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1

Professional Development in Implementing and Sustaining Multitier Prevention Models: Implications for Response to Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We provide an overview of the role professional development plays in multitiered prevention and intervention models. Specifically, professional development is discussed within the context of establishing sustainable improvement in schools as professionals implement multitiered models of prevention and intervention services, programs, and practices…

Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Volpiansky, Paula; Clements, Melissa; Ball, Carrie

2007-01-01

2

Bringing Professional Responsibility Back in  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on how higher education institutions work with professional formation indicates that insufficient attention is currently paid to issues of professional responsibility and ethics. In the light of such findings, there is increasing concern about issues related to learning professional responsibility. This article concentrates on different…

Solbrekke, Tone Dyrdal; Englund, Tomas

2011-01-01

3

Leadership Responsibilities of Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces a leadership development model that raises the question "Leadership for what?" Leadership is about going somewhere-personally and in concert with others-in an organization. Although leadership, especially position (elected or appointed) leadership, often is discussed in terms of leader qualities and skills, the…

Mitstifer, Dorothy I.

2014-01-01

4

Commentary: Taking Responsibility for Professional Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 contains numerous references to "high-quality professional development. The quantity and the quality of professional development are critical issues in the NCLB Act with direct impact on student achievement. Research proves that the most important factor in student achievement is the quality of the teacher. In this month's opinion piece, the author encourages teachers to take responsibility for their own professional development by becoming more involved in planning and developing their professional growth. The end result will be meaningful personal growth for educators and increased student achievement!

Long, Steven

2004-12-01

5

Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (CPSR)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (CPSR) WWW server. CPSR is a non-profit, public interest organization concerned with the effects of computers on society. CPSR is supported by its membership and has chapters throughout the country.

6

Corporate social responsibility of future radiology professionals.  

PubMed

Plagued by difficult economic times, many radiology managers may find themselves faced with ethical dilemmas surrounding ongoing organizational pressures to maintain high levels of productivity with restricted resources. This often times tests the level of moral resilience and corporate social consciousness of even the most experienced radiology professionals. A study was conducted to determine what Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) orientation and viewpoint future radiology professionals may have. The results of the study indicate that these study participants may initially consider patient care more important than profit maximization. Study results indicate that these specific future radiology professionals will not need laws, legal sanctions, and intensified rules to force them to act ethically. However,they may need ongoing training as to the necessity of profit maximization if they seek the highest quality of care possible for their patients. PMID:21366145

Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S

2011-01-01

7

Corporate social responsibility: issues for human resource development professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent human resource development (HRD) scholarship has called for greater focus on social responsibility and ecological sustainability. The purpose of this article is to explore the engagement of HRD professionals in corporate social responsibility (CSR), examining one central question: how do HRD professionals perceive their roles and challenges in implementing CSR in organizations that claim CSR to be a key

Tara Fenwick; Laura Bierema

2008-01-01

8

Professional obligations, employment responsibilities and collective bargaining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Labour relations scholars have been discussing the proper relationship between professional obligations and collective bargaining at least since Shirley Goldenberg's study for the 1968 Task Force on Industrial Relations. The positions taken have ranged from rabid assertions that professionalism can flower only in a rarefied atmosphere graced with a pupil\\/teacher ratio lower than 12:1 to a recent solemn declaration by

Kenneth P. Swan

1978-01-01

9

Quality improvement in nursing: administrative mandate or professional responsibility?  

PubMed

For professionals, providing quality service and striving for excellence are ethical responsibilities. In many hospitals in the United States, however, there is evidence indicating that current quality improvement (QI) involving nurses is not always driven by their professional accountability and professional values. QI has become more an administrative mandate than an ethical standard for nurses. In this paper, the tension between QI as nurses' professional ethics and an administrative mandate will be described, and the implicit ideal-reality gap of QI will be examined. The threat to professional nursing posed by the current approach to QI will be examined, and ways to incorporate nursing professional values in a practical QI effort will be explored. PMID:23127240

Izumi, Shigeko

2012-01-01

10

Quality improvement in nursing: Administrative mandate or professional responsibility?  

PubMed Central

For professionals, providing quality service and striving for excellence are ethical responsibilities. In many hospitals in the U.S., however, there is evidence indicating current quality improvement (QI) involving nurses is not always driven by their professional accountability and professional values. QI has become more an administrative mandate than an ethical standard for nurses. In this paper, the tension between QI as nurses’ professional ethics and an administrative mandate will be described, and the implicit ideal-reality gap of QI will be examined. The threat to professional nursing posed by the current approach to QI will be examined, and ways to incorporate nursing professional values in a practical QI effort will be explored. PMID:23127240

Izumi, Shigeko

2012-01-01

11

Professional ethics and the responsible engineer  

SciTech Connect

There are five basic ethical principles: truth, honesty, trustworthiness; respect for human life; welfare; and posterity; fair play; openness; and competence. A process has to be established to avoid ethical crises. The NRC procedure for differing professional opinions is outlined. (DLC)

Vaughen, V.C.A.

1987-01-01

12

Empowering Science Teachers: A Model for Professional Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains a professional development model that is informed both by constructivist and sociocultural theory. Focuses on professional development, personal development, and social development. Contains 26 references. (DDR)

Howe, Ann C.; Stubbs, Harriett S.

1997-01-01

13

The Professional Context as a Predictor for Response Distortion in the Adaption-Innovation Inventory--An Investigation Using Mixture Distribution Item Response Theory Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Adaption-Innovation Inventory (AII), originally developed by Kirton (1976), is a widely used self-report instrument for measuring problem-solving styles at work. The present study investigates how scores on the AII are affected by different response styles. Data are collected from a combined sample (N = 738) of students, employees, and…

Fischer, Sebastian; Freund, Philipp Alexander

2014-01-01

14

Wanted: role models - medical students’ perceptions of professionalism  

PubMed Central

Background Transformation of medical students to become medical professionals is a core competency required for physicians in the 21st century. Role modeling was traditionally the key method of transmitting this skill. Medical schools are developing medical curricula which are explicit in ensuring students develop the professional competency and understand the values and attributes of this role. The purpose of this study was to determine student perception of professionalism at the University of Ottawa and gain insights for improvement in promotion of professionalism in undergraduate medical education. Methods Survey on student perception of professionalism in general, the curriculum and learning environment at the University of Ottawa, and the perception of student behaviors, was developed by faculty and students and sent electronically to all University of Ottawa medical students. The survey included both quantitative items including an adapted Pritzker list and qualitative responses to eight open ended questions on professionalism at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa. All analyses were performed using SAS version 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC, USA). Chi-square and Fischer’s exact test (for cell count less than 5) were used to derive p-values for categorical variables by level of student learning. Results The response rate was 45.6% (255 of 559 students) for all four years of the curriculum. 63% of the responses were from students in years 1 and 2 (preclerkship). Students identified role modeling as the single most important aspect of professionalism. The strongest curricular recommendations included faculty-led case scenario sessions, enhancing interprofessional interactions and the creation of special awards to staff and students to “celebrate” professionalism. Current evaluation systems were considered least effective. The importance of role modeling and information on how to report lapses and breaches was highlighted in the answers to the open ended questions. Conclusions Students identify the need for strong positive role models in their learning environment, and for effective evaluation of the professionalism of students and teachers. Medical school leaders must facilitate development of these components within the MD education and faculty development programs as well as in clinical milieus where student learning occurs. PMID:23153359

2012-01-01

15

DECLARATION OF PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY MEDICINE'S SOCIAL CONTRACT WITH HUMANITY  

E-print Network

DECLARATION OF PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY MEDICINE'S SOCIAL CONTRACT WITH HUMANITY Preamble Never in the history of human civilization has the well being of each individual been so inextricably linked in medical science and genetics, while promising great good, may also be harnessed as agents of evil

Gilbert, Matthew

16

Health Professionals' Responses to Women's Disclosure of Domestic Violence.  

PubMed

This study explored women's experiences of their responses from health professionals following disclosure of domestic violence within a health setting. The existence of health-based policies guiding professionals in the provision of appropriate support following disclosure of domestic violence is only effective if health professionals understand the dynamics of violent relationships. This article focuses on the findings from the interviews conducted with 15 women living in the United Kingdom who disclosed their experiences of domestic violence when accessing health care. Following thematic analysis, themes emerged that rotated around their disclosure and the responses they received from health professionals. The first two themes revealed the repudiation of, or recognition of and failure to act upon, domestic violence. A description of how the health professional's behavior became analogous with that of the perpetrator is discussed. The final theme illuminated women's receipt of appropriate and sensitive support, leading to a positive trajectory away from a violent relationship. The findings suggest that the implicit understanding of the dynamics of violent relationships and the behaviors of the perpetrator of domestic violence are essential components of health care provision to avoid inadvertent inappropriate interactions with women. PMID:25331370

Keeling, June; Fisher, Colleen

2014-10-20

17

Response to Intervention in Illinois: An Exploration of School Professionals' Attitudes and Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examines school professionals' self-reported perceptions of readiness in relation to the implementation of Response to Intervention (RTI) following a mandated deadline across the state of Illinois, as well their beliefs about the framework. A survey was developed to measure variables in the model related to school…

Hollenbeck, Amy Feiker; Patrikakou, Eva

2014-01-01

18

Exploring Professional Identity in Response to Curriculum Reform and Professional Development: The Teaching Life Stories of Chemistry Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study contributes to the existing literature in teacher education on teacher professional identity (Beijaard, Meijer & Verloop, 2004; Lamote & Engels, 2010; Rots, 2007), particularly in response to curriculum change and professional development. It proposes to offer a much better understanding of how chemistry teachers’ professional identities have evolved through their school and work experiences, and the tensions they experience associated with their beliefs about teaching and learning and their actual practice. Specifically, this study aims to identify how teachers' professional identities have evolved following the introduction of the latest chemistry curricula in Manitoba. These latest chemistry curricula advocate for a more learner focused 'tetrahedral orientation' (Mahaffy, 2004) teaching practice that supports chemistry learning through the use of Johnstone's (1991) three modes of representation - the symbolic, macroscopic and molecular levels - as well as a human element dimension. This study also aims to identify how teachers' professional identities have evolved following their participation in long-term professional development offered by teacher educators at the University of Manitoba. Additionally, this study aims to determine whether teachers feel they have experienced tensions associated with their beliefs about teaching and learning and their current teaching practices as a result of sustained professional development. Finally, this study aims to determine whether the curriculum changes and associated professional development have led teachers to think about and reflect more on their teaching practice and whether this has led to a change in their beliefs about teaching and learning and their teaching practice. Urie Bronfenbrenner's (1979) Model of the Ecology of Human Development was used as a theoretical framework for this study. This study was informed by semi-structured interviews involving 32 teachers of chemistry that were conducted during the fourth phase of a five-year research and development project supported by the University of Manitoba's Centres for Research in Youth, Science Teaching and Learning (CRYSTAL). These interviews suggested that teachers have experienced some tensions associated with their beliefs about teaching and learning and their current teaching practices. The study further elicited data from eight of these 32 teachers via a qualitative narrative inquiry study employing narrative interviews to reveal teachers' perceptions of their evolving professional identities and chemistry teaching practices. Teaching life stories constructed from the narrative interview data revealed that these teachers feel that their professional identities have evolved through their school and work experiences, and that a change in curricula followed by supportive professional development has caused these teachers to reflect more on their teaching practices. Furthermore, though these teachers indicated that they have experienced tensions associated with how they want to teach and their actual teaching practices, they feel they have experienced a shift in their beliefs about teaching and learning such that they feel their teaching practices have improved through their more consistent use of the four modes of representation in chemistry learning. The qualitative data show, however, that these teachers still feel that they have a long way to go to achieve a truly learner focused classroom practice where these four modes of chemistry learning are being used the majority of the time. The study closes by recommending that a much broader study be undertaken to include more teachers of chemistry in Manitoba to verify and add to the findings of this study, among other suggestions.

Peters, Gayle D.

19

Expanding the Responsibility of Architectural Education: Civic Professionalism in Two Schools of Architecture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been a renewed interest in the purposes of professional education and the teaching of civic professionalism, whereby future professionals are exposed to their responsibility to use their specialized skills and knowledge to serve the public good. Recent studies on civic purposes in professional education, however, have largely ignored the…

Rinehart, Michelle A.

2010-01-01

20

Resources and responsibility for professional education in blood transfusion therapy.  

PubMed

Two current problems in blood transfusion services are the widespread lack of information on this subject among practicing physicians, house staff, and medical students, and the dearth of broadly trained, full-time professionals in the field. Our most important and urgent responsibility is to train physicians who seek full-time careers in any aspect of blood transfusion services, blood center management, hospital transfusion services, research, or combination thereof. Successful training programs require sufficient space, personnel, and funds. In addition, blood centers have a responsibility to educate practicing physicians and house staff by formal teaching sessions, or informally when problems arise. Medical school curricula usually contain little on blood banking; exposure to some basic immunohematology or a visit to a blood center will help sensitize students to the availability of blood. Hospital administrators, regional medical society officers, and corporate medical directors, informed of the blood centers' activities, can help improve relationships between center, hospital, and community. PMID:7466901

Hirsch, R L

1981-01-01

21

Response to Section II: What's Needed Now--Professional Development Schools and the Professionalization of Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The professional development schools (PDS) effort, which grew out of the groundbreaking work of the Holmes Group (1986), was deliberately focused on the support and advancement of teachers as professionals and the professionalization of teaching, so the author argues that it is ironic that a volume about PDS might be seen as voicing an opinion…

Goodwin, A. Lin

2011-01-01

22

School Nurse Summer Institute: A Model for Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The components of a professional development model designed to empower school nurses to become leaders in school health services is described. The model was implemented during a 3-day professional development institute that included clinical and leadership components, especially coalition building, with two follow-up sessions in the fall and…

Neighbors, Marianne; Barta, Kathleen

2004-01-01

23

The Arctic Climate Modeling Program: Professional Development for Rural Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Arctic Climate Modeling Program (ACMP) offered yearlong science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) professional development to teachers in rural Alaska. Teacher training focused on introducing youth to workforce technologies used in Arctic research. Due to challenges in making professional development accessible to rural teachers, ACMP…

Bertram, Kathryn Berry

2010-01-01

24

Developing, implementing, and evaluating a professional practice model.  

PubMed

This article describes how The Compass, a professional practice model (PPM), was developed through clinical nurse involvement, review of literature, expert opinion, and an innovative schematic. Implementation was supported through a dynamic video account of a patient story, interwoven with The Compass. Postproject evaluation of PPM integration demonstrates opportunities for professional nursing development and future planning. PMID:25479174

Basol, Roberta; Hilleren-Listerud, Amy; Chmielewski, Linda

2015-01-01

25

New Models for Professional-Amateur Cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A worldwide community of motivated and well-equipped amateur astronomers is making significant contributions to astronomical research and bringing the amateur and professional communities more closely together than at any time in nearly a century. Efforts range from far-flung networks of comet, asteroid, and planet observers to dedicated teams focusing on such objects as variable stars, binaries, and supernovae. This paper

Carolyn Collins Petersen

1999-01-01

26

Lesson Planning: A Practice of Professional Responsibility and Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lesson planning is integral to teachers' professional development in China. It includes their individual reflection and study as well as the collegial activities undertaken to prepare the lesson. In China, organizational structures for both individual teachers and a school's professional community embed lesson preparation in two activities:…

Shen, Jianping; Poppink, Sue; Cui, Yunhuo; Fan, Guorui

2007-01-01

27

Modeling Instruction: The Impact of Professional Development on Instructional Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Modeling Instruction holds the potential for transforming science instruction and improving student achievement. Key to the success of Modeling Instruction, however, is the fidelity of implementation of its curriculum. This qualitative study examined the impact of Modeling Instruction professional development on participating teachers'…

Barlow, Angela T.; Frick, Tasha M.; Barker, Heather L.; Phelps, Amy J.

2014-01-01

28

Discerning Professional Identity and Becoming Bold, Socially Responsible Teacher-Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay reviews the powerful influence of professional identity in shaping how school leaders perceive their work. I review factors that mold teacher professional identity, implications for educational leadership pedagogy, and supports and barriers for teacher leaders to consider in their quest to more fully enact bold, socially responsible

Collay, Michelle

2006-01-01

29

A call for responsibility in ethical issues for IS professionals  

SciTech Connect

In recent years there has been increased interest in the ethical values, beliefs and behavior of persons in the business world. Public abhorrence of questionable behavior of politicians, the savings and loan scandal and insider trading violations are just a few examples of many problems in business and professional life. A 1992 study by the Josephson Institute of Ethics involving 9,000 young people and adults revealed alarmingly low ethical characteristics in American institutions. Ferrell and Fraedrick have concluded that {open_quotes}business ethics is one of the most important concerns in today`s business world.{close_quote} A few professional organizations have tried to comprehend the ethical values, beliefs and behavior of their constituents. Vittrell has studied the frequency of ethical behavior for management information specialists. Martin and Peterson have examined the ethical issues of insider trading. Fimbel and Burstein have investigated the ethical values of technology professionals. Thornburg made use of a survey concerning the ethical beliefs and practices of human resources professionals. On a preliminary basis, these studies indicate the various ethical issues and uncertainties which are problematic for members of the various professions. Most business people are ethical segregationists, that is they tend to segregate their ethical values into one type of behavior for business and another type of behavior away from business. Managers accused of unethical behavior respond with, III am not that type of person. I am active in my church, in community affairs, a good family man, and so on.

Palmiter, C.W.

1994-12-31

30

Te Kotahitanga: Culturally Responsive Professional Development for Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Te Kotahitanga is a research and professional development project that aims to support teachers to raise the achievement of New Zealand's indigenous Maori students in public/mainstream classrooms. An Effective Teaching Profile, developed from the voices of Maori students, their families, principals and some of their teachers, provides direction…

Bishop, Russell; Berryman, Mere

2010-01-01

31

Beyond the Game: Perceptions and Practices of Corporate Social Responsibility in the Professional Sport Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is an area of great interest, yet little is known about how CSR is perceived and practiced\\u000a in the professional sport industry. This study employs a mixed-methods approach, including a survey, and a qualitative content\\u000a analysis of responses to open-ended questions, to explore how professional sport executives define CSR, and what priorities\\u000a teams have regarding their

Hela Sheth; Kathy M. Babiak

2010-01-01

32

The Professional Development School Model: Unpacking Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to Cochran-Smith and Lytle's (1998) call for Other ways of researching and thinking about educational research and the recent call by the US Secretary of Education to reform "teacher-training" programs (Schoicet 2002), this article presents a research study focusing on a reform effort in teacher education. The study moved beyond the…

Cary, Lisa J.

2004-01-01

33

Eating disorders among professional fashion models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fashion models are thought to be at an elevated risk for eating disorders, but few methodologically rigorous studies have explored this assumption. We have investigated the prevalence of eating disorders in a group of 55 fashion models born in Sardinia, Italy, comparing them with a group of 110 girls of the same age and of comparable social and cultural backgrounds.

Antonio Preti; Ambra Usai; Paola Miotto; Donatella Rita Petretto; Carmelo Masala

2008-01-01

34

Evaluation of Professional Development: Deploying a process-focused model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This evaluation used a change transition model to explore the processes of development of a three?phase professional programme devised by two teams of researchers to support teachers’ expertise in six domains of science teaching. The full programme operated over two years. Interviews with developers at the end of each phase (21 interviews) and with teachers at the end of phases

Pam Hanley; Felix Maringe; Mary Ratcliffe

2008-01-01

35

Professionalism Professionalism  

E-print Network

for others (patients and their families, other physicians and professional colleagues such as nurses, medical-honored ethical precepts. #12;Elements of Professionalism Excellence entails a conscientious effort to exceed

Ray, David

36

Time Work by Overworked Professionals: Strategies in Response to the Stress of Higher Status  

PubMed Central

How are professionals responding to the time strains brought on by the stress of their higher status jobs? Qualitative data from professionals reveal (a) general acceptance of the emerging temporal organization of professional work, including rising time demands and blurred boundaries around work/ nonwork times and places, and (b) time work as strategic responses to work intensification, overloads, and boundarylessness. We detected four time-work strategies: prioritizing time, scaling back obligations, blocking out time, and time shifting of obligations. These strategies are often more work-friendly than family-friendly, but “blocking out time” and “time shifting” suggest promising avenues for work-time policy and practice. PMID:24039337

Moen, Phyllis; Lam, Jack; Ammons, Samantha; Kelly, Erin L.

2013-01-01

37

Responsibility-Based Continuing Professional Development for In-Service Physical Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2004, the National Standards for Physical Education have endorsed the notion that physical educators should teach personal and social responsibility. Continuing professional development (CPD) programs, based on teaching personal and social responsibility, are needed to support teacher's adherence to the national standards. The purpose…

Hemphill, Michael A.

2011-01-01

38

Response to Intervention: Perspectives of General and Special Education Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Federal legislation allows local education agencies to use a student's response to scientific research-based interventions as a method of identifying specific learning disabilities. As a result, educational leadership is challenged to implement response to intervention (RTI). Despite increased literature addressing RTI, no consensus on…

Bineham, Susan C.; Shelby, Liz; Pazey, Barbara L.; Yates, James R.

2014-01-01

39

Pacific CRYSTAL Teacher Professional Development Models: Lessons Learned  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From 2005 to 2010 Pacific CRYSTAL (Centre for Research in Youth Science Teaching and Learning) has been engaged in community-based research fostering teacher leadership in innovative science education through a variety of approaches to teacher professional development. Pacific CRYSTAL is a University of Victoria based, NSERC funded project founded on a collaborative research model involving scentists, science educators and community members including schools, teachers, community groups and government. Pacific CRYSTAL professional development approaches embrace both in-service teachers and pre-service teachers, and include Lighthouse schools, workshops (ongoing as well as one-time), community-based partnerships in Pacific CRYSTAL research projects, teachers as researchers, and university science courses and workshops for pre-education and education students. A number of common themes, identified through these approaches, should be considered in the development and implementation of future science professional development initiatives. They include; teacher turnover, expanding and adding schools and participating teachers, teacher apprehension, building leadership capacity, further engagement of 'tourist' teachers, continuing professional support for teachers, as well as on-going mentoring.

van der Flier-Keller, E.; Yore, L.

2010-12-01

40

Using Blogs to Promote Literary Response during Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a project that studied 15 preservice teachers' perceptions of and reactions to responding to children's and young adult literature using a Ning blog. These perceptions and reactions provided insight into various practical aspects of using a social networking blog to facilitate literature response in a teacher education…

Colwell, Jamie; Hutchison, Amy; Reinking, David

2012-01-01

41

Preparing Professionals: A Response to Hans G. Honig.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A response to a paper on Translation Quality Assessment (TQA) and the training of translators focuses on the paper's criticism of the theoretical basis for teaching and evaluating student work. It discusses how criteria for evaluation of translations are determined and the role of the client/audience in this process. (MSE)

Shuttleworth, Mark

1997-01-01

42

Pharmacists’ opinions and self-reporting performance regarding the professional tasks and responsibilities in Isfahan, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: The pharmacists’ roles and responsibilities toward the pharmaceutical care practice have developed considerably during the recent years. Objectives: The aim of this program is to explore the opinions and performances of community pharmacists with regard to their professional tasks and responsibilities in Isfahan city. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire survey of community pharmacists was conducted on a sample of 150 pharmacists using the Delphi process. Data were collected on the opinions and performances of the pharmacists’ task, professional responsibility and expertise, organizational and managing skills, and sociodemographic information. Results: The response rate was 93.3%. High expressions of agreement were found with most of the task and professional responsibilities and managerial skills and the mean rates of the self-reporting performance of most key tasks were ‘always’. The important differences were found in two opinions about the pharmacists’ responsibilities, (a) declining to dispense the prescribed drug that was not appropriate for the patient's illness and (b) keeping the patient's medical records for future needs. The pharmacists’ opinions on various forms of professional expertise were diverse, especially on recognizing that the required medications were not prescribed for the patient, being informed on the pharmacotherapy subsequence and predicting the therapeutic outcomes, interpreting the laboratory tests results, and assisting persons in need of emergency first aid. Conclusion: Pharmacists largely agreed with most of the professional tasks and responsibilities, however, new educational programs should be developed to promote the pharmacists’ knowledge and skills concerning pharmacotherapy. Also an extended role for pharmacists needs to be addressed in the pharmacy regulations and laws. PMID:24741642

Safaeian, Leila; Mostafavi, Seyed Abolfazl; Changiz, Tahereh; Mirzadeh, Mostafa

2014-01-01

43

Authoring Professional Teacher Identities: A Journey from Understanding Culturally Responsive Teaching to Identifying as Culturally Responsive Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the ways in which four elementary preservice teachers came to understand culturally responsive teaching and began authoring their professional teacher identities. It examined the influence of course work and internship at a culturally and linguistically diverse school on their understandings and…

Tschida, Christina Marie

2009-01-01

44

Learning Agreements and Socially Responsible Approaches to Professional and Human Resource Development in the United Kingdom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws upon original qualitative data to present an initial assessment of the significance of learning agreements for the development of socially responsible approaches to professional and human resource development within the workplace. The article suggests that the adoption of a partnership-based approach to learning is more…

Wallis, Emma

2008-01-01

45

Print Responsibly. The Vermont Residential Green Building Certification Programs course offers professionals  

E-print Network

Print Responsibly. The Vermont Residential Green Building Certification Programs course offers professionals in the design and construction industry a rare opportunity to learn the criteria for the Vermont, the University of Vermont has the first university student center in the country to receive a LEED gold

Bermingham, Laura Hill

46

ARTICLE COMMENTARY Reflections of professional boxing consultancy: A response to Schinke (2004)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper describes work conducted in Professional boxing over a 2 year period and was written in response to a paper on boxing by Schinke (2004). The article describes how credibilty was developed in boxing, and how this built a platform for psychological support. Support was highly individualised. Videotaped sparring sessions to be develop imagery sessions and self-talk. Music

2006-01-01

47

A Practice-Based Theory of Professional Education: Teach For America's Professional Development Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1999, Ball and Cohen proposed a practice-based theory of professional education, which would end inadequate professional development efforts with a more comprehensive approach. Their work has been referenced over the past decade, yet there have been limited attempts to actualize their ideals and research their implications. In this article, I…

Gabriel, Rachael

2011-01-01

48

Students' response to disaster: a lesson for health care professional schools.  

PubMed

The response of medical students, young physicians, and other health professionals to the February 2010 earthquake and tsunami in Chile provides important lessons about health care delivery during disasters and about the development of professionalism. Tertiary and secondary care of victims of these disasters was possible because local and national resources were available and field hospitals provided by Chile's armed forces and foreign countries replaced damaged hospitals. However, primary care of persons living on the outskirts of towns and in small villages and coves that were destroyed and isolated by the disaster required the involvement of volunteer groups that were largely composed of students and other young members of the health professions, all of whom were motivated by solidarity, compassion, and social commitment. This experience, similar to previous catastrophes in Chile and elsewhere, reinforces that medical and other health professional schools must instill in graduates an understanding that the privileges of being a health professional come with responsibilities to society. Beyond providing high-quality scientific and technological education, curricula in these schools should include training that enables graduates to meaningfully contribute in the setting of unexpected disasters and that nurtures a sense of responsibility to do so. PMID:21079222

Reyes, Humberto

2010-11-16

49

Item Response Theory Modeling  

Cancer.gov

Item Response Theory (IRT) modeling is a statistical technique that is applied after data have been collected. IRT represents the field of psychometrics -- that is, evaluation of the degree of precision and breadth of scales that are used to measure latent constructs, or underlying traits of concepts that are not directly observable and must therefore be measured indirectly.

50

Adaptive response modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cellular response to radiation is often modified by a previous delivery of a small "priming" dose: a smaller amount of damage, defined by the end point being investigated, is observed, and for this reason the effect is called adaptive response. An improved understanding of this effect is essential (as much as for the case of the bystander effect) for a reliable radiation risk assessment when low dose irradiations are involved. Experiments on adaptive response have shown that there are a number of factors that strongly influence the occurrence (and the level) of the adaptation. In particular, priming doses and dose rates have to fall in defined ranges; the same is true for the time interval between the delivery of the small priming dose and the irradiation with the main, larger, dose (called in this case challenging dose). Different hypotheses can be formulated on the main mechanism(s) determining the adaptive response: an increased efficiency of DNA repair, an increased level of antioxidant enzymes, an alteration of cell cycle progression, a chromatin conformation change. An experimental clearcut evidence going definitely in the direction of one of these explanations is not yet available. Modelling can be done at different levels. Simple models, relating the amount of damage, through elementary differential equations, to the dose and dose rate experienced by the cell, are relatively easy to handle, and they can be modified to account for the priming irradiation. However, this can hardly be of decisive help in the explanation of the mechanisms, since each parameter of these models often incorporates in an effective way several cellular processes related to the response to radiation. In this presentation we show our attempts to describe adaptive response with models that explicitly contain, as a dynamical variable, the inducible adaptive agent. At a price of a more difficult treatment, this approach is probably more prone to give support to the experimental studies. This work is supported by the NOTE Project (FP6-36465).

Campa, Alessandro; Esposito, Giuseppe; Belli, Mauro

51

The PKRC's Value as a Professional Development Model Validated  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a brief review of the 4-H professional development standards, a new model for determining the value of continuing professional development is introduced and applied to the 4-H standards. The validity of the 4-H standards is affirmed. 4-H Extension professionals are encouraged to celebrate the strength of their standards and to engage the…

Larson, Dale

2013-01-01

52

Effects of Product-Based Technology Professional Development Model on P-8 Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A product-based professional development model has significantly improved the ability and willingness of P-8 teachers to use and integrate technology into instruction. This paper discusses the impacts this staff professional development model. The model was used to train 18 teachers to effectively use and integrate technology in their ESL…

Ireh, Maduakolam

2006-01-01

53

Police and mental health professionals. Collaborative responses to the impact of violence on children and families.  

PubMed

Coordinating responses through the Child Development-Community Policing Program has led to multiple changes in the delivery of clinical and police services. Mental health clinicians and police officers have developed a common language for assessing and responding to the needs of children and families who have been exposed to or involved in violence. Learning from each other, these unlikely partners have established close working relationships that improve and expand the range of interventions they are able to provide while preserving the areas of expertise and responsibilities of each professional group. The immediate access to witnesses, victims, and perpetrators of violent crimes through the consultation service provides a unique opportunity to expand the understanding of clinical phenomena from the acute traumatic moment to longer-term adaptation, symptom formation, and recovery. In turn, the initiative introduces the systematic study of basic psychological and neurobiologic functions involved in traumatization as well as the investigation of psychotherapeutic and pharmacologic therapies. Similarly, program involvement with juvenile offenders has led to a coordinated response from the police, mental health, and juvenile justice systems. This project provides an opportunity to develop detailed psychological profiles and typologies of children engaged in different levels of antisocial behavior as well as to determine the characteristics that might predict with whom community-based interventions might be most successful. A recent survey of New Haven public school students has yielded promising evidence that community policing and the program are having a positive impact on the quality of life. In a survey of sixth-, eighth-, and tenth-grade students there were substantial improvements in students' sense of safety and experience of violence between 1992 and 1996. When asked if they felt safe in their neighborhood, there was an increase in the percentage of positive responses from 57% to 62% for sixth-grade students, 48% to 66% for eighth-grade students, and 53% to 73% for tenth-grade students, and when asked if they had seen someone shot or stabbed there was a decrease in positive responses from 43% to 28% for sixth-grade students, 46% to 31% for eighth-grade students, and 34% to 28% for tenth-grade students. Today, we are all too familiar with the developmental trajectory that leads children into violent crime. Newspaper articles and clinical case reports have taken on a dreary repetitiveness. These young criminals are often poor, minority, inner-city children who are known to many agencies to be at risk because of family disorganization, neglect, and abuse. They are failing in school or are already on the streets. One day they are victims and the very next they are assailants. We are all familiar with the inadequacies in the social response to these children, from their preschool years through the point at which they become assailants themselves. What is shocking is that the age at which children make the transition from being abused to being abusive seems to be getting earlier, and the number appears to be increasing. On the positive side, there is an increased awareness of the need and the ability of the various sectors of society to respond in concert. The institutions that function in the inner city--schools, police, mental health and child welfare agencies, churches--are all concerned about the same children and families. By working together, with a shared orientation to the best interests of the children, they can intervene earlier and more effectively: first, to disrupt the trajectory leading to violence; and, second, to help those children who are already caught in the web of exposure to violent crime and inner-city trauma. The experience with community-based policing and mental health in New Haven, now being replicated throughout the United States, can thus stand as a model of an active social response to an overwhel PMID:9894059

Marans, S; Berkowitz, S J; Cohen, D J

1998-07-01

54

Instructional Technology Professional Development Evaluation: Developing a High Quality Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The literature contains very few studies that focused on evaluating the impact of professional development activities on student learning. And, many of these studies failed to determine whether the professional development activities met their primary goal--to improve the learning process. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to use…

Gaytan, Jorge A.; McEwen, Beryl C.

2010-01-01

55

Expanding the Professional Development School Model: Developing Collaborative Partnerships with School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Professional Development School (PDS) model, a successful collaborative partnership model between university teacher education programs and P-12 schools, focuses on ''preparing future educators, providing current educators with ongoing professional development, encouraging joint school-university faculty investigation of…

Foust, Gretchen E.; Goslee, Patricia A.

2014-01-01

56

Primary Health Care and Social Care: Working across Professional Boundaries: Part Two: Models of Inter-Professional Collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the second part of this two-part feature, four models of inter-professional collaboration are explored, each of them representing points on a continuum from lower to higher levels of collaboration.The four are:• Communication: interactions are confined to facilitating the exchange of information.• Co-ordination: individuals remain in separate organisations and locations, but develop formal ways of working across these boundaries.• Co-location:

Bob Hudson

1999-01-01

57

Institutional Response to the Swedish Model of Quality Assurance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the Swedish model of quality assurance of higher education by examining the response of institutions to 27 quality audits and 19 follow-up interviews. Discusses the relationship between top-down and bottom-up approaches to internal quality assurance and suggests that, with growing professionalization, more limited result-oriented audits…

Nilsson, Karl-Axel; Wahlen, Staffan

2000-01-01

58

Investigating a Professional Development School Model of Teacher Education in Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the effectiveness of a professional development school model of teacher education in Canada. Teacher education candidates responded positively to program features related to sustained participation and collaboration in school communities throughout the year. Their efficacy beliefs about developing professional knowledge were most…

Buzza, Dawn; Kotsopoulos, Donna; Mueller, Julie; Johnston, Megan

2010-01-01

59

Information Literacy for Health Professionals: Teaching Essential Information Skills with the Big6 Information Literacy Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Health professionals frequently do not possess the necessary information-seeking abilities to conduct an effective search in databases and Internet sources. Reference librarians may teach health professionals these information and technology skills through the Big6 information literacy model (Big6). This article aims to address this issue. It also…

Santana Arroyo, Sonia

2013-01-01

60

Implementing a K-12 Train the Trainer Professional Development Model through the School Improvement Grant  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective professional development has been shown to improve instruction and increase student academic achievement. The Train the Trainer professional development model is often chosen by the state Department of Education for its efficiency and cost effectiveness of delivering training to schools and districts widely distributed throughout the…

Pollnow, Michele

2012-01-01

61

An interventional model to develop health professionals in West Africa  

PubMed Central

The health sector is characterized by a human resource base lacking in numbers, specialized skills, and management skills. West African Health Organization (WAHO) recognizes the need within the West Africa sub-region for bilingual professionals who are skilled in public health, management, leadership, and information technology to build human capacity in public health and developed the Young Professionals Internship Program (YPIP). Our study explores the evolution of the programme. YPIP program has successfully carried out its original aims and objectives to equip young professionals with basic principles of public health, management, and leadership, acquire competence in a second official language (French, English, and Portuguese), information and communication technology. Contributing factors towards this successful evaluation included positive ratings and commentary from previous interns about the relevance, usefulness, and quality of the programme, encouraging feedback from WAHO management, trainers, administrators, and intern employers on the impact of the YPIP program on young professionals, supporting evidence that demonstrates increased knowledge in professional skills and language competency. PMID:25419290

Sanou, Anselme Simeon; Awoyale, Florence Adeola; Diallo, Abdoulaye

2014-01-01

62

Collaborative Partnerships : A Model for Science Teacher Education and Professional Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a collaborative partnership between practicing and pre-service teachers as a model for implementing science teacher education and professional development. This model provides a structure within which partnerships will work collaboratively to plan, implement and reflect on a series of Science lessons in cycles of action-reflection adapted from Korthagen’s (2001) ALACT model. Issues within Science education, teacher professional

Mellita M. Jones

2008-01-01

63

Putting the Research To Work: Professional Development Models from Michigan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes statewide professional development programs in Michigan that were developed to train teachers in technology use. Discusses Teach for Tomorrow, which combines online learning with local facilitators and peer support networks; and the Great Lakes Education Network Best Practices project, which combines lesson plans from the Web with…

Hoffman, Ellen; Thompson, Ginny

2000-01-01

64

Identifying Perceptions of Professionalism in Pharmacy Using a Four-Frame Leadership Model  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine whether professionalism in pharmacy education is addressed from Bolman and Deal's four-frame leadership model. Methods Students (N = 624), faculty (N = 57), preceptors (N = 56), and academic administrators (N = 8) at 6 colleges and schools of pharmacy were surveyed to assess professionalism. Using grounded theory methodology and a constant comparative process, common themes were identified for each question in each group. Themes were assigned to the four-frame model and the data were compared. Results Mechanisms of addressing professionalism consistent with all 4 frames of the Bolman and Deal's model were identified. Faculty assessment of student professionalism was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than the student group, preceptors, and administrators. Conclusions Mechanisms of addressing professionalism in pharmacy education span all four frames of Bolman and Deal's leadership model. The values students bring into a pharmacy program may play an important role in the process of professional socialization. Faculty members have a tremendous opportunity to enhance student professionalism with their daily verbal and nonverbal interactions with students. PMID:19002288

Farmer, Kevin C.; Beall, Donna G.; Evans, David J.; Melchert, Russell B.; Ross, Leigh Ann; Schmoll, Beverly J.

2008-01-01

65

Using the Reflective Teaching Model in a Yearlong Professional Development: A Case Study of a Second Year Urban Elementary Teacher  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the change in a third grade teacher (Jennifer) who engaged in a year-long professional development model during her second year of teaching in an urban district. In particular, she embraced the Reflective Teaching Model (RTM) which was unique to this professional development. Jennifer and nine other teachers from her school participated in 120 hours of professional development

Molly Weinburgh

66

Models of professional preparation: Pharmacy, nursing and teacher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study focuses on three areas of initial professional education at degree level—pharmacy, nursing and teacher education. All three are associated with professions where individual clients' needs are significant—the so-called caring professions. The project was conducted largely through interviews with teaching staff in both university and public sector institutions. The interviews focused on the interests, activities and values of the

R. A. Barnett; R. A. Becher; N. M. Cork

1987-01-01

67

Legal Implications of Models of Individual and Group Treatment by Professionals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although medical malpractice suits are based on a model of treatment of an individual by a professional, educational malpractice suits are based on a group treatment model. When the medical model and the teaching model are compared, the contrasts are so great that medical malpractice principles are not a reliable guide to the emerging law of…

Lynch, Patrick D.

68

Teacher Preferences for Professional Development Delivery Models and Delivery Model Influence on Teacher Behavior in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current trends and research in education indicated that teacher learning is a crucial link to student achievement. There is a void in the research regarding teacher preferences for delivery models in professional development. Determining teacher preferences is an important component in professional development planning and the driving inquiry for…

Sauer, Eve R.

2011-01-01

69

The physical education profession and its professional responsibility … or … why ‘12 weeks paid holiday’ will never be enough  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This paper critically reviews the concept of ‘professional responsibility’ in physical education. The paper is rooted in the belief that the physical education profession has, by virtue of its expertise in young people and physical activity, the potential to deliver a broad range of desirable educational and health-related outcomes. Yet, if the physical education profession is just that –

Kathleen M. Armour

2010-01-01

70

Model refinement using transient response  

SciTech Connect

A method is presented for estimating uncertain or unknown parameters in a mathematical model using measurements of transient response. The method is based on a least squares formulation in which the differences between the model and test-based responses are minimized. An application of the method is presented for a nonlinear structural dynamic system. The method is also applied to a model of the Department of Energy armored tractor trailer. For the subject problem, the transient response was generated by driving the vehicle over a bump of prescribed shape and size. Results from the analysis and inspection of the test data revealed that a linear model of the vehicle`s suspension is not adequate to accurately predict the response caused by the bump.

Dohrmann, C.R.; Carne, T.G.

1997-12-01

71

Application of a Psychosocial Model of Alienation: Sex Differences in Locus of Control, Fear of Success and Affective Hostility With a Professional Career Sample.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An empirical test of a contemporary model of psychosocial stress was conducted to evaluate expected differences in cognitive and affective functioning for males and females in a professional career sample. Perceived powerlessness and affective hostility were viewed as constituting a cluster of adaptive responses to personal/social conditions…

Roffe, Michael; Fraser, Kathleen

72

Trust Model Based on M-CRGs in Emergency Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many research results demonstrate that government itself cannot handle all the requests from residents in emergency response. Some scholars proposed that building community response grids which utilized pre-existing communities to support citizen request. Unfortunately, little attention has been given to achieve effective and trustworthy collaboration between professional emergency responders and residents. In this paper, the authors modify the architecture of CRGs to provide a valid organizational pattern in emergency response. Based on the modified CRGs (M-CRGs), the trust modeling framework is discussed in detail. Through recording the total behaviors and evaluation of all agents in the systems, the society network is built and the global trustworthiness which reflects the agents' true synthetical ability is gained in the model. An application of this model to Snow Disasters in Southern China is illustrated. Analysis shows that the model contributes to developing efficiency in emergency response.

Deng, Shasha; Zhang, Pengzhu; Jia, Zhaoqing

73

How Professionally Relevant Can Language Tests Be?: A Response to Wette (2011)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recently published article "English Proficiency Tests and Communication Skills Training for Overseas-Qualified Health Professionals in Australia and New Zealand" (Wette, 2011) aims to address perceived problems and misconceptions associated with the testing of English language skills and professional communicative competence of…

Pill, John; Woodward-Kron, Robyn

2012-01-01

74

Implementing a New Model for Teachers' Professional Learning in Papua New Guinea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a study that investigates the possibilities of developing a professional learning model based on action research that could lead to sustained improvements in teaching and learning in schools in remote areas of Papua New Guinea. The issues related to the implementation of this model are discussed using a critical lens that…

Honan, Eileen; Evans, Terry; Muspratt, Sandy; Paraide, Patricia; Reta, Medi; Baroutsis, Aspa

2012-01-01

75

Evaluating the Usability of a Professional Modeling Tool Repurposed for Middle School Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the results of a three-stage usability test of a modeling tool designed to support learners' deep understanding of the impacts of climate change on ecosystems. The design process involved repurposing an existing modeling technology used by professional scientists into a learning tool specifically designed for middle school…

Peters, Vanessa L.; Songer, Nancy Butler

2013-01-01

76

The Effect of a Professional Development Classroom Management Model on At-Risk Elementary Students' Misbehaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem in the study was that at-risk elementary school students had too many classroom disruptive behaviors. The purpose was to investigate the effect a Professional Development Classroom Management Model would have on reducing these students' misbehaviors. The study implemented a classroom management model to improve the classroom management…

Reglin, Gary; Akpo-Sanni, Joretta; Losike-Sedimo, Nonofo

2012-01-01

77

Flexible Programmes in Higher Professional Education: Expert Validation of a Flexible Educational Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a preceding case study, a process-focused demand-driven approach for organising flexible educational programmes in higher professional education (HPE) was developed. Operations management and instructional design contributed to designing a flexible educational model by means of discrete-event simulation. Educational experts validated the model

Schellekens, Ad; Paas, Fred; Verbraeck, Alexander; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

2010-01-01

78

A unique drug distribution process for radium Ra 223 dichloride injection and its implication for product quality, patient privacy, and delineation of professional responsibilities.  

PubMed

On May 15, 2013, Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals announced that it had received marketing approval for the therapeutic radioactive medication radium Ra 223 dichloride injection (Xofigo; Ra 223). The product acquisition and distribution process for hospital-based nuclear pharmacies and nuclear medicine services is unlike any other. The product is distributed as a low-risk compounded sterile preparation through a single compounding nuclear pharmacy located in Denver, Colorado, pursuant to a prescription. This model for drug distribution and delivery to the user institution has implications for product quality, patient privacy, and delineation of professional responsibilities. PMID:25301826

Dansereau, Raymond N

2014-11-01

79

Supporting mental health in South African HIV-affected communities: primary health care professionals' understandings and responses.  

PubMed

How do practitioners respond to the mental distress of HIV-affected women and communities? And do their understandings of patients' distress matter? The World Health Organization (WHO) along with advocates from the Movement for Global Mental Health (MGMH) champion a primary mental health care model to address burgeoning mental health needs in resource-poor HIV-affected settings. Whilst a minority of studies have begun to explore interventions to target this group of women, there is a dearth of studies that explore the broader contexts that will likely shape service outcomes, such as health sector dynamics and competing definitions of mental ill-health. This study reports on an in-depth case study of primary mental health services in a rural HIV-affected community in Northern KwaZulu-Natal. Health professionals identified as the frontline staff working within the primary mental health care model (n = 14) were interviewed. Grounded thematic analysis of interview data highlighted that practitioners employed a critical and socially anchored framework for understanding their patients' needs. Poverty, gender and family relationships were identified as intersecting factors driving HIV-affected patients' mental distress. In a divergence from existing evidence, practitioner efforts to act on their understandings of patient needs prioritized social responses over biomedical ones. To achieve this whilst working within a primary mental health care model, practitioners employed a series of modifications to services to increase their ability to target the sociostructural realities facing HIV-affected women with mental health issues. This article suggests that beyond attention to the crucial issues of funding and human resources that face primary mental health care, attention must also be paid to promoting the development of policies that provide practitioners with increased and more consistent opportunities to address the complex social realities that frame the mental distress of HIV-affected women. PMID:25161270

Burgess, Rochelle Ann

2014-08-26

80

Measles case-based surveillance and outbreak response in Nigeria; an update for clinicians and public health professionals.  

PubMed

The Federal Ministry of Health recommendations for response during measles epidemics in Nigeria previously focused on case management using antibiotics and Vitamin. A supplements and did not include outbreak response immunization (ORI) campaigns. However, with the revision of the existing national technical guideline on measles casebased surveillance and outbreak response in Nigeria in 2012 in line with the World Health Organization recommendation on response to measles outbreak in measles mortality reduction settings, there is a need to update members of the Nigerian public health community on these revisions to ensure appropriate implementation and compliance. This article therefore seeks to provide clinicians and other public health professionals in Nigeria with updates on recent developments in measles case-based surveillance and outbreak response in Nigeria. PMID:25332696

Isere, E E; Fatiregun, A A

2014-06-01

81

Respecting the dual sided identity of clinical pastoral education and professional chaplaincy: the phenomenological research model.  

PubMed

The question discussed in this volume opens a debate on what kind of scientific research model should be used by professional chaplaincy and Clinical Pastoral Education (CPE). The problem begins with the assumption that "becoming more scientific" means using the natural sciences approach employed by psychology; an approach unsuitable to account for factors relative to faith, spiritual and religious issues. I argue that CPE and professional chaplaincy need to be more scientific but not necessarily under the natural sciences model. Considering the predominance of that model in psychology, I believe pastors and chaplains should resist pressures to rely on the natural science model and adopt instead models that respect their dual sided identity. I conclude by suggesting that the phenomenological research model best allows investigation of patients' spiritual as well as psychological issues. PMID:14682100

Morin, Marie-Line

2002-01-01

82

Measuring the Impact of Student Interaction with Student Affairs Professionals on Socially Responsible Leadership Development in the First Year of College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using longitudinal data from the Wabash National Study on Liberal Arts Education, this research explored the impact of students' interactions with student affairs professionals on socially responsible leadership development during the first year of college. Overall, students' interactions with student affairs professionals were…

Martin, Georgianna L.

2013-01-01

83

Models of Professional Development in the Education and Practice of New Teachers in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws upon research undertaken in nine higher education institutions for a doctoral thesis. The qualitative study used repertory grids and semi-structured interviews with nine course leaders to investigate models of professional development that underpin courses for new teachers in higher education. While evidence of good levels of…

Pill, Amanda

2005-01-01

84

Models of Professional and Paraprofessional Training in Refugee Mental Health. Task VI--Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pursuant to the mission of the University of Minnesota's Mental Health Technical Assistance Center for the state refugee assistance programs, this report presents models of culturally sensitive training for professional and paraprofessional personnel who provide mental health service to refugees. After an introduction which places this report in…

Hoshino, George; Bamford, Pauline

85

The Arctic Climate Modeling Program: K-12 Geoscience Professional Development for Rural Educators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helping teachers and students connect with scientists is the heart of the Arctic Climate Modeling Program (ACMP), funded from 2005-09 by the National Science Foundation's Innovative Technology Experience for Students and Teachers. ACMP offered progressive yearlong science, technology and math (STM) professional development that prepared teachers to train youth in workforce technologies used in Arctic research. ACMP was created for

K. B. Bertram

2009-01-01

86

Peer Partnerships in Teaching: Evaluation of a Voluntary Model of Professional Development in Tertiary Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes work over a three-year period to develop a peer partnership approach to professional development at a dual sector university. The aim of the program, arising initially in one school and then piloted in 5 schools, was to support staff in their teaching practice. Emphasis was on the development of a sustainable model of…

Chester, Andrea

2012-01-01

87

Embedded Teacher Leadership: Support for a Site-Based Model of Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project Achieve is a professional development (PD) project that utilizes teacher leaders (TLs), former teachers who have been reassigned to provide school-based mentoring, instruction, lesson plan assistance and modelling of lessons for urban middle school teachers. A primary goal of Project Achieve is to evaluate the extent to which TLs were able…

Yost, Deborah S.; Vogel, Robert; Liang, Ling L.

2009-01-01

88

National Models for Continuing Professional Development: The Challenges of Twenty-First-Century Knowledge Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If teacher quality is the most critical factor in improving educational outcomes, then why is so little attention drawn to the knowledge and evidence base available to support teachers in improving the quality of their professional knowledge? This paper draws together findings from a range of sources to propose national models for continuing…

Leask, Marilyn; Younie, Sarah

2013-01-01

89

Supporting Teachers' Professional Learning at a Distance: A Model for Change in At-Risk Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the effectiveness of a professional learning model developed to support early years teachers in rural and remote communities in Queensland as they began to implement the Australian Curriculum in Mathematics. The data are drawn from 35 teachers at the initial stage of a large, four year longitudinal study RoleM (Representations,…

Warren, Elizabeth A.; Quine, Janine; DeVries, Eva

2012-01-01

90

Faculty role modeling of professional writing: one baccalaureate nursing program's experience.  

PubMed

According to The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 1998), professional writing is an important outcome of baccalaureate nursing education. Most baccalaureate nursing programs in the United States expect formally written student papers to adhere to the style requirements outlined in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2001). It is essential for the baccalaureate nursing faculty members who evaluate student papers to be role models for the desired writing behaviors to facilitate student attainment of professional writing outcomes. However, to what extent nursing faculty members' writing behaviors and knowledge of the APA style requirements impact student writing outcomes is not known because the issue has not been addressed in the literature. The purpose of this article is to describe one Midwestern baccalaureate nursing program's faculty development efforts to assess faculty familiarity with the APA style requirements and how such knowledge may impact baccalaureate nursing students' writing outcomes. PMID:18358441

Newton, Sarah E

2008-01-01

91

Teaching and Teaming More Responsively: Case Studies in Professional Growth at the Middle Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study examined the experiences of two middle level teachers as they worked with a literacy coach and university partners in an instructional improvement initiative. Robert and Janice worked together as a two-teacher team. Across the three years of the study, they collaborated with Melissa, the literacy coach, to integrate reading and writing across the curriculum and to create connections with reluctant students. Analysis of observations, interviews, and archival documents showed that professional growth accelerated with discussions of instructional practices and student performance, guided by informal assessments of student achievement. Patterns of professional growth and student accomplishment document the power of collaboration and suggest possibilities for supporting professional development more productively through interdisciplinary teamwork.

Strahan, David; Hedt, Melissa

2009-01-01

92

A Competency-Based Model for Developing Human Resource Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a framework for the design and implementation of a competency-based curriculum for graduate management education. The article also outlines how this model has been implemented at one university in the context of a graduate degree in human resource management. Among the significant challenges discussed are the identification…

McEvoy, Glenn M.; Hayton, James C.; Warnick, Alan P.; Mumford, Troy V.; Hanks, Steven H.; Blahna, Mary Jo

2005-01-01

93

Professional experience in new times: issues and responses to a changing education landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses policy and practice relevant to teacher education and professional experience programs in Australia, aiming to assist not only reading our past and present, but also offering strategic direction with respect to the challenges and opportunities that are emerging within the Australian context. A meta-analysis of current major trends in Australian educational reform and the implications of an

Simone White; Di Bloomfield; Rosie Le Cornu

2010-01-01

94

Are health professionals responsible for the shortage of organs from deceased donors in Malaysia?  

PubMed

The rate of organ donations from deceased donors in Malaysia is among the lowest in the world. This may be because of the passivity among health professionals in approaching families of potential donors. A questionnaire-based study was conducted amongst health professionals in two tertiary hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Four hundred and sixty-two questionnaires were completed. 93.3% of health professionals acknowledged a need for organ transplantation in Malaysia. 47.8% were willing to donate their organs (with ethnic and religious differences). Factors which may be influencing the shortage of organs from deceased donors include: nonrecognition of brainstem death (38.5%), no knowledge on how to contact the Organ Transplant Coordinator (82.3%), and never approaching families of a potential donor (63.9%). There was a general attitude of passivity in approaching families of potential donors and activating transplant teams among many of the health professionals. A misunderstanding of brainstem death and its definition hinder identification of a potential donor. Continuing medical education and highlighting the role of the Organ Transplant Coordinator, as well as increasing awareness of the public through religion and the media were identified as essential in improving the rate of organ donations from deceased donors in Malaysia. PMID:23199156

Abidin, Zada L Zainal; Ming, Wee Tong; Loch, Alexander; Hilmi, Ida; Hautmann, Oliver

2013-02-01

95

Tensions across Federalism, Localism, and Professional Autonomy: Social Media and Stakeholder Response to Increased Accountability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing upon research on federalism, localism, and professional autonomy, this article explores how educational stakeholders used social media to discuss and organize against the implementation of Differentiated Accountability in a large Florida school district. The results showed that the stakeholders used social media to engage in sense making…

Berry, Kimberly Scriven; Herrington, Carolyn D.

2013-01-01

96

Examining gender differences in IT professionals' perceptions of job stress in response to technological change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines antecedents and consequences of IT professionals' perceptions of job stress within the context of assimilating a technological innovation in the workplace. Drawing on recent research on issues of gender within the IT profession (Ahuja 2002; Trauth 2002), as well as on recent studies into gender differences in workplace stress (Gardiner & Tiggeman 1999), we develop a conceptual

Mike Gallivan

2003-01-01

97

Beyond altruistic and commercial contract motherhood: the professional model.  

PubMed

It has become common to distinguish between altruistic and commercial contract motherhood (or 'surrogacy'). Altruistic arrangements are based on the 'gift relationship': a woman is motivated by altruism to have a baby for an infertile couple, who are free to reciprocate as they see fit. By contrast, in commercial arrangements both parties are motivated by personal gain to enter a legally enforceable agreement, which stipulates that the contract mother or 'surrogate' is to bear a child for the intending parents in exchange for a fee. She is required to undergo medical examinations and to refrain from behaviour that could harm the foetus. The intending parents are the child's legal parents from the outset. The parties to the contract can, but are not expected to, maintain contact after the transaction is completed. We argue that contract motherhood should not be organized according to the norms of the gift relationship, and that contract mothers should be compensated for their labour. However, we accept that there are good reasons for rejecting the commercial model as a suitable framework for contract pregnancy, and argue, instead, in favour of viewing it as a profession. PMID:22500585

Van Zyl, Liezl; Walker, Ruth

2013-09-01

98

Professional Writing Retreat Handbook: A How-To Manual for Replicating the NWP Professional Writing Retreat Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Writing Project designed the Professional Writing Retreats to support writing by teacher-leaders for audiences of scholars, practitioners, policymakers, and other members of the public who have an interest in education. These writing retreats focus on writing about the profession of teaching, giving teachers a chance to write about…

Check, Joseph; Fox, Tom; O'Shaughnessy, Kathleen; Tateishi, Carol

2007-01-01

99

Monitoring Physiology Trainee Needs to Focus Professional Society Responses: The APS Trainee Needs Surveys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article presents results from the 2004 and 2007 American Physiological Society (APS) Trainee Advisory Committee (TAC) surveys of graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and new investigators in physiology to identify topics and issues important to those trainees. Two major trends emerged from the data. First, trainees in 2007 expressed somewhat greater interest in professional development information than did those in 2004. Second, needs expressed by trainees in both years were closely related to their specific career development stage.

PhD Marsha L Matyas (American Physiological Society Education); PhD Karen L Sweazea (Arizona State University College od Nursing and Health Innovation)

2011-06-01

100

Responses of established healthcare to the professionalization of complementary and alternative medicine in Ontario.  

PubMed

This paper examines the reactions of leaders of established health professions in Ontario, Canada to the efforts of selected complementary and alternative (CAM) occupational groups (chiropractors, naturopaths, acupuncture/traditional Chinese doctors, homeopaths and Reiki practitioners) to professionalize. Stakeholder theory provides the framework for analysis of competing interests among the various groups in the healthcare system. The data are derived from personal interviews with 10 formal leaders from medicine, nursing, physiotherapy, clinical nutrition and public health. We conceived of these leaders as one group of stakeholders, with both common and conflicting interests. The findings demonstrate that these stakeholders are reluctant to endorse the professionalization of CAM. They propose a series of strategies to contain the acceptance of CAM groups, such as insisting on scientific evidence of safety and efficacy, resisting integration of CAM with conventional medicine and opposing government support for research and education. These strategies serve to protect the dominant position of medicine and its allied professions, and to maintain existing jurisdictional boundaries within the healthcare system. The popular support for CAM will require that health professional stakeholders continue to address the challenges this poses, and at the same time protect their position at the apex of the healthcare pyramid. PMID:15186894

Kelner, Merrijoy; Wellman, Beverly; Boon, Heather; Welsh, Sandy

2004-09-01

101

Preparing technical communicators for future workplaces: a model that integrates teaming, professional communication skills, and a software development process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines a model that uses teaming as a framework to support professional communication and process to improve student performance, as measured by the quality of output. It describes a pedagogical approach used in a computer science undergraduate senior class that integrates teaming, professional communication and a software development process. The approach demonstrates the importance of team instruction and

Margaret R. Heil

1999-01-01

102

The Impact of Professional Development: A Theoretical Model for Empirical Research, Evaluation, Planning and Conducting Training and Development Programmes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers several trends in professional development programmes found internationally. The use of multiple learning approaches and of different modes and types of learning in PD is described. Various theories and models of evaluation are discussed in the light of common professional development activities. Several recommendations are…

Huber, Stephan Gerhard

2011-01-01

103

Teachers, Families, and Communities Supporting English Language Learners in Inclusive Pre-Kindergartens: An Evaluation of a Professional Development Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the "Teachers, Families, and Communities Supporting English Language Learners" (TFC) project was to implement and evaluate a sustainable model of high-quality professional development focused on improving inclusive pre-kindergarten services for English Language Learners (ELL) and their families. The professional development program…

Hardin, Belinda J.; Lower, Joanna K.; Smallwood, Gretchen Robinson; Chakravarthi, Swetha; Li, Linlin; Jordan, Carol

2010-01-01

104

Peer Coaching as a Model for Professional Development in the Elementary Mathematics Context: Challenges, Needs and Rewards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As our knowledge about education continues to change, educators must refine and redefine their beliefs and teaching practices through professional development. In the peer coaching model of professional development, both participants have a chance to reflect on what they observe and on their own teaching practices. This reciprocal gain is one of…

Jao, Limin

2013-01-01

105

A Multi-Year Study of the Impact of the Rice Model Teacher Professional Development on Elementary Science Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A teacher professional development program for in-service elementary school science teachers, the Rice Elementary Model Science Lab (REMSL), was developed for urban school districts serving predominately high-poverty, high-minority students. Teachers with diverse skills and science capacities came together in Professional Learning Communities, one…

Diaconu, Dana Viorica; Radigan, Judy; Suskavcevic, Milijana; Nichol, Carolyn

2012-01-01

106

The disenchantment of professionals in a new, implemented model of primary health care in Spain: A structural equations model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new model of primary health care has been progressively implemented in Spain. Previous research (Peiró and González-Romá 1991) suggested that the implementation of this new model has produced a kind of disenchantment—that is, an experience of negative surprise—among health care professionals involved. In the present paper, a structural equations model about the antecedents and consequences of the experience of

J. M. Peiró; V. González-romá; P. Valcárcel; J. Ramos

1992-01-01

107

Impulse response analysis in nonlinear multivariate models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a unified approach to impulse response analysis which can be used for both linear and nonlinear multivariate models. After discussing the advantages and disadvantages of traditional impulse response functions for nonlinear models, we introduce the concept of a generalized impulse response function which, we argue, is applicable to both linear and nonlinear models. We develop measures of

Gary Koop; M. Hashem Pesaran; Simon M. Potter

1996-01-01

108

“Ain’t No One Here But Us Social Forces”: Constructing the Professional Responsibility of Engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many ways to avoid responsibility, for example, explaining what happens as the work of the gods, fate, society,\\u000a or the system. For engineers, “technology” or “the organization” will serve this purpose quite well. We may distinguish at\\u000a least nine (related) senses of “responsibility”, the most important of which are: (a) responsibility-as-causation (the storm\\u000a is responsible for flooding), (b)

Michael Davis

109

A Room with a View of Integrity and Professionalism: Personal Reflections on Teaching Responsible Conduct of Research in the Neurosciences.  

PubMed

Neuroscientists are increasingly put into situations which demand critical reflection about the ethical and appropriate use of research tools and scientific knowledge. Students or trainees also have to know how to navigate the ethical domains of this context. At a time when neuroscience is expected to advance policy and practice outcomes, in the face of academic pressures and complex environments, the importance of scientific integrity comes into focus and with it the need for training at the graduate level in the responsible conduct of research (RCR). I describe my experience teaching RCR in a graduate neuroscience program and identify three personal reflections where further dialogue could be warranted: (1) mobilizing a common set of competencies and virtues standing for professionalism in the neurosciences; (2) tailoring RCR for the neurosciences and empowering students through the active engagement of mentors; (3) soliciting shared responsibility for RCR training between disciplines, institutions and governmental or funding agencies. PMID:24760542

Bell, Emily

2014-04-24

110

Analysis of the response speed of musculature of the knee in professional male and female volleyball players.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the normalized response speed (Vrn) of the knee musculature (flexor and extensor) in high competitive level volleyball players using tensiomyography (TMG) and to analyze the muscular response of the vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris (BF) in accordance with the specific position they play in their teams. One hundred and sixty-six players (83 women and 83 men) were evaluated. They belonged to eight teams in the Spanish women's superleague and eight in the Spanish men's superleague. The use of Vrn allows avoiding possible sample imbalances due to anatomical and functional differences and demands. We found differences between Vrn in each of the muscles responsible for extension (VM, RF, and VL) and flexion (BF) regardless of the sex. Normalized response speed differences seem to be larger in setters, liberos and outside players compared to middle blockers and larger in males when compared to females. These results of Vrn might respond to the differences in the physical and technical demands of each specific position, showing an improved balance response of the knee extensor and flexor musculature in male professional volleyball players. PMID:25003109

Rodríguez-Ruiz, D; Diez-Vega, I; Rodríguez-Matoso, D; Fernandez-del-Valle, M; Sagastume, R; Molina, J J

2014-01-01

111

Investigating the experience: A case study of a science professional development program based on Kolb's experiential learning model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Professional development for educators has been defined as the process or processes by which teachers achieve higher levels of professional competence and expand their understanding of self, role, context and career (Duke and Stiggins, 1990). Currently, there is limited research literature that examines the effect a professional development course, which uses David Kolb's experiential learning model, has on the professional growth and teaching practice of middle school science teachers. The purpose of this interpretive case study is to investigate how three science teachers who participated in the Rivers to Reef professional development course interpreted the learning experience and integrated the experience into their teaching practice. The questions guiding this research are (1) What is the relationship between a professional development course that uses an experiential learning model and science teaching practice? (2) How do the Rivers to Reef participants reflect on and describe the course as a professional growth experience? The creation of the professional development course and the framework for the study were established using David Kolb's (1975) experiential learning theory and the reflection process model designed by David Boud (1985). The participants in the study are three middle school science teachers from schools representing varied settings and socioeconomic levels in the southeastern United States. Data collected used the three-interview series interview format designed by Dolbere and Schuman (Seidman, 1998). Data was analyzed for the identification of common categories related to impact on science teaching practice and professional growth. The major finding of this study indicates the years of teaching experience of middle school science teachers significantly influences how they approach professional development, what and how they learn from the experience, and the ways in which the experience influences their teaching practices.

Davis, Brian L.

112

Professional Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews "Investigating Mathematics with Young Children" (Althouse); "Homecoming for Babies after the Neonatal Intensive Care Nursery: A Guide for Parents," with companion guide for professionals (Hanson and VandenBerg); "HIV/AIDS: A Challenge to Us All," with companion video (Pediatric AIDS Foundation); and "Modeling Healthy Behavior: Actions and…

Shaw, Jean M.; And Others

1995-01-01

113

Taking Professional Learning to Isolated Schools: Perceptions of Providers and Principals, and Lessons for Effective Professional Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the implementation and outcomes, as perceived by the professional learning providers and school principals, of a professional learning (PL) model devised in response to recognition that models of PL that are effective in urban settings are not effective in rural and remote areas. Rather than expecting the teachers to travel…

Beswick, Kim; Jones, Tammy

2011-01-01

114

Neuromuscular function, hormonal, and mood responses to a professional rugby union match.  

PubMed

We examined the recovery time-course of neuromuscular function (NMF), the testosterone and cortisol hormonal milieu, and mood for 60 hours after a competitive match in professional rugby union players (n = 14). Thirty-six hours prematch (19:30 hours kick-off), baseline saliva samples (testosterone, cortisol, and testosterone to cortisol [T/C] ratio), countermovement jump performances (peak power output [PPO]), and mood disruption (Brief Assessment of Mood Questionnaire) were collected and was repeated at 12, 36, and 60 hours postmatch. Peak power output decreased below baseline at 12 hours (baseline 6,100 ± 565 W vs. 12 h 5,680 ± 589 W; p = 0.004) and 36 hours (5,761 ± 639 W; p < 0.001) but had recovered at 60 hours (5,950 ± 505 W; p = 0.151). Cortisol concentrations increased from baseline at 12 hours (baseline 0.40 ± 0.09 µg·dl-1 vs. 12 h 0.60 ± 0.20 µg·dl-1; p = 0.004) and 36 hours (0.60 ± 0.20 µg·dl-1; p = 0.027) but were similar at 60 hours postmatch. Testosterone concentrations decreased from baseline at 12 hours (baseline 214 ± 84 pg·ml-1 vs. 12 h 151 ± 56 pg·ml-1; p = 0.023) and 36 hours (173 ± 71 pg·ml-1; p = 0.016) but were similar at 60 hours postmatch. The T/C ratio decreased from baseline at 12 hours (baseline 551 ± 219 vs. 12 h 266 ± 123; p = 0.001) and 36 hours (310 ± 148; p = 0.027) before returning to baseline at 60 hours postmatch. Mood disturbance increased at 12 hours (p = 0.031) before returning to baseline at 36 and 60 hours postmatch. There were no relationships between changes in PPO, testosterone, cortisol, T/C ratio, and mood. In conclusion, postmatch changes in NMF, salivary hormones, and mood disturbance were identified in professional rugby union players. Players and coaches can expect reduced NMF and hormonal disruption for 36 hours before recovering at 60 hours postmatch, with mood recovered by 36 hours postmatch. Knowledge of these recovery time-courses may prove useful for player training program design and postmatch recovery strategies. PMID:23539085

West, Daniel J; Finn, Charlotte V; Cunningham, Daniel J; Shearer, David A; Jones, Marc R; Harrington, Bradley J; Crewther, Blair T; Cook, Christian J; Kilduff, Liam P

2014-01-01

115

Health Information on the Web and Consumers’ Perspectives on Health ProfessionalsResponses to Information Exchange  

PubMed Central

Background Health information technology, which is sometimes referred to as informaticization of medicine, is changing the extent to which patients become competent producers of their own health by enabling them access to health information anytime and anywhere. Objective This research provides preliminary information on users' perceptions of the extent to which use of the Internet for health information impacts medical encounters. We specifically explored the following questions: (1) To what extent perceptions of positive or negative changes in medical encounters are associated with sociodemographic background of online health information seekers, and how often the Internet information is discussed with providers? (2) To what extent is there an association between perceived changes in medical encounters and frequency of referring to the Internet during medical encounters? (3) To what extent is there an association between sociodemographic background of online health information users and frequency of discussing of the Internet information with providers? Methods The data for this study was derived from a national sampling of online health and medical information users who participated in the Study of Health and Medical Information in Cyberspace—Survey of User Perceptions (N=710). This study used a nationally representative online research panel of the US adults maintained by the Knowledge Networks. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), chi-square, and t tests were performed to examine the data. Results Although Internet sources allow people the opportunity to gather health or medical information, discussion of this information was not a very common activity. It is noteworthy that half of the sample never or rarely discussed health/medical information obtained from Internet sources with health professionals. Chi-square analyses revealed that discussion of online health information with providers were associated with education, income, and marital status. We also found that discussion of the Internet information mostly promotes better physician-patient interactions. Analyses with post-hoc tests identified that perceived changes in medical encounters were associated with age, education, and income. However, 9.1% (64/703) of our respondents strongly agreed that the interactions with their providers have been strained. T test analyses showed that marital status, race, and gender were not significant. Conclusions Embracing new technologies, and adapting to changing roles and relationships in delivery of medical care are critical to effective delivery of patient-centered care. Health professionals could also guide patients on how to evaluate information and where to access to reliable and accurate information. PMID:25075248

2014-01-01

116

Mentor Modeling: The Internalization of Modeled Professional Thinking in an Epistemic Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Players of epistemic games--computer games that simulate professional practica--have been shown to develop epistemic frames: a profession's particular way of seeing and solving problems. This study examined the interactions between players and mentors in one epistemic game, Urban Science. Using a new method called epistemic network analysis, we…

Nash, Padraig; Shaffer, David Williamson

2011-01-01

117

The Maturing of Hormesis as a Credible Dose-Response Model  

PubMed Central

Hormesis is a dose-response phenomenon that has received little recognition, credibility and acceptance as evidenced by its absence from major toxicological/risk assessment texts, governmental regulatory dose-response modeling for risk assessment, and non-visibility in major professional toxicological society national meetings. This paper traces the historical evolution of the hormetic dose-response hypothesis, why this model is not only credible but also more common than the widely accepted threshold model in direct comparative evaluation, and how the toxicological community made a critical error in rejecting hormesis, a rejection sustained over 70 years. PMID:19330138

Calabrese, Edward J.

2003-01-01

118

Responsibility and the Work of IT-Professionals From Academia to Practice  

E-print Network

@artec.uni-bremen.de Abstract: Unlike most computer-ethics discussions on issues like hacking, software piracy, or "big" ethical and issues like: workplace and computing culture, the ability for ethical judgement, showing how global responsibility, accountability, computing & workplace culture, risks, preventive ethics, problem awareness, moral

Hornecker, Eva

119

Guide to Camp Nursing: Qualifications, Responsibilities Outlined for the Professional Camp Nurse. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide was developed to help the nurse in any outdoor setting or organized camp program serving children and youth to: (1) understand the responsibilities of camp nursing; (2) be aware of the nurse's relationships with the camp director and other workers; (3) relate the camp health program to the overall objectives of the camping program; (4)…

Auld, Margaret E.; Ehlke, Graceann

120

Professional Development to Increase Problem-Solving Skills in a Response to Intervention Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the latest re-authorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA, 2004), states are allowed to use a Response to Intervention (RtI) framework to determine whether students qualify for special education services. Although RtI has promise and has been implemented well with documented results, further research is…

Albritton, Kizzy; Truscott, Stephen

2014-01-01

121

The Professional Development Needs of Teachers with Responsibility for Pupil Attendance: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses upon an evaluation of attendance issues within a local education authority (LEA) following two critical Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted) reports. After the publication of these reports, the contract and responsibility for managing schools, and the former LEA's remit, was awarded to a private company. As part of the…

Reid, Ken

2005-01-01

122

Addressing the Gap between Case Law and Professional Practice: A Response to Zirkel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, authors Carl Smith, Antonis Katsiyannis, and Joseph Ryan respond to Zirkel's most recent article, "The Law in the Special Education Literature: A Brief Legal Critique," published in this issue of "Behavioral Disorders." Smith, Katsiyannis, and Ryan begin their response by saying that "The Law in the…

Smith, Carl; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ryan, Joseph

2014-01-01

123

Can instruction in engineering ethics change students' feelings about professional responsibility?  

PubMed

How can a course on engineering ethics affect an undergraduate student's feelings of responsibility about moral problems? In this study, three groups of students were interviewed: six students who had completed a specific course on engineering ethics, six who had registered for the course but had not yet started it, and six who had not taken or registered for the course. Students were asked what they would do as the central character, an engineer, in each of two short cases that posed moral problems. For each case, the role of the engineer was successively changed and the student was asked how each change altered his or her decisions about the case. Students who had completed the ethics course considered more options before making a decision, and they responded consistently despite changes in the cases. For both cases, even when they were not directly involved, they were more likely to feel responsible and take corrective action. Students who were less successful in the ethics course gave answers similar to students who had not taken the course. This latter group of students seemed to have weaker feelings of responsibility: they would say that a problem was "not my business." It appears that instruction in ethics can increase awareness of responsibility, knowledge about how to handle a difficult situation, and confidence in taking action. PMID:20146104

Hashemian, Golnaz; Loui, Michael C

2010-03-01

124

Response to Comments: Practical Wisdom in the Service of Professional Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a response to comments by Rodney Evans on an earlier "Educational Researcher" (ER) article that the author cowrote with three colleagues at The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, the author shows that Evans' critique is based largely on a misreading or misrepresentation of their argument, its rationale, and associated…

Shulman, Lee S.

2007-01-01

125

Research in applying the financial appraisal profile model to an information communication technology project within a professional association  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report on research in applying the financial appraisal profile (FAP) model to an information communication technology project within a professional association and to evaluate the model's effectiveness and acceptability. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The FAP model incorporates both rationalistic and hermeneutic paradigms. An action research\\/single case study approach has been use to “evaluate”

Frank Lefley

2008-01-01

126

Professional responsibilities versus familial responsibilities: an examination of role conflict among first responders during the Hurricane Katrina disaster.  

PubMed

In the event of a human-caused or natural disaster, the police are essential front-line first responders. The ability of police departments to provide adequate services is contingent upon critical response personnel working and functioning in an efficient manner. Currently, it is assumed that first responders will continue to work in the event of a disaster, even if they are personally impacted by the disaster to which they are expected to respond. This study examines role conflict among police officers who served as first responders during the Hurricane Katrina disaster. PMID:24691915

Adams, Terri; Turner, Mila

2014-01-01

127

Support for midwives - a model of professional supervision based on the recertification programme for midwives in New Zealand.  

PubMed

Following a traumatic practice experience the physiological and psychological effects experienced by midwives are exacerbated as a result of dysfunctional health organisations and the counterproductive behaviours therein. It is suggested the stress experienced would have been reduced if support in the form of professional supervision had been available. The aim of this article is to demonstrate that professional supervision should be viewed as a competency requirement by the Midwifery Council of New Zealand and incorporated into the midwifery recertification programme. A model of professional supervision for midwives based on the recertification programme is introduced and the importance of reflection on practice emphasised. Providing support by means of professional supervision in the midwifery recertification programme, has the potential to make midwives feel valued, improve their job satisfaction, reduce violence in the workplace, aid in the attrition rate and improve the care for the childbearing woman. PMID:24486026

Calvert, Irene

2014-06-01

128

The Context of Professional Learning for Inclusion: A 4-Ply Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines the findings from one dimension of a large-scale research project which addressed the PL requirements of specialist inclusion/SEN teachers in Ireland. Two aspects relating to the context of professional learning are explored here: the professional learning opportunities preferred by teachers and the professional learning…

O'Gorman, Elizabeth

2010-01-01

129

Development and evaluation of an innovative model of inter-professional education focused on asthma medication use  

PubMed Central

Background Inter-professional learning has been promoted as the solution to many clinical management issues. One such issue is the correct use of asthma inhaler devices. Up to 80% of people with asthma use their inhaler device incorrectly. The implications of this are poor asthma control and quality of life. Correct inhaler technique can be taught, however these educational instructions need to be repeated if correct technique is to be maintained. It is important to maximise the opportunities to deliver this education in primary care. In light of this, it is important to explore how health care providers, in particular pharmacists and general medical practitioners, can work together in delivering inhaler technique education to patients, over time. Therefore, there is a need to develop and evaluate effective inter-professional education, which will address the need to educate patients in the correct use of their inhalers as well as equip health care professionals with skills to engage in collaborative relationships with each other. Methods This mixed methods study involves the development and evaluation of three modules of continuing education, Model 1, Model 2 and Model 3. A fourth group, Model 4, acting as a control. Model 1 consists of face-to-face continuing professional education on asthma inhaler technique, aimed at pharmacists, general medical practitioners and their practice nurses. Model 2 is an electronic online continuing education module based on Model 1 principles. Model 3 is also based on asthma inhaler technique education but employs a learning intervention targeting health care professional relationships and is based on sociocultural theory. This study took the form of a parallel group, repeated measure design. Following the completion of continuing professional education, health care professionals recruited people with asthma and followed them up for 6 months. During this period, inhaler device technique training was delivered and data on patient inhaler technique, clinical and humanistic outcomes were collected. Outcomes related to professional collaborative relationships were also measured. Discussion Challenges presented included the requirement of significant financial resources for development of study materials and limited availability of validated tools to measure health care professional collaboration over time. PMID:24708800

2014-01-01

130

Weight-Related Attitudes and Experiences of Nutrition Professionals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Learners will describe the attitudes and experiences of nutrition professionals regarding professional responsibility to model an appropriate weight status and the role of personal weight-related issues in nutrition counseling interactions. The purpose of this study was to describe the attitudes an...

131

Brains Rule!: A Model Program for Developing Professional Stewardship among Neuroscientists  

PubMed Central

Brains Rule! Neuroscience Expositions, funded through a National Institute on Drug Abuse Science Education Drug Abuse Partnership Award, has developed a successful model for informal neuroscience education. Each Exposition is a “reverse science fair” in which neuroscientists present short neuroscience teaching modules to students. This study focuses on results of assessments conducted with neuroscientist presenters during Expositions at two sites, Atlanta, Georgia and Corpus Christi, Texas. The effects of participating in the Expositions on presenters' perceptions of their own presentation and communication skills were evaluated, as was the potential for increased active participation by neuroscientists in future outreach programs. In four of the five Expositions studied, pre- versus post-event surveys demonstrated significant changes in presenters' perceptions of their own abilities to explain neuroscience concepts to children. Over the course of an Exposition, presenters learned to fit their approaches to conveying neuroscience concepts to fifth through eighth graders and learned to link information they presented about the brain and nervous system to children's past experiences to improve comprehension. The present data suggest that Brains Rule! Neuroscience Expositions are effective in improving communication and teaching skills among neuroscience professionals and contribute to professional stewardship by increasing motivation to participate in future informal education programs. PMID:17012206

Mu, Keli; Carruth, Laura L.; Frantz, Kyle J.

2006-01-01

132

Professional Liability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professional liability is based on breach of duty in violation of a standard of professional care. Information professionals are potentially liable even though none have been sued to date. Precautions and liability insurance are available as possible safeguards. (EM)

Nasri, William Z.

1986-01-01

133

Processes of Change in Professional Development Schools as Viewed through the Lens of the Concerns-Based Adoption Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research focuses on change processes. It considers how components of a change framework--namely, the concerns-based adoption model--can be used as diagnostic evaluation tools to examine how participants' attitudes and levels of participation affect the implementation of the professional development school model. This article demonstrates how…

Kapustka, Katherine M.; Damore, Sharon J.

2009-01-01

134

Computational models of thalamocortical augmenting responses.  

PubMed

Repetitive stimulation of the dorsal thalamus at 7-14 Hz produces an increasing number of spikes at an increasing frequency in neocortical neurons during the first few stimuli. Possible mechanisms underlying these cortical augmenting responses were analyzed with a computer model that included populations of thalamocortical cells, thalamic reticular neurons, up to two layers of cortical pyramidal cells, and cortical inhibitory interneurons. Repetitive thalamic stimulation produced a low-threshold intrathalamic augmentation in the model based on the deinactivation of the low-threshold Ca2+ current in thalamocortical cells, which in turn induced cortical augmenting responses. In the cortical model, augmenting responses were more powerful in the "input" layer compared with those in the "output" layer. Cortical stimulation of the network model produced augmenting responses in cortical neurons in distant cortical areas through corticothalamocortical loops and low-threshold intrathalamic augmentation. Thalamic stimulation was more effective in eliciting augmenting responses than cortical stimulation. Intracortical inhibition had an important influence on the genesis of augmenting responses in cortical neurons: A shift in the balance between intracortical excitation and inhibition toward excitation transformed an augmenting responses to long-lasting paroxysmal discharge. The predictions of the model were compared with in vivo recordings from neurons in cortical area 4 and thalamic ventrolateral nucleus of anesthetized cats. The known intrinsic properties of thalamic cells and thalamocortical interconnections can account for the basic properties of cortical augmenting responses. PMID:9698334

Bazhenov, M; Timofeev, I; Steriade, M; Sejnowski, T J

1998-08-15

135

1 Professional Psychology PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY  

E-print Network

1 Professional Psychology PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Offered through the Columbian College of Arts and Sciences' social and behavioral sciences discipline, the professional psychology program teaches students that combines extensive practical experience with classes on scientific foundations of psychology taught

Vertes, Akos

136

Program evaluation of a model to integrate internationally educated health professionals into clinical practice  

PubMed Central

Background The demand for health professionals continues to increase, partially due to the aging population and the high proportion of practitioners nearing retirement. The University of British Columbia (UBC) has developed a program to address this demand, by providing support for internationally trained Physiotherapists in their preparation for taking the National Physiotherapy competency examinations. The aim was to create a program comprised of the educational tools and infrastructure to support internationally educated physiotherapists (IEPs) in their preparation for entry to practice in Canada and, to improve their pass rate on the national competency examination. Methods The program was developed using a logic model and evaluated using program evaluation methodology. Program tools and resources included educational modules and curricular packages which were developed and refined based on feedback from clinical experts, IEPs and clinical physical therapy mentors. An examination bank was created and used to include test-enhanced education. Clinical mentors were recruited and trained to provide clinical and cultural support for participants. Results The IEP program has recruited 124 IEPs, with 69 now integrated into the Canadian physiotherapy workforce, and more IEPs continuing to apply to the program. International graduates who participated in the program had an improved pass rate on the national Physiotherapy Competency Examination (PCE); participation in the program resulted in them having a 28% (95% CI, 2% to 59%) greater possibility of passing the written section than their counterparts who did not take the program. In 2010, 81% of all IEP candidates who completed the UBC program passed the written component, and 82% passed the clinical component. Conclusion The program has proven to be successful and sustainable. This program model could be replicated to support the successful integration of other international health professionals into the workforce. PMID:24119470

2013-01-01

137

Mixed MNL models for discrete response  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers mixed, or random coefficients, multinomial logit (MMNL) models for discrete response, and establishes the following results. Under mild regularity conditions, any discrete choice model derived from random utility maximization has choice probabilities that can be approximated as closely as one pleases by a MMNL model. Practical estimation of a parametric mixing family can be carried out by

Daniel McFadden; Kenneth Train

2000-01-01

138

Te Kotahitanga: A Case Study of a Repositioning Approach to Teacher Professional Development for Culturally Responsive Pedagogies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a case study of a unique New Zealand professional development programme, Te Kotahitanga, for mainstream secondary school teachers. Findings discussed are drawn from an independent evaluation of the programme across 22 secondary schools. The professional development approach attempted to reposition the relationship between…

Hynds, Anne; Sleeter, Christine; Hindle, Rawiri; Savage, Catherine; Penetito, Wally; Meyer, Luanna H.

2011-01-01

139

Advocacy -- Professional School Counselors Closing the Achievement Gap Through Empowerment: A Response to Hipolito-Delgado and Lee  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author comments on several aspects of an article by Hipolito-Delgado and Lee entitled "Empowerment Theory for the Professional School Counselor: A Manifesto for What Really Matters" (Professional School Counseling, v10 n4 p327-332 Apr 2007; see EJ767346). Hipolito-Delgado and Lee's article highlights a critical need for a comprehensive,…

Mitcham-Smith, Michelle

2007-01-01

140

Modelling Detector Responses to Neutrons Using MCNP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a method for modelling the neutron response of common gamma-ray detectors, such as sodium iodide (Nal), bismuth germanate (BGO) and hyperpure germanium (HPGe) devices. This response often constitutes an important source of background in neutron-gamma instruments.

Tickner, J.

141

Stiffening Response of a Cellular Tensegrity Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Living cells exhibit, as most biological tissues, a stiffening (strain-hardening) response which reflects the nonlinearity of the stress–strain relationship. Tensegrity structures have been proposed as a comprehensive model of such a cell's mechanical response. Based on a theoretical model of a 30-element tensegrity structure, we propose a quantitative analysis of its nonlinear mechanical behavior under static conditions and large deformations.

Sylvie Wendling; Christian Oddou; Daniel Isabey

1999-01-01

142

Systems of Career Influences: A Conceptual Model for Evaluating the Professional Development of Women in Academic Medicine  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Surprisingly little research is available to explain the well-documented organizational and societal influences on persistent inequities in advancement of women faculty. Methods The Systems of Career Influences Model is a framework for exploring factors influencing women's progression to advanced academic rank, executive positions, and informal leadership roles in academic medicine. The model situates faculty as agents within a complex adaptive system consisting of a trajectory of career advancement with opportunities for formal professional development programming; a dynamic system of influences of organizational policies, practices, and culture; and a dynamic system of individual choices and decisions. These systems of influence may promote or inhibit career advancement. Within this system, women weigh competing influences to make career advancement decisions, and leaders of academic health centers prioritize limited resources to support the school's mission. Results and Conclusions The Systems of Career Influences Model proved useful to identify key research questions. We used the model to probe how research in academic career development might be applied to content and methods of formal professional development programs. We generated a series of questions and hypotheses about how professional development programs might influence professional development of health science faculty members. Using the model as a guide, we developed a study using a quantitative and qualitative design. These analyses should provide insight into what works in recruiting and supporting productive men and women faculty in academic medical centers. PMID:23101486

Helitzer, Deborah; Morahan, Page; Chang, Shine; Gleason, Katharine; Cardinali, Gina; Wu, Chih-Chieh

2012-01-01

143

Drug interaction: focusing on response surface models  

PubMed Central

Anesthesiologists have been aware of the importance of optimal drug combination long ago and performed many investigations about the combined use of anesthetic agents. There are 3 classes of drug interaction: additive, synergistic, and antagonistic. These definitions of drug interaction suggest that a zero interaction model should exist to be used as a reference in classifying the interaction of drug combinations. The Loewe additivity has been used as a universal reference model for classifying drug interaction. Most anesthetic drugs follow the sigmoid Emax model (Hill equation); this model will be used for modeling response surface. Among lots of models for drug interaction in the anesthetic area, the Greco model, Machado model, Plummer model, Carter model, Minto model, Fidler model, and Kong model are adequate to be applied to the data of anesthetic drug interaction. A model with a single interaction parameter does not accept an inconsistency in the classes of drug interactions. To solve this problem, some researchers proposed parametric models which have a polynomial interaction function to capture synergy, additivity, and antagonism scattered all over the surface of drug combinations. Inference about truth must be based on an optimal approximating model. Akaike information criterion (AIC) is the most popular approach to choosing the best model among the aforementioned models. Whatever the good qualities of a chosen model, it is uncertain whether the chosen model is the best model. A more robust inference can be extracted from averaging several models that are considered relevant. PMID:20532049

2010-01-01

144

Human genome education model project. Ethical, legal, and social implications of the human genome project: Education of interdisciplinary professionals  

SciTech Connect

This meeting was held June 10, 1996 at Georgetown University. The purpose of this meeting was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the human genome education model. Topics of discussion include the following: psychosocial issues; ethical issues for professionals; legislative issues and update; and education issues.

Weiss, J.O. [Alliance of Genetic Support Groups, Chevy Chase, MD (United States); Lapham, E.V. [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States). Child Development Center

1996-12-31

145

Closing the Gap between Professors and Teachers: "Uncoverage" as a Model of Professional Development for History Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the Central Michigan University Alpena-Montmorency-Alcona Teaching American History (TAH) Project has been to forge a model of professional development that would not merely improve teachers' knowledge of events, people, and dates, but to go beyond this to strengthen the understanding of the nature and practice of historical thinking,…

Hall, Timothy D.; Scott, Renay

2007-01-01

146

Linkage analysis in cases of serial burglary: comparing the performance of university students, police professionals, and a logistic regression model  

Microsoft Academic Search

University students, police professionals, and a logistic regression model were provided with information on 38 pairs of burglaries, 20% of which were committed by the same offender, in order to examine their ability to accurately identify linked serial burglaries. For each offense pair, the information included: (1) the offense locations as points on a map, (2) the distance (in km)

Craig Bennell; Sarah Bloomfield; Brent Snook; Paul Taylor; Carolyn Barnes

2010-01-01

147

Taking Charge of Professional Development: A Practical Model for Your School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Overcome budget cuts, lack of leadership, top-down mandates, and other obstacles to professional development by using this book's take-charge approach. Joseph H. Semadeni guides you through a systemic method to professional development that: (1) Motivates teachers to continuously learn and apply best practices; (2) Makes adult learning activities…

Semadeni, Joseph

2009-01-01

148

Modeling and Measuring the Structure of Professional Vision in Preservice Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professional vision has been identified as an important element of teacher expertise that can be developed in teacher education. It describes the use of knowledge to notice and interpret significant features of classroom situations. Three aspects of professional vision have been described by qualitative research: describe, explain, and predict…

Seidel, Tina; Stürmer, Kathleen

2014-01-01

149

Supporting Teachers as Researchers (STAR): A Model for Sustainable Professional Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Supporting Teachers as Action Researchers (STAR) explores how school improvement initiatives may be sustained over time. It represents stage one of a broader investigation into how teachers' professional learning may be enhanced by positioning teachers as practitioner researchers and professionals who are capable of generating change from within…

Blackley, Josephine; Wells, Muriel

2009-01-01

150

EDU 526 Experiential Science Learning I: A Collaborative Model for Professional Development. 1997 Summative Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides a summative evaluation of an ongoing collaborative professional development project that focuses on a course in experimental science learning. Project goals include: (1) providing elementary school teachers with a professional development program for science education that is grounded in the National Science Education…

Bruckerhoff, Charles; Bruckerhoff, Theresa

151

Sport Education for Teachers: Professional Development when Introducing a Novel Curriculum Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to provide a description of an on-site professional development program for Russian teachers as they learned to teach Sport Education. A concurrent objective was to investigate the effectiveness of this professional development opportunity. Participants were two physical education teachers (one with 27 and one with 3…

Sinelnikov, Oleg A.

2009-01-01

152

Distinguishing Models of Professional Development: The Case of an Adaptive Model's Impact on Teachers' Knowledge, Instruction, and Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We posit that professional development (PD) models fall on a continuum from highly adaptive to highly specified, and that these constructs provide a productive way to characterize and distinguish among models. The study reported here examines the impact of an adaptive mathematics PD model on teachers' knowledge and instructional practices as…

Koellner, Karen; Jacobs, Jennifer

2015-01-01

153

The Research Dynamic: A Professional Development Model for Secondary School Science Teachers  

PubMed Central

This essay summarizes the author's 10 years of experience at the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation mentoring secondary school science teachers during 8-wk Summer Research Institutes. The summary is presented as a learning model, which we call the research dynamic. This model consists of three interlocked components: specified ignorance, peer interactions, and gateway experiments. Specified ignorance is based on the work of the sociologist Robert K. Merton. It is essentially the art of highlighting what is not known about a phenomenon but must become known for further progress. In practice, specified ignorance is framed as a hypothesis, a prediction, or a question. It is commonly the outcome of peer interactions, which are the second essential component of the research dynamic. Peer interactions are the inevitable outcome of having teachers work together in the same laboratory on related research topics. These topics are introduced as gateway experiments, the third component. The most important attribute of gateway experiments is their authenticity. These experiments, when first carried out, opened new scientific vistas. They are also technically, conceptually, and logically simple. We illustrate the research dynamic with a line of seminal experiments in biochemical genetics. We provide evidence that the research dynamic produced significantly positive effects on teachers' confidence in their professional preparedness. PMID:19487501

2009-01-01

154

Graduates' characteristics and professional situation: a follow-up of five classes graduated from the Malmö model.  

PubMed

This study describes some characteristics of graduates of the five first classes from the Malmö dental programme, their overall experience of the programme, and their professional situation. Of 166 graduates (graduated 1995-1999) who were invited to participate, 128 responded (response rate 77%). The questionnaire queried participant characteristics, undergraduate education, and professional situation. The median age of the respondents at graduation was 26 years (range: 24-43 years, female: 56%). One-fourth of the respondents were born outside Sweden.Two-thirds of the respondents answered that they enrolled in the dental education because they wanted to become a dentist. Most respondents (97%) were working as a dentist, and a majority (82%) worked full-time. The respondents thought their dental education had prepared them well for their profession. About one-third of the respondents worked outside Sweden; the majority had been born outside of Sweden. The respondents' satisfaction with their professional situation, which was high overall, correlated to how much they were able to influence their work situation. About one-fourth expressed interest in specialist training. Respondents differed on the topic of research education: 64% of the female graduates and 42% of the male graduates were interested. We conclude that the respondents were satisfied with their professional situation as a dentist and that most were interested in postgraduate education. PMID:17970169

Bengmark, Daniel; Nilner, Maria; Rohlin, Madeleine

2007-01-01

155

Stiffening response of a cellular tensegrity model.  

PubMed

Living cells exhibit, as most biological tissues, a stiffening (strain-hardening) response which reflects the nonlinearity of the stress-strain relationship. Tensegrity structures have been proposed as a comprehensive model of such a cell's mechanical response. Based on a theoretical model of a 30-element tensegrity structure, we propose a quantitative analysis of its nonlinear mechanical behavior under static conditions and large deformations. This study provides theoretical foundation to the passage from large-scale tensegrity models to microscale living cells, as well as the comparison between results obtained in biological specimens of different sizes. We found two non-dimensional parameters (L*-normalized element length and T*-normalized elastic tension) which govern the mechanical response of the structure for three types of loading tested (extension, compression and shear). The linear strain-hardening is uniquely observed for extension but differed for the two other types of loading tested. The stiffening response of the theoretical model was compared and discussed with the living cells stiffening response observed by different methods (shear flow experiments, micromanipulation and magnetocytometry). PMID:10049624

Wendling, S; Oddou, C; Isabey, D

1999-02-01

156

Computational modeling of underground tunnel response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This technical report describes computational modeling of underground tunnel response in support of the Underground Technology Program (UTP) which is a multi-year investigation into the vulnerability of underground structures. The overall program includes computational modeling, material modeling, laboratory testing, and field testing to improve the ability to predict the response and failure of underground structures subjected to ground shock due to near-surface explosions. The emphasis is on deeply buried tunnels with little or no reinforcement. The computational modeling effort involved three major areas of investigation: (1) benchmark activity, (2) parametric study, and (3) laboratory test simulation. The benchmark activity was a step-by-step series of idealized problems which addressed various aspects of tunnel response in jointed rock masses. The parametric study considered the systematic sensitivity of loading environment, material characterization and geometric conditions as well as computational approaches on tunnel response. Numerical simulation of the SRI International lab-scale HE experiments on tunnel response in intact limestone was conducted to correlate calculational approaches with data.

Ito, Y. M.

1995-06-01

157

Professional Development: Learning from the Best. A Toolkit for Schools and Districts Based on the National Awards Program for Model Professional Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides a step-by-step guide to help schools and districts implement strong, sustainable professional development that drives achievement of student learning goals. The toolkit is based on the experiences of national professional development award winning schools and districts. The most common thread among the winners is that…

Hassel, Emily

158

Professional Development  

E-print Network

? Hell, Ya! 11:30 Highlights on Management Differences in the Child and Adolescent GynaecologicalContinuing Professional Development Faculty of Health Sciences QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF OBSTETRICS & GYNAECOLOGY 36TH ANNUAL MEMORIAL PROGRAM #12;CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT 32 FACULTY

Ellis, Randy

159

Modeling satellite drag coefficients with response surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite drag coefficients are a major source of uncertainty in predicting the drag force on satellites in low Earth orbit. Among other things, accurately predicting the orbit requires detailed knowledge of the satellite drag coefficient. Computational methods are an important tool in computing the drag coefficient but are too intensive for real-time and predictive applications. Therefore, analytic or empirical models that can accurately predict drag coefficients are desired. This work uses response surfaces to model drag coefficients. The response surface methodology is validated by developing a response surface model for the drag coefficient of a sphere where the closed-form solution is known. The response surface model performs well in predicting the drag coefficient of a sphere with a root mean square percentage error less than 0.3% over the entire parameter space. For more complex geometries, such as the GRACE satellite, the Hubble Space Telescope, and the International Space Station, the model errors are only slightly larger at about 0.9%, 0.6%, and 1.0%, respectively.

Mehta, Piyush M.; Walker, Andrew; Lawrence, Earl; Linares, Richard; Higdon, David; Koller, Josef

2014-10-01

160

The Adaptive Calibration Model of stress responsivity  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the Adaptive Calibration Model (ACM), an evolutionary-developmental theory of individual differences in the functioning of the stress response system. The stress response system has three main biological functions: (1) to coordinate the organism’s allostatic response to physical and psychosocial challenges; (2) to encode and filter information about the organism’s social and physical environment, mediating the organism’s openness to environmental inputs; and (3) to regulate the organism’s physiology and behavior in a broad range of fitness-relevant areas including defensive behaviors, competitive risk-taking, learning, attachment, affiliation and reproductive functioning. The information encoded by the system during development feeds back on the long-term calibration of the system itself, resulting in adaptive patterns of responsivity and individual differences in behavior. Drawing on evolutionary life history theory, we build a model of the development of stress responsivity across life stages, describe four prototypical responsivity patterns, and discuss the emergence and meaning of sex differences. The ACM extends the theory of biological sensitivity to context (BSC) and provides an integrative framework for future research in the field. PMID:21145350

Ellis, Bruce J.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.

2010-01-01

161

Educators' professional characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To develop a comprehensive model of professional characteristics of an educator that will prepare them for high standards of professional achievements, as all professions demand standardization and formulation of guidelines in today's competitive environment. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Literature on essentials of an educator was sourced to collect the various characteristics for diverse academic oriented goals. A set of ten

R. Krishnaveni; J. Anitha

2007-01-01

162

Observations on the responsible development and use of computational models and simulations.  

PubMed

Most previous works on responsible conduct of research have focused on good practices in laboratory experiments. Because computation now rivals experimentation as a mode of scientific research, we sought to identify the responsibilities of researchers who develop or use computational modeling and simulation. We interviewed nineteen experts to collect examples of ethical issues from their experiences in conducting research with computational models. We gathered their recommendations for guidelines for computational research. Informed by these interviews, we describe the respective professional responsibilities of developers and users of computational models in research. In particular, we examine whether developers should disclose the full computational codes, and we explain how developers and users should minimize harms from improper uses of models. PMID:21769593

Kijowski, David J; Dankowicz, Harry; Loui, Michael C

2013-03-01

163

Mesoscale Modelling of the Response of Aluminas  

SciTech Connect

The response of polycrystalline alumina to shock is not well addressed. There are several operating mechanisms that only hypothesized which results in models which are empirical. A similar state of affairs in reactive flow modelling led to the development of mesoscale representations of the flow to illuminate operating mechanisms. In this spirit, a similar effort is undergone for a polycrystalline alumina. Simulations are conducted to observe operating mechanisms at the micron scale. A method is then developed to extend the simulations to meet response at the continuum level where measurements are made. The approach is validated by comparison with continuum experiments. The method and results are presented, and some of the operating mechanisms are illuminated by the observed response.

Bourne, N. K. [University of Manchester, PO Box 88, Sackville Street, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

2006-07-28

164

Computational Models of Thalamocortical Augmenting Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive stimulation of the dorsal thalamus at 7-14 Hz pro- duces an increasing number of spikes at an increasing fre- quency in neocortical neurons during the first few stimuli. Pos- sible mechanisms underlying these cortical augmenting responses were analyzed with a computer model that included populations of thalamocortical cells, thalamic reticular neurons, up to two layers of cortical pyramidal cells,

Maxim Bazhenov; Igor Timofeev; Mircea Steriade; Terrence J. Sejnowski

1998-01-01

165

Australia's model work health and safety regulations and medical fitness requirements for professional divers.  

PubMed

In my recent roles as Education Officer for SPUMS and also SPUMS representative on Standards Australia, there were frequent queries regarding the requirements for professional diving medicals in Australia. The requirements for Australia have been set by Australian Federal Government Legislation: Australian model work health and safety regulations (4 November 2011). The legislation requires the medical practitioner providing certification of divers to be registered in Australia. In keeping with this legislation, the 2014 version of Australian/New Zealand Standard 2299.1 will separate the medical requirements for divers depending in which country they are working. New Zealand has a centralised registry and health review system for its professional diver medicals, whereas this is not the case in Australia. In the new Australian model work, health and safety regulations, the section on Diving work commences on page 177, section 4.8. The legislation requires that all occupational divers receive a "current certificate of medical fitness to dive by a doctor with appropriate training in underwater medicine". By the legislated reference to AS2299.1:2007,2 the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society is referred to as the appropriate body to provide information on training courses in diving medicine for medical practitioners. The following is offered for guidance, and the linkages for this mandate are as follows: (The page numbers referred to are in the model work, health and safety regulations) Definition of "appropriate training in underwater medicine" (Page 4): Appropriate training in underwater medicine means training that results in knowledge of the matters specified in clause M3 of Appendix M to AS/NZS 2299.1:2007 (Occupational diving operations-Standard operational practice). The requirement for workers to hold a "current certificate of medical fitness" (Page 177, clause 168) Division 2 General diving work - Fitness and competence of worker 168 Person conducting business or undertaking must ensure fitness of workers. A person conducting a business or undertaking at a workplace must not direct or allow a worker to carry out general diving work or undergo training for general diving work unless the worker holds a current certificate of medical fitness. Definition of "fitness criteria" (Page 19): Fitness criteria, in relation to diving work, means the fitness criteria specified in clause M4 of Appendix M to AS/NZS 2299.1:2007 (Occupational diving operations- standard operational practice) M 4.1 General: The following bodily systems Paragraphs M 4.2 to M 4.14) should be evaluated from the diver's history and the medical examination. Where relevant, numerical values are given for certain medical fitness requirements. The paragraphs M 4.2 to M 4.14 then cover a comprehensive assessment of body systems that can only be carried out with a medical assessment which includes a physical examination. Definition of "current" (Page 15): Current certificate of medical fitness means a certificate of medical fitness that: (a) was issued within the past 12 months; and (b) has not expired or been revoked. Requirement that the certificate is issued by a registered medical practitioner with "appropriate training in underwater medicine" (Page 178, clause 169); 169 Certificate of medical fitness. A certificate of medical fitness must: be issued by a registered medical practitioner with appropriate training in underwater medicine. and (E) Definition of "registered medical practitioner" (Page 39): Registered medical practitioner means a person registered under the Health Practitioner Regulation National Law to practise in the medical profession (other than as a student). PMID:25596840

Smart, David

2014-12-01

166

Science Teacher Efficacy and Extrinsic Factors toward Professional Development Using Video Games in a Design-Based Research Model: The Next Generation of STEM Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed-based research principles guided the study of 51 secondary-science teachers in the second year of a 3-year professional development project. The project entailed the creation of student-centered, inquiry-based, science, video games. A professional development model appropriate for infusing innovative technologies into standards-based…

Annetta, Leonard A.; Frazier, Wendy M.; Folta, Elizabeth; Holmes, Shawn; Lamb, Richard; Cheng, Meng-Tzu

2013-01-01

167

Forming and developing your professional identity: easy as PI.  

PubMed

Health education and promotion specialists and professional organizations have worked hard to successfully establish and maintain the status of health education/promotion (HE/P) as a unique and essential profession and to solidify practitioners' sense of professional identity. A professional identity is critical to a person's sense of self: It is about connecting with roles, responsibilities, values, and ethical standards unique to a specific profession. Professional identity is a complex issue in the HE/P profession; the distinction between personal and professional identities has been debated repeatedly over the years (e.g., should HE/P professionals be role models for clients?). The purpose of this Tool is to explain the concept of professional identity; provide new, emerging, and experienced HE/P with a greater understanding of what it means to have a professional identity; present processes and benchmarks of professional identity development; and offer specific tips and strategies for developing and enhancing an HE/P professional identity. PMID:25015568

Goltz, Heather Honoré; Smith, Matthew Lee

2014-11-01

168

Operating Ratios and Institutional Characteristics Affecting the Responsiveness of Black Colleges and Universities to Professional Allied Health Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factors that affect the implementation of professional allied health education programs were studied at 64 four-year black colleges and universities that had no such programs before 1975-76. By 1980, six of the institutions had implemented these programs. Twenty-seven operating ratios and seven institutional characteristics were analyzed, based on…

Holmes, Everlena M.; Andrew, Loyd D.

169

Multiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation Response Effects of Radiation Quality and HypoxiaEffects of Radiation Quality and Hypoxia  

E-print Network

Multiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation Response Effects of Radiation Quality and HypoxiaEffects of Radiation Quality and Hypoxia Robert D. Stewart, Ph.D.Robert D. Stewart, Ph

Stewart, Robert D.

170

A Flexible Latent Trait Model for Response Times in Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latent trait models for response times in tests have become popular recently. One challenge for response time modeling is the fact that the distribution of response times can differ considerably even in similar tests. In order to reduce the need for tailor-made models, a model is proposed that unifies two popular approaches to response time…

Ranger, Jochen; Kuhn, Jorg-Tobias

2012-01-01

171

Modeling cancer-immune responses to therapy.  

PubMed

Cancer therapies that harness the actions of the immune response, such as targeted monoclonal antibody treatments and therapeutic vaccines, are relatively new and promising in the landscape of cancer treatment options. Mathematical modeling and simulation of immune-modifying therapies can help to offset the costs of drug discovery and development, and encourage progress toward new immunotherapies. Despite advances in cancer immunology research, questions such as how the immune system interacts with a growing tumor, and which components of the immune system play significant roles in responding to immunotherapy are still not well understood. Mathematical modeling and simulation are powerful tools that provide an analytical framework in which to address such questions. A quantitative understanding of the kinetics of the immune response to treatment is crucial in designing treatment strategies, such as dosing, timing, and predicting the response to a specific treatment. These models can be used both descriptively and predictively. In this chapter, various mathematical models that address different cancer treatments, including cytotoxic chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and combinations of both treatments, are presented. The aim of this chapter is to highlight the importance of mathematical modeling and simulation in the design of immunotherapy protocols for cancer treatment. The results demonstrate the power of these approaches in explaining determinants that are fundamental to cancer-immune dynamics, therapeutic success, and the development of efficient therapies. PMID:25281420

dePillis, L G; Eladdadi, A; Radunskaya, A E

2014-10-01

172

Modeling the mechanical response of PBX 9501  

SciTech Connect

An engineering overview of the mechanical response of Plastic-Bonded eXplosives (PBXs), specifically PBX 9501, will be provided with emphasis on observed mechanisms associated with different types of mechanical testing. Mechanical tests in the form of uniaxial tension, compression, cyclic loading, creep (compression and tension), and Hopkinson bar show strain rate and temperature dependence. A range of mechanical behavior is observed which includes small strain recoverable response in the form of viscoelasticity; change in stiffness and softening beyond peak strength due to damage in the form microcracks, debonding, void formation and the growth of existing voids; inelastic response in the form of irrecoverable strain as shown in cyclic tests, and viscoelastic creep combined with plastic response as demonstrated in creep and recovery tests. The main focus of this paper is to elucidate the challenges and issues involved in modeling the mechanical behavior of PBXs for simulating thermo-mechanical responses in engineering components. Examples of validation of a constitutive material model based on a few of the observed mechanisms will be demonstrated against three point bending, split Hopkinson pressure bar and Brazilian disk geometry.

Ragaswamy, Partha [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lewis, Matthew W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liu, Cheng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, Darla G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

173

Modeling operators' emergency response time for chemical processing operations.  

PubMed

Operators have a crucial role during emergencies at a variety of facilities such as chemical processing plants. When an abnormality occurs in the production process, the operator often has limited time to either take corrective actions or evacuate before the situation becomes deadly. It is crucial that system designers and safety professionals can estimate the time required for a response before procedures and facilities are designed and operations are initiated. There are existing industrial engineering techniques to establish time standards for tasks performed at a normal working pace. However, it is reasonable to expect the time required to take action in emergency situations will be different than working at a normal production pace. It is possible that in an emergency, operators will act faster compared to a normal pace. It would be useful for system designers to be able to establish a time range for operators' response times for emergency situations. This article develops a modeling approach to estimate the time standard range for operators taking corrective actions or following evacuation procedures in emergency situations. This will aid engineers and managers in establishing time requirements for operators in emergency situations. The methodology used for this study combines a well-established industrial engineering technique for determining time requirements (predetermined time standard system) and adjustment coefficients for emergency situations developed by the authors. Numerous videos of workers performing well-established tasks at a maximum pace were studied. As an example, one of the tasks analyzed was pit crew workers changing tires as quickly as they could during a race. The operations in these videos were decomposed into basic, fundamental motions (such as walking, reaching for a tool, and bending over) by studying the videos frame by frame. A comparison analysis was then performed between the emergency pace and the normal working pace operations to determine performance coefficients. These coefficients represent the decrease in time required for various basic motions in emergency situations and were used to model an emergency response. This approach will make hazardous operations requiring operator response, alarm management, and evacuation processes easier to design and predict. An application of this methodology is included in the article. The time required for an emergency response was roughly a one-third faster than for a normal response time. PMID:25530564

Murray, Susan L; Harputlu, Emrah; Mentzer, Ray A; Mannan, M Sam

2014-01-01

174

Testing Linear Models for Ability Parameters in Item Response Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methods for testing hypotheses concerning the regression parameters in linear models for the latent person parameters in item response models are presented. Three tests are outlined: A likelihood ratio test, a Lagrange multiplier test and a Wald test. The tests are derived in a marginal maximum likelihood framework. They are explicitly formulated…

Glas, Cees A. W.; Hendrawan, Irene

2005-01-01

175

BridgeGreen : bridging the disconnect between design professionals and resources fro environmentally, socially, and economically responsive architecture  

E-print Network

Sustainable design, whether referred to as green, high performing, responsible, or environmentally, socially, and economically responsive architecture, is influencing the global building industry. Most major firms of ...

Elbaum, Meredith Sue, 1975-

2003-01-01

176

Population-expression models of immune response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The immune response to a pathogen has two basic features. The first is the expansion of a few pathogen-specific cells to form a population large enough to control the pathogen. The second is the process of differentiation of cells from an initial naive phenotype to an effector phenotype which controls the pathogen, and subsequently to a memory phenotype that is maintained and responsible for long-term protection. The expansion and the differentiation have been considered largely independently. Changes in cell populations are typically described using ecologically based ordinary differential equation models. In contrast, differentiation of single cells is studied within systems biology and is frequently modeled by considering changes in gene and protein expression in individual cells. Recent advances in experimental systems biology make available for the first time data to allow the coupling of population and high dimensional expression data of immune cells during infections. Here we describe and develop population-expression models which integrate these two processes into systems biology on the multicellular level. When translated into mathematical equations, these models result in non-conservative, non-local advection-diffusion equations. We describe situations where the population-expression approach can make correct inference from data while previous modeling approaches based on common simplifying assumptions would fail. We also explore how model reduction techniques can be used to build population-expression models, minimizing the complexity of the model while keeping the essential features of the system. While we consider problems in immunology in this paper, we expect population-expression models to be more broadly applicable.

Stromberg, Sean P.; Antia, Rustom; Nemenman, Ilya

2013-06-01

177

Model Family Professional Partnerships for Interventions in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A meeting of professional experts in pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) focused on gathering current expert opinion regarding assistance to families with a child having such an injury. Quantitative data from an ethnographic survey of 214 parents on the effects of TBI on the family is summarized. Then, normalization for families of TBI children…

Pieper, Betty; Singer, George

178

An Integrative Psychological Developmental Model of Supervision for Professional School Counselors-in-Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professional school counselors (PSCs) at higher levels of psychological development negotiate complex situations and perform counselor-related tasks with empathy, flexibility, tolerance for ambiguity, boundary setting, personal and interpersonal awareness, and self-care more effectively than do individuals at lower levels of development. This…

Lambie, Glenn W.; Sias, Shari M.

2009-01-01

179

Integrative Psycho-Pedagogical Model of Early Childhood Education Professionals in the Kibbutzim in Israel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The changes in the kibbutzim went through a transition from a collectivistic society to an individualistic one, with an emphasis on family units. Parents found themselves in a new role that was not passed to them by inter-generational transfer, while caregivers lost their socialisation roles, expressed by exhaustion and low professional

Plotnik, Ronit; Wahle, Nira

2010-01-01

180

Implementing a Professional Development Model Using Gifted Education Strategies with All Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents findings of a 5-year study on using professional development to extend gifted education pedagogy to regular education programs. Following an executive summary, the 15 chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Introduction and Overview of the 5-Year Study" (E. Jean Gubbins); (2) "Review of Literature" (Lori R.…

Gubbins, E. Jean; Westberg, Karen L.; Reis, Sally M.; Dinnocenti, Susan T.; Tieso, Carol L.; Muller, Lisa M.; Park, Sunghee; Emerick, Linda J.; Maxfield, Lori R.; Burns, Deborah E.

181

Evaluation of the Correlated Science and Mathematics Professional Development Model, 2009-2010 Cohort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of the 2009-2010 iteration of the Correlated Science and Mathematics (CSM) professional development program which provides teachers and principals experience with integrated and effective science and mathematics teaching strategies and content. Archival CSM data was analyzed via mixed…

Morlier, Rebecca

2012-01-01

182

Professional Development Seminar: A Model for Making Higher Education More Culturally Sensitive.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A weekly professional development seminar, designed to help University of Alaska education professors (four White, one Alaska Native) become more culturally sensitive in multicultural classrooms and discover ways teaching may construct barriers to participation by Alaska Native students, was supplemented by videotapes of participants' teaching…

Scollon, Suzanne Bau Kam

183

A Year-Round Professional Development Model for World Language Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Bay Area Foreign Language Program (BAFLP), one of nine regional sites of the California Foreign Language Project, offers ongoing, year-round professional development programs for world language educators. In addition, its leadership program prepares selected educators to assume leadership positions at their school sites, building capacity for…

Steele, Tracy M.; Peterson, Margaret D.; Silva, Duarte M.; Padilla, Amado M.

2009-01-01

184

Professional Development: A Capacity-Building Model for Juvenile Correctional Education Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth in correctional facilities experience a broad range of educational, psychological, medical, and social needs. Professional development, a systemic process that improves the likelihood of student success by enhancing educator abilities, is a powerful way to positively affect student outcomes in correctional settings. This article offers a…

Mathur, Sarup R.; Clark, Heather Griller; Schoenfeld, Naomi A.

2009-01-01

185

English Teachers' Cultural Models about Technology: A Microethnographic Perspective on Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prompted by calls for research on technology-focused professional development, this ethnographic case study investigates how teachers' participation in learning communities may influence technology integration within the secondary English curriculum. In this article, I draw on educational psychology, cognitive anthropology, and…

Curwood, Jen Scott

2014-01-01

186

Modelling the human response to saltiness.  

PubMed

Eating is a complex process with a range of phenomena occurring simultaneously, including fracture, temperature changes, mixing with saliva, flavour and aroma release. Sensory perception as experienced in the oral cavity has a strong effect on the overall acceptability of the food. Thus in an engineering sense one would want to be able to understand and predict phenomena for different food matrices in order to design more palatable foods through understanding food oral processing without the health concerns of adding salt, fat and sugar. In this work we seek to obtain such an understanding for salt release from food matrices and perception viewing the oral processing as a physical/chemical reactor. A set of equations was developed to account for mass balance and transfer. Data required for the model such as effective diffusivity and mixing times were obtained from the chemical engineering literature. The model predictions compared favourably with published TI data, managing to capture key phenomena including response to pulsed salt release. The model was used to predict response to a range of food matrices and indicated that for solids and thickened liquid food products there is the potential to modulate consumer response by pulsing the release of sodium. PMID:23639956

Le Révérend, Benjamin J D; Norton, Ian T; Bakalis, Serafim

2013-06-01

187

Modeling the constitutive response of bimodal metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical response of metals with a bimodal grain-size distribution is modeled using the secant Mori-Tanaka (M-T) mean-field approach. The actual microstructure of bimodal metals involves a grain size distribution in the ultrafine and coarse regimes; the model approximates this in terms of two phases with distinct grain sizes and with specific volume fractions. The model is applied to two bimodal materials: the Al-5083 alloys of Lavernia et al. and the Cu of Wang et al. In both the materials, the predictions agree well with the experiments. In the bimodal Al alloy, the effect of extrusion on the anisotropy in yield strength and flow behavior is also addressed. Finally, based on the model predictions, an empirical expression of the Voce form is proposed to describe the overall flow behavior of both bimodal metals.

Joshi, S. P.; Ramesh, K. T.; Han, B. Q.; Lavernia, E. J.

2006-08-01

188

Modelling electromagnetic responses from seismic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper considers the problem of recovering subsurface resistivities from controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) data. CSEM data obey a diffusion equation in a conducting earth. Methods used in the processing of seismic data, which obey the wave equation, do not apply to CSEM data and there is no theory that allows resistivities to be extracted directly from CSEM data. The conventional approach is to perform iterative forward modelling, or inversion. Synthetic data are created using the data acquisition configuration and a subsurface resistivity model. The model is adjusted until the synthetic data fit the measured data. However, there are many different models that fit the data equally well and it is a problem to select the range of most likely models. Constraints are required. Seismic data yield complementary information, which can constrain the range of possible resistivity models that fit the data. We present a methodology to estimate resistivities from seismic velocities. We apply known methods, including rock physics to transform velocities into resistivities, depth trends to account for depth-dependent rock parameters, structural information to include lithology variations, and uncertainty analysis to estimate the error of the data, the physical parameters, and the model itself. The result of applying this methodology to data in the neighbourhood of the CSEM data is a range of background resistivity models that is consistent with the known seismic velocities. We successfully apply our methodology to real data from the North Sea. We use a well log from a well in a field nearby to calibrate our model, and well logs from our study field to verify our transform. The transform proves robust at depths where we have well control, but uncertainty remains in the shallower and deeper sections. We use these background resistivity models to calculate synthetic electromagnetic responses, and compare them with measured multi-transient electromagnetic data. Our initial resistivity model represents the horizontal resistivities, as we calibrate our transform with resistivity measurements from (almost) vertical well logs, which measure horizontal resistivity. Since the study area contains horizontally-layered sediments in the shallow part, this allows the shallow section to be approximated by a one-dimensional (1D) model. CSEM data at short source-receiver offsets are sensitive to the shallow layers. Allowing the shallow layers to be anisotropic in 1D inversions of the measured CSEM data improves the agreement of the synthetic and real data. The shallow section of the background resistivity model is improved and an estimate of the anisotropy is obtained. Separate step response and impulse response anisotropic inversions are used to determine the most accurate anisotropy factor. This approach yields a detailed background resistivity model from seismic velocities. We believe this is far better than the usual approach of a uniform resistivity background, or a resistivity background from fast, unconstrained 1D inversions. The next step is to create in this way a three-dimensional resistivity background model, and compare the resulting CSEM responses to the measured CSEM data.

Werthmüller, Dieter; Ziolkowski, Anton; Wright, David

2013-04-01

189

Action research as a professional development model for the teaching of writing in early stage one\\/stage one classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature addressing the professional development of teachers is abundant, presenting many different components of what constitutes successful professional development. An investigation of the literature suggests that the overwhelming tendency has been to provide professional development opportunities for teachers external to their classroom and school setting, and frequently neglecting to consider the individual teachers professional needs. The purpose of this

Lisa K Kervin

2004-01-01

190

Towards a Structural Model Connecting Hard Skills, Soft Skills and Job Conditions and the IS Professional: The Student Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IS professional is a person endowed with certain professional skills and attributes usually formally obtained through an education process. The IS professional may also have formal skills in peripheral, non technical areas that may too be obtained through a formal education process. This is typical now in the education of IS students who are aspiring IS professional. In addition

Rodney Turner

191

The Graded Unfolding Model: A Unidimensional Item Response Model for Unfolding Graded Responses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Binary or graded disagree-agree responses to attitude items are often collected for the purpose of attitude measurement. Although such data are sometimes analyzed with cumulative measurement models, recent investigations suggest that unfolding models are more appropriate (J. S. Roberts, 1995; W. H. Van Schuur and H. A. L. Kiers, 1994). Advances in…

Roberts, James S.; Laughlin, James E.

192

Constitutive modeling of inelastic anisotropic material response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A constitutive equation was developed to predict the inelastic thermomechanical response of single crystal turbine blades. These equations are essential for developing accurate finite element models of hot section components and contribute significantly to the understanding and prediction of crack initiation and propagation. The method used was limited to unified state variable constitutive equations. Two approaches to developing an anisotropic constitutive equation were reviewed. One approach was to apply the Stouffer-Bodner representation for deformation induced anisotropy to materials with an initial anisotropy such as single crystals. The second approach was to determine the global inelastic strain rate from the contribution of the slip in each of the possible crystallographic slip systems. A three dimensional finite element is being developed with a variable constitutive equation link that can be used for constitutive equation development and to predict the response of an experiment using the actual specimen geometry and loading conditions.

Stouffer, D. C.

1984-01-01

193

MODELING VENTILATION SYSTEM RESPONSE TO FIRE  

SciTech Connect

Fires in facilities containing nuclear material have the potential to transport radioactive contamination throughout buildings and may lead to widespread downwind dispersal threatening both worker and public safety. Development and implementation of control strategies capable of providing adequate protection from fire requires realistic characterization of ventilation system response which, in turn, depends on an understanding of fire development timing and suppression system response. This paper discusses work in which published HEPA filter data was combined with CFAST fire modeling predictions to evaluate protective control strategies for a hypothetical DOE non-reactor nuclear facility. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate when safety significant active ventilation coupled with safety class passive ventilation might be a viable control strategy.

Coutts, D

2007-04-17

194

Modeling the determinants of customer satisfaction for business-to-business professional services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research empirically examines for the first time the determinants of customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction (CS\\/D)\\u000a in the context of business professional services. The simultaneous effect of key CS\\/D constructs (expectations, performance,\\u000a and disconfirmation) and several variables—fairness (equity), purchase situation (novelty, importance, and complexity)—and\\u000a individual-level variables (decision uncertainty and stakeholding) are examined in a causal path framework. Data were obtained

Paul G. Patterson; Lester W. Johnson; Richard A. Spreng

1997-01-01

195

Influence of Constructivist Professional Development on Chemistry Content Knowledge and Scientific Model Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between teachers’ (N = 69) participation in constructivist chemistry professional development (PD) and enhancement of content (CK) and pedagogical\\u000a content knowledge (PCK) (representational thinking and conceptual change strategies) and self-efficacy (PSTE). Quantitative\\u000a measures assessed CK, PCK, and PSTE. Document analysis focused on PCK. Elementary teachers gained CK, PCK, PSTE, and designed\\u000a lessons

Claudia Khourey-Bowers; Christopher Fenk

2009-01-01

196

UC San Diego Nursing Professional Practice Model of Care The use of the starfish represents our model of care and the five elements. A starfish communicates through its arms and  

E-print Network

UC San Diego Nursing Professional Practice Model of Care The use of the starfish represents our model of care and the five elements. A starfish communicates through its arms and coordinates movement Patient Care Delivery System and Outcomes Professional Values: ANA Scope & Standards, California Nurse

Squire, Larry R.

197

Stochastic Approximation Methods for Latent Regression Item Response Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an application of a stochastic approximation expectation maximization (EM) algorithm using a Metropolis-Hastings (MH) sampler to estimate the parameters of an item response latent regression model. Latent regression item response models are extensions of item response theory (IRT) to a latent variable model with covariates…

von Davier, Matthias; Sinharay, Sandip

2010-01-01

198

Revisiting Professional Dispositions: Research Redux  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the authors progressed through their research agenda last year, they contributed an article to "School Library Monthly" entitled "Forecasting Professional Dispositions of School Librarians" (January 2011, 54-56) wherein they described a Delphi study they conducted in the fall of 2009 that identified professional dispositions based on responses

Bush, Gail; Jones, Jami L.

2011-01-01

199

Professional Development in Corporate Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organizational and workplace changes are altering the work of trainers and consequently their professional development needs. Training and development professionals need a foundation in training design and delivery with the ability to incorporate multiple perspectives, delivery systems, and locations and to be responsive to change. (SK)

Meyer, Susan R.; Marsick, Victoria J.

2003-01-01

200

Principles for Professional Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews principles based on assumptions that school psychologists will act as advocates for their clients and will do no harm. Includes sections on professional competency, relationships and responsibilities, and practice in public and private settings. Presents extensive information on procedural guidelines for adjudication of ethical complaints.…

School Psychology Review, 1997

1997-01-01

201

Bioadhesion to model thermally responsive surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation focuses on the characterization of two surfaces: mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of hexa(ethylene glycol) and alkyl thiolates (mixed SAM) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm). The synthesis of hexa(ethylene gylcol) alkyl thiol (C11EG 6OH) is presented along with the mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance results. The gold substrates were imaged prior to SAM formation with atomic force micrscopy (AFM). Average surface roughness of the gold substrate was 0.44 nm, 0.67 nm, 1.65 nm for 15, 25 and 60 nm gold thickness, respectively. The height of the mixed SAM was measured by ellipsometry and varied from 13 to 28°A depending on surface mole fraction of C11EG6OH. The surface mole fraction of C11EG6OH for the mixed SAM was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with optimal thermal responsive behavior in the range of 0.4 to 0.6. The mixed SAM surface was confirmed to be thermally responsive by contact angle goniometry, 35° at 28°C and ˜55° at 40°C. In addition, the mixed SAM surfaces were confirmed to be thermally responsive for various aqueous mediums by tensiometry. Factors such as oxygen, age, and surface mole fraction and how they affect the thermal responsive of the mixed SAM are discussed. Lastly, rat fibroblasts were grown on the mixed SAM and imaged by phase contrast microscopy to show inhibition of attachment at temperatures below the molecular transition. Qualitative and quantitative measurements of the fibroblast adhesion data are provided that support the hypothesis of the mixed SAM exhibits a dominantly non-fouling molecular conformation at 25°C whereas it exhibits a dominantly fouling molecular conformation at 40°C. The adhesion of six model proteins: bovine serum albumin, collagen, pyruvate kinase, cholera toxin subunit B, ribonuclease, and lysozyme to the model thermally responsive mixed SAM were examined using AFM. All six proteins possessed adhesion to the pure component alkyl thiol, in contrast possessed no adhesion to the pure component C11EG6OH SAM at both temperatures examined, 25 and 40°C. The protein adhesion data to the mixed SAM also supports the hypothesis that the mixed SAM displays a non-fouling molecular conformation at 25°C whereas it displays a dominantly fouling molecular conformation at 40°C. Advancing contact angles obtained through tensiometry were used to find the surface free energy of the mixed SAM before and after the thermal response using the van Oss-Good-Chaudhury method. The surface tension values obtained, 42 and 38 mN/m for 22 and 40°C, respectively, are not dissimilar enough with regard to error to make conclusions. In a similar manner, the surface free energy of another mixed SAM composed of alkyl and trimethylamine thiolates was also calculated. PNIPAAm brushes grown on a silicon substrate by atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) were imaged by AFM and characterized by XPS. The height of the resulting brushes could be controlled from ˜5 to 55 nm by reaction time. A thermal response was observed for polymer brushes with a length greater than 20 nm. For polymer brush lengths greater than 20 nm, the static contact angle at 22°C was 35° and varied from 60 to 80° at 40°C. The thermal response was also observed using the captive bubble method. Force-distance curves of the PNIPAAm brushes were taken with an unmodified silicon nitride AFM cantilever at incremental temperature steps. At room temperature the force-distance data was fit to the Alexander-de Gennes model resulting in a hydrated polymer length of 235 nm. The Young's modulus was calculated using the Hertz model and changed from ˜80 MPa at 26°C to ˜350 MPa at 40°C. The solvent condition of the Alexander-de Gennes model was set to the case of good solvent and showed close match to the force-distance data at 26°C. The match was not as close when the solvent condition was set to theta solvent condition and compared to the force-distance data at 40°C. Finally, the effective diffusion coefficients of a dye were obtained for the uptake, encapsulation, a

Andrzejewski, Brett Paul

202

Constitutive modeling of shock response of PTFE  

SciTech Connect

The PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) material is complex and attracts attention of the shock physics researchers because it has amorphous and crystalline components. In turn, the crystalline component has four known phases with the high pressure transition to phase III. At the same time, as has been recently studied using spectrometry, the crystalline region is growing with load. Stress and velocity shock-wave profiles acquired recently with embedded gauges demonstrate feature that may be related to impedance mismatches between the regions subjected to some transitions resulting in density and modulus variations. We consider the above mentioned amorphous-to-crystalline transition and the high pressure Phase II-to-III transitions as possible candidates for the analysis. The present work utilizes a multi-phase rate sensitive model to describe shock response of the PTFE material. One-dimensional experimental shock wave profiles are compared with calculated profiles with the kinetics describing the transitions. The objective of this study is to understand the role of the various transitions in the shock response of PTFE.

Brown, Eric N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reanyansky, Anatoly D [DSTO, AUSTRALIA; Bourne, Neil K [AWE, UK; Millett, Jeremy C F [AWE, UK

2009-01-01

203

Under direction, performs a full range of professional level biology work in the monitoring, restoration and conservation of special status animal, fish, or plant species in Monterey County river systems; implements and oversees specific mitigation projects or efforts; ensures work quality and adherence to professional codes, standards and Agency specifications; and performs a variety of professional services relative to assigned area of responsibility, as required  

Microsoft Academic Search

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS The Water Resources Biologist is the journey-level class within the professional Water Resources Biologist series. Employees at this level are required to be fully trained in all procedures related to assigned area of responsibility. Incumbents may direct the work of aides, contractors, technicians, and others who assist in specific project assignments. Work is reviewed for application of sound

204

The social environment during a post-match video presentation affects the hormonal responses and playing performance in professional male athletes.  

PubMed

This study examined the social environment effects during a post-match video presentation on the hormonal responses and match performance in professional male rugby union players. The study participants (n=12) watched a 1-hour video of mixed content (player mistakes and successes) from a match played 1 day earlier in the presence of; (1) strangers who were bigger (SB), (2) strangers who were smaller (SS), (3) friends who were bigger (FB) and (4) friends who were smaller (FS). The salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) responses to a physical stress test were assessed 3 days later, along with pre-match T levels and match-ranked performance 6-7 days later. All treatments were associated with elevated T responses (% change from baseline) to the stress test with SS>SB and FB>FS. The C stress responses after the SS and SB interventions were both greater than FS and FB. On match-day, the FB approach was linked to higher T concentrations than SB and better ranked performance than FS and SS. The subsequent testing of a population sub-group (n=8) across a video (V) and a non-video (NV) presentation in a neutral social environment produced similar stress-test and performance outcomes, but pre-match T concentrations differed (V>NV). In conclusion, the presence of other males during a post-match video assessment had some influence on the hormonal responses of male athletes and match performance in the week that followed. Thus, the social environment during a post-match assessment could moderate performance and recovery in elite sport and, in a broader context, could be a possible modulator of human stress responses. PMID:24726389

Cook, Christian J; Crewther, Blair T

2014-05-10

205

An Item Response Theory Model for Incorporating Response Time Data in Binary Personality Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a general item response theory model for personality items that allows the information provided by the item response times to be used to estimate the individual trait levels. The submodel describing the item response times is a modification of Thissen's log-linear model and is based on the distance-difficulty hypothesis in…

Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

2007-01-01

206

Examining the Relationship between Teachers' Attitudes and Motivation toward Web-Based Professional Development: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to investigate elementary school teachers' attitudes and motivation toward web-based professional development. The relationship between teachers' attitudes and motivation was explored using the AWPD (Attitudes toward Web-based Professional Development) and MWPD (Motivation toward Web-based Professional Development)…

Chien, Hui-Min; Kao, Chia-Pin; Yeh, I-Jan; Lin, Kuen-Yi

2012-01-01

207

The Haitian Health Cluster Experience: A comparative evaluation of the professional communication response to the 2010 earthquake and the subsequent cholera outbreak  

PubMed Central

The 2010 Haitian earthquake and consequent Cholera epidemic taxed the already fragile health system. A large number of humanitarian organizations participated in the disaster response and the health communication response was analysed. Health Cluster updates from both periods were analysed for contents with a World Health Organization draft check list for monitoring and evaluating the quality of epidemiological data contained in WHO and Health Cluster emergency reports. The Pan-American Health Organization Emergency Operations Centre reports from the Earthquake had the lowest score with an average score of 2.54/17 and the Health Cluster – Cholera reports had the highest average score of 11/17. There is a wide variety and quality of information published in terms of epidemiological information in emergency reports with a distinct difference found between the earthquake reporting and the cholera event. A comprehensive and modifiable template for emergency reporting could alleviate these differences and allow for improved reporting. Citation: Dhillon P, Annunziata G. The Haitian Health Cluster Experience: A comparative evaluation of the professional communication response to the 2010 earthquake and the subsequent cholera outbreak. PLOS Currents Disasters. 2012 Sep 5. doi: 10.1371/5014b1b407653. PMID:23074693

Dhillon, Paul; Annunziata, Giuseppe

2012-01-01

208

The Convergent Validity of Expert System Scores for Complex Constructed-Response Quantitative Items. GRE Research. GRE Board Professional Report No. 88-07bP.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the convergent validity of expert-system scores for four mathematical constructed-response item formats. A five-factor model was proposed comprised of four constructed-response format factors and a Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) General Test quantitative factor. Subjects were drawn from examinees taking a single form of…

Bennett, Randy Elliot; And Others

209

Defining the Continuing Education Professional.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A job description for continuing education practitioners includes 11 domains and the job responsibilities for each: client management, external marketing, internal marketing, strategic planning, administration, program development, technology management, adult learning, personal development, career management, and community and professional

English, John K.

1992-01-01

210

TIDALLY HEATED TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANETS: VISCOELASTIC RESPONSE MODELS  

SciTech Connect

Tidal friction in exoplanet systems, driven by orbits that allow for durable nonzero eccentricities at short heliocentric periods, can generate internal heating far in excess of the conditions observed in our own solar system. Secular perturbations or a notional 2:1 resonance between a hot Earth and hot Jupiter can be used as a baseline to consider the thermal evolution of convecting bodies subject to strong viscoelastic tidal heating. We compare results first from simple models using a fixed Quality factor and Love number, and then for three different viscoelastic rheologies: the Maxwell body, the Standard Anelastic Solid (SAS), and the Burgers body. The SAS and Burgers models are shown to alter the potential for extreme tidal heating by introducing the possibility of new equilibria and multiple response peaks. We find that tidal heating tends to exceed radionuclide heating at periods below 10-30 days, and exceed insolation only below 1-2 days. Extreme cases produce enough tidal heat to initiate global-scale partial melting, and an analysis of tidal limiting mechanisms such as advective cooling for earthlike planets is discussed. To explore long-term behaviors, we map equilibria points between convective heat loss and tidal heat input as functions of eccentricity. For the periods and magnitudes discussed, we show that tidal heating, if significant, is generally detrimental to the width of habitable zones.

Henning, Wade G.; O'Connell, Richard J. [Earth and Planetary Science Department, Harvard University, 20 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Sasselov, Dimitar D., E-mail: henning@fas.harvard.ed [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2009-12-20

211

Generalized impulse response analysis in linear multivariate models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building on Koop, [Koop et al. (1996) Impulse response analysis in nonlinear multivariate models. Journal of Econometrics 74, 119–147] we propose the `generalized' impulse response analysis for unrestricted vector autoregressive (VAR) and cointegrated VAR models. Unlike the traditional impulse response analysis, our approach does not require orthogonalization of shocks and is invariant to the ordering of the variables in the

H. Hashem Pesaran; Yongcheol Shin

1998-01-01

212

Formation of medical student professional identity: categorizing lapses of professionalism, and the learning environment  

PubMed Central

Background Acquiring the values of medical professionalism has become a critical issue in medical education. The purpose of this study was to identify lapses in professionalism witnessed by medical students during their four year MD curriculum, and to categorize, from the students’ perspective, who was responsible and the settings in which these occurred. Methods An electronic survey, developed by faculty and medical students, was sent to all students with two email reminders. It included quantitative responses and some open-ended opportunities for comments. All analyses were performed with SAS version 9.1. Results The response rate was 45.6% (255 of 559 students) for all four years of the medical school curriculum. Thirty six percent of students had witnessed or been part of an exemplary demonstration of professionalism; 64% responded that they had witnessed a lapse of professionalism. At the pre-clerkship level, the most frequent lapses involved students: arrogance (42.2%), impairment (24.2%), followed by cultural or religious insensitivity (20.5%). At the clerkship level of training, where students are exposed to real clinical situations, the lapses involved primarily faculty (including preceptor and clinician) or other staff; these included arrogance (55.3%), breach of confidentiality (28.3%), and cultural or religious insensitivity (26.6%); impairment involved mostly students (25.5%). These findings are analyzed from the perspective of role modeling by faculty and in the context of the learning environment. Conclusions Medical students witnessed a lapse of professionalism involving both fellow students as well as faculty and administrative staff, in several domains. Results from this study emphasize the importance of role modeling and the need for faculty development, to improve the learning environment. This study adds to the limited emerging literature on the forces that influence medical student professional identity formation. PMID:25004924

2014-01-01

213

Toward Pride and Professionalism: Increasing Personal Responsibility. Thirty-Six Hour Substance Abuse Curriculum. Facilitator Guide. Student Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a 36-hour curriculum of the Navy Alcohol and Drug Safety Action Program designed to reduce drug and alcohol related problems in the Navy by increasing resistance to addiction. The responsibility each person holds for his or her own health and well-being as a member of the United States Navy is emphasized throughout the…

Hartmann, Barbara Reed

214

Professional Development for Culturally Responsive and Relationship-Based Pedagogy. Black Studies and Critical Thinking. Volume 24  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The work presented here is a large-scale evaluation of a theory-driven school reform project in New Zealand, which focuses on improving the educational achievement of Maori students in public secondary schools. The project's conceptual underpinnings are based on Kaupapa Maori research, culturally responsive teaching, student voice, and…

Sleeter, Christine E., Ed.

2011-01-01

215

Communities of practice as a professional and organizational development strategy in local public health organizations in Quebec, Canada: an evaluation model.  

PubMed

Communities of practice (CoPs) are among the professional development strategies most widely used in such fields as management and education. Though the approach has elicited keen interest, knowledge pertaining to its conceptual underpinnings is still limited, thus hindering proper assessment of CoPs' effects and the processes generating the latter. To address this shortcoming, this paper presents a conceptual model that was developed to evaluate an initiative based on a CoP strategy: Health Promotion Laboratories are a professional development intervention that was implemented in local public health organizations in Montreal (Quebec, Canada). The model is based on latest theories on work-group effectiveness and organizational learning and can be usefully adopted by evaluators who are increasingly called upon to illuminate decision-making about CoPs. Ultimately, validation of this conceptual model will help advance knowledge and practice pertaining to CoPs as well as professional and organizational development strategies in public health. PMID:24726072

Richard, Lucie; Chiocchio, François; Essiembre, Hélène; Tremblay, Marie-Claude; Lamy, Geneviève; Champagne, François; Beaudet, Nicole

2014-02-01

216

Process-Response Modeling and the Scientific Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the process-response model (PRM) in its theoretical and practical forms. Describes how geologists attempt to reconstruct the process from the response (the geologic phenomenon) being studied. (TW)

Fichter, Lynn S.

1988-01-01

217

Item Response Modeling with Sum Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the distinctions between classical test theory and item response theory is that the former focuses on sum scores and their relationship to true scores, whereas the latter concerns item responses and their relationship to latent scores. Although item response theory is often viewed as the richer of the two theories, sum scores are still…

Johnson, Timothy R.

2013-01-01

218

Ramsay-Curve Item Response Theory for the Three-Parameter Logistic Item Response Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Ramsay-curve item response theory (RC-IRT), the latent variable distribution is estimated simultaneously with the item parameters of a unidimensional item response model using marginal maximum likelihood estimation. This study evaluates RC-IRT for the three-parameter logistic (3PL) model with comparisons to the normal model and to the empirical…

Woods, Carol M.

2008-01-01

219

Professional practice skills for nurses.  

PubMed

Nurses work in a healthcare system in which different partners in care have different expectations of them. Demands to provide compassionate care that is patient-centred and responsive while adhering to budget constraints are contributing to 'compassion fatigue' and adversely affecting nurses' mood and effectiveness. This article discusses how an understanding of professional practice skills, communication skills and teamwork can help nurses to cope with these conflicting demands and compassion fatigue while performing their professional roles and responsibilities. This approach is discussed in the context of nursing discourse and related professional and government recommendations. PMID:25182923

Groves, Winnifred

2014-09-01

220

Modeling mechanical response of heterogeneous materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterogeneous materials are ubiquitous in nature and as synthetic materials. These materials provide unique combination of desirable mechanical properties emerging from its heterogeneities at different length scales. Future structural and technological applications will require the development of advanced light weight materials with superior strength and toughness. Cost effective design of the advanced high performance synthetic materials by tailoring their microstructure is the challenge facing the materials design community. Prior knowledge of structure-property relationships for these materials is imperative for optimal design. Thus, understanding such relationships for heterogeneous materials is of primary interest. Furthermore, computational burden is becoming critical concern in several areas of heterogeneous materials design. Therefore, computationally efficient and accurate predictive tools are highly essential. In the present study, we mainly focus on mechanical behavior of soft cellular materials and tough biological material such as mussel byssus thread. Cellular materials exhibit microstructural heterogeneity by interconnected network of same material phase. However, mussel byssus thread comprises of two distinct material phases. A robust numerical framework is developed to investigate the micromechanisms behind the macroscopic response of both of these materials. Using this framework, effect of microstuctural parameters has been addressed on the stress state of cellular specimens during split Hopkinson pressure bar test. A voronoi tessellation based algorithm has been developed to simulate the cellular microstructure. Micromechanisms (microinertia, microbuckling and microbending) governing macroscopic behavior of cellular solids are investigated thoroughly with respect to various microstructural and loading parameters. To understand the origin of high toughness of mussel byssus thread, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) based optimization framework has been developed. It is found that two different material phases (collagens) of mussel byssus thread are optimally distributed along the thread. These applications demonstrate that the presence of heterogeneity in the system demands high computational resources for simulation and modeling. Thus, Higher Dimensional Model Representation (HDMR) based surrogate modeling concept has been proposed to reduce computational complexity. The applicability of such methodology has been demonstrated in failure envelope construction and in multiscale finite element techniques. It is observed that surrogate based model can capture the behavior of complex material systems with sufficient accuracy. The computational algorithms presented in this thesis will further pave the way for accurate prediction of macroscopic deformation behavior of various class of advanced materials from their measurable microstructural features at a reasonable computational cost.

Pal, Siladitya

221

Professional Technician  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video from SpaceTEC National Aerospace Technical Education Center explains various aspects of being a professional technician such as tool controls, security and safety, team qualifications, equipment care and calibration, certifications and job qualifications, systems thinking and troubleshooting, and personal integrity and ethics. This one minute video is one of the aerospace certification readiness courses.

2011-07-27

222

Professional Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This serial issue contains 12 articles on the theme of "Professional Development," specifically about how teachers in the Bread Loaf Rural Teacher Network (BLRTN) are fostering their own and each other's development as teachers. The BLRTN consists of approximately 260 rural teachers in Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New…

Benson, Chris, Ed.

2000-01-01

223

Professional Bookshelf  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exemplary professional development publications in the areas of general instruction, science education, and literacy instruction in the elementary grades are described in each issue of Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle. This free, online magazine is structured around the seven essential principles of climate literacy and emphasizes integrating science and literacy skills in grades K-5.

Jessica Fries-Gaither

224

Professional behaviour: professional indemnity insurance.  

PubMed

As registered nurses, we are aware that we must behave in a 'professional' way. We know that we must achieve certain standards of behaviour and that our conduct as registered nurses is constrained by regulation. The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) have the statutory power to decide how we must act and how we must not. Certain types of behaviour can and will attract sanctions from the NMC professional committees. Registered nurses are removed from the register in ever-increasing numbers, and one of the reasons given by the professional committees for a removal from the register, is that there was failure to act to protect patients by providing a safe environment. Examples of negligent behaviour include mis-administration of drugs, a failure to properly manage dietary needs or failures to protect the integrity of the person from pressure sores and damage to the skin. PMID:17363886

Fullbrook, Suzanne

225

Estimating the Nominal Response Model under Nonnormal Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nominal response model (NRM), a much understudied polytomous item response theory (IRT) model, provides researchers the unique opportunity to evaluate within-item category distinctions. Polytomous IRT models, such as the NRM, are frequently applied to psychological assessments representing constructs that are unlikely to be normally…

Preston, Kathleen Suzanne Johnson; Reise, Steven Paul

2014-01-01

226

Multidimensional Vector Model of Stimulus-Response Compatibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study proposes and examines the multidimensional vector (MDV) model framework as a modeling schema for choice response times. MDV extends the Thurstonian model, as well as signal detection theory, to classification tasks by taking into account the influence of response properties on stimulus discrimination. It is capable of accounting…

Yamaguchi, Motonori; Proctor, Robert W.

2012-01-01

227

Hierarchical Diffusion Models for Two-Choice Response Times  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two-choice response times are a common type of data, and much research has been devoted to the development of process models for such data. However, the practical application of these models is notoriously complicated, and flexible methods are largely nonexistent. We combine a popular model for choice response times--the Wiener diffusion…

Vandekerckhove, Joachim; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Lee, Michael D.

2011-01-01

228

The Gradual Increase of Responsibility Model: Coaching for Teacher Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the gradual increase of responsibility (GIR) model for teacher coaching (Collet, 2008), an adaptation of Pearson and Gallagher's (1983) Gradual Release of Responsibility model. In GIR, instructional coaches model, make recommendations, ask probing questions, affirm teachers' appropriate decisions, and praise in order to provide…

Collet, Vicki S.

2012-01-01

229

The Evaluator's Role in Recommending Program Closure: A Model for Decision Making and Professional Responsibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluators face challenges when programs consistently fail to meet expectations for performance or improvement and consequently, evaluators may recommend that closing a program is the most prudent course of action. However, the evaluation literature provides little guidance regarding when an evaluator might recommend program closure. Given…

Eddy, Rebecca M.; Berry, Tiffany

2009-01-01

230

Restructuring Professional Development as a Collaborative Practice: A Case Study of Educational Change in a Rural School Division.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effects of changes made by a small rural school division in Manitoba (Canada) to its professional development model in response to requirements for new curricula and provincial standards tests. The study looks at the effects that sharing of local expertise, the restructuring of the traditional professional development…

Nadolny, Barry

231

Public High School Assistant Principals' Reports of Self-Efficacy in Performing Their Professional Job Responsibilities in Accordance with the Educational Leadership Constituency Council's Standards for Advanced Programs in Educational Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore and describe public high school assistant principals' reports of self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997) in performing their professional job responsibilities in accordance with the Educational Leadership Constituency Council's (ELCC) Standards for Advanced Programs in Educational Leadership (National Policy Board…

Bell, Susan A.

2011-01-01

232

Professional Development Schools Revisited: Reform, Authentic Partnerships, and New Visions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Professional Development School (PDS) concept was developed by the Holmes Group (now known as the Holmes Partnership) in response to a national call for educational reform. More recent reform agendas question the effectiveness of the PDS model. This article examines the changes that are occurring in the Temple University PDS in Philadelphia,…

Leonard, Jacqueline; Lovelace-Taylor, Kay; Sanford-DeShields, Jayminn; Spearman, Patrick

2004-01-01

233

A Model for Teacher Professional Development Using Mapping Technologies to Foster Authentic Research in Earth/Environmental Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the framework of the 5-Step Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Leadership Model, developed by Stubbs, Devine and Hagevik, this study addressed the effectiveness using new mapping technologies to provide authentic research experiences for teachers in Earth/Environmental Science. The 5-Step Model is cumulative, with each step increasing in complexity, taking the participant from learning a base of computer skills and earth/environmental science concepts all the way to independently conducting field research. Through a problem-solving approach, teachers build upon their own understandings and share them with their students. Online learning, support systems, research scientist collaboration, and direct pedagogical instruction are the essential components of this program. For example, in the second step of the model, teachers and students use the online Mapping Our School Site (MOSS)c curriculum and CITYgreenc GIS to investigate their school campuses. A support system of Teacher Leaders, scientists, and community collaborators has been established through electronic communications and site visits. Scientific content and pedagogy is infused into the steps of this model in the direct teaching of spatial thinking skills to the teachers and strategies on how to transfer these skills to their students. The success of this approach results in teacher expertise and a new found confidence in conducting authentic scientific research using new mapping technologies. This study confirmed that a significant number of teachers proceeded to implement authentic student research using mapping technologies to teach earth/environmental science in their classrooms up to two years after completing the professional development.

Hagevik, R.; Watson, M.

2004-12-01

234

Modelling climate change responses in tropical forests: similar productivity estimates across five models, but different mechanisms and responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurately predicting the response of Amazonia to climate change is important for predicting changes across the globe. However, changes in multiple climatic factors simultaneously may result in complex non-linear responses, which are difficult to predict using vegetation models. Using leaf and canopy scale observations, this study evaluated the capability of five vegetation models (CLM3.5, ED2, JULES, SiB3, and SPA) to simulate the responses of canopy and leaf scale productivity to changes in temperature and drought in an Amazonian forest. The models did not agree as to whether gross primary productivity (GPP) was more sensitive to changes in temperature or precipitation. There was greater model-data consistency in the response of net ecosystem exchange to changes in temperature, than in the response to temperature of leaf area index (LAI), net photosynthesis (An) and stomatal conductance (gs). Modelled canopy scale fluxes are calculated by scaling leaf scale fluxes to LAI, and therefore in this study similarities in modelled ecosystem scale responses to drought and temperature were the result of inconsistent leaf scale and LAI responses among models. Across the models, the response of An to temperature was more closely linked to stomatal behaviour than biochemical processes. Consequently all the models predicted that GPP would be higher if tropical forests were 5 °C colder, closer to the model optima for gs. There was however no model consistency in the response of the An-gs relationship when temperature changes and drought were introduced simultaneously. The inconsistencies in the An-gs relationships amongst models were caused by to non-linear model responses induced by simultaneous drought and temperature change. To improve the reliability of simulations of the response of Amazonian rainforest to climate change the mechanistic underpinnings of vegetation models need more complete validation to improve accuracy and consistency in the scaling of processes from leaf to canopy.

Rowland, L.; Harper, A.; Christoffersen, B. O.; Galbraith, D. R.; Imbuzeiro, H. M. A.; Powell, T. L.; Doughty, C.; Levine, N. M.; Malhi, Y.; Saleska, S. R.; Moorcroft, P. R.; Meir, P.; Williams, M.

2014-11-01

235

A Framework for Scheduling Professional Sports Leagues  

E-print Network

A Framework for Scheduling Professional Sports Leagues Kimmo Nurmia , Dries Goossensb , Thomas constrained sports scheduling problem which is modeled from the requirements of various professional sports leagues. We define a sports scheduling problem, introduce the necessary terminology and detail

Bonomo, Flavia

236

Item Response Models for Local Dependence among Multiple Ratings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ratings given to the same item response may have a stronger correlation than those given to different item responses, especially when raters interact with one another before giving ratings. The rater bundle model was developed to account for such local dependence by forming multiple ratings given to an item response as a bundle and assigning…

Wang, Wen-Chung; Su, Chi-Ming; Qiu, Xue-Lan

2014-01-01

237

Towards a Model for Teacher Professional Development in China: Introducing Keli  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes Keli (Exemplary Lesson Development), a new model of in-service teacher education in China, implemented within a broader program of Xingdong Jiaoyu (Action Education), which has been implemented since 2003. This paper sets out how to implement the innovative Keli model. Finally, the implications for the practical community, including teachers and researchers, are examined.

Rongjin Huang; Jiansheng Bao

2006-01-01

238

Nurse practitioner/physician collaborative practice: an integrative model for professional peer review.  

PubMed

As chief nursing officers partner with physician colleagues to create collaborative models of practice across the care continuum, the role of peer review in achieving quality outcomes cannot be overlooked. This article describes how an integrated healthcare system approached the creation of a unique integrative model for physician/nurse practitioner peer review. PMID:23708497

Clavelle, Joanne T; Bramwell, Kenneth

2013-06-01

239

CHARACTERIZATION OF A DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICOLOGY DOSE-RESPONSE MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The Rai and Van Ryzin dose-response model (1) proposed for teratology experiments has been characterized for its appropriateness and applicability in modeling developmental toxicity data. odifications were made in the initial probability statements to reflect more accurately biol...

240

Job and Professional Leaving Among Newly Licensed RNs: A Structural Equation Model.  

PubMed

With more than 50% of the nursing workforce close to retirement, it is especially important to keep younger nurses in nursing jobs and careers. This study empirically tests a structural equation model of registered nurse (RN) intent to leave the job and profession using data from a survey of newly licensed RNs (NLRNs). Job demands, difficulties and control, intent to leave the job, and intent to leave the profession were latent variables. A number of direct, indirect, and mediating relationships were modeled. Measurement models for all latent variables and the structural model had good fit. The final model showed a path from job demands, difficulties, and control to job satisfaction to intent to leave the job to intent to leave the profession. The results suggest that the process of an NLRN intending to leave the job and profession involves a number of mediators between the work environment and this intent. PMID:25433000

Unruh, Lynn; Zhang, Ning Jackie; Chisolm, Latarsha

2014-11-27

241

Before it is too late: professional responsibilities in late-onset Alzheimer’s research and pre-symptomatic prediction  

PubMed Central

The development of a wide array of molecular and neuroscientific biomarkers can provide the possibility to visualize the course of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) at early stages. Many of these biomarkers are aimed at detecting not only a preclinical, but also a pre-symptomatic state. They are supposed to facilitate clinical trials aiming at treatments that attack the disease at its earliest stage or even prevent it. The increasing number of such biomarkers currently tested and now partly proposed for clinical implementation calls for critical reflection on their aims, social benefits, and risks. This position paper summarizes major challenges and responsibilities. Its focus is on the ethical and social problems involved in the organization and application of dementia research, as well as in healthcare provision from a cross-national point of view. The paper is based on a discussion of leading dementia experts from neuroscience, neurology, social sciences, and bioethics in the United States and Europe. It thus reflects a notable consensus across various disciplines and national backgrounds. We intend to initiate a debate on the need for actions within the researchers’ national and international communities. PMID:25477802

Schicktanz, Silke; Schweda, Mark; Ballenger, Jesse F.; Fox, Patrick J.; Halpern, Jodi; Kramer, Joel H.; Micco, Guy; Post, Stephen G.; Thompson, Charis; Knight, Robert T.; Jagust, William J.

2014-01-01

242

Motivating Teachers to Enact Free-Choice Project-Based Learning in Science and Technology (PBLSAT): Effects of a Professional Development Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the effects of a long-term, continuous professional development (CPD) model, designed to support teachers to enact Project-Based Learning (PBLSAT). How do novice PBLSAT teachers view their acquisition of PBLSAT skills and how do expert PBLSAT teachers, who enacted the program 5-7 years, perceive the program? Novice teachers…

Fallik, Orna; Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Rosenfeld, Sherman

2008-01-01

243

Assessment of professional development for teachers in the vocational education and training sector : an examination of the Concerns Based Adoption Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to describe the use of the Concerns Based Adoption Model (Hall & Hord, 2006) as a conceptual lens and practical methodology for professional development program assessment in the vocational education and training (VET) sector. In this sequential mixed-methods study, findings from the first two phases (two of five) of data collection and analysis are

Rebecca Saunders

2012-01-01

244

Is Authentic Cross-Cultural Collaboration Possible between Universities and Public Schools within a Professional Development School Model? Perceptions from the Field  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2003, a state in the Rocky Mountain region combined the concept of partner schools (Goodlad, 1993) and the model of a professional development school (Holmes Group, 1986, 1995) to develop four university public school partnerships. This study asked two guiding questions: Is authentic cross-cultural collaboration possible between a university…

Parkinson, Debra D.; Muir Welsh, Kate

2009-01-01

245

From the inside out: a new approach to teaching professional identity formation and professional ethics.  

PubMed

Professional identity formation is a dynamic process that begins in undergraduate nursing education and continues to develop throughout one's professional career. In recent decades, nursing educators emphasized the social dimension of professional identity formation in which professionalization is achieved through following rules, codes, and standards set by the profession. Character or psychological development and the proper use of virtues like integrity, compassion, or courage are often part of the hidden curriculum. The purpose of this article is to introduce a recently developed conception of professionalism that is grounded in virtue ethics and integrates both social and character development into a professional identity that is dynamic, situated, and lifelong. The conception is operationalized through the Framework for Nurse Professionals (FrNP) and the Stair-Step Model of Professional Transformation. The FrNP and the Stair-Step Model promote a robust and morally resilient professional nursing identity that will foster professional growth throughout one's career. PMID:25223285

Crigger, Nancy; Godfrey, Nelda

2014-01-01

246

HERBIVORE FUNCTIONAL RESPONSE IN HETEROGENEOUS ENVIRONMENTS: A CONTEST AMONG MODELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in the spatial arrangement of plant tissue modifies the functional response of herbivores. In heterogeneous environments, this variation can occur at multiple spatial scales. We used likelihood-based approaches to examine the strength of evidence in data for models of herbivore functional response to spatial variation in plants. These models represented different hypotheses about plant characteristics controlling intake rate, including

N. Thompson Hobbs; John E. Gross; Lisa A. Shipley; Donald E. Spalinger; Bruce A. Wunder

2003-01-01

247

Projective Item Response Model for Test-Independent Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem of fitting unidimensional item-response models to potentially multidimensional data has been extensively studied. The focus of this article is on response data that contains a major dimension of interest but that may also contain minor nuisance dimensions. Because fitting a unidimensional model to multidimensional data results in…

Ip, Edward Hak-Sing; Chen, Shyh-Huei

2012-01-01

248

Theory of thermoluminescence gamma dose response: The unified interaction model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the development of a comprehensive theory of thermoluminescence (TL) dose response, the unified interaction model (UNIM). The UNIM is based on both radiation absorption stage and recombination stage mechanisms and can describe dose response for heavy charged particles (in the framework of the extended track interaction model – ETIM) as well as for isotropically ionising gamma rays and

Y. S. Horowitz

2001-01-01

249

Impulse Response Modeling of Indoor Radio Propagation Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

If indoor radio propagation channels are modeled as linear filters, they can be characterized by reporting the parameters of their equivalent impulse response functions. The measurement and modeling of estimates for such functions in two different office buildings are reported. The resulting data base consists of 12000 impulse response estimates of the channel that were obtained by inverse Fourier transforming

Homayoun Hashemi

1993-01-01

250

A Model for the Establishment of Productive Relationships Between Mental Health Professionals and Mental Health Oriented Self-Help Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several sources have suggested that the efficacy of existing mental health care delivery systems might be extended through appropriate collaboration between self-help groups and mental health professionals. There are, however, few published reports of successful collaboration between professionals and self-help groups. This paper presents a…

Wollert, Richard W.; And Others

251

Adding heat to the live-high train-low altitude model: a practical insight from professional football  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine with a parallel group study design the performance and physiological responses to a 14-day off-season ‘live high-train low in the heat’ training camp in elite football players. Methods Seventeen professional Australian Rules Football players participated in outdoor football-specific skills (32±1°C, 11.5?h) and indoor strength (23±1°C, 9.3?h) sessions and slept (12 nights) and cycled indoors (4.3?h) in either normal air (NORM, n=8) or normobaric hypoxia (14±1?h/day, FiO2 15.2–14.3%, corresponding to a simulated altitude of 2500–3000?m, hypoxic (HYP), n=9). They completed the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 (Yo-YoIR2) in temperate conditions (23±1°C, normal air) precamp (Pre) and postcamp (Post). Plasma volume (PV) and haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) were measured at similar times and 4?weeks postcamp (4WPost). Sweat sodium concentration ((Na+)sweat) was measured Pre and Post during a heat-response test (44°C). Results Both groups showed very large improvements in Yo-YoIR2 at Post (+44%; 90% CL 38, 50), with no between-group differences in the changes (?1%; ?9, 9). Postcamp, large changes in PV (+5.6%; ?1.8, 5.6) and (Na+)sweat (?29%; ?37, ?19) were observed in both groups, while Hbmass only moderately increased in HYP (+2.6%; 0.5, 4.5). At 4WPost, there was a likely slightly greater increase in Hbmass (+4.6%; 0.0, 9.3) and PV (+6%; ?5, 18, unclear) in HYP than in NORM. Conclusions The combination of heat and hypoxic exposure during sleep/training might offer a promising ‘conditioning cocktail’ in team sports. PMID:24282209

Buchheit, M; Racinais, S; Bilsborough, J; Hocking, J; Mendez-Villanueva, A; Bourdon, P C; Voss, S; Livingston, S; Christian, R; Périard, J; Cordy, J; Coutts, A J

2013-01-01

252

Nurses' professional and personal values.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to measure professional and personal values among nurses, and to identify the factors affecting these values. The participants were 323 Israeli nurses, who were asked about 36 personal values and 20 professional values. The three fundamental professional nursing values of human dignity, equality among patients, and prevention of suffering, were rated first. The top 10 rated values all concerned nurses' responsibility towards patients. Altruism and confidentiality were not highly rated, and health promotion and nursing research were rated among the last three professional values. For personal (instrumental) values, honesty, responsibility and intelligence were rated first, while ambition and imagination were rated 14th and 16th respectively out of 18. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found among some personal and professional values rated as functions of culture, education, professional seniority, position and field of expertise. The results may assist in understanding the motives of nurses with different characteristics and help to promote their work according to professional ethical values. PMID:18687816

Rassin, Michal

2008-09-01

253

Brains Rule!: A Model Program for Developing Professional Stewardship among Neuroscientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brains Rule! Neuroscience Expositions, funded through a National Institute on Drug Abuse Science Education Drug Abuse Partnership Award, has developed a successful model for informal neuroscience education. Each Exposition is a "reverse science fair" in which neuroscientists present short neuroscience teaching modules to students. This study…

Zardetto-Smith, Andrea M.; Mu, Keli; Carruth, Laura L.; Frantz, Kyle J.

2006-01-01

254

Explore Elementary Teachers' Professional Knowledge of Guiding Science Fair Product by Using Different Instruction Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research is about using two different instruction models, "theory course combined with sample introduction" and "theory course combined with case method teaching", to instruct elementary teachers on how to guide the science fair product in two courses (16 and 12 teachers in each class) and observe their guiding tactics after the instructed…

Lu, Chow-Chin

2013-01-01

255

Trust, Accountability, Autonomy: Building a Teacher-Driven Professional Growth Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Faculty evaluation--arguably no other topic in independent education evokes as much passionate discourse--mostly negative, or at least freighted with anxiety. But, in the authors' experience, it does not have to be this way. At their school, Berkeley Preparatory School (Florida), they have recently developed a teacher evaluation model that is…

Jebson, Hugh; DiNota, Carlo

2011-01-01

256

Satisfaction with Components of the Therapeutic Model: Perspectives of Consumers and Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We provide information about consumer and provider perceptions using a mixed-model pilot study within the Intensive Mental Health Project (IMHP), a school-based treatment service for children with SED and their families. Caregiver, youth, and provider questionnaires developed for this project elicited quantitative and qualitative information on…

Lazicki, Tammy A.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Roberts, Michael C.; Benson, Eric R.

2008-01-01

257

Internationally-educated health professionals: a distance education multiple cultures model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to explore issues that must be addressed in post-secondary educational planning and delivery such that social cultural factors within the learning environment are recognized in ways that affirm the learner's cultural traditions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The adoption of a multiple cultures model of instructional design with an emphasis on implementing flexible learning using instructional technology is

Lillie Lum

2006-01-01

258

Professional development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The three sessions of the professional development workshop series were each designed for a different audience. The purpose of the first session was to help mid-career physicists aspire for and achieve leadership roles. The second session brought together students, postdoctoral fellows, and early-career physicists to help them plan their career goals and navigate the steps important to launching a successful career. The final session sought to increase awareness of the results of physics education research, and how to use them to help students-especially women-learn physics better. The presentations and discussions were valuable for both female and male physicists.

Yoon, Jin Hee; Hartline, Beverly Karplus; Milner-Bolotin, Marina

2013-03-01

259

Modeling rate sensitivity of exercise transient responses to limb motion.  

PubMed

Transient responses of ventilation (V?e) to limb motion can exhibit predictive characteristics. In response to a change in limb motion, a rapid change in V?e is commonly observed with characteristics different than during a change in workload. This rapid change has been attributed to a feed-forward or adaptive response. Rate sensitivity was explored as a specific hypothesis to explain predictive V?e responses to limb motion. A simple model assuming an additive feed-forward summation of V?e proportional to the rate of change of limb motion was studied. This model was able to successfully account for the adaptive phase correction observed during human sinusoidal changes in limb motion. Adaptation of rate sensitivity might also explain the reduction of the fast component of V?e responses previously reported following sudden exercise termination. Adaptation of the fast component of V?e response could occur by reduction of rate sensitivity. Rate sensitivity of limb motion was predicted by the model to reduce the phase delay between limb motion and V?e response without changing the steady-state response to exercise load. In this way, V?e can respond more quickly to an exercise change without interfering with overall feedback control. The asymmetry between responses to an incremental and decremental ramp change in exercise can also be accounted for by the proposed model. Rate sensitivity leads to predicted behavior, which resembles responses observed in exercise tied to expiratory reserve volume. PMID:25103968

Yamashiro, Stanley M; Kato, Takahide

2014-10-01

260

Technology Mentor Fellowship Program: A Technology Integration Professional Development Model for Classroom Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This multi-year program was based on the premise a digital divide exists between the technology skill levels of public school faculties compared to those of undergraduate teacher education candidates. The Technology Mentor Fellowship Program (TMFP) matched technologically-proficient pre-service teachers with K-12 teachers to model technology as an instructional tool. A consortium consisting of seven school districts and a university designed

Jon J. Denton; Trina J. Davis; Ben L. Smith; R. Arlen Strader; Francis E. Clark; Li Wang

261

Fertility, social class, gender and the professional model: statistical explanation and historical significance  

E-print Network

decline in England and Wales. It had apparently found that ‘the upper and middle class’, Class I, had led the way towards lower fertility. They were followed by the skilled working class, Class III, while those with unskilled occupations, Class V... for France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands and Sweden, for instance, see Sanger, Proceedings of the World Population Conference, pp.130-207. 7 The model was beguilingly powerful, apparently offering only a single, linear dimension of social...

Szreter, Simon

2015-01-01

262

The Hormetic Dose-Response Model Is More Common than the Threshold Model in Toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The threshold dose-response model is widely viewed as the most dominant model in toxicology. The present study was designed to test the validity of the threshold model by assessing the responses of doses below the toxicological NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level) in relationship to the control response (i.e., unexposed group). Nearly 1800 doses below the NOAEL, from 664 dose-

Edward J. Calabrese; Linda A. Baldwin

2003-01-01

263

Assessment of Response Surface Models using Independent Confirmation Point Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper highlights various advantages that confirmation-point residuals have over conventional model design-point residuals in assessing the adequacy of a response surface model fitted by regression techniques to a sample of experimental data. Particular advantages are highlighted for the case of design matrices that may be ill-conditioned for a given sample of data. The impact of both aleatory and epistemological uncertainty in response model adequacy assessments is considered.

DeLoach, Richard

2010-01-01

264

Hierarchical Bayes Models for Response Time Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Human response time (RT) data are widely used in experimental psychology to evaluate theories of mental processing. Typically, the data constitute the times taken by a subject to react to a succession of stimuli under varying experimental conditions. Because of the sequential nature of the experiments there are trends (due to learning, fatigue,…

Craigmile, Peter F.; Peruggia, Mario; Van Zandt, Trisha

2010-01-01

265

Professional Schools: Information for Students and Advisors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A professional school is a program, department, or school that trains students to deliver psychological services. The professional school movement as an alternative training model, the differences between Psy.D and Ph.D degrees, and the implications of accreditation for program quality are discussed. Professional schools are listed. (AM)

Scheirer, C. James

1983-01-01

266

Primary core value for Professional Service  

E-print Network

, the demonstration of our nurses' commitment to team work and the uCSD Nursing Professional Practice Model of Care. i 13. Interdisciplinary Relationships 14. Professional Development From the Nursing Shared GovernanceTEAMWORK! Primary core value for Professional Service Nursing Areas SPriNg 2011 u n i v e r s i t y

Squire, Larry R.

267

The Professional Phagocyte Dictyostelium discoideum as a Model Host for Bacterial Pathogens  

PubMed Central

The use of simple hosts such as Dictyostelium discoideum in the study of host pathogen interactions offers a number of advantages and has steadily increased in recent years. Infection-specific genes can often only be studied in a very limited way in man and even in the mouse model their analysis is usually expensive, time consuming and technically challenging or sometimes even impossible. In contrast, their functional analysis in D. discoideum and other simple model organisms is often easier, faster and cheaper. Because host-pathogen interactions necessarily involve two organisms, it is desirable to be able to genetically manipulate both the pathogen and its host. Particularly suited are those hosts, like D. discoideum, whose genome sequence is known and annotated and for which excellent genetic and cell biological tools are available in order to dissect the complex crosstalk between host and pathogen. The review focusses on host-pathogen interactions of D. discoideum with Legionella pneumophila, mycobacteria, and Salmonella typhimurium which replicate intracellularly. PMID:21366522

Bozzaro, Salvatore; Eichinger, Ludwig

2011-01-01

268

Mental health professional support in families with a member suffering from severe mental illness: a grounded theory model.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a model of mental health professional (MHP) support based on the needs of families with a member suffering from severe mental illness (SMI). Twelve family members were interviewed with the focus on their needs of support by MHP, then the interviews were analyzed according to the grounded theory method. The generated model of MHP support had two core categories: the family members' process from crisis to recovery and their interaction with the MHP about mental health/illness and daily living of the person with SMI. Interaction based on ongoing contact between MHP and family members influenced the family members' process from crisis towards recovery. Four MHP strategies--being present, listening, sharing and empowering--met the family members' needs of support in the different stages of the crisis. Being present includes early contact, early information and protection by MHP at onset of illness or relapse. Listening includes assessing burden, maintaining contact and confirmation in daily living for the person with SMI. Sharing between MHP and family members includes co-ordination, open communication and security in daily living for the person with SMI. Finally, the MHP strategy empowering includes creating a context, counselling and encouraging development for the family members. The present model has a holistic approach and can be used as an overall guide for MHP support in clinical care of families of persons with SMI. For future studies, it is important to study the interaction of the family with SMI and the connection between hope, coping and empowerment. PMID:16489966

Gavois, Helena; Paulsson, Gun; Fridlund, Bengt

2006-03-01

269

Integrating Professional and Folk Models of HIV Risk: YMSM’s Perceptions of High-Risk Sex  

PubMed Central

Risks associated with HIV are well documented in research literature. While a great deal has been written about high-risk sex, little research has been conducted to examine how young men who have sex with men (YMSM) perceive and define high-risk sexual behavior. In this study, we compare the “professional’ and “folk” models of HIV-risk based on YMSM’s understanding of high-risk sex and where and how they gathered their understanding of HIV-risk behaviors. The findings reported here emerged from the quantitative and qualitative interviews from the Healthy Young Men’s Study (HYM), a longitudinal study examining risk and protective factors for substance use and sexual risk among an ethnically diverse sample of YMSM. Findings are discussed in relation to framing how service providers and others can increase YMSM’s knowledge of sexual behavior and help them build solid foundations of sexual health education to protect them from STI and HIV infection. PMID:18558819

Kubicek, Katrina; Carpineto, Julie; McDavitt, Bryce; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen F.; Au, Chi-Wai; Kerrone, Dustin; Martinez, Miguel; Kipke, Michele D.

2009-01-01

270

Analysing the Professional Development of Teaching and Learning from a Political Ethics of Care Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper uses Tronto's political ethics of care as a normative framework to evaluate a model of teaching and learning professional development. This framework identifies five integrated moral elements of care -- attentiveness, responsibility, competence, responsiveness and trust. This paper explicates on each of these elements to evaluate…

Bozalek, Vivienne Grace; McMillan, Wendy; Marshall, Delia E.; November, Melvyn; Daniels, Andre; Sylvester, Toni

2014-01-01

271

A Bayesian Semiparametric Latent Variable Model for Mixed Responses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we introduce a latent variable model (LVM) for mixed ordinal and continuous responses, where covariate effects on the continuous latent variables are modelled through a flexible semiparametric Gaussian regression model. We extend existing LVMs with the usual linear covariate effects by including nonparametric components for nonlinear…

Fahrmeir, Ludwig; Raach, Alexander

2007-01-01

272

Multidimensional Scaling and Factor Models of Test and Item Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses 2 alternatives to the factor model for test or item responses. From the two alternative models, proximity measures are derived so that the proximity measures are within an additive constant of squared euclidean distances between item or test parameters. Hence, multidimensional scaling (MDS) can be used to estimate the item parameters in the alternative models. Solutions that

Mark L. Davison; Carol L. Skay

1991-01-01

273

Goodness-of-Fit Assessment of Item Response Theory Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article provides an overview of goodness-of-fit assessment methods for item response theory (IRT) models. It is now possible to obtain accurate "p"-values of the overall fit of the model if bivariate information statistics are used. Several alternative approaches are described. As the validity of inferences drawn on the fitted model

Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto

2013-01-01

274

Numerical modeling for emergency response of nuclear accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical model system was established for the emergency response of a nuclear accident over complex terrain. In order to evaluate and calibrate the model a series of tracer experiments and towing tank experiments were carried out. The flow and concentration fields simulated by the model and observed in those experiments are compared. Finally the advantage and limitation of the

Jianguo Sang; Guanming Lin; Boyin Zhang

1999-01-01

275

Leveraging First Response Time into the Knowledge Tracing Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The field of educational data mining has been using the Knowledge Tracing model, which only look at the correctness of student first response, for tracking student knowledge. Recently, lots of other features are studied to extend the Knowledge Tracing model to better model student knowledge. The goal of this paper is to analyze whether or not the…

Wang, Yutao; Heffernan, Neil T.

2012-01-01

276

Professionalism, Professionality and the Development of Education Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What purpose is served by renovation or redesign of professionalism, and how successful a process is it likely to be? This article addresses these questions by examining the effectiveness as a professional development mechanism of the imposition of changes to policy and/or practice that require modification or renovation of professionalism. The…

Evans, Linda

2008-01-01

277

Modeling vibration response and damping of cables and cabled structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to model the vibration response of cabled structures, the distributed transfer function method is developed to model cables and a simple cabled structure. The model includes shear effects, tension, and hysteretic damping for modeling of helical stranded cables, and includes a method for modeling cable attachment points using both linear and rotational damping and stiffness. The damped cable model shows agreement with experimental data for four types of stranded cables, and the damped cabled beam model shows agreement with experimental data for the cables attached to a beam structure, as well as improvement over the distributed mass method for cabled structure modeling.

Spak, Kaitlin S.; Agnes, Gregory S.; Inman, Daniel J.

2015-02-01

278

Modeling crop responses to environmental change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potential biophysical responses of crops to climate change are studied focusing on the primary environmental variables which define the limits to agricultural crop growth and production, and the principal methods for predicting climate change impacts on crop geography and production. It is concluded that the principal uncertainties in the prediction of the impacts of climate change on agriculture reside in the contribution of the direct effects of increasing CO2, in potential changes inclimate variability, and the effects of adjustments mechanisms in the context of climatic changes.

Rosenzweig, Cynthia

1993-01-01

279

Analyzing small psychological experiments with item response models  

E-print Network

in cognitive psychology. In many experimental contexts, particularly within the social sciences, hypotheses For discrete repeated measures data, item response theory (IRT) models and Rasch­type mod­ els in particular response data from a small experiment in cognitive psychology that examines the stresses that telephone

280

Response Strategies in Deterministic Models of Spread: Vaccination and Firefighting  

E-print Network

38 Chapter 3 Response Strategies in Deterministic Models of Spread: Vaccination and Firefighting 3 are occurring. This is particularly relevant in disease spread processes, where vaccinations and quarantines. The response allowed is only a limited number of vaccinations of non-infected vertices. Specifically, let G

Hartke, Stephen

281

A variable-response model for parasitoid foraging behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important factor inducing variability in foraging behavior in parasitic wasps is experience gained by the insect. Together with the insect's genetic constitution and physiological state, experience ultimately defines the behavioral repertoire under specified environmental circumstances. We present a conceptual variable-response model based on several major observations of a foraging parasitoid's responses to stimuli involved in the hostfinding process. These

L. E. M. Vet; W. J. Lewis; D. R. Papaj; J. C. van Lenteren

1990-01-01

282

A Dispatch-Mediated Communication Model for Emergency Response Systems  

E-print Network

2 A Dispatch-Mediated Communication Model for Emergency Response Systems ROHIT VALECHA and RAJ of emergency communication is dispatch-mediated (the messages from the scene are directed towards, dispatch-mediated communication, emergency response systems ACM Reference Format: Valecha, R., Sharman, R

Upadhyaya, Shambhu

283

A simple model for strong ground motions and response spectra  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A simple model for the description of strong ground motions is introduced. The model shows that response spectra can be estimated by using only four parameters of the ground motion, the RMS acceleration, effective duration and two corner frequencies that characterize the effective frequency band of the motion. The model is windowed band-limited white noise, and is developed by studying the properties of two functions, cumulative squared acceleration in the time domain, and cumulative squared amplitude spectrum in the frequency domain. Applying the methods of random vibration theory, the model leads to a simple analytical expression for the response spectra. The accuracy of the model is checked by using the ground motion recordings from the aftershock sequences of two different earthquakes and simulated accelerograms. The results show that the model gives a satisfactory estimate of the response spectra.

Safak, Erdal; Mueller, Charles; Boatwright, John

1988-01-01

284

Modeling Effective Dosages in Hormetic Dose-Response Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Two hormetic modifications of a monotonically decreasing log-logistic dose-response function are most often used to model stimulatory effects of low dosages of a toxicant in plant biology. As just one of these empirical models is yet properly parameterized to allow inference about quantities of interest, this study contributes the parameterized functions for the second hormetic model and compares the estimates of effective dosages between both models based on 23 hormetic data sets. Based on this, the impact on effective dosage estimations was evaluated, especially in case of a substantially inferior fit by one of the two models. Methodology/Principal Findings The data sets evaluated described the hormetic responses of four different test plant species exposed to 15 different chemical stressors in two different experimental dose-response test designs. Out of the 23 data sets, one could not be described by any of the two models, 14 could be better described by one of the two models, and eight could be equally described by both models. In cases of misspecification by any of the two models, the differences between effective dosages estimates (0–1768%) greatly exceeded the differences observed when both models provided a satisfactory fit (0–26%). This suggests that the conclusions drawn depending on the model used may diverge considerably when using an improper hormetic model especially regarding effective dosages quantifying hormesis. Conclusions/Significance The study showed that hormetic dose responses can take on many shapes and that this diversity can not be captured by a single model without risking considerable misinterpretation. However, the two empirical models considered in this paper together provide a powerful means to model, prove, and now also to quantify a wide range of hormetic responses by reparameterization. Despite this, they should not be applied uncritically, but after statistical and graphical assessment of their adequacy. PMID:22438929

Belz, Regina G.; Piepho, Hans-Peter

2012-01-01

285

Use of exposure-response bioassays on arabica punctulata for the determination of ecological risk. (Reannouncement with new availability information). Professional paper  

SciTech Connect

Two sea urchin exposure-response bioassays were conducted to develop a marine ecological risk assessment (ERA) model and to determine the effects of hazardous waste disposal at the Naval Construction Battalion Center (NCBC), Davisville,RI on the adjacent Allen Harbor and Narragansett Bay. Arbacia gametes and embryos were exposed for 20 min and 48 hr to serial dilutions of landfill-associated sediment extract and seep water samples to evaluate the effects of this disposal site on marine organisms. Successful fertilizations, normal and abnormal embryonic development, and 48 hr mortality were examined. Positive exposure-related responses were observed for both seep samples and sediment extracts. These models will be used to define current ecological risks to organisms representative of those in Allen Harbor.... Marine chemistry, Bentic flux.

Mueller, C.; Rogers, B.; Comeleo, P.; Jayaraman, S.; Munns, W.

1992-11-01

286

A model of plant canopy polarization response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensors to remotely measure the linear polarization of ground scenes have been proposed for the Multispectral Resource Sampler (MRS), a satellite sensor system proposed to complement the Thematic Mapper. At present justification for a sensor on MRS to measure scene polarization is limited. This paper discusses a model for the amount of linearly polarized light reflected by the shiny leaves of such crops as wheat, corn, and sorghum. The theory demonstrates that, potentially, measurements of the linearly polarized light from a crop canopy may be used as an additional feature to discriminate between crops. Examination of the model suggests that, potentially, satellite polarization measurements may be used to monitor crop development stage, leaf water content, leaf area index, hail damage, and certain plant diseases. The model adds to the understanding of the potential information content of scene polarization measurements acquired by future satellite sensor systems such as MRS.

Vanderbilt, V. C.

1980-01-01

287

Cardiovascular response to dynamic aerobic exercise: A methematical model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An original mathematical model of the cardiovascular response to dynamic exercise is presented. It includes the pulsating\\u000a heart, the pulmonary and systemic circulation, a separate description of the vascular bed in active tissues, the local metabolic\\u000a vasodilation in these tissues and the mechanical effects of muscular contractions on venous return. Moreover, the model provides\\u000a a description of the ventilatory response

E. Magosso; M. Ursino

2002-01-01

288

An Improved Analytic Model for Microdosimeter Response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytic model used to predict energy deposition fluctuations in a microvolume by ions through direct events is improved to include indirect delta ray events. The new model can now account for the increase in flux at low lineal energy when the ions are of very high energy. Good agreement is obtained between the calculated results and available data for laboratory ion beams. Comparison of GCR (galactic cosmic ray) flux between Shuttle TEPC (tissue equivalent proportional counter) flight data and current calculations draws a different assessment of developmental work required for the GCR transport code (HZETRN) than previously concluded.

Shinn, Judy L.; Wilson, John W.; Xapsos, Michael A.

2001-01-01

289

Physics Education and Outreach: Models and Responsibilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What are the great challenges and responsibilities in physics education and how do we approach them? This panel discussion will solicit views from a wide range of individuals involved in physics education and outreach on the importance of science literacy and the various ways by which we strive to attain it. Throughout this extended discussion we will consider the multiple arenas in which science education is taking place, how it is finding success, and also how it might be failing. We will consider public outreach, higher education, and public education sectors, all of which are represented by this diverse panel. Comments and questions from the audience will be welcomed during the second half of the conversation.

Bartlett, Albert; Chisholm, James; Johnston, Adam; Palen, Stacy; Smith, Matthew; Walker, Constance

2010-10-01

290

Modeling Clinical Radiation Responses in the IMRT Era  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this review is to highlight the critical issues of radiobiological models, particularly as they apply to clinical radiation therapy. Developing models of radiation responses has a long history that continues to the present time. Many different models have been proposed, but in the field of radiation oncology, the linear-quadratic (LQ) model has had the most impact on the design of treatment protocols. Questions have been raised as to the value of the LQ model given that the biological assumption underlying it has been challenged by molecular analyses of cell and tissue responses to radiation. There are also questions as to use of the LQ model for hypofractionation, especially for high dose treatments using a single fraction. While the LQ model might over-estimate the effects of large radiation dose fractions, there is insufficient information to fully justify the adoption of alternative models. However, there is increasing evidence in the literature that non-targeted and other indirect effects of radiation sometimes produce substantial deviations from LQ-like dose-response curves. As preclinical and clinical hypofractionation studies accumulate, new or refined dose-response models that incorporate high-dose/fraction non-targeted and indirect effects may be required, but for now the LQ model remains a simple, useful tool to guide the design of treatment protocols.

Schwartz, J. L.; Murray, D.; Stewart, R. D.; Phillips, M. H.

2014-03-01

291

A Model of Placebo Response in Antidepressant Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Placebo response in clinical trials of antidepressant medications is substantial and increasing. High placebo response rates hamper efforts to detect signals of efficacy for new antidepressant medications, contributing to more failed trials and delaying the delivery of new treatments to market. Media reports seize upon increasing placebo response and modest advantages for active drugs as reasons to question the value of antidepressant medication, which may further stigmatize treatments for depression and dissuade patients from accessing mental health care. Conversely, enhancing the factors responsible for placebo response may represent a strategy for improving available treatments for Major Depressive Disorder. A conceptual framework describing the causes of placebo response is needed in order to develop strategies for minimizing placebo response in clinical trials, maximizing placebo response in clinical practice, and talking with depressed patients about the risks and benefits of antidepressant medications. This review examines contributors to placebo response in antidepressant clinical trials and proposes an explanatory model. Research aimed at reducing placebo response should focus on limiting patient expectancy and the intensity of therapeutic contact in antidepressant clinical trials, while the optimal strategy in clinical practice may be to combine active medication with a presentation and level of therapeutic contact that enhances treatment response. PMID:23318413

Rutherford, Bret R; Roose, Steven P.

2012-01-01

292

Examination of wind turbine generator models response to disturbances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses wind turbine generator (WTG) dynamic models intended for power system stability simulations. Presented are results of an examination performed for models of different variable-speed pitch-regulated WTGs. Subject to examination were models' dynamic response to grid-side and wind-side disturbances and models' sensitivity to parameter values. Discussed are phenomena observed in simulations and related concerns in regard to the

M. Y. Borodulin

2009-01-01

293

Computer model of cardiovascular control system responses to exercise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approaches of systems analysis and mathematical modeling together with computer simulation techniques are applied to the cardiovascular system in order to simulate dynamic responses of the system to a range of exercise work loads. A block diagram of the circulatory model is presented, taking into account arterial segments, venous segments, arterio-venous circulation branches, and the heart. A cardiovascular control system model is also discussed together with model test results.

Croston, R. C.; Rummel, J. A.; Kay, F. J.

1973-01-01

294

A dynamic causal model for evoked and induced responses  

PubMed Central

Neuronal responses exhibit two stimulus or task-related components: evoked and induced. The functional role of induced responses has been ascribed to ‘top-down’ modulation through backward connections and lateral interactions; as opposed to the bottom-up driving processes that may predominate in evoked components. The implication is that evoked and induced components may reflect different neuronal processes. The conventional way of separating evoked and induced responses assumes that they can be decomposed linearly; in that induced responses are the average of the power minus the power of the average (the evoked component). However, this decomposition may not hold if both components are generated by nonlinear processes. In this work, we propose a Dynamic Causal Model that models evoked and induced responses at the same time. This allows us to explain both components in terms of shared mechanisms (coupling) and changes in coupling that are necessary to explain any induced components. To establish the face validity of our approach, we used Bayesian Model Selection to show that the scheme can disambiguate between models of synthetic data that did and did not contain induced components. We then repeated the analysis using MEG data during a hand grip task to ask whether induced responses in motor control circuits are mediated by ‘top-down’ or backward connections. Our result provides empirical evidence that induced responses are more likely to reflect backward message passing in the brain, while evoked and induced components share certain characteristics and mechanisms. PMID:21835251

Chen, Chun-Chuan; Kiebel, Stefan J.; Kilner, James M.; Ward, Nick S.; Stephan, Klaas E.; Wang, Wei- Jen; Friston, Karl J.

2012-01-01

295

Bridging Scientific Model Outputs with Emergency Response Needs in Catastrophic Earthquake Responses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In emergency management, scientific models are widely used for running hazard simulations and estimating losses often in support of planning and mitigation efforts. This work expands utility of the scientific model into the response phase of emergency management. The focus is on the common operating picture as it gives context to emergency…

Johannes, Tay W.

2010-01-01

296

Using SAS PROC NLMIXED to fit item response theory models.  

PubMed

Researchers routinely construct tests or questionnaires containing a set of items that measure personality traits, cognitive abilities, political attitudes, and so forth. Typically, responses to these items are scored in discrete categories, such as points on a Likert scale or a choice out of several mutually exclusive alternatives. Item response theory (IRT) explains observed responses to items on a test (questionnaire) by a person's unobserved trait, ability, or attitude. Although applications of IRT modeling have increased considerably because of its utility in developing and assessing measuring instruments, IRT modeling has not been fully integrated into the curriculum of colleges and universities, mainly because existing general purpose statistical packages do not provide built-in routines with which to perform IRT modeling. Recent advances in statistical theory and the incorporation of those advances into general purpose statistical software such as the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) allow researchers to analyze measurement data by using a class of models known as generalized linear mixed effects models (McCulloch & Searle, 2001), which include IRT models as special cases. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the generality and flexibility of using SAS to estimate IRT model parameters. With real data examples, we illustrate the implementations of a variety of IRT models for dichotomous, polytomous, and nominal responses. Since SAS is widely available in educational institutions, it is hoped that this article will contribute to the spread of IRT modeling in quantitative courses. PMID:16171193

Sheu, Ching-Fan; Chen, Cheng-Te; Su, Ya-Hui; Wang, Wen-Chung

2005-05-01

297

Modelling and validation of magnetorheological brake responses using parametric approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetorheological brake (MR Brake) is one x-by-wire systems which performs better than conventional brake systems. MR brake consists of a rotating disc that is immersed with Magnetorheological Fluid (MR Fluid) in an enclosure of an electromagnetic coil. The applied magnetic field will increase the yield strength of the MR fluid where this fluid was used to decrease the speed of the rotating shaft. The purpose of this paper is to develop a mathematical model to represent MR brake with a test rig. The MR brake model is developed based on actual torque characteristic which is coupled with motion of a test rig. Next, the experimental are performed using MR brake test rig and obtained three output responses known as angular velocity response, torque response and load displacement response. Furthermore, the MR brake was subjected to various current. Finally, the simulation results of MR brake model are then verified with experimental results.

Z, Zainordin A.; A, Abdullah M.; K, Hudha

2013-12-01

298

Professional Environment for Teacher Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction. Teaching and training are at the heart of the knowledge society where the continuing professional development of teachers and trainers provides the cornerstone for the development of a high quality education and training systems. The Aim of the Study. To identify a design of professional environment for teacher professional

Zascerinska, Jelena

2010-01-01

299

Enhancing Professional Development through Reading Professional Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading professional literature may be undertaken without a large investment of time or money, yet it still provides a way to increase one's professional knowledge and maintain competencies. To be successful in one's reading, the adult education practitioner needs to consider three aspects of a professional reading program: finding the time,…

Slusarski, Susan B.

300

Frequency response modeling and control of flexible structures: Computational methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamics of vibrations in flexible structures can be conventiently modeled in terms of frequency response models. For structural control such models capture the distributed parameter dynamics of the elastic structural response as an irrational transfer function. For most flexible structures arising in aerospace applications the irrational transfer functions which arise are of a special class of pseudo-meromorphic functions which have only a finite number of right half place poles. Computational algorithms are demonstrated for design of multiloop control laws for such models based on optimal Wiener-Hopf control of the frequency responses. The algorithms employ a sampled-data representation of irrational transfer functions which is particularly attractive for numerical computation. One key algorithm for the solution of the optimal control problem is the spectral factorization of an irrational transfer function. The basis for the spectral factorization algorithm is highlighted together with associated computational issues arising in optimal regulator design. Options for implementation of wide band vibration control for flexible structures based on the sampled-data frequency response models is also highlighted. A simple flexible structure control example is considered to demonstrate the combined frequency response modeling and control algorithms.

Bennett, William H.

1989-01-01

301

A Speeded Item Response Model with Gradual Process Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An item response theory model for dealing with test speededness is proposed. The model consists of two random processes, a problem solving process and a random guessing process, with the random guessing gradually taking over from the problem solving process. The involved change point and change rate are considered random parameters in order to…

Goegebeur, Yuri; De Boeck, Paul; Wollack, James A.; Cohen, Allan S.

2008-01-01

302

Separability of Item and Person Parameters in Response Time Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses two forms of separability of item and person parameters in the context of response time models. The first is "separate sufficiency," and the second is "ranking independence." For each form a theorem stating sufficient conditions is proved. The two forms are shown to include several cases of models from psychometric and biometric…

Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.

1997-01-01

303

Integrative model of the response of yeast to osmotic shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integration of experimental studies with mathematical modeling allows insight into systems properties, prediction of perturbation effects and generation of hypotheses for further research. We present a comprehensive mathematical description of the cellular response of yeast to hyperosmotic shock. The model integrates a biochemical reaction network comprising receptor stimulation, mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade dynamics, activation of gene expression and adaptation of

Bodil Nordlander; Roland Krüger; Peter Gennemark; Edda Klipp; Stefan Hohmann

2005-01-01

304

Dose-response model for Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: The objective of this study was development of a dose-response model for exposure to Burkholderia pseudomallei in different animal hosts and analysis of the results. The data sets with which the model was developed were taken from the open literature. Methods and Results: All data sets were initially tested for a trend between dose and outcome using the Cochran-Armitage

S. B. Tamrakar; C. N. Haas

2008-01-01

305

STELLOPT Modeling of the 3D Diagnostic Response in ITER  

SciTech Connect

The ITER three dimensional diagnostic response to an n=3 resonant magnetic perturbation is modeled using the STELLOPT code. The in-vessel coils apply a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fi eld which generates a 4 cm edge displacement from axisymmetry as modeled by the VMEC 3D equilibrium code. Forward modeling of flux loop and magnetic probe response with the DIAGNO code indicates up to 20 % changes in measured plasma signals. Simulated LIDAR measurements of electron temperature indicate 2 cm shifts on the low field side of the plasma. This suggests that the ITER diagnostic will be able to diagnose the 3D structure of the equilibria.

Lazerson, Samuel A

2013-05-07

306

Modeling the Mixture of IRT and Pattern Responses by a Modified HYBRID Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study demonstrates the utility of a HYBRID psychometric model, which incorporates both item response theoretic and latent class models, for detecting test speededness. The model isolates where in a sequence of test items examinee response patterns shift from one providing reasonable estimates of ability to those best characterized by a random…

Yamamoto, Kentaro; Everson, Howard T.

307

Models of subjective response to in-flight motion data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mathematical relationships between subjective comfort and environmental variables in an air transportation system are investigated. As a first step in model building, only the motion variables are incorporated and sensitivities are obtained using stepwise multiple regression analysis. The data for these models have been collected from commercial passenger flights. Two models are considered. In the first, subjective comfort is assumed to depend on rms values of the six-degrees-of-freedom accelerations. The second assumes a Rustenburg type human response function in obtaining frequency weighted rms accelerations, which are used in a linear model. The form of the human response function is examined and the results yield a human response weighting function for different degrees of freedom.

Rudrapatna, A. N.; Jacobson, I. D.

1973-01-01

308

Modeling the Responses of TSM Resonators under Various Loading Conditions  

SciTech Connect

We develop a general model that describes the electrical responses of thickness shear mode resonators subject to a variety of surface loadkgs. The model incorporates a physically diverse set of single component loadings, including rigid solids, viscoelastic media and fluids (Newtonian or Maxwellian). The model allows any number of these components to be combined in any configuration. Such multiple loadings are representative of a variety of physical situations encountered in electrochemical and other liquid phase applications, as well as gas phase applications. In the general case, the response of the composite is not a linear combination of the individual component responses. We discuss application of the model in a qualitative diagnostic fashion, to gain insight into the nature of the interracial structure, and in a quantitative fashion, to extract appropriate physical parameters, such as liquid viscosity and density and polymer shear moduli.

Bandey, H.L.; Cernosek, R.W.; Hillman, A.R.; Martin, S.J.

1998-12-04

309

Model verification of large structural systems. [space shuttle model response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program for the application of parameter identification on the structural dynamic models of space shuttle and other large models with hundreds of degrees of freedom is described. Finite element, dynamic, analytic, and modal models are used to represent the structural system. The interface with math models is such that output from any structural analysis program applied to any structural configuration can be used directly. Processed data from either sine-sweep tests or resonant dwell tests are directly usable. The program uses measured modal data to condition the prior analystic model so as to improve the frequency match between model and test. A Bayesian estimator generates an improved analytical model and a linear estimator is used in an iterative fashion on highly nonlinear equations. Mass and stiffness scaling parameters are generated for an improved finite element model, and the optimum set of parameters is obtained in one step.

Lee, L. T.; Hasselman, T. K.

1978-01-01

310

Teachers' Professional Development: An Israeli Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines three models of teacher professional development in Israel. One model emphasizes higher academic studies, one is a school-based organizational model that ties faculty development to school reforms, and one emphasizes a teacher-led personal route to professionalism in teachers' own classrooms. The paper examines means of support available…

Zuzovsky, Ruth

2001-01-01

311

NDA SYSTEM RESPONSE MODELING AND ITS APPLICATION  

SciTech Connect

The Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plant (PORTS) is a uranium enrichment facility that was historically used to enrich uranium to levels that range from 2% to greater than 97%. The feed material for PORTS was obtained from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) that produced uranium in the form of UF6 that was enriched to about 1 to 2%. The enrichment process involves a multistage process by which gaseous UF{sub 6} passed through a diffusion barrier in each stage. The porous diffusion barrier in each stage retards the rate of the diffusion of the heavier {sup 238}U atoms relative to the diffusion of the lighter {sup 235}U atoms. By this process the product stream is slightly enriched by each stage of the process. Each stage consists of a compressor, converter and a motor. There are more than 4000 stages that are linked together with piping of various diameters to form the PORTS cascade. The cascade spans three interconnected buildings and comprises miles of piping, thousands of seals, converters, valves, motors, and compressors. During operation, PORTS process equipment contained UF{sub 6} gas with uranium enrichment that increased in the process stream from the first to the last stage in a known manner. Gaseous UF{sub 6} moving through the PORTS process equipment had potential to form deposits within the process equipment by several mechanisms, including solidification due to incorrect temperature and pressure conditions during the process, inleakage of atmospheric moisture that chemically reacts with UF{sub 6} to form hydrated uranyl fluoride solids, reduction reactions of UF{sub 6} with cascade metals, and UF{sub 6} condensation on the internal equipment surfaces. As a result, the process equipment of the PORTS contains a variable and unknown quantity of uranium with variable enrichment that has been deposited within the equipment during plant operations. The exact chemical form of this uranium is variable, although it is expected that the bulk of the material is of the form of uranyl fluoride that will become hydrated on exposure to moisture in air when the systems are no longer buffered. The deposit geometry and thickness is uncertain and variable. However, a reasonable assessment of the level of material holdup in this equipment is necessary to support decommissioning efforts. The assessment of nuclear material holdup in process equipment is a complex process that requires integration of process knowledge, nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements, and computer modeling to maximize capabilities and minimize uncertainty. The current report is focused on the use of computer modeling and simulation of NDA measurements.

Vinson, D.

2010-03-01

312

From lecture to learning tasks: use of the 4C/ID model in a communication skills course in a continuing professional education context.  

PubMed

This article describes the use of four-component instructional design (4C/ID), a model to plan educational interventions for complex learning. This model was used to design a continuing education course on communication skills for health professionals in a context that is hierarchical and communal. The authors describe the 4C/ID model and provide an example of its application in designing the course. In the 4C/ID model, learning tasks serve as the backbone of the course, with lectures and other supportive information organized around them. The 4C/ID model is different from traditional models that base the course on lectures on different topics and connect part-task assignments to these topics. The use of the 4C/ID model to develop the educational intervention moves the paradigm from lectures to learning tasks to better prepare learners for real practice. PMID:23654295

Susilo, Astrid Pratidina; van Merriënboer, Jeroen; van Dalen, Jan; Claramita, Mora; Scherpbier, Albert

2013-06-01

313

Modelling tropical forests response to logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical rainforests are among the most threatened ecosystems by large-scale fragmentation due to human activity such as heavy logging and agricultural clearance. Although, they provide crucial ecosystem goods and services, such as sequestering carbon from the atmosphere, protecting watersheds and conserving biodiversity. In several countries forest resource extraction has experienced a shift from clearcutting to selective logging to maintain a significant forest cover and understock of living biomass. However the knowledge on the short and long-term effects of removing selected species in tropical rainforest are scarce and need to be further investigated. One of the main effects of selective logging on forest dynamics seems to be the local disturbance which involve the invasion of open space by weed, vines and climbers at the expense of the late-successional state cenosis. We present a simple deterministic model that describes the dynamics of tropical rainforest subject to selective logging to understand how and why weeds displace native species. We argue that the selective removal of tallest tropical trees carries out gaps of light that allow weeds, vines and climbers to prevail on native species, inhibiting the possibility of recovery of the original vegetation. Our results show that different regime shifts may occur depending on the type of forest management adopted. This hypothesis is supported by a dataset of trees height and weed/vines cover that we collected from 9 plots located in Central and West Africa both in untouched and managed areas.

Cazzolla Gatti, Roberto; Di Paola, Arianna; Valentini, Riccardo; Paparella, Francesco

2013-04-01

314

Changing the attitudes and practices of professional developers through a constructivist model: The Technical Assistance Academy for Mathematics and Science Services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For much of this century, mathematics and science have been taught in a didactic manner that is characterized by a passive student and a lecturing teacher. Since the late eighties national standards have encouraged professional developers specializing in mathematics and science education to deliver the messages of inquiry-based learning, active student engagement, and learner-constructed knowledge to the teachers they support. Follow-up studies of professional development programs, however, found that telling teachers was no more effective than telling students. Information transmitted in a passive setting was not transferring into effective classroom practices. This phenomenological case study was conducted to determine the effects of a constructivist-oriented professional development experience, the Technical Assistance Academy, in changing the practices and attitudes of mathematics and science professional developers regarding the use of constructivist strategies in workshop design. This study focused on 45 professional developers who participated in the Technical Assistance Academy. Data from a 2 1/2 year period were collected from session evaluations, journal reflections, a follow-up interview, and site visits that included observations and collaborative planning. Content analysis procedures were used to find common themes among the data. Use of new skills developed as a result of participation in the Technical Assistance Academy was determined using the Concerns-Based Adoption Model Levels of Use framework (Hall & Hord, 1987). Changes in attitude were determined by examining participants' journal reflections related to common constructivist themes such as those discussed by Fosnot (1996c): learning is developmental, disequilibrium and reflection facilitate learning, and the construction of "big ideas" results from the opportunity to struggle with new information. Results verified that all 45 participants demonstrated some level of use, and that most were in the 3 highest of 5 levels of use: mechanical (11%), routine (16%), refinement (27%), integration (24%), and renewal (22%). Participants reported valuing (a) active engagement necessary for the developmental progression of learning to occur, (b) their own disequilibrium, (c) opportunity to reflect, and they acknowledged a clearer understanding and appreciation of the big ideas in workshop design such as networking, collaboration, content and staff development standards, equity, and community building. Results support the conclusion that learning about constructivist instructional strategies in a long-term program that models them positively affects participants' attitudes and enhances their use of similar strategies in the design of professional development experiences for others. Knowledge developed in a constructivist setting transferred into effective facilitator practices.

Charles, Karen Jungblut

315

Nonlinear response functions in an exponential trap model  

E-print Network

The nonlinear response to an oscillating field is calculated for a kinetic trap model with an exponential density of states and the results are compared to those for the model with a Gaussian density of states. The calculations are limited to the high temperature phase of the model. It is found that the results are qualitatively different only in a temperature range near the glass transition temperature $T_0$ of the exponential model. While for the Gaussian model the choice of the dynamical variable that couples to the field has no impact on the shape of the linear response, this is different for the exponential model. Here, it is found that also the relaxation time strongly depends on the variable chosen. Furthermore, the modulus of the frequency dependent third-order response shows either a peak or exhibits a monotonuous decay from a finite low-frequency limit to a vanishing response at high frequencies depending on the dynamical variable. For variables that give rise to a peak in the modulus it is found that its height either increases or decreases as a function of temperature, again depending on the details of the choice of the variable. The peak value of the modulus shows a scaling behavior near $T_0$. It is found that for some variables the low-frequency limit of the cubic response diverges at the glass transition temperature and also at a further temperature determined by the particular variable. A recently proposed approximation that relates the cubic response to a four-time correlation function does not give reliable results due to a wrong estimate of the low-frequency limit of the response.

Gregor Diezemann

2014-07-16

316

Comparison of stream invertebrate response models for bioassessment metric  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We aggregated invertebrate data from various sources to assemble data for modeling in two ecoregions in Oregon and one in California. Our goal was to compare the performance of models developed using multiple linear regression (MLR) techniques with models developed using three relatively new techniques: classification and regression trees (CART), random forest (RF), and boosted regression trees (BRT). We used tolerance of taxa based on richness (RICHTOL) and ratio of observed to expected taxa (O/E) as response variables and land use/land cover as explanatory variables. Responses were generally linear; therefore, there was little improvement to the MLR models when compared to models using CART and RF. In general, the four modeling techniques (MLR, CART, RF, and BRT) consistently selected the same primary explanatory variables for each region. However, results from the BRT models showed significant improvement over the MLR models for each region; increases in R2 from 0.09 to 0.20. The O/E metric that was derived from models specifically calibrated for Oregon consistently had lower R2 values than RICHTOL for the two regions tested. Modeled O/E R2 values were between 0.06 and 0.10 lower for each of the four modeling methods applied in the Willamette Valley and were between 0.19 and 0.36 points lower for the Blue Mountains. As a result, BRT models may indeed represent a good alternative to MLR for modeling species distribution relative to environmental variables.

Waite, Ian R.; Kennen, Jonathan G.; May, Jason T.; Brown, Larry R.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Jones, Kimberly A.; Orlando, James L.

2012-01-01

317

The "Whole Approach": An Investigation of a School-Based Practicum Model of Teacher Professional Development in ICT  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The question of what makes for effective teacher professional development in ICT is an enduring one. In a recent study in Queensland (Australia), we visited 19 rural and regional schools and interviewed teachers, administrators and ICT coordinators to find that a school-based practicum was effective in impacting the practice and beliefs of…

Lloyd, Margaret; Mcrobbie, Campbell

2005-01-01

318

A Model for Using a Concept Inventory as a Tool for Students' Assessment and Faculty Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay describes how the use of a concept inventory has enhanced professional development and curriculum reform efforts of a faculty teaching community. The Host Pathogen Interactions (HPI) teaching team is composed of research and teaching faculty with expertise in HPI who share the goal of improving the learning experience of students in…

Marbach-Ad, Gili; McAdams, Katherine C.; Benson, Spencer; Briken, Volker; Cathcart, Laura; Chase, Michael; El-Sayed, Najib M.; Frauwirth, Kenneth; Fredericksen, Brenda; Joseph, Sam W.; Lee, Vincent; McIver, Kevin S.; Mosser, David; Quimby, B. Booth; Shields, Patricia; Song, Wenxia; Stein, Daniel C.; Stewart, Richard; Thompson, Katerina V.; Smith, Ann C.

2010-01-01

319

Assimilating "Real" Teachers in Teacher Education: Benefits and Limitations of a Professional Development School Course Delivery Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the results of a research study that examined the benefits and limitations of a professional development school program designed to assimilate experienced high school teachers into the fabric of preservice educator preparation at an institution accredited by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education.…

Gajda, Rebecca; Cravedi, Lia

2006-01-01

320

Building Mental Health Professionals' Decisional Models into Tests of Predictive Validity: The Accuracy of Contextualized Predictions of Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

To safely manage potentially violent patients in the community, mental health professionals (MHPs) must assess when and under what conditions a patient may be involved in a violent act. This study applies a more ecologically sensitive approach than past research by building the conditions that MHPs believe make patient violence more likely into tests of their predictive validity. In specific,

Jennifer L. Skeem; Edward P. Mulvey; Charles W. Lidz

2000-01-01

321

Modeling of electrohydrodynamic drying process using response surface methodology  

PubMed Central

Energy consumption index is one of the most important criteria for judging about new, and emerging drying technologies. One of such novel and promising alternative of drying process is called electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying. In this work, a solar energy was used to maintain required energy of EHD drying process. Moreover, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to build a predictive model in order to investigate the combined effects of independent variables such as applied voltage, field strength, number of discharge electrode (needle), and air velocity on moisture ratio, energy efficiency, and energy consumption as responses of EHD drying process. Three-levels and four-factor Box–Behnken design was employed to evaluate the effects of independent variables on system responses. A stepwise approach was followed to build up a model that can map the entire response surface. The interior relationships between parameters were well defined by RSM. PMID:24936289

Dalvand, Mohammad Jafar; Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid; Rafiee, Shahin

2014-01-01

322

Modeling of electrohydrodynamic drying process using response surface methodology.  

PubMed

Energy consumption index is one of the most important criteria for judging about new, and emerging drying technologies. One of such novel and promising alternative of drying process is called electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying. In this work, a solar energy was used to maintain required energy of EHD drying process. Moreover, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to build a predictive model in order to investigate the combined effects of independent variables such as applied voltage, field strength, number of discharge electrode (needle), and air velocity on moisture ratio, energy efficiency, and energy consumption as responses of EHD drying process. Three-levels and four-factor Box-Behnken design was employed to evaluate the effects of independent variables on system responses. A stepwise approach was followed to build up a model that can map the entire response surface. The interior relationships between parameters were well defined by RSM. PMID:24936289

Dalvand, Mohammad Jafar; Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid; Rafiee, Shahin

2014-05-01

323

Immune Response to Electromagnetic Fields through Cybernetic Modeling  

SciTech Connect

We study the optimality of the humoral immune response through a mathematical model, which involves the effect of electromagnetic fields over the large lymphocytes proliferation. Are used the so called cybernetic variables in the context of the matching law of microeconomics or mathematical psychology, to measure the large lymphocytes population and to maximize the instantaneous antibody production rate in time during the immunologic response in order to most efficiently inactivate the antigen.

Godina-Nava, J. J.; Segura, M. A. Rodriguez [Depto. de Fisica, CINVESTAV-IPN, Ap. Post. 14-740, Mexico, D.F. 07000 (Mexico); Cadena, S. Reyes [Lab. de Bioquimica Muscular, Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitacion, C.P.14389, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Sierra, L. C. Gaitan [Centro Gestalt, C.P. 11590, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

2008-08-11

324

Immune Response to Electromagnetic Fields through Cybernetic Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the optimality of the humoral immune response through a mathematical model, which involves the effect of electromagnetic fields over the large lymphocytes proliferation. Are used the so called cybernetic variables in the context of the matching law of microeconomics or mathematical psychology, to measure the large lymphocytes population and to maximize the instantaneous antibody production rate in time during the immunologic response in order to most efficiently inactivate the antigen.

Godina-Nava, J. J.; Segura, M. A. Rodríguez; Cadena, S. Reyes; Sierra, L. C. Gaitán

2008-08-01

325

A Holistic Corporate Responsibility Model: Integrating Values, Discourses and Actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corporate responsibility (CR) discussion has so far been rather fragmented as academics tackle it from their own areas\\u000a of expertise, which guarantees in-depth analyses, but leaves room for broader syntheses. This research is a synthetic, interdisciplinary\\u000a exercise: it integrates philosophical, psychological and managerial perspectives of corporate responsibility into a more holistic\\u000a CR-model for the benefit of academics, companies and

Tarja Ketola

2008-01-01

326

Health Professionals' Knowledge of Women's Health Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey responses from 71 health professionals, benchmarking data from 8 hospitals, continuing education program evaluations, and focus groups with nursing, allied health, and primary care providers indicated a need for professional continuing education on women's health issues. Primary topic needs were identified. The data formed the basis for…

Beatty, Rebecca M.

2000-01-01

327

Professional Isolation and Stress in Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between professional isolation and occupational stress in teachers. A systematic random sample of 1158 French Canadian teachers were administered French Canadian versions of the "UCLA Loneliness Scale and Teacher Stress Inventory." Professional isolation was measured by the subjects' responses

Dussault, Marc; And Others

328

Professional Review Program for Faculty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The faculty review program at Triton College fulfills responsibilities to accrediting and/or approving agencies while helping to maintain teaching effectiveness and to promote instructional improvement. The professional review consists of a comprehensive assessment of the instructor's total job performance as indicated through student, peer,…

Triton Coll., River Grove, IL.

329

Aggregate Model for Heterogeneous Thermostatically Controlled Loads with Demand Response  

SciTech Connect

Due to the potentially large number of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) – demand response, distributed generation, distributed storage - that are expected to be deployed, it is impractical to use detailed models of these resources when integrated with the transmission system. Being able to accurately estimate the fast transients caused by demand response is especially important to analyze the stability of the system under different demand response strategies. On the other hand, a less complex model is more amenable to design feedback control strategies for the population of devices to provide ancillary services. The main contribution of this paper is to develop aggregated models for a heterogeneous population of Thermostatic Controlled Loads (TCLs) to accurately capture their collective behavior under demand response and other time varying effects of the system. The aggregated model efficiently includes statistical information of the population and accounts for a second order effect necessary to accurately capture the collective dynamic behavior. The developed aggregated models are validated against simulations of thousands of detailed building models using GridLAB-D (an open source distribution simulation software) under both steady state and severe dynamic conditions caused due to temperature set point changes.

Zhang, Wei; Kalsi, Karanjit; Fuller, Jason C.; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Chassin, David P.

2012-07-22

330

Proposed model for Saturn's auroral response to the solar wind: Centrifugal instability model  

E-print Network

Proposed model for Saturn's auroral response to the solar wind: Centrifugal instability model E. C; accepted 10 February 2006; published 17 June 2006. [1] We present a model of Saturn's global auroral in the intensity of Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR). Our model, referred to as the centrifugal instability model

Richardson, John

331

Dynamic brittle material response based on a continuum damage model  

SciTech Connect

The response of brittle materials to dynamic loads was studied in this investigation based on a continuum damage model. Damage mechanism was selected to be interaction and growth of subscale cracks. Briefly, the cracks are activated by bulk tension and the density of activated cracks are described by a Weibull statistical distribution. The moduli of a cracked solid derived by Budiansky and O`Connell are then used to represent the global material degradation due to subscale cracking. This continuum damage model was originally developed to study rock fragmentation and was modified in the present study to improve on the post-limit structural response. The model was implemented into a transient dynamic explicit finite element code PRONTO 2D and then used for a numerical study involving the sudden stretching of a plate with a centrally located hole. Numerical results characterizing the dynamic responses of the material were presented. The effect of damage on dynamic material behavior was discussed.

Chen, E.P.

1994-12-31

332

Using Survey Responses to Determine the Value-Added Features of a Webinar Portal System for Adoption by Natural Resource Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the findings of a recent survey of natural resource webinar providers. Respondents were asked a range of questions regarding their webinar services. Findings showed that respondents most commonly marketed their webinars through email or websites and targeted an audience of professionals. Respondents noted that the greatest…

Gharis, Laurie; Bardon, Robert E.; Hubbard, William; Taylor, Eric; Gonzalez-Jeuck, Grizel

2014-01-01

333

Response to Section IV: What's Needed Now--Issues of Professional Development School Accountability and Sustainability in Today's Complex Educational Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The two chapters in this section (Basile & Gutierrez, 2011; Yendol-Hoppey & Smith, 2011) contribute to the understandings about how to maintain resources and develop accountability necessary for successful partnerships. The authors discuss important themes related to the sustainability and maintenance of professional development schools, including…

Wiseman, Donna L.

2011-01-01

334

A Response to Anastas and Coffey: The Science of Social Work and Its Relationship to Social Work Education and Professional Organizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationships are central to the profession of social work; relationships with allied disciplines, among professional social work organizations, and between classroom and field education. However, embedded within these relationships are historical tensions, and contemporary opportunities that can advance both the science of social work and the…

Voisin, Dexter R.; Wong, Marleen; Samuels, Gina Miranda

2014-01-01

335

Agricultural Education Teacher Leaders' Development of Ownership and Responsibility for the Profession through Participation in Continuing Professional Education Program Planning: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historically, planning and delivery of professional development for public school teachers was centralized in state departments of education and universities, with teachers having little input or control over the content. For many years the literature in adult and continuing education has reflected an emphasis on learner participation in program…

Westfall-Rudd, Donna M.

2011-01-01

336

Genomic responses in mouse models poorly mimic human inflammatory diseases  

PubMed Central

A cornerstone of modern biomedical research is the use of mouse models to explore basic pathophysiological mechanisms, evaluate new therapeutic approaches, and make go or no-go decisions to carry new drug candidates forward into clinical trials. Systematic studies evaluating how well murine models mimic human inflammatory diseases are nonexistent. Here, we show that, although acute inflammatory stresses from different etiologies result in highly similar genomic responses in humans, the responses in corresponding mouse models correlate poorly with the human conditions and also, one another. Among genes changed significantly in humans, the murine orthologs are close to random in matching their human counterparts (e.g., R2 between 0.0 and 0.1). In addition to improvements in the current animal model systems, our study supports higher priority for translational medical research to focus on the more complex human conditions rather than relying on mouse models to study human inflammatory diseases. PMID:23401516

Seok, Junhee; Warren, H. Shaw; Cuenca, Alex G.; Mindrinos, Michael N.; Baker, Henry V.; Xu, Weihong; Richards, Daniel R.; McDonald-Smith, Grace P.; Gao, Hong; Hennessy, Laura; Finnerty, Celeste C.; López, Cecilia M.; Honari, Shari; Moore, Ernest E.; Minei, Joseph P.; Cuschieri, Joseph; Bankey, Paul E.; Johnson, Jeffrey L.; Sperry, Jason; Nathens, Avery B.; Billiar, Timothy R.; West, Michael A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Klein, Matthew B.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Brownstein, Bernard H.; Miller-Graziano, Carol; Calvano, Steve E.; Mason, Philip H.; Cobb, J. Perren; Rahme, Laurence G.; Lowry, Stephen F.; Maier, Ronald V.; Moldawer, Lyle L.; Herndon, David N.; Davis, Ronald W.; Xiao, Wenzhong; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Abouhamze, Amer; Balis, Ulysses G. J.; Camp, David G.; De, Asit K.; Harbrecht, Brian G.; Hayden, Douglas L.; Kaushal, Amit; O’Keefe, Grant E.; Kotz, Kenneth T.; Qian, Weijun; Schoenfeld, David A.; Shapiro, Michael B.; Silver, Geoffrey M.; Smith, Richard D.; Storey, John D.; Tibshirani, Robert; Toner, Mehmet; Wilhelmy, Julie; Wispelwey, Bram; Wong, Wing H

2013-01-01

337

Finite Element Modeling of the Buckling Response of Sandwich Panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparative study of different modeling approaches for predicting sandwich panel buckling response is described. The study considers sandwich panels with anisotropic face sheets and a very thick core. Results from conventional analytical solutions for sandwich panel overall buckling and face-sheet-wrinkling type modes are compared with solutions obtained using different finite element modeling approaches. Finite element solutions are obtained using layered shell element models, with and without transverse shear flexibility, layered shell/solid element models, with shell elements for the face sheets and solid elements for the core, and sandwich models using a recently developed specialty sandwich element. Convergence characteristics of the shell/solid and sandwich element modeling approaches with respect to in-plane and through-the-thickness discretization, are demonstrated. Results of the study indicate that the specialty sandwich element provides an accurate and effective modeling approach for predicting both overall and localized sandwich panel buckling response. Furthermore, results indicate that anisotropy of the face sheets, along with the ratio of principle elastic moduli, affect the buckling response and these effects may not be represented accurately by analytical solutions. Modeling recommendations are also provided.

Rose, Cheryl A.; Moore, David F.; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Rankin, Charles C.

2002-01-01

338

Response surface optimization for joint contact model evaluation.  

PubMed

When optimization is used to evaluate a joint contact model's ability to reproduce experimental measurements, the high computational cost of repeated contact analysis can be a limiting factor. This paper presents a computationally-efficient response surface optimization methodology to address this limitation. Quadratic response surfaces were fit to contact quantities (contact force, maximum pressure, average pressure, and contact area) predicted by a discrete element contact model of the tibiofemoral joint for various combinations of material modulus and relative bone pose (i.e., position and orientation). The response surfaces were then used as surrogates for costly contact analyses in optimizations that minimized differences between measured and predicted contact quantities. The methodology was evaluated theoretically using six sets of synthetic (i.e., computer-generated) contact data, and practically using one set of experimental contact data. For the synthetic cases, the response surface optimizations recovered all contact quantities to within 3.4% error. For the experimental case, they matched all contact quantities to within 6.3% error except for maximum contact pressure, which was in error by up to 50%. Response surface optimization provides rapid evaluation of joint contact models within a limited range of relative bone poses and can help identify potential weaknesses in contact model formulation and/or experimental data quality. PMID:16871003

Lin, Yi-Chung; Farr, Jack; Carter, Kevin; Fregly, Benjamin J

2006-05-01

339

Parameter variability estimation using stochastic response surface model updating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From a practical point of view, uncertainties existing in structural parameters and measurements must be handled in order to provide reliable structural condition evaluations. At this moment, deterministic model updating loses its practicability and a stochastic updating procedure should be employed seeking for statistical properties of parameters and responses. Presently this topic has not been well investigated on account of its greater complexity in theoretical configuration and difficulty in inverse problem solutions after involving uncertainty analyses. Due to it, this paper attempts to develop a stochastic model updating method for parameter variability estimation. Uncertain parameters and responses are correlated through stochastic response surface models, which are actually explicit polynomial chaos expansions based on Hermite polynomials. Then by establishing a stochastic inverse problem, parameter means and standard deviations are updated in a separate and successive way. For the purposes of problem simplification and optimization efficiency, in each updating iteration stochastic response surface models are reconstructed to avoid the construction and analysis of sensitivity matrices. Meanwhile, in the interest of investigating the effects of parameter variability on responses, a parameter sensitivity analysis method has been developed based on the derivation of polynomial chaos expansions. Lastly the feasibility and reliability of the proposed methods have been validated using a numerical beam and then a set of nominally identical metal plates. After comparing with a perturbation method, it is found that the proposed method can estimate parameter variability with satisfactory accuracy and the complexity of the inverse problem can be highly reduced resulting in cost-efficient optimization.

Fang, Sheng-En; Zhang, Qiu-Hu; Ren, Wei-Xin

2014-12-01

340

Simultaneous Confidence Bands for Abbott-Adjusted Quantal Response Models  

PubMed Central

We study use of a Scheffé-style simultaneous confidence band as applied to low-dose risk estimation with quantal response data. We consider two formulations for the dose-response risk function, an Abbott-adjusted Weibull model and an Abbott-adjusted log-logistic model. Using the simultaneous construction, we derive methods for estimating upper confidence limits on predicted extra risk and, by inverting the upper bands on risk, lower bounds on the benchmark dose, or BMD, at which a specific level of ‘benchmark risk’ is attained. Monte Carlo evaluations explore the operating characteristics of the simultaneous limits. PMID:19412325

Piegorsch, Walter W.

2008-01-01

341

FAST Mast Structural Response to Axial Loading: Modeling and Verification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station s solar array wing mast shadowing problem is the focus of this paper. A building-block approach to modeling and analysis is pursued for the primary structural components of the solar array wing mast structure. Starting with an ANSYS (Registered Trademark) finite element model, a verified MSC.Nastran (Trademark) model is established for a single longeron. This finite element model translation requires the conversion of several modeling and analysis features for the two structural analysis tools to produce comparable results for the single-longeron configuration. The model is then reconciled using test data. The resulting MSC.Nastran (Trademark) model is then extended to a single-bay configuration and verified using single-bay test data. Conversion of the MSC. Nastran (Trademark) single-bay model to Abaqus (Trademark) is also performed to simulate the elastic-plastic longeron buckling response of the single bay prior to folding.

Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Templeton, Justin D.; Song, Kyongchan; Rayburn, Jeffery T.

2012-01-01

342

Benchmarking nuclear models for Gamow-Teller response  

E-print Network

A comparative study of the nuclear Gamow-Teller response (GTR) within conceptually different state-of-the-art approaches is presented. Three nuclear microscopic models are considered: (i) the recently developed charge-exchange relativistic time blocking approximation (RTBA) based on the covariant density functional theory, (ii) the shell model (SM) with an extended "jj77" model space and (iii) the non-relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) with a Brueckner G-matrix effective interaction. We study the physics cases where two or all three of these models can be applied. The Gamow-Teller response functions are calculated for 208-Pb, 132-Sn and 78-Ni within both RTBA and QRPA. The strengths obtained for 208-Pb are compared to data that enables a firm model benchmarking. For the nucleus 132-Sn, also SM calculations are performed within the model space truncated at the level of a particle-hole (ph) coupled to vibration configurations. This allows a consistent comparison to the RTBA where ph+phonon coupling is responsible for the spreading width and considerable quenching of the GTR. Differences between the models and perspectives of their future developments are discussed.

E. Litvinova; B. A. Brown; D. -L. Fang; T. Marketin; R. G. T. Zegers

2014-02-04

343

Animal and human dose-response models for Brucella species.  

PubMed

Human Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases worldwide. Disease transmission often occurs through the handling of domestic livestock, as well as ingestion of unpasteurized milk and cheese, but can have enhanced infectivity if aerosolized. Because there is no human vaccine available, rising concerns about the threat of Brucellosis to human health and its inclusion in the Center for Disease Control's Category B Bioterrorism/Select Agent List make a better understanding of the dose-response relationship of this microbe necessary. Through an extensive peer-reviewed literature search, candidate dose-response data were appraised so as to surpass certain standards for quality. The statistical programming language, "R," was used to compute the maximum likelihood estimation to fit two models, the exponential and the approximate beta-Poisson (widely used for quantitative risk assessment) to dose-response data. Dose-response models were generated for prevalent species of Brucella: Br. suis, Br. melitensis, and Br. abortus. Dose-response models were created for aerosolized Br. suis exposure to guinea pigs from pooled studies. A parallel model for guinea pigs inoculated through both aerosol and subcutaneous routes with Br. melitensis showed that the median infectious dose corresponded to a 30 colony-forming units (CFU) dose of Br. suis, much less than the N(50) dose of about 94 CFU for Br. melitensis organisms. When Br. melitensis was tested subcutaneously on mice, the N(50) dose was higher, 1,840 CFU. A dose-response model was constructed from pooled data for mice, rhesus macaques, and humans inoculated through three routes (subcutaneously/aerosol/intradermally) with Br. melitensis. PMID:21449960

Teske, Sondra S; Huang, Yin; Tamrakar, Sushil B; Bartrand, Timothy A; Weir, Mark H; Haas, Charles N

2011-10-01

344

A model for the synchronous machine using frequency response measurements  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents new techniques to improve the accuracy and velocity for the modeling of synchronous machines in stability and transient studies. The proposed model uses frequency responses as input data, obtained either directly from measurements or calculated from the available data. The new model is flexible as it allows changes in the detail in which the machine can be represented, and it is possible to partly compensate for the numerical errors incurred when using large integration time steps. The model can be used in transient stability and electromagnetic transient studies as secondary arc evaluation, load rejections and sub-synchronous resonance.

Bacalao, N.J. [CVG EDELCA, Caracas (Venezuela)] [CVG EDELCA, Caracas (Venezuela); Arizon, P. de [Univ. Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela)] [Univ. Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela); Sanchez L., R.O. [PEQUIVEN, Jose (Venezuela)] [PEQUIVEN, Jose (Venezuela)

1995-02-01

345

Model-Based Collaborative Filtering Analysis of Student Response Data: Machine-Learning Item Response Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We apply collaborative filtering (CF) to dichotomously scored student response data (right, wrong, or no interaction), finding optimal parameters for each student and item based on cross-validated prediction accuracy. The approach is naturally suited to comparing different models, both unidimensional and multidimensional in ability, including a…

Bergner, Yoav; Droschler, Stefan; Kortemeyer, Gerd; Rayyan, Saif; Seaton, Daniel; Pritchard, David E.

2012-01-01

346

Evaluating Cognitive Theory: A Joint Modeling Approach Using Responses and Response Times  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In current psychological research, the analysis of data from computer-based assessments or experiments is often confined to accuracy scores. Response times, although being an important source of additional information, are either neglected or analyzed separately. In this article, a new model is developed that allows the simultaneous analysis of…

Klein Entink, Rinke H.; Kuhn, Jorg-Tobias; Hornke, Lutz F.; Fox, Jean-Paul

2009-01-01

347

Combining IRT and SEM: A Hybrid Model for Fitting Responses and Response Certainties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes a model-based procedure, intended for personality measures, for exploiting the auxiliary information provided by the certainty with which individuals answer every item (response certainty). This information is used to (a) obtain more accurate estimates of individual trait levels, and (b) provide a more detailed assessment of…

Ferrando, Pere J.; Anguiano-Carrasco, Cristina; Demestre, Josep

2013-01-01

348

Improvements to a Response Surface Thermal Model for Orion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was performed to determine if a Design of Experiments (DOE)/Response Surface Methodology could be applied to on-orbit thermal analysis and produce a set of Response Surface Equations (RSE) that predict Orion vehicle temperatures within 10 F. The study used the Orion Outer Mold Line model. Five separate factors were identified for study: yaw, pitch, roll, beta angle, and the environmental parameters. Twenty-three external Orion components were selected and their minimum and maximum temperatures captured over a period of two orbits. Thus, there are 46 responses. A DOE case matrix of 145 runs was developed. The data from these cases were analyzed to produce a fifth order RSE for each of the temperature responses. For the 145 cases in the DOE matrix, the agreement between the engineering data and the RSE predictions was encouraging with 40 of the 46 RSEs predicting temperatures within the goal band. However, the verification cases showed most responses did not meet the 10 F goal. After reframing the focus of the study to better align the RSE development with the purposes of the model, a set of RSEs for both the minimum and maximum radiator temperatures was produced which predicted the engineering model output within +/-4 F. Therefore, with the correct application of the DOE/RSE methodology, RSEs can be developed that provide analysts a fast and easy way to screen large numbers of environments and assess proposed changes to the RSE factors.

Miller, Stephen W.; Walker, William Q.

2011-01-01

349

A model for simulation of electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important aspect of research in the continued development of cochlear implants is the in vivo assessment of signal processing algorithms. One technique that has been used is evoked potentials, the recording of neural responses to auditory stimulation. Depending on the latency of the observed response, the evoked potential indicates neural activity at the various neurological structures of the auditory system. Electrically evoked ABRs are commonly measured in hearing-impaired patients who have cochlear implants, via electrical stimulation delivered by electrodes in the implanted array. This research explores the use of MATLAB for the purpose of developing a model for electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). The simulation model developed in this study takes as its input the stimulus current intensity level, and uses function vectors and equations derived from measured ABRs, to generate an approximation of the evoked surface potentials. A function vector is used to represent the combined firing of the neurons of the auditory nervous system that are needed to elicit a measurable response. Equations have been derived to represent the latency and stimulus amplitude scaling functions. The simulation also accounts for other neural activity that can be present in and contaminate an ABR recording, and reduces it through time-locked averaging of the simulated response. In the MATLAB simulation, the model performs well and delivers results that compare favorably with the results measured from the research subjects.

Miller, Douglas A.; Matin, Mohammed A.

2009-08-01

350

The Benefits from Using Professionally Developed Models of Possible Hazardous Materials Accident Scenarios in Crime Scene Investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Without the possibility of preliminary professional analysis of possible versions of scenarios of more complex accidents with\\u000a hazardous materials, each crime scene investigation of causes and forensically relevant circumstances of their occurrence\\u000a can be nearly impossible, with irreparable and fatal failures of securing the crime scene and in all phases of crime scene\\u000a investigation process. The author analyzes some of

Damir Kuliši?

351

Constitutive model for high strain rate response of polymeric composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A constitutive model for characterizing high strain rate response of polymeric composites was developed using off-axis composite specimens. The difference in the results of coupon and block specimens was experimentally demonstrated and discussed. Off-axis block specimens were tested in compression at three different strain rates, 10?4\\/s, 10?2\\/s, and 1\\/s. Based on these experimental data, a viscoplasticity model was established to

J. Tsai; C. T. Sun

2002-01-01

352

A micromechanical constitutive model for the dynamic response of brittle materials "Dynamic response of marble"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A micromechanically based constitutive model for the dynamic inelastic behavior of brittle materials, specifically "Dionysus-Pentelicon marble" with distributed microcracking is presented. Dionysus-Pentelicon marble was used in the construction of the Parthenon, in Athens, Greece. The constitutive model is a key component in the ability to simulate this historic explosion and the preceding bombardment form cannon fire that occurred at the Parthenon in 1678. Experiments were performed by Rosakis (1999) that characterized the static and dynamic response of this unique material. A micromechanical constitutive model that was previously successfully used to model the dynamic response of granular brittle materials is presented. The constitutive model was fitted to the experimental data for marble and reproduced the experimentally observed basic uniaxial dynamic behavior quite well. This micromechanical constitutive model was then implemented into the three dimensional nonlinear lagrangain finite element code Dyna3d(1998). Implementing this methodology into the three dimensional nonlinear dynamic finite element code allowed the model to be exercised on several preliminary impact experiments. During future simulations, the model is to be used in conjunction with other numerical techniques to simulate projectile impact and blast loading on the Dionysus-Pentelicon marble and on the structure of the Parthenon.

Haberman, Keith

2001-07-01

353

Higher-Order Item Response Models for Hierarchical Latent Traits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many latent traits in the human sciences have a hierarchical structure. This study aimed to develop a new class of higher order item response theory models for hierarchical latent traits that are flexible in accommodating both dichotomous and polytomous items, to estimate both item and person parameters jointly, to allow users to specify…

Huang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Po-Hsi; Su, Chi-Ming

2013-01-01

354

A Hybridization Model for the Plasmon Response of Complex Nanostructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple and intuitive picture, an electromagnetic analog of molecular orbital theory, that describes the plasmon response of complex nanostructures of arbitrary shape. Our model can be understood as the interaction or ``hybridization'' of elementary plasmons supported by nanostructures of elementary geometries. As an example, the approach is applied to the important case of a four-layer concentric nanoshell,

E. Prodan; C. Radloff; N. J. Halas; P. Nordlander

2003-01-01

355

Estimating infiltration recharge using a response function model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainfall infiltration influences both the quantity and quality of groundwater systems. The knowledge of the process of infiltration recharge is of great importance to the management of groundwater systems and the hydraulically connected streams. In this study, a response function model is developed to estimate soil water flux at the water table or the process of infiltration recharge from rainfall

Jinquan Wu; Renduo Zhang; Jinzhong Yang

1997-01-01

356

Multilevel Higher-Order Item Response Theory Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the social sciences, latent traits often have a hierarchical structure, and data can be sampled from multiple levels. Both hierarchical latent traits and multilevel data can occur simultaneously. In this study, we developed a general class of item response theory models to accommodate both hierarchical latent traits and multilevel data. The…

Huang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung

2014-01-01

357

New Model for Europa's Tidal Response Based after Laboratory Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the application of the Andrade model to the modeling of Europa’s tidal response at the orbital period and for different librations. Previous models have generally assumed that the satellite behaves as a Maxwell body. However, at the frequencies exciting Europa’s tides and librations, material anelasticity tends to dominate the satellite’s response for a wide range of temperatures, a feature that is not accounted for by the Maxwell model. Many experimental studies on the anelasticity of rocks, ice, and hydrates, suggest that the Andrade model usually provides a good fit to the dissipation spectra obtained for a wide range of frequencies, encompassing the tidal frequencies of most icy satellites. These data indicate that, at Europa’s orbital frequency, the Maxwell model overestimates water ice attenuation at temperature warmer than ~240 K, while it tends to significantly underestimate it at lower temperatures. Based on the available data we suggest an educated extrapolation of available data to Europa’s conditions. We compute the tidal response of a model of Europa differentiated in a rocky core and a water-rich shell. We assume various degrees of stratification of the core involving hydrated and anhydrous silicates, as well as an iron core. The water-rich shell of Europa is assumed to be fully frozen, or to have preserved a deep liquid layer. In both cases we consider a range of thermal structures, based on existing models. These structures take into account the presence of non-ice materials, especially hydrated salts. This new approach yields a greater tidal response (amplitude and phase lag) than previously expected. This is due to the fact that a greater volume of material dissipates tidal energy in comparison to models assuming a Maxwell body. Another feature of interest is that the tidal stress expected in Europa is at about the threshold between a linear and non-linear mechanical response of water ice as a function of stress. Increased stress at a time when Europa’s eccentricity was greater than its current value is likely to have resulted in significant dissipation increase. We will assess how this new approach affects our understanding of Europa, and we will quantify the tidal response of this satellite and the amount of tidal heating available to its evolution. Acknowledgements: Part of this work has been conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged. Part of the experimental work was conducted at Brown University, funded by NASA. MC is supported by a NASA Postdoctoral Fellowship, administered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities.

Castillo, J. C.; McCarthy, C.; Choukroun, M.; Rambaux, N.

2009-12-01

358

An investigation into the effectiveness of the "trainer of trainers" model for in-service science professional development programs for elementary teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of the "Trainer of Trainers" model of professional development for elementary science teachers participating in the Mathematics and Science Education Cooperative (MSEC). In this professional development model, a core group of teachers (key and lead) received professional development sessions taught by science education professors. After the work sessions for the core group of teachers, training materials and equipment were distributed among the five elementary schools within the school district. Under the auspices of the "Trainer of Trainers" model, the core group of teachers were to share information, plan, and collaborate with their grade level team members. In the past, university team members of the MSEC program have been neither directly nor indirectly involved in the second phase of the program. The target population of this study included approximately 200 teachers in the MSEC program who taught grades kindergarten through six in five different elementary schools. The school district is located in an unincorporated area near a southwestern metroplex. The district has a predominately low-income population and a high percentage of minority students that represent a diversity of ethnicities. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used in data collection. Focus groups, interviews, observations, and survey instruments were the primary sources of data collection. Triangulation methods were used to establish validity and verification of data. Analysis was an on-going process that included several levels of affinity groups, interrelationship diagrams, path diagrams, and system influence diagrams. Interviews and feedback surveys were also used to evaluate the problem under investigation. Teachers considered the state-mandated assessment test to have the largest impact on the school curriculum and to be the primary reason that teachers could not find time for science teaching. Furthermore, they believed that the administration played a huge role in determining if science took a back seat at their respective schools.

Franks, Ruth Ann

2000-06-01

359

A Computational Model of Cellular Response to Modulated Radiation Fields  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To develop a model to describe the response of cell populations to spatially modulated radiation exposures of relevance to advanced radiotherapies. Materials and Methods: A Monte Carlo model of cellular radiation response was developed. This model incorporated damage from both direct radiation and intercellular communication including bystander signaling. The predictions of this model were compared to previously measured survival curves for a normal human fibroblast line (AGO1522) and prostate tumor cells (DU145) exposed to spatially modulated fields. Results: The model was found to be able to accurately reproduce cell survival both in populations which were directly exposed to radiation and those which were outside the primary treatment field. The model predicts that the bystander effect makes a significant contribution to cell killing even in uniformly irradiated cells. The bystander effect contribution varies strongly with dose, falling from a high of 80% at low doses to 25% and 50% at 4 Gy for AGO1522 and DU145 cells, respectively. This was verified using the inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor aminoguanidine to inhibit the bystander effect in cells exposed to different doses, which showed significantly larger reductions in cell killing at lower doses. Conclusions: The model presented in this work accurately reproduces cell survival following modulated radiation exposures, both in and out of the primary treatment field, by incorporating a bystander component. In addition, the model suggests that the bystander effect is responsible for a significant portion of cell killing in uniformly irradiated cells, 50% and 70% at doses of 2 Gy in AGO1522 and DU145 cells, respectively. This description is a significant departure from accepted radiobiological models and may have a significant impact on optimization of treatment planning approaches if proven to be applicable in vivo.

McMahon, Stephen J., E-mail: stephen.mcmahon@qub.ac.uk [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Butterworth, Karl T. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)] [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); McGarry, Conor K. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom) [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Radiotherapy Physics, Northern Ireland Cancer Centre, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Trainor, Colman [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)] [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); O'Sullivan, Joe M. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom) [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Clinical Oncology, Northern Ireland Cancer Centre, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Hounsell, Alan R. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom) [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Radiotherapy Physics, Northern Ireland Cancer Centre, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Prise, Kevin M. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)] [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

2012-09-01

360

Association Models for Clustered Data with Binary and Continuous Responses  

PubMed Central

Summary We consider analysis of clustered data with mixed bivariate responses, i.e., where each member of the cluster has a binary and a continuous outcome. We propose a new bivariate random effects model that induces associations among the binary outcomes within a cluster, among the continuous outcomes within a cluster, between a binary outcome and a continuous outcome from different subjects within a cluster, as well as the direct association between the binary and continuous outcomes within the same subject. For the ease of interpretations of the regression effects, the marginal model of the binary response probability integrated over the random effects preserves the logistic form and the marginal expectation of the continuous response preserves the linear form. We implement maximum likelihood estimation of our model parameters using standard software such as PROC NLMIXED of SAS. Our simulation study demonstrates the robustness of our method with respect to the misspecification of the regression model as well as the random effects model. We illustrate our methodology by analyzing a developmental toxicity study of ethylene glycol in mice. PMID:19432772

Lin, Lanjia; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Lipsitz, Stuart R.; Sinha, Debajyoti

2010-01-01

361

A Cognitive Computational Model Inspired by the Immune System Response  

PubMed Central

The immune system has a cognitive ability to differentiate between healthy and unhealthy cells. The immune system response (ISR) is stimulated by a disorder in the temporary fuzzy state that is oscillating between the healthy and unhealthy states. However, modeling the immune system is an enormous challenge; the paper introduces an extensive summary of how the immune system response functions, as an overview of a complex topic, to present the immune system as a cognitive intelligent agent. The homogeneity and perfection of the natural immune system have been always standing out as the sought-after model we attempted to imitate while building our proposed model of cognitive architecture. The paper divides the ISR into four logical phases: setting a computational architectural diagram for each phase, proceeding from functional perspectives (input, process, and output), and their consequences. The proposed architecture components are defined by matching biological operations with computational functions and hence with the framework of the paper. On the other hand, the architecture focuses on the interoperability of main theoretical immunological perspectives (classic, cognitive, and danger theory), as related to computer science terminologies. The paper presents a descriptive model of immune system, to figure out the nature of response, deemed to be intrinsic for building a hybrid computational model based on a cognitive intelligent agent perspective and inspired by the natural biology. To that end, this paper highlights the ISR phases as applied to a case study on hepatitis C virus, meanwhile illustrating our proposed architecture perspective. PMID:25003131

Abdo Abd Al-Hady, Mohamed; Badr, Amr Ahmed; Mostafa, Mostafa Abd Al-Azim

2014-01-01

362

Verification of immune response optimality through cybernetic modeling.  

PubMed

An immune response cascade that is T cell independent begins with the stimulation of virgin lymphocytes by antigen to differentiate into large lymphocytes. These immune cells can either replicate themselves or differentiate into plasma cells or memory cells. Plasma cells produce antibody at a specific rate up to two orders of magnitude greater than large lymphocytes. However, plasma cells have short life-spans and cannot replicate. Memory cells produce only surface antibody, but in the event of a subsequent infection by the same antigen, memory cells revert rapidly to large lymphocytes. Immunologic memory is maintained throughout the organism's lifetime. Many immunologists believe that the optimal response strategy calls for large lymphocytes to replicate first, then differentiate into plasma cells and when the antigen has been nearly eliminated, they form memory cells. A mathematical model incorporating the concept of cybernetics has been developed to study the optimality of the immune response. Derived from the matching law of microeconomics, cybernetic variables control the allocation of large lymphocytes to maximize the instantaneous antibody production rate at any time during the response in order to most efficiently inactivate the antigen. A mouse is selected as the model organism and bacteria as the replicating antigen. In addition to verifying the optimal switching strategy, results showing how the immune response is affected by antigen growth rate, initial antigen concentration, and the number of antibodies required to eliminate an antigen are included. PMID:2338827

Batt, B C; Kompala, D S

1990-02-01

363

Thermal Response Modeling System for a Mars Sample Return Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-dimensional, coupled thermal response modeling system for analysis of hypersonic entry vehicles is presented. The system consists of a high fidelity Navier-Stokes equation solver (GIANTS), a two-dimensional implicit thermal response, pyrolysis and ablation program (TITAN), and a commercial finite-element thermal and mechanical analysis code (MARC). The simulations performed by this integrated system include hypersonic flowfield, fluid and solid interaction, ablation, shape change, pyrolysis gas eneration and flow, and thermal response of heatshield and structure. The thermal response of the heatshield is simulated using TITAN, and that of the underlying structural is simulated using MARC. The ablating heatshield is treated as an outer boundary condition of the structure, and continuity conditions of temperature and heat flux are imposed at the interface between TITAN and MARC. Aerothermal environments with fluid and solid interaction are predicted by coupling TITAN and GIANTS through surface energy balance equations. With this integrated system, the aerothermal environments for an entry vehicle and the thermal response of the entire vehicle can be obtained simultaneously. Representative computations for a flat-faced arc-jet test model and a proposed Mars sample return capsule are presented and discussed.

Chen, Y.-K.; Miles, Frank S.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

364

Thermal Response Modeling System for a Mars Sample Return Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-dimensional, coupled thermal response modeling system for analysis of hypersonic entry vehicles is presented. The system consists of a high fidelity Navier-Stokes equation solver (GIANTS), a two-dimensional implicit thermal response, pyrolysis and ablation program (TITAN), and a commercial finite element thermal and mechanical analysis code (MARC). The simulations performed by this integrated system include hypersonic flowfield, fluid and solid interaction, ablation, shape change, pyrolysis gas generation and flow, and thermal response of heatshield and structure. The thermal response of the heatshield is simulated using TITAN, and that of the underlying structural is simulated using MARC. The ablating heatshield is treated as an outer boundary condition of the structure, and continuity conditions of temperature and heat flux are imposed at the interface between TITAN and MARC. Aerothermal environments with fluid and solid interaction are predicted by coupling TITAN and GIANTS through surface energy balance equations. With this integrated system, the aerothermal environments for an entry vehicle and the thermal response of the entire vehicle can be obtained simultaneously. Representative computations for a flat-faced arc-jet test model and a proposed Mars sample return capsule are presented and discussed.

Chen, Y.-K.; Milos, F. S.

2002-01-01

365

Teaching Professional Sexual Ethics across the Seminary Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Clergy often begin their ministerial careers unprepared to handle issues of professional power, sexuality and intimacy, and interpersonal boundaries. In response, denominational bodies and theological schools are seeking together ways to enhance the teaching of "professional sexual ethics"--referring to the integration of professional ethics,…

Stephens, Darryl W.

2013-01-01

366

Continuous Professional Development along the Continuum of Lifelong Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of 300 surveyed, responses from 94 nurses, 38 occupational therapists, and 50 physical therapists indicated that professional knowledge was a prime motivation for continuing professional development, followed by updating qualifications, increasing the status of the profession, and demonstrating professional competence. No differences were observed…

Ryan, Jane

2003-01-01

367

Adaptation of health care for migrants: whose responsibility?  

PubMed Central

Background In a context of increasing ethnic diversity, culturally competent strategies have been recommended to improve care quality and access to health care for ethnic minorities and migrants; their implementation by health professionals, however, has remained patchy. Most programs of cultural competence assume that health professionals accept that they have a responsibility to adapt to migrants, but this assumption has often remained at the level of theory. In this paper, we surveyed health professionals’ views on their responsibility to adapt. Methods Five hundred-and-sixty-nine health professionals from twenty-four inpatient and outpatient health services were selected according to their geographic location. All health care professionals were requested to complete a questionnaire about who should adapt to ethnic diversity: health professionals or patients. After a factorial analysis to identify the underlying responsibility dimensions, we performed a multilevel regression model in order to investigate individual and service covariates of responsibility attribution. Results Three dimensions emerged from the factor analysis: responsibility for the adaptation of communication, responsibility for the adaptation to the negotiation of values, and responsibility for the adaptation to health beliefs. Our results showed that the sense of responsibility for the adaptation of health care depended on the nature of the adaptation required: when the adaptation directly concerned communication with the patient, health professionals declared that they should be the ones to adapt; in relation to cultural preferences, however, the responsibility felt on the patient’s shoulders. Most respondents were unclear in relation to adaptation to health beliefs. Regression indicated that being Belgian, not being a physician, and working in a primary-care service were associated with placing the burden of responsibility on the patient. Conclusions Health care professionals do not consider it to be their responsibility to adapt to ethnic diversity. If health professionals do not feel a responsibility to adapt, they are less likely to be involved in culturally competent health care. PMID:25005021

2014-01-01

368

Measuring Professionalism in Medicine and Nursing: Results of a European Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Leveraging professionalism has been put forward as a strategy to drive improvement of patient care. We investigate professionalism as a factor influencing the uptake of quality improvement activities by physicians and nurses working in European hospitals. Objective To (i) investigate the reliability and validity of data yielded by using the self-developed professionalism measurement tool for physicians and nurses, (ii) describe their levels of professionalism displayed, and (iii) quantify the extent to which professional attitudes would predict professional behaviors. Methods and Materials We designed and deployed survey instruments amongst 5920 physicians and nurses working in European hospitals. This was conducted under the cross-sectional multilevel study “Deepening Our Understanding of Quality Improvement in Europe” (DUQuE). We used psychometric and generalized linear mixed modelling techniques to address the aforementioned objectives. Results In all, 2067 (response rate 69.8%) physicians and 2805 nurses (94.8%) representing 74 hospitals in 7 European countries participated. The professionalism instrument revealed five subscales of professional attitude and one scale for professional behaviour with moderate to high internal consistency and reliability. Physicians and nurses display equally high professional attitude sum scores (11.8 and 11.9 respectively out of 16) but seem to have different perceptions towards separate professionalism aspects. Lastly, professionals displaying higher levels of professional attitudes were more involved in quality improvement actions (physicians: b?=?0.019, P<0.0001; nurses: b?=?0.016, P<0.0001) and more inclined to report colleagues’ underperformance (physicians – odds ratio (OR) 1.12, 95% CI 1.01–1.24; nurses – OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.01–1.23) or medical errors (physicians – OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01–1.23; nurses – OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.22–1.67). Involvement in QI actions was found to increase the odds of reporting incompetence or medical errors. Conclusion A tool that reliably and validly measures European physicians’ and nurses’ commitment to professionalism is now available. Collectively leveraging professionalism as a quality improvement strategy may be beneficial to patient care quality. PMID:24849320

Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.; Plochg, Thomas; Thompson, Caroline A.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.

2014-01-01

369

New Approach to Icy Satellite Tidal Response Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the experimental determination of ice anelasticity over a wide frequency range, as well as previous studies of ice primary creep, Castillo-Rogez et al. (2009) inferred that, in most situations, the response of planetary ices to tidal stress is anelastic. As a result, tidal models assuming a viscoelastic, Maxwellian response can lead to erroneous estimates of tidal dissipation by several orders of magnitude. Numerous measurements show that the transient response of rock and ice during primary creep can be fitted with the Andrade model. Measurements of the response of ice to cyclic stress also demonstrate that the Andrade model can accurately match the ice attenuation behavior observed for a wide range of frequencies encompassing satellites tides. Input to the Andrade model can be inferred from the frequency-dependence of the attenuation observed in the transient regime. It also requires a good understanding of the nature and properties of the microstructural features involved in the internal friction. Fortunately, numerous laboratory measurements have been reported in the literature for a variety of deformation regimes. Thus it is possible to make an educated guess about the ice attenuation behavior expected as a function of context. I will introduce a preliminary version of a new dissipation model applicable to icy satellites and present the measurement roadmap undertaken in the JPL Planetary Tides Simulation Facility to establish empirical forms of the Andrade model as a function of temperature, stress, composition, microstructure and its evolution with time, over a frequency range that encompasses the anelastic and viscoelastic regimes of a variety of ices. Acknowledgement: This work has been conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech under a contract with NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged. JPL Research and Technology Development program acknowledged.

Castillo-Rogez, Julie

2009-09-01

370

Modeling All Dialogue System Participants to Generate Empathetic Responses  

PubMed Central

We describe a dialogue system between an expert system and its users which combines two recent hypotheses. First, that the dialogue system should explicitly model both the person directly interacting with the dialogue system (the agent) and the person reasoned about by the expert system (the patient) in order to communicate meaningfully with both people. Second, that a dialogue system can model the domain-related beliefs, preferences and concerns of both its users and generate responses empathetic to both. This dialogue system is called SERUM, standing for “System for Empathetic Responses with User Models.” Serum generates natural language responses about attribute values of domain objects, via three transformations. First the system converts properties of the agent and patient, and domain knowledge, into a pragmatic objective like empathy. Second SERUM converts the pragmatic objectives into surface structure cues like object emphasis and level of technicality. Finally SERUM converts the surface structure cues to realize text that is natural, appropriately technical, and downplaying or off-setting information that is unpleasant or undesirable to the agent or patient. Serum is demonstrated in the sensitive medical domain of lung disease for AIDS patients, where empathetic responses may be needed.

Haimowitz, Ira J.

1990-01-01

371

Ship response using a compact wave spectrum model  

E-print Network

SHIP RESPONSE USIM6 A COMPACT HAVE SPECTRUH HODEL A Thesis by LARRY DONALD LINN Submitted to the 6raduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1985 Major Subject...: Ocean Engineering SHIP RESPONSE USIN6 A COMPACT 'NAVE SPECTRUN MODEL A Thesis by LARRY DONALD LINN Approved as to style and content by: John M. Niedzwec i (Chairman of Committee) Lee L. Lowery (Member) John M. Klinck (Member) Donald Mc...

Linn, Larry Donald

1985-01-01

372

Multi-Model Investigation of Ecological Response to Extreme Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme events such as droughts and heat waves have serious and damaging impacts on terrestrial processes. Under climate change, these extreme weather events are likely to shift in both magnitude and frequency at regional and local scales. The resulting interactions and feedbacks between the terrestrial and atmosphere systems could lead to non-linear and/or threshold responses in the eco-climate system, and raise a concern as to the resiliency of natural as well as managed ecosystems under extreme changes. This study investigates the response of ecosystem to droughts at different time scales and magnitudes. Four land surface models with different bio-geophysical parameterizations and representations are used to simulate soil-canopy processes, such as evapotranspiration, during these extreme events. The Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) is a process-based ecosystem model that uses spatially referenced information on climate, elevation, soils, vegetation and water availability to make monthly estimates of vegetation and soil carbon and nitrogen fluxes and pool sizes. There are two versions of TEM model, the TEM-Hydro daily model and the TEM monthly model. The Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm (ACASA) is a multi-layered land surface model based on eddy-covariance theory to calculate the biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of carbon dioxide, water, and momentums. The Community Land Model (CLM) is a community-based model consists of biogeophysics, hydrological cycle, biogeochemistry and dynamic vegetation. Model simulations are evaluated using the biogeophysical and micrometeorological field observations from the AmeriFlux sites across the US. Preliminary results indicate that during a severe drought the link between evapotranspiration and Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP) in the models is weaker than what observations indicate. This and other interpretations are presented and discussed.

Xu, L.; Kicklighter, D. W.; Felzer, B. S.; Schlosser, C. A.; Chang, K.; Paw U, K.

2013-12-01

373

Measuring Client Experiences in Maternity Care under Change: Development of a Questionnaire Based on the WHO Responsiveness Model  

PubMed Central

Background Maternity care is an integrated care process, which consists of different services, involves different professionals and covers different time windows. To measure performance of maternity care based on clients' experiences, we developed and validated a questionnaire. Methods and Findings We used the 8-domain WHO Responsiveness model, and previous materials to develop a self-report questionnaire. A dual study design was used for development and validation. Content validity of the ReproQ-version-0 was determined through structured interviews with 11 pregnant women (?28 weeks), 10 women who recently had given birth (?12 weeks), and 19 maternity care professionals. Structured interviews established the domain relevance to the women; all items were separately commented on. All Responsiveness domains were judged relevant, with Dignity and Communication ranking highest. Main missing topic was the assigned expertise of the health professional. After first adaptation, construct validity of the ReproQ-version-1 was determined through a web-based survey. Respondents were approached by maternity care organizations with different levels of integration of services of midwives and obstetricians. We sent questionnaires to 605 third trimester pregnant women (response 65%), and 810 women 6 weeks after delivery (response 55%). Construct validity was based on: response patterns; exploratory factor analysis; association of the overall score with a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), known group comparisons. Median overall ReproQ score was 3.70 (range 1–4) showing good responsiveness. The exploratory factor analysis supported the assumed domain structure and suggested several adaptations. Correlation of the VAS rating and overall ReproQ score (antepartum, postpartum) supported validity (r = 0.56; 0.59, p<0.001 Spearman's correlation coefficient). Pre-stated group comparisons confirmed the expected difference following a good vs. adverse birth outcome. Fully integrated organizations performed slightly better (median = 3.78) than less integrated organizations (median = 3.63; p<0.001). Participation rate of women with a low educational level and/or a non-western origin was low. Conclusions The ReproQ appears suitable for assessing quality of maternity care from the clients' perspective. Recruitment of disadvantaged groups requires additional non-digital approaches. PMID:25671310

Scheerhagen, Marisja; van Stel, Henk F.; Birnie, Erwin; Franx, Arie; Bonsel, Gouke J.

2015-01-01

374

Models of the Solar Atmospheric Response to Flare Heating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I will present models of the solar atmospheric response to flare heating. The models solve the equations of non-LTE radiation hydrodynamics with an electron beam added as a flare energy source term. Radiative transfer is solved in detail for many important optically thick hydrogen and helium transitions and numerous optically thin EUV lines making the models ideally suited to study the emission that is produced during flares. I will pay special attention to understanding key EUV lines as well the mechanism for white light production. I will also present preliminary results of how the model solar atmosphere responds to Fletcher & Hudson type flare heating. I will compare this with the results from flare simulations using the standard thick target model.

Allred, Joel

2011-01-01

375

Mathematical Modeling of Heterogeneous Electrophysiological Responses in Human ?-Cells  

PubMed Central

Electrical activity plays a pivotal role in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic -cells. Recent findings have shown that the electrophysiological characteristics of human -cells differ from their rodent counterparts. We show that the electrophysiological responses in human -cells to a range of ion channels antagonists are heterogeneous. In some cells, inhibition of small-conductance potassium currents has no effect on action potential firing, while it increases the firing frequency dramatically in other cells. Sodium channel block can sometimes reduce action potential amplitude, sometimes abolish electrical activity, and in some cells even change spiking electrical activity to rapid bursting. We show that, in contrast to L-type -channels, P/Q-type -currents are not necessary for action potential generation, and, surprisingly, a P/Q-type -channel antagonist even accelerates action potential firing. By including SK-channels and dynamics in a previous mathematical model of electrical activity in human -cells, we investigate the heterogeneous and nonintuitive electrophysiological responses to ion channel antagonists, and use our findings to obtain insight in previously published insulin secretion measurements. Using our model we also study paracrine signals, and simulate slow oscillations by adding a glycolytic oscillatory component to the electrophysiological model. The heterogenous electrophysiological responses in human -cells must be taken into account for a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying insulin secretion in health and disease, and as shown here, the interdisciplinary combination of experiments and modeling increases our understanding of human -cell physiology. PMID:24391482

Riz, Michela; Braun, Matthias; Pedersen, Morten Gram

2014-01-01

376

Cancer Genetics Professionals  

Cancer.gov

$data$data Cancer Genetics Professionals The information below is from the NCI Cancer Genetics Services Directory.  This directory lists professionals who provide services related to cancer genetics (cancer risk assessment, genetic counseling, genetic

377

Condoms and Healthcare professionals.  

E-print Network

?? Alarming S.T.I’s percentages and low condom use motivated this research. Healthcare professional’s risk-behavior and attitudes towards risk-behavior were reviewed. Three hypotheses, aimed to test… (more)

van Vliet, Esther

2011-01-01

378

Communicating with Healthcare Professionals  

MedlinePLUS

Communicating with Healthcare Professionals Updated:Feb 23,2012 Adapted from the National Family Caregivers Association A lot can be gained by improving communication between family caregivers and healthcare professionals. Positive outcomes include: Better care for the ...

379

A new emergency response model for MACCS. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Under DOE sponsorship, as directed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the MACCS code (version 1.5.11.1) [Ch92] was modified to implement a series of improvements in its modeling of emergency response actions. The purpose of this effort has been to aid the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) in its performance of the Level III analysis for the Savannah River Site (SRS) probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) of K Reactor [Wo90]. To ensure its usefulness to WSRC, and facilitate the new model`s eventual merger with other MACCS enhancements, close cooperation with WSRC and the MACCS development team at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) was maintained throughout the project. These improvements are intended to allow a greater degree of flexibility in modeling the mitigative actions of evacuation and sheltering. The emergency response model in MACCS version 1.5.11.1 was developed to support NRC analyses of consequences from severe accidents at commercial nuclear power plants. The NRC code imposes unnecessary constraints on DOE safety analyses, particularly for consequences to onsite worker populations, and it has therefore been revamped. The changes to the code have been implemented in a manner that preserves previous modeling capabilities and therefore prior analyses can be repeated with the new code.

Chanin, D.I.

1992-11-11

380

Metrics of whole-body vibration and exposure–response relationship for low back pain in professional drivers: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between alternative measures of exposure to whole-body vibration\\u000a (WBV) and low back pain (LBP) in professional drivers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The incidence of 12-month LBP, high pain intensity (numerical rating scale score > 5), and disability in the lower back (Roland\\u000a and Morris disability scale score ? 12) was investigated in a cohort of 537 drivers over

Massimo Bovenzi

2009-01-01

381

Physical model studies of seismic slope response and performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic slope stability has been an important topic in geotechnical earthquake engineering for many years. Seismic stability of slopes and embankments is typically assessed by (1) conducting pseudostatic analyses, which will provide a stability parameter (e.g. factor of safety), and by (2) estimating permanent deformations likely to be induced by earthquake shaking. Among these, estimating permanent deformations has recently attracted much attention, and it is the primary topic of this thesis. A series of 1-g small-scale soil slope tests were performed on the U.C. Berkeley, Davis Hall shaking table to provide well-documented scale-model case history data including slope geometries, material properties, and slope response and performance. For each model slope, three types of physical tests were conducted: (1) Geophysical hammer-hit tests (to estimate shear wave velocity of the model soil), (2) Low-amplitude frequency-sweep tests (to acquire site responses of the model slope under a small-strain condition), and (3) Large-amplitude shaking tests (to acquire the slope responses and deformations data under strong shaking condition). The experimental data were then compared with calculations made by various analytical procedures for verification and calibration. Direct use of the undrained shear strength of the model clay based on small vane shear tests led to some discrepancies. Factors that make the "representative" shear strengths of the model slopes differ from the values measured by the small vane shear tests are: (1) Shearing rate, (2) Progressive development of failure, (3) Number of significant pulses of the earthquake motion, and (4) Post-peak strength response. To understand the effect of the progressive development of failure on the clay's "representative" shear strength, the model clay was tested by a series of the large-scale direct shear tests (12 inches by 12 inches). Two vane shear tests with different scales (2.25 inches and 1 inch in diameter, respectively) were also performed using the same material. It was found that the peak strengths decreased with the increasing testing scales. Conversely, the failure displacement at peak strength increased with increasing testing scales (i.e. soil responses were more ductile with larger testing scale). A procedure was developed to adjust the soil strength (measured by the vane shear tests) based on these factors. It was found that both conventional and advanced FE analyses provided better estimates using the adjusted "representative" shear strengths. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Chen, Wei-Yu

382

The AECT Code of Professional Ethics: A Guide to Professional Conduct in the Field.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is the first in a new series that will explain the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) Code of Professional Ethics, and illustrate its influence on professional conduct. Concern about unethical conduct in a variety of professions is discussed, and some responses to it are described. (LRW)

Welliver, Paul

1989-01-01

383

Evaluation Competencies of Professional and Non-Professional Teachers in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers' job responsibility has changed significantly in recent years, and now, more than ever, there are pressing needs for high quality teachers to meet the goals of education for sustainable development, especially in developing countries. This timely study examined the relationship between professional and non-professional teachers'…

Ololube, Nwachukwu Prince

2008-01-01

384

Evaluation competencies of professional and non-professional teachers in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teachers’ job responsibility has changed significantly in recent years, and now, more than ever, there are pressing needs for high quality teachers to meet the goals of education for sustainable development, especially in developing countries. This timely study examined the relationship between professional and non-professional teachers’ evaluation competencies and its impact on testing complexities and student academic achievement in Nigeria.

Nwachukwu Prince Ololube

2008-01-01

385

Nonlinear response to electric field in extended Hubbard models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electric-field response of a one-dimensional ring of interacting fermions, where the interactions are described by the extended Hubbard model, is investigated. By using an accurate real-time propagation scheme based on the Chebyshev expansion of the evolution operator, we uncover various nonlinear regimes for a range of interaction parameters that allows modeling of metallic and insulating (either charge density wave or spin density wave insulators) rings. The metallic regime appears at the phase boundary between the two insulating phases and provides the opportunity to describe either weakly or strongly correlated metals. We find that the fidelity susceptibility of the ground state as a function of magnetic flux piercing the ring provides a very good measure of the short-time response. Even completely different interacting regimes behave in a similar manner at short time scales as long as the ground-state fidelity susceptibility is the same. Depending on the strength of the electric field we find various types of responses: persistent currents in the insulating phase, a dissipative regime, or damped Bloch-like oscillations with varying frequencies or even irregular in nature. Furthermore, we also consider the dimerization of the ring and describe the response of a correlated band insulator. In this case the distribution of the energy levels is more clustered and the Bloch-like oscillations become even more irregular.

Esfahani, D. Nasr; Covaci, L.; Peeters, F. M.

2014-11-01

386

Examining uncertainties in equilibrium climate sensitivity and transient climate response using an impulse-response model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some of the most anticipated and avidly discussed numbers in each iteration of the IPCC Working Group 1 assessment reports are the uncertainty estimates on the equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) and the transient climate response (TCR). Together these two numbers determine the time dependent global mean surface temperature response of the climate system to a radiative forcing perturbation. Constraining these two numbers is vital not only for understanding changes in any variable (such as precipitation) that scales well with changes in global mean temperature, but also for policy-relevant economic analysis of climate change impacts, adaptation and mitigation, where the TCR and ECS are crucial parameters. Despite the media attention paid to the IPCC's quantification of the TCR and ECS, it can be difficult to envisage the impact of the changes in TCR and ECS uncertainties between the 4th assessment report (AR4) and the fifth assessment report (AR5) on projections of future climate. We present an inversion of the two time constant impulse-response model for global mean surface temperature change under radiative forcing in which the TCR and ECS are supplied as explicit parameters to the model. Using this formulation we examine the impact of the new AR5 TCR and ECS ranges on future climate projections and further go on to show that the AR5 "likely" ranges in TCR and ECS space are more consistent with the dynamics shown by general circulation models than AR4's. An alternative to the use of general circulation models to estimate the TCR and ECS is attempting to constrain the two quantities using observations of the climate system in the 20th and 21st century. In contrast to the often-used "climate resistance" approximation, in which the temperatures respond immediately to changes in radiative forcing, we employ the two time-constant impulse-response function formulation to examine the importance of time lags on the surface temperature response to radiative forcing when estimating a likelihood profile for the TCR from observations. Early results indicate that the use of the "climate resistance" approximation when estimating TCR from the observations leads to a non-negligible underestimate of the transient response.

Millar, Richard; Otto, Alexander; Lowe, Jason; Allen, Myles

2014-05-01

387

Graduate Medical Education in Humanism and Professionalism: A Needs Assessment Survey of Pediatric Gastroenterology Fellows  

PubMed Central

The deterioration of humanism and professionalism during graduate medical training is an acknowledged concern, and programs are required to provide professionalism education for pediatric fellows. We conducted a needs assessment survey in a national sample of 138 first- and second-year gastroenterology fellows (82% response rate). Most believed that present humanism and professionalism education met their needs, but this education was largely informal (eg, role modeling). Areas for formal education desired by >70% included competing demands of clinical practice versus research, difficult doctor–patient relationships, depression/burnout, angry parents, medical errors, work–life balance, and the patient illness experience. These results may guide curricula to formalize humanism and professionalism education in pediatric gastroenterology fellowships. PMID:23863327

Garvey, Katharine C.; Kesselheim, Jennifer C.; Herrick, Daniel B.; Woolf, Alan D.; Leichtner, Alan M.

2014-01-01

388

Small Scale Response and Modeling of Periodically Forced Turbulence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The response of the small scales of isotropic turbulence to periodic large scale forcing is studied using two-point closures. The frequency response of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate, and the phase shifts between production, energy and dissipation are determined as functions of Reynolds number. It is observed that the amplitude and phase of the dissipation exhibit nontrivial frequency and Reynolds number dependence that reveals a filtering effect of the energy cascade. Perturbation analysis is applied to understand this behavior which is shown to depend on distant interactions between widely separated scales of motion. Finally, the extent to which finite dimensional models (standard two-equation models and various generalizations) can reproduce the observed behavior is discussed.

Bos, Wouter; Clark, Timothy T.; Rubinstein, Robert

2007-01-01

389

Ecological Acclimation and Hydrologic Response: Problem Complexity and Modeling Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elevated CO2 in the atmosphere leads to a number of acclimatory responses in different vegetation types. These may be characterized as structural such as vegetation height or foliage density, ecophysiological such as reduction in stomatal conductance, and biochemical such as photosynthetic down-regulation. Furthermore, the allocation of assimilated carbon to different vegetation parts such as leaves, roots, stem and seeds is also altered such that empirical allometric relations are no longer valid. The extent and nature of these acclimatory responses vary between C3 and C4 vegetation and across species. These acclimatory responses have significant impact on hydrologic fluxes both pertaining to water and energy with the possibility of large-scale hydrologic influence. Capturing the pathways of acclimatory response to provide accurate ecohydrologic response predictions requires incorporating subtle relationships that are accentuated under elevated CO2. The talk will discuss the challenges of modeling these as well as applications to soybean, maize and bioenergy crops such as switchgrass and miscanthus.

Kumar, P.; Srinivasan, V.; Le, P. V. V.; Drewry, D.

2012-04-01

390

Making to measure? Reconsidering assessment in professional continuing education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on studies of teachers, accountants and pharmacists conducted in Canada, this essay examines models for assessing professional learning that currently enjoy widespread use in continuing education. These models include professional growth plans, self-administered tests and learning logs, and they are often used for regulatory as well as developmental purposes by professional associations. The essay argues what others have critiqued

Tara Fenwick

2009-01-01

391

Professional Socialization in Nursing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professional socialization is the process by which individuals acquire the specialized knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, norms, and interests needed to perform their professional roles acceptably. The following interacting domains of potential professional self-growth can be defined as outcomes of the socialization process: self-image, role…

Edens, Geraldine E.

392

Professional Diversity in Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines issues of concern in the management of nonlibrarian professionals in research libraries, argued to be significantly different from the management of professional librarians. Differing professional value systems, conflicts and tension that can arise, and organizational teamwork are discussed with a focus on effective reward structures. (15…

Kaufman, Paula T.

1992-01-01

393

Planning Professional Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why does professional learning for educators have such a mixed history? Why is it so hard to find solid research evidence of professional development programs that actually improve student learning outcomes? Part of the answer, writes Thomas R. Guskey, is that professional learning experiences for educators are rarely well planned. Consequently,…

Guskey, Thomas R.

2014-01-01

394

ENERGETIC MATERIAL RESPONSE IN A COOKOFF MODEL VALIDATION EXPERIMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cookoff experiments described in this paper belong to the small-scale experimental portion of a three-year phased study of the slow cookoff problem. This paper presents the response of three energetic materials in a small-scale cookoff experiment. The experimental effort is being used to validate the cookoff models currently under development by the Department of Energy (DOE).1-2 In this phase

A. I. Atwood; P. O. Curran; D. T. Bui; T. L. Boggs; K. B. Lee

395

Thermomechanical response of HSLA65 steel plates: experiments and modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand and model the thermomechanical response of high-strength low-alloy steel (HSLA-65), uniaxial compression tests are performed on cylindrical samples, using an Instron servohydraulic testing machine and UCSD’s enhanced Hopkinson technique. True strains exceeding 60% are achieved in these tests, over the range of strain rates from 10?3\\/s to about 8500\\/s, and at initial temperatures from 77 to 1000 K.

Sia Nemat-Nasser; Wei-Guo Guo

2005-01-01

396

Five Models for Thinking About Disabilty: Implications for Policy Responses  

E-print Network

impact on the past and will affect the future. It encompasses many different kinds of study- economics, politics, biography, and, of course, the history of ideas and of professions. History in the disability context is especially concerned... and policy responses to disability. It connects our previous and taxonomies to five discipli think abo the professions that are most processes reflect societal affect policy. Beach Center on Disability HIGHLIGHTS we, M. J. (2001). Five models...

Turnbull, H. Rutherford; Stowe, Matthew J.

2001-01-01

397

Simulation Designs for Quadratic Response Surface Models in the Presence of Model Misspecification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the selection of experimental designs for the estimation of second-order response surface metamodels in a simulation environment. Rather than construct designs based on the premise that the postulated model exactly represents the simulated response, as is the case in optimal design theory, we assume that the estimation process may be biased by the presence of unfitted third-order

Joan M. Donohue; Ernest C. Houck; Raymond H. Myers

1992-01-01

398

Modelling of the Ultrasonic Response of Inclusions in Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study performed to model and predict the ultrasonic response of alumina inclusions in steels. The Born and the extended quasistatic approximations have been applied and modified to improve their accuracy in the framework of this application. The modified Born approximation, allowing to deal with various inclusion shapes, have been selected to be implemented in the CIVA software. The model reliability has been evaluated by comparison with Ying and Truell's exact analytical solution. In parallel, measurements have been carried out upon both natural and artificial alumina inclusions.

Darmon, Michel; Calmon, Pierre; Bèle, Bertrand

2003-03-01

399

Study on resistive wall mode based on plasma response model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A uniform framework, based on the frequency dependent plasma response model (PRM), is proposed to study the physics and control of the resistive wall mode (RWM). The PRM is constructed, respectively, from the Fitzpatrick-Aydemir model, from a cylindrical theory with multiple RWM, and, finally, from toroidal calculations. Based on the PRM, several important aspects of the RWM physics are studied, including the interplay between active feedback and plasma rotation to stabilize the mode, the efficiency of external versus internal active coils for the mode control and the resonant field amplification effect due to a rotationally damped RWM.

Liu, Yueqiang

2006-07-01

400

Dynamic modeling and response of rigid embedded cylinders  

SciTech Connect

Following a brief review of the limitations of a popular technique for modeling the soil action in analyses of the dynamic response of deeply embedded cylindrical foundations and structures, the sources of the limitations are identified and a modification is proposed which, while retaining the attractiveness of the original model, defines correctly the action of the system. In the proposed approach, the soil medium is modeled by a series of elastically constrained, rather than unconstrained, thin horizontal layers with a circular hole at the center. The impedances of the constrained layers are established and are then used to evaluate the dynamic response of a rigid vertical cylinder embedded in a uniform viscoelastic stratum of constant thickness and infinite extent in the horizontal direction. The cylinder and the stratum are presumed to be supported on a non-deformable base undergoing a uniform horizontal motion. The effects of both harmonic and earthquake induced ground motions are considered. The response quantities examined include the dynamic force per unit of cylinder height and the corresponding base shear and base moment. The system investigated simulates the design of underground storage tanks at Hanford for the storage of radioactive wastes.

Veletsos, A.S.; Younan, A.H.; Bandyopadhyay, K.

1994-10-01

401

Modeling of a rotor speed transient response with radial rubbing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rotor-stator model of a turbogenerator is introduced in order to investigate speed transients with rotor-to-stator rubbing caused by an accidental blade-off imbalance. In order to assess the angular deceleration of the rotor due to rubbing, the angular position of its cross-section is considered as an unknown of the problem. Displacement fields are discretized through a finite element formulation. The highly nonlinear equations due to contact conditions are solved through an explicit prediction-correction time-marching procedure combined with the Lagrange multiplier approach dealing with a node-to-line contact strategy. The developed numerical tool is suitable for analyzing rotor-stator interactions in turbomachines as the system passes through critical speeds during an accidental shutdown. The sensitivity of the system response to modeling, physical and numerical parameters is investigated. The results highlight the significant role of the friction coefficient together with the diaphragm modeling, from rigid to fully flexible, in the interaction phenomenon. Rigid models have the advantage of simplicity and provide reasonable estimations of the overall response of the turbine. A flexible model, however, may be more computationally intensive but is more appropriate in order to accurately capture quantities of interest such as shaft eccentricity and bearing loads.

Roques, S.; Legrand, M.; Cartraud, P.; Stoisser, C.; Pierre, C.

2010-03-01

402

Critical Issues in Early Childhood Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective teaching leads to positive student outcomes, and professional development for early childhood teachers is key to improving both. But what exactly is meant by "professional development"? What effect does it have on school readiness? Which models and approaches really work? This is the book the early childhood field needs to take the…

Zaslow, Martha, Ed.; Martinez-Beck, Ivelisse, Ed.

2005-01-01

403

Determining Learning Styles of the Professional Mountaineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to explore learning styles of the professional mountaineers. The research was carried out according to the survey model. The research group composed of 61 professional mountaineers (n[subscript (men)] = 45, n[subscript (women)] = 16) who attended Advanced Snow Ice Education Camp in Rize on September 1-7, 2012, the last camp of…

Bektas, Fatih

2013-01-01

404

Modeling and using a web-based and tutored portfolio to support certification of professional competence in transfusion medicine  

PubMed Central

In order to manage a nationwide assessment program leading to certification of professional competence in blood transfusion throughout France, the National Institute of Blood Transfusion (INTS) and the University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis designed and developed a structured and tutored web-based portfolio. The entire process of certification has been approved by the national healthcare agency (HAS). Eleven assessment programs have been written. The structure of this e-portfolio is based on a matrix of actions defined according to standards of practice. For each action, elements of proof are uploaded by the physician and peer-reviewed by an expert (a tutor) before validation. The electronic portfolio stores all the history of the actions performed by users. This tracking feature generates alerts which are e-mailed to users (physicians and tutors) according to a list of monitored events. After one year of design and development, the application is now being used routinely. PMID:18999167

Staccini, Pascal; Rouger, Philippe

2008-01-01

405

Estimating Derived Response Levels at the Savannah River Site for Use with Emergency Response Models  

SciTech Connect

Emergency response computer models at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are coupled with real-time meteorological data to estimate dose to individuals downwind of accidental radioactive releases. Currently, these models estimate doses for inhalation and shine pathways, but do not consider dose due to ingestion of contaminated food products. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has developed derived intervention levels (DIL) which refer to the radionuclide-specific concentration in food present throughout the relevant period of time, with no intervention, that could lead to an individual receiving a radiation dose equal to the protective action guide. In the event of an emergency, concentrations in various food types are compared with these levels to make interdictions decisions. Prior to monitoring results being available, concentrations in the environmental media (i.e. soil), called derived response levels (DRLs), can be estimated from the DILs and directly compared with computer output to provide preliminary guidance as to whether intervention is necessary. Site-specific derived response levels (DRLs) are developed for ingestion pathways pertinent to SRS: milk, meat, fish, grain, produce, and beverage. This provides decision-makers with an additional tool for use immediately following an accident prior to the acquisition of food monitoring data.

Simpkins, A.A.

2002-12-06

406

A Comparison of Model-Data Fit for Parametric and Nonparametric Item Response Theory Models Using Ordinal-Level Ratings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the model-data fit of a parametric item response theory (PIRT) model to a nonparametric item response theory (NIRT) model to determine the best-fitting model for use with ordinal-level alternate assessment ratings. The PIRT Generalized Graded Unfolding Model (GGUM) was compared to the NIRT Mokken model. Chi-square statistics…

Dyehouse, Melissa A.

2009-01-01

407

Computational fluid dynamics modeling for emergency preparedness and response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has played an increasing role in the improvement of atmospheric dispersion modeling. This is because many dispersion models are now driven by meteorological fields generated from CFD models or, in numerical weather prediction's terminology, prognostic models. Whereas most dispersion models typically involve one or a few scalar, uncoupled equations, the prognostic equations are a set of highly-coupled, nonlinear equations whose solution requires a significant level of computational power. Until recently, such computer power could be found only in CRAY-class supercomputers. Recent advances in computer hardware and software have enabled modestly-priced, high performance, workstations to exhibit the equivalent computation power of some mainframes. Thus desktop-class machines that were limited to performing dispersion calculations driven by diagnostic wind fields may now be used to calculate complex flows using prognostic CFD models. The Atmospheric Release and Advisory Capability (ARAC) program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has, for the past several years, taken advantage of the improvements in hardware technology to develop a national emergency response capability based on executing diagnostic models on workstations. Diagnostic models that provide wind fields are, in general, simple to implement, robust and require minimal time for execution. Such models have been the cornerstones of the ARAC operational system for the past ten years. Kamada (1992) provides a review of diagnostic models and their applications to dispersion problems. However, because these models typically contain little physics beyond mass-conservation, their performance is extremely sensitive to the quantity and quality of input meteorological data and, in spite of their utility, can be applied with confidence to only modestly complex flows.

Lee, R. L.; Albritton, J. R.; Ermak, D. L.; Kim, J.

1995-07-01

408

Modeling of broadband airborne electromagnetic responses from saline environments  

SciTech Connect

The removal of vegetation for the development of nonirrigated agriculture and the associated increase in groundwater recharge and discharge has caused significant areas of salinization of surface soil and water resources in Australia. At least three types of salt profiles are known to indicate the relative magnitude of recharge. These profiles may be differentiated by their resistivity structure. Since a broadband airborne electromagnetic (AEM) method offers the possibility of readily obtaining resistivity soundings, modeling was carried out to investigate the ability of a broadband AEM system to distinguish different salt profile types. Salt profile types may be represented by a four-layer resistivity model. The use of a broadband AEM system to distinguish the relative magnitude of the resistivity of a layer of high salt accumulation and the underlying layer forms the basis for efficiently identifying areas of high or low recharge. Where the resistivity of the underlying layer is greater than that of the salt accumulation, high recharge is indicated, and a lower resistivity of this layer implies low recharge. The response of each of the salt profile models was calculated in the frequency domain and then inverted back to a layered model. With noise added to the calculated responses, the inversion results show that the depth, thickness, and resistivity of a layer of high salt accumulation can be resolved by AEM measurements. Furthermore, the resistivity of this layer can be distinguished from the resistivity of the underlying layer.

Buselli, G.; Williamson, D.R. [CSIRO, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)] [CSIRO, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)

1996-11-01

409

Modeling thermally driven energetic response of high explosives  

SciTech Connect

We have improved our ability to model the response of energetic materials to thermal stimuli and the processes involved in the energetic response. Traditionally, the analyses of energetic materials have involved coupled thermal transport/chemical reaction codes. This provides only a reasonable estimate of the time and location of ensuing rapid reaction. To predict the violence of the reaction, the mechanical motion must be included in the wide range of time scales associated with the thermal hazard. The ALE3D code has been modified to assess the hazards associated with heating energetic materials in weapons by coupling to thermal transport model and chemistry models. We have developed an implicit time step option to efficiently and accurately compute the hours of heating to reaction of the energetic material. Since, on these longer time scales materials can be expected to have significant motion, it is even more important to provide high-order advection for all components, including the chemical species. We show two examples of coupled thermal/mechanical/chemical models of energetic materials in thermal environments.

Couch, R; McCallen, R C; Nichols III, A L; Otero, I; Sharp, R

1998-08-17

410

Modeling thermally driven energetic response of high explosives  

SciTech Connect

We have improved our ability to model the response of energetic materials to thermal stimuli and the processes involved in the energetic response. Traditionally, the analyses of energetic materials have involved coupled thermal transport/chemical reaction codes. This provides only a reasonable estimate of the time and location of ensuing rapid reaction. To predict the violence of the reaction, the mechanical motion must be included in the wide range of time scales associated with the thermal hazard. The ALE3D code has been modified to assess the hazards associated with heating energetic materials in weapons by coupling to thermal transport model and chemistry models. We have developed an implicit time step option to efficiently and accurately compute the hours of heating to reaction of the energetic material. Since, on these longer time scales materials can be expected to have significant motion, it is even more important to provide high-order advection for all components, including the chemical species. We show two examples of coupled thermal/mechanical/chemical models of energetic materials in thermal environments.

Sharp, R; Couch, R; McCallen, R C; Nichols III, A L; Otero, I

1998-02-01

411

Bioimpedance modeling to monitor astrocytic response to chronically implanted electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The widespread adoption of neural prosthetic devices is currently hindered by our inability to reliably record neural signals from chronically implanted electrodes. The extent to which the local tissue response to implanted electrodes influences recording failure is not well understood. To investigate this phenomenon, impedance spectroscopy has shown promise for use as a non-invasive tool to estimate the local tissue response to microelectrodes. Here, we model impedance spectra from chronically implanted rats using the well-established Cole model, and perform a correlation analysis of modeled parameters with histological markers of astroglial scar, including glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) and 4',6-diamidino-2- phenylindole (DAPI). Correlations between modeled parameters and GFAP were significant for three parameters studied: Py value, Ro and |Z|1 kHz, and in all cases were confined to the first 100 µm from the interface. Py value was the only parameter also correlated with DAPI in the first 100 µm. Our experimental results, along with computer simulations, suggest that astrocytes are a predominant cellular player affecting electrical impedance spectra. The results also suggest that the largest contribution from reactive astrocytes on impedance spectra occurs in the first 100 µm from the interface, where electrodes are most likely to record electrical signals. These results form the basis for future approaches where impedance spectroscopy can be used to evaluate neural implants, evaluate strategies to minimize scar and potentially develop closed-loop prosthetic devices.

McConnell, G. C.; Butera, R. J.; Bellamkonda, R. V.

2009-10-01

412

Intraspecific differences in bacterial responses to modelled reduced gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AIMS: Bacteria are important residents of water systems, including those of space stations which feature specific environmental conditions, such as lowered effects of gravity. The purpose of this study was to compare responses with modelled reduced gravity of space station, water system bacterial isolates with other isolates of the same species. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bacterial isolates, Stenotrophomonas paucimobilis and Acinetobacter radioresistens, originally recovered from the water supply aboard the International Space Station (ISS) were grown in nutrient broth under modelled reduced gravity. Their growth was compared with type strains S. paucimobilis ATCC 10829 and A. radioresistens ATCC 49000. Acinetobacter radioresistens ATCC 49000 and the two ISS isolates showed similar growth profiles under modelled reduced gravity compared with normal gravity, whereas S. paucimobilis ATCC 10829 was negatively affected by modelled reduced gravity. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that microgravity might have selected for bacteria that were able to thrive under this unusual condition. These responses, coupled with impacts of other features (such as radiation resistance and ability to persist under very oligotrophic conditions), may contribute to the success of these water system bacteria. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Water quality is a significant factor in many environments including the ISS. Efforts to remove microbial contaminants are likely to be complicated by the features of these bacteria which allow them to persist under the extreme conditions of the systems.

Baker, P. W.; Leff, L. G.

2005-01-01

413

Modeling In Vitro Cellular Responses to Silver Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely demonstrated to induce toxic effects to various cell types. In vitro cell exposure systems have high potential for reliable, high throughput screening of nanoparticle toxicity, allowing focusing on particular pathways while excluding unwanted effects due to other cells or tissue dosimetry. The work presented here involves a detailed biologically based computational model of cellular interactions with NPs; it utilizes measurements performed in human cell culture systems in vitro, to develop a mechanistic mathematical model that can support analysis and prediction of in vivo effects of NPs. The model considers basic cellular mechanisms including proliferation, apoptosis, and production of cytokines in response to NPs. This new model is implemented for macrophages and parameterized using in vitro measurements of changes in cellular viability and mRNA levels of cytokines: TNF, IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10. The model includes in vitro cellular dosimetry due to nanoparticle transport and transformation. Furthermore, the model developed here optimizes the essential cellular parameters based on in vitro measurements, and provides a “stepping stone” for the development of more advanced in vivo models that will incorporate additional cellular and NP interactions. PMID:25541583

Mukherjee, Dwaipayan; Royce, Steven G.; Sarkar, Srijata; Thorley, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Chung, Kian Fan; Tetley, Teresa D.; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

2014-01-01

414

Immune response modulation by curcumin in a latex allergy model  

PubMed Central

Background There has been a worldwide increase in allergy and asthma over the last few decades, particularly in industrially developed nations. This resulted in a renewed interest to understand the pathogenesis of allergy in recent years. The progress made in the pathogenesis of allergic disease has led to the exploration of novel alternative therapies, which include herbal medicines as well. Curcumin, present in turmeric, a frequently used spice in Asia has been shown to have anti-allergic and inflammatory potential. Methods We used a murine model of latex allergy to investigate the role of curcumin as an immunomodulator. BALB/c mice were exposed to latex allergens and developed latex allergy with a Th2 type of immune response. These animals were treated with curcumin and the immunological and inflammatory responses were evaluated. Results Animals exposed to latex showed enhanced serum IgE, latex specific IgG1, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, eosinophils and inflammation in the lungs. Intragastric treatment of latex-sensitized mice with curcumin demonstrated a diminished Th2 response with a concurrent reduction in lung inflammation. Eosinophilia in curcumin-treated mice was markedly reduced, co-stimulatory molecule expression (CD80, CD86, and OX40L) on antigen-presenting cells was decreased, and expression of MMP-9, OAT, and TSLP genes was also attenuated. Conclusion These results suggest that curcumin has potential therapeutic value for controlling allergic responses resulting from exposure to allergens. PMID:17254346

Kurup, Viswanath P; Barrios, Christy S; Raju, Raghavan; Johnson, Bryon D; Levy, Michael B; Fink, Jordan N

2007-01-01

415

Instrument Response Modeling and Simulation for the GLAST Burst Monitor  

SciTech Connect

The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) is designed to provide wide field of view observations of gamma-ray bursts and other fast transient sources in the energy range 10 keV to 30 MeV. The GBM is composed of several unshielded and uncollimated scintillation detectors (twelve NaI and two BGO) that are widely dispersed about the GLAST spacecraft. As a result, reconstructing source locations, energy spectra, and temporal properties from GBM data requires detailed knowledge of the detectors' response to both direct radiation as well as that scattered from the spacecraft and Earth's atmosphere. This full GBM instrument response will be captured in the form of a response function database that is derived from computer modeling and simulation. The simulation system is based on the GEANT4 Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation toolset, and is being extensively validated against calibrated experimental GBM data. We discuss the architecture of the GBM simulation and modeling system and describe how its products will be used for analysis of observed GBM data. Companion papers describe the status of validating the system.

Kippen, R. M.; Hoover, A. S.; Wallace, M. S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, 87545 (United States); Pendleton, G. N. [Dynetics, Inc., Huntsville, AL, 35806 (United States); Meegan, C. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Kouveliotou, C. [NASA/National Space Science and Technology Center - NSSTC, Huntsville, AL, 35899 (United States); Lichti, G. G.; Kienlin, A. von; Steinle, H.; Diehl, R.; Greiner, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Preece, R. D.; Connaughton, V.; Briggs, M. S.; Paciesas, W. S.; Bhat, P. N. [University of Alabama at Huntsville/NSSTC, Huntsville, AL, 35899 (United States)

2007-07-12

416

Value of Demand Response: Quantities from Production Cost Modeling (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Demand response (DR) resources present a potentially important source of grid flexibility particularly on future systems with high penetrations of variable wind and solar power generation. However, managed loads in grid models are limited by data availability and modeling complexity. This presentation focuses on the value of co-optimized DR resources to provide energy and ancillary services in a production cost model. There are significant variations in the availabilities of different types of DR resources, which affect both the operational savings as well as the revenue for each DR resource. The results presented include the system-wide avoided fuel and generator start-up costs as well as the composite revenue for each DR resource by energy and operating reserves. In addition, the revenue is characterized by the capacity, energy, and units of DR enabled.

Hummon, M.

2014-04-01

417

Parsimonious Hydrologic and Nitrate Response Models For Silver Springs, Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver Springs with an approximate discharge of 25 m3/sec is one of Florida's first magnitude springs and among the largest springs worldwide. Its 2500-km2 springshed overlies the mostly unconfined Upper Floridan Aquifer. The aquifer is approximately 100 m thick and predominantly consists of porous, fractured and cavernous limestone, which leads to excellent surface drainage properties (no major stream network other than Silver Springs run) and complex groundwater flow patterns through both rock matrix and fast conduits. Over the past few decades, discharge from Silver Springs has been observed to slowly but continuously decline, while nitrate concentrations in the spring water have enormously increased from a background level of 0.05 mg/l to over 1 mg/l. In combination with concurrent increases in algae growth and turbidity, for example, and despite an otherwise relatively stable water quality, this has given rise to concerns about the ecological equilibrium in and near the spring run as well as possible impacts on tourism. The purpose of the present work is to elaborate parsimonious lumped parameter models that may be used by resource managers for evaluating the springshed's hydrologic and nitrate transport responses. Instead of attempting to explicitly consider the complex hydrogeologic features of the aquifer in a typically numerical and / or stochastic approach, we use a transfer function approach wherein input signals (i.e., time series of groundwater recharge and nitrate loading) are transformed into output signals (i.e., time series of spring discharge and spring nitrate concentrations) by some linear and time-invariant law. The dynamic response types and parameters are inferred from comparing input and output time series in frequency domain (e.g., after Fourier transformation). Results are converted into impulse (or step) response functions, which describe at what time and to what magnitude a unitary change in input manifests at the output. For the hydrologic response model, frequency spectra of groundwater recharge and spring discharge suggest an exponential response model, which may explain a significant portion of spring discharge variability with only two fitting parameters (mean response time 2.4 years). For the transport model, direct use of nitrate data is confounded by inconsistent data and a strong trend. Instead, chloride concentrations in rainfall and at the spring are investigated as a surrogate candidate. Preliminary results indicate that the transport response function of the springshed as a whole may be of the gamma type, which possesses both a larger initial peak as well as a longer tail than the exponential response function. This is consistent with the large range of travel times to be expected between input directly into fast conduits connected to the spring (e.g., though sinkholes) and input or back-diffusion from the rock matrix. The result implies that reductions in nitrate input, especially at remote and hydraulically not well connected locations, will only manifest in a rather delayed and smoothed out form in concentration observed at the spring.

Klammler, Harald; Yaquian-Luna, Jose Antonio; Jawitz, James W.; Annable, Michael D.; Hatfield, Kirk

2014-05-01

418

Genomic responses in mouse models greatly mimic human inflammatory diseases  

PubMed Central

The use of mice as animal models has long been considered essential in modern biomedical research, but the role of mouse models in research was challenged by a recent report that genomic responses in mouse models poorly mimic human inflammatory diseases. Here we reevaluated the same gene expression datasets used in the previous study by focusing on genes whose expression levels were significantly changed in both humans and mice. Contrary to the previous findings, the gene expression levels in the mouse models showed extraordinarily significant correlations with those of the human conditions (Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient: 0.43–0.68; genes changed in the same direction: 77–93%; P = 6.5 × 10?11 to 1.2 × 10?35). Moreover, meta-analysis of those datasets revealed a number of pathways/biogroups commonly regulated by multiple conditions in humans and mice. These findings demonstrate that gene expression patterns in mouse models closely recapitulate those in human inflammatory conditions and strongly argue for the utility of mice as animal models of human disorders. PMID:25092317

2015-01-01

419

Response Of Ocean Carbon Export To Different Model Algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of climate change on the biological carbon pump (BCP) and vice-versa, and the influence of change in ecosystem structure on the dynamics of BCP are vital topics to understand the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and sequestration of greenhouse gases. Construction of a complete carbon budget, requires better understanding of air-sea exchanges and the processes controlling the vertical and horizontal transport of carbon in the ocean, particularly the biological carbon pump. Improved parameterization of carbon sequestration within ecosystem models is vital to better understand and predict changes in the global carbon cycle. However, due to the complexity of processes controlling particle aggregation, sinking and decomposition, existing ecosystem models necessarily parameterize carbon sequestration using simple algorithms. For this reason, the primary aim of this study is to provide new parameterizations of the downward flux of organic carbon, suitable for inclusion in numerical models. The study area was chosen to be the North Atlantic Basin (NA) and the surrounding shelf seas. In the scope of this study, first, the skill of existing models in representing particle fluxes were compared theoretically. The unique algorithms used in three state-of-the art ecosystem models ERSEM, PISCES and MEDUSA have been compared and tested against observational data collected at the PAP mooring site. For testing purposes, algorithms were inserted into a common 1D pelagic ecosystem model. Following comparison of existing algorithms, new experimental results obtained from targeted mesocosm experiments and open ocean observations, will be utilized to develop improved formulations. New algorithms will be compared to existing model formulations using a standard validation data set complied within the framework of BASIN. In order to assess algorithm response under differing hydrographic environments, each set of algorithms will be tested within a 1D framework at three sites in the N Atlantic (PAP, ESTOC and BATS). Ultimately it is intended to feed improved algorithms to the 3D modelling community, for inclusion in coupled numerical models.

Caglar Yumruktepe, Veli; Salihoglu, Baris; Kideys, Ahmet E.

2013-04-01

420

Assessing Model Data Fit of Unidimensional Item Response Theory Models in Simulated Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to give an example of how to assess the model-data fit of unidimensional IRT models in simulated data. Also, the present research aims to explain the importance of fit and the consequences of misfit by using simulated data sets. Responses of 1000 examinees to a dichotomously scoring 20 item test were simulated with 25…

Kose, Ibrahim Alper

2014-01-01

421

Integrative modeling of transcriptional regulation in response to antirheumatic therapy  

PubMed Central

Background The investigation of gene regulatory networks is an important issue in molecular systems biology and significant progress has been made by combining different types of biological data. The purpose of this study was to characterize the transcriptional program induced by etanercept therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Etanercept is known to reduce disease symptoms and progression in RA, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Results Using a DNA microarray dataset providing genome-wide expression profiles of 19 RA patients within the first week of therapy we identified significant transcriptional changes in 83 genes. Most of these genes are known to control the human body's immune response. A novel algorithm called TILAR was then applied to construct a linear network model of the genes' regulatory interactions. The inference method derives a model from the data based on the Least Angle Regression while incorporating DNA-binding site information. As a result we obtained a scale-free network that exhibits a self-regulating and highly parallel architecture, and reflects the pleiotropic immunological role of the therapeutic target TNF-alpha. Moreover, we could show that our integrative modeling strategy performs much better than algorithms using gene expression data alone. Conclusion We present TILAR, a method to deduce gene regulatory interactions from gene expression data by integrating information on transcription factor binding sites. The inferred network uncovers gene regulatory effects in response to etanercept and thus provides useful hypotheses about the drug's mechanisms of action. PMID:19703281

Hecker, Michael; Goertsches, Robert Hermann; Engelmann, Robby; Thiesen, Hans-Juergen; Guthke, Reinhard

2009-01-01

422

STELLOPT modeling of the 3D diagnostic response in ITER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ITER three-dimensional (3D) diagnostic response to an n = 3 resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) is modeled using the STELLOPT code. The in-vessel coils apply a RMP field which generates a 4 cm edge displacement from axisymmetry as modeled by the VMEC 3D equilibrium code. Forward modeling of flux loop and magnetic probe response with the DIAGNO code indicates up to 20% changes in measured plasma signals. Simulated LIDAR measurements of electron temperature indicate 2 cm shifts on the low-field side of the plasma. This suggests that the ITER diagnostic will be able to diagnose the 3D structure of the equilibria. Notice: This paper has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The publisher, by accepting the paper for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this Paper, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

Lazerson, S. A.; Chapman, I. T.

2013-08-01

423

Signalling Network Construction for Modelling Plant Defence Response  

PubMed Central

Plant defence signalling response against various pathogens, including viruses, is a complex phenomenon. In resistant interaction a plant cell perceives the pathogen signal, transduces it within the cell and performs a reprogramming of the cell metabolism leading to the pathogen replication arrest. This work focuses on signalling pathways crucial for the plant defence response, i.e., the salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene signal transduction pathways, in the Arabidopsis thaliana model plant. The initial signalling network topology was constructed manually by defining the representation formalism, encoding the information from public databases and literature, and composing a pathway diagram. The manually constructed network structure consists of 175 components and 387 reactions. In order to complement the network topology with possibly missing relations, a new approach to automated information extraction from biological literature was developed. This approach, named Bio3graph, allows for automated extraction of biological relations from the literature, resulting in a set of (component1, reaction, component2) triplets and composing a graph structure which can be visualised, compared to the manually constructed topology and examined by the experts. Using a plant defence response vocabulary of components and reaction types, Bio3graph was applied to a set of 9,586 relevant full text articles, resulting in 137 newly detected reactions between the components. Finally, the manually constructed topology and the new reactions were merged to form a network structure consisting of 175 components and 524 reactions. The resulting pathway diagram of plant defence signalling represents a valuable source for further computational modelling and interpretation of omics data. The developed Bio3graph approach, implemented as an executable language processing and graph visualisation workflow, is publically available at http://ropot.ijs.si/bio3graph/and can be utilised for modelling other biological systems, given that an adequate vocabulary is provided. PMID:23272172

Miljkovic, Dragana; Stare, Tjaša; Mozeti?, Igor; Podpe?an, Vid; Petek, Marko; Witek, Kamil; Dermastia, Marina; Lavra?, Nada; Gruden, Kristina

2012-01-01

424

Modeling aspects of the dynamic response of heterogeneous materials  

SciTech Connect

In numerical simulations of engineering applications involving heterogeneous materials capturing the local response coming from a distribution of heterogeneities can lead to a very large model thus making simulations difficult. The use of homogenization techniques can reduce the size of the problem but will miss the local effects. Homogenization can also be difficult if the constituents obey different types of constitutive laws. Additional complications arise if inelastic deformation. In such cases a two-scale approach is prefened and tills work addresses these issues in the context of a two-scale Finite Element Method (FEM). Examples of using two-scale FEM approaches are presented.

Ionita, Axinte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clements, Brad [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mas, Eric [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

425

Parallel finite element modeling of earthquake ground response and liquefaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parallel computing is a promising approach to alleviate the computational demand in conducting large-scale finite element\\u000a analyses. This paper presents a numerical modeling approach for earthquake ground response and liquefaction using the parallel\\u000a nonlinear finite element program, ParCYCLIC, designed for distributed-memory message-passing parallel computer systems. In\\u000a ParCYCLIC, finite elements are employed within an incremental plasticity, coupled solid-fluid formulation. A constitutive

Jinchi Lu; Jun Peng; Ahmed Elgamal; Zhaohui Yang; Kincho H. Law

2004-01-01

426

A model for the nonlinear mechanism responsible for cochlear amplification.  

PubMed

A nonlinear model for the mechanism responsible for the amplification of the sound wave in the ear is derived using the geometric and material properties of the system. The result is a nonlinear beam equation, with the nonlinearity appearing in a coefficient of the equation. Once derived, the beam problem is analyzed for various loading conditions. Based on this analysis it is seen that the mechanism is capable of producing a spatially localized gain, as required by any amplification mechanism, but it is also capable of increasing the spatial contrast in the signal. PMID:25365605

Fessel, Kimberly; Holmes, Mark H

2014-12-01

427

SPUF - a simple polyurethane foam mass loss and response model.  

SciTech Connect

A Simple PolyUrethane Foam (SPUF) mass loss and response model has been developed to predict the behavior of unconfined, rigid, closed-cell, polyurethane foam-filled systems exposed to fire-like heat fluxes. The model, developed for the B61 and W80-0/1 fireset foam, is based on a simple two-step mass loss mechanism using distributed reaction rates. The initial reaction step assumes that the foam degrades into a primary gas and a reactive solid. The reactive solid subsequently degrades into a secondary gas. The SPUF decomposition model was implemented into the finite element (FE) heat conduction codes COYOTE [1] and CALORE [2], which support chemical kinetics and dynamic enclosure radiation using 'element death.' A discretization bias correction model was parameterized using elements with characteristic lengths ranging from 1-mm to 1-cm. Bias corrected solutions using the SPUF response model with large elements gave essentially the same results as grid independent solutions using 100-{micro}m elements. The SPUF discretization bias correction model can be used with 2D regular quadrilateral elements, 2D paved quadrilateral elements, 2D triangular elements, 3D regular hexahedral elements, 3D paved hexahedral elements, and 3D tetrahedron elements. Various effects to efficiently recalculate view factors were studied -- the element aspect ratio, the element death criterion, and a 'zombie' criterion. Most of the solutions using irregular, large elements were in agreement with the 100-{micro}m grid-independent solutions. The discretization bias correction model did not perform as well when the element aspect ratio exceeded 5:1 and the heated surface was on the shorter side of the element. For validation, SPUF predictions using various sizes and types of elements were compared to component-scale experiments of foam cylinders that were heated with lamps. The SPUF predictions of the decomposition front locations were compared to the front locations determined from real-time X-rays. SPUF predictions of the 19 radiant heat experiments were also compared to a more complex chemistry model (CPUF) predictions made with 1-mm elements. The SPUF predictions of the front locations were closer to the measured front locations than the CPUF predictions, reflecting the more accurate SPUF prediction of mass loss. Furthermore, the computational time for the SPUF predictions was an order of magnitude less than for the CPUF predictions.

Hobbs, Michael L.; Lemmon, Gordon H.

2003-07-01

428

Numerical modeling of Thermal Response Tests in Energy Piles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, thermal response tests (TRT) are used as the main tools for the evaluation of low enthalpy geothermal systems such as heat exchangers. The results of TRT are used for estimating thermal conductivity and thermal resistance values of those systems. We present results of synthetic TRT simulations that model the behavior observed in an experimental energy pile system, which was installed at the new building of the Faculty of Engineering of Universidad de Chile. Moreover, we also present a parametric study to identify the most influent parameters in the performance of this type of tests. The modeling was developed using the finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics, which allows the incorporation of flow and heat transport processes. The modeled system consists on a concrete pile with 1 m diameter and 28 m deep, which contains a 28 mm diameter PEX pipe arranged in a closed circuit. Three configurations were analyzed: a U pipe, a triple U and a helicoid shape implemented at the experimental site. All simulations were run considering transient response in a three-dimensional domain. The simulation results provided the temperature distribution on the pile for a set of different geometry and physical properties of the materials. These results were compared with analytical solutions which are commonly used to interpret TRT data. This analysis demonstrated that there are several parameters that affect the system response in a synthetic TRT. For example, the diameter of the simulated pile affects the estimated effective thermal conductivity of the system. Moreover, the simulation results show that the estimated thermal conductivity for a 1 m diameter pile did not stabilize even after 100 hours since the beginning of the test, when it reached a value 30% below value used to set up the material properties in the simulation. Furthermore, we observed different behaviors depending on the thermal properties of concrete and soil. According to the simulations, the thermal conductivity of the soil is the most determinant parameter that affects the estimated thermal conductivity. For example, we observed differences of up to 50% from the expected value at the end of 100 hours of simulation for values of thermal conductivity of the soil in the range of 1 to 6 W/mK. Additionally, we observed that the results of the synthetic TRT depend upon several other parameters such as the boundary conditions used to model the interaction of the top face of the pile with the surrounding media. For example, Simulations with a constant temperature boundary condition tended to overestimate the total thermal conductivity of the whole system. This analysis demonstrates that numerical modeling is a useful tool to model energy pile systems and to interpret and design tests to evaluate their performance. Furthermore, it also reveals that the results of thermal response tests interpreted with analytical models must be evaluated with care for the assessment of the potential of low enthalpy systems, because their results depend upon a variety of factors which are neglected in the analytical models.

Franco, A.; Toledo, M.; Moffat, R.; Herrera, P. A.

2013-05-01

429

Modeling Brain Responses in an Arithmetic Working Memory Task  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate brain responses due to arithmetic working memory. Nine healthy young male subjects were given simple addition and subtraction instructions in noise and in quiet. The general linear model (GLM) and random field theory (RFT) were implemented in modelling the activation. The results showed that addition and subtraction evoked bilateral activation in Heschl's gyrus (HG), superior temporal gyrus (STG), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), supramarginal gyrus (SG) and precentral gyrus (PCG). The HG, STG, SG and PCG activate higher number of voxels in noise as compared to in quiet for addition and subtraction except for IFG that showed otherwise. The percentage of signal change (PSC) in all areas is higher in quiet as compared to in noise. Surprisingly addition (not subtraction) exhibits stronger activation.

Hamid, Aini Ismafairus Abd; Yusoff, Ahmad Nazlim; Mukari, Siti Zamratol-Mai Sarah; Mohamad, Mazlyfarina; Manan, Hanani Abdul; Hamid, Khairiah Abdul

2010-07-01

430

Desk-top model buildings for dynamic earthquake response demonstrations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Models of buildings that illustrate dynamic resonance behavior when excited by hand are designed and built. Two types of buildings are considered, one with columns stronger than floors, the other with columns weaker than floors. Combinations and variations of these two types are possible. Floor masses and column stiffnesses are chosen in order that the frequency of the second mode is approximately five cycles per second, so that first and second modes can be excited manually. The models are expected to be resonated by hand by schoolchildren or persons unfamiliar with the dynamic resonant response of tall buildings, to gain an understanding of structural behavior during earthquakes. Among other things, this experience will develop a level of confidence in the builder and experimenter should they be in a high-rise building during an earthquake, sensing both these resonances and other violent shaking.

Brady, A. Gerald

1992-01-01

431

Learning, Motivation, and Transfer: Successful Teacher Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I am concerned with three key issues of teacher professional development--teacher learning, motivation, and transfer of learning. Each issue has received minimal attention in teacher professional development literature. The three issues are discussed, and a model of an integrative professional development approach is outlined,…

McDonald, Lex

2012-01-01

432

Mentoring for Professional Geropsychology within a Doctoral Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mentoring in doctoral programs in professional psychology has its roots in mentoring in science programs of all types. Professional psychology in general may suffer from conflating mentoring with clinical supervision. Using the Pikes Peak Model competencies as a framework, mentoring in attitudes, knowledge, and skills related to professional

Knight, Bob G.

2011-01-01

433

Nursing attire: indicators of professionalism?  

PubMed

The purpose of this qualitative research was to explore the effect that current nursing attire has on the image of the nursing profession. A number of nurses and a nonnurse were interviewed to determine how attire affected their perception of today's nurses. The two research questions were as follows: (1) is the changing dress of nurses projecting a negative image to the public? and (2) What components of a nurse's apparel indicate professionalism? Content analysis was performed on transcriptions from the tape-recorded responses of a purposeful sample of health care workers: 12 registered nurses, 1 bachelor of nursing student, and 1 layperson. The responses for the first research question were not directly addressed by the participants. However, one overall theme emerged, which was labeled "I can't tell you what it is, but I know it when I see it." The main theme that emerged for the second research question was labeled "total package," with role identification and competency being related themes. As a result of this research, nursing administrators and other health care professionals could gain an understanding of the importance of nursing attire as an indicator of nursing professionalism. Future research needs to examine the same research questions with health care consumers in a variety of acute and community-based health care settings. PMID:10377629

Lehna, C; Pfoutz, S; Peterson, T G; Degner, K; Grubaugh, K; Lorenz, L; Mastropietro, S; Rogers, L S; Schoettle, B; Seck, L L

1999-01-01

434

Modeling Antiretroviral Drug Responses for HIV-1 infected Patients Using Differential Equation Models  

PubMed Central

Summary We review mathematical modeling and related statistical issues of HIV dynamics primarily in response to antiretroviral drug therapy in this article. We start from a basic model of virus infection and then review a number of more advanced models with considering, e.g., pharmacokinetic factors, adherence and drug resistance. Specifically, we illustrate how mathematical models can be developed and parameterized to understand effects of long-term treatment and different treatment strategies on disease progression. In addition, we discuss a variety of parameter estimation methods for differential equation models that are applicable to either within- or between-host viral dynamics. PMID:23603208

Xiao, Yanni; Miao, Hongyu; Tang, Sanyi; Wu, Hulin

2014-01-01

435

Building Ongoing and Sustained Professional Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The East Tennessee State University Science Partnership (ETSUSP) is bringing about a restructuring of the system as it pertains to building and maintaining ongoing and sustained professional development in science teaching and learning at the middle and high school levels in Northeast Tennessee. Through a collaborative relationship extending more than a decade with various funding agencies and local school districts in the Upper East Tennessee Educational Cooperative (UETEC), a professional development model for middle and high school science teachers emerged. The following sections describe each component of the model and provide insights into the ways in which the program is addressing professional development issues.

Wojnowski, Brenda; Rhoton, Jack

2006-01-01

436

Survival and Inflammatory Responses in Experimental Models of Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background Alternative experimental models of hemorrhage mimic particular conditions of clinical settings and provide advantages to analyze novel resuscitation treatments. Here, we compared alternative models of hemorrhage and analyzed the effects of resuscitation with Hextend. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent alternative models of hemorrhage: anesthetized without trauma, anesthetized with trauma, or conscious (unanesthetized) hemorrhage. Each model of hemorrhage includes three experimental groups: (C) control without hemorrhage or resuscitation treatment; (NR) animals with hemorrhage but without resuscitation; and (HX) animals with hemorrhage and resuscitation treatment with Hextend. Results Conscious animals required the highest hemorrhagic volume, whereas hemorrhage with trauma required the lowest blood volume withdrawal to achieve the same arterial pressure. Conscious hemorrhage exhibited the fastest mortality, but anesthetized animals with or without trauma had similar mortality kinetic. These survival rates did not correlate with blood chemistry, hemodynamic responses, or serum TNF and HMGB1 levels. Hemorrhage in conscious animals or anesthetized animals with trauma increased serum TNF levels by approximately 2-fold compared with hemorrhage in anesthetized animals without trauma. Animals in conscious hemorrhage had similar TNF increases in all the organs, but trauma induced a specific TNF overproduction in the spleen. Resuscitation with Hextend improved survival in all the experimental models, yet its survival benefits were statistically greater in anesthetized animals with trauma. The only two markers similar to the survival benefits of Hextend were the TNF levels in the lung and liver. Hextend significantly improved survival and inhibited pulmonary and hepatic TNF levels in all the experimental models. Conclusions The survival benefits of resuscitation with Hextend depended on the experimental models and did not correlate with blood chemistry, hemodynamic, or serum cytokine levels. However, resuscitation with Hextend inhibited TNF levels in the lung and the liver with a pattern that resembled the survival benefits. PMID:20189589

Cai, Bolin; Dong, Weihong; Sharpe, Susan; Deitch, Edwin A.; Ulloa, Luis

2011-01-01

437

Random walk model for viscoelastic response of glassy polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both theory and experiment suggest that reptation plays a minor role in the viscoelastic response of polymers in the glassy state. The time for reptation is so long that the entanglement network can be considered to be permanent, at least for deformation far below Tg. We have developed a network picture of a glassy polymer in which mechanical stresses and strains in the solid are represented in terms of forces and displacement in a harmonic lattice with nearest-neighbor interactions. The intermittent character of segmental motion in the glassy state is modelled in terms of the behavior of a two-state continuous time random walk, one state of which refers to mobilized segments and the second to immobilized segments. The pausing time density for segments in an immobilized state is taken to be negative exponential, and for mobile segments it has an asymptotic stable law form ?( t)? t-( ?+1) , where 0response of the network is a fourth-order correlation function which is readily found for a harmonic model. A comparison of the theoretical prediction will be made to experimental data on stress relaxation and recovery of glassy polycarbonate.

Bendler, John T.; Weiss, George H.

1990-09-01

438

Dynamic Response of Model Lipid Membranes to Ultrasonic Radiation Force  

PubMed Central

Low-intensity ultrasound can modulate action potential firing in neurons in vitro and in vivo. It has been suggested that this effect is mediated by mechanical interactions of ultrasound with neural cell membranes. We investigated whether these proposed interactions could be reproduced for further study in a synthetic lipid bilayer system. We measured the response of protein-free model membranes to low-intensity ultrasound using electrophysiology and laser Doppler vibrometry. We find that ultrasonic radiation force causes oscillation and displacement of lipid membranes, resulting in small (<1%) changes in membrane area and capacitance. Under voltage-clamp, the changes in capacitance manifest as capacitive currents with an exponentially decaying sinusoidal time course. The membrane oscillation can be modeled as a fluid dynamic response to a step change in pressure caused by ultrasonic radiation force, which disrupts the balance of forces between bilayer tension and hydrostatic pressure. We also investigated the origin of the radiation force acting on the bilayer. Part of the radiation force results from the reflection of the ultrasound from the solution/air interface above the bilayer (an effect that is specific to our experimental configuration) but part appears to reflect a direct interaction of ultrasound with the bilayer, related to either acoustic streaming or scattering of sound by the bilayer. Based on these results, we conclude that synthetic lipid bilayers can be used to study the effects of ultrasound on cell membranes and membrane proteins. PMID:24194863

Prieto, Martin Loynaz; Oralkan, Ömer; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.; Maduke, Merritt C.

2013-01-01

439

Development of a model to assess orthostatic responses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major change for crewmembers during weightlessness in microgravity is the redistribution of body fluids from the legs into the abdomen, thorax, and head. The fluids continue to be sequestered in these areas throughout the flight. Upon reentry into gravity on landing, these same body fluids are displaced again to their normal locations, however, not without hazardous incidence to the crewmembers. The problem remains that upon landing, crewmembers are subject to orthostasis, that is, the blood flowing into the legs reduces the blood supply to the brain and may result in the crewmember fainting. The purpose of this study was to develop a model of testing orthostatic responses of blood pressure regulating mechanisms of the cardiovascular system, when challenged, to maintain blood pressure to the brain. To accomplish this, subjects' responses were assessed as they proceeded from the supine position of progressive head-up tilt positions of 30 deg, 60 deg, and 90 deg angles. A convenience sample consisted of 21 subjects, females (N=11) and males (N=10), selected from a list of potential subjects available through the NASA subject screening office. The methodology included all non-invasive measurements of blood pressure, heart rate, echocardiograms, cardiac output, cardiac stroke volume, fluid shifts in the thorax, ventricular ejection and velocity times, and skin blood perfusion. The Fischer statistical analysis was done of all data with the significance level at .05. Significant differences were demonstrated in many instances of changes of posture for all variables. Based on the significance of the findings of this study, this model for assessing orthostatic responses does provide an adequate challenge to the blood pressure regulatory systems. While individuals may use different adaptations to incremental changes in gravity, the subjects, in aggregate, demonstrated significant adaptive cardiovascular changes to orthostatic challenges which were presented to them.

Rubin, Marilyn

1993-01-01

440

Modelling the shock response of a damageable anisotropic composite material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is the investigation of the effect of fibre orientation on the shock response of a damageable carbon fibre-epoxy composite (CFEC). A carbon fibre-epoxy composite (CFEC) shock response in the through-thickness orientation and in one of the fibre directions is significantly different. Modelling the effect of fibre orientation on the shock response of a CFEC has been performed using a generalised decomposition of the stress tensor [A.A. Lukyanov, Int. J. Plasticity 24, 140 (2008)] and an accurate extrapolation of high-pressure shock Hugoniot states to other thermodynamics states for shocked CFEC materials. The analysis of the experimental data subject to the linear relation between shock velocities and particle velocities has shown that damage softening process produces discontinuities both in value and slope in the generalized bulk shock velocity and particle velocity relation [A.A. Lukyanov, Eur Phys J B 74, 35 (2010)]. Therefore, in order to remove these discontinuities, the three-wave structure (non-linear anisotropic, fracture and isotropic elastic waves) that accompanies damage softening process is proposed in this work for describing CFEC behavior under shock loading. A numerical calculation shows that Hugoniot Stress Levels (HELs) agree with the experimental data for selected CFEC material in different directions at low and at high intensities. In the through-thickness orientation, the material behaves similar to a simple polymer. In the fibre direction, the proposed model explains a pronounced ramp, before at sufficiently high stresses, and a much faster rising shock above it. The results are presented and discussed, and future studies are outlined.

Lukyanov, Alexander A.

2012-09-01

441

Some Statistics for Assessing Person-Fit Based on Continuous-Response Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes several statistics for assessing individual fit based on two unidimensional models for continuous responses: linear factor analysis and Samejima's continuous response model. Both models are approached using a common framework based on underlying response variables and are formulated at the individual level as fixed regression…

Ferrando, Pere Joan

2010-01-01

442

The challenge of a distance learning professional doctorate in education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarises research into the effectiveness of a distance learning doctorate in education (EdD). Drawing on an emerging literature which attempts to conceptualise professional doctorates as distinctive from the PhD, we developed a case?study approach to investigate the EdD student experience. Four themes emerge which are developed into a model of professional outcomes: professionalisation; professional change; bridging the academic\\/professional

John Butcher; Sandy Sieminski

2006-01-01

443

Mathematical modeling and computation of the optical response from nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation studies the computational modeling for nanostructures in response to external electromagnetic fields. Light-matter interactions on nanoscale are at the heart of nano-optics. To fully characterize the optical interactions with nanostructures quantum electrodynamics (QED) must be invoked, however, the required extremely intense computation and analysis prohibit QED from applications in nano-optics. To avoid the expensive computations and be able to seize the essential quantum effects a semiclassical model is developed. The wellposedness of the model partial differential equations is established. Emphasis is placed on the optical interactions with an individual nanostructure, excitons and biexcitons effects and finite-size effects are investigated. The crucial step of our model is to couple the electromagnetic fields with the motion of the excited particles to yield a new dielectric constant which contains quantum effects of interest. A novel feature of the dielectric constant is the wavevector-dependence which leads to a multi-wave propagation inside the medium. Additional boundary conditions are proposed to deal with this situation. We proceed with incorporating this dielectric constant to Maxwell's equations, and by solving a scattering problem the quantum effects can be captured in the scattered spectra.

Sun, Yuanchang

444

Modeling habituation in rat EEG-evoked responses via a neural mass model with feedback  

PubMed Central

Habituation is a generic property of the neural response to repeated stimuli. Its strength often increases as inter-stimuli relaxation periods decrease. We propose a simple, broadly applicable control structure that enables a neural mass model of the evoked EEG response to exhibit habituated behavior. A key motivation for this investigation is the ongoing effort to develop model-based reconstruction of multimodal functional neuroimaging data. The control structure proposed here is illustrated and validated in the context of a biophysical neural mass model, developed by Riera et al. (Hum Brain Mapp 27(11):896–914, 2006; 28(4):335–354, 2007), and of simplifications thereof, using data from rat EEG response to medial nerve stimuli presented at frequencies from 1 to 8 Hz. Performance was tested by predictions of both the response to the next stimulus based on the current one, and also of continued stimuli trains over 4-s time intervals based on the first stimulus in the interval, with similar success statistics. These tests demonstrate the ability of simple generative models to capture key features of the evoked response, including habituation. PMID:22282292

Tadmor, Gilead; Diamond, Solomon G.; Miller, Eric; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Brooks, Dana H.

2012-01-01

445

A Generalized Measurement Model to Quantify Health: The Multi-Attribute Preference Response Model  

PubMed Central

After 40 years of deriving metric values for health status or health-related quality of life, the effective quantification of subjective health outcomes is still a challenge. Here, two of the best measurement tools, the discrete choice and the Rasch model, are combined to create a new model for deriving health values. First, existing techniques to value health states are briefly discussed followed by a reflection on the recent revival of interest in patients’ experience with regard to their possible role in health measurement. Subsequently, three basic principles for valid health measurement are reviewed, namely unidimensionality, interval level, and invariance. In the main section, the basic operation of measurement is then discussed in the framework of probabilistic discrete choice analysis (random utility model) and the psychometric Rasch model. It is then shown how combining the main features of these two models yields an integrated measurement model, called the multi-attribute preference response (MAPR) model, which is introduced here. This new model transforms subjective individual rank data into a metric scale using responses from patients who have experienced certain health states. Its measurement mechanism largely prevents biases such as adaptation and coping. Several extensions of the MAPR model are presented. The MAPR model can be applied to a wide range of research problems. If extended with the self-selection of relevant health domains for the individual patient, this model will be more valid than existing valuation techniques. PMID:24278141

Krabbe, Paul F. M.

2013-01-01

446

A population model of chaparral vegetation response to frequent wildfires.  

PubMed

The recent increase in wildfire frequency in the Santa Monica Mountains (SMM) may substantially impact plant community structure. Species of Chaparral shrubs represent the dominant vegetation type in the SMM. These species can be divided into three life history types according to their response to wildfires. Nonsprouting species are completely killed by fire and reproduce by seeds that germinate in response to a fire cue, obligate sprouting species survive by resprouting from dormant buds in a root crown because their seeds are destroyed by fire, and facultative sprouting species recover after fire both by seeds and resprouts. Based on these assumptions, we developed a set of nonlinear difference equations to model each life history type. These models can be used to predict species survivorship under varying fire return intervals. For example, frequent fires can lead to localized extinction of nonsprouting species such as Ceanothus megacarpus while several facultative sprouting species such as Ceanothus spinosus and Malosma (Rhus) laurina will persist as documented by a longitudinal study in a biological preserve in the SMM. We estimated appropriate parameter values for several chaparral species using 25 years of data and explored parameter relationships that lead to equilibrium populations. We conclude by looking at the survival strategies of these three species of chaparral shrubs under varying fire return intervals and predict changes in plant community structure under fire intervals of short return. In particular, our model predicts that an average fire return interval of greater than 12 years is required for 50 % of the initial Ceanothus megacarpus population and 25 % of the initial Ceanothus spinosus population to survive. In contrast, we predict that the Malosma laurina population will have 90 % survivorship for an average fire return interval of at least 6 years. PMID:24091781

Lucas, Timothy A; Johns, Garrett; Jiang, Wancen; Yang, Lucie

2013-12-01

447

New Modeling Approaches to Investigate Cell Signaling in Radiation Response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ionizing radiation damages individual cells and tissues leading to harmful biological effects. Among many radiation-induced lesions, DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) are considered the key precursors of most early and late effects [1] leading to direct mutation or aberrant signal transduction processes. In response to damage, a flow of information is communicated to cells not directly hit by the radiation through signal transduction pathways [2]. Non-targeted effects (NTE), which includes bystander effects and genomic instability in the progeny of irradiated cells and tissues, may be particularly important for space radiation risk assessment [1], because astronauts are exposed to a low fluence of heavy ions and only a small fraction of cells are traversed by an ion. NTE may also have important consequences clinical radiotherapy [3]. In the recent years, new simulation tools and modeling approaches have become available to study the tissue response to radiation. The simulation of signal transduction pathways require many elements such as detailed track structure calculations, a tissue or cell culture model, knowledge of biochemical pathways and Brownian Dynamics (BD) propagators of the signaling molecules in their micro-environment. Recently, the Monte-Carlo simulation code of radiation track structure RITRACKS was used for micro and nano-dosimetry calculations [4]. RITRACKS will be used to calculate the fraction of cells traversed by an ion and delta-rays and the energy deposited in cells in a tissue model. RITRACKS also simulates the formation of chemical species by the radiolysis of water [5], notably the .OH radical. This molecule is implicated in DNA damage and in the activation of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF), a signaling molecule involved in NTE. BD algorithms for a particle near a membrane comprising receptors were also developed and will be used to simulate trajectories of signaling molecules in the micro-environment and characterize autocrine and paracrine cell communication and signal transduction.

Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Ponomarev, Artem L.

2011-01-01

448

The Future of Professional Development Will Be Designed, Not Discovered: Response to Moon, Passmore, Reiser, and Michaels, "Beyond Comparisons of Online versus Face-to-Face PD"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article represents a response to the authors' "Journal of Teacher Education" ("JTE") article (Fishman et al., 2013) by Moon, Passmore, Reiser, and Michaels (2013). The authors believe that Moon et al. have properly identified both the value in their study and the importance of moving beyond not only their study, but…

Fishman, Barry; Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Kubitskey, Beth W.; Vath, Richard; Park, Gina; Johnson, Heather; Edelson, Daniel

2014-01-01

449

Engaging field-based professionals in a qualitative assessment of barriers and positive contributors to breastfeeding using the social ecological model.  

PubMed

Despite broad recognition of benefits associated with breastfeeding, rates in the United States continue to be below targets established by Healthy People 2020, especially for economically disadvantaged women. This study engaged field-based professionals through a focus group process to collect perceptions on factors that determine a woman's decision to breastfeed. Field-based professionals participated in one of six focus groups. Following the social ecological model (SEM), focus group questions addressed barriers and contributors to breastfeeding at the individual, interpersonal, community, organizational, and public policy levels. Thematic content analysis was used in identifying, analyzing, and reporting on themes within the focus group data. Commonly reported themes were identified that negatively influence a mother's decision to breastfeed such as modesty/general discomfort to breastfeed in front of others, negative breastfeeding perceptions of family members, friends, boyfriends and co-workers, breastfeeding not being viewed as the societal "norm", and the availability of free formula samples. Despite identified barriers, commonly reported themes that positively influence a mother's decision to breastfeed included general knowledge on the benefits, positive breastfeeding perceptions of family members, friends, boyfriends, and co-workers, the availability of "mom and baby" groups, and Baby Friendly hospital practices. The findings provide field-based perspectives that identify opportunities to support breastfeeding through the lens of the SEM. Opportunities to better support breastfeeding include educating mothers and their social support systems on the specific benefits of breastfeeding, challenging existing breastfeeding norms, and working with hospitals on establishing policy to not provide free formula samples. PMID:24740721

Dunn, Rebecca L; Kalich, Karrie A; Henning, Margaret J; Fedrizzi, Rudolph

2015-01-01

450

Cell Lines Models of Drug Response: Successes and Lessons from this Pharmacogenomic Model  

PubMed Central

A new standard for medicine is emerging that aims to improve individual drug responses through studying associations with genetic variations. This field, pharmacogenomics, is undergoing a rapid expansion due to a variety of technological advancements that are enabling higher throughput with reductions in cost. Here we review the advantages, limitations, and opportunities for using lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) as a model system for human pharmacogenomic studies. There are a wide range of publicly available resources with genome-wide data available for LCLs from both related and unrelated populations, removing the cost of genotyping the data for drug response studies. Furthermore, in contrast to human clinical trials or in vivo model systems, with high-throughput in vitro screening technologies, pharmacogenomics studies can easily be scaled to accommodate large sample sizes. An important component to leveraging genome-wide data in LCL models is association mapping. Several methods are discussed herein, and include multivariate concentration response modeling, issues with multiple testing, and successful examples of the ‘triangle model’ to identify candidate variants. Once candidate gene variants have been determined, their biological roles can be elucidated using pathway analyses and functionally confirmed using siRNA knockdown experiments. The wealth of genomics data being produced using related and unrelated populations is creating many exciting opportunities leading to new insights into the genetic contribution and heritability of drug response. PMID:25109794

Jack, J.; Rotroff, D.; Motsinger-Reif, A.

2015-01-01

451

The Textual Representation of Professionalism: Problematising Professional Standards for Teachers in the UK Lifelong Learning Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problematisation of the professional standards for teachers in the UK lifelong learning sector tends to focus on the discourses that the standards embody: discourses that are posited as being based on a restricted or technicist model of professionalism, that fail sufficiently to recognise the lived experiences of teachers within the sector…

Tummons, Jonathan

2014-01-01

452

Professional Standards for Physical Education Teachers' Professional Development: Technologies for Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The widespread and diverse models of professional standards for teaching raise questions with respect to the need to provide teachers with a pathway for continuing professional development balanced with the public nature of surveillance and accountability that may accompany standards. Ways of understanding technologies of power in…

Macdonald, Doune; Mitchell, Jane; Mayer, Diane

2006-01-01

453

Professionalism. Beginnings Workshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents four articles about professionalism in early childhood education: "Early Childhood Education as an Emerging Profession: Ongoing Conversations" (Stephanie Feeney and Nancy Freeman); "Voices in Search of Cultural Continuity in Communities" (Marion Cowee and others); "Early Childhood Professionals: Current Status and Projected Needs" (Ann…

Feeney, Stephanie; And Others

2002-01-01

454

Professional Seminar for  

E-print Network

Research Coursework PSY 200A. Professional Seminar for First-Year Ph.D Graduate Students. I PSY 200B Professional Seminar for First-Year Ph.D. Graduate Students I PSY 202A Advanced Psychological Statistics I I PSY 202B Advanced Psychological Statistics I I PSY 202C: Multivariate Analysis D D PSY 204. Research

Westerling, Anthony L.

455

Professional Learning through Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This practice article explores the relationship between practice and professional learning. Are these two distinctly separate activities, competing for the time of a staff member, or are practice and learning linked? If so, what is the nature of this link and how can we best align professional learning with practice outcomes? Using an example from…

Ford, Jill

2006-01-01

456

Let's Act Like Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses some of the most serious challenges--intellectual, institutional, and political--that he sees for the future of professional learning in education. He states that one common solution to these challenges would be for educators to begin to act more like professionals. One thing is clear about the early stages of…

Elmore, Richard F.

2007-01-01

457

Professional for teaching and  

E-print Network

The UK Professional Standards Framework for teaching and supporting learning in higher education Standards Framework for Teaching and Supporting Learning in Higher Education. The idea of a framework for professional standards for teaching and supporting learning in higher education was proposed in the White Paper

Mumby, Peter J.

458

Professional Development for You  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

No Child Left Behind's emphasis on accountability and demands for a quality teacher in every classroom has spawned a cottage industry of providers of professional development. How can educators begin to sort through them all to find the right choice? This article provides some suggestions for providing relevant, meaningful professional development.

Kaser, Joyce S.

2004-02-01

459

Professional Learning from within  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this commentary on the paper by the Bank Street Reading and Literacy Alumnae Group, Korthagen states that, while it provides an excellent example of how fruitful professional development can be when it is grounded in the needs and strengths of the people involved; regretfully, many traditional approaches to professional development are based on…

Korthagen, Fred A. J.

2009-01-01

460

Authentic Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Choosing Higher Options in Community Education (CHOICE) Alternative School is devoted to professional development. This report documents the need for and planning of sustained and supported professional development for 4 staff members at the CHOICE Alternative School in Jamestown, New York. There was no focused plan or vision for staff development…

Kenneson, Paula M.

1999-01-01

461

Professional Development & Student Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professional development is viewed from several perspectives--time, funding, planning, and student outcomes--and includes both an urban and a rural story. This issue provides a special pullout section designed as a checklist to help guide professional development planning activities. The following articles are included: "Perspectives on Managing…

Kroeger, Marianne, Ed.; Blaser, Stephanie, Ed.; Raack, Lenaya, Ed.; Cooper, Cinder, Ed.; Kinder, Ann, Ed.

2000-01-01

462

Radon Training for Professionals  

E-print Network

Radon Training for Professionals 2008-2009 www.cce.umn.edu/radon Regional Radon Training Center of Continuing Education, Kansas State University #12;WHAT IS THE MIDWEST UNIVERSITIES RADON CONSORTIUM (MURC)? MURC is a University-based world leader in radon training for professionals with a focus on North

Netoff, Theoden