u000a as usual

Noura Yousfi; Khalid Hattaf; Abdessamad Tridane

459

Modeling physiological responses of soil microbes to drought (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogeochemical models predict soil carbon (C) under varying environmental conditions, aiming to disentangle the effects of predicted changes in temperature and moisture regimes on C storage. While much work focuses on temperature sensitivity of decomposition, relatively less is known about decomposer responses to changes in soil moisture. Heterotrophic respiration is known to decline as soils become drier, but the underlying physiological mechanisms are not clear and rarely accounted for in models. In particular, we ask: what are the effects of different drought response strategies on C storage potential and the shape of the respiration-moisture relation? We have developed a process-based model to address these questions, including the main physiological responses thought to play a role under varying moisture conditions: i) dormancy, ii) patterns of extra-cellular enzyme production, and iii) osmoregulation. We show that these different drought response strategies play a major role in the long-term partitioning of soil C among stable and labile pools. In very dry conditions, microbes shifting to dormant state tend to favor long-term (steady state) accumulation of stable C at the expenses of microbial biomass, while increasing investment in enzymes leads to accumulation of dissolved organic C, which in turn may partly overcome the diffusion limitations imposed by dry soils. In contrast, entering a dormant state early during a dry down allows microbes to save C by respiring less (due to lowered active biomass), avoid C starvation when substrate diffusion breaks down, and use available C for growth and maintenance rather than osmoregulation. Hence, this strategy explains why little osmolytes are found in microbial biomass subjected to experimental drought. We conclude by highlighting how our results can be implemented in Earth System Models without excessively increasing their complexity.

Manzoni, S.; Katul, G. G.; Porporato, A. M.; Schaeffer, S. M.; Schimel, J.

2013-12-01

460

Modelling the structural response of GLARE panels to blast load  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the structural response of fully-clamped quadrangular GLARE panels subjected to an intense air-blast load using the commercial finite element software, LS-DYNA. A cohesive tie-break algorithm is implemented to model interfacial debonding between adjacent plies. The blast loads was simulated using a ConWep blast algorithm and a multi-material ALE formulation with fluid–structure interaction to determine the performance

C. Soutis; G. Mohamed; A. Hodzic

2011-01-01

461

Modeling mechanochemical transduction in chemo-responsive gels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the recently developed gel lattice spring model, we study mechanochemical transduction in chemo-responsive gels undergoing the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. More specifically, we examine how to harness an applied mechanical force to trigger the propagation of traveling chemical waves, which then lead to oscillations within gels that were initially non-oscillating. In our two dimensional simulations, we introduce the presence of an

Olga Kuksenok; Victor Yashin; Anna C. Balazs

2007-01-01