Sample records for professional responsibility model

  1. First-Grade Teachers' Response to Three Models of Professional Development in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Joanne F.; Cortina, Kai Schnabel; Katz, Lauren A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare 1st-grade teachers' responses to professional development (PD) programs in reading that differed in means and degree of support for teachers' learning and efforts to improve their reading instruction. We compared 3 models of PD: the 1st model provided only seminars for the teachers, the 2nd model provided…

  2. Bringing Professional Responsibility Back in

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solbrekke, Tone Dyrdal; Englund, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Research on how higher education institutions work with professional formation indicates that insufficient attention is currently paid to issues of professional responsibility and ethics. In the light of such findings, there is increasing concern about issues related to learning professional responsibility. This article concentrates on different…

  3. Leadership Responsibilities of Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitstifer, Dorothy I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a leadership development model that raises the question "Leadership for what?" Leadership is about going somewhere-personally and in concert with others-in an organization. Although leadership, especially position (elected or appointed) leadership, often is discussed in terms of leader qualities and skills, the…

  4. Commentary: Taking Responsibility for Professional Development

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Steven Long

    2004-12-01

    The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 contains numerous references to "high-quality professional development. The quantity and the quality of professional development are critical issues in the NCLB Act with direct impact on student achievement. Research proves that the most important factor in student achievement is the quality of the teacher. In this month's opinion piece, the author encourages teachers to take responsibility for their own professional development by becoming more involved in planning and developing their professional growth. The end result will be meaningful personal growth for educators and increased student achievement!

  5. Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (CPSR)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (CPSR) WWW server. CPSR is a non-profit, public interest organization concerned with the effects of computers on society. CPSR is supported by its membership and has chapters throughout the country.

  6. A Professional Development Model for Technical Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selman, James W.; Shum, Ronald M.

    Drawing from research and related literature on successful staff development activities, a professional development model was developed and implemented at J. F. Ingram Technical College (JFITC) in Alabama. Designed to serve the professional development needs of support staff, apprentice and master teachers, and administrators, the model provides…

  7. From the Teachers Professional Ethics to the Personal Professional Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seghedin, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Following the idea of civic responsibility of all adults for the new generation, we have tried, in different previous studies, to demonstrate that teaching is involving a lot of moral principles and values. Our present article aim is to present a part of our research about the teaching ethics under the idea of being a stable dimension of teaching…

  8. Transformative Professional Development: A Model for Urban Science Education Reform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carla C. Johnson; Sherry Marx

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a model of Transformative Professional Development (TPD) for use in sustained, collaborative, professional\\u000a development of teachers in urban middle school science. TPD focuses on urban science teacher change and is responsive to school\\u000a climate, teacher needs, and teacher beliefs with the intention of promoting change in practice. In this study, TPD was used\\u000a to meet the needs

  9. 14 CFR 120.113 - Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities...113 Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities...specimen test result. (c) Substance Abuse Professional (SAP)....

  10. 14 CFR 120.113 - Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities...113 Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities...specimen test result. (c) Substance Abuse Professional (SAP)....

  11. 14 CFR 120.113 - Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities...113 Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities...specimen test result. (c) Substance Abuse Professional (SAP)....

  12. 14 CFR 120.113 - Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities...113 Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities...specimen test result. (c) Substance Abuse Professional (SAP)....

  13. The Professional Context as a Predictor for Response Distortion in the Adaption-Innovation Inventory--An Investigation Using Mixture Distribution Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Sebastian; Freund, Philipp Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The Adaption-Innovation Inventory (AII), originally developed by Kirton (1976), is a widely used self-report instrument for measuring problem-solving styles at work. The present study investigates how scores on the AII are affected by different response styles. Data are collected from a combined sample (N = 738) of students, employees, and…

  14. Professional Learning Communities: A Middle School Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, David N.

    2010-01-01

    This research project explored the transition from a traditional model to a Professional Learning Community model in a NJ Middle School. The administration overcame obstacles during the transition such as scheduling conflicts, teacher apathy, and resistance. This action research study gathered data to determine how to best structure the…

  15. A New Training Model: Professional Child Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carboy, John J.; Curley, James F.

    1976-01-01

    School psychology certification implies limited opportunities in so far as it provides for a narrow age range and functioning within a public school setting. Child psychology as a professional model should encompass school psychology training, but broaden its scope to include children of all ages from infancy to adolescence. (Author)

  16. 28 CFR 16.80 - Exemption of Office of Professional Responsibility System-limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Professional Responsibility System-limited access. 16.80...Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR...INFORMATION Exemption of Records Systems Under the Privacy Act § 16...Professional Responsibility System—limited access....

  17. Exploring Professional Identity in Response to Curriculum Reform and Professional Development: The Teaching Life Stories of Chemistry Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Gayle D.

    This study contributes to the existing literature in teacher education on teacher professional identity (Beijaard, Meijer & Verloop, 2004; Lamote & Engels, 2010; Rots, 2007), particularly in response to curriculum change and professional development. It proposes to offer a much better understanding of how chemistry teachers’ professional identities have evolved through their school and work experiences, and the tensions they experience associated with their beliefs about teaching and learning and their actual practice. Specifically, this study aims to identify how teachers' professional identities have evolved following the introduction of the latest chemistry curricula in Manitoba. These latest chemistry curricula advocate for a more learner focused 'tetrahedral orientation' (Mahaffy, 2004) teaching practice that supports chemistry learning through the use of Johnstone's (1991) three modes of representation - the symbolic, macroscopic and molecular levels - as well as a human element dimension. This study also aims to identify how teachers' professional identities have evolved following their participation in long-term professional development offered by teacher educators at the University of Manitoba. Additionally, this study aims to determine whether teachers feel they have experienced tensions associated with their beliefs about teaching and learning and their current teaching practices as a result of sustained professional development. Finally, this study aims to determine whether the curriculum changes and associated professional development have led teachers to think about and reflect more on their teaching practice and whether this has led to a change in their beliefs about teaching and learning and their teaching practice. Urie Bronfenbrenner's (1979) Model of the Ecology of Human Development was used as a theoretical framework for this study. This study was informed by semi-structured interviews involving 32 teachers of chemistry that were conducted during the fourth phase of a five-year research and development project supported by the University of Manitoba's Centres for Research in Youth, Science Teaching and Learning (CRYSTAL). These interviews suggested that teachers have experienced some tensions associated with their beliefs about teaching and learning and their current teaching practices. The study further elicited data from eight of these 32 teachers via a qualitative narrative inquiry study employing narrative interviews to reveal teachers' perceptions of their evolving professional identities and chemistry teaching practices. Teaching life stories constructed from the narrative interview data revealed that these teachers feel that their professional identities have evolved through their school and work experiences, and that a change in curricula followed by supportive professional development has caused these teachers to reflect more on their teaching practices. Furthermore, though these teachers indicated that they have experienced tensions associated with how they want to teach and their actual teaching practices, they feel they have experienced a shift in their beliefs about teaching and learning such that they feel their teaching practices have improved through their more consistent use of the four modes of representation in chemistry learning. The qualitative data show, however, that these teachers still feel that they have a long way to go to achieve a truly learner focused classroom practice where these four modes of chemistry learning are being used the majority of the time. The study closes by recommending that a much broader study be undertaken to include more teachers of chemistry in Manitoba to verify and add to the findings of this study, among other suggestions.

  18. Modeling the Information Seeking of Professionals: A General Model Derived from Research on Engineers, Health Care Professionals, and Lawyers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leckie, Gloria J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents an overview of the literature concerning the information-seeking behavior of engineers, health care professionals, and lawyers and examines professional information-seeking models. Proposes an original model of information-seeking processes that would be applicable to professionals working in any field. Contains 90 references. (JMV)

  19. A Theoretical Model of Biomedical Professionals' Legitimization of Alternative Therapies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motoko Yoshida

    2002-01-01

    Alternative therapies receive mixed recognition from biomedical professionals. In this article, a theoretical model of biomedical professionals' legitimization of alternative therapies is proposed, drawing on the sociologies of profession, science, and innovation. The model consists of four components corresponding to the different ways of legitimizing a certain alternative therapy: the biomedicine model, the paradigm shift model, the specialization model, and

  20. Response to Section II: What's Needed Now--Professional Development Schools and the Professionalization of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, A. Lin

    2011-01-01

    The professional development schools (PDS) effort, which grew out of the groundbreaking work of the Holmes Group (1986), was deliberately focused on the support and advancement of teachers as professionals and the professionalization of teaching, so the author argues that it is ironic that a volume about PDS might be seen as voicing an opinion…

  1. School Nurse Summer Institute: A Model for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neighbors, Marianne; Barta, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The components of a professional development model designed to empower school nurses to become leaders in school health services is described. The model was implemented during a 3-day professional development institute that included clinical and leadership components, especially coalition building, with two follow-up sessions in the fall and…

  2. The corporate organization of hospital work: balancing professional and administrative responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Stoeckle, J D; Reiser, S J

    1992-03-01

    The development of the hospital into a corporation has influenced the care of patients and the work of the professional staff. As a corporate enterprise, the modern hospital has a private agenda aimed at increasing growth and efficiency with an emphasis on technical services, professionals as employees, and patients as customers. These changes have resulted in a decrease in trustee and professional authority and an increase in administrative control. This shift in the control structure has continued in response to the need for accounting and regulation of services and in response to demands for increased growth and efficiency made by an increasingly competitive market environment. Strategies for the reorganization of hospital staff aimed at improving both inpatient and outpatient care are reviewed. The reorganization of the institution and staff, using either a staff group-practice corporation or an administrative staff model, is proposed. Clinicians have new responsibilities for developing collective arrangements for institutional governance, for allocating institutional resources, for providing public accountability regarding the use of these resources, and for defining the missions of care. PMID:1736774

  3. Addressing the marketplace mentality and improving professionalism in dental education: response to Richard Masella's "Renewing professionalism in dental education".

    PubMed

    Botto, Ronald W

    2007-02-01

    Richard Masella has written a very thought-provoking article that makes many excellent arguments regarding critical issues about professionalism in dental education. Rather than focus on minor points of contention, this response to his article highlights two main areas for further discussion. The first is the impact of the "marketplace" mentality and how there needs to be a balance between fiscal responsibility and ethical and professional responsibility. Changes in language are suggested as a starting point. Instead of using the term "productivity" to describe the goal, we need to focus on the process of behaving ethically, effectively, and efficiently in the provision of care to patients as well as in general professional behavior. The second major emphasis is on recommendations for improving the ethical climate of the dental college community and the teaching, exhibition, and celebration of professionalism. Included in this area are discussions of white coat ceremonies and honor codes, as well as the importance of recognizing the impact of the hidden curriculum in dental ethical education. Masella has made a major contribution by bringing forth strong arguments for discussing whether dental education truly is committed to teaching professionalism in a way that has meaning and impact rather than simply complying with accreditation standards. While there are certainly several points that appear to be speculative and could be debated in Masella's article, he has provided a valuable catalyst for discussion and introspection by identifying critical issues for both dental education and organized dentistry to address. PMID:17314382

  4. Social contract theory as a foundation of the social responsibilities of health professionals.

    PubMed

    Welie, Jos V M

    2012-08-01

    This paper seeks to define and delimit the scope of the social responsibilities of health professionals in reference to the concept of a social contract. While drawing on both historical data and current empirical information, this paper will primarily proceed analytically and examine the theoretical feasibility of deriving social responsibilities from the phenomenon of professionalism via the concept of a social contract. PMID:22002433

  5. The Social Responsibility Performance Outcomes Model: Building Socially Responsible Companies through Performance Improvement Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim

    2000-01-01

    Considers the role of performance improvement professionals and human resources development professionals in helping organizations realize the ethical and financial power of corporate social responsibility. Explains the social responsibility performance outcomes model, which incorporates the concepts of societal needs and outcomes. (LRW)

  6. Developing, implementing, and evaluating a professional practice model.

    PubMed

    Basol, Roberta; Hilleren-Listerud, Amy; Chmielewski, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how The Compass, a professional practice model (PPM), was developed through clinical nurse involvement, review of literature, expert opinion, and an innovative schematic. Implementation was supported through a dynamic video account of a patient story, interwoven with The Compass. Postproject evaluation of PPM integration demonstrates opportunities for professional nursing development and future planning. PMID:25479174

  7. Professional versus Occupational Models of Work Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Stan

    2014-01-01

    In addition to the familiar occupational standards that underpin National Vocational Qualifications, the UK has a parallel if less complete system of competence or practice standards that are developed and controlled by professional bodies. While there is a certain amount of overlap between the two types of standard, recent research points to a…

  8. Professional Practice Schools: Building a Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Marsha; And Others

    This report summarizes the discussions of a task force which focused on the concept of professional practice schools. These schools are public elementary, middle, or secondary schools which are structured, staffed, and supported to achieve three goals: student achievement, teacher induction, and support of research directed at the continuous…

  9. Modeling Teacher Professional Development Through a Telescope Making Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, J. T.; Schleigh, S. P.; Lee, T. D.

    2010-08-01

    The International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009) provides a springboard to develop innovative enduring educational programming directed toward astronomy education. We examine current professional development models focusing on astronomy and discuss the need for improvement. We propose a professional development design that follows the medical field philosophy using a low cost telescope making workshop as a vehicle to test and modify the model. The workshop promotes teacher content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge and develops skills and confidence in an inquiry, integrative lesson. This model can be shared with professional development leaders, coordinators and teachers in any topic or level of education. Professional development designs such as the proposed promote excitement and interest in astronomy and makes it possible for underserved and economically depressed regions to have opportunities to promote the values of scientific investigation, STEM education, and public awareness of astronomy.

  10. Overlooked aspects in the education of science professionals: Mentoring, ethics, and professional responsibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie J. Bird

    1994-01-01

    Science as profession is generally defined narrowly as research. Science education as preparation for a profession in research is usually perceived as course work and laboratory training, even though the necessary knowledge and skills to pursue a research career are more extensive and diverse and are learned in one-on-one interaction with mentors. A complete education of science professionals includes the

  11. Beyond the Game: Perceptions and Practices of Corporate Social Responsibility in the Professional Sport Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hela Sheth; Kathy M. Babiak

    2010-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is an area of great interest, yet little is known about how CSR is perceived and practiced\\u000a in the professional sport industry. This study employs a mixed-methods approach, including a survey, and a qualitative content\\u000a analysis of responses to open-ended questions, to explore how professional sport executives define CSR, and what priorities\\u000a teams have regarding their

  12. Modeling Instruction: The Impact of Professional Development on Instructional Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Angela T.; Frick, Tasha M.; Barker, Heather L.; Phelps, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    Modeling Instruction holds the potential for transforming science instruction and improving student achievement. Key to the success of Modeling Instruction, however, is the fidelity of implementation of its curriculum. This qualitative study examined the impact of Modeling Instruction professional development on participating teachers'…

  13. General Graded Response Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    This paper describes the graded response model. The graded response model represents a family of mathematical models that deal with ordered polytomous categories, such as: (1) letter grading; (2) an attitude survey with "strongly disagree, disagree, agree, and strongly agree" choices; (3) partial credit given in accord with an individual's degree…

  14. Lesson Study Meets SIOP: Linking Two Successful Professional Development Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honigsfeld, Andrea; Cohan, Audrey

    2006-01-01

    In response to recently identified research priorities by TESOL (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages) and AERA, the objective of this documentary account is to describe and evaluate a professional development project for in-service teachers working with diverse English Language Learners (ELLs). The purpose of our project was to…

  15. tsunami_response_case2.doc 1 GIS Professional Ethics Project gisprofessionalethics.org

    E-print Network

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    tsunami_response_case2.doc 1 GIS Professional Ethics Project gisprofessionalethics.org Case study;tsunami_response_case2.doc 2 management. Participating volunteers includes those from GISCorps, but also from www.govtech.com/gt/323386. #12;tsunami_response_case2.doc 3 Resources for teachers Suggested

  16. Safety, celebration, and risk: educator responses to LGBTQ professional development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabethe C. Payne; Melissa J. Smith

    2012-01-01

    Research has explored multicultural teacher education from multiple, sometimes divergent perspectives; yet, these studies agree that what passes for multicultural education fails to address issues of educational inequity. This paper is part of a larger evaluation study of Reduction of Stigma in Schools (RSIS) – a professional development program aiming to empower educators to create affirming environments for Lesbian, Gay,

  17. Inspiring Leaders: Unique Museum Programs Reinforce Professional Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciardelli, Jennifer; Wasserman, JoAnna

    2011-01-01

    Since 1998, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum has developed educational programs targeting adult audiences. Engaging public service professionals--those charged with serving and protecting our nation's democratic principles--has become a core outreach strategy to achieve the Museum's mission. This article describes the Museum's process…

  18. The Professional Development School Model: Unpacking Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cary, Lisa J.

    2004-01-01

    In response to Cochran-Smith and Lytle's (1998) call for Other ways of researching and thinking about educational research and the recent call by the US Secretary of Education to reform "teacher-training" programs (Schoicet 2002), this article presents a research study focusing on a reform effort in teacher education. The study moved beyond the…

  19. Physiological response to professional road cycling: climbers vs. time trialists.

    PubMed

    Lucía, A; Joyos, H; Chicharro, J L

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify possible physiological differences between professional cyclists who show best performance in hill climbing ("climbers") and those who excel in time trials ("time trialists"). To this end, professional, top-level climbers (C; n=8; age 26 +/- 1yr; height 176.0 +/- 2.0cm; body mass 63.6 +/- 2.2 kg) and time trialists (TT; n=6; 27 +/- 1yr; height 181.6 +/- 1.7 cm; body mass 72.3 +/- 2.3 kg) were required to perform two laboratory exercise tests on a cycle ergometer: a) a maximal exercise test (ramp protocol) and b) a constant load test of 20-min duration at approximately 80% of VO2max. Capillary blood lactate concentration and several gas exchange variables were measured during the maximal tests while determinations made during the submaximal tests also included: pH and bicarbonate concentration [HCO3-] in venous blood, and electromyographic (EMG) recordings from the vastus lateralis muscle to estimate root mean square voltage (rms-EMG) and mean power frequency (MPF). Both the maximal lactate concentration in capillary blood and VO2max were greater (p<0.05) in C than in TT (6.6 +/- 0.9 mM vs. 5.0 +/- 0.4 mM, respectively, and 78.4 +/- 3.2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) vs. 70.5 +/- 2.4 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1), respectively). Higher mean venous blood pH and [HCO3-] (p<0.05), rms-EMG (p<0.01) and MPF (p<0.05 at 10 and 15min of exercise and p < 0.01 at 5 and 20 min) were recorded in C throughout the submaximal tests. Our findings suggest that in top-level professional cyclists, climbing performance is mainly related to physiological factors (VO2max normalized for body mass, anaerobicl buffer capacity, motor unit recruitment) whereas time trialists tend to achieve greater absolute power outputs. It would also seem that other "technical" requirements of the sport (i. e. pedaling efficiency probably related to biomechanical factors etc.) may be associated with successful time trial performance. PMID:11071054

  20. Professional Development Models: A Comparison of Duration and Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, David T.; Cannon, John R.

    The purpose of this research was to explore two professional development models, Nevada Operation Physical Science (a three-weekend course) and Nevada Operation Chemistry (a two-week intensive course with a follow-up session in the fall), to see if there was any impact on learning and to determine the ideal length of the workshops as measured by…

  1. Evaluation of Professional Development: Deploying a Process-Focused Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley, Pam; Maringe, Felix; Ratcliffe, Mary

    2008-01-01

    This evaluation used a change transition model to explore the processes of development of a three-phase professional programme devised by two teams of researchers to support teachers' expertise in six domains of science teaching. The full programme operated over two years. Interviews with developers at the end of each phase (21 interviews) and…

  2. Models of Continuing Professional Development: A Framework for Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Aileen

    2014-01-01

    The area of teachers' continuing professional development (CPD) is of growing interest internationally. However, while an increasing range of literature focuses on particular aspects of CPD, there is a paucity of literature addressing the spectrum of CPD models in a comparative manner. This article therefore considers a wide range of…

  3. Lesson Study: A Professional Development Model for Mathematics Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ann R.; Anderson, Shari; Meyer, Karen; Wagner, Mary Kay; West, Christine

    2005-01-01

    In this action research report 4 teachers and 1 teacher educator use the Japanese lesson study model of professional development for 15 months in rural Carlinville, Illinois. In March 2001, 4 teachers identified a goal to improve their students' understanding of two step word problems in 2nd grade elementary mathematics. Teachers completed three…

  4. Social, Professional and Individual Responsibility in Language Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamp-Lyons, Liz

    2000-01-01

    Explores developments in the philosophy and epistemology of language testing with particular reference to the notion of "responsibility." Argues that as the millennium changes, language testing is at a point of change, as well. (Author/VWL)

  5. Modeling Response Signal and Response Time Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliff, Roger

    2006-01-01

    The diffusion model (Ratcliff, 1978) and the leaky competing accumulator model (LCA, Usher & McClelland, 2001) were tested against two-choice data collected from the same subjects with the standard response time procedure and the response signal procedure. In the response signal procedure, a stimulus is presented and then, at one of a number of…

  6. Professionalism, scientific freedom and dissent: individual and institutional roles and responsibilities in geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilham, Nic

    2015-04-01

    Debate and dissent are at the heart of scientific endeavour. A diversity of perspectives, alternative interpretations of evidence and the robust defence of competing theories and models drive the advancement of scientific knowledge. Just as importantly, legitimate dissent and diversity of views should not be covered up when offering scientific advice to policy-makers and providing evidence to inform public debate - indeed, they should be valued. We should offer what Andy Stirling has termed 'plural and conditional' scientific advice, not just for the sake of democratic legitimacy, but because it supports better informed and more effective policy-making. 'Monocultures' of scientific advice may have a superficial appeal to policy-makers, but they devalue the contribution of scientists, undermine the resilience of regulatory structures, are often misleading, and can lead to catastrophic policy failure. Furthermore, many of the great societal challenges now facing us require interdisciplinary approaches, across the natural sciences and more widely still, which bring to the fore the need for humility, recognition that we do not have all the answers, and mutual respect for the views of others. In contentious areas such as climate change, extraction of shale gas and radioactive waste disposal, however, such open dialogue may make researchers and practitioners vulnerable to advocates and campaigners who cherry-pick the evidence, misinterpret it, or seek to present scientific uncertainty and debate as mere ignorance. Nor are scientists themselves always above such unethical tactics. The apparent authority conferred on unscrupulous 'campaigning scientists' by their academic and professional credentials may make it all but impossible to distinguish them from those who legitimately make the case for a minority scientific view (and may be marginalised by the mainstream of their discipline in doing so). There is a risk that real scientific debate may be thwarted. Individual geoscientists have a responsibility to behave ethically in such contested areas of science - both with regards to their own work and its dissemination, and in examining the claims of others. But learned and professional scientific bodies also have an important role to play. Increasingly, they are expected to establish and police the ethical 'rules of engagement' of scientific practice and discourse, whether through codes of conduct or developing non-mandatory guidelines and cultures of best practice. This presentation will examine how professional standards can be developed and promulgated, so as to foster a diversity of scientific views and permit dissenting voices to be heard, while also allowing scientifically and professionally illegitimate behaviours to be identified and addressed.

  7. Assuming Responsibility: Teachers Taking Charge of Their Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tytler, Russell; Symington, David; Malcolm, Cliff; Kirkwood, Valda

    2009-01-01

    The paper reports on some of the findings of an extensive study undertaken in Victoria as part of a national Science, ICT and Mathematics Education in Rural and Regional Australia (SiMERR) project. One of the significant findings of the study was the extent to which teachers in the schools where the study data were collected took responsibility

  8. Using Blogs to Promote Literary Response during Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colwell, Jamie; Hutchison, Amy; Reinking, David

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a project that studied 15 preservice teachers' perceptions of and reactions to responding to children's and young adult literature using a Ning blog. These perceptions and reactions provided insight into various practical aspects of using a social networking blog to facilitate literature response in a teacher education…

  9. Pharmacists’ opinions and self-reporting performance regarding the professional tasks and responsibilities in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Safaeian, Leila; Mostafavi, Seyed Abolfazl; Changiz, Tahereh; Mirzadeh, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Background: The pharmacists’ roles and responsibilities toward the pharmaceutical care practice have developed considerably during the recent years. Objectives: The aim of this program is to explore the opinions and performances of community pharmacists with regard to their professional tasks and responsibilities in Isfahan city. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire survey of community pharmacists was conducted on a sample of 150 pharmacists using the Delphi process. Data were collected on the opinions and performances of the pharmacists’ task, professional responsibility and expertise, organizational and managing skills, and sociodemographic information. Results: The response rate was 93.3%. High expressions of agreement were found with most of the task and professional responsibilities and managerial skills and the mean rates of the self-reporting performance of most key tasks were ‘always’. The important differences were found in two opinions about the pharmacists’ responsibilities, (a) declining to dispense the prescribed drug that was not appropriate for the patient's illness and (b) keeping the patient's medical records for future needs. The pharmacists’ opinions on various forms of professional expertise were diverse, especially on recognizing that the required medications were not prescribed for the patient, being informed on the pharmacotherapy subsequence and predicting the therapeutic outcomes, interpreting the laboratory tests results, and assisting persons in need of emergency first aid. Conclusion: Pharmacists largely agreed with most of the professional tasks and responsibilities, however, new educational programs should be developed to promote the pharmacists’ knowledge and skills concerning pharmacotherapy. Also an extended role for pharmacists needs to be addressed in the pharmacy regulations and laws. PMID:24741642

  10. A model of the attitudinal component of professional nurse autonomy.

    PubMed

    Wade, Gail Holland

    2004-03-01

    This model-testing correlational study was designed to predict a causal model of the attitudinal component of professional nurse autonomy in female baccalaureate nursing students by testing three carative factors embedded in Watson's Theory of Transpersonal Caring. Proportional quota and convenience sampling were used to collect data from 317 senior nursing students enrolled in 20 National League for Nursing-accredited baccalaureate nursing programs. Path analysis revealed that the hypothesized model was not testable. With removal of nonsignificant paths, 19.1% of the variance in perceived clinical competence was explained by self-esteem and perceptions of instructor caring behaviors. Perceptions of instructor caring behaviors, self-esteem, and perceived clinical competence contributed 11.1% to the variance in the attitudinal component of professional nurse autonomy. These findings provide a baseline for understanding the attitudinal component of professional nurse autonomy. A large percentage of the variance in the model was unexplained, suggesting the need for further study of other contributing variables. PMID:15072338

  11. Culturally Responsive Teaching: Awareness and Professional Growth through a School-University Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Theresa M.; Eick, Charles J.; Womack, Janet S.

    2013-01-01

    Preparing in-service and pre-service teachers to effectively work with culturally diverse students is an ongoing challenge for schools and universities alike. This article reports on a University-Professional Development School (PDS) initiative designed to enhance an awareness of culturally responsive pedagogy. This article describes a yearlong…

  12. Learning Agreements and Socially Responsible Approaches to Professional and Human Resource Development in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallis, Emma

    2008-01-01

    This article draws upon original qualitative data to present an initial assessment of the significance of learning agreements for the development of socially responsible approaches to professional and human resource development within the workplace. The article suggests that the adoption of a partnership-based approach to learning is more…

  13. Literacy Instruction in Rural Elementary Schools in Jamaica: Response to Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Stacy A. S.; Staulters, Merry L.

    2010-01-01

    Rural educators from several elementary schools in southwest Jamaica completed pre- and post-literacy surveys. Professional training was developed and provided in response to the pre-assessment results. Literacy training combined two essential skills: (a) ongoing assessment of literacy achievement and (b) evidenced-based intervention strategies.…

  14. A mail survey of health care professionals: an analysis of the response

    PubMed Central

    Hay, David A

    1996-01-01

    Mail questionnaires provide a cost effective alternative for the survey of geographically dispersed populations. However, mail questionnaires are also characterized by low response rates, particularly for medical and other professionals. As a result of the potential systematic differences between respondents and nonrespondents, the external validity of the results are jeopardized. A number of techniques, such as follow-ups, have been developed in order to improve the response rates while at the same time retaining the cost advantage of the mail questionnaire. The present article is a discussion of a national survey of chiropractors. Two follow-ups, a postcard reminder, and a second questionnaire were utilized in the survey. An overall response rate of slightly less than sixty-nine (68.78) percent was achieved. These results indicate that satisfactory and realistic response rates can be achieved with health care professionals who are often viewed as being resistant to surveys.

  15. Transplant ethics under scrutiny – responsibilities of all medical professionals

    PubMed Central

    Trey, Torsten; Caplan, Arthur L.; Lavee, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    In this text, we present and elaborate ethical challenges in transplant medicine related to organ procurement and organ distribution, together with measures to solve such challenges. Based on internationally acknowledged ethical standards, we looked at cases of organ procurement and distribution practices that deviated from such ethical standards. One form of organ procurement is known as commercial organ trafficking, while in China the organ procurement is mostly based on executing prisoners, including killing of detained Falun Gong practitioners for their organs. Efforts from within the medical community as well as from governments have contributed to provide solutions to uphold ethical standards in medicine. The medical profession has the responsibility to actively promote ethical guidelines in medicine to prevent a decay of ethical standards and to ensure best medical practices. PMID:23444249

  16. Adaptive response modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campa, Alessandro; Esposito, Giuseppe; Belli, Mauro

    Cellular response to radiation is often modified by a previous delivery of a small "priming" dose: a smaller amount of damage, defined by the end point being investigated, is observed, and for this reason the effect is called adaptive response. An improved understanding of this effect is essential (as much as for the case of the bystander effect) for a reliable radiation risk assessment when low dose irradiations are involved. Experiments on adaptive response have shown that there are a number of factors that strongly influence the occurrence (and the level) of the adaptation. In particular, priming doses and dose rates have to fall in defined ranges; the same is true for the time interval between the delivery of the small priming dose and the irradiation with the main, larger, dose (called in this case challenging dose). Different hypotheses can be formulated on the main mechanism(s) determining the adaptive response: an increased efficiency of DNA repair, an increased level of antioxidant enzymes, an alteration of cell cycle progression, a chromatin conformation change. An experimental clearcut evidence going definitely in the direction of one of these explanations is not yet available. Modelling can be done at different levels. Simple models, relating the amount of damage, through elementary differential equations, to the dose and dose rate experienced by the cell, are relatively easy to handle, and they can be modified to account for the priming irradiation. However, this can hardly be of decisive help in the explanation of the mechanisms, since each parameter of these models often incorporates in an effective way several cellular processes related to the response to radiation. In this presentation we show our attempts to describe adaptive response with models that explicitly contain, as a dynamical variable, the inducible adaptive agent. At a price of a more difficult treatment, this approach is probably more prone to give support to the experimental studies. This work is supported by the NOTE Project (FP6-36465).

  17. Adding value to laboratory medicine: a professional responsibility.

    PubMed

    Beastall, Graham H

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory medicine is a medical specialty at the centre of healthcare. When used optimally laboratory medicine generates knowledge that can facilitate patient safety, improve patient outcomes, shorten patient journeys and lead to more cost-effective healthcare. Optimal use of laboratory medicine relies on dynamic and authoritative leadership outside as well as inside the laboratory. The first responsibility of the head of a clinical laboratory is to ensure the provision of a high quality service across a wide range of parameters culminating in laboratory accreditation against an international standard, such as ISO 15189. From that essential baseline the leadership of laboratory medicine at local, national and international level needs to 'add value' to ensure the optimal delivery, use, development and evaluation of the services provided for individuals and for groups of patients. A convenient tool to illustrate added value is use of the mnemonic 'SCIENCE'. This tool allows added value to be considered in seven domains: standardisation and harmonisation; clinical effectiveness; innovation; evidence-based practice; novel applications; cost-effectiveness; and education of others. The assessment of added value in laboratory medicine may be considered against a framework that comprises three dimensions: operational efficiency; patient management; and patient behaviours. The profession and the patient will benefit from sharing examples of adding value to laboratory medicine. PMID:23079513

  18. Population, professional, and client support for different models of managing addictive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Koski-Jännes, Anja; Hirschovits-Gerz, Tanja; Pennonen, Marjo

    2012-02-01

    This study, funded by the Academy of Finland, explores how different stakeholder groups in Finland attribute responsibility for various addictions. A random general population survey and surveys with addiction treatment professionals and clients (n = 1,338) were conducted in 2007-2008. The data were analyzed with analyses of variance and logistic regression analysis. Individual responsibility was emphasized by all groups. The Moral model dominated in behavioral and the Enlightenment model in hard drug addictions, views on other substance addictions varied more. Some signs of the actor-observer asymmetry were observed. Personal addiction experiences and sex were the major predictors of the average response tendencies. The heavy emphasis on individual responsibility may prevent help-seeking. PMID:22217128

  19. Acute response and chronic stimulus for cardiac structural and functional adaptation in a professional boxer

    PubMed Central

    Oxborough, David; George, Keith; Utomi, Victor; Lord, Rachel; Morton, James; Jones, Nigel; Somauroo, John

    2014-01-01

    The individual response to acute and chronic changes in cardiac structure and function to intense exercise training is not fully understood and therefore evidence in this setting may help to improve the timing and interpretation of pre-participation cardiac screening. The following case report highlights an acute increase in right ventricular (RV) size and a reduction in left ventricular (LV) basal radial function with concomitant increase at the mid-level in response to a week's increase in training volume in a professional boxer. These adaptations settle by the second week; however, chronic physiological adaptation occurs over a 12-week period. Electrocardiographic findings demonstrate an acute lateral T-wave inversion at 1 week, which revert to baseline for the duration of training. It appears that a change in training intensity and volume generates an acute response within the RV that acts as a stimulus for chronic adaptation in this professional boxer. PMID:25988031

  20. Acute response and chronic stimulus for cardiac structural and functional adaptation in a professional boxer.

    PubMed

    Oxborough, David; George, Keith; Utomi, Victor; Lord, Rachel; Morton, James; Jones, Nigel; Somauroo, John

    2014-06-01

    The individual response to acute and chronic changes in cardiac structure and function to intense exercise training is not fully understood and therefore evidence in this setting may help to improve the timing and interpretation of pre-participation cardiac screening. The following case report highlights an acute increase in right ventricular (RV) size and a reduction in left ventricular (LV) basal radial function with concomitant increase at the mid-level in response to a week's increase in training volume in a professional boxer. These adaptations settle by the second week; however, chronic physiological adaptation occurs over a 12-week period. Electrocardiographic findings demonstrate an acute lateral T-wave inversion at 1 week, which revert to baseline for the duration of training. It appears that a change in training intensity and volume generates an acute response within the RV that acts as a stimulus for chronic adaptation in this professional boxer. PMID:25988031

  1. PHOTON2: A web-based professional development model for photonics technology education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massa, Nicholas M.; Washburn, Barbara A.; Kehrhahn, Marijke; Donnelly, Judith F.; Hanes, Fenna D.

    2004-10-01

    In this paper, we present a web-based teacher professional development model for photonics technology education funded by the National Science Foundation Advanced Technology Education (ATE) program. In response to the rapidly growing demand for skilled photonics technicians, the PHOTON2 project will increase the number of high school teachers and community college faculty across the US proficient in teaching photonics technology at their own institutions. The project will also focus on building the capacity of educators to engage in lifelong learning through web-based professional development. Unlike the traditional professional development model whereby educators receive training through intensive short-term workshops, the PHOTON2 project team has developed a pedagogical framework designed specifically for adult learners in which technical content, curriculum development, and learner self-regulatory development are integrated into an active, collaborative, and sustained online learning environment. In Spring 2004, two cohorts of science and technology educators, career/guidance counselors, and industry mentors from eleven states including California, Pennsylvania, Texas, Arizona, Hawaii, and the six New England states commenced participation in the three-year project. Qualitative and quantitative research, focused on individual and environmental factors related to web-based learning, will examine the viability of web-based teacher/faculty professional development in engineering technology education.

  2. Health professionals' responses to disclosure of child sexual abuse history: female child sexual abuse survivors' experiences.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Kim; Jülich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-05-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had not disclosed reported that they would have liked to but were not asked about child sexual abuse. Thirty-five percent of participants suggested routine questioning about child sexual abuse. Most participants related a fear of common medical examination procedures to their experience of child sexual abuse, and 64% said this stopped them from attending regular health checks. The current study suggests the development of guidelines for dealing with possible child sexual abuse survivors would be useful for health professionals. PMID:20509075

  3. The Role of Positive Emotion towards Work as a Mediator in the Relationship between Organizational Responsiveness towards Teachers and Isolation in Professional Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostanci, Aynur B.

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed for the purpose of determining the mediator role of positive emotion towards work within the relationship between organizational responsiveness towards teachers in schools and social isolation in professional life, based on teacher opinions. The study was designed using a relational survey model. The study group was made…

  4. The Happy Hooker in the Classroom: Female Rights and Professional Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Betty

    This paper addresses the question of whether professional women present the best models for the young to follow, suggesting that perhaps women do much to substantiate the very myths that destroy them. Images that are used by women to amuse, bewilder, or infuriate their male counterparts (and that perpetuate sexist stereotypes) include (1) the…

  5. Engaging learners across generations: the Progressive Professional Development Model.

    PubMed

    Notarianni, Mary Ann; Curry-Lourenco, Kimberly; Barham, Phyllis; Palmer, Kay

    2009-06-01

    The Progressive Professional Development Model (PPDM) is a framework to guide educators in planning learning experiences that promote development in the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains. The model marries the use of standardized patients and virtual and simulated practice environments with traditional clinical practice and offers the opportunity to address learning styles of a multigenerational work force. Proposed is the application of technology in designing both instructional and evaluative experiences for new nurse orientation and continuing education. Outcome measures include learning of increasingly complex knowledge, values, skills, and demonstration of competency-based behaviors. Examples of application are provided, including a discussion of considerations for operationalizing the model in the health care setting. PMID:19639915

  6. The PKRC's Value as a Professional Development Model Validated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Dale

    2013-01-01

    After a brief review of the 4-H professional development standards, a new model for determining the value of continuing professional development is introduced and applied to the 4-H standards. The validity of the 4-H standards is affirmed. 4-H Extension professionals are encouraged to celebrate the strength of their standards and to engage the…

  7. European Religious Education Teachers' Perceptions of and Responses to Classroom Diversity and Their Relationship to Personal and Professional Biographies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everington, Judith; ter Avest, Ina; Bakker, Cok; van der Want, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on teachers of secondary level religious education in England, Estonia, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Norway. It presents a study of the teachers' perceptions of and responses to the diversity within their classes, in relation to their professional role and their personal and professional biographies. The study employed…

  8. Teacher Characteristics Associated with Responsiveness and Exposure to Consultation and On-line Professional Development Resources

    PubMed Central

    Downer, Jason T.; Locasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Hamre, Bridget; Pianta, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a natural follow-up to intent-to-treat findings indicating that the MyTeachingPartner Consultancy, inclusive of on-line video resources and web-mediated consultation, improved the quality of pre-k teachers’ interactions with children. This study takes a close look at implementation fidelity within the effective MTP Consultancy condition over both years of implementation, in order to learn more about the ingredients of professional development that may have contributed to the success of the intervention. Variation in teachers’ responsiveness (e.g., ratings of Consultancy worth) and exposure to the intervention (e.g., number of consultation cycles completed) are examined, with particular interest in the identification of teacher factors that may serve as supports or barriers to successfully implementing consultation supports and on-line professional development resources. PMID:25419081

  9. Police and mental health professionals. Collaborative responses to the impact of violence on children and families.

    PubMed

    Marans, S; Berkowitz, S J; Cohen, D J

    1998-07-01

    Coordinating responses through the Child Development-Community Policing Program has led to multiple changes in the delivery of clinical and police services. Mental health clinicians and police officers have developed a common language for assessing and responding to the needs of children and families who have been exposed to or involved in violence. Learning from each other, these unlikely partners have established close working relationships that improve and expand the range of interventions they are able to provide while preserving the areas of expertise and responsibilities of each professional group. The immediate access to witnesses, victims, and perpetrators of violent crimes through the consultation service provides a unique opportunity to expand the understanding of clinical phenomena from the acute traumatic moment to longer-term adaptation, symptom formation, and recovery. In turn, the initiative introduces the systematic study of basic psychological and neurobiologic functions involved in traumatization as well as the investigation of psychotherapeutic and pharmacologic therapies. Similarly, program involvement with juvenile offenders has led to a coordinated response from the police, mental health, and juvenile justice systems. This project provides an opportunity to develop detailed psychological profiles and typologies of children engaged in different levels of antisocial behavior as well as to determine the characteristics that might predict with whom community-based interventions might be most successful. A recent survey of New Haven public school students has yielded promising evidence that community policing and the program are having a positive impact on the quality of life. In a survey of sixth-, eighth-, and tenth-grade students there were substantial improvements in students' sense of safety and experience of violence between 1992 and 1996. When asked if they felt safe in their neighborhood, there was an increase in the percentage of positive responses from 57% to 62% for sixth-grade students, 48% to 66% for eighth-grade students, and 53% to 73% for tenth-grade students, and when asked if they had seen someone shot or stabbed there was a decrease in positive responses from 43% to 28% for sixth-grade students, 46% to 31% for eighth-grade students, and 34% to 28% for tenth-grade students. Today, we are all too familiar with the developmental trajectory that leads children into violent crime. Newspaper articles and clinical case reports have taken on a dreary repetitiveness. These young criminals are often poor, minority, inner-city children who are known to many agencies to be at risk because of family disorganization, neglect, and abuse. They are failing in school or are already on the streets. One day they are victims and the very next they are assailants. We are all familiar with the inadequacies in the social response to these children, from their preschool years through the point at which they become assailants themselves. What is shocking is that the age at which children make the transition from being abused to being abusive seems to be getting earlier, and the number appears to be increasing. On the positive side, there is an increased awareness of the need and the ability of the various sectors of society to respond in concert. The institutions that function in the inner city--schools, police, mental health and child welfare agencies, churches--are all concerned about the same children and families. By working together, with a shared orientation to the best interests of the children, they can intervene earlier and more effectively: first, to disrupt the trajectory leading to violence; and, second, to help those children who are already caught in the web of exposure to violent crime and inner-city trauma. The experience with community-based policing and mental health in New Haven, now being replicated throughout the United States, can thus stand as a model of an active social response to an overwhel PMID:9894059

  10. Randomized Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The randomized response (RR) technique is often used to obtain answers on sensitive questions. A new method is developed to measure latent variables using the RR technique because direct questioning leads to biased results. Within the RR technique is the probability of the true response modeled by an item response theory (IRT) model. The RR…

  11. Effects of Product-Based Technology Professional Development Model on P-8 Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireh, Maduakolam

    2006-01-01

    A product-based professional development model has significantly improved the ability and willingness of P-8 teachers to use and integrate technology into instruction. This paper discusses the impacts this staff professional development model. The model was used to train 18 teachers to effectively use and integrate technology in their ESL…

  12. Role and models for compensation of tobacco use prevention and cessation by oral health professionals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon Crail; Aira Lahtinen; Johann Beck-Mannagetta; Birgitta Enmark; Tony Jenner; Ron Knevel; Martina Lulic; Seppo Wickholm

    2010-01-01

    Appropriate compensation of tobacco use prevention and cessation (TUPAC) would give oral health professionals better incentives to provide TUPAC, which is considered part of their professional and ethical responsibility and improves quality of care. Barriers for compensation are that tobacco addiction is not recognised as a chronic disease but rather as a behavioural disorder or merely as a risk factor

  13. Teachers’ continuing professional development: contested concepts, understandings and models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Fraser; Aileen Kennedy; Lesley Reid; Stephen Mckinney

    2007-01-01

    Teachers’ continuing professional development (CPD) is being given increasing importance in countries throughout the world. In Scotland, the changing professional and political context has resulted in unprecedented investment in CPD. However, analysis and evaluation of CPD policies, practice and impact is complex. In seeking to understand some of the complexities, this article proposes a triple?lens framework, drawing on three different

  14. Guest Editorial: A revolutionary model of professional development

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christine Anne Royce

    2010-11-01

    Traditionally, professional development in education has focused on three main areas: content, general pedagogy, or pedagogical content knowledge. While each area has its own purpose, in this article the author focuses on what the literature states should

  15. A Model for Studying Determinants of Intention to Participate in Continuing Professional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotelueschen, Arden D.; Caulley, Darrel N.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a model which provides a theoretical framework for conducting research regarding the determinants of a professional's intention to participate in continuing education. The framework's three components are the professional's (1) attitude toward participation, (2) perception about what significant others think about his or her…

  16. Implementing a K-12 Train the Trainer Professional Development Model through the School Improvement Grant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollnow, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Effective professional development has been shown to improve instruction and increase student academic achievement. The Train the Trainer professional development model is often chosen by the state Department of Education for its efficiency and cost effectiveness of delivering training to schools and districts widely distributed throughout the…

  17. A Qualitative Study of the Perceptions and Beliefs of Elementary Teachers' Value of and Responses to Their Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlan-Price, Regina A.

    2012-01-01

    A challenge that professional development coordinators and instructional leaders face is designing and implementing professional development that is the most effective for improving teaching and learning in their school. To determine what is the perceptions and beliefs of elementary teachers' value of and responses to their professional

  18. Unitary Response Regression Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipovetsky, S.

    2007-01-01

    The dependent variable in a regular linear regression is a numerical variable, and in a logistic regression it is a binary or categorical variable. In these models the dependent variable has varying values. However, there are problems yielding an identity output of a constant value which can also be modelled in a linear or logistic regression with…

  19. Model refinement using transient response

    SciTech Connect

    Dohrmann, C.R.; Carne, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    A method is presented for estimating uncertain or unknown parameters in a mathematical model using measurements of transient response. The method is based on a least squares formulation in which the differences between the model and test-based responses are minimized. An application of the method is presented for a nonlinear structural dynamic system. The method is also applied to a model of the Department of Energy armored tractor trailer. For the subject problem, the transient response was generated by driving the vehicle over a bump of prescribed shape and size. Results from the analysis and inspection of the test data revealed that a linear model of the vehicle`s suspension is not adequate to accurately predict the response caused by the bump.

  20. A Beta Item Response Model for Continuous Bounded Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Yvonnick; Dauvier, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    An item response model is proposed for the analysis of continuous response formats in an item response theory (IRT) framework. With such formats, respondents are asked to report their response as a mark on a fixed-length graphical segment whose ends are labeled with extreme responses. An interpolation process is proposed as the response mechanism…

  1. Putting the Research To Work: Professional Development Models from Michigan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Ellen; Thompson, Ginny

    2000-01-01

    Describes statewide professional development programs in Michigan that were developed to train teachers in technology use. Discusses Teach for Tomorrow, which combines online learning with local facilitators and peer support networks; and the Great Lakes Education Network Best Practices project, which combines lesson plans from the Web with…

  2. A Model for the Professional Development of Teachers of Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adey, Philip

    2006-01-01

    Teaching for the development of students' thinking is not a straightforward matter. It requires pedagogical skills, which are different from those of normal good quality teaching for conceptual development. It follows that providing professional development (PD) for teachers of thinking is a "hard case"--we can learn much of general value to…

  3. School Counselors United in Professional Advocacy: A Systems Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cigrand, Dawnette L.; Havlik, Stacey Gaenzle; Malott, Krista M.; Jones, SaDohl Goldsmith

    2015-01-01

    Limited budgets may place educational positions in jeopardy and if school counseling positions become jeopardized, then school counselors must communicate their role and impact more effectively. However, school counselors may lack training and experience in professional self-advocacy practices, and advocacy efforts may be undermined by role…

  4. K20 Model: Creating Networks, Professional Learning Communities, and Communities of Practice That Increase Science Learning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Janis Slater

    2009-04-02

    The K20 Model develops professional learning communities (PLCs) and has been successful in district-wide and school initiatives across Oklahoma. It is based on four interrelated structures for engaging people in communities: networks, PLCS, communities of

  5. Professional Development for Professional Developers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mary Ann

    2004-01-01

    During the last year, SETDA tackled the question, "How do you provide professional development to those who typically develop and/or provide the opportunities to others?" Although providing professional development opportunities for administrators and teachers is a primary responsibility of many SETDA members, many state educational technology…

  6. Second Response to "The Teacher as a Service Professional," by Donald A. Myers: The Case of the Lost Forest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    This response to Myers's concept of the teacher as a service professional considers each of his positions in analogy form. With support from the literature from education and elsewhere, the article maintains that teaching is a profession and that it matters greatly to teachers and society that it be strengthened as such. Examples are offered…

  7. The physical education profession and its professional responsibility … or … why ‘12 weeks paid holiday’ will never be enough

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen M. Armour

    2010-01-01

    Background: This paper critically reviews the concept of ‘professional responsibility’ in physical education. The paper is rooted in the belief that the physical education profession has, by virtue of its expertise in young people and physical activity, the potential to deliver a broad range of desirable educational and health-related outcomes. Yet, if the physical education profession is just that –

  8. Legal Implications of Models of Individual and Group Treatment by Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Patrick D.

    Although medical malpractice suits are based on a model of treatment of an individual by a professional, educational malpractice suits are based on a group treatment model. When the medical model and the teaching model are compared, the contrasts are so great that medical malpractice principles are not a reliable guide to the emerging law of…

  9. Models of professional preparation: Pharmacy, nursing and teacher education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Barnett; R. A. Becher; N. M. Cork

    1987-01-01

    The study focuses on three areas of initial professional education at degree level—pharmacy, nursing and teacher education. All three are associated with professions where individual clients' needs are significant—the so-called caring professions. The project was conducted largely through interviews with teaching staff in both university and public sector institutions. The interviews focused on the interests, activities and values of the

  10. Teacher Preferences for Professional Development Delivery Models and Delivery Model Influence on Teacher Behavior in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauer, Eve R.

    2011-01-01

    Current trends and research in education indicated that teacher learning is a crucial link to student achievement. There is a void in the research regarding teacher preferences for delivery models in professional development. Determining teacher preferences is an important component in professional development planning and the driving inquiry for…

  11. Body image concerns in professional fashion models: are they really an at-risk group?

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Szmigielska, Emilia

    2013-05-15

    Although professional models are thought to be a high-risk group for body image concerns, only a handful of studies have empirically investigated this possibility. The present study sought to overcome this dearth of information by comparing professional models and a matched sample on key indices of body image and appeared-related concerns. A group of 52 professional fashion models was compared with a matched sample of 51 non-models from London, England, on indices of weight discrepancy, body appreciation, social physique anxiety, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, internalization of sociocultural messages about appearance, and dysfunctional investment in appearance. Results indicated that professional models only evidenced significantly higher drive for thinness and dysfunctional investment in appearance than the control group. Greater duration of engagement as a professional model was associated with more positive body appreciation but also greater drive for thinness. These results indicate that models, who are already underweight, have a strong desire to maintain their low body mass or become thinner. Taken together, the present results suggest that interventions aimed at promoting healthy body image among fashion models may require different strategies than those aimed at the general population. PMID:23017651

  12. Application of a Psychosocial Model of Alienation: Sex Differences in Locus of Control, Fear of Success and Affective Hostility With a Professional Career Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roffe, Michael; Fraser, Kathleen

    An empirical test of a contemporary model of psychosocial stress was conducted to evaluate expected differences in cognitive and affective functioning for males and females in a professional career sample. Perceived powerlessness and affective hostility were viewed as constituting a cluster of adaptive responses to personal/social conditions…

  13. How Professionally Relevant Can Language Tests Be?: A Response to Wette (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pill, John; Woodward-Kron, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The recently published article "English Proficiency Tests and Communication Skills Training for Overseas-Qualified Health Professionals in Australia and New Zealand" (Wette, 2011) aims to address perceived problems and misconceptions associated with the testing of English language skills and professional communicative competence of…

  14. A Mixed Effects Randomized Item Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, J.-P.; Wyrick, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    The randomized response technique ensures that individual item responses, denoted as true item responses, are randomized before observing them and so-called randomized item responses are observed. A relationship is specified between randomized item response data and true item response data. True item response data are modeled with a (non)linear…

  15. A Race Model for Responses and Response Times in Tests.

    PubMed

    Ranger, Jochen; Kuhn, Jörg-Tobias; Gaviria, José-Luis

    2014-11-01

    Latent trait models for responses and response times in tests are often pure statistical models without a close connection to features of the assumed response process. In the present paper, a new model is presented that is more closely related to assumptions about the response process. The model is based on two increasing stochastic processes. Each stochastic process represents the accumulation of knowledge with respect to one of two response options, the correct and incorrect response. Both accumulators compete and the accumulator that first exceeds a critical level determines the response. General assumptions about the accumulators result in a race between two response times that follow a bivariate Birnbaum Saunders distribution. The model can be calibrated with marginal maximum likelihood estimation. Feasibility of the estimation approach is demonstrated in a simulation study. Additionally, a test of model fit is proposed. Finally, the model will be used for the analysis of an empirical data set. PMID:25381198

  16. Modelling hormonal response and development?

    PubMed Central

    Voß, Ute; Bishopp, Anthony; Farcot, Etienne; Bennett, Malcolm J.

    2014-01-01

    As our knowledge of the complexity of hormone homeostasis, transport, perception, and response increases, and their outputs become less intuitive, modelling is set to become more important. Initial modelling efforts have focused on hormone transport and response pathways. However, we now need to move beyond the network scales and use multicellular and multiscale modelling approaches to predict emergent properties at different scales. Here we review some examples where such approaches have been successful, for example, auxin–cytokinin crosstalk regulating root vascular development or a study of lateral root emergence where an iterative cycle of modelling and experiments lead to the identification of an overlooked role for PIN3. Finally, we discuss some of the remaining biological and technical challenges. PMID:24630843

  17. A unique drug distribution process for radium Ra 223 dichloride injection and its implication for product quality, patient privacy, and delineation of professional responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Dansereau, Raymond N

    2014-11-01

    On May 15, 2013, Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals announced that it had received marketing approval for the therapeutic radioactive medication radium Ra 223 dichloride injection (Xofigo; Ra 223). The product acquisition and distribution process for hospital-based nuclear pharmacies and nuclear medicine services is unlike any other. The product is distributed as a low-risk compounded sterile preparation through a single compounding nuclear pharmacy located in Denver, Colorado, pursuant to a prescription. This model for drug distribution and delivery to the user institution has implications for product quality, patient privacy, and delineation of professional responsibilities. PMID:25301826

  18. A professional development model for medical laboratory scientists working in the microbiology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Amerson, Megan H; Pulido, Lila; Garza, Melinda N; Ali, Faheem A; Greenhill, Brandy; Einspahr, Christopher L; Yarsa, Joseph; Sood, Pramilla K; Hu, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine is committed to providing the best pathology and medicine through: state-of-the art techniques, progressive ground-breaking research, education and training for the clinical diagnosis and research of cancer and related diseases. After surveying the laboratory staff and other hospital professionals, the Department administrators and Human Resource generalists developed a professional development model for Microbiology to support laboratory skills, behavior, certification, and continual education within its staff. This model sets high standards for the laboratory professionals to allow the labs to work at their fullest potential; it provides organization to training technologists based on complete laboratory needs instead of training technologists in individual areas in which more training is required if the laboratory needs them to work in other areas. This model is a working example for all microbiology based laboratories who want to set high standards and want their staff to be acknowledged for demonstrated excellence and professional development in the laboratory. The PDM model is designed to focus on the needs of the laboratory as well as the laboratory professionals. PMID:22693775

  19. UAF School of Education: "Preparing professional educators who are culturally responsive, effective practitioners"

    E-print Network

    Sikes, Derek S.

    , effective practitioners" EDSE 632: Special Education Law: Principles and Practices Summer 2013 Credits: 3 Merrill/Prentice Hall. This textbook was selected because of its currency, efficient writing style from the professionals' perspective (vs. parent). Additional website, supplemental text

  20. The Effect of a Professional Development Classroom Management Model on At-Risk Elementary Students' Misbehaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reglin, Gary; Akpo-Sanni, Joretta; Losike-Sedimo, Nonofo

    2012-01-01

    The problem in the study was that at-risk elementary school students had too many classroom disruptive behaviors. The purpose was to investigate the effect a Professional Development Classroom Management Model would have on reducing these students' misbehaviors. The study implemented a classroom management model to improve the classroom management…

  1. A Semantic and Multidisciplinary Model for Professional and Social Networks Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Thovex; Francky Trichet

    2011-01-01

    By bridge-building between the classical models of social networks analysis, ontologies engineering and physics, our work defines a multidisciplinary model of professional social networks analysis, dedicated to human and social capital management in enterprises and institutions. We introduce a semantic process of social graphs static and dynamic analysis, based on the enterprise content and producing decisional tools for the performance

  2. Implementing a New Model for Teachers' Professional Learning in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honan, Eileen; Evans, Terry; Muspratt, Sandy; Paraide, Patricia; Reta, Medi; Baroutsis, Aspa

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a study that investigates the possibilities of developing a professional learning model based on action research that could lead to sustained improvements in teaching and learning in schools in remote areas of Papua New Guinea. The issues related to the implementation of this model are discussed using a critical lens that…

  3. MEASLES CASE-BASED SURVEILLANCE AND OUTBREAK RESPONSE IN NIGERIA; AN UPDATE FOR CLINICIANS AND PUBLIC HEALTH PROFESSIONALS

    PubMed Central

    Isere, E.E; Fatiregun, A.A

    2014-01-01

    The Federal Ministry of Health recommendations for response during measles epidemics in Nigeria previously focused on case management using antibiotics and Vitamin. A supplements and did not include outbreak response immunization (ORI) campaigns. However, with the revision of the existing national technical guideline on measles casebased surveillance and outbreak response in Nigeria in 2012 in line with the World Health Organization recommendation on response to measles outbreak in measles mortality reduction settings, there is a need to update members of the Nigerian public health community on these revisions to ensure appropriate implementation and compliance. This article therefore seeks to provide clinicians and other public health professionals in Nigeria with updates on recent developments in measles case-based surveillance and outbreak response in Nigeria PMID:25332696

  4. What is `Random Item' response models? Why `random item' response models?

    E-print Network

    Palmeri, Thomas

    What is `Random Item' response models? Why `random item' response models? Summary Why `Random Item' Response Models? Sun-Joo Cho Department of Psychology and Human Development November 18, 2012 Sun-Joo Cho Why `Random Item' Response Models? #12;What is `Random Item' response models? Why `random item

  5. Measuring the Impact of Student Interaction with Student Affairs Professionals on Socially Responsible Leadership Development in the First Year of College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Georgianna L.

    2013-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Wabash National Study on Liberal Arts Education, this research explored the impact of students' interactions with student affairs professionals on socially responsible leadership development during the first year of college. Overall, students' interactions with student affairs professionals were…

  6. An Evaluation of Professional Development on Using Student Response Systems and Interactive Whiteboards for Formative Assessment in the Middle Schools of a Southeastern School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Julia Susanne

    2011-01-01

    The purchase of 21st-century technologies for each middle school teacher in my school system coinciding with a historic lack of significant professional development in technology integration provided the impetus for the study. To address the problem, professional development focused on helping teachers use student response systems and mobile…

  7. Lifespan based indirect response models

    PubMed Central

    Ruixo, Juan Jose Perez

    2012-01-01

    In the field of hematology, several mechanism-based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models have been developed to understand the dynamics of several blood cell populations under different clinical conditions while accounting for the essential underlying principles of pharmacology, physiology and pathology. In general, a population of blood cells is basically controlled by two processes: the cell production and cell loss. The assumption that each cell exits the population when its lifespan expires implies that the cell loss rate is equal to the cell production rate delayed by the lifespan and justifies the use of delayed differential equations for compartmental modeling. This review is focused on lifespan models based on delayed differential equations and presents the structure and properties of the basic lifespan indirect response (LIDR) models for drugs affecting cell production or cell lifespan distribution. The LIDR models for drugs affecting the precursor cell production or decreasing the precursor cell population are also presented and their properties are discussed. The interpretation of transit compartment models as LIDR models is reviewed as the basis for introducing a new LIDR for drugs affecting the cell lifespan distribution. Finally, the applications and limitations of the LIDR models are discussed. PMID:22212685

  8. Teaching and Teaming More Responsively: Case Studies in Professional Growth at the Middle Level

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Strahan

    2009-01-01

    This case study examined the experiences of two middle level teachers as they worked with a literacy coach and university partners in an instructional improvement initiative. Robert and Janice worked together as a two-teacher team. Across the three years of the study, they collaborated with Melissa, the literacy coach, to integrate reading and writing across the curriculum and to create connections with reluctant students. Analysis of observations, interviews, and archival documents showed that professional growth accelerated with discussions of instructional practices and student performance, guided by informal assessments of student achievement. Patterns of professional growth and student accomplishment document the power of collaboration and suggest possibilities for supporting professional development more productively through interdisciplinary teamwork.

  9. National Urban Alliance Professional Development Model for Improving Achievement in the Context of Effective Schools Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Daniel U.; Cooper, Eric J.; Hilliard, Asa, III

    2000-01-01

    Describes implementation of the National Urban Alliance for Effective Education's (NUA's) Professional Development Model in several locations, which is designed to help improve students' comprehension, content performance, thinking skills, and literacy by improving teaching and educational quality. Discusses NUA activities and approaches in the…

  10. Utilizing the ACUHO-I Professional Standards: A Model for Organizational Review and Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Roger; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Presents a model utilized by the Office of Residence Life at Southeast Missouri State University (SEMO) to assess its operation during the 1984-85 academic year. An external review committee utilized the recently published Professional Standards of the Association of College and University Housing Officers-International (ACUHO-I) as a basis for…

  11. Developing a Professional Competence Model for Management Education. Final Report, Research Report Number Ten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentkowski, Marcia; And Others

    Abilities or competences that ensure effective managerial performance were studied, and a model of effective managerial performance was developed. Performance, perceptions, and careering and professional development of 103 women managers and executives from 53 Milwaukee private corporations were described using a recently developed performance…

  12. Supporting Teachers' Professional Learning at a Distance: A Model for Change in At-Risk Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Elizabeth A.; Quine, Janine; DeVries, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of a professional learning model developed to support early years teachers in rural and remote communities in Queensland as they began to implement the Australian Curriculum in Mathematics. The data are drawn from 35 teachers at the initial stage of a large, four year longitudinal study RoleM (Representations,…

  13. An Integrated Model of Professional Expertise and Its Implications for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yielder, Jill

    2004-01-01

    The nature of professional expertise has been widely debated in the literature. However it has been examined primarily from a dichotomy of perspectives--either from an experiential or a cognitive focus, without the attempt to integrate these, and other aspects of expertise into an integrated and coherent model. This article presents the…

  14. Models of Professional Development in the Education and Practice of New Teachers in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pill, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    This paper draws upon research undertaken in nine higher education institutions for a doctoral thesis. The qualitative study used repertory grids and semi-structured interviews with nine course leaders to investigate models of professional development that underpin courses for new teachers in higher education. While evidence of good levels of…

  15. Models of Professional and Paraprofessional Training in Refugee Mental Health. Task VI--Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoshino, George; Bamford, Pauline

    Pursuant to the mission of the University of Minnesota's Mental Health Technical Assistance Center for the state refugee assistance programs, this report presents models of culturally sensitive training for professional and paraprofessional personnel who provide mental health service to refugees. After an introduction which places this report in…

  16. Professional Development for Secondary School Mathematics Teachers: A Peer Mentoring Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kensington-Miller, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Professional development is important for all teachers, and in low socio-economic schools where the challenges of teaching are greater this need is crucial. A model involving a combination of one-on-one peer mentoring integrated with group peer mentoring was piloted with experienced mathematics teachers of senior students in low socio-economic…

  17. BOCES-University Partnership as a model for Educational Outreach: K-16 STEM Professional Development1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter R Turner; Kathleen Fowler; David Wick; Michael Ramsdell

    This paper introduces our partnership model for educational outreach among higher education and local school districts utilizing the Board of Cooperative Education Services (BOCES) as the primary partner and liaison. This partnership has many aspects. Its primary professional development activities have been under the umbrella of the St. Lawrence County Mathematics Partnership and its recent successor the St. Lawrence County

  18. A Strong Core of Qualities--A Model of the Professional Educator that Moves beyond Reflection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Karen; Coutts, Norman

    2003-01-01

    Consideration of the qualities of good teaching leads to a new model that emphasizes the importance of sense making to professional development. A strong core of qualities that assist teachers in using sense making includes strength, confidence, balance, ballast, and value maturity. (Contains 27 references.) (SK)

  19. National Models for Continuing Professional Development: The Challenges of Twenty-First-Century Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Marilyn; Younie, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    If teacher quality is the most critical factor in improving educational outcomes, then why is so little attention drawn to the knowledge and evidence base available to support teachers in improving the quality of their professional knowledge? This paper draws together findings from a range of sources to propose national models for continuing…

  20. Enhancing Teachers' Application of Inquiry-Based Strategies Using a Constructivist Sociocultural Professional Development Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Brenda R.; Moore, Sandra J.

    2011-01-01

    This two-year school-wide initiative to improve teachers' pedagogical skills in inquiry-based science instruction using a constructivist sociocultural professional development model involved 30 elementary teachers from one school, three university faculty, and two central office content supervisors. Research was conducted for investigating the…

  1. An Occupation's Responsibility: The Role of Social Foundations in the Cultivation of Professionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunzenhauser, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, the author argues that inquiry and engagement in the social foundations of education is fundamental to cultivating professionalism in education. As many commentators on the subject have noted, teaching does not meet many of the criteria of a profession derived from the sociological study of fields of work. As Joseph Newman observes,…

  2. Are health professionals responsible for the shortage of organs from deceased donors in Malaysia?

    PubMed

    Abidin, Zada L Zainal; Ming, Wee Tong; Loch, Alexander; Hilmi, Ida; Hautmann, Oliver

    2013-02-01

    The rate of organ donations from deceased donors in Malaysia is among the lowest in the world. This may be because of the passivity among health professionals in approaching families of potential donors. A questionnaire-based study was conducted amongst health professionals in two tertiary hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Four hundred and sixty-two questionnaires were completed. 93.3% of health professionals acknowledged a need for organ transplantation in Malaysia. 47.8% were willing to donate their organs (with ethnic and religious differences). Factors which may be influencing the shortage of organs from deceased donors include: nonrecognition of brainstem death (38.5%), no knowledge on how to contact the Organ Transplant Coordinator (82.3%), and never approaching families of a potential donor (63.9%). There was a general attitude of passivity in approaching families of potential donors and activating transplant teams among many of the health professionals. A misunderstanding of brainstem death and its definition hinder identification of a potential donor. Continuing medical education and highlighting the role of the Organ Transplant Coordinator, as well as increasing awareness of the public through religion and the media were identified as essential in improving the rate of organ donations from deceased donors in Malaysia. PMID:23199156

  3. Ethics for the New Political Economy: What Can it Mean to be Professionally Responsible? Presidential Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunzenhauser, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    In this address, the author builds the case that a new political economy of education, dominated by what Pauline Lipman calls the "neo-liberal social imaginary," is changing the moral context in which educators imagine their professional roles. The author argues that educators are placed in relation to others in rather complicated…

  4. An Innovative Model of Professional Development to Enhance the Teaching and Learning of Primary Science in Irish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Greg

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of a two-year professional development programme on primary teachers' attitudes towards primary science, their confidence and competence in teaching science, and pupils' attitudes towards school science. Unlike the traditional "one-size-fits all" model of professional development, the model

  5. Factors Affecting the Professional Characteristics of Teacher Educators in Israel and in the USA: A Comparison of Two Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shagrir, Leah

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research study was to identify the factors affecting the professional characteristics of teacher educators by comparing two models of teacher education. The research findings revealed four major focal points that have an impact on professional characteristics: the operational model adopted by the institution where teacher…

  6. The scope for the involvement of patients in their consultations with health professionals: rights, responsibilities and preferences of patients.

    PubMed Central

    Buetow, S

    1998-01-01

    The degree and nature of patient involvement in consultations with health professionals influences problem and needs recognition and management, and public accountability. This paper suggests a framework for understanding the scope for patient involvement in such consultations. Patients are defined as co-producers of formal health services, whose potential for involvement in consultations depends on their personal rights, responsibilities and preferences. Patients' rights in consultations are poorly defined and, in the National Health Service (NHS), not legally enforceable. The responsibilities of patients are also undefined. I suggest that these are not to deny, of their own volition, the rights of others, which in consultations necessitate mutuality of involvement through information-exchange and shared decision-making. Preferences should be met insofar as they do not militate against responsibilities and rights. PMID:9752626

  7. Design of a case management model for people with chronic disease (Heart Failure and COPD). Phase I: modeling and identification of the main components of the intervention through their actors: patients and professionals (DELTA-icE-PRO Study)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose M Morales-Asencio; Francisco J Martin-Santos; Juan C Morilla-Herrera; Magdalena Cuevas Fernández-Gallego; Miriam Celdrán-Mañas; Francisco J Navarro-Moya; Maria M Rodríguez-Salvador; Francisco J Muñoz-Ronda; Elena Gonzalo-Jiménez; Almudena Millán Carrasco

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic diseases account for nearly 60% of deaths around the world. The extent of this silent epidemic has not met determined responses in governments, policies or professionals in order to transform old Health Care Systems, configured for acute diseases. There is a large list of research about alternative models for people with chronic conditions, many of them with an

  8. A Competency-Based Model for Developing Human Resource Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvoy, Glenn M.; Hayton, James C.; Warnick, Alan P.; Mumford, Troy V.; Hanks, Steven H.; Blahna, Mary Jo

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a framework for the design and implementation of a competency-based curriculum for graduate management education. The article also outlines how this model has been implemented at one university in the context of a graduate degree in human resource management. Among the significant challenges discussed are the identification…

  9. Professional advancement of women in health care management: a conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Madsen, M K; Blide, L A

    1992-11-01

    Ragins and Sundstrom suggest three major conclusions based on power and gender differences within organizations. The first is that power develops or detracts as individuals progress along their career track. HIM professionals who accept the challenges that changing roles bring can also develop a new sensitivity to the value of power as a tool. They can use their negotiating skills to avoid being placed in work roles that result in a decrease in power. The second difference between men and women within organizations is that obstacles often impede women's career paths more than men's. Perceptions by women and men of a woman as homemaker and mother create serious conflicts when jobs are demanding and time intensive. Lastly, Ragins and Sundstrom suggest that career progression is influenced by both intrinsic factors (personal and professional) and extrinsic factors (organizational and interpersonal). The interaction between these factors is often driven by gender differences allowing men to progress and succeed, whereas women remain beneath the glass ceiling. HIM professionals, like other women health professionals, are graduating from advanced programs in health care and business administration at a greater rate than ever before in the history of this country. Not all these graduates will be able to acquire top-level administrative positions in the traditional health care institutions (e.g., hospitals). Therefore, if they wish to advance, they may have to move to nontraditional work settings. This is especially true for HIM professionals. The expanding computerized environment in traditional and nontraditional health care settings presents great potential for the development of new roles and responsibilities that have not been identified as male roles. HIM professionals and women in other health care professions who aspire to advance to upper administrative positions in traditional and nontraditional settings must be willing to take the risks inherent in assuming these changing roles and responsibilities. Successful women leaders in upper administrative positions recognize and take opportunities when they are offered and are not reluctant to assume more responsibilities and power in an organization. Lastly, if women are to move through the glass ceiling, health care institutions must become sensitized to the factors that prevent women's advancement and facilitate entry-level opportunities for women in administration. Continuing education and opportunities for mentoring and networking, combined with flexibility in work structures, will promote the integration of women at high administrative levels in health care, not only within their own professions, but in corporate health care as well. PMID:10122424

  10. 'Train the trainer' model: implications for health professionals and farm family health in Australia.

    PubMed

    Brumby, Susan; Smith, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Australia is a large country with 60% of land used for agricultural production. Its interior is sparsely populated, with higher morbidity and mortality recorded in rural areas, particularly farmers, farm families, and agricultural workers. Rural health professionals in addressing health education gaps of farming groups have reported using behavioralist approaches. These approaches in isolation have been criticized as disempowering for participants who are identified as passive learners or 'empty vessels.' A major challenge in rural health practice is to develop more inclusive and innovative models in building improved health outcomes. The Sustainable Farm Families Train the Trainer (SFFTTT) model is a 5-day program developed by Western District Health Service designed to enhance practice among health professionals working with farm families in Australia. This innovative model of addressing farmer health asks health professionals to understand the context of the farm family and encourages them to value the experience and existing knowledge of the farmer, the family and the farm business. The SFFTTT program has engaged with health agencies, community, government, and industry groups across Australia and over 120 rural nurses have been trained since 2005. These trainers have successfully delivered programs to 1000 farm families, with high participant completion, positive evaluation, and improved health indicators. Rural professionals report changes in how they approach health education, clinical practice, and promotion with farm families and agricultural industries. This paper highlights the success of SFFTTT as an effective tool in enhancing primary health practice in rural and remote settings. The program is benefiting not only drought ravaged farmers but assisting rural nurses, health agencies, and health boards to engage with farm families at a level not identified previously. Furthermore, nurses and health professionals are now embracing a more 'farmer-centered model of care.' PMID:19437266

  11. Monitoring Physiology Trainee Needs to Focus Professional Society Responses: The APS Trainee Needs Surveys

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Marsha L Matyas (American Physiological Society Education)

    2011-06-01

    This article presents results from the 2004 and 2007 American Physiological Society (APS) Trainee Advisory Committee (TAC) surveys of graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and new investigators in physiology to identify topics and issues important to those trainees. Two major trends emerged from the data. First, trainees in 2007 expressed somewhat greater interest in professional development information than did those in 2004. Second, needs expressed by trainees in both years were closely related to their specific career development stage.

  12. How do you teach cultural safety\\/cultural competence\\/cultural ease? Participants' response to the approach and pedagogy of an Indigenous well- being professional development workshop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis McDermott; Diane Gabb

    The availability of high-quality professional development to improve the effectiveness of non- Indigenous mental health practitioners in working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clients and communities is crucial to improving poor Indigenous mental health status. Although much work is underway to include Indigenous perspectives in both undergraduate curricula and professional development, as well as improve models and modes of

  13. Beyond altruistic and commercial contract motherhood: the professional model.

    PubMed

    Van Zyl, Liezl; Walker, Ruth

    2013-09-01

    It has become common to distinguish between altruistic and commercial contract motherhood (or 'surrogacy'). Altruistic arrangements are based on the 'gift relationship': a woman is motivated by altruism to have a baby for an infertile couple, who are free to reciprocate as they see fit. By contrast, in commercial arrangements both parties are motivated by personal gain to enter a legally enforceable agreement, which stipulates that the contract mother or 'surrogate' is to bear a child for the intending parents in exchange for a fee. She is required to undergo medical examinations and to refrain from behaviour that could harm the foetus. The intending parents are the child's legal parents from the outset. The parties to the contract can, but are not expected to, maintain contact after the transaction is completed. We argue that contract motherhood should not be organized according to the norms of the gift relationship, and that contract mothers should be compensated for their labour. However, we accept that there are good reasons for rejecting the commercial model as a suitable framework for contract pregnancy, and argue, instead, in favour of viewing it as a profession. PMID:22500585

  14. Compensating the transplant professional: time for a model change.

    PubMed

    Abouljoud, M; Whitehouse, S; Langnas, A; Brown, K

    2015-03-01

    Compensation models for physicians are currently based primarily on the work relative value unit (wRVU) that rewards productivity by work volume. The value-based payment structure soon to be ushered in by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services rewards clinical quality and outcomes. This has prompted changes in wRVU value for certain services that will result in reduced payment for specialty procedures such as transplantation. To maintain a stable and competent workforce and achieve alignment between clinical activity, growth imperatives, and cost effectiveness, compensation of transplant physicians must evolve toward a matrix of measures beyond the procedure-based activity. This personal viewpoint proposes a redesign of transplant physician compensation plans to include the "virtual RVU" to recognize and reward meaningful clinical integration defined as hospital-physician commitment to specified and measurable metrics for current non-RVU-producing activities. Transplantation has been a leader in public outcomes reporting and is well suited to meet the challenges ahead that can only be overcome with a tight collaboration and alignment between surgeons, other physicians, support staff, and their respective institution and leadership. PMID:25693472

  15. Responsibility and the Work of IT-Professionals From Academia to Practice

    E-print Network

    Hornecker, Eva

    , and re-constructing "responsibility". With this approach we hope to expose new ethical issues. Using and methodical approach - by re-constructing "responsibility". Reflecting on the evolution of the concept

  16. Professional Writing Retreat Handbook: A How-To Manual for Replicating the NWP Professional Writing Retreat Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Check, Joseph; Fox, Tom; O'Shaughnessy, Kathleen; Tateishi, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The National Writing Project designed the Professional Writing Retreats to support writing by teacher-leaders for audiences of scholars, practitioners, policymakers, and other members of the public who have an interest in education. These writing retreats focus on writing about the profession of teaching, giving teachers a chance to write about…

  17. From Learning to Research: Developing a Hybrid Teacher Professional Development Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malmberg, J. S.; Odell, M. R.; Hoadley, C.; Sumner, T.; Maull, K.; Dibie, O.; Sundberg, C.; Kennedy, T.; Andersen, T.; Mackaro, J.; Randolph, J. G.; Tessendorf, S. A.; Wegner, K.

    2012-12-01

    In conjunction with The GLOBE Program's Student Climate Research Campaign, the From Learning to Research (L2R) project seeks to develop a successful model for student-teacher-scientist interaction and collaboration using 21st century technologies. The culminating event for each year of the project is the GLOBE Virtual Student Conference, which is held in May. At the conference, students present their locally relevant climate projects. To get to this final event, teachers participate in hybrid professional development including a weeklong summer professional development institute followed by twice monthly webinars. The weeklong professional development institute focused on project-based learning, Next Generation Science Standards, climate and climate change education, dealing with climate change misconceptions and controversies, and 21st century skills. Webinars included career talks by professionals in a variety of STEM careers, teacher updates on the climate projects, and science, technology, or education information. Now over halfway into the second year of the project, this presentation will highlight strategies and successes in developing this professional development model. 75 GLOBE-trained teachers (30 the first year, 45 the second year) from 22 US states and Puerto Rico have participated in the From Learning to Research project. The teachers represent a wide diversity of populations, including schools ranging from extremely rural to inner city and low-income public schools to Ivy League prep private schools. Regardless of the location, students and teachers were able to collaborate with other schools and scientists to study their local climates. The GLOBE Program (www.globe.gov) is an international K-12 science and education program, engaging teachers and their students in an exploration of the environment. Using scientific protocols, students collect environmental data in their community, asking questions, developing scientific projects, and ultimately gaining a better understanding of their world. GLOBE has been implemented at over 25,000 schools in over 110 countries since 1995.

  18. A Multi-Year Study of the Impact of the Rice Model Teacher Professional Development on Elementary Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaconu, Dana Viorica; Radigan, Judy; Suskavcevic, Milijana; Nichol, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    A teacher professional development program for in-service elementary school science teachers, the Rice Elementary Model Science Lab (REMSL), was developed for urban school districts serving predominately high-poverty, high-minority students. Teachers with diverse skills and science capacities came together in Professional Learning Communities, one…

  19. Peer Coaching as a Model for Professional Development in the Elementary Mathematics Context: Challenges, Needs and Rewards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jao, Limin

    2013-01-01

    As our knowledge about education continues to change, educators must refine and redefine their beliefs and teaching practices through professional development. In the peer coaching model of professional development, both participants have a chance to reflect on what they observe and on their own teaching practices. This reciprocal gain is one of…

  20. A professional development model for medical laboratory scientists working in the Core Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Ali, Faheem A; Pulido, Lila A; Garza, Melinda N; Amerson, Megan H; Greenhill, Brandy; Brown, Krystyna N; Lim, Shari K; Manyam, Venkatesara R; Nguyen, Hannah N; Prudhomme, Carrie C; Regan, Laura E; Sims, Willie R; Umeh, Afamefuna U; Williams, Rosemary; Tillman, Patricia K; Hu, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    The Division of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center has implemented a professional development model designed to further the education, expertise, and experiences of medical laboratory scientists in the core laboratory. The professional development model (PDM) has four competency levels: Discovery, Application, Maturation and Expert. All levels require the medical laboratory scientist to learn new skill sets, complete task and projects, and meet continuing education and certification requirements. Each level encourages personal development, recognizes increased competencies, and sets high standards for all services provided. Upon completion of a level within a given timeframe, the medical laboratory scientist receives a salary adjustment based on the competency level completed. PMID:22693774

  1. Teaching about Heterogeneous Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals vary in their responses to incentives and opportunities. For example, additional education will affect one person differently than another. In recent years, econometricians have given increased attention to such heterogeneous responses and to the consequences of such responses for interpreting regression estimates, especially…

  2. Applying a Cognitive-Affective Model of Conceptual Change to Professional Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen K. EbertKent; Kent J. Crippen

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated Gregoire’s (2003) Cognitive–Affective Conceptual Change model (CAMCC) for predicting and assessing conceptual change in science teachers engaged\\u000a in a long-term professional development project set in a large school district in the southwestern United States. A multiple\\u000a case study method with data from three teacher participants was used to understand the process of integrating and applying\\u000a a reform

  3. Responses of patient, their relatives and professionals to a "home-grown" videotape course on schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Neill, R

    1989-12-01

    The Richmond Mental Health Team of the Greater Vancouver Mental Health Service produced a low-cost, 4-1/2 hour videotape course on schizophrenia using a multidisciplinary panel of team staff and an audience of patients, family members and community groups. The resource people interviewed were from the local area. An interview of a sample of recipients of the videotape course revealed that patient and family understanding of the illness, its treatment and the service delivery system had been elementary before the course. The program improved this understanding and reportedly reduced family conflict in certain areas. Professional consumers were generally pleased with the content and format of the video, but were dissatisfied with the technical quality. Although it was designed for use with patient and family groups in community mental health settings, professional recipients were using the videotape primarily to train staff and paraprofessionals. The manual that accompanied the videotape was seldom used. Given the cost effectiveness of using videotape to design psycho-educational programs, its potentially wide distribution, the staff development spin-offs and its community development applications, we encourage provincial and state services to produce their own videotape programs. PMID:10296815

  4. Monitoring physiology trainee needs to focus professional society responses: the APS Trainee Needs Surveys.

    PubMed

    Matyas, Marsha L; Lowy, Melinda E; Sweazea, Karen L; Alvarez, Diego F

    2011-06-01

    In 2004 and 2007, the American Physiological Society (APS) Trainee Advisory Committee (TAC) conducted surveys of graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and new investigators in physiology to identify topics and issues important to those trainees. Two major trends emerged from the data. First, trainees in 2007 expressed somewhat greater interest in professional development information than did those in 2004. Second, needs expressed by trainees in both years were closely related to their specific career development stage. Survey findings guided the TAC and other APS committees and groups to focus their efforts toward the issues that were of the greatest interest to trainees. It also led to improved communication with trainees and increased involvement of trainees in APS governance. PMID:21652502

  5. ePMV embeds molecular modeling into professional animation software environments.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Graham T; Autin, Ludovic; Goodsell, David S; Sanner, Michel F; Olson, Arthur J

    2011-03-01

    Increasingly complex research has made it more difficult to prepare data for publication, education, and outreach. Many scientists must also wade through black-box code to interface computational algorithms from diverse sources to supplement their bench work. To reduce these barriers we have developed an open-source plug-in, embedded Python Molecular Viewer (ePMV), that runs molecular modeling software directly inside of professional 3D animation applications (hosts) to provide simultaneous access to the capabilities of these newly connected systems. Uniting host and scientific algorithms into a single interface allows users from varied backgrounds to assemble professional quality visuals and to perform computational experiments with relative ease. By enabling easy exchange of algorithms, ePMV can facilitate interdisciplinary research, smooth communication between broadly diverse specialties, and provide a common platform to frame and visualize the increasingly detailed intersection(s) of cellular and molecular biology. PMID:21397181

  6. Generalized IRT Models for Extreme Response Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Kuan-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Extreme response style (ERS) is a systematic tendency for a person to endorse extreme options (e.g., strongly disagree, strongly agree) on Likert-type or rating-scale items. In this study, we develop a new class of item response theory (IRT) models to account for ERS so that the target latent trait is free from the response style and the tendency…

  7. Investigating the experience: A case study of a science professional development program based on Kolb's experiential learning model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Brian L.

    Professional development for educators has been defined as the process or processes by which teachers achieve higher levels of professional competence and expand their understanding of self, role, context and career (Duke and Stiggins, 1990). Currently, there is limited research literature that examines the effect a professional development course, which uses David Kolb's experiential learning model, has on the professional growth and teaching practice of middle school science teachers. The purpose of this interpretive case study is to investigate how three science teachers who participated in the Rivers to Reef professional development course interpreted the learning experience and integrated the experience into their teaching practice. The questions guiding this research are (1) What is the relationship between a professional development course that uses an experiential learning model and science teaching practice? (2) How do the Rivers to Reef participants reflect on and describe the course as a professional growth experience? The creation of the professional development course and the framework for the study were established using David Kolb's (1975) experiential learning theory and the reflection process model designed by David Boud (1985). The participants in the study are three middle school science teachers from schools representing varied settings and socioeconomic levels in the southeastern United States. Data collected used the three-interview series interview format designed by Dolbere and Schuman (Seidman, 1998). Data was analyzed for the identification of common categories related to impact on science teaching practice and professional growth. The major finding of this study indicates the years of teaching experience of middle school science teachers significantly influences how they approach professional development, what and how they learn from the experience, and the ways in which the experience influences their teaching practices.

  8. Air Quality Response Modeling for Decision Support

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality management relies on photochemical models to predict the responses of pollutant concentrations to changes in emissions. Such modeling is especially important for secondary pollutants such as ozone and fine particulate matter which vary nonlinearly with changes in emis...

  9. [The problems with parallel narcosis. Professional and legal limits of delegation of anaesthesiological responsibilities to non-medical personnel].

    PubMed

    Ulsenheimer, K; Biermann, E

    2007-04-01

    The increasing mechanisation, specialisation and sub-specialisation in medicine have enduringly supported the delegation of originally medical activities to non-medical personnel and sometimes also made it necessary. Economical considerations have recently given additional impulse to these developments. It is indisputable that medical activities can be delegated to assistant personnel, however, it is equally indisputable that within the scope of the total spectrum of medical activities, there are limits to the extent of delegation, i.e. activities reserved exclusively for medical doctors. These include, by consensus of opinion, the physical examination, diagnosis, assessment of indication, determination of the therapy plan and informing the patient. The following article justifies from professional and legal viewpoints why anaesthesia also belongs to the genuine medical duties and is reserved exclusively for medical personnel. Therefore, the correct performance of parallel narcosis is coupled with far-reaching liability risks for all participants involved in this form of organisation or those responsible for them. PMID:17404697

  10. Neuromuscular function, hormonal, and mood responses to a professional rugby union match.

    PubMed

    West, Daniel J; Finn, Charlotte V; Cunningham, Daniel J; Shearer, David A; Jones, Marc R; Harrington, Bradley J; Crewther, Blair T; Cook, Christian J; Kilduff, Liam P

    2014-01-01

    We examined the recovery time-course of neuromuscular function (NMF), the testosterone and cortisol hormonal milieu, and mood for 60 hours after a competitive match in professional rugby union players (n = 14). Thirty-six hours prematch (19:30 hours kick-off), baseline saliva samples (testosterone, cortisol, and testosterone to cortisol [T/C] ratio), countermovement jump performances (peak power output [PPO]), and mood disruption (Brief Assessment of Mood Questionnaire) were collected and was repeated at 12, 36, and 60 hours postmatch. Peak power output decreased below baseline at 12 hours (baseline 6,100 ± 565 W vs. 12 h 5,680 ± 589 W; p = 0.004) and 36 hours (5,761 ± 639 W; p < 0.001) but had recovered at 60 hours (5,950 ± 505 W; p = 0.151). Cortisol concentrations increased from baseline at 12 hours (baseline 0.40 ± 0.09 µg·dl-1 vs. 12 h 0.60 ± 0.20 µg·dl-1; p = 0.004) and 36 hours (0.60 ± 0.20 µg·dl-1; p = 0.027) but were similar at 60 hours postmatch. Testosterone concentrations decreased from baseline at 12 hours (baseline 214 ± 84 pg·ml-1 vs. 12 h 151 ± 56 pg·ml-1; p = 0.023) and 36 hours (173 ± 71 pg·ml-1; p = 0.016) but were similar at 60 hours postmatch. The T/C ratio decreased from baseline at 12 hours (baseline 551 ± 219 vs. 12 h 266 ± 123; p = 0.001) and 36 hours (310 ± 148; p = 0.027) before returning to baseline at 60 hours postmatch. Mood disturbance increased at 12 hours (p = 0.031) before returning to baseline at 36 and 60 hours postmatch. There were no relationships between changes in PPO, testosterone, cortisol, T/C ratio, and mood. In conclusion, postmatch changes in NMF, salivary hormones, and mood disturbance were identified in professional rugby union players. Players and coaches can expect reduced NMF and hormonal disruption for 36 hours before recovering at 60 hours postmatch, with mood recovered by 36 hours postmatch. Knowledge of these recovery time-courses may prove useful for player training program design and postmatch recovery strategies. PMID:23539085

  11. Health Information on the Web and Consumers’ Perspectives on Health ProfessionalsResponses to Information Exchange

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health information technology, which is sometimes referred to as informaticization of medicine, is changing the extent to which patients become competent producers of their own health by enabling them access to health information anytime and anywhere. Objective This research provides preliminary information on users' perceptions of the extent to which use of the Internet for health information impacts medical encounters. We specifically explored the following questions: (1) To what extent perceptions of positive or negative changes in medical encounters are associated with sociodemographic background of online health information seekers, and how often the Internet information is discussed with providers? (2) To what extent is there an association between perceived changes in medical encounters and frequency of referring to the Internet during medical encounters? (3) To what extent is there an association between sociodemographic background of online health information users and frequency of discussing of the Internet information with providers? Methods The data for this study was derived from a national sampling of online health and medical information users who participated in the Study of Health and Medical Information in Cyberspace—Survey of User Perceptions (N=710). This study used a nationally representative online research panel of the US adults maintained by the Knowledge Networks. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), chi-square, and t tests were performed to examine the data. Results Although Internet sources allow people the opportunity to gather health or medical information, discussion of this information was not a very common activity. It is noteworthy that half of the sample never or rarely discussed health/medical information obtained from Internet sources with health professionals. Chi-square analyses revealed that discussion of online health information with providers were associated with education, income, and marital status. We also found that discussion of the Internet information mostly promotes better physician-patient interactions. Analyses with post-hoc tests identified that perceived changes in medical encounters were associated with age, education, and income. However, 9.1% (64/703) of our respondents strongly agreed that the interactions with their providers have been strained. T test analyses showed that marital status, race, and gender were not significant. Conclusions Embracing new technologies, and adapting to changing roles and relationships in delivery of medical care are critical to effective delivery of patient-centered care. Health professionals could also guide patients on how to evaluate information and where to access to reliable and accurate information. PMID:25075248

  12. Professional Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jean M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reviews "Investigating Mathematics with Young Children" (Althouse); "Homecoming for Babies after the Neonatal Intensive Care Nursery: A Guide for Parents," with companion guide for professionals (Hanson and VandenBerg); "HIV/AIDS: A Challenge to Us All," with companion video (Pediatric AIDS Foundation); and "Modeling Healthy Behavior: Actions and…

  13. Market response models and marketing practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique M. Hanssens; Peter S. H. Leeflang; Dick R. Wittink

    2005-01-01

    SUMMARY Market response models are intended to help scholars and managers understand how consumers individually and collectively respond to marketing activities, and how competitors interact. Appropriately estimated effects constitute a basis for improved decision making in marketing. We review the demand and supply of market response models and we highlight areas of future growth. We discuss two characteristics that favour

  14. On Compensation in Multidimensional Response Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2012-01-01

    The issue of compensation in multidimensional response modeling is addressed. We show that multidimensional response models are compensatory in their ability parameters if and only if they are monotone. In addition, a minimal set of assumptions is presented under which the MLEs of the ability parameters are also compensatory. In a recent series of…

  15. Personal Beliefs and Professional Responsibilities: Ethiopian Midwives' Attitudes toward Providing Abortion Services after Legal Reform.

    PubMed

    Holcombe, Sarah Jane; Berhe, Aster; Cherie, Amsale

    2015-03-01

    In 2005, Ethiopia liberalized its abortion law and subsequently authorized midwives to offer abortion services. Using a 2013 survey of 188 midwives and 12 interviews with third-year midwifery students, this cross-sectional research examines midwives' attitudes toward abortion to understand their decisions about service provision. Most midwives were willing to provide abortion services. This willingness was positively and significantly related to clinical experience with abortion, but negatively and significantly related to religiosity, belief that providers have the right to refuse to provide services, and care of patients from periurban as opposed to rural areas. No significant relationship was found with perceptions of abortion stigma, years of work as a midwife, or knowledge of the law. Interview data suggest complex dynamics underlying midwives' willingness to offer services, including conflicts between professional norms and religious beliefs. Findings can inform Ethiopia's efforts to reduce maternal mortality through task-shifting to midwives and can aid other countries that are confronting provider shortages and high levels of maternal mortality and morbidity, particularly due to unsafe abortion. PMID:25753060

  16. [Ethical-legal aspects of the civil responsibility of physicians in professional practice].

    PubMed

    Fortes, P A

    1990-12-01

    The ethical-juridical concepts related to the civil responsibility of medical activity in liberal practice are brought up to date. To this end, the arguments which guide the shaping up of the contractual relationship between the physician and the client are analysed, as also are the foundations on which the notion of guilt--an essential component of civil responsibility, whether relating to technical acts of to those within the field of medical humanism--are grounded. The answers presented for the solution of this question by European juridical systems are given. PMID:2103073

  17. [Patient information and professional responsibility: reversal of jurisprudence of the Court of cassation].

    PubMed

    Rouanne, M; Lebret, T

    2012-01-01

    The Court of cassation is the highest court in the French judiciary. In a recent decision on June 3, 2010, the supreme jurisdiction quashed partially a court of appeal judgement. A patient developed erectile dysfunction following open prostatectomy for benign prostatic hyperplasia. The patient was not informed of this risk before the surgery. The judges recall that failure to provide information, including very exceptional risks, asserts in itself the physician's responsibility and allows financial reparation for patients. In accordance with this decision, a new jurisprudence in medical responsibility is born. PMID:22196009

  18. Addressing the Gap between Case Law and Professional Practice: A Response to Zirkel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carl; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ryan, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In this article, authors Carl Smith, Antonis Katsiyannis, and Joseph Ryan respond to Zirkel's most recent article, "The Law in the Special Education Literature: A Brief Legal Critique," published in this issue of "Behavioral Disorders." Smith, Katsiyannis, and Ryan begin their response by saying that "The Law in the…

  19. The Professional Development Needs of Teachers with Responsibility for Pupil Attendance: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses upon an evaluation of attendance issues within a local education authority (LEA) following two critical Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted) reports. After the publication of these reports, the contract and responsibility for managing schools, and the former LEA's remit, was awarded to a private company. As part of the…

  20. Mentor Modeling: The Internalization of Modeled Professional Thinking in an Epistemic Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Padraig; Shaffer, David Williamson

    2011-01-01

    Players of epistemic games--computer games that simulate professional practica--have been shown to develop epistemic frames: a profession's particular way of seeing and solving problems. This study examined the interactions between players and mentors in one epistemic game, Urban Science. Using a new method called epistemic network analysis, we…

  1. SME Student Chapter Professional and Social Responsibilities Policy The Department of Mining Engineering encourages the students to participate in as many

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    SME Student Chapter Professional and Social Responsibilities Policy The Department of Mining Engineering encourages the students to participate in as many SME activities as possible to enhance in the SME activities there are rules to be followed and appropriate social behavior is expected

  2. Exploring Middle School Teachers' Perceptions and Applications of a Site-Based, Technology-Related Professional Development Program Focused on Interactive Whiteboards and Classroom Response Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desai, Shreya J.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined five middle school teachers' perceptions of a site-based, technology-related professional development (TRPD) program focused on the interactive whiteboard (IWB) and the classroom response system (CRS) and the practices implemented in the teachers' classrooms as a result of participation in the TRPD…

  3. Evaluating the Culturally Relevant and Responsive Education Professional Development Program at the Elementary School Level in the Los Angeles Unified School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Daniel C.

    2011-01-01

    The overall effectiveness of the culturally relevant and responsive education (CRRE) professional development program in the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) was evaluated. Recruitment procedures included general and special educators and school administrators as participants. The "CRRE Observation Coding Scheme" and reflective field…

  4. A Multi-Year Study of the Impact of the Rice Model Teacher Professional Development on Elementary Science Teachers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana Viorica Diaconu; Judy Radigan; Milijana Suskavcevic; Carolyn Nichol

    2012-01-01

    A teacher professional development program for in-service elementary school science teachers, the Rice Elementary Model Science Lab (REMSL), was developed for urban school districts serving predominately high-poverty, high-minority students. Teachers with diverse skills and science capacities came together in Professional Learning Communities, one full day each week throughout an academic year, to create a classroom culture for science instruction. Approximately

  5. A Multi-Year Study of the Impact of the Rice Model Teacher Professional Development on Elementary Science Teachers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana Viorica Diaconu; Judy Radigan; Milijana Suskavcevic; Carolyn Nichol

    2011-01-01

    A teacher professional development program for in-service elementary school science teachers, the Rice Elementary Model Science Lab (REMSL), was developed for urban school districts serving predominately high-poverty, high-minority students. Teachers with diverse skills and science capacities came together in Professional Learning Communities, one full day each week throughout an academic year, to create a classroom culture for science instruction. Approximately

  6. Early transcriptional responses of internalization defective Brucella abortus mutants in professional phagocytes, RAW 264.7

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Brucella abortus is an intracellular zoonotic pathogen which causes undulant fever, endocarditis, arthritis and osteomyelitis in human and abortion and infertility in cattle. This bacterium is able to invade and replicate in host macrophage instead of getting removed by this defense mechanism. Therefore, understanding the interaction between virulence of the bacteria and the host cell is important to control brucellosis. Previously, we generated internalization defective mutants and analyzed the envelope proteins. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the changes in early transcriptional responses between wild type and internalization defective mutants infected mouse macrophage, RAW 264.7. Results Both of the wild type and mutant infected macrophages showed increased expression levels in proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, apoptosis and G-protein coupled receptors (Gpr84, Gpr109a and Adora2b) while the genes related with small GTPase which mediate intracellular trafficking was decreased. Moreover, cytohesin 1 interacting protein (Cytip) and genes related to ubiquitination (Arrdc3 and Fbxo21) were down-regulated, suggesting the survival strategy of this bacterium. However, we could not detect any significant changes in the mutant infected groups compared to the wild type infected group. Conclusions In summary, it was very difficult to clarify the alterations in host cellular transcription in response to infection with internalization defective mutants. However, we found several novel gene changes related to the GPCR system, ubiquitin-proteosome system, and growth arrest and DNA damages in response to B. abortus infection. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying host-pathogen interactions and need to be studied further. PMID:23802650

  7. Do incentives, reminders or reduced burden improve healthcare professional response rates in postal questionnaires? two randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Healthcare professional response rates to postal questionnaires are declining and this may threaten the validity and generalisability of their findings. Methods to improve response rates do incur costs (resources) and increase the cost of research projects. The aim of these randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was to assess whether 1) incentives, 2) type of reminder and/or 3) reduced response burden improve response rates; and to assess the cost implications of such additional effective interventions. Methods Two RCTs were conducted. In RCT A general dental practitioners (dentists) in Scotland were randomised to receive either an incentive; an abridged questionnaire or a full length questionnaire. In RCT B non-responders to a postal questionnaire sent to general medical practitioners (GPs) in the UK were firstly randomised to receive a second full length questionnaire as a reminder or a postcard reminder. Continued non-responders from RCT B were then randomised within their first randomisation to receive a third full length or an abridged questionnaire reminder. The cost-effectiveness of interventions that effectively increased response rates was assessed as a secondary outcome. Results There was no evidence that an incentive (52% versus 43%, Risk Difference (RD) -8.8 (95%CI ?22.5, 4.8); or abridged questionnaire (46% versus 43%, RD ?2.9 (95%CI ?16.5, 10.7); statistically significantly improved dentist response rates compared to a full length questionnaire in RCT A. In RCT B there was no evidence that a full questionnaire reminder statistically significantly improved response rates compared to a postcard reminder (10.4% versus 7.3%, RD 3 (95%CI ?0.1, 6.8). At a second reminder stage, GPs sent the abridged questionnaire responded more often (14.8% versus 7.2%, RD ?7.7 (95%CI ?12.8, -2.6). GPs who received a postcard reminder followed by an abridged questionnaire were most likely to respond (19.8% versus 6.3%, RD 8.1%, and 9.1% for full/postcard/full, three full or full/full/abridged questionnaire respectively). An abridged questionnaire containing fewer questions following a postcard reminder was the only cost-effective strategy for increasing the response rate (£15.99 per response). Conclusions When expecting or facing a low response rate to postal questionnaires, researchers should carefully identify the most efficient way to boost their response rate. In these studies, an abridged questionnaire containing fewer questions following a postcard reminder was the only cost-effective strategy. An increase in response rates may be explained by a combination of the number and type of contacts. Increasing the sampling frame may be more cost-effective than interventions to prompt non-responders. However, this may not strengthen the validity and generalisability of the survey findings and affect the representativeness of the sample. PMID:22891875

  8. Homogeneous case of the continuous response model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fumiko Samejima

    1973-01-01

    In line with the latent trait model, the continuous response level is defined and considered, in contrast to the discrete\\u000a response levels, which have already been explored by the author. Discussions are mainly focused on the homogeneous case and\\u000a the open response situation. The operating density characteristic of the continuous item score is defined. Also the basic\\u000a function, information functions

  9. The sweating response of elite professional soccer players to training in the heat.

    PubMed

    Shirreffs, S M; Aragon-Vargas, L F; Chamorro, M; Maughan, R J; Serratosa, L; Zachwieja, J J

    2005-03-01

    Sweat rate and sweat composition vary extensively between individuals, and quantification of these losses has a role to play in the individualisation of a hydration strategy to optimise training and competitive performance. Data were collected from 26 male professional football (soccer) players during one 90 min pre-season training session. This was the 2nd training session of the day, carried out between 19.30 and 21.00 h when the mean +/- SD environment was 32 +/- 3 degrees C, 20 +/- 5 %rh and WBGT 22 +/- 2 degrees C. Training consisted of interval running and 6-a-side games during which the average heart rate was 136 +/- 7 bpm with a maximum rate of 178 +/- 7 bpm (n = 19). Before and after training all players were weighed nude. During training all players had free access to sports drinks (Gatorade) and mineral water (Solan de Cabras). All drink bottles were weighed before and after training. Players were instructed to drink only from their own bottles and not to spit out any drink. No player urinated during the training session. Sweat was collected by patches from the chest, arm, back, and thigh of a subgroup of 7 players. These remained in place for the first 15 - 30 min of the training session, and sweat was analysed for sodium (Na (+)) and potassium (K (+)) concentration. Body mass loss was 1.23 +/- 0.50 kg (ranging from 0.50 to 2.55 kg), equivalent to dehydration of 1.59 +/- 0.61 % of pre-training body mass. The sweat volume lost was 2193 +/- 365 ml (1672 to 3138 ml), but only 972 +/- 335 ml (239 to 1724 ml) of fluid was consumed. 45 +/- 16 % of the sweat volume loss was replaced, but this ranged from 9 % to 73 %. The Na (+) concentration of the subgroup's sweat was 30.2 +/- 18.8 mmol/l (15.5 to 66.3 mmol/l) and Na (+) losses averaged 67 +/- 37 mmol (26 to 129 mmol). The K (+) concentration of the sweat was 3.58 +/- 0.56 mmol/l (2.96 to 4.50 mmol/l) and K (+) losses averaged 8 +/- 2 mmol (5 to 12 mmol). The drinking employed by these players meant that only 23 +/- 21 % of the sweat Na (+) losses were replaced: This ranged from replacing virtually none (when water was the only drink) to replacing 62 % when the sports drink was consumed. These elite soccer players did not drink sufficient volume to replace their sweat loss. This, however, is in accord with data in the literature from other levels of soccer players and athletes in other events. These measurements allow for an individualisation of the club's hydration strategy. PMID:15726482

  10. Creating synthetic discrete-response regression models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph M. Hilbe

    2010-01-01

    The development and use of synthetic regression models has proven to assist statisticians in better understanding bias in data, as well as how to best interpret various statistics associated with a modeling situation. In this article, I present code that can be easily amended for the creation of synthetic binomial, count, and categorical response models. Parameters may be assigned to

  11. Teaching and assessing professionalism in medicine.

    PubMed

    Duff, Patrick

    2004-12-01

    Professionalism is the single most important of the clinical competencies. Lack of professional behavior, in turn, is the single most common cause for disciplinary action against third and fourth-year medical students, residents, fellows, and clinical practitioners. Desirable professional attributes include humility, honesty, responsibility, reliability, and accountability. The ability to preserve an appropriate balance between patient care responsibilities and personal commitments also is an important feature of professional behavior. Altruism, respectfulness, loyalty, compassion, sensitivity, and tactfulness are other desirable professional attributes. In addition, professionalism requires a heightened sense of intellectual curiosity, insight into personal strengths and weaknesses, maturity, and commitment to clinical excellence and self-directed learning. Professionalism can be taught and assessed through lectures, small-group seminars, role-playing exercises, directed reading, and one-on-one observation and counseling. However, the most effective way of teaching professionalism is for instructors to model appropriate behavior and to impose a consistent policy of zero tolerance for unprofessional behavior. PMID:15572503

  12. Graded Response Model Based on the Logistic Positive Exponent Family of Models for Dichotomous Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    2008-01-01

    Samejima ("Psychometrika "65:319--335, 2000) proposed the logistic positive exponent family of models (LPEF) for dichotomous responses in the unidimensional latent space. The objective of the present paper is to propose and discuss a graded response model that is expanded from the LPEF, in the context of item response theory (IRT). This specific…

  13. A General Model for Free Response Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    1972-01-01

    This paper proposes a general model for free-response data collected for measuring a specified unidimensional psychological process; systematizes situations which vary with respect to the scoring level of items; and finds out general conditions for the operating characteristic of an item response category to provide a unique maximum likelihood…

  14. Weight-Related Attitudes and Experiences of Nutrition Professionals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Learners will describe the attitudes and experiences of nutrition professionals regarding professional responsibility to model an appropriate weight status and the role of personal weight-related issues in nutrition counseling interactions. The purpose of this study was to describe the attitudes an...

  15. Experiential Professional Development: A Model for Meaningful and Long-Lasting Change in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Brigid M.

    2013-01-01

    An experiential approach to professional development (EPD) allowed Spanish teachers opportunities to improve their practice through demonstration, observation, collaboration, fieldwork, and reflection. As result of "experiential" professional development, Burke (2012) found that teachers' knowledge about communicative language teaching…

  16. Initiating Small Class Teaching in Hong Kong: Video Reflective Narratives and the Professional Developmental Learning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Marina W. Y.; Pow, Jacky W. C.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the use of video reflective narratives. It reports on data derived from 28 in-service primary school teachers undertaking professional development to support small class (n = 25) teaching in Hong Kong. The findings serve to highlight that such professional development is fraught with confounds, for professional development…

  17. Brains Rule!: a model program for developing professional stewardship among neuroscientists.

    PubMed

    Zardetto-Smith, Andrea M; Mu, Keli; Carruth, Laura L; Frantz, Kyle J

    2006-01-01

    Brains Rule! Neuroscience Expositions, funded through a National Institute on Drug Abuse Science Education Drug Abuse Partnership Award, has developed a successful model for informal neuroscience education. Each Exposition is a "reverse science fair" in which neuroscientists present short neuroscience teaching modules to students. This study focuses on results of assessments conducted with neuroscientist presenters during Expositions at two sites, Atlanta, Georgia and Corpus Christi, Texas. The effects of participating in the Expositions on presenters' perceptions of their own presentation and communication skills were evaluated, as was the potential for increased active participation by neuroscientists in future outreach programs. In four of the five Expositions studied, pre- versus post-event surveys demonstrated significant changes in presenters' perceptions of their own abilities to explain neuroscience concepts to children. Over the course of an Exposition, presenters learned to fit their approaches to conveying neuroscience concepts to fifth through eighth graders and learned to link information they presented about the brain and nervous system to children's past experiences to improve comprehension. The present data suggest that Brains Rule! Neuroscience Expositions are effective in improving communication and teaching skills among neuroscience professionals and contribute to professional stewardship by increasing motivation to participate in future informal education programs. PMID:17012206

  18. Teaching Science Using Guided Inquiry as the Central Theme: A Professional Development Model for High School Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Anil

    2010-01-01

    The author describes a professional development model for high school science teachers based on the framework of inquiry and science standards. The "Learn-Teach-Assess Inquiry" model focuses on guided inquiry labs as the central theme and builds on these labs to reinforce science concepts and abilities to understand and engage in inquiry in…

  19. How Do You Evaluate Everyone Who Isn't a Teacher? An Adaptable Evaluation Model for Professional Support Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H.; And Others

    The evaluation of professional support personnel in the schools has been a neglected area in educational evaluation. The Center for Research on Educational Accountability and Teacher Evaluation (CREATE) has worked to develop a conceptually sound evaluation model and then to translate the model into practical evaluation procedures that facilitate…

  20. Advocacy -- Professional School Counselors Closing the Achievement Gap Through Empowerment: A Response to Hipolito-Delgado and Lee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitcham-Smith, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    The author comments on several aspects of an article by Hipolito-Delgado and Lee entitled "Empowerment Theory for the Professional School Counselor: A Manifesto for What Really Matters" (Professional School Counseling, v10 n4 p327-332 Apr 2007; see EJ767346). Hipolito-Delgado and Lee's article highlights a critical need for a comprehensive,…

  1. Shell model response analysis of buried pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Takada, Shiro [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Architecture; Katagiri, Shin [Kubota Co., Ltd., Sakai, Osaka (Japan). Plastic Pipe R and D Dept.; Shinmi, Tatsuhiko [Kobe City Office (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    A shell model analysis can calculate the cross-sectional deformation and hoop stress of buried pipelines. This paper proposes an analytical method to calculate the response of buried straight and bent pipelines modeled as cylindrical shell structures. A modified transfer matrix method is employed instead of a stiffness matrix method to avoid the problem of computational memory caused by huge matrixes. Results calculated by the developed program are compared with experimental ones obtained by a pipe bending test of straight and bent pipe segments. In addition, several differences of the pipe response between the beam model and the shell model are examined through response simulations of straight and bent pipelines subjected to ground subsidence.

  2. Case Study -Hypothetical Immunological Response Model Graph Transformation Rules

    E-print Network

    St Andrews, University of

    Case Study - Hypothetical Immunological Response Model Graph Transformation Rules Mayur Bapodra of a hypothetical model of cellular viral infection and subsequent immunological response for some imagined multi

  3. Predictability of a Professional Practice Model to Affect Nurse and Patient Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Stallings-Welden, Lois M; Shirey, Maria R

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of patients experience needless deaths and injuries as a result of errors while hospitalized for an unrelated problem. The lack of an established professional practice model (PPM) of nursing may be a contributing factor to patient care quality and safety breaches. The PPM of nursing was tested for its ability to affect nurse and patient outcomes. Using a retrospective/prospective research design, secondary data were collected from 2395 staff nurses on 15 inpatient-nursing units covering a 6-year timeframe. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and the Pearson correlation. Nurse and patient outcomes on 2 hospital campuses reached statistical significance. Positive correlations were seen between the initiation of a PPM and subsequent nurses' perception of quality of care, nurse interactions, decision making, autonomy, job enjoyment, and patient satisfaction. This study provides empirical evidence that a uniquely designed PPM in alignment with organizational context can indeed impact nurse and patient outcomes in a community health system. PMID:26049597

  4. 1 Professional Psychology PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    1 Professional Psychology PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Offered through the Columbian College of Arts and Sciences' social and behavioral sciences discipline, the professional psychology program teaches students that combines extensive practical experience with classes on scientific foundations of psychology taught

  5. Dose-Response Model for Lassa Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sushil B. Tamrakar; Charles N. Haas

    2008-01-01

    This article develops dose-response models for Lassa fever virus using data sets found in the open literature. Dose-response data were drawn from two studies in which guinea pigs were given subcutaneous and aerosol exposure to Lassa virus. In one study, six groups of inbred guinea pigs were inoculated subcutaneously with doses of Lassa virus and five groups of out-bred guinea

  6. Seismic response interpretation for heterogeneous reservoir models

    SciTech Connect

    Fichtl, P.; Fournier, F. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1995-08-01

    Seismic information is crucial to constrain the reservoir image between wells. However, in heterogeneous environments, it is often difficult to interpret the seismic response of the reservoir, especially with limited well control. Analyses of synthetic seismic responses of typical reservoir models are helpful for defining the geological information contained in the seismic data. We propose a geological interpretation of seismic responses of various models in the frame of fluvio-deltaic deposits. The first model is the intermediate unit of the Mesa Verde outcrop, whose seismic response was computed by elastic wave modelling, after assignment of elastic parameters constant by lithofacies. The other models correspond to stochastic lithofacies simulations with different geostatistical characteristics. Their seismic responses were computed with 1D modelling (convolution). The geological interpretation carried out on those synthetic seismic data is based on a calibration of the seismic parameters in terms of probabilities of encountering the different lithofacies. The technique we use is a non parametric discriminant analysis. The seismic parameters are the amplitudes for the convolution models or impedances and reflection coefficients for the first model for which a post-stack stratigraphic inversion was carried out. We compare the seismic derived lithofacies to the true ones to determine the potential of the seismic data for describing the reservoir heterogeneities. We use the different models to discuss: the impact of the spatial distribution of heterogeneities on the geological interpretation of the seismic data; the influence of the seismic lateral filtering on the interpretation the influence of the number of wells, used in the interpretation, on the final results.

  7. Perceptions and Attitudes of Health Professionals in Kenya on National Health Care Resource Allocation Mechanisms: A Structural Equation Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Owili, Patrick Opiyo; Hsu, Yi-Hsin Elsa; Chern, Jin-Yuan; Chiu, Chiung-Hsuan Megan; Wang, Bill; Huang, Kuo-Cherh; Muga, Miriam Adoyo

    2015-01-01

    Background Health care resource allocation is key towards attaining equity in the health system. However, health professionals’ perceived impact and attitude towards health care resource allocation in Sub-Saharan Africa is unknown; furthermore, they occupy a position which makes them notice the impact of different policies in their health system. This study explored perceptions and attitudes of health professionals in Kenya on health care resource allocation mechanism. Method We conducted a survey of a representative sample of 341 health professionals in Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital from February to April 2012, consisting of over 3000 employees. We assessed health professionals’ perceived impact and attitudes on health care resource allocation mechanism in Kenya. We used structural equation modeling and applied a Confirmatory Factor Analysis using Robust Maximum Likelihood estimation procedure to test the hypothesized model. Results We found that the allocation mechanism was negatively associated with their perceived positive impact (-1.04, p < .001), health professionals’ satisfaction (-0.24, p < .01), and professionals’ attitudes (-1.55, p < .001) while it was positively associated with perceived negative impact (1.14, p < .001). Perceived positive impact of the allocation mechanism was negatively associated with their overall satisfaction (-0.08) and attitude (-0.98) at p < .001, respectively. Furthermore, overall satisfaction was negatively associated with attitude (-1.10, p <.001). On the other hand, perceived negative impact of the allocation was positively associated with overall satisfaction (0.29, p <.001) but was not associated with attitude. Conclusion The result suggests that health care resource allocation mechanism has a negative effect towards perceptions, attitudes and overall satisfaction of health professionals who are at the frontline in health care. These findings can serve as a crucial reference for policymakers as the Kenyan health system move towards devolving the system of governance. PMID:26039053

  8. An entrustable professional activity (EPA) for handoffs as a model for EPA assessment development.

    PubMed

    Aylward, Michael; Nixon, James; Gladding, Sophia

    2014-10-01

    Medical education is moving toward assessment of educational outcomes rather than educational processes. The American Board of Internal Medicine and American Board of Pediatrics milestones and the concept of entrustable professional activities (EPA)--skills essential to the practice of medicine that educators progressively entrust learners to perform--provide new approaches to assessing outcomes. Although some defined EPAs exist for internal medicine and pediatrics, the continued development and implementation of EPAs remains challenging. As residency programs are expected to begin reporting milestone-based performance, however, they will need examples of how to overcome these challenges. The authors describe a model for the development and implementation of an EPA using the resident handoff as an example. The model includes nine steps: selecting the EPA, determining where skills are practiced and assessed, addressing barriers to assessment, determining components of the EPA, determining needed assessment tools, developing new assessments if needed, determining criteria for advancement through entrustment levels, mapping milestones to the EPA, and faculty development. Following implementation, 78% of interns at the University of Minnesota Medical School were observed giving handoffs and provided feedback. The authors suggest that this model of EPA development--which includes engaging stakeholders, an iterative process to describing the behavioral characteristics of each domain at each level of entrustment, and the development of specific assessment tools that support both formative feedback and summative decisions about entrustment--can serve as a model for EPA development for other clinical skills and specialty areas. PMID:24892402

  9. Combustion response modeling for composite solid propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A computerized mathematical model of the combustion response function of composite solid propellants was developed with particular attention to the contributions of the solid phase heterogeneity. The one-dimensional model treats the solid phase as alternating layers of ammonium perchlorate and binder, with an exothermic melt layer at the surface. Solution of the Fourier heat equation in the solid provides temperature and heat flux distributions with space and time. The problem is solved by conserving the heat flux at the surface from that produced by a suitable model of the gas phase. An approximation of the BDP flame model is utilized to represent the gas phase. By the use of several reasonable assumptions, it is found that a significant portion of the problem can be solved in closed form. A method is presented by which the model can be applied to tetramodal particle size distributions. A computerized steady-state version of the model was completed, which served to validate the various approximations and lay a foundation for the combustion response modeling. The combustion response modeling was completed in a form which does not require an iterative solution, and some preliminary results were acquired.

  10. Market Response ModelsMarket Response Models Demand CreationDemand Creation

    E-print Network

    Brock, David

    Market Response ModelsMarket Response Models andand Demand CreationDemand Creation Dominique M 2005 UCLA Anderson School of Management and Marketing Science Institute #12;2 OverviewOverview What is marketing ?What is marketing ? Research traditionsResearch traditions Building brandsBuilding brands Growing

  11. Organizing Information Professionals on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Fredrick

    2002-01-01

    Describes a model for thinking about information professionals working in information technology (IT). This Information Resources Model describes the roles of information professionals and how these roles relate to users of information resources. (SLD)

  12. UC San Diego Nursing Professional Practice Model of Care The use of the starfish represents our model of care and the five elements. A starfish communicates through its arms and

    E-print Network

    Squire, Larry R.

    Patient Care Delivery System and Outcomes Professional Values: ANA Scope & Standards, California NurseUC San Diego Nursing Professional Practice Model of Care The use of the starfish represents our to be successful in its environment. Like the starfish, our professional practice model uses the interaction of our

  13. The Adaptive Calibration Model of stress responsivity

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Bruce J.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the Adaptive Calibration Model (ACM), an evolutionary-developmental theory of individual differences in the functioning of the stress response system. The stress response system has three main biological functions: (1) to coordinate the organism’s allostatic response to physical and psychosocial challenges; (2) to encode and filter information about the organism’s social and physical environment, mediating the organism’s openness to environmental inputs; and (3) to regulate the organism’s physiology and behavior in a broad range of fitness-relevant areas including defensive behaviors, competitive risk-taking, learning, attachment, affiliation and reproductive functioning. The information encoded by the system during development feeds back on the long-term calibration of the system itself, resulting in adaptive patterns of responsivity and individual differences in behavior. Drawing on evolutionary life history theory, we build a model of the development of stress responsivity across life stages, describe four prototypical responsivity patterns, and discuss the emergence and meaning of sex differences. The ACM extends the theory of biological sensitivity to context (BSC) and provides an integrative framework for future research in the field. PMID:21145350

  14. Partnering with Secondary Schools to Prepare Highly Qualified Teachers: Alternative Certification through a Professional Development School Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Susan D.; McMillan, Sally; Price, Margaret A.; Anderson, Connie Wilson; Fives, Helenrose

    2007-01-01

    Recruiting Educators through Alternative Licensure (Project REAL) is funded through the Transition to Teaching grant initiative. Project REAL is designed to enable university faculty and classroom teachers to work collaboratively within a professional development school model in order to provide secondary pre-service teachers with a high quality,…

  15. Exploring a Community of Practice Model for Professional Development to Address Challenges to Classroom Practices in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine

    2013-01-01

    This study explored whether or not, and how, an on-site and research-teacher community of practice model for professional development addressed the challenges to classroom practices in a Head Start program. Data sources included interviews with teachers, videos of planning and teaching sessions, and the researchers' fieldwork log and…

  16. Human genome education model project. Ethical, legal, and social implications of the human genome project: Education of interdisciplinary professionals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. O. Weiss; E. V. Lapham

    1996-01-01

    This meeting was held June 10, 1996 at Georgetown University. The purpose of this meeting was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the human genome education model. Topics of discussion include the following: psychosocial issues; ethical issues for professionals; legislative issues and update; and education issues.

  17. Teachers Learning to Use the iPad in Scotland and Wales: A New Model of Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchamp, Gary; Burden, Kevin; Abbinett, Emily

    2015-01-01

    In learning to use a new technology like the iPad, primary teachers adopt a diverse range of experiential, informal and playful strategies contrasting sharply with traditional models underpinning professional development which emphasise formal courses and events led by "experts" conducted in formal settings such as the school. Since…

  18. Design of a Model for a Professional Development Programme for a Multidisciplinary Science Subject in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Talitha C.; Coenders, Fer G. M.; Terlouw, Cees; Pieters, Jules M.

    2012-01-01

    Schools are increasingly integrating multidisciplinary education into their programmes. The Minister of Education, Culture and Science has introduced a new, integrated science subject in secondary education in the Netherlands, called Nature, Life and Technology (NLT). This research note describes the design of a generic model for a professional

  19. Teacher Evaluation: The Road to Excellence. Current Findings on Teacher Evaluation Models That Support Professional Growth. Sharing Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egelson, Paula; McColskey, Wendy

    This publication describes teacher evaluation models that support teacher development. Chapter 1, "The Need to Support Teachers' Professional Growth," discusses the importance of a collegial school environment and where most of the support will occur. Chapter 2, "Types of Teacher Evaluation," describes formative and summative evaluation. Chapter…

  20. A Medical-Model Professional Development School: Effects of Training Experience on the First Year of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Trisha Gerrish

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in teacher efficacy for classroom management, instructional strategies, and student engagement between teachers who trained in a full-time, yearlong, medical-model professional development school (PDS) and their experience as a first year teacher in comparison to teachers who participated…

  1. Crop Response to Climate: Ecophysiological Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey W. White; Gerrit Hoogenboom

    \\u000a To predict the possible impacts of global warming and increased CO2 on agriculture, scientists use computer-based models that attempt to quantify the best-available knowledge on plant physiology,\\u000a agronomy, soil science and meteorology in order to predict how a plant will grow under specific environmental conditions.\\u000a The chapter reviews the basic features of crop models with emphasis on physiological responses to

  2. Equating Tests under the Nominal Response Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Frank B.

    1993-01-01

    A procedure was developed for finding equating coefficients of the linear transformation of the metric of one test to that of another when nominally scored. Empirical results indicate that tests scored under a nominal response model can be placed on a common metric in horizontal and vertical equating. (SLD)

  3. A Ballistic Model of Choice Response Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Scott; Heathcote, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Almost all models of response time (RT) use a stochastic accumulation process. To account for the benchmark RT phenomena, researchers have found it necessary to include between-trial variability in the starting point and/or the rate of accumulation, both in linear (R. Ratcliff & J. N. Rouder, 1998) and nonlinear (M. Usher & J. L. McClelland, 2001)…

  4. A Flexible Latent Trait Model for Response Times in Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranger, Jochen; Kuhn, Jorg-Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Latent trait models for response times in tests have become popular recently. One challenge for response time modeling is the fact that the distribution of response times can differ considerably even in similar tests. In order to reduce the need for tailor-made models, a model is proposed that unifies two popular approaches to response time…

  5. Technology Acceptance by Health Professionals in Canada: An Analysis with a Modified UTAUT Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Princely Ifinedo

    2012-01-01

    Information systems (IS) offer healthcare practitioners a variety of benefits. As such, the acceptance of such technologies by healthcare professionals is an important topic of interest to both practitioners and researchers. IS acceptance has been widely researched in the extant literature, however, studies focusing on perspectives of healthcare professionals are sparsely represented. To add the growing work in this area,

  6. Evaluation of Online, On-Demand Science Professional Development Material Involving Two Different Implementation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Greg; Byers, Al; Rapp, Steve

    2008-01-01

    This report presents pilot-test results for a science professional development program featuring online, on-demand materials developed by the National Science Teachers Association. During the spring 2006 semester, 45 middle school teachers from three different school districts across the United States participated in a professional development…

  7. Instructional Rounds as a Professional Learning Model for Systemic Implementation of Assessment for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLuca, Christopher; Klinger, Don; Pyper, Jamie; Woods, Judy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the implementation of a professional learning project aimed at building educators' knowledge and skills in assessment for learning (AfL) within two school districts in Ontario, Canada. Specifically, the research examined the value of a two-tier "Instructional Rounds" (IR) professional

  8. Pre-Professional Training for Serving Children with ASD: An Apprenticeship Model of Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often present with varied skill profiles and levels of severity making development and implementation of specialized school services challenging. Research indicates that school professionals require and desire additional ASD-specific professional development, both at the pre-and in-service levels.…

  9. From personal reflection to social positioning: the development of a transformational model of professional education in midwifery.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Diane; Fawns, Rod; Hayes, Barbara

    2002-12-01

    A transformational model of professional identity formation, anchored and globalized in workplace conversations, is advanced. Whilst the need to theorize the aims and methods of clinical education has been served by the techno-rational platform of 'reflective practice', this platform does not provide an adequate psychological tool to explore the dynamics of social episodes in professional learning and this led us to positioning theory. Positioning theory is one such appropriate tool in which individuals metaphorically locate themselves within discursive action in everyday conversations to do with personal positioning, institutional practices and societal rhetoric. This paper develops the case for researching social episodes in clinical education through professional conversations where midwifery students, in practice settings, are encouraged to account for their moment-by-moment interactions with their preceptors/midwives and university mentors. It is our belief that the reflection elaborated by positioning theory should be considered as the new epistemology for professional education where professional conversations are key to transformative learning processes for persons and institutions. PMID:12460419

  10. Distinguishing Models of Professional Development: The Case of an Adaptive Model's Impact on Teachers' Knowledge, Instruction, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koellner, Karen; Jacobs, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We posit that professional development (PD) models fall on a continuum from highly adaptive to highly specified, and that these constructs provide a productive way to characterize and distinguish among models. The study reported here examines the impact of an adaptive mathematics PD model on teachers' knowledge and instructional practices as…

  11. An Evaluation of the Developmental Designs Approach and Professional Development Model on Classroom Management in 22 Middle Schools in a Large, Midwestern School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hough, David L.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents findings from an evaluation of the Developmental Designs classroom management approach and professional development model during its first year of implementation across 22 middle schools in a large, Midwestern school district. The impact of this professional development model on teaching and learning as related to participants'…

  12. From "Mentor" to "Role Model": Scaling the Involvement of STEM Professionals through Role Model Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Jennifer; Stein, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Mentors and role models can play a significant role in high school students' motivation to pursue specific careers later in life. Although the use of role models in the classroom is an important research topic, little research has been conducted on scaling up STEM role models reach through the use of video vignettes. This essay outlines a series…

  13. The Earth2Class Model for Professional Development to Implement the Next Generation Science Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passow, M. J.; Assumpcao, C. M.; Baggio, F. D.; Hemming, S. R.; Goodwillie, A. M.; Brenner, C.

    2014-12-01

    Professional development for teachers involved in the implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) will require a multifaceted approach combining curriculum development, understanding the nature of science, applications of engineering and technology, integrating reading and writing, and other pedagogical components. The Earth2Class Workshops (E2C) at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (LDEO) provides one model for creating effective training to meet the NGSS challenges. E2C has provided more than 135 workshops since 1998 that have brought together LDEO research scientists with classroom teachers and students from the New York metropolitan area and elsewhere. Each session provides teachers with the chance to learn first-hand about the wide range of investigations conducted at LDEO. This approach aligns strongly with the NGSS goals: mastery of the disciplinary core ideas, science and engineering practices, understanding the nature of science, and cross-cutting relationships. During workshops, participating teachers interact with scientists to gain understanding of what stimulated research questions, how scientists put together all the components of investigations, and ways in which results are disseminated. Networking among teachers often leads to developing lesson plans based on the science, as well as support for professional growth not always possible within the school setting. Through the E2C website www.earth2class.org, teachers and students not able to attend the live workshops can access archival versions of the sessions. The website also provides a wide variety of educational resources. These have proved to be valuable on a national basis, as evidenced by an average of more than 300,000 hits per month from thousands of site visitors. Participating researchers have found E2C to be an effective approach to provide broader outreach of their results. During the next couple of years, the E2C program will expand to provide more resources useful for educators seeking to introduce NGSS-based programs in their districts. The E2C model can be applied in other settings, with appropriate modifications.

  14. Modeling operators' emergency response time for chemical processing operations.

    PubMed

    Murray, Susan L; Harputlu, Emrah; Mentzer, Ray A; Mannan, M Sam

    2014-01-01

    Operators have a crucial role during emergencies at a variety of facilities such as chemical processing plants. When an abnormality occurs in the production process, the operator often has limited time to either take corrective actions or evacuate before the situation becomes deadly. It is crucial that system designers and safety professionals can estimate the time required for a response before procedures and facilities are designed and operations are initiated. There are existing industrial engineering techniques to establish time standards for tasks performed at a normal working pace. However, it is reasonable to expect the time required to take action in emergency situations will be different than working at a normal production pace. It is possible that in an emergency, operators will act faster compared to a normal pace. It would be useful for system designers to be able to establish a time range for operators' response times for emergency situations. This article develops a modeling approach to estimate the time standard range for operators taking corrective actions or following evacuation procedures in emergency situations. This will aid engineers and managers in establishing time requirements for operators in emergency situations. The methodology used for this study combines a well-established industrial engineering technique for determining time requirements (predetermined time standard system) and adjustment coefficients for emergency situations developed by the authors. Numerous videos of workers performing well-established tasks at a maximum pace were studied. As an example, one of the tasks analyzed was pit crew workers changing tires as quickly as they could during a race. The operations in these videos were decomposed into basic, fundamental motions (such as walking, reaching for a tool, and bending over) by studying the videos frame by frame. A comparison analysis was then performed between the emergency pace and the normal working pace operations to determine performance coefficients. These coefficients represent the decrease in time required for various basic motions in emergency situations and were used to model an emergency response. This approach will make hazardous operations requiring operator response, alarm management, and evacuation processes easier to design and predict. An application of this methodology is included in the article. The time required for an emergency response was roughly a one-third faster than for a normal response time. PMID:25530564

  15. Assessing the Effectiveness of Selected Biomarkers in the Acute and Cumulative Physiological Stress Response in Professional Rugby Union through Non-invasive Assessment.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, A; Lewis, J G; Scarrott, C; Gill, N; Gieseg, S P; Draper, N

    2015-06-01

    Rugby union is a sport involving high force and frequency impacts making the likelihood of injury a significant risk. The aim of this study was to measure and report the individual and group acute and cumulative physiological stress response during 3 professional rugby games through non-invasive sampling. 24 professional rugby players volunteered for the study. Urine and saliva samples were collected pre and post 3 matches. Myoglobin, salivary immunoglobulin A, cortisol, neopterin and total neopterin (neopterin+7,8-dihydroneopterin) were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography or enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Significant increases in cortisol, myoglobin, neopterin and total neopterin when urine volume was corrected with specific gravity were observed (p<0.05). Significant decreases in salivary immunoglobulin A concentration were observed for games 1 and 2 while secretion rate decreased after games 2 and 3. Significant decreases were seen with the percent of 7,8-dihydroneopterin being converted to neopterin following games 2 and 3. The intensity of 3 professional rugby games was sufficient to elicit significant changes in the physiological markers selected for our study. Furthermore, results suggest the selected markers not only provide a means for analysing the stress encountered during a single game of rugby but also highlight the unique pattern of response for each individual player. PMID:25760150

  16. Testing Linear Models for Ability Parameters in Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Cees A. W.; Hendrawan, Irene

    2005-01-01

    Methods for testing hypotheses concerning the regression parameters in linear models for the latent person parameters in item response models are presented. Three tests are outlined: A likelihood ratio test, a Lagrange multiplier test and a Wald test. The tests are derived in a marginal maximum likelihood framework. They are explicitly formulated…

  17. Professional Development: Learning from the Best. A Toolkit for Schools and Districts Based on the National Awards Program for Model Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassel, Emily

    This publication provides a step-by-step guide to help schools and districts implement strong, sustainable professional development that drives achievement of student learning goals. The toolkit is based on the experiences of national professional development award winning schools and districts. The most common thread among the winners is that…

  18. Organizational and media stress among professional football players: testing an achievement goal theory model.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, E; Halvari, H; Roberts, G C

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate media and coach-athlete stress experienced by professional football players and their relationship to motivational variables by testing an achievement goal theory (AGT) stress model. In order to do so, we developed scales specifically designed to assess media and coach-athlete stress. Eighty-two elite football players (M(age) =25.17 years, SD=5.19) completed a series of questionnaires. Correlations and bootstrapping were used as primary statistical analyses, supplemented by LISREL, to test the hypotheses. Results revealed that a mastery climate was directly and negatively associated with coach-athlete stress, while a performance climate was directly and positively associated with coach-athlete stress. In addition, an indirect positive path between the performance climate and media stress was revealed through ego orientation. These findings support some of the key postulates of AGT; a mastery climate reduces the perception of stress among athletes, and the converse is true for a performance climate. Coaches of elite footballers are advised to try to reduce the emphasis on performance criteria because of its stress-reducing effects. PMID:21210857

  19. Demystifying reflective practice: Using the DATA model to enhance evaluators' professional activities.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tiffany L; Barlow, Patrick B; Peters, John M; Skolits, Gary J

    2015-10-01

    Reflective practice (RP), one of six essential competency domains in evaluation identified by Stevahn, King, Ghere, and Minnema (2005), refers to thinking critically about one's evaluation practice, alone or with other people, and using critical insights to improve one's practice. Currently, evaluators have minimal guidance in navigating this essential professional competency, professed to be a necessary part of their practice. This article focuses on how RP can serve as a tool for evaluators through the use of the "DATA" integrated RP framework, developed by Peters (1991, 2009). DATA is an acronym with each letter standing for a different step in the process of reflective practice. The "D" step of the acronym focuses on (D)escribing what is or has been happening in practice. The "A" step refers to (A)nalyzing the current state of practice-why is this happening the way it is? The "T" concentrates on a practice-oriented form of (T)heorizing, which comes from analysis and serves as a basis for the resulting (A)ct. The last "A" focuses on the specifics of an action plan to change one's evaluation practice in light of the practical theory developed through theorizing. This paper describes the DATA model and introduces the application of the framework in a practice context. PMID:26051793

  20. Professional Development

    E-print Network

    Sibille, Etienne

    Professional Development Advanced Public Speaking in a Nutshell An Introduction to Social Media Presentation Identifying Opportunities for Using Social Media for Business Purposes Public Speaking;2 Professional Development ADVANCED PUBLIC SPEAKING IN A NUTSHELL Presenter: Michael Bann

  1. Professional Development

    E-print Network

    Sibille, Etienne

    Professional Development Advanced Public Speaking in a Nutshell An Introduction to Social Media the University Library System Grammar, Punctuation, and Proofreading: Ensuring Professional Presentation Public Speaking in a Nutshell Revised Public Health Service Conflict of Interest Regulations Strategies

  2. Case Study -Hypothetical Immunological Response Model Graph Transformation Rules

    E-print Network

    St Andrews, University of

    Case Study - Hypothetical Immunological Response Model Graph Transformation Rules Mayur Bapodra immunological response for some imagined multi- cellular organism. Section 2 presents the graph transformation

  3. Addressing the hidden curriculum: understanding educator professionalism.

    PubMed

    Glicken, Anita Duhl; Merenstein, Gerald B

    2007-02-01

    Several authors agree that student observations of behaviors are a far greater influence than prescriptions for behavior offered in the classroom. While these authors stress the importance of modeling of professional relationships with patients and colleagues, at times they have fallen short of acknowledging the importance of the values inherent in the role of the professional educator. This includes relationships and concomitant behaviors that stem from the responsibilities of being an educator based on expectations of institutional and societal culture. While medical professionals share standards of medical practice in exercising medical knowledge, few have obtained formal training in the knowledge, skills and attitudes requisite for teaching excellence. Attention needs to be paid to the professionalization of medical educators as teachers, a professionalization process that parallels and often intersects the values and behaviors of medical practice but remains a distinct and important body of knowledge and skills unto itself. Enhancing educator professionalism is a critical issue in educational reform, increasing accountability for meeting student needs. Assumptions regarding educator professionalism are subject to personal and cultural interpretation, warranting additional dialogue and research as we work to expand definitions and guidelines that assess and reward educator performance. PMID:17538835

  4. Population-expression models of immune response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stromberg, Sean P.; Antia, Rustom; Nemenman, Ilya

    2013-06-01

    The immune response to a pathogen has two basic features. The first is the expansion of a few pathogen-specific cells to form a population large enough to control the pathogen. The second is the process of differentiation of cells from an initial naive phenotype to an effector phenotype which controls the pathogen, and subsequently to a memory phenotype that is maintained and responsible for long-term protection. The expansion and the differentiation have been considered largely independently. Changes in cell populations are typically described using ecologically based ordinary differential equation models. In contrast, differentiation of single cells is studied within systems biology and is frequently modeled by considering changes in gene and protein expression in individual cells. Recent advances in experimental systems biology make available for the first time data to allow the coupling of population and high dimensional expression data of immune cells during infections. Here we describe and develop population-expression models which integrate these two processes into systems biology on the multicellular level. When translated into mathematical equations, these models result in non-conservative, non-local advection-diffusion equations. We describe situations where the population-expression approach can make correct inference from data while previous modeling approaches based on common simplifying assumptions would fail. We also explore how model reduction techniques can be used to build population-expression models, minimizing the complexity of the model while keeping the essential features of the system. While we consider problems in immunology in this paper, we expect population-expression models to be more broadly applicable.

  5. Developing research capacity in the social sciences: a professionality-based model

    E-print Network

    Evans, Linda

    2009-01-01

    It is argued in this article that the shortcomings of social science research stem fundamentally from the lack of a developmentalist culture, which manifests itself by researchers’ inadequate interest and participation in continuing professional...

  6. Let's Begin with Ourselves: Attempting Resonance Responses in the Exchange of Researchers' Professional Autobiographies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Petry, Paulo; Hernández-Hernández, Fernando; Creus, Amalia

    2014-01-01

    The economic, social, cultural, technological and labour changes experienced by Spanish universities in the last 40?years have had their impact on the professional lives of the university teachers. Our methodological decision to study, through the construction of life histories, how scholars cope with social and institutional changes in their…

  7. Forming and developing your professional identity: easy as PI.

    PubMed

    Goltz, Heather Honoré; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2014-11-01

    Health education and promotion specialists and professional organizations have worked hard to successfully establish and maintain the status of health education/promotion (HE/P) as a unique and essential profession and to solidify practitioners' sense of professional identity. A professional identity is critical to a person's sense of self: It is about connecting with roles, responsibilities, values, and ethical standards unique to a specific profession. Professional identity is a complex issue in the HE/P profession; the distinction between personal and professional identities has been debated repeatedly over the years (e.g., should HE/P professionals be role models for clients?). The purpose of this Tool is to explain the concept of professional identity; provide new, emerging, and experienced HE/P with a greater understanding of what it means to have a professional identity; present processes and benchmarks of professional identity development; and offer specific tips and strategies for developing and enhancing an HE/P professional identity. PMID:25015568

  8. How parents view professional behaviors: A cross-professional analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara J. Friesen; Paul E. Koren; Nancy M. Koroloff

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the responses of more than 900 parents of children with serious emotional disorders to survey questions about the importance and frequency of professional behaviors and compared these responses across professions. The findings indicated that parents with lower income and less education tended to work more with social workers, counselors, and teachers, less with psychologists and psychiatrists. Professional

  9. Science Teacher Efficacy and Extrinsic Factors toward Professional Development Using Video Games in a Design-Based Research Model: The Next Generation of STEM Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annetta, Leonard A.; Frazier, Wendy M.; Folta, Elizabeth; Holmes, Shawn; Lamb, Richard; Cheng, Meng-Tzu

    2013-01-01

    Designed-based research principles guided the study of 51 secondary-science teachers in the second year of a 3-year professional development project. The project entailed the creation of student-centered, inquiry-based, science, video games. A professional development model appropriate for infusing innovative technologies into standards-based…

  10. Comment on modeling ecological response to climatic change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George P. Malanson

    1993-01-01

    Researchers have developed many computer simulation models to project ecological responses to climatic change. Three general types of models are examined: transfer functions, stand models, and physiological models. Criteria for evaluation are, first, ability to represent observed and theoretical responses to climatic change i.e., geographical migration, individualistic responses, and disequilibrium or inertia, and second, ability to provide useful information on

  11. Improving Item Response Theory Model Calibration by Considering Response Times in Psychological Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranger, Jochen; Kuhn, Jorg-Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Research findings indicate that response times in personality scales are related to the trait level according to the so-called speed-distance hypothesis. Against this background, Ferrando and Lorenzo-Seva proposed a latent trait model for the responses and response times in a test. The model consists of two components, a standard item response

  12. The Graded Unfolding Model: A Unidimensional Item Response Model for Unfolding Graded Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, James S.; Laughlin, James E.

    Binary or graded disagree-agree responses to attitude items are often collected for the purpose of attitude measurement. Although such data are sometimes analyzed with cumulative measurement models, recent investigations suggest that unfolding models are more appropriate (J. S. Roberts, 1995; W. H. Van Schuur and H. A. L. Kiers, 1994). Advances in…

  13. A Study of Bayesian Estimation and Comparison of Response Time Models in Item Response Theory

    E-print Network

    Suh, Hongwook

    2010-04-26

    (MCMC) methods for Thissen's (1983) lognormal response time model, Wang and Hanson's (2005) 4PL RT model, and van der Linden's (2007) hierarchical framework were applied to the investigation of response time on real data. Overall, van der Linden's (2007...

  14. Biological Event Modeling for Response Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, Clement; Cecere, Fred; Darneille, Robert; Laverdure, Nate

    People worldwide continue to fear a naturally occurring or terrorist-initiated biological event. Responsible decision makers have begun to prepare for such a biological event, but critical policy and system questions remain: What are the best courses of action to prepare for and react to such an outbreak? Where resources should be stockpiled? How many hospital resources—doctors, nurses, intensive-care beds—will be required? Will quarantine be necessary? Decision analysis tools, particularly modeling and simulation, offer ways to address and help answer these questions.

  15. Stochastic Approximation Methods for Latent Regression Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Davier, Matthias; Sinharay, Sandip

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an application of a stochastic approximation expectation maximization (EM) algorithm using a Metropolis-Hastings (MH) sampler to estimate the parameters of an item response latent regression model. Latent regression item response models are extensions of item response theory (IRT) to a latent variable model with covariates…

  16. Vertical axis wind turbine turbulent response model:

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The dynamic response of Sandia National Laboratories' 34-m Darrieus rotor wind turbine at Bushland, Texas, is presented. The formulation used a double-multiple streamtube aerodynamic model with a turbulent airflow and included the effects of linear aeroelastic forces. The structural analysis used established procedures with the program MSC/NASTRAN. The effects of aeroelastic forces on the damping of natural modes agree well with previous results at operating rotor speeds, but show some discrepancies at very high rotor speeds. A number of alternative expressions for the spectrum of turbulent wind were investigated. The model loading represented by each does not differ significantly; a more significant difference is caused by imposing a full lateral coherence of the turbulent flow. Spectra of the predicted stresses at various locations show that without aeroelastic forces, very severe resonance is likely to occur at certain natural frequencies. Inclusion of aeroelastic effects greatly attenuates this stochastic response, especially in modes involving in-plane blade bending. 15 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Evaluation of the Correlated Science and Mathematics Professional Development Model, 2009-2010 Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morlier, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of the 2009-2010 iteration of the Correlated Science and Mathematics (CSM) professional development program which provides teachers and principals experience with integrated and effective science and mathematics teaching strategies and content. Archival CSM data was analyzed via mixed…

  18. A model and typology of collaboration between professionals in healthcare organizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danielle D'Amour; Lise Goulet; Jean-François Labadie; Leticia San Martín-Rodriguez; Raynald Pineault

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The new forms of organization of healthcare services entail the development of new clinical practices that are grounded in collaboration. Despite recent advances in research on the subject of collaboration, there is still a need for a better understanding of collaborative processes and for conceptual tools to help healthcare professionals develop collaboration amongst themselves in complex systems. This study

  19. Drama for Schools: teacher change in an applied theatre professional development model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn Dawson; Stephanie W. Cawthon; Sally Baker

    2011-01-01

    Applied theatre often draws upon critical pedagogy and constructivist methodology as a way to bring participants into direct engagement with their own learning experiences. As learners, adults bring a wealth of perspectives that further affect how they interact with an applied theatre experience. Drama for Schools (DFS) is a professional development programme that partners graduate students and academics with teachers

  20. A Co-Teaching Model: Committed Professionals, High Expectations, and the Inclusive Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeman, Karen Wise; Magiera, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    This article relates the story of a first grade teacher and a child who was the only deaf student in the entire school. Because he had no one who could communicate with him--not teachers, not students, no one, this situation tugged at the hearts of a committed team of professionals. A teacher of the deaf, a first grade general education teacher, a…

  1. Navigating Past and Present Accountability Measures in Search of an Effective Principal Professional Development Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the perceived experiences encountered by principals in the state of Illinois regarding professional development sessions offered through the Illinois Administrator Academy. The fundamental value of the Illinois Administrator Academy was designed as one of 169 specific initiatives in association with the…

  2. A Model for Assessing the Effectiveness of Professional Development for Improving Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, John Francis

    2009-01-01

    For most of the last 50 years, teachers and administrators have perceived professional development and the instructional role primarily in terms of what one individual does with classes of others. Teachers, like their students, were considered to be rather passive acceptors of the instruction, rather than active modifiers. Thus, there was very…

  3. Teachers Who Learn, Kids Who Achieve: A Look at Schools with Model Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WestEd, San Francisco, CA.

    This book focuses on what it takes to translate professional development into impressive learning gains for students. The experiences of eight award-winning schools are distilled into principles for success. This book is based on hundreds of hours of talking with teachers and administrators at the eight schools. The schools are diverse,…

  4. Telementoring in Community Nursing: A shift from dyadic to communal models of learning and professional development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Russell; Kirk Perris

    2003-01-01

    This article reports on a six-month telementoring initiative in a Canadian community nursing organization. The way in which Internet technologies may support and augment face-to-face mentorship of health care professionals is a relatively unexplored area of research and was the focus of this project. Participants ( N =22) were all employees of Saint Elizabeth Health Care (SEHC), a community nursing

  5. A Model for Professional Development to Promote Engineering Design as an Integrative Pedagogy within STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donna, Joel D.

    2012-01-01

    Engineering design activities can help educators to apply concepts and processes from within and across STEM domains. To facilitate these connections, there is a need for sustained, job-embedded, and collegial professional development that brings together teachers from across STEM domains to engage in design-based activities. These activities can…

  6. A Year-Round Professional Development Model for World Language Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Tracy M.; Peterson, Margaret D.; Silva, Duarte M.; Padilla, Amado M.

    2009-01-01

    The Bay Area Foreign Language Program (BAFLP), one of nine regional sites of the California Foreign Language Project, offers ongoing, year-round professional development programs for world language educators. In addition, its leadership program prepares selected educators to assume leadership positions at their school sites, building capacity for…

  7. Professional Development: A Capacity-Building Model for Juvenile Correctional Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathur, Sarup R.; Clark, Heather Griller; Schoenfeld, Naomi A.

    2009-01-01

    Youth in correctional facilities experience a broad range of educational, psychological, medical, and social needs. Professional development, a systemic process that improves the likelihood of student success by enhancing educator abilities, is a powerful way to positively affect student outcomes in correctional settings. This article offers a…

  8. Teachers' Perception of a Professional Learning Community Model and Its Impact on Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stollar, Lori J.

    2014-01-01

    This study of a suburban school district in south central Pennsylvania employed a mixed method design to explore teachers' perceptions of their professional learning community (PLC) and the impact of such on teaching effectiveness and student learning. Perceptual data was collected through the Learning Community Culture Indicator (LCCI) teacher…

  9. An Integrative Psychological Developmental Model of Supervision for Professional School Counselors-in-Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambie, Glenn W.; Sias, Shari M.

    2009-01-01

    Professional school counselors (PSCs) at higher levels of psychological development negotiate complex situations and perform counselor-related tasks with empathy, flexibility, tolerance for ambiguity, boundary setting, personal and interpersonal awareness, and self-care more effectively than do individuals at lower levels of development. This…

  10. Teachers' personal didactical models and obstacles to professional development: Case-studies with secondary experimental science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wamba Aguado, Ana Maria

    The aim of this thesis has been to elaborate criteria which characterise how teachers teach, as a curriculum component of their professional knowledge and to infer the obstacles which hinder their desired professional development, in such a way that they are considered in the design of proposals for teacher training in secondary education. In addition to this, a further objective was to elaborate and validate data analysis instruments. Case studies were carried out on three natural science secondary teachers with more than ten years' experience, enabling the characterisation of the teachers' science and science teaching conceptions as well as the description of classroom practice. Finally, with the help of these data together with the material used by the teachers, the inference of the teachers' personal didactical models and the obstacles to their professional development were made possible. Instruments for data collection used a questionnaire to facilitate the realisation of a semi-structured interview, video recordings of the classroom intervention of each teacher which correspond to a teaching unit taught over a two-week period and all the written material produced for the unit was collected. For the data analysis a taxonomy of classroom intervention patterns and a progression hypothesis towards desirable professional knowledge were elaborated, from the perspective of a research in the classroom model and according to a system of categories and subcategories which refer to their concepts about scientific knowledge, school knowledge, how to teach and evaluation. With the interview and the questionnaire a profile of exposed conceptions was obtained. The intervention profile was obtained using the classroom recordings; according to the patterns identified and their sequencing, both of which determine the characteristic structures and routines of these teachers. An outcome of these results was the validation of the previously mentioned taxonomy as an instrument of classroom practice analysis. From these profiles and taking the progression hypothesis as a reference, the teachers' personal didactic models and the obstacles to professional development were inferred, following the system of categories and subcategories selected.

  11. A Conditional Joint Modeling Approach for Locally Dependent Item Responses and Response Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meng, Xiang-Bin; Tao, Jian; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The assumption of conditional independence between the responses and the response times (RTs) for a given person is common in RT modeling. However, when the speed of a test taker is not constant, this assumption will be violated. In this article we propose a conditional joint model for item responses and RTs, which incorporates a covariance…

  12. Assessing Professionalism in Early Medical Education: Experience with Peer Evaluation and Self-evaluation in the Gross Anatomy Course

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AJ Krych; SW Carmichael; W Pawlina

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: As today's healthcare model moves toward more streamlined and corporate industrialism, it is our responsibility, as doctors, to ensure the integrity of medicine's foundation in professionalism. The erosion of professional values not only creates a climate of animosity, but reverberates negatively to impact the development of students, who model their behaviour after those they most respect. This hazard has

  13. Modeling macroscopic response of random composites

    SciTech Connect

    Aidun, J.B.; Rintoul, M.D.; Lo, D.C.S.

    1998-02-01

    Preliminary work is presented on an effort to generate synthetic constitutive data for random composite materials. The long-ranged goal is to use the overall response determined from finite element simulations of representative volumes (RV) of the heterogeneous material to construct a homogenized constitutive model. A simple composite of a matrix containing polydispersed spheres was chosen as the first configuration to simulate. Here the accuracy of the numerical simulation tools is tested by determining effective elastic constants of the ordered elastic composite in which equal-sized spheres are arranged in each of three cubic lattice configurations. The resulting anisotropic effective elastic constant values agree with theoretical results to better than 10%, with typical agreement being better than 4%.

  14. Discrete Latent Markov Models for Normally Distributed Response Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmittmann, Verena D.; Dolan, Conor V.; van der Maas, Han L. J.; Neale, Michael C.

    2005-01-01

    Van de Pol and Langeheine (1990) presented a general framework for Markov modeling of repeatedly measured discrete data. We discuss analogical single indicator models for normally distributed responses. In contrast to discrete models, which have been studied extensively, analogical continuous response models have hardly been considered. These…

  15. Nonparametric Item Response Function Estimation for Assessing Parametric Model Fit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Jeffrey; Cohen, Allan

    2001-01-01

    Developed models to investigate the fit of parametric item response models by comparing them to models fitted under nonparametric assumptions. Illustrated these techniques through simulation studies and real-data examples. Discusses the identifiability and estimation consistency of item response theory models. (SLD)

  16. Modeling Multiple Response Processes in Judgment and Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockenholt, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I show how item response models can be used to capture multiple response processes in psychological applications. Intuitive and analytical responses, agree-disagree answers, response refusals, socially desirable responding, differential item functioning, and choices among multiple options are considered. In each of these cases, I…

  17. Engendering enthusiasm for sustainable disaster critical care response: why this is of consequence to critical care professionals?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saqib I Dara; Rendell W Ashton; J Christopher Farmer

    2005-01-01

    Disaster medical response has historically focused on the pre-hospital and initial treatment needs of casualties. In particular, the critical care component of many disaster response plans is incomplete. Equally important, routinely available critical care resources are almost always insufficient to respond to disasters that generate anything beyond a 'modest' casualty stream. Large-scale monetary funding to effectively remedy these shortfalls is

  18. The Cyton Model of the adaptive immune response, part I

    E-print Network

    Haase, Markus

    The Cyton Model of the adaptive immune response, part I Ken Duffy Hamilton Institute, National: Introduce and motivate the Cyton Model of the adaptive immune response. 2nd talk: Show how branching lymphocyte population dynamics. #12;Humoral Immune Response B-lymphocytes stimulated by CpG DNA1 0 50 100 150

  19. Physiological response curve analysis using nonlinear mixed models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael S. Peek; Estelle Russek-Cohen; Alexander D. Wait; Irwin N. Forseth

    2002-01-01

    Nonlinear response curves are often used to model the physiological responses of plants. These models are preferable to polynomials because the coefficients fit to the curves have biological meaning. The response curves are often generated by repeated measurements on one subject, over a range of values for the environmental variable of interest. However, the typical analysis of differences in coefficients

  20. Modeling Item Responses When Different Subjects Employ Different Solution Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.; Verhelst, Norman

    A model is presented for item responses when different examinees use different strategies to arrive at their answers and when only those answers, not choice or strategy or subtask results, can be observed. Using substantive theory to differentiate the likelihoods of response vectors under a fixed set of solution strategies, responses are modeled

  1. Modeling Information Accumulation in Psychological Tests Using Item Response Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranger, Jochen; Kuhn, Jörg-Tobias

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a latent trait model is proposed for the response times in psychological tests. The latent trait model is based on the linear transformation model and subsumes popular models from survival analysis, like the proportional hazards model and the proportional odds model. Core of the model is the assumption that an unspecified monotone…

  2. An interval model updating strategy using interval response surface models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Sheng-En; Zhang, Qiu-Hu; Ren, Wei-Xin

    2015-08-01

    Stochastic model updating provides an effective way of handling uncertainties existing in real-world structures. In general, probabilistic theories, fuzzy mathematics or interval analyses are involved in the solution of inverse problems. However in practice, probability distributions or membership functions of structural parameters are often unavailable due to insufficient information of a structure. At this moment an interval model updating procedure shows its superiority in the aspect of problem simplification since only the upper and lower bounds of parameters and responses are sought. To this end, this study develops a new concept of interval response surface models for the purpose of efficiently implementing the interval model updating procedure. The frequent interval overestimation due to the use of interval arithmetic can be maximally avoided leading to accurate estimation of parameter intervals. Meanwhile, the establishment of an interval inverse problem is highly simplified, accompanied by a saving of computational costs. By this means a relatively simple and cost-efficient interval updating process can be achieved. Lastly, the feasibility and reliability of the developed method have been verified against a numerical mass-spring system and also against a set of experimentally tested steel plates.

  3. MULTIVARIATE VARYING COEFFICIENT MODEL FOR FUNCTIONAL RESPONSES

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongtu; Li, Runze; Kong, Linglong

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by recent work studying massive imaging data in the neuroimaging literature, we propose multivariate varying coefficient models (MVCM) for modeling the relation between multiple functional responses and a set of covariates. We develop several statistical inference procedures for MVCM and systematically study their theoretical properties. We first establish the weak convergence of the local linear estimate of coefficient functions, as well as its asymptotic bias and variance, and then we derive asymptotic bias and mean integrated squared error of smoothed individual functions and their uniform convergence rate. We establish the uniform convergence rate of the estimated covariance function of the individual functions and its associated eigenvalue and eigenfunctions. We propose a global test for linear hypotheses of varying coefficient functions, and derive its asymptotic distribution under the null hypothesis. We also propose a simultaneous confidence band for each individual effect curve. We conduct Monte Carlo simulation to examine the finite-sample performance of the proposed procedures. We apply MVCM to investigate the development of white matter diffusivities along the genu tract of the corpus callosum in a clinical study of neurodevelopment. PMID:23645942

  4. The social environment during a post-match video presentation affects the hormonal responses and playing performance in professional male athletes.

    PubMed

    Cook, Christian J; Crewther, Blair T

    2014-05-10

    This study examined the social environment effects during a post-match video presentation on the hormonal responses and match performance in professional male rugby union players. The study participants (n=12) watched a 1-hour video of mixed content (player mistakes and successes) from a match played 1 day earlier in the presence of; (1) strangers who were bigger (SB), (2) strangers who were smaller (SS), (3) friends who were bigger (FB) and (4) friends who were smaller (FS). The salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) responses to a physical stress test were assessed 3 days later, along with pre-match T levels and match-ranked performance 6-7 days later. All treatments were associated with elevated T responses (% change from baseline) to the stress test with SS>SB and FB>FS. The C stress responses after the SS and SB interventions were both greater than FS and FB. On match-day, the FB approach was linked to higher T concentrations than SB and better ranked performance than FS and SS. The subsequent testing of a population sub-group (n=8) across a video (V) and a non-video (NV) presentation in a neutral social environment produced similar stress-test and performance outcomes, but pre-match T concentrations differed (V>NV). In conclusion, the presence of other males during a post-match video assessment had some influence on the hormonal responses of male athletes and match performance in the week that followed. Thus, the social environment during a post-match assessment could moderate performance and recovery in elite sport and, in a broader context, could be a possible modulator of human stress responses. PMID:24726389

  5. EXPLANATORY MODELS FOR ECOLOGICAL RESPONSE SURFACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is often spatial patterns in environmental and ecological variables that arouse interest and demand explanation. or environmental response variables, the causal influences of interacting environmental factors produce the patterns of interest. cological response variables by de...

  6. Principles for Professional Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Psychology Review, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Reviews principles based on assumptions that school psychologists will act as advocates for their clients and will do no harm. Includes sections on professional competency, relationships and responsibilities, and practice in public and private settings. Presents extensive information on procedural guidelines for adjudication of ethical complaints.…

  7. Dynamic causal modeling of evoked responses in EEG and MEG

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier David; Stefan J. Kiebel; Lee M. Harrison; Jérémie Mattout; James M. Kilner; Karl J. Friston

    2006-01-01

    Neuronally plausible, generative or forward models are essential for understanding how event-related fields (ERFs) and potentials (ERPs) are generated. In this paper, we present a new approach to modeling event-related responses measured with EEG or MEG. This approach uses a biologically informed model to make inferences about the underlying neuronal networks generating responses. The approach can be regarded as a

  8. Hierarchical Diffusion Models for Two-Choice Response Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandekerckhove, Joachim; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Lee, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Two-choice response times are a common type of data, and much research has been devoted to the development of process models for such data. However, the practical application of these models is notoriously complicated, and flexible methods are largely nonexistent. We combine a popular model for choice response times--the Wiener diffusion…

  9. Estimating the Nominal Response Model under Nonnormal Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Kathleen Suzanne Johnson; Reise, Steven Paul

    2014-01-01

    The nominal response model (NRM), a much understudied polytomous item response theory (IRT) model, provides researchers the unique opportunity to evaluate within-item category distinctions. Polytomous IRT models, such as the NRM, are frequently applied to psychological assessments representing constructs that are unlikely to be normally…

  10. Emotional response modeling in financial markets : Boston Stock Exchange data analysis

    E-print Network

    McCaney, Patrick Michael, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, physiological data is analyzed in the context of financial risk processing, specifically investigating the effects of financial trading decisions and situations on the physiological responses of professional ...

  11. A Comprehensive Model of the Response of Silicon Photomultipliers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herman T. van Dam; Stefan Seifert; Ruud Vinke; D. Dendooven; Herbert Lohner; Freek J. Beekman; Dennis R. Schaart

    2010-01-01

    The response of a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) to optical signals is inherently nonproportional due to saturation, afterpulsing, and crosstalk. Existing models of the SiPM response do not account for all of these effects, and therefore, these models are not sufficiently accurate for many applications. In this work, a comprehensive model of the SiPM response is developed that is generally applicable

  12. Redox response model for partly substituted cuprates

    SciTech Connect

    Oesterreicher, H. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1994-05-01

    Inhomogeneous substitutions (e.g. clustering and preferential site occupations) in compounds such as YBa[sub 2](Cu[sub 1[minus]x]M[sub x])[sub 3]O[sub y] with M = Fe, Co, Ni, etc. are an unavoidable response to the changing redox environments in these O intercalation compounds. The authors collect here experimental evidence for various types of inhomogeneous distributions predicted on a thermodynamic model which considers the preferential desorption'' of O from various local environments. The parameter organizing the redox environment is [Delta]H* (incremental enthalpy of oxygen desorption per mol O[sub 2]). Theory suggests a sequence of discernible states represented by the acronym CLUSTER. With decreasing [Delta]H*, indications for several of these states are obtained from Moessbauer and other experiments. These states are characteristically shifted in [Delta]H* for different M. Also, further substitutions according to (YX)(BaZ)[sub 2](CuM)[sub 3]O[sub y] with X = Ca, Z = Sr, La can change the relevant [Delta]H* for these states, allowing prediction of their preparation conditions. Aspects of the complex electronic phase diagram as a function of redox preparation are discussed.

  13. Professional thieves and drugs.

    PubMed

    Inciardi, J A; Russe, B R

    1977-12-01

    The "professional thief" is a highly specialized predatory offender with a history that dates back to Elizabethan England. Although this type of criminal is generally associated with narcotic addiction, his drug-taking typically involved the use of heroin, morphine, and cocaine on an intermittent basis. However, trafficking in drugs was common to the "professional" underworld, and as a result this deviant fraternity had a notable impact on the impressment of a criminal model of drug use on twentieth century conceptions of the addict. The concept of "professional" theft is reviewed, the use of drugs by professional thieves is discussed, and the interaction between this underworld group and the early Federal Bureau of Narcotics is examined. PMID:608786

  14. Toward Pride and Professionalism: Increasing Personal Responsibility. Thirty-Six Hour Substance Abuse Curriculum. Facilitator Guide. Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, Barbara Reed

    This document presents a 36-hour curriculum of the Navy Alcohol and Drug Safety Action Program designed to reduce drug and alcohol related problems in the Navy by increasing resistance to addiction. The responsibility each person holds for his or her own health and well-being as a member of the United States Navy is emphasized throughout the…

  15. Modelling climate change responses in tropical forests: similar productivity estimates across five models, but different mechanisms and responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, L.; Harper, A.; Christoffersen, B. O.; Galbraith, D. R.; Imbuzeiro, H. M. A.; Powell, T. L.; Doughty, C.; Levine, N. M.; Malhi, Y.; Saleska, S. R.; Moorcroft, P. R.; Meir, P.; Williams, M.

    2014-11-01

    Accurately predicting the response of Amazonia to climate change is important for predicting changes across the globe. However, changes in multiple climatic factors simultaneously may result in complex non-linear responses, which are difficult to predict using vegetation models. Using leaf and canopy scale observations, this study evaluated the capability of five vegetation models (CLM3.5, ED2, JULES, SiB3, and SPA) to simulate the responses of canopy and leaf scale productivity to changes in temperature and drought in an Amazonian forest. The models did not agree as to whether gross primary productivity (GPP) was more sensitive to changes in temperature or precipitation. There was greater model-data consistency in the response of net ecosystem exchange to changes in temperature, than in the response to temperature of leaf area index (LAI), net photosynthesis (An) and stomatal conductance (gs). Modelled canopy scale fluxes are calculated by scaling leaf scale fluxes to LAI, and therefore in this study similarities in modelled ecosystem scale responses to drought and temperature were the result of inconsistent leaf scale and LAI responses among models. Across the models, the response of An to temperature was more closely linked to stomatal behaviour than biochemical processes. Consequently all the models predicted that GPP would be higher if tropical forests were 5 °C colder, closer to the model optima for gs. There was however no model consistency in the response of the An-gs relationship when temperature changes and drought were introduced simultaneously. The inconsistencies in the An-gs relationships amongst models were caused by to non-linear model responses induced by simultaneous drought and temperature change. To improve the reliability of simulations of the response of Amazonian rainforest to climate change the mechanistic underpinnings of vegetation models need more complete validation to improve accuracy and consistency in the scaling of processes from leaf to canopy.

  16. Examining the Relationship between Teachers' Attitudes and Motivation toward Web-Based Professional Development: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chien, Hui-Min; Kao, Chia-Pin; Yeh, I-Jan; Lin, Kuen-Yi

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate elementary school teachers' attitudes and motivation toward web-based professional development. The relationship between teachers' attitudes and motivation was explored using the AWPD (Attitudes toward Web-based Professional Development) and MWPD (Motivation toward Web-based Professional Development)…

  17. Random uncertainties modelling for vibroacoustic frequency response functions of cars

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Random uncertainties modelling for vibroacoustic frequency response functions of cars J.F. Durand with the numerical prediction of the vibroacoustic frequency response functions of cars. In such a complex frequency response functions. The method is applied to a simplified car body with an inter- nal acoustic

  18. Speed-Accuracy Response Models: Scoring Rules Based on Response Time and Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Gunter; van der Maas, Han

    2012-01-01

    Starting from an explicit scoring rule for time limit tasks incorporating both response time and accuracy, and a definite trade-off between speed and accuracy, a response model is derived. Since the scoring rule is interpreted as a sufficient statistic, the model belongs to the exponential family. The various marginal and conditional distributions…

  19. Constructing response model using ensemble based on feature subset selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enzhe Yu; Sungzoon Cho

    2006-01-01

    In building a response model, determining the inputs to the model has been an important issue because of the complexities of the marketing problem and limitations of mental models for decision-making. It is common that the customers' historical purchase data contains many irrelevant or redundant features thus result in bad model performance. Furthermore, single complex models based on feature subset

  20. Mentor teachers' perceptions of their own professional development within a secondary science professional development school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreamer, Sherry Maureen

    Mentor teachers' perceptions of their professional development within a secondary science professional development school were studied using grounded theory within a postmodern lens. The driving questions which framed this study were: How do mentor teachers' perceive their own professional development in the context of an emerging secondary science Professional Development School? How is mentor professional development supported or inhibited in this secondary science PDS? How do mentor teachers' perceive teaching science through inquiry in the context of this secondary science Professional Development School? In what ways do mentor teachers view themselves as participants in a community of learners within the PDS context? Seven secondary science mentor teachers were purposefully selected as participants based on their commitment to mentor a pre-service science education intern for one school year. The primary sources of data were two semi-structured interviews, one taken early in the school year, and the other taken near or at the end of the school year. Other sources of data were participant mentor journal entries, focus group notes, written mentor responses to an inquiry prompt and professional development prompt, and the Secondary Science Professional Development Handbook which the participant/focus group generated. These additional data sources were used to help reach consensus as well as add richness to the study. Data were analyzed initially using the grounded theory qualitative software ATLASti (1997), to discover codes and patterns of connectivity. Results of initial analysis were compared with subsequent data analysis, and member check for clarification and consensus. Mentors in this study identified six dimensions which influenced their professional development. Five of these enhanced their practice. These were: benefits, roles, goals, preparation, and support. Participants also identified barriers which inhibited their professional growth. The most significant of these was isolation. In addition, multiple and diverse patterns of connectivity which cut across all six of the previous dimensions and changed with time were identified. These were: (1) Mentors' reflection on their practice, and (2) Mentors' focus and self-view which connected them to their interns and their practice. The theory generated from this study is: Mentor teachers' professional development is mediated by interns in the context of a science PDS. The three supporting assertions for this theory are: (1) Mentors' reflection, focus and self-view influenced the extent of their professional development, (2) The PDS partnership mentor/intern pair successfully negotiated and collaborated, but in isolation, and (3) Mentor/intern pairs developed models of teaching science through inquiry. This study's finding were used as a basis of recommendations for research and practice.

  1. Novel business models for Demand Response Exchange

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Negnevitsky; T. D. Nguyen; M. de Groot

    2010-01-01

    In a restructured power system, there are many players who benefit from Demand Response (DR). These include the Market Operator (MO), the Transmission System Operator (TSO), Distributors, Retailers, Aggregators, and also consumers. This paper proposes a new concept - Demand Response eXchange (DRX) - in which DR is treated as a virtual resource that can be exchanged between two groups

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF A DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICOLOGY DOSE-RESPONSE MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Rai and Van Ryzin dose-response model (1) proposed for teratology experiments has been characterized for its appropriateness and applicability in modeling developmental toxicity data. odifications were made in the initial probability statements to reflect more accurately biol...

  3. Dose-response modeling with bivariate binary data under model uncertainty

    E-print Network

    Klingenberg, Bernhard

    Dose-response modeling with bivariate binary data under model uncertainty Bernhard Klingenberg1 1@williams.edu Abstract: When modeling a dose-response for a drug based on bivariate binary data such as two co underlying dose-response shape. Often, investigators fit several different models that are deemed plausible

  4. A New Mathematical Model for the Heat Shock Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petre, Ion; Mizera, Andrzej; Hyder, Claire L.; Mikhailov, Andrey; Eriksson, John E.; Sistonen, Lea; Back, Ralph-Johan

    We present in this paper a novel molecular model for the gene regulatory network responsible for the eukaryotic heat shock response. Our model includes the temperature-induced protein misfolding, the chaperone activity of the heat shock proteins, and the backregulation of their gene transcription. We then build a mathematical model for it, based on ordinary differential equations. Finally, we discuss the parameter fit and the implications of the sensitivity analysis for our model.

  5. Improving Student Professionalism During Experiential Learning

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to serve as a tool for preceptors to aid in pharmacy students' development of professionalism. Specifically, the article defines professionalism, describes it in the context of contemporary pharmacy practice, discusses the professional socialization process of students, and suggests strategies for preceptors to facilitate improvement in professionalism among students during experiential training. While numerous suggestions are presented, positive role modeling is considered the most important means of improving professionalism among students. PMID:17136180

  6. SEGMENTED DOSE-RESPONSE MODELS FOR REPEATED MEASURES DATA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taesung Park

    2001-01-01

    In a dose-response analysis, logit-transformed responses are modelled as a function of log-transformed doses. The linear trend is commonly observed. The comparison among treatment groups can be made based on the linear trend. An example in this paper came from a study to estimate the effect of aminophylline on dose-response curve of atracurium. Unlike the usual dose-response curve, this example

  7. Public High School Assistant Principals' Reports of Self-Efficacy in Performing Their Professional Job Responsibilities in Accordance with the Educational Leadership Constituency Council's Standards for Advanced Programs in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and describe public high school assistant principals' reports of self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997) in performing their professional job responsibilities in accordance with the Educational Leadership Constituency Council's (ELCC) Standards for Advanced Programs in Educational Leadership (National Policy Board…

  8. Item Response Models for Examinee-Selected Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Jin, Kuan-Yu; Qiu, Xue-Lan; Wang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    In some tests, examinees are required to choose a fixed number of items from a set of given items to answer. This practice creates a challenge to standard item response models, because more capable examinees may have an advantage by making wiser choices. In this study, we developed a new class of item response models to account for the choice…

  9. Detection of Differential Item Functioning in the Graded Response Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Allan S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Three measures of differential item functioning for the dichotomous response model are extended to include Samejima's graded response model. Two are based on area differences between item true score functions, and one is a chi-square statistic for comparing differences in item parameters. (SLD)

  10. STATIC RESPONSE COEFFICIENTS FROM DYNAMIC CABLE-MODEL TESTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terje L. Andersen; Jasna B. Jakobsen

    The present paper summarises static mean response coefficie nts from dynamic cable model tests, carried out in the critical Reynolds number ran ge. Response data is obtained from an elastically supported cable section model with full scalediameter for typical bridge stay cables (160mm). The tests were performed at the National Research Council (NRC) , Canada in 2001. The analysis covers

  11. On the Use of Factor-Analytic Multinomial Logit Item Response Models to Account for Individual Differences in Response Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Timothy R.; Bolt, Daniel M.

    2010-01-01

    Multidimensional item response models are usually implemented to model the relationship between item responses and two or more traits of interest. We show how multidimensional multinomial logit item response models can also be used to account for individual differences in response style. This is done by specifying a factor-analytic model for…

  12. The Evaluator's Role in Recommending Program Closure: A Model for Decision Making and Professional Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Rebecca M.; Berry, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    Evaluators face challenges when programs consistently fail to meet expectations for performance or improvement and consequently, evaluators may recommend that closing a program is the most prudent course of action. However, the evaluation literature provides little guidance regarding when an evaluator might recommend program closure. Given…

  13. Professional support framework: improving access to professional support for professionals.

    PubMed

    Hall, Fiona; Bell, Karen

    2013-11-01

    From an organisational point of view, professional support is an important aspect of clinical governance and a tool for maximising service delivery quality. As a key factor in staff retention and recruitment, access to professional support is also regarded as an important tool for facilitating workforce growth in a competitive health workforce market. While some work units provide appropriate professional support such as in-service, professional supervision is a key challenge for a large organisation employing many health professionals to ensure equitable and relevant access to finite professional support resources. The goal of this paper is to describe the Professional Support Program designed and implemented by Queensland Health. This program seeks to support professionals who may not previously have had optimal engagement in professional support and to enhance the quality of professional support activities available. Evaluation indicates that the Professional Support Program has been successful in facilitating participation in, and quality of professional support activities. PMID:23680624

  14. Interaction: An Essential in Developing Professional Growth Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fessler, Ralph; Burke, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    According to this model for effective professional growth programs for teachers, teachers and their supervisors must independently identify the teachers' growth needs, must agree on the needs, and must mutually develop a program that is appropriate, demands supervisor responsiveness, and is well-received by the teacher. (PGD)

  15. Crop response to climate: ecophysical models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecophysiological models were the dominant tools used to estimate the potential impact of climate change in agroecosystems in the Third and Fourth Assessment Reports of the IPCC and are widely used elsewhere in climate change research. These models, also known as “crop models” or “simulation models”,...

  16. Professional behaviour: professional indemnity insurance.

    PubMed

    Fullbrook, Suzanne

    As registered nurses, we are aware that we must behave in a 'professional' way. We know that we must achieve certain standards of behaviour and that our conduct as registered nurses is constrained by regulation. The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) have the statutory power to decide how we must act and how we must not. Certain types of behaviour can and will attract sanctions from the NMC professional committees. Registered nurses are removed from the register in ever-increasing numbers, and one of the reasons given by the professional committees for a removal from the register, is that there was failure to act to protect patients by providing a safe environment. Examples of negligent behaviour include mis-administration of drugs, a failure to properly manage dietary needs or failures to protect the integrity of the person from pressure sores and damage to the skin. PMID:17363886

  17. Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Chris, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This serial issue contains 12 articles on the theme of "Professional Development," specifically about how teachers in the Bread Loaf Rural Teacher Network (BLRTN) are fostering their own and each other's development as teachers. The BLRTN consists of approximately 260 rural teachers in Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New…

  18. Legal Implications of Models of Individual and Group Treatment by Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Patrick D.

    1980-01-01

    The contrasts between the medical model and the teaching model in public education are so great that medical malpractice principles are not a reliable guide to an emerging law of educational malpractice. (Author/IRT)

  19. Before it is too late: professional responsibilities in late-onset Alzheimer’s research and pre-symptomatic prediction

    PubMed Central

    Schicktanz, Silke; Schweda, Mark; Ballenger, Jesse F.; Fox, Patrick J.; Halpern, Jodi; Kramer, Joel H.; Micco, Guy; Post, Stephen G.; Thompson, Charis; Knight, Robert T.; Jagust, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The development of a wide array of molecular and neuroscientific biomarkers can provide the possibility to visualize the course of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) at early stages. Many of these biomarkers are aimed at detecting not only a preclinical, but also a pre-symptomatic state. They are supposed to facilitate clinical trials aiming at treatments that attack the disease at its earliest stage or even prevent it. The increasing number of such biomarkers currently tested and now partly proposed for clinical implementation calls for critical reflection on their aims, social benefits, and risks. This position paper summarizes major challenges and responsibilities. Its focus is on the ethical and social problems involved in the organization and application of dementia research, as well as in healthcare provision from a cross-national point of view. The paper is based on a discussion of leading dementia experts from neuroscience, neurology, social sciences, and bioethics in the United States and Europe. It thus reflects a notable consensus across various disciplines and national backgrounds. We intend to initiate a debate on the need for actions within the researchers’ national and international communities. PMID:25477802

  20. An Alternative Model of Continuing Professional Development for Teachers: Giving Teachers Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydn, Terry; Barton, Roy; Oliver, Ann

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports on the outcomes of a Department of Culture, Museums and Sport (DCMS) funded project which provided resources for three groups of teachers in different subjects and age phases to have some time where they were freed from their teaching responsibilities, and also given time to meet together with other teachers to share ideas. The…

  1. A Model for Teacher Professional Development Using Mapping Technologies to Foster Authentic Research in Earth/Environmental Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagevik, R.; Watson, M.

    2004-12-01

    Within the framework of the 5-Step Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Leadership Model, developed by Stubbs, Devine and Hagevik, this study addressed the effectiveness using new mapping technologies to provide authentic research experiences for teachers in Earth/Environmental Science. The 5-Step Model is cumulative, with each step increasing in complexity, taking the participant from learning a base of computer skills and earth/environmental science concepts all the way to independently conducting field research. Through a problem-solving approach, teachers build upon their own understandings and share them with their students. Online learning, support systems, research scientist collaboration, and direct pedagogical instruction are the essential components of this program. For example, in the second step of the model, teachers and students use the online Mapping Our School Site (MOSS)c curriculum and CITYgreenc GIS to investigate their school campuses. A support system of Teacher Leaders, scientists, and community collaborators has been established through electronic communications and site visits. Scientific content and pedagogy is infused into the steps of this model in the direct teaching of spatial thinking skills to the teachers and strategies on how to transfer these skills to their students. The success of this approach results in teacher expertise and a new found confidence in conducting authentic scientific research using new mapping technologies. This study confirmed that a significant number of teachers proceeded to implement authentic student research using mapping technologies to teach earth/environmental science in their classrooms up to two years after completing the professional development.

  2. Model for predicting the acrosswind response of

    E-print Network

    Kareem, Ahsan

    result from a combination of negative aerodynamic damping and an increase in the correlation of the building mechan- ical admittance function using appropriate values of aerodynamic damping.9On the other structural response and aerodynamic loading to properties of local wind climates.2 Quantitative description

  3. Unified constitutive modeling for proportional and nonproportional cyclic plasticity responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, Shree

    Several features of cyclic plasticity, e.g. cyclic hardening/softening, ratcheting, relaxation, and their dependence on strain range, nonproportionality of loading, time, and temperature determine the stress-strain responses of materials under cyclic loading. Numerous efforts have been made in the past decades to characterize and model these responses. Many of these responses can be simulated reasonably by the existing constitutive models, but the same models would fail in simulating the structural responses, local stress-strain or global deformation. One of the reasons for this deficiency is that the constitutive models are not robust enough to simulate the cyclic plasticity responses when they interact with each other. This deficiency can be understood better or resolved by developing and validating constitutive models against a broad set of experimental responses and two or more of the responses interacting with each other. This dissertation develops a unified constitutive model by studying the cyclic plasticity features in an integrated manner and validating the model by simulating a broad set of proportional and nonproportional cyclic plasticity responses. The study demonstrates the drawbacks of the existing nonlinear kinematic hardening model originally developed by Chaboche and then develop and incorporate novel ideas into the model for improving its cyclic response simulations. The Chaboche model is modified by incorporating strain-range dependent cyclic hardening/softening through the kinematic hardening rule parameters, in addition to the conventional method of using only the isotropic hardening parameters. The nonproportional loading memory parameters of Tanaka and of Benallal and Marquis are incorporated to study the influence of nonproportionality. The model is assessed by simulating hysteresis loop shape, cyclic hardening-softening, cross-effect, cyclic relaxation, subsequent cyclic softening, and finally a series of ratcheting responses under uniaxial and biaxial loading responses. Next, it is demonstrated that the hysteresis loop shape and width can be improved by incorporation of time dependence (visco-effect) and a novel modeling scheme of backstress shift. Overall, this dissertation demonstrates a methodical and systematic development of a constitutive model for simulating a broad set of low-cycle fatigue responses.

  4. Detecting Answer Copying when the Regular Response Process Follows a Known Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Sotaridona, Leonardo

    2006-01-01

    A statistical test for detecting answer copying on multiple-choice items is presented. The test is based on the exact null distribution of the number of random matches between two test takers under the assumption that the response process follows a known response model. The null distribution can easily be generalized to the family of distributions…

  5. A Framework for Scheduling Professional Sports Leagues

    E-print Network

    Bonomo, Flavia

    A Framework for Scheduling Professional Sports Leagues Kimmo Nurmia , Dries Goossensb , Thomas constrained sports scheduling problem which is modeled from the requirements of various professional sports leagues. We define a sports scheduling problem, introduce the necessary terminology and detail

  6. The Principal's Role in Evaluating Professional Support Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H.; Tucker, Pamela D.

    1995-01-01

    Among the principal's most powerful tools for school improvement and effectiveness are program and personnel evaluation. Professional specialists, however, are especially difficult to evaluate. This document presents the Professional Support Personnel (PSP) Evaluation Model for evaluating nonteaching, nonadministrative professionals. These…

  7. Contextually Based Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blocher, J. Michael; Armfield, Shadow W.; Sujo-Montes, Laura; Tucker, Gary; Willis, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors detail a study of a three-year professional development project designed to increase in-service teachers' classroom technology integration. Participants engaged in learning activities that modeled technology integration from a contextually based perspective that included technology, and pedagogical and content…

  8. Do Duluth Model Interventions With Perpetrators of Domestic Violence Violate Mental Health Professional Ethics?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Corvo; Donald Dutton; Wan-Yi Chen

    2009-01-01

    In spite of numerous studies of program outcomes finding little or no positive effect on violent behavior, the Duluth model remains the most common program type of interventions with perpetrators of domestic violence. In addition, Duluth model programs often ignore serious mental health and substance abuse issues present in perpetrators. These and other issues of possible threat to mental health

  9. A Bayesian Semiparametric Item Response Model with Dirichlet Process Priors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyazaki, Kei; Hoshino, Takahiro

    2009-01-01

    In Item Response Theory (IRT), item characteristic curves (ICCs) are illustrated through logistic models or normal ogive models, and the probability that examinees give the correct answer is usually a monotonically increasing function of their ability parameters. However, since only limited patterns of shapes can be obtained from logistic models

  10. Emergency relocation: Population response model to disasters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Cuellar; D. Kubicek; N. Hengartner; A. Hansson

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a a general framework for applying individual decision models to aggregated populations. Our approach is useful for modeling and predicting evacuation decisions from disasters, ranging from earthquakes, flooding and wild fires, to industrial emergencies like chemical spills or nuclear accidents, to reactions to terrorism attacks. The novelty of our approach is to apply well-documented household evacuation behavioral

  11. Latent Growth Modeling for Logistic Response Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jaehwa; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Hancock, Gregory R.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout much of the social and behavioral sciences, latent growth modeling (latent curve analysis) has become an important tool for understanding individuals' longitudinal change. Although nonlinear variations of latent growth models appear in the methodological and applied literature, a notable exclusion is the treatment of growth following…

  12. Hierarchical Item Response Models for Cognitive Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Mark Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive diagnosis models (see, e.g., Rupp, Templin, & Henson, 2010) have received increasing attention within educational and psychological measurement. The popularity of these models may be largely due to their perceived ability to provide useful information concerning both examinees (classifying them according to their attribute profiles)…

  13. Is Authentic Cross-Cultural Collaboration Possible between Universities and Public Schools within a Professional Development School Model? Perceptions from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Debra D.; Muir Welsh, Kate

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, a state in the Rocky Mountain region combined the concept of partner schools (Goodlad, 1993) and the model of a professional development school (Holmes Group, 1986, 1995) to develop four university public school partnerships. This study asked two guiding questions: Is authentic cross-cultural collaboration possible between a university…

  14. Modeling sequence-sequence interactions for drug response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Lin; Hongying Li; Wei Hou; Julie A. Johnson; Rongling Wu

    2007-01-01

    Motivation: Genetic interactions or epistasis may play an important role in the genetic etiology of drug response. With the availability of large-scale, high-density single nucleotide polymorphism markers, a great challenge is how to associate haplotype structures and complex drug response through its underlying pharmacodynamic mechanisms. Results: We have derived a general statistical model for detecting an interactive network of DNA

  15. Modelling to Evaluate Effectiveness of Variations in Spill Response Strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dagmar Schmidt Etkin; Deborah French McCay; Jill Rowe

    This study presents a methodology for evaluating various mechanical containment and recovery-based response strategies for inland waterway spills through the use of a trajectory, fate, and effects model (SIMAP). A sample case study was used to demonstrate different spill outcomes and impacts that may have resulted from several variations of response strategies, focusing on placement of and type of booms

  16. A model simplification of dielectric responses and metal surface electrodynamics

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    E 1223 A model simplification of dielectric responses and metal surface electrodynamics R. Monreal simplifiéedu modèle. Abstract. 2014 First the dielectric response of a bulk free electron metal is simplified) and also the full spectrum of single particle, or electron-hole pair, incoherent modes and (b) those

  17. An NCME Instructional Module on Polytomous Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall David

    2014-01-01

    A polytomous item is one for which the responses are scored according to three or more categories. Given the increasing use of polytomous items in assessment practices, item response theory (IRT) models specialized for polytomous items are becoming increasingly common. The purpose of this ITEMS module is to provide an accessible overview of…

  18. A Common Process Model for Incident Response and Computer Forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felix C. Freiling; Bastian Schwittay

    2007-01-01

    Incident Response and Computer Forensics are two areas with similar goals but distinct process models. While in both cases the goal is to investigate computer se- curity incidents and contain their effects, Incident Response focusses more on restora- tion of normal service and Computer Forensics on the provision of evidence that can be used in a court of law. In

  19. Appraising atmospheric transport and diffusion models for emergency response facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Sagendorf, J.F.; Fairobent, J.E.

    1986-05-01

    As described in Supplement 1 to NUREG-0737, the NRC will conduct post-implementation reviews of emergency response facilities (ERFs) at operating nuclear power plants. These reviews include examination of the dose assessment methodology for emergency response. This report describes a methodology for evaluating the atmospheric transport and diffusion models incorporated in the dose consequence assessment by comparison with reference models. Two Gaussian puff-advection models, one segmented plume model and one straight line Gaussian plume model have been identified as reference models. These models are exercised with a series of data sets, and serve as points of reference for model comparisons. A series of data sets have been assembled to exercise model performance in a variety of meteorological situations, ranging from simple invariant conditions to more complicated conditions typical of river valley or coastal environments. These data sets are intended to be offered to licensees prior to the ERF appraisal of their particular facility.

  20. Markov counting models for correlated binary responses.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Forrest W; Zelterman, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    We propose a class of continuous-time Markov counting processes for analyzing correlated binary data and establish a correspondence between these models and sums of exchangeable Bernoulli random variables. Our approach generalizes many previous models for correlated outcomes, admits easily interpretable parameterizations, allows different cluster sizes, and incorporates ascertainment bias in a natural way. We demonstrate several new models for dependent outcomes and provide algorithms for computing maximum likelihood estimates. We show how to incorporate cluster-specific covariates in a regression setting and demonstrate improved fits to well-known datasets from familial disease epidemiology and developmental toxicology. PMID:25792624

  1. A simple model for strong ground motions and response spectra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, Erdal; Mueller, Charles; Boatwright, John

    1988-01-01

    A simple model for the description of strong ground motions is introduced. The model shows that response spectra can be estimated by using only four parameters of the ground motion, the RMS acceleration, effective duration and two corner frequencies that characterize the effective frequency band of the motion. The model is windowed band-limited white noise, and is developed by studying the properties of two functions, cumulative squared acceleration in the time domain, and cumulative squared amplitude spectrum in the frequency domain. Applying the methods of random vibration theory, the model leads to a simple analytical expression for the response spectra. The accuracy of the model is checked by using the ground motion recordings from the aftershock sequences of two different earthquakes and simulated accelerograms. The results show that the model gives a satisfactory estimate of the response spectra.

  2. Home-based chronic care. An expanded integrative model for home health professionals.

    PubMed

    Suter, Paula; Hennessey, Beth; Harrison, Gregory; Fagan, Martha; Norman, Barbara; Suter, W Newton

    2008-04-01

    The Chronic Care Model (CCM) developed by is an influential and accepted guide for the care of patients with chronic disease. Wagner acknowledges a current healthcare focus on acute care needs that often circumvents chronic care coordination. He identifies the need for a "division of labor" to assist the primary care physician with this neglected function. This article posits that the role of chronic care coordination assistance and disease management fits within the purview of home healthcare and should be central to home health chronic care delivery. An expanded Home-Based Chronic Care Model (HBCCM) is described that builds on Wagner's model and integrates salient theories from fields beyond medicine. The expanded model maximizes the potential for disease self-management success and is intended to provide a foundation for home health's integral role in chronic disease management. PMID:18408515

  3. Enhancing Teachers' Technological Pedagogical Knowledge and Practices: A Professional Development Model for Technology Teachers in Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikasanda, Vanwyk Khobidi Mbubzi; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Williams, John; Jones, Alister

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a professional development that was designed and implemented in an attempt to broaden teachers' knowledge of the nature of technology and also enhance their technological pedagogical practices. The professional development was organised in four phases with each phase providing themes for reflection and teacher learning…

  4. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS: MODELING THE INTRACELLULAR RESPONSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    WE ARE DEVELOPING A MECHANISTIC MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE INTRATESTICULAR AND INTRAOVARIAN METABOLIC NETWORK THAT MEDICATES STEROID SYNTHESIS TO IDENTIFY A LINK NEW ROBUST MOLECULAR BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE THAT ARE INDICATIVE OF THE ULTIMATE ADVERSE EFFECTS....

  5. Distinct Tensile Response of Model Semi-flexible Elastomer Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernardo M. Aguilera-Mercado; Claude Cohen; Fernando A. Escobedo

    2011-01-01

    Through coarse-grained molecular modeling, we study how the elastic response strongly depends upon nanostructural heterogeneities in model networks made of semi-flexible chains exhibiting both regular and realistic connectivity. Idealized regular polymer networks have been shown to display a peculiar elastic response similar to that of super-tough natural materials (e.g., organic adhesives inside abalone shells). We investigate the impact of chain

  6. Efficacy development in science: Investigating the effects of the Teacher-to-Teacher (T2T) professional development model in Hilo elementary schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinner, Pascale Creek

    Conderman and Sheldon Woods (2008) suggest that although science plays a central role in our world today, science instruction seems to be minimized particularly at the elementary grade levels. Research has investigated the construct of efficacy (Bandura, 1977, 2006a; Riggs & Enochs, 1990; Ramey-Gassert, Shroyer & Staver, 1996; Tschannen-Moran, Hoy & Hoy, 1998, 2001). Professional and conceptual development in teachers has also been explored (Gordon, 1990; Sheerer, 1997; Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2007). The purpose of this research was to describe the changes in efficacy elementary teachers experience as they participated in science professional development. Data from a Math/Science Partnership (MSP) grant sample suggested significant changes in science self-efficacy and improved pedagogy. Mixed methods revealed connections resulting in a multi-faceted Progression of Efficacy Growth flowchart. The results suggest that utilizing the Teacher-to-Teacher (T2T) professional development model has created a pathway for more science teaching across the Hilo elementary schools.

  7. Imaginative construction of care: the nursing professional experience in a remote care service.

    PubMed

    Romero, Yocelyn Margaret Price; Angelo, Margareth; Muñoz Gonzalez, Luz Angelica

    2012-01-01

    The direction of care delivery goes from the action to the being; a process built from professional experience, which gains special characteristics when the service is delivered by telephone. The goal of this research was to understand the interaction between professionals and users in a remote care service; to do so, a research is presented, using Grounded Theory and Symbolic Interactionism as theoretical references. Data were collected through eight interviews with professionals who deliver care by telephone. The theoretical understanding permitted the creation of the theoretical model of the Imaginative Construction of Care, which shows the interaction processes the professional experiences when delivering care by telephone. In this model, individual and social facts are added, showing the link between the concepts, with special emphasis on uncertainty, sensitivity and professional responsibility, as essential components of this experience. PMID:22990154

  8. Increasing Professionalism and Targeting Effort: Recent Books on the Training and Development of Continuing Education Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedberg, John G.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews three recent books (by Gessner, Calvert, and Nowlen) that investigate how the changing economic, political, and social context affects continuing professional education. The focus of each book on individualistic responses to professionalism suggests that professional continuing educators need to be sensitive to the culture of their…

  9. Pluralistic Ignorance and Professional Standards: Underestimating Professionalism of Our Peers in Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallot, Lynne M.; Cameron, Glen T.; Lariscy, Ruth Ann Weaver

    1998-01-01

    Examines 251 responses to a battery of 45 professional standard items. Indicates public relations professionals surveyed across the nation underestimate the current state of professional standards in the field. Finds this state of affairs, described in coorientation theory as pluralistic ignorance, suggests the field may actually hold higher…

  10. Analysing the Professional Development of Teaching and Learning from a Political Ethics of Care Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozalek, Vivienne Grace; McMillan, Wendy; Marshall, Delia E.; November, Melvyn; Daniels, Andre; Sylvester, Toni

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses Tronto's political ethics of care as a normative framework to evaluate a model of teaching and learning professional development. This framework identifies five integrated moral elements of care -- attentiveness, responsibility, competence, responsiveness and trust. This paper explicates on each of these elements to evaluate…

  11. Modeling Clinical Radiation Responses in the IMRT Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, J. L.; Murray, D.; Stewart, R. D.; Phillips, M. H.

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight the critical issues of radiobiological models, particularly as they apply to clinical radiation therapy. Developing models of radiation responses has a long history that continues to the present time. Many different models have been proposed, but in the field of radiation oncology, the linear-quadratic (LQ) model has had the most impact on the design of treatment protocols. Questions have been raised as to the value of the LQ model given that the biological assumption underlying it has been challenged by molecular analyses of cell and tissue responses to radiation. There are also questions as to use of the LQ model for hypofractionation, especially for high dose treatments using a single fraction. While the LQ model might over-estimate the effects of large radiation dose fractions, there is insufficient information to fully justify the adoption of alternative models. However, there is increasing evidence in the literature that non-targeted and other indirect effects of radiation sometimes produce substantial deviations from LQ-like dose-response curves. As preclinical and clinical hypofractionation studies accumulate, new or refined dose-response models that incorporate high-dose/fraction non-targeted and indirect effects may be required, but for now the LQ model remains a simple, useful tool to guide the design of treatment protocols.

  12. Facilitating Lewin's change model with collaborative evaluation in promoting evidence based practices of health professionals.

    PubMed

    Manchester, Julianne; Gray-Miceli, Deanna L; Metcalf, Judith A; Paolini, Charlotte A; Napier, Anne H; Coogle, Constance L; Owens, Myra G

    2014-12-01

    Evidence based practices (EBPs) in clinical settings interact with and adapt to host organizational characteristics. The contextual factors themselves, surrounding health professions' practices, also adapt as practices become sustained. The authors assert the need for better planning models toward these contextual factors, the influence of which undergird a well-documented science to practice gap in literature on EBPs. The mechanism for EBP planners to anticipate contextual effects as programs Unfreeze their host settings, create Movement, and become Refrozen (Lewin, 1951) is present in Lewin's 3-step change model. Planning for contextual change appears equally important as planning for the actual practice outcomes among providers and patients. Two case studies from a Geriatric Education Center network will illustrate the synthesis of Lewin's three steps with collaborative evaluation principles. The use of the model may become an important tool for continuing education evaluators or organizations beginning a journey toward EBP demonstration projects in clinical settings. PMID:25192609

  13. An Improved Analytic Model for Microdosimeter Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, Judy L.; Wilson, John W.; Xapsos, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    An analytic model used to predict energy deposition fluctuations in a microvolume by ions through direct events is improved to include indirect delta ray events. The new model can now account for the increase in flux at low lineal energy when the ions are of very high energy. Good agreement is obtained between the calculated results and available data for laboratory ion beams. Comparison of GCR (galactic cosmic ray) flux between Shuttle TEPC (tissue equivalent proportional counter) flight data and current calculations draws a different assessment of developmental work required for the GCR transport code (HZETRN) than previously concluded.

  14. THE PRIVATE PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITAL AS A CRUCIBLE FOR INNOVATIVE MODELS OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Steven Frankel

    1988-01-01

    The article discusses the development of an interdisciplinary vehicle for the delivery of mental health services that is based in a private psychiatric hospital. One of many possible models, it offers an example of ways psychologists can develop innovative service programs that 1) preserve a \\

  15. Satisfaction with Components of the Therapeutic Model: Perspectives of Consumers and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazicki, Tammy A.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Roberts, Michael C.; Benson, Eric R.

    2008-01-01

    We provide information about consumer and provider perceptions using a mixed-model pilot study within the Intensive Mental Health Project (IMHP), a school-based treatment service for children with SED and their families. Caregiver, youth, and provider questionnaires developed for this project elicited quantitative and qualitative information on…

  16. Brains Rule!: A Model Program for Developing Professional Stewardship among Neuroscientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zardetto-Smith, Andrea M.; Mu, Keli; Carruth, Laura L.; Frantz, Kyle J.

    2006-01-01

    Brains Rule! Neuroscience Expositions, funded through a National Institute on Drug Abuse Science Education Drug Abuse Partnership Award, has developed a successful model for informal neuroscience education. Each Exposition is a "reverse science fair" in which neuroscientists present short neuroscience teaching modules to students. This study…

  17. A New Conceptual Model for Principal Involvement and Professional Collaboration in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varrati, Anita M.; Lavine, Mary E.; Turner, Steven L.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: Beginning teachers often identify the school principal as a key figure for support and guidance. Few teacher education conceptual models exist that significantly integrate the building principal into the clinical experiences of teacher candidates. The rationale behind initiating discourse on principal involvement grows out of…

  18. A Nine-Step Program: A Successful, Replicable Model for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lydotta M.; Walls, Richard T.

    2005-01-01

    Phase 9, a teacher-designed, classroom centered model, takes teachers through a nine-step process that results in the development of integrated instructional units. Teams of teachers come to an intensive five-day training with lessons they know work well with students. In interdisciplinary teams, they fold technology, state and national standards,…

  19. Explore Elementary Teachers' Professional Knowledge of Guiding Science Fair Product by Using Different Instruction Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Chow-Chin

    2013-01-01

    This research is about using two different instruction models, "theory course combined with sample introduction" and "theory course combined with case method teaching", to instruct elementary teachers on how to guide the science fair product in two courses (16 and 12 teachers in each class) and observe their guiding tactics after the instructed…

  20. Computer model of cardiovascular control system responses to exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croston, R. C.; Rummel, J. A.; Kay, F. J.

    1973-01-01

    Approaches of systems analysis and mathematical modeling together with computer simulation techniques are applied to the cardiovascular system in order to simulate dynamic responses of the system to a range of exercise work loads. A block diagram of the circulatory model is presented, taking into account arterial segments, venous segments, arterio-venous circulation branches, and the heart. A cardiovascular control system model is also discussed together with model test results.

  1. Systematics of the models of immune response and autoimmune disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Debashish; Stauffer, Dietrich

    1990-05-01

    A dynamical model of normal immune response has been formulated in terms of cellular automata by Kaufman et al. We generalize this model incorporating the antigens as a dynamical variable. This generalized model not only describes the kinetics of primary and secondary responses of humoral immunity, together with the appropriate memory cells, but also describes the vaccinated state as well as the states of low-dose and high-dose paralysis. Recently models of autoimmune response have also been developed in terms of discrete automata. But the models are underdetermined by the experimental facts, i.e., several models can account for the same set of observed biological facts. With an aim to find out how large this underdeterminacy is and how it can be reduced systematically, we have carried out an exhaustive computer-aided search of all those discrete three-cell and five-cell models of autoimmune response which at present cannot be ruled out by the existing biological informations. Out of the 325 possible five-cell models, only one fulfilled our criteria. We also carried out simulations of the dynamics of some of these models on a discrete lattice. We discuss the relevance of random interactions in the context of autoimmune disease.

  2. Professional development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jin Hee; Hartline, Beverly Karplus; Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2013-03-01

    The three sessions of the professional development workshop series were each designed for a different audience. The purpose of the first session was to help mid-career physicists aspire for and achieve leadership roles. The second session brought together students, postdoctoral fellows, and early-career physicists to help them plan their career goals and navigate the steps important to launching a successful career. The final session sought to increase awareness of the results of physics education research, and how to use them to help students-especially women-learn physics better. The presentations and discussions were valuable for both female and male physicists.

  3. Satisfaction with Components of the Therapeutic Model: Perspectives of Consumers and Professionals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tammy A. Lazicki; Eric M. Vernberg; Michael C. Roberts; Eric R. Benson

    2008-01-01

    We provide information about consumer and provider perceptions using a mixed-model pilot study within the Intensive Mental\\u000a Health Project (IMHP), a school-based treatment service for children with SED and their families. Caregiver, youth, and provider\\u000a questionnaires developed for this project elicited quantitative and qualitative information on treatment satisfaction, therapeutic\\u000a alliance, and active involvement in treatment. Caregivers and children overall had

  4. Predicting aquifer response time for application in catchment modeling.

    PubMed

    Walker, Glen R; Gilfedder, Mat; Dawes, Warrick R; Rassam, David W

    2015-05-01

    It is well established that changes in catchment land use can lead to significant impacts on water resources. Where land-use changes increase evapotranspiration there is a resultant decrease in groundwater recharge, which in turn decreases groundwater discharge to streams. The response time of changes in groundwater discharge to a change in recharge is a key aspect of predicting impacts of land-use change on catchment water yield. Predicting these impacts across the large catchments relevant to water resource planning can require the estimation of groundwater response times from hundreds of aquifers. At this scale, detailed site-specific measured data are often absent, and available spatial data are limited. While numerical models can be applied, there is little advantage if there are no detailed data to parameterize them. Simple analytical methods are useful in this situation, as they allow the variability in groundwater response to be incorporated into catchment hydrological models, with minimal modeling overhead. This paper describes an analytical model which has been developed to capture some of the features of real, sloping aquifer systems. The derived groundwater response timescale can be used to parameterize a groundwater discharge function, allowing groundwater response to be predicted in relation to different broad catchment characteristics at a level of complexity which matches the available data. The results from the analytical model are compared to published field data and numerical model results, and provide an approach with broad application to inform water resource planning in other large, data-scarce catchments. PMID:24842053

  5. Theoretical and Empirical Comparisons between Two Models for Continuous Item Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.

    2002-01-01

    Analyzed the relations between two continuous response models intended for typical response items: the linear congeneric model and Samejima's continuous response model (CRM). Illustrated the relations described using an empirical example and assessed the relations through a simulation study. (SLD)

  6. The LGBTQ Responsive Model for Supervision of Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.; Luke, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Although supervision of group work has been linked to the development of multicultural and social justice competencies, there are no models for supervision of group work specifically designed to address the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) persons. This manuscript presents the LGBTQ Responsive Model for…

  7. Mathematical Modeling of Dynamic Host Responses to HBV Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changjiang Long; Huan Qi; Sheng-he Huang

    2007-01-01

    Nowak's model of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been extensively and successfully used to simulate the interaction between HIV and cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response. However, such model is not available for hepatitis B virus (HBV). As the enhanced recruitment of virus-specific CTLs into the liver has been an important novel concept in the pathogenesis of hepatitis B,

  8. An Item Response Model for Characterizing Test Compromise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segall, Daniel O.

    2002-01-01

    Developed an item response model for characterizing test-compromise that enables the estimation of item preview and score-gain distributions. In the approach, models parameters and posterior distributions are estimated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo procedures. Simulation study results suggest that when at least some test items are known to be…

  9. A Model Equal Parental Responsibility Presumption in Contested Child Custody

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Kruk

    2011-01-01

    A model rebuttable legal presumption of equal parental responsibility, defined as children spending equal amounts of time in each parent's household, in contested child custody cases, is articulated. This model, a unique hybrid of the “approximation standard” and a joint custody presumption, addresses the concerns of critics of each of these presumptions, and serves as a template for legislators and

  10. Analytical Modeling of the Spectral Response of Heterojunction Phototransistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hassan A. Khan; Ali A. Rezazadeh

    2009-01-01

    Spectral response model for heterojunction phototransistors (HPTs) is developed from resolution of continuity equations that govern the excess optically generated minority-carrier variation in the active layers of the HPT taking into account the related physical parameters. Realistic boundary conditions have been considered for efficient device operation, and a detailed optical-power absorption profile is constructed for accurate device modeling. The analysis

  11. Assessing Placebo Response Using Bayesian Hierarchical Survival Models

    E-print Network

    Stangl, Dalene

    Assessing Placebo Response Using Bayesian Hierarchical Survival Models Dalene K. Stangl, Duke between centers for the placebo group. The aim of this paper is to use Bayesian hierarchical survival models to investigate the heterogeneity of placebo effects among centers in the NIMH study

  12. Physiological and Statistical Approaches Modeling of Synaptic Responses

    E-print Network

    West, Mike

    Physiological and Statistical Approaches to Modeling of Synaptic Responses P. G. Patil1 , M. West4.V.wheal@soton.ac.uk i #12;RATIONALE OF CHAPTER This chapter is a review of current physiological approaches into the data using statistical models, including maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. Physiological

  13. Modeling HIV Immune Response and Validation with Clinical Data

    E-print Network

    Modeling HIV Immune Response and Validation with Clinical Data H. T. Banksa,1 , M. Davidiana,2 equations is formulated to describe the pathogenesis of HIV infection, wherein certain important features, and stimulation by antigens other than HIV. A stability analysis illustrates the capability of this model

  14. Application of Multidimensional Item Response Theory Models to Longitudinal Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    te Marvelde, Janneke M.; Glas, Cees A. W.; Van Landeghem, Georges; Van Damme, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The application of multidimensional item response theory (IRT) models to longitudinal educational surveys where students are repeatedly measured is discussed and exemplified. A marginal maximum likelihood (MML) method to estimate the parameters of a multidimensional generalized partial credit model for repeated measures is presented. It is shown…

  15. Finite Element Modeling of the Buckling Response of Sandwich Panels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheryl A. Rose; David F. Moore; Norman F. Knight; Charles C. Rankin

    2002-01-01

    A comparative study of different modeling approaches for predicting sandwich panel buckling response is described. The study considers sandwich panels with anisotropic face sheets and a very thick core. Results from conventional analytical solutions for sandwich panel overall buckling and face-sheet-wrinkling type modes are compared with solutions obtained using different finite element modeling approaches. Finite element solutions are obtained using

  16. Separability of Item and Person Parameters in Response Time Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses two forms of separability of item and person parameters in the context of response time models. The first is "separate sufficiency," and the second is "ranking independence." For each form a theorem stating sufficient conditions is proved. The two forms are shown to include several cases of models from psychometric and biometric…

  17. Kaizen: a process improvement model for the business of health care and perioperative nursing professionals.

    PubMed

    Tetteh, Hassan A

    2012-01-01

    Kaizen is a proven management technique that has a practical application for health care in the context of health care reform and the 2010 Institute of Medicine landmark report on the future of nursing. Compounded productivity is the unique benefit of kaizen, and its principles are change, efficiency, performance of key essential steps, and the elimination of waste through small and continuous process improvements. The kaizen model offers specific instruction for perioperative nurses to achieve process improvement in a five-step framework that includes teamwork, personal discipline, improved morale, quality circles, and suggestions for improvement. PMID:22201574

  18. Modeling the responses of TSM resonators under various loading conditions

    SciTech Connect

    BANDEY,HELEN L.; MARTIN,STEPHEN J.; CERNOSEK,RICHARD W.; HILLMAN,A. ROBERT

    1999-03-01

    The authors developed a general model that describes the electrical responses of thickness shear mode resonators subject to a variety of surface conditions. The model incorporates a physically diverse set of single component loadings, including rigid solids, viscoelastic media, and fluids (Newtonian or Maxwellian). The model allows any number of these components to be combined in any configuration. Such multiple loadings are representative of a variety of physical situations encountered in electrochemical and other liquid phase applications, as well as gas phase applications. In the general case, the response of the composite load is not a linear combination of the individual component responses. The authors discuss application of the model in a qualitative diagnostic fashion to gain insight into the nature of the interfacial structure, and in a quantitative fashion to extract appropriate physical parameters such as liquid viscosity and density, and polymer shear moduli.

  19. Modeling the Mixture of IRT and Pattern Responses by a Modified HYBRID Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamamoto, Kentaro; Everson, Howard T.

    This study demonstrates the utility of a HYBRID psychometric model, which incorporates both item response theoretic and latent class models, for detecting test speededness. The model isolates where in a sequence of test items examinee response patterns shift from one providing reasonable estimates of ability to those best characterized by a random…

  20. Computer modeling of thoracic response to blast.

    PubMed

    Stuhmiller, J H; Chuong, C J; Phillips, Y Y; Dodd, K T

    1988-01-01

    Primary blast injury affects the gas-containing structures of the body. Damage to the lungs with resultant respiratory insufficiency and arterial embolization of air from alveolar pulmonary venous fistulae is the predominant cause of morbidity and mortality following high-level blast exposure. In an effort to generate a widely applicable damage-risk criterion for thoracic injury from blast we are developing a complex computer finite element model (FEM) of the thorax. Taking an engineering approach, a horizontal cross-section of the thorax is divided into small discrete units (finite elements) of homogeneous structure. The necessary physical properties (density, bulk modulus, etc.) are then determined for each element. Specifying the material constants and geometry of the elements, the computer can load the surface of the structure with some force-time function (blast pressure-time history) and calculate the resultant physical events such as displacement, compression, stress, strain, etc. Computer predictions of pressure wave phenomena in the lung parenchyma are compared with trans-bronchially measured pressures in blast-exposed animals. The model should prove useful in assessing the risk of blast injury in diverse overpressure environments and may give insight into pathophysiologic mechanisms and strategies for protection. PMID:3339675

  1. Integrating Professional and Folk Models of HIV Risk: YMSM’s Perceptions of High-Risk Sex

    PubMed Central

    Kubicek, Katrina; Carpineto, Julie; McDavitt, Bryce; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen F.; Au, Chi-Wai; Kerrone, Dustin; Martinez, Miguel; Kipke, Michele D.

    2009-01-01

    Risks associated with HIV are well documented in research literature. While a great deal has been written about high-risk sex, little research has been conducted to examine how young men who have sex with men (YMSM) perceive and define high-risk sexual behavior. In this study, we compare the “professional’ and “folk” models of HIV-risk based on YMSM’s understanding of high-risk sex and where and how they gathered their understanding of HIV-risk behaviors. The findings reported here emerged from the quantitative and qualitative interviews from the Healthy Young Men’s Study (HYM), a longitudinal study examining risk and protective factors for substance use and sexual risk among an ethnically diverse sample of YMSM. Findings are discussed in relation to framing how service providers and others can increase YMSM’s knowledge of sexual behavior and help them build solid foundations of sexual health education to protect them from STI and HIV infection. PMID:18558819

  2. Professional hazards? The impact of models' body size on advertising effectiveness and women's body-focused anxiety in professions that do and do not emphasize the cultural ideal of thinness.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Helga; Howard, Sarah

    2004-12-01

    Previous experimental research indicates that the use of average-size women models in advertising prevents the well-documented negative effect of thin models on women's body image, while such adverts are perceived as equally effective (Halliwell & Dittmar, 2004). The current study extends this work by: (a) seeking to replicate the finding of no difference in advertising effectiveness between average-size and thin models (b) examining level of ideal-body internalization as an individual, internal factor that moderates women's vulnerability to thin media models, in the context of (c) comparing women in professions that differ radically in their focus on, and promotion of, the sociocultural ideal of thinness for women--employees in fashion advertising (n = 75) and teachers in secondary schools (n = 75). Adverts showing thin, average-size and no models were perceived as equally effective. High internalizers in both groups of women felt worse about their body image after exposure to thin models compared to other images. Profession affected responses to average-size models. Teachers reported significantly less body-focused anxiety after seeing average-size models compared to no models, while there was no difference for fashion advertisers. This suggests that women in professional environments with less focus on appearance-related ideals can experience increased body-esteem when exposed to average-size models, whereas women in appearance-focused professions report no such relief. PMID:15601505

  3. Validating models of ecosystem response to global change

    SciTech Connect

    Rastetter, E.B. [Marine Biological Lab, Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Models are an essential component of any assessment of ecosystem response to changes in global climate and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. The problem with these models is that their long-term predictions are impossible to test unambiguously except by allowing enough time for the full ecosystem response to develop. Unfortunately, when one must assess potentially devastating changes in the global environment, time becomes a luxury. Therefore, confidence in these models has to be built through the accumulation of fairly weak corrobatin evidence rather than through a few crucial and unambiguous tests. The criteria employed to judge the value of these models are thus likely to differ greatly from those used to judge finer scale models, which are more amenable to the scientific tradition of hypothesis formulation and testing. This article looks at four categories of tests which could potentially be used to evaluate ERCC (ecosystem response to climate and carbon dioxide concentration) models and illustrates why they cannot be considered crucial tests. The the synthesis role of ERCC models are is discussed and why they are vital to any assessment of long-term responses of ecosystems to changes in global climate and carbon dioxide concentration. 49 refs., 2 figs.

  4. A generalized linear factor model approach to the hierarchical framework for responses and response times.

    PubMed

    Molenaar, Dylan; Tuerlinckx, Francis; van der Maas, Han L J

    2015-05-01

    We show how the hierarchical model for responses and response times as developed by van der Linden (2007), Fox, Klein Entink, and van der Linden (2007), Klein Entink, Fox, and van der Linden (2009), and Glas and van der Linden (2010) can be simplified to a generalized linear factor model with only the mild restriction that there is no hierarchical model at the item side. This result is valuable as it enables all well-developed modelling tools and extensions that come with these methods. We show that the restriction we impose on the hierarchical model does not influence parameter recovery under realistic circumstances. In addition, we present two illustrative real data analyses to demonstrate the practical benefits of our approach. PMID:25109494

  5. Modeling of electrohydrodynamic drying process using response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    Dalvand, Mohammad Jafar; Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid; Rafiee, Shahin

    2014-01-01

    Energy consumption index is one of the most important criteria for judging about new, and emerging drying technologies. One of such novel and promising alternative of drying process is called electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying. In this work, a solar energy was used to maintain required energy of EHD drying process. Moreover, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to build a predictive model in order to investigate the combined effects of independent variables such as applied voltage, field strength, number of discharge electrode (needle), and air velocity on moisture ratio, energy efficiency, and energy consumption as responses of EHD drying process. Three-levels and four-factor Box–Behnken design was employed to evaluate the effects of independent variables on system responses. A stepwise approach was followed to build up a model that can map the entire response surface. The interior relationships between parameters were well defined by RSM. PMID:24936289

  6. Finite element modeling of the transient response of viscoelastic beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehl, Jonathan D.; Miles, Ronald N.

    1995-05-01

    A procedure is presented for computing the transient response of a multiple degree of freedom finite element model of a beam system containing a viscoelastic material. A complex, frequency and temperature dependent shear modulus is used in representing the properties of this material. The beam is struck with an arbitrary transient input pulse, which is transformed to the frequency domain via the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm. The frequency dependent response of the beam may then easily be computed. Applying the inverse fast Fourier transform to this result then yields the transient, damped response of the complete beam system. This `approximate' approach is compared against an exact, modal solution for a system with viscous damping and excellent correlation is observed between the two. Finally, a procedure is presented to incorporate the finite element code ANSYS into the prediction procedure. Through the use of this code, a model constrained layer damped beam may be analyzed to obtain its transient response to an applied load.

  7. Using dissipative particle dynamics to model micromechanics of responsive hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, Alexander; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Fernandez de Las Nieves, Alberto

    2015-03-01

    The ability of responsive hydrogels to undergo complex and reversible shape transformations in response to external stimuli such as temperature, magnetic/electric fields, pH levels, and light intensity has made them the material of choice for tissue scaffolding, drug delivery, bio-adhesive, bio-sensing, and micro-sorting applications. The complex micromechanics and kinetics of these responsive networks however, currently hinders developments in the aforementioned areas. In order to better understand the mechanical properties of these systems and how they change during the volume transition we have developed a dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) model for responsive polymer networks. We use this model to examine the impact of the Flory-Huggins parameter on the bulk and shear moduli. In this fashion we evaluate how environmental factors can affect the micromechanical properties of these networks. Support from NSF CAREER Award (DMR-1255288) is gratefully acknowledged.

  8. Seismic structural response from continuous and discrete models 

    E-print Network

    Roberts, Matthew Wade

    1999-01-01

    Seismic Structural Response from Continuous and Discrete Models. (May 1999) Matthew Wade Roberts, B. S. , Brigham Young University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Loren L. Lutes The Northridge Earthquake of 1994 caused unexpected cracking..., Denise, for her support and devotion. Her sacrifices greatly surpass my own in this endeavor. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER Page INTRODUCI'ION IV DISCRETE AND CONTINUOUS MODELS A. Background . B. The Newmark Beta Method C. The Shear Beam Model 1...

  9. NDA SYSTEM RESPONSE MODELING AND ITS APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D.

    2010-03-01

    The Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plant (PORTS) is a uranium enrichment facility that was historically used to enrich uranium to levels that range from 2% to greater than 97%. The feed material for PORTS was obtained from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) that produced uranium in the form of UF6 that was enriched to about 1 to 2%. The enrichment process involves a multistage process by which gaseous UF{sub 6} passed through a diffusion barrier in each stage. The porous diffusion barrier in each stage retards the rate of the diffusion of the heavier {sup 238}U atoms relative to the diffusion of the lighter {sup 235}U atoms. By this process the product stream is slightly enriched by each stage of the process. Each stage consists of a compressor, converter and a motor. There are more than 4000 stages that are linked together with piping of various diameters to form the PORTS cascade. The cascade spans three interconnected buildings and comprises miles of piping, thousands of seals, converters, valves, motors, and compressors. During operation, PORTS process equipment contained UF{sub 6} gas with uranium enrichment that increased in the process stream from the first to the last stage in a known manner. Gaseous UF{sub 6} moving through the PORTS process equipment had potential to form deposits within the process equipment by several mechanisms, including solidification due to incorrect temperature and pressure conditions during the process, inleakage of atmospheric moisture that chemically reacts with UF{sub 6} to form hydrated uranyl fluoride solids, reduction reactions of UF{sub 6} with cascade metals, and UF{sub 6} condensation on the internal equipment surfaces. As a result, the process equipment of the PORTS contains a variable and unknown quantity of uranium with variable enrichment that has been deposited within the equipment during plant operations. The exact chemical form of this uranium is variable, although it is expected that the bulk of the material is of the form of uranyl fluoride that will become hydrated on exposure to moisture in air when the systems are no longer buffered. The deposit geometry and thickness is uncertain and variable. However, a reasonable assessment of the level of material holdup in this equipment is necessary to support decommissioning efforts. The assessment of nuclear material holdup in process equipment is a complex process that requires integration of process knowledge, nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements, and computer modeling to maximize capabilities and minimize uncertainty. The current report is focused on the use of computer modeling and simulation of NDA measurements.

  10. Immune Response to Electromagnetic Fields through Cybernetic Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Godina-Nava, J. J.; Segura, M. A. Rodriguez [Depto. de Fisica, CINVESTAV-IPN, Ap. Post. 14-740, Mexico, D.F. 07000 (Mexico); Cadena, S. Reyes [Lab. de Bioquimica Muscular, Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitacion, C.P.14389, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Sierra, L. C. Gaitan [Centro Gestalt, C.P. 11590, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-08-11

    We study the optimality of the humoral immune response through a mathematical model, which involves the effect of electromagnetic fields over the large lymphocytes proliferation. Are used the so called cybernetic variables in the context of the matching law of microeconomics or mathematical psychology, to measure the large lymphocytes population and to maximize the instantaneous antibody production rate in time during the immunologic response in order to most efficiently inactivate the antigen.

  11. Modelling the short-time response of ISFET sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Woias; L. Meixner; D. Amandi; M. Schönberger

    1995-01-01

    In this publication, a model for the short-time response of ISFET sensors is presented. In contrast to the static site-binding theory, this approach takes into account the kinetics of the electrochemical reactions occurring on the gate-insulator surface. As a result, a system of coupled non-linear differential equations is formulated, which is able to describe the pH-step response of an ISFET

  12. Immune Response to Electromagnetic Fields through Cybernetic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godina-Nava, J. J.; Segura, M. A. Rodríguez; Cadena, S. Reyes; Sierra, L. C. Gaitán

    2008-08-01

    We study the optimality of the humoral immune response through a mathematical model, which involves the effect of electromagnetic fields over the large lymphocytes proliferation. Are used the so called cybernetic variables in the context of the matching law of microeconomics or mathematical psychology, to measure the large lymphocytes population and to maximize the instantaneous antibody production rate in time during the immunologic response in order to most efficiently inactivate the antigen.

  13. Urban dispersion : challenges for fast response modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M. J. (Michael J.)

    2004-01-01

    There is renewed interest in urban dispersion modeling due to the need for tools that can be used for responding to, planning for, and assessing the consequences of an airborne release of toxic materials. Although not an everyday phenomenon, releases of hazardous gases and aerosols have occurred in populated urban environments and are potentially threatening to human life. These releases may stem from on-site accidents as in the case of industrial chemical releases, may result during transport of hazardous chemicals as in tanker truck or railroad spills, or may be premeditated as in a chemical, biological, or radiological (CBR) agent terrorist attack. Transport and dispersion in urban environments is extremely complicated. Buildings alter the flow fields and deflect the wind, causing updrafts and downdrafts, channeling between buildings, areas of calm winds adjacent to strong winds, and horizontally and vertically rotating-eddies between buildings, at street corners, and other places within the urban canopy (see review by Hosker, 1984). Trees, moving vehicles, and exhaust vents among other things further complicate matters. The distance over which chemical, biological, or radiological releases can be harmful varies from tens of meters to many kilometers depending on the amount released, the toxicity of the agent, and the atmospheric conditions. As we will show later, accounting for the impacts of buildings on the transport and dispersion is crucial in estimating the travel direction, the areal extent, and the toxicity levels of the contaminant plume, and ultimately for calculating exposures to the population.

  14. Modelling tropical forests response to logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzolla Gatti, Roberto; Di Paola, Arianna; Valentini, Riccardo; Paparella, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    Tropical rainforests are among the most threatened ecosystems by large-scale fragmentation due to human activity such as heavy logging and agricultural clearance. Although, they provide crucial ecosystem goods and services, such as sequestering carbon from the atmosphere, protecting watersheds and conserving biodiversity. In several countries forest resource extraction has experienced a shift from clearcutting to selective logging to maintain a significant forest cover and understock of living biomass. However the knowledge on the short and long-term effects of removing selected species in tropical rainforest are scarce and need to be further investigated. One of the main effects of selective logging on forest dynamics seems to be the local disturbance which involve the invasion of open space by weed, vines and climbers at the expense of the late-successional state cenosis. We present a simple deterministic model that describes the dynamics of tropical rainforest subject to selective logging to understand how and why weeds displace native species. We argue that the selective removal of tallest tropical trees carries out gaps of light that allow weeds, vines and climbers to prevail on native species, inhibiting the possibility of recovery of the original vegetation. Our results show that different regime shifts may occur depending on the type of forest management adopted. This hypothesis is supported by a dataset of trees height and weed/vines cover that we collected from 9 plots located in Central and West Africa both in untouched and managed areas.

  15. Aggregate Model for Heterogeneous Thermostatically Controlled Loads with Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei; Kalsi, Karanjit; Fuller, Jason C.; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Chassin, David P.

    2012-07-22

    Due to the potentially large number of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) – demand response, distributed generation, distributed storage - that are expected to be deployed, it is impractical to use detailed models of these resources when integrated with the transmission system. Being able to accurately estimate the fast transients caused by demand response is especially important to analyze the stability of the system under different demand response strategies. On the other hand, a less complex model is more amenable to design feedback control strategies for the population of devices to provide ancillary services. The main contribution of this paper is to develop aggregated models for a heterogeneous population of Thermostatic Controlled Loads (TCLs) to accurately capture their collective behavior under demand response and other time varying effects of the system. The aggregated model efficiently includes statistical information of the population and accounts for a second order effect necessary to accurately capture the collective dynamic behavior. The developed aggregated models are validated against simulations of thousands of detailed building models using GridLAB-D (an open source distribution simulation software) under both steady state and severe dynamic conditions caused due to temperature set point changes.

  16. Dynamic brittle material response based on a continuum damage model

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, E.P.

    1994-12-31

    The response of brittle materials to dynamic loads was studied in this investigation based on a continuum damage model. Damage mechanism was selected to be interaction and growth of subscale cracks. Briefly, the cracks are activated by bulk tension and the density of activated cracks are described by a Weibull statistical distribution. The moduli of a cracked solid derived by Budiansky and O`Connell are then used to represent the global material degradation due to subscale cracking. This continuum damage model was originally developed to study rock fragmentation and was modified in the present study to improve on the post-limit structural response. The model was implemented into a transient dynamic explicit finite element code PRONTO 2D and then used for a numerical study involving the sudden stretching of a plate with a centrally located hole. Numerical results characterizing the dynamic responses of the material were presented. The effect of damage on dynamic material behavior was discussed.

  17. Dynamic modeling of coronal and interplanetary responses to solar events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.; Nakagawa, Y.; Dryer, M.

    1977-01-01

    Recent progress in the dynamic modeling of responses of the corona and interplanetary medium to solar events (such as surges, eruptive prominences, flares, etc.) is reviewed. In particular, coronal transients and wave phenomena are discussed in some detail including pertinent mathematical requirements. Within the context of hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics, a summary of both one- and two-dimensional time-dependent models is presented. A comparison of theoretical results with ground-based optical, radio, ATM Skylab observations, Pioneer 9 and Pioneer 10 solar wind observations is also presented. It is illustrated that: (1) substantial progress has been made in the theoretical (i.e., numerical) modeling of coronal and interplanetary responses within the last few years; (2) two-dimensional, time-dependent modeling is needed to examine the details of nonlinear wave coupling; and (3) theoretical results of modeling appear to reproduce physical consequences successfully.

  18. Genomic responses in mouse models poorly mimic human inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Junhee; Warren, H. Shaw; Cuenca, Alex G.; Mindrinos, Michael N.; Baker, Henry V.; Xu, Weihong; Richards, Daniel R.; McDonald-Smith, Grace P.; Gao, Hong; Hennessy, Laura; Finnerty, Celeste C.; López, Cecilia M.; Honari, Shari; Moore, Ernest E.; Minei, Joseph P.; Cuschieri, Joseph; Bankey, Paul E.; Johnson, Jeffrey L.; Sperry, Jason; Nathens, Avery B.; Billiar, Timothy R.; West, Michael A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Klein, Matthew B.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Brownstein, Bernard H.; Miller-Graziano, Carol; Calvano, Steve E.; Mason, Philip H.; Cobb, J. Perren; Rahme, Laurence G.; Lowry, Stephen F.; Maier, Ronald V.; Moldawer, Lyle L.; Herndon, David N.; Davis, Ronald W.; Xiao, Wenzhong; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Abouhamze, Amer; Balis, Ulysses G. J.; Camp, David G.; De, Asit K.; Harbrecht, Brian G.; Hayden, Douglas L.; Kaushal, Amit; O’Keefe, Grant E.; Kotz, Kenneth T.; Qian, Weijun; Schoenfeld, David A.; Shapiro, Michael B.; Silver, Geoffrey M.; Smith, Richard D.; Storey, John D.; Tibshirani, Robert; Toner, Mehmet; Wilhelmy, Julie; Wispelwey, Bram; Wong, Wing H

    2013-01-01

    A cornerstone of modern biomedical research is the use of mouse models to explore basic pathophysiological mechanisms, evaluate new therapeutic approaches, and make go or no-go decisions to carry new drug candidates forward into clinical trials. Systematic studies evaluating how well murine models mimic human inflammatory diseases are nonexistent. Here, we show that, although acute inflammatory stresses from different etiologies result in highly similar genomic responses in humans, the responses in corresponding mouse models correlate poorly with the human conditions and also, one another. Among genes changed significantly in humans, the murine orthologs are close to random in matching their human counterparts (e.g., R2 between 0.0 and 0.1). In addition to improvements in the current animal model systems, our study supports higher priority for translational medical research to focus on the more complex human conditions rather than relying on mouse models to study human inflammatory diseases. PMID:23401516

  19. Type II functional response for continuous, physiologically structured models.

    PubMed

    Logan, J David; Ledder, Glenn; Wolesensky, William

    2009-07-21

    The goal of this work is to formulate a general Holling-type functional, or behavioral, response for continuous physiologically structured populations, where both the predator and the prey have physiological densities and certain rules apply to their interactions. The physiological variable can be, for example, a development stage, weight, age, or a characteristic length. The model leads to a Fredholm integral equation for the functional response, and, when inserted into population balance laws, it produces a coupled system of partial differential-integral equations for the two species, with a nonlocal integral term that arises from rules of interaction in the functional response. The general model is, typically, analytically intractable, but specialization to a structured prey-unstructured predator model leads to some analytic results that reveal interesting and unexpected dynamics caused by the presence of size-dependent handling times in the functional response. In this case, steady-states are shown to exist over long times, similar to the stable age-structure solutions for the McKendick-von Foerster model with exponential growth rates determined by the Euler-Lotka equation. But, for type II responses, there are early transient oscillations in the number of births that bifurcate in a few generations into either the decaying or growing steady-state. The bifurcation parameter is the initial level of prey. This special case is applied to a problem of the biological control of a structured pest population (e.g., aphids) by a predator (e.g., lady beetles). PMID:19362565

  20. Parameter variability estimation using stochastic response surface model updating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Sheng-En; Zhang, Qiu-Hu; Ren, Wei-Xin

    2014-12-01

    From a practical point of view, uncertainties existing in structural parameters and measurements must be handled in order to provide reliable structural condition evaluations. At this moment, deterministic model updating loses its practicability and a stochastic updating procedure should be employed seeking for statistical properties of parameters and responses. Presently this topic has not been well investigated on account of its greater complexity in theoretical configuration and difficulty in inverse problem solutions after involving uncertainty analyses. Due to it, this paper attempts to develop a stochastic model updating method for parameter variability estimation. Uncertain parameters and responses are correlated through stochastic response surface models, which are actually explicit polynomial chaos expansions based on Hermite polynomials. Then by establishing a stochastic inverse problem, parameter means and standard deviations are updated in a separate and successive way. For the purposes of problem simplification and optimization efficiency, in each updating iteration stochastic response surface models are reconstructed to avoid the construction and analysis of sensitivity matrices. Meanwhile, in the interest of investigating the effects of parameter variability on responses, a parameter sensitivity analysis method has been developed based on the derivation of polynomial chaos expansions. Lastly the feasibility and reliability of the proposed methods have been validated using a numerical beam and then a set of nominally identical metal plates. After comparing with a perturbation method, it is found that the proposed method can estimate parameter variability with satisfactory accuracy and the complexity of the inverse problem can be highly reduced resulting in cost-efficient optimization.

  1. Spatial Generalization in Operant Learning: Lessons from Professional Basketball

    E-print Network

    Spatial Generalization in Operant Learning: Lessons from Professional Basketball Tal Neiman1: Neiman T, Loewenstein Y (2014) Spatial Generalization in Operant Learning: Lessons from Professional, Israel Abstract In operant learning, behaviors are reinforced or inhibited in response

  2. Combining IRT and SEM: A Hybrid Model for Fitting Responses and Response Certainties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Anguiano-Carrasco, Cristina; Demestre, Josep

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a model-based procedure, intended for personality measures, for exploiting the auxiliary information provided by the certainty with which individuals answer every item (response certainty). This information is used to (a) obtain more accurate estimates of individual trait levels, and (b) provide a more detailed assessment of…

  3. Model-Based Collaborative Filtering Analysis of Student Response Data: Machine-Learning Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergner, Yoav; Droschler, Stefan; Kortemeyer, Gerd; Rayyan, Saif; Seaton, Daniel; Pritchard, David E.

    2012-01-01

    We apply collaborative filtering (CF) to dichotomously scored student response data (right, wrong, or no interaction), finding optimal parameters for each student and item based on cross-validated prediction accuracy. The approach is naturally suited to comparing different models, both unidimensional and multidimensional in ability, including a…

  4. Emergency Response Information System Interoperability: Development of Chemical Incident Response Data Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui Chen; Raj Sharman; Nirupama Chakravarti; H. Raghav Rao; Shambhu J. Upadhyaya

    2008-01-01

    Emergency response requires an efficient information supply chain for the smooth operations of intra- and inter-organizational emergency management processes. However, the breakdown of this information supply chain due to the lack of consistent data standards presents a significant problem. In this paper, we adopt a theory driven novel approach to develop a XML-based data model that prescribes a comprehensive set

  5. Motivating Teachers to Enact Free-Choice Project-Based Learning in Science and Technology (PBLSAT): Effects of a Professional Development Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orna Fallik; Bat-Sheva Eylon; Sherman Rosenfeld

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a long-term, continuous professional development (CPD) model, designed to support teachers\\u000a to enact Project-Based Learning (PBLSAT). How do novice PBLSAT teachers view their acquisition of PBLSAT skills and how do\\u000a expert PBLSAT teachers, who enacted the program 5–7 years, perceive the program? Novice teachers evaluated that they acquired\\u000a the relevant skills but also expressed worries about

  6. Using Data Augmentation and Markov Chain Monte Carlo for the Estimation of Unfolding Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Matthew S.; Junker, Brian W.

    2003-01-01

    Unfolding response models, a class of item response theory (IRT) models that assume a unimodal item response function (IRF), are often used for the measurement of attitudes. Verhelst and Verstralen (1993)and Andrich and Luo (1993) independently developed unfolding response models by relating the observed responses to a more common monotone IRT…

  7. A Two-Decision Model for Responses to Likert-Type Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thissen-Roe, Anne; Thissen, David

    2013-01-01

    Extreme response set, the tendency to prefer the lowest or highest response option when confronted with a Likert-type response scale, can lead to misfit of item response models such as the generalized partial credit model. Recently, a series of intrinsically multidimensional item response models have been hypothesized, wherein tendency toward…

  8. Benchmarking nuclear models for Gamow-Teller response

    E-print Network

    E. Litvinova; B. A. Brown; D. -L. Fang; T. Marketin; R. G. T. Zegers

    2014-02-04

    A comparative study of the nuclear Gamow-Teller response (GTR) within conceptually different state-of-the-art approaches is presented. Three nuclear microscopic models are considered: (i) the recently developed charge-exchange relativistic time blocking approximation (RTBA) based on the covariant density functional theory, (ii) the shell model (SM) with an extended "jj77" model space and (iii) the non-relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) with a Brueckner G-matrix effective interaction. We study the physics cases where two or all three of these models can be applied. The Gamow-Teller response functions are calculated for 208-Pb, 132-Sn and 78-Ni within both RTBA and QRPA. The strengths obtained for 208-Pb are compared to data that enables a firm model benchmarking. For the nucleus 132-Sn, also SM calculations are performed within the model space truncated at the level of a particle-hole (ph) coupled to vibration configurations. This allows a consistent comparison to the RTBA where ph+phonon coupling is responsible for the spreading width and considerable quenching of the GTR. Differences between the models and perspectives of their future developments are discussed.

  9. Benchmarking nuclear models for Gamow-Teller response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinova, E.; Brown, B. A.; Fang, D.-L.; Marketin, T.; Zegers, R. G. T.

    2014-03-01

    A comparative study of the nuclear Gamow-Teller response (GTR) within conceptually different state-of-the-art approaches is presented. Three nuclear microscopic models are considered: (i) the recently developed charge-exchange relativistic time blocking approximation (RTBA) based on the covariant density functional theory, (ii) the shell model (SM) with an extended “jj77” model space and (iii) the non-relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) with a Brueckner G-matrix effective interaction. We study the physics cases where two or all three of these models can be applied. The Gamow-Teller response functions are calculated for 208Pb, 132Sn and 78Ni within both RTBA and QRPA. The strengths obtained for 208Pb are compared to data that enable a firm model benchmarking. For the nucleus 132Sn, also SM calculations are performed within the model space truncated at the level of a particle-hole (ph) coupled to vibration configurations. This allows a consistent comparison to the RTBA where ph?phonon coupling is responsible for the spreading width and considerable quenching of the GTR. Differences between the models and perspectives of their future developments are discussed.

  10. Electric Water Heater Modeling and Control Strategies for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Samaan, Nader A.

    2012-07-22

    Abstract— Demand response (DR) has a great potential to provide balancing services at normal operating conditions and emergency support when a power system is subject to disturbances. Effective control strategies can significantly relieve the balancing burden of conventional generators and reduce investment on generation and transmission expansion. This paper is aimed at modeling electric water heaters (EWH) in households and tests their response to control strategies to implement DR. The open-loop response of EWH to a centralized signal is studied by adjusting temperature settings to provide regulation services; and two types of decentralized controllers are tested to provide frequency support following generator trips. EWH models are included in a simulation platform in DIgSILENT to perform electromechanical simulation, which contains 147 households in a distribution feeder. Simulation results show the dependence of EWH response on water heater usage . These results provide insight suggestions on the need of control strategies to achieve better performance for demand response implementation. Index Terms— Centralized control, decentralized control, demand response, electrical water heater, smart grid

  11. A model for simulation of electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Douglas A.; Matin, Mohammed A.

    2009-08-01

    An important aspect of research in the continued development of cochlear implants is the in vivo assessment of signal processing algorithms. One technique that has been used is evoked potentials, the recording of neural responses to auditory stimulation. Depending on the latency of the observed response, the evoked potential indicates neural activity at the various neurological structures of the auditory system. Electrically evoked ABRs are commonly measured in hearing-impaired patients who have cochlear implants, via electrical stimulation delivered by electrodes in the implanted array. This research explores the use of MATLAB for the purpose of developing a model for electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). The simulation model developed in this study takes as its input the stimulus current intensity level, and uses function vectors and equations derived from measured ABRs, to generate an approximation of the evoked surface potentials. A function vector is used to represent the combined firing of the neurons of the auditory nervous system that are needed to elicit a measurable response. Equations have been derived to represent the latency and stimulus amplitude scaling functions. The simulation also accounts for other neural activity that can be present in and contaminate an ABR recording, and reduces it through time-locked averaging of the simulated response. In the MATLAB simulation, the model performs well and delivers results that compare favorably with the results measured from the research subjects.

  12. Additive and Subtractive Scrambling in Optional Randomized Response Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Zawar; Al-Sobhi, Mashail M.; Al-Zahrani, Bander

    2014-01-01

    This article considers unbiased estimation of mean, variance and sensitivity level of a sensitive variable via scrambled response modeling. In particular, we focus on estimation of the mean. The idea of using additive and subtractive scrambling has been suggested under a recent scrambled response model. Whether it is estimation of mean, variance or sensitivity level, the proposed scheme of estimation is shown relatively more efficient than that recent model. As far as the estimation of mean is concerned, the proposed estimators perform relatively better than the estimators based on recent additive scrambling models. Relative efficiency comparisons are also made in order to highlight the performance of proposed estimators under suggested scrambling technique. PMID:24421893

  13. A Bayesian network model for biomarker-based dose response.

    PubMed

    Hack, C Eric; Haber, Lynne T; Maier, Andrew; Shulte, Paul; Fowler, Bruce; Lotz, W Gregory; Savage, Russell E

    2010-07-01

    A Bayesian network model was developed to integrate diverse types of data to conduct an exposure-dose-response assessment for benzene-induced acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The network approach was used to evaluate and compare individual biomarkers and quantitatively link the biomarkers along the exposure-disease continuum. The network was used to perform the biomarker-based dose-response analysis, and various other approaches to the dose-response analysis were conducted for comparison. The network-derived benchmark concentration was approximately an order of magnitude lower than that from the usual exposure concentration versus response approach, which suggests that the presence of more information in the low-dose region (where changes in biomarkers are detectable but effects on AML mortality are not) helps inform the description of the AML response at lower exposures. This work provides a quantitative approach for linking changes in biomarkers of effect both to exposure information and to changes in disease response. Such linkage can provide a scientifically valid point of departure that incorporates precursor dose-response information without being dependent on the difficult issue of a definition of adversity for precursors. PMID:20412521

  14. A Professional Collaboration Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Oliver F.

    2010-01-01

    Middle school mathematics teachers face unprecedented challenges. Foremost among those challenges is being able to systematically adapt instructional practices to advance student achievement relative to rigorous math standards. These challenges are not likely to be overcome by individual teachers. That said, it is widely argued that collaborative…

  15. A stochastic sequential model for heart rate response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Greene

    1988-01-01

    A stochastic sequential model is applied to heart-rate response during exercise. Heart-rate-need functions are found through steady-state analysis. Heart rates of two subjects are used to track the heart-rate-need functions in a cycle ergometer experiment in a manner represented by a first-order sequential model. Under conditions of increased physical or emotional stress, heart rates can track the heart-rate-need functions in

  16. PROFESSIONALISM IN MEDICINE PROFESSIONALISM IN MEDICINE

    E-print Network

    PROFESSIONALISM IN MEDICINE Part II PROFESSIONALISM IN MEDICINE Part II LSU HEALTH SCIENCES CENTER DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE Dayton W. Daberkow II, M.D. Associate Professor of Clinical Medicine Section of Comprehensive Medicine #12;Challenges to the Elements of Professionalism Challenges to the Elements

  17. Int. Rev. Neurobiology Friston KJ et al Modelling brain responses

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Int. Rev. Neurobiology ­ Friston KJ et al Modelling brain responses Karl J Friston, William Penny in "International Review of Neurobiology 2005;66:89-124" DOI : 10.1016/S0074-7742(05)66003-5 #12;Int. Rev. Neurobiology ­ Friston KJ et al ABSTRACT Inferences about brain function, using neuroimaging data, rest

  18. A Dispatch-Mediated Communication Model for Emergency Response Systems

    E-print Network

    Upadhyaya, Shambhu

    2 A Dispatch-Mediated Communication Model for Emergency Response Systems ROHIT VALECHA and RAJ of emergency communication is dispatch-mediated (the messages from the scene are directed towards the responders and agencies through the dispatch agency). These messages are logged in electronic documents

  19. Higher-Order Item Response Models for Hierarchical Latent Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Po-Hsi; Su, Chi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Many latent traits in the human sciences have a hierarchical structure. This study aimed to develop a new class of higher order item response theory models for hierarchical latent traits that are flexible in accommodating both dichotomous and polytomous items, to estimate both item and person parameters jointly, to allow users to specify…

  20. Numerical Model of Graphene-Based Radiation Detector Response

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yong P.

    of expected energy resolution and noise analysis for GRDs. I. INTRODUCTION GRAPHENE is a single atomic layerNumerical Model of Graphene-Based Radiation Detector Response Michael Foxe, Student Member, IEEE. Chen, Member, IEEE, and Igor Jovanovic Abstract--Graphene-based radiation detectors (GRDs) have

  1. Model simulation of thermospheric response to recurrent geomagnetic forcing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liying Qian; Stanley C. Solomon; Martin G. Mlynczak

    2010-01-01

    We assess model capability in simulating thermospheric response to recurrent geomagnetic forcing driven by modulations in the solar wind speed and the interplanetary magnetic field. Neutral density and nitric oxide (NO) cooling rates are simulated for the declining phase of solar cycle 23. The simulated results are compared to neutral density derived from satellite drag and to NO cooling measured

  2. EVALUATING EMERGENCY RESPONSE MODELS OF RADIOLOGICAL DISPERSION IN COMPLEX TERRAIN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Dyer; J. H. Pascoe

    Operational airborne releases of trace quantities of the radioactive noble gas Ar-41 from the HIFAR Nuclear Research Reactor located in Sydney, Australia are valuable for evaluating emergency response models incorporating radiological dispersion. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), where the reactor is located, has a network of meteorological stations and GR-150 environmental gamma dose detectors placed in complex

  3. Modeling the strain hardening response of low SFE FCC alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Surya R. Kalidindi

    1998-01-01

    A mathematical description has been proposed to capture the complex four-stage strain hardening behavior of low stacking fault energy (SFE) polycrystalline fcc metallic alloys that deform plastically by both slip and twinning mechanisms. It has been demonstrated that the proposed model is capable of predicting fairly accurately the measurements reported previously on the strain-hardening responses of several fcc alloys, including

  4. Multilevel Higher-Order Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2014-01-01

    In the social sciences, latent traits often have a hierarchical structure, and data can be sampled from multiple levels. Both hierarchical latent traits and multilevel data can occur simultaneously. In this study, we developed a general class of item response theory models to accommodate both hierarchical latent traits and multilevel data. The…

  5. Models of the delayed nonlinear Raman response in diatomic gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palastro, J. P.; Antonsen, T. M., Jr.; Pearson, A.

    2011-07-01

    We examine the delayed response of a diatomic gas to a polarizing laser field with the goal of obtaining computationally efficient methods for use with laser pulse propagation simulations. We demonstrate that for broadband pulses, heavy molecules such as O2 and N2, and typical atmospheric temperatures, the initial delayed response requires only classical physics. The linear kinetic Green's function is derived from the Boltzmann equation and shown to be in excellent agreement with full density-matrix calculations. A straightforward perturbation approach for the fully nonlinear, kinetic impulse response is also presented. With the kinetic theory a reduced fluid model of the diatomic gas’ orientation is derived. Transport coefficients are introduced to model the kinetic phase mixing of the delayed response. In addition to computational rapidity, the fluid model provides intuition through the use of familiar macroscopic quantities. Both the kinetic and the fluid descriptions predict a nonlinear steady-state alignment after passage of the laser pulse, which in the fluid model is interpreted as an anisotropic temperature of the diatomic fluid with respect to motion about the polarization axis.

  6. Fitting a response model for n dichotomously scored items

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Darrell Bock; Marcus Lieberman

    1970-01-01

    A method of estimating the parameters of the normal ogive model for dichotomously scored item-responses by maximum likelihood is demonstrated. Although the procedure requires numerical integration in order to evaluate the likelihood equations, a computer implemented Newton-Raphson solution is shown to be straightforward in other respects. Empirical tests of the procedure show that the resulting estimates are very similar to

  7. Parameter Invariance of the Graded Response Latent Trait Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, William R.

    The two-parameter graded response latent trait model was applied under various conditions to two simulation data sets and to data obtained from a Likert-type attitude scale. The purpose was to investigate the invariance property of the item and person parameter estimates for polychotomously scored data. Correlation and regression analyses, as well…

  8. A Hybridization Model for the Plasmon Response of Complex Nanostructures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Prodan; C. Radloff; N. J. Halas; P. Nordlander

    2003-01-01

    We present a simple and intuitive picture, an electromagnetic analog of molecular orbital theory, that describes the plasmon response of complex nanostructures of arbitrary shape. Our model can be understood as the interaction or ``hybridization'' of elementary plasmons supported by nanostructures of elementary geometries. As an example, the approach is applied to the important case of a four-layer concentric nanoshell,

  9. Item Response Theory Models for Performance Decline during Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Kuan-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Sometimes, test-takers may not be able to attempt all items to the best of their ability (with full effort) due to personal factors (e.g., low motivation) or testing conditions (e.g., time limit), resulting in poor performances on certain items, especially those located toward the end of a test. Standard item response theory (IRT) models fail to…

  10. Finite element modeling of the transient response of viscoelastic beams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan D. Mehl; Ronald N. Miles

    1995-01-01

    A procedure is presented for computing the transient response of a multiple degree of freedom finite element model of a beam system containing a viscoelastic material. A complex, frequency and temperature dependent shear modulus is used in representing the properties of this material. The beam is struck with an arbitrary transient input pulse, which is transformed to the frequency domain

  11. An ocean model's response to North Atlantic Oscillationlike wind forcing

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    in the Mediterranean Sea region is reduced. The NAO index it­ self exhibits a somewhat red spectrum with an indicationAn ocean model's response to North Atlantic Oscillation­like wind forcing Martin Visbeck, Heidi phase is indicated by the NAO index (NAOI), which measures the pressure difference between Portugal

  12. Modeling Building Thermal Response to HVAC Zoning Virginia Smith

    E-print Network

    Whitehouse, Kamin

    Modeling Building Thermal Response to HVAC Zoning Virginia Smith Department of Computer Science HVAC systems account for 38% of building energy usage. Studies have indicated at least 5-15% waste due to unoccu- pied spaces being conditioned. Our goal is to minimize this waste by retrofitting HVAC systems

  13. A Smoothed Maximum Score Estimator for the Binary Response Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel L Horowitz

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a semiparametric estimator for binary response models in which there may be arbitrary heteroskedasticity of unknown form. The estimator is obtained by maximizing a smoothed version of the objective function of C. Manski's maximum score estimator. The smoothing procedure is similar to that used in kernel nonparametric density estimation. The resulting estimator's rate of convergence in probability

  14. Modeling DIF in Complex Response Data Using Test Design Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahraman, Nilufer; De Boeck, Paul; Janssen, Rianne

    2009-01-01

    This study introduces an approach for modeling multidimensional response data with construct-relevant group and domain factors. The item level parameter estimation process is extended to incorporate the refined effects of test dimension and group factors. Differences in item performances over groups are evaluated, distinguishing two levels of…

  15. Predictive Modeling of Drug Response in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Frieboes, Hermann B; Smith, Bryan R; Wang, Zhihui; Kotsuma, Masakatsu; Ito, Ken; Day, Armin; Cahill, Benjamin; Flinders, Colin; Mumenthaler, Shannon M; Mallick, Parag; Simbawa, Eman; Al-Fhaid, A S; Mahmoud, S R; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Cristini, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    We combine mathematical modeling with experiments in living mice to quantify the relative roles of intrinsic cellular vs. tissue-scale physiological contributors to chemotherapy drug resistance, which are difficult to understand solely through experimentation. Experiments in cell culture and in mice with drug-sensitive (Eµ-myc/Arf-/-) and drug-resistant (Eµ-myc/p53-/-) lymphoma cell lines were conducted to calibrate and validate a mechanistic mathematical model. Inputs to inform the model include tumor drug transport characteristics, such as blood volume fraction, average geometric mean blood vessel radius, drug diffusion penetration distance, and drug response in cell culture. Model results show that the drug response in mice, represented by the fraction of dead tumor volume, can be reliably predicted from these inputs. Hence, a proof-of-principle for predictive quantification of lymphoma drug therapy was established based on both cellular and tissue-scale physiological contributions. We further demonstrate that, if the in vitro cytotoxic response of a specific cancer cell line under chemotherapy is known, the model is then able to predict the treatment efficacy in vivo. Lastly, tissue blood volume fraction was determined to be the most sensitive model parameter and a primary contributor to drug resistance. PMID:26061425

  16. Modeling Systems-Level Regulation of Host Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Thakar, Juilee; Pilione, Mylisa; Kirimanjeswara, Girish; Harvill, Eric T; Albert, Réka

    2007-01-01

    Many pathogens are able to manipulate the signaling pathways responsible for the generation of host immune responses. Here we examine and model a respiratory infection system in which disruption of host immune functions or of bacterial factors changes the dynamics of the infection. We synthesize the network of interactions between host immune components and two closely related bacteria in the genus Bordetellae. We incorporate existing experimental information on the timing of immune regulatory events into a discrete dynamic model, and verify the model by comparing the effects of simulated disruptions to the experimental outcome of knockout mutations. Our model indicates that the infection time course of both Bordetellae can be separated into three distinct phases based on the most active immune processes. We compare and discuss the effect of the species-specific virulence factors on disrupting the immune response during their infection of naive, antibody-treated, diseased, or convalescent hosts. Our model offers predictions regarding cytokine regulation, key immune components, and clearance of secondary infections; we experimentally validate two of these predictions. This type of modeling provides new insights into the virulence, pathogenesis, and host adaptation of disease-causing microorganisms and allows systems-level analysis that is not always possible using traditional methods. PMID:17559300

  17. New Model for Europa's Tidal Response Based after Laboratory Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, J. C.; McCarthy, C.; Choukroun, M.; Rambaux, N.

    2009-12-01

    We explore the application of the Andrade model to the modeling of Europa’s tidal response at the orbital period and for different librations. Previous models have generally assumed that the satellite behaves as a Maxwell body. However, at the frequencies exciting Europa’s tides and librations, material anelasticity tends to dominate the satellite’s response for a wide range of temperatures, a feature that is not accounted for by the Maxwell model. Many experimental studies on the anelasticity of rocks, ice, and hydrates, suggest that the Andrade model usually provides a good fit to the dissipation spectra obtained for a wide range of frequencies, encompassing the tidal frequencies of most icy satellites. These data indicate that, at Europa’s orbital frequency, the Maxwell model overestimates water ice attenuation at temperature warmer than ~240 K, while it tends to significantly underestimate it at lower temperatures. Based on the available data we suggest an educated extrapolation of available data to Europa’s conditions. We compute the tidal response of a model of Europa differentiated in a rocky core and a water-rich shell. We assume various degrees of stratification of the core involving hydrated and anhydrous silicates, as well as an iron core. The water-rich shell of Europa is assumed to be fully frozen, or to have preserved a deep liquid layer. In both cases we consider a range of thermal structures, based on existing models. These structures take into account the presence of non-ice materials, especially hydrated salts. This new approach yields a greater tidal response (amplitude and phase lag) than previously expected. This is due to the fact that a greater volume of material dissipates tidal energy in comparison to models assuming a Maxwell body. Another feature of interest is that the tidal stress expected in Europa is at about the threshold between a linear and non-linear mechanical response of water ice as a function of stress. Increased stress at a time when Europa’s eccentricity was greater than its current value is likely to have resulted in significant dissipation increase. We will assess how this new approach affects our understanding of Europa, and we will quantify the tidal response of this satellite and the amount of tidal heating available to its evolution. Acknowledgements: Part of this work has been conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged. Part of the experimental work was conducted at Brown University, funded by NASA. MC is supported by a NASA Postdoctoral Fellowship, administered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities.

  18. A General Model for the Homogeneous Case of the Continuous Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    A general model for the homogeneous case of the continuous response is proposed. The model is an expansion and generalization of the one proposed by the author in 1974, in which the open response situation is dealt with. In this generalized model, the closed response situation is dealt with, and it includes the model for the open response

  19. Overview of Key Roles and Responsibilities in Information Security Liaison Model Responsibilities Chief Information Security-Privacy

    E-print Network

    Cantlon, Jessica F.

    progress and metrics to Chief Information Security Officers Conduct monthly meetings with department ISLsOverview of Key Roles and Responsibilities in Information Security Liaison Model Responsibilities Chief Information Security-Privacy Officers Divisional Information Security-Privacy Liaison Departmental

  20. Shaping the Responsible, Successful and Contributing Citizen of the Future: "Values" in the New Zealand Curriculum and Its Challenge to the Development of Ethical Teacher Professionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benade, Leon

    2011-01-01

    The revised New Zealand Curriculum became mandatory for use in New Zealand schools in February 2010. The ongoing reform agenda in education in New Zealand since 1989 and elsewhere internationally has had corrosive effects on teacher professionality. State-driven neo-liberal policy and education reforms are deeply damaging to the mental and moral…

  1. A Response to Anastas and Coffey: The Science of Social Work and Its Relationship to Social Work Education and Professional Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Wong, Marleen; Samuels, Gina Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Relationships are central to the profession of social work; relationships with allied disciplines, among professional social work organizations, and between classroom and field education. However, embedded within these relationships are historical tensions, and contemporary opportunities that can advance both the science of social work and the…

  2. Modeling of passive microwave responses in convective situations using output from mesoscale models

    E-print Network

    Pardo-Carrión, Juan R.

    Modeling of passive microwave responses in convective situations using output from mesoscale models using output from nonhydrostatic mesoscale atmospheric model, Meso-NH, simulations. The radiative for a systematic evaluation of the mesoscale cloud models. An overall good agreement is obtained for both

  3. Acceleration Model in the Heterogeneous Case of the General Graded Response Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    1995-01-01

    A new model, the acceleration model, is proposed in the framework of the heterogeneous case of the graded response model, based on processing functions defined for a finite or enumerable number of steps. The model is expected to be useful in cognitive assessment. (SLD)

  4. The Rainmaker in Today's Professional Service Organizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terri Feldman Barr; Kevin McNeilly

    2002-01-01

    Professional service firms have relied heavily in the past on a small number of rainmakers-people who have influence and bring business into their firms. In today's competitive marketplace, everyone in the organization must be involved in the practice development process. This paper, based on a series of interviews with accounting professionals, identifies the roles and responsibilities for practice development inherent

  5. Current Factors Contributing to Professionalism in Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynd, Christine A.

    2003-01-01

    Statistical analyses of responses from 774 of 1,850 registered nurses on the Professionalism Inventory found that professionalism was related to years of experience as a nurse, higher education degrees in nursing, organizational membership and service as an officer, and specialty certification. (Contains 52 references.) (SK)

  6. Health Professionals' Knowledge of Women's Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Rebecca M.

    2000-01-01

    Survey responses from 71 health professionals, benchmarking data from 8 hospitals, continuing education program evaluations, and focus groups with nursing, allied health, and primary care providers indicated a need for professional continuing education on women's health issues. Primary topic needs were identified. The data formed the basis for…

  7. Thermal Response Modeling System for a Mars Sample Return Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y.-K.; Miles, Frank S.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A multi-dimensional, coupled thermal response modeling system for analysis of hypersonic entry vehicles is presented. The system consists of a high fidelity Navier-Stokes equation solver (GIANTS), a two-dimensional implicit thermal response, pyrolysis and ablation program (TITAN), and a commercial finite-element thermal and mechanical analysis code (MARC). The simulations performed by this integrated system include hypersonic flowfield, fluid and solid interaction, ablation, shape change, pyrolysis gas eneration and flow, and thermal response of heatshield and structure. The thermal response of the heatshield is simulated using TITAN, and that of the underlying structural is simulated using MARC. The ablating heatshield is treated as an outer boundary condition of the structure, and continuity conditions of temperature and heat flux are imposed at the interface between TITAN and MARC. Aerothermal environments with fluid and solid interaction are predicted by coupling TITAN and GIANTS through surface energy balance equations. With this integrated system, the aerothermal environments for an entry vehicle and the thermal response of the entire vehicle can be obtained simultaneously. Representative computations for a flat-faced arc-jet test model and a proposed Mars sample return capsule are presented and discussed.

  8. Association Models for Clustered Data with Binary and Continuous Responses

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lanjia; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Lipsitz, Stuart R.; Sinha, Debajyoti

    2010-01-01

    Summary We consider analysis of clustered data with mixed bivariate responses, i.e., where each member of the cluster has a binary and a continuous outcome. We propose a new bivariate random effects model that induces associations among the binary outcomes within a cluster, among the continuous outcomes within a cluster, between a binary outcome and a continuous outcome from different subjects within a cluster, as well as the direct association between the binary and continuous outcomes within the same subject. For the ease of interpretations of the regression effects, the marginal model of the binary response probability integrated over the random effects preserves the logistic form and the marginal expectation of the continuous response preserves the linear form. We implement maximum likelihood estimation of our model parameters using standard software such as PROC NLMIXED of SAS. Our simulation study demonstrates the robustness of our method with respect to the misspecification of the regression model as well as the random effects model. We illustrate our methodology by analyzing a developmental toxicity study of ethylene glycol in mice. PMID:19432772

  9. Modeling thermal/chemical/mechanical response of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, M.R.; Hobbs, M.L.; Gross, R.J. [and others

    1995-07-01

    An overview of modeling at Sandia National Laboratories is presented which describes coupled thermal, chemical and mechanical response of energetic materials. This modeling addresses cookoff scenarios for safety assessment studies in systems containing energetic materials. Foundation work is discussed which establishes a method for incorporating chemistry and mechanics into multidimensional analysis. Finite element analysis offers the capabilities to simultaneously resolve reactive heat transfer and structural mechanics in complex geometries. Nonlinear conduction heat transfer, with multiple step finite-rate chemistry, is resolved using a thermal finite element code. Rate equations are solved element-by-element using a modified matrix-free stiff solver This finite element software was developed for the simulation of systems requiring large numbers of finite elements. An iterative implicit scheme, based on the conjugate gradient method, is used and a hemi-cube algorithm is employed for the determination of view factors in surface-to-surface radiation transfer The critical link between the reactive heat transfer and mechanics is the introduction of an appropriate constitutive material model providing a stress-strain relationship for quasi-static mechanics analysis. This model is formally derived from bubble nucleation theory, and parameter variations of critical model parameters indicate that a small degree of decomposition leads to significant mechanical response. Coupled thermal/chemical/mechanical analysis is presented which simulates experiments designed to probe cookoff thermal-mechanical response of energetic materials.

  10. Modelling mathematics problem solving item responses using a multidimensional IRT model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Margaret; Adams, Raymond

    2006-10-01

    This research examined students' responses to mathematics problem-solving tasks and applied a general multidimensional IRT model at the response category level. In doing so, cognitive processes were identified and modelled through item response modelling to extract more information than would be provided using conventional practices in scoring items. More specifically, the study consisted of two parts. The first part involved the development of a mathematics problem-solving framework that was theoretically grounded, drawing upon research in mathematics education and cognitive psychology. The framework was then used as the basis for item development. The second part of the research involved the analysis of the item response data. It was demonstrated that multidimensional IRT models were powerful tools for extracting information from a limited number of item responses. A problem-solving profile for each student could be constructed from the results of IRT scaling.

  11. Changes in Student Attitudes Regarding Science When Taught by Teachers without Experiences with a Model Professional Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Mohamed Moustafa; Yager, Robert; Hacieminoglu, Esme; Caliskan, Ilke

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on two main issues concerning changes in student attitudes toward science study and their perceptions of its usefulness in their lives. Information has been gathered concerning how student attitudes toward science have changed for teachers and schools not involved with any funded professional development project. Pretesting and…

  12. The human genome project: A public forum. Report on a model conference for genetics professionals and consumers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah L. Eunpu; Joan O. Weiss

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on the rationale, objectives, and outcome of a conference titled “The Human Genome Project: A Public Forum.” One of the distinguishing features of this conference was that it included both genetics professionals and consumers of genetics services in a dialogue about the potential ethical, legal, and social implications of learning more about one's genes. The conference was

  13. The Reduction of Stigma in Schools: A New Professional Development Model for Empowering Educators to Support LGBTQ Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Elizabethe C.; Smith, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the rationale and design of The Reduction of Stigma in Schools--an innovative professional development program that aims to empower educators to create supportive learning environments for LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer) students. Part of a larger evaluation study, the authors illustrate how the core…

  14. Learning to Integrate New Technologies into Teaching and Learning through a Design-Based Model of Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Susan; Pritchard, Robert; Huang, Cammy; Pella, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    As multimedia and technological savvy continue to expand existing notions of contemporary literacy, the need to prepare teachers to use a variety of classroom technologies has never been greater (Author1 & Author2, 2008a; Author1 & Author2, 2009). In order for teachers to be prepared to use such technologies, the structure of teacher professional

  15. Choice between response units: The rate constancy model.

    PubMed

    Zeiler, M D; Blakely, T F

    1983-03-01

    In a conjoint schedule, reinforcement is available simultaneously on two or more schedules for the same response. The present experiments provided food for key pecking on both a random-interval and a differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) schedule. Experiment 1 involved ordinary DRL schedules; Experiment 2 added an external stimulus to indicate when the required interresponse time had elapsed. In both experiments, the potential reinforcer frequency from each component was varied by means of a second-order fixed-ratio schedule, and the DRL time parameter was changed as well. Response rates were described by a model stating that time allocation to each component matches the relative frequency of reinforcement for that component. When spending time in a given component, the subject is assumed to respond at the rate characteristic of baseline performance. This model appeared preferable to the absolute-rate version of the matching law. The model was shown to be applicable to multiple-response concurrent schedules as well as to conjoint schedules, and it described some of the necessary conditions for response matching, undermatching, and bias. In addition, the pigeons did not optimize reinforcer frequency. PMID:16812320

  16. The Viscoelastic Response of Topological Tight Binding Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapourian, Hassan; Hughes, Taylor L.; Ryu, Shinsei

    2015-03-01

    The topological response to external perturbations is an effective probe to characterize different topological phases of matter. The Hall viscosity is an example of such a response which has been the subject of a great interest recently. So far, most of studies have focused on the continuum field theories. Here, we investigate this response for the tight binding (lattice) models. The presence of lattice breaks the continuous translational symmetry to a discrete symmetry and this causes two complications: it introduces a new length scale associated with lattice constant and makes the momentum a compact variable. We develop two different methods of how to implement a lattice deformation: (1) the lattice distortion is encoded in a U(1) phase acquired by a particle traversing a link between two sites; (2) a microscopic view is adopted and the lattice deformation appears in the gradient expansion of the hopping matrix elements. Consequently, we compute the Hall viscosity through the linear response (Kubo) formula. We examine these methods for three models: the Hofstadter model, the Chern insulator, and the surface of a 3D topological insulator. Our results in certain regimes of parameters, where the continuum limit is relevant, are in agreement with the field theory calculations.

  17. New Approach to Icy Satellite Tidal Response Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-Rogez, Julie

    2009-09-01

    Based on the experimental determination of ice anelasticity over a wide frequency range, as well as previous studies of ice primary creep, Castillo-Rogez et al. (2009) inferred that, in most situations, the response of planetary ices to tidal stress is anelastic. As a result, tidal models assuming a viscoelastic, Maxwellian response can lead to erroneous estimates of tidal dissipation by several orders of magnitude. Numerous measurements show that the transient response of rock and ice during primary creep can be fitted with the Andrade model. Measurements of the response of ice to cyclic stress also demonstrate that the Andrade model can accurately match the ice attenuation behavior observed for a wide range of frequencies encompassing satellites tides. Input to the Andrade model can be inferred from the frequency-dependence of the attenuation observed in the transient regime. It also requires a good understanding of the nature and properties of the microstructural features involved in the internal friction. Fortunately, numerous laboratory measurements have been reported in the literature for a variety of deformation regimes. Thus it is possible to make an educated guess about the ice attenuation behavior expected as a function of context. I will introduce a preliminary version of a new dissipation model applicable to icy satellites and present the measurement roadmap undertaken in the JPL Planetary Tides Simulation Facility to establish empirical forms of the Andrade model as a function of temperature, stress, composition, microstructure and its evolution with time, over a frequency range that encompasses the anelastic and viscoelastic regimes of a variety of ices. Acknowledgement: This work has been conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech under a contract with NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged. JPL Research and Technology Development program acknowledged.

  18. Computational modeling of cardiovascular response to orthostatic stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldt, Thomas; Shim, Eun B.; Kamm, Roger D.; Mark, Roger G.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a model of the cardiovascular system capable of simulating the short-term (< or = 5 min) transient and steady-state hemodynamic responses to head-up tilt and lower body negative pressure. The model consists of a closed-loop lumped-parameter representation of the circulation connected to set-point models of the arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreflexes. Model parameters are largely based on literature values. Model verification was performed by comparing the simulation output under baseline conditions and at different levels of orthostatic stress to sets of population-averaged hemodynamic data reported in the literature. On the basis of experimental evidence, we adjusted some model parameters to simulate experimental data. Orthostatic stress simulations are not statistically different from experimental data (two-sided test of significance with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons). Transient response characteristics of heart rate to tilt also compare well with reported data. A case study is presented on how the model is intended to be used in the future to investigate the effects of post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance.

  19. Modeling the response of wind turbines to atmospheric turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Thresher, R.W.; Holley, W.E.; Smith, C.E.; Jafarey, N.; Lin, S.R.

    1981-08-01

    Methods are developed for modeling the dynamic response of horizontal axis wind turbines to atmospheric turbulence. The dynamic system is made as simple as possible, while still retaining essential physical characteristics. The report describes how to model a turbine system using the 5 degrees-of-freedom to represent the lower frequency motions of the turbine system. The rotor is assumed to be rigid and is three-bladed for simplicity. Both the structural dynamic properties for this system and the aerodynamic influence coefficients which determine how the system will respond to atmospheric turbulence are developed. Two different wake models are used to compute the induced velocities at the rotor disk. The reader is introduced to the basic concepts involved in modeling the turbulent fluctuations of the wind. Using an approximation concept, the spatial variations of the turbulence are modeled with the first few terms of a series expansion. In addition, this report covers the use of filtered noise as a modeling approximation for the turbulence input and provides the necessary data for modeling the turbulence inputs for a wide range of turbine sizes. Finally, the governing equations for the turbine system and the turbulence inputs are combined to yield a state space description of the entire system. It is shown how decoupling of these equations allows power spectral densities of the various turbine responses to be computed. The computer program used to perform these computations is also discussed and listed.

  20. Multi-Model Investigation of Ecological Response to Extreme Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Kicklighter, D. W.; Felzer, B. S.; Schlosser, C. A.; Chang, K.; Paw U, K.

    2013-12-01

    Extreme events such as droughts and heat waves have serious and damaging impacts on terrestrial processes. Under climate change, these extreme weather events are likely to shift in both magnitude and frequency at regional and local scales. The resulting interactions and feedbacks between the terrestrial and atmosphere systems could lead to non-linear and/or threshold responses in the eco-climate system, and raise a concern as to the resiliency of natural as well as managed ecosystems under extreme changes. This study investigates the response of ecosystem to droughts at different time scales and magnitudes. Four land surface models with different bio-geophysical parameterizations and representations are used to simulate soil-canopy processes, such as evapotranspiration, during these extreme events. The Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) is a process-based ecosystem model that uses spatially referenced information on climate, elevation, soils, vegetation and water availability to make monthly estimates of vegetation and soil carbon and nitrogen fluxes and pool sizes. There are two versions of TEM model, the TEM-Hydro daily model and the TEM monthly model. The Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm (ACASA) is a multi-layered land surface model based on eddy-covariance theory to calculate the biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of carbon dioxide, water, and momentums. The Community Land Model (CLM) is a community-based model consists of biogeophysics, hydrological cycle, biogeochemistry and dynamic vegetation. Model simulations are evaluated using the biogeophysical and micrometeorological field observations from the AmeriFlux sites across the US. Preliminary results indicate that during a severe drought the link between evapotranspiration and Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP) in the models is weaker than what observations indicate. This and other interpretations are presented and discussed.

  1. Neuronal modelling of baroreflex response to orthostatic stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samin, Azfar

    The accelerations experienced in aerial combat can cause pilot loss of consciousness (GLOC) due to a critical reduction in cerebral blood circulation. The development of smart protective equipment requires understanding of how the brain processes blood pressure (BP) information in response to acceleration. We present a biologically plausible model of the Baroreflex to investigate the neural correlates of short-term BP control under acceleration or orthostatic stress. The neuronal network model, which employs an integrate-and-fire representation of a biological neuron, comprises the sensory, motor, and the central neural processing areas that form the Baroreflex. Our modelling strategy is to test hypotheses relating to the encoding mechanisms of multiple sensory inputs to the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), the site of central neural processing. The goal is to run simulations and reproduce model responses that are consistent with the variety of available experimental data. Model construction and connectivity are inspired by the available anatomical and neurophysiological evidence that points to a barotopic organization in the NTS, and the presence of frequency-dependent synaptic depression, which provides a mechanism for generating non-linear local responses in NTS neurons that result in quantifiable dynamic global baroreflex responses. The entire physiological range of BP and rate of change of BP variables is encoded in a palisade of NTS neurons in that the spike responses approximate Gaussian 'tuning' curves. An adapting weighted-average decoding scheme computes the motor responses and a compensatory signal regulates the heart rate (HR). Model simulations suggest that: (1) the NTS neurons can encode the hydrostatic pressure difference between two vertically separated sensory receptor regions at +Gz, and use changes in that difference for the regulation of HR; (2) even though NTS neurons do not fire with a cardiac rhythm seen in the afferents, pulse-rhythmic activity is regained downstream provided the input phase information in preserved centrally; (3) frequency-dependent synaptic depression, which causes temporal variations in synaptic strength due to changes in input frequency, is a possible mechanism of non-linear dynamic baroreflex gain control. Synaptic depression enables the NTS neuron to encode dBP/dt but to lose information about the steady state firing of the afferents.

  2. Mesoscale modelling of environmentally responsive hydrogels: emerging applications.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Peter D; Alexeev, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    Stimuli-sensitive hydrogels are an exciting class of materials with widespread potential for use in engineering and biomedical applications. The design of advanced functional devices using hydrogels requires an in-depth understanding of the physics and behaviour of such materials. While theoretical tools exist, they are often limited to simple cases. Thus, computational methods are necessary to model the complex unsteady physics of hydrogels with high fidelity. Mesoscale modelling is an emerging approach that enables simulations of polymeric structures at length and time scales in between those of molecular dynamics and continuum methods. In this feature article, we review various computational approaches to model responsive hydrogels and specifically focus on dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), a particle-based mesoscale method. We discuss several approaches for modelling cross-linked polymer networks in DPD, and describe recent applications of DPD to modelling hydrogel systems. PMID:25969845

  3. Models of the Solar Atmospheric Response to Flare Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, Joel

    2011-01-01

    I will present models of the solar atmospheric response to flare heating. The models solve the equations of non-LTE radiation hydrodynamics with an electron beam added as a flare energy source term. Radiative transfer is solved in detail for many important optically thick hydrogen and helium transitions and numerous optically thin EUV lines making the models ideally suited to study the emission that is produced during flares. I will pay special attention to understanding key EUV lines as well the mechanism for white light production. I will also present preliminary results of how the model solar atmosphere responds to Fletcher & Hudson type flare heating. I will compare this with the results from flare simulations using the standard thick target model.

  4. Furman University Center for Corporate & Professional

    E-print Network

    .294.3136 for more information or questions. The Postgraduate Diploma in Corporate Sustainability at FurmanFurman University Center for Corporate & Professional Development 3300 Poinsett Highway Greenville responsible for implementing sustainability initiatives in my organization. · Exploratory. My organization

  5. A new emergency response model for MACCS. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chanin, D.I.

    1992-11-11

    Under DOE sponsorship, as directed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the MACCS code (version 1.5.11.1) [Ch92] was modified to implement a series of improvements in its modeling of emergency response actions. The purpose of this effort has been to aid the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) in its performance of the Level III analysis for the Savannah River Site (SRS) probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) of K Reactor [Wo90]. To ensure its usefulness to WSRC, and facilitate the new model`s eventual merger with other MACCS enhancements, close cooperation with WSRC and the MACCS development team at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) was maintained throughout the project. These improvements are intended to allow a greater degree of flexibility in modeling the mitigative actions of evacuation and sheltering. The emergency response model in MACCS version 1.5.11.1 was developed to support NRC analyses of consequences from severe accidents at commercial nuclear power plants. The NRC code imposes unnecessary constraints on DOE safety analyses, particularly for consequences to onsite worker populations, and it has therefore been revamped. The changes to the code have been implemented in a manner that preserves previous modeling capabilities and therefore prior analyses can be repeated with the new code.

  6. Modeling sugarcane growth in response to age, insolation, and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    How, K.T.S.

    1986-01-01

    Modeling sugarcane growth in response to age of cane, insolation and air temperature using first-order multiple regression analysis and a nonlinear approach is investigated. Data are restricted to one variety from irrigated fields to eliminate the impact of varietal response and rainfall. Ten first-order models are investigated. The predictant is cane yield from 600 field tests. The predictors are cumulative values of insolation, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature for 3, 6, 12, and 18 months, or for each crop period derived from weather observations near the test plots. The low R-square values indicate that the selected predictor variables could not account for a substantial proportion of the variations of cane yield and the models have limited predictive values. The nonlinear model is based on known functional relationships between growth and age, growth and insolation, and growth and maximum temperature. A mathematical expression that integrates the effect of age, insolation and maximum temperature is developed. The constant terms and coefficients of the equation are determined from the requirement that the model must produce results that are reasonable when compared with observed monthly elongation data. The nonlinear model is validated and tested using another set of data.

  7. Benchmarking nuclear models for Gamow-Teller response

    E-print Network

    Litvinova, E; Fang, D -L; Marketin, T; Zegers, R G T

    2014-01-01

    A comparative study of the nuclear Gamow-Teller response (GTR) within conceptually different state-of-the-art approaches is presented. Three nuclear microscopic models are considered: (i) the recently developed charge-exchange relativistic time blocking approximation (RTBA) based on the covariant density functional theory, (ii) the shell model (SM) with an extended "jj77" model space and (iii) the non-relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) with a Brueckner G-matrix effective interaction. We study the physics cases where two or all three of these models can be applied. The Gamow-Teller response functions are calculated for 208-Pb, 132-Sn and 78-Ni within both RTBA and QRPA. The strengths obtained for 208-Pb are compared to data that enables a firm model benchmarking. For the nucleus 132-Sn, also SM calculations are performed within the model space truncated at the level of a particle-hole (ph) coupled to vibration configurations. This allows a consistent comparison to the RTBA where ph+ph...

  8. Modelling of stomatal density response to atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    Konrad, W; Roth-Nebelsick, A; Grein, M

    2008-08-21

    Stomatal density tends to vary inversely with changes in atmospheric CO(2) concentration (C(a)). This phenomenon is of significance due to: (i) the current anthropogenic rise in C(a) and its impact on vegetation, and (ii) the potential applicability for reconstructing palaeoatmospheric C(a) by using fossil plant remains. It is generally assumed that the inverse change of stomatal density with C(a) represents an adaptation of epidermal gas conductance to varying C(a). Reconstruction of fossil C(a) by using stomatal density is usually based on empirical curves which are obtained by greenhouse experiments or the study of herbarium material. In this contribution, a model describing the stomatal density response to changes in C(a) is introduced. It is based on the diffusion of water vapour and CO(2), photosynthesis and an optimisation principle concerning gas exchange and water availability. The model considers both aspects of stomatal conductance: degree of stomatal aperture and stomatal density. It is shown that stomatal aperture and stomatal density response can be separated with stomatal aperture representing a short-term response and stomatal density a long-term response. The model also demonstrates how the stomatal density response to C(a) is modulated by environmental factors. This in turn implies that reliable reconstructions of ancient C(a) require additional information concerning temperature and humidity of the considered sites. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was carried out for the relationship between stomatal density and C(a) in order to identify critical parameters (= small parameter changes lead to significant changes of the results). Stomatal pore geometry (pore size and depth) represents a critical parameter. In palaeoclimatic studies, pore geometry should therefore also be considered. PMID:18538792

  9. Small Scale Response and Modeling of Periodically Forced Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bos, Wouter; Clark, Timothy T.; Rubinstein, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The response of the small scales of isotropic turbulence to periodic large scale forcing is studied using two-point closures. The frequency response of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate, and the phase shifts between production, energy and dissipation are determined as functions of Reynolds number. It is observed that the amplitude and phase of the dissipation exhibit nontrivial frequency and Reynolds number dependence that reveals a filtering effect of the energy cascade. Perturbation analysis is applied to understand this behavior which is shown to depend on distant interactions between widely separated scales of motion. Finally, the extent to which finite dimensional models (standard two-equation models and various generalizations) can reproduce the observed behavior is discussed.

  10. Efficient approximation method for constructing quadratic response surface model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyung-Jin Hong; Min-Soo Kim; Dong-Hoon Choi

    2001-01-01

    For a large scaled optimization based on response surface methods, an efficient quadratic approximation method is presented\\u000a in the context of the trust region model management strategy. If the number of design variables inn, the proposed method requires only 2n+1 design points for one approximation, which are a center point and two additional axial points within a systematically adjusted\\u000a trust

  11. Numerical modeling of ground response during diaphragm wall construction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-chun Ding; Jian-hua Wang

    2008-01-01

    Construction of diaphragm wall panels may cause considerable stress changes in heavily overconsolidated soil deposits and\\u000a can induce substantial ground movement. The 3D Lagrangian method was adopted to model the mechanical response of ground, including\\u000a horizontal normal stress and shear stress, lateral ground displacement and vertical ground surface settlement, during the\\u000a slurry trenching and concreting of diaphragm wall panels. Numerical

  12. Response surface modeling and optimization of composite nanofiltration modified membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Khayet; M. N. Abu Seman; N. Hilal

    2010-01-01

    The experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM) have been used to develop predictive models for simulation and optimization of nanofiltration modified membranes by UV-initiated graft polymerization technique. The objective is to prepare optimum membrane with high nanofiltration performance and low fouling. The factors considered for experimental design were the UV-irradiation time, UV-intensity and the concentration of the monomer N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone

  13. Leadership and the Professional Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaspar, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the transformation of one small, rural school district's professional development program. The study focused on the actions that school leaders took to replace a traditional, workshop-based program that was deemed ineffective with a new professional development model. The new model was designed to create…

  14. Modeling Innate Immune Response to Early Mycobacterium Infection

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Rafael V.; Kleijn, Jetty; Meijer, Annemarie H.

    2012-01-01

    In the study of complex patterns in biology, mathematical and computational models are emerging as important tools. In addition to experimental approaches, these modeling tools have recently been applied to address open questions regarding host-pathogen interaction dynamics, including the immune response to mycobacterial infection and tuberculous granuloma formation. We present an approach in which a computational model represents the interaction of the Mycobacterium infection with the innate immune system in zebrafish at a high level of abstraction. We use the Petri Net formalism to model the interaction between the key host elements involved in granuloma formation and infection dissemination. We define a qualitative model for the understanding and description of causal relations in this dynamic process. Complex processes involving cell-cell or cell-bacteria communication can be modeled at smaller scales and incorporated hierarchically into this main model; these are to be included in later elaborations. With the infection mechanism being defined on a higher level, lower-level processes influencing the host-pathogen interaction can be identified, modeled, and tested both quantitatively and qualitatively. This systems biology framework incorporates modeling to generate and test hypotheses, to perform virtual experiments, and to make experimentally verifiable predictions. Thereby it supports the unraveling of the mechanisms of tuberculosis infection. PMID:23365620

  15. Using the Nominal Response Model to Evaluate Response Category Discrimination in the PROMIS Emotional Distress Item Pools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Kathleen; Reise, Steven; Cai, Li; Hays, Ron D.

    2011-01-01

    The authors used a nominal response item response theory model to estimate category boundary discrimination (CBD) parameters for items drawn from the Emotional Distress item pools (Depression, Anxiety, and Anger) developed in the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information Systems (PROMIS) project. For polytomous items with ordered response

  16. Nano-Micromechanics: Modeling the Effective Response of Polymer Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snipes, Jennifer Susan

    Nanocomposite materials hold the power to revitalize and revolutionize the field of composite materials. Nanocomposites can exhibit strikingly different material properties than their macroscale counterparts; often at significantly lower volume fractions. A key mechanism contributing to these novel effects is the scale of the included phase itself. From a composites perspective the small interfacial zone, which surrounds the included phase in all composites, becomes a significant third phase with respect to nanoscale particles. Also, the large number density of particles, present at small volume fractions results in a close packed, in absolute terms, composite microstructure, with the potential to produce interface-particle composites, or fully percolated, connected particle microstructures. There exists a strong body of work in the literature modeling the effects of interfacial regions on the effective properties of polymer nanocomposites. In particular, the usefulness and validity of using continuum scale micromechanics models to describe the properties of nanocomposites has been demonstrated. Less has been done to examine the effect of scale with respect to the large number density, and close packing of the particles. The scale of particle separation may serve to confine or eliminate matrix material between particles, producing a pseudo-percolated, or connected microstructure, which has the potential to enhance mechanical stiffness as well as electrical conductivity. In this work the usefulness of the unit cell model known as the Generalized Method of Cells (GMC) to model these scale effects is demonstrated. The model is then used to predict the effective composite viscoelastic response under static creep, for varying interfacial elastic stiffnesses. The model suggests that an elastically stiff interface greatly increases the stiffness of the polymer in response to an ' instantaneous ' step load, reduces the rapid creep response, and results in a rapid leveling off of the time-dependent strain curves. The response of the composite to increasing stiffness of the interface region eventually reaches a plateau or threshold value, where further increases in the stiffness of the interface produces negligible increases in stiffness, or further reduction in creep response.

  17. Computational fluid dynamics modeling for emergency preparedness and response

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.L.; Albritton, J.R.; Ermak, D.L.; Kim, J.

    1995-02-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has (CFD) has played an increasing in the improvement of atmospheric dispersion modeling. This is because many dispersion models are now driven by meteorological fields generated from CFD models or, in numerical weather prediction`s terminology, prognostic models. Whereas most dispersion models typically involve one or a few scalar, uncoupled equations, the prognostic equations are a set of highly-couple equations whose solution requires a significant level of computational power. Recent advances in computer hardware and software have enabled modestly-priced, high performance, workstations to exhibit the equivalent computation power of some mainframes. Thus desktop-class machines that were limited to performing dispersion calculations driven by diagnostic wind fields may now be used to calculate complex flows using prognostic CFD models. The Release and Advisory Capability (ARAC) program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has, for the past several years, taken advantage of the improvements in hardware technology to develop a national emergency response capability based on executing diagnostic models on workstations. Diagnostic models that provide wind fields are, in general, simple to implement, robust and require minimal time for execution. Because these models typically contain little physics beyond mass-conservation, their performance is extremely sensitive to the quantity and quality of input meteorological data and, in spite of their utility, can be applied with confidence to only modestly complex flows. We are now embarking on a development program to incorporate prognostic models to generate, in real-time, the meteorological fields for the dispersion models. In contrast to diagnostic models, prognostic models are physically-based and are capable of incorporating many physical processes to treat highly complex flow scenarios.

  18. Estimating Derived Response Levels at the Savannah River Site for Use with Emergency Response Models

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, A.A.

    2002-12-06

    Emergency response computer models at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are coupled with real-time meteorological data to estimate dose to individuals downwind of accidental radioactive releases. Currently, these models estimate doses for inhalation and shine pathways, but do not consider dose due to ingestion of contaminated food products. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has developed derived intervention levels (DIL) which refer to the radionuclide-specific concentration in food present throughout the relevant period of time, with no intervention, that could lead to an individual receiving a radiation dose equal to the protective action guide. In the event of an emergency, concentrations in various food types are compared with these levels to make interdictions decisions. Prior to monitoring results being available, concentrations in the environmental media (i.e. soil), called derived response levels (DRLs), can be estimated from the DILs and directly compared with computer output to provide preliminary guidance as to whether intervention is necessary. Site-specific derived response levels (DRLs) are developed for ingestion pathways pertinent to SRS: milk, meat, fish, grain, produce, and beverage. This provides decision-makers with an additional tool for use immediately following an accident prior to the acquisition of food monitoring data.

  19. Continuous Professional Development along the Continuum of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Of 300 surveyed, responses from 94 nurses, 38 occupational therapists, and 50 physical therapists indicated that professional knowledge was a prime motivation for continuing professional development, followed by updating qualifications, increasing the status of the profession, and demonstrating professional competence. No differences were observed…

  20. Optimal hemodynamic response model for functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kamran, Muhammad A.; Jeong, Myung Yung; Mannan, Malik M. N.

    2015-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging non-invasive brain imaging technique and measures brain activities by means of near-infrared light of 650–950 nm wavelengths. The cortical hemodynamic response (HR) differs in attributes at different brain regions and on repetition of trials, even if the experimental paradigm is kept exactly the same. Therefore, an HR model that can estimate such variations in the response is the objective of this research. The canonical hemodynamic response function (cHRF) is modeled by two Gamma functions with six unknown parameters (four of them to model the shape and other two to scale and baseline respectively). The HRF model is supposed to be a linear combination of HRF, baseline, and physiological noises (amplitudes and frequencies of physiological noises are supposed to be unknown). An objective function is developed as a square of the residuals with constraints on 12 free parameters. The formulated problem is solved by using an iterative optimization algorithm to estimate the unknown parameters in the model. Inter-subject variations in HRF and physiological noises have been estimated for better cortical functional maps. The accuracy of the algorithm has been verified using 10 real and 15 simulated data sets. Ten healthy subjects participated in the experiment and their HRF for finger-tapping tasks have been estimated and analyzed. The statistical significance of the estimated activity strength parameters has been verified by employing statistical analysis (i.e., t-value > tcritical and p-value < 0.05). PMID:26136668

  1. Vibratory responses of synthetic, self-oscillating vocal fold models

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Preston R.; Thomson, Scott L.

    2012-01-01

    The flow-induced responses of four self-oscillating synthetic vocal fold models are compared. All models were life-sized and fabricated using flexible silicone compounds with material properties comparable to those of human vocal fold tissue. Three of the models had two layers of different stiffness to represent the body–cover grouping of vocal fold tissue. Two of the two-layer models were based on the “M5” geometry [Scherer et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, 1616–1630 (2001)], while the third was based on magnetic resonance imaging data. The fourth model included several layers, including a thin epithelial layer, an exceedingly flexible superficial lamina propria layer, a ligament layer that included an anteriorly–posteriorly oriented fiber to restrict vertical motion, and a body layer. Measurements were performed with these models in full larynx and hemilarynx configurations. Data included onset pressure, vibration frequency, glottal flow rate, maximum glottal width, and medial surface motion, the latter two of which were acquired using high-speed imaging techniques. The fourth, multi-layer model exhibited onset pressure, frequency, and medial surface motion traits that are comparable to published human vocal fold data. Importantly, the model featured an alternating convergent–divergent glottal profile and mucosal wave-like motion, characteristics which are important markers of human vocal fold vibration. PMID:23145623

  2. A report on the CCNA 2007 professional practice analysis.

    PubMed

    Muckle, Timothy J; Apatov, Nathaniel M; Plaus, Karen

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this column is to present the results of the 2007 Professional Practice Analysis (PPA) of the field of nurse anesthesia, conducted by the Council on Certification of Nurse Anesthetists. The PPA used survey and rating scale methodologies to collect data regarding the relative emphasis of various aspects of the nurse anesthesia knowledge domain and competencies. A total of 3,805 survey responses were analyzed using the Rasch rating scale model, which aggregates and transforms ordinal (rating scale) responses into linear measures of relative importance and frequency. Summaries of respondent demographics and educational and professional background are provided, as well as descriptions of how the survey results are used to develop test specifications. The results of this analysis provide evidence for the content outline and test specifications (content percentages) and thus serve as a basis of content validation for the National Certification Examination. PMID:19645167

  3. ER Stress Response in Human Cellular Models of Senescence.

    PubMed

    Matos, Liliana; Gouveia, Alexandra Monteiro; Almeida, Henrique

    2015-08-01

    The aging process is characterized by progressive accumulation of damaged biomolecules in the endoplasmic reticulum, as result of increased oxidative stress accompanying cellular senescence. In agreement, we hypothesized that WI-38 human cellular models of replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-SIPS) or copper sulfate (CuSO4-SIPS) would present endoplasmic reticulum chaperoning mechanisms impairment and unfolded protein response activation. Results show that in replicative senescence and CuSO4-SIPS, immunoglobulin binding protein, calnexin, protein disulfide isomerase, and ER oxireductin-1 levels adjust to restore proteostasis and inositol-requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1)-, activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6)-, and pancreatic ER kinase (PERK)-mediated unfolded protein response are activated. However, H2O2-SIPS does not exhibit IRE1 and ATF6 pathways activation but a PERK-mediated upregulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein, showing that CuSO4-SIPS mimics better the endoplasmic reticulum molecular events of replicative senescence than H2O2-SIPS. Moreover, unfolded protein response activation is required for both SIPS models induction, because PERK and IRE1 inhibitors decreased senescence-associated beta-galactosidase appearance. In CuSO4-SIPS, the decrease in senescence levels is associated with PERK-driven, but IRE1 independent, cell cycle arrest while in H2O2-SIPS cell proliferation is PERK independent. These results add a step further on the molecular mechanisms that regulate senescence induction; moreover, they validate CuSO4-SIPS model as a useful tool to study cellular stress responses during aging, hoping to postpone age-related health decline. PMID:25149687

  4. Flexibly Adaptive Professional Development in Support of Teaching Science with Geospatial Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy M. Trautmann; James G. Makinster

    2010-01-01

    The flexibly adaptive model of professional development, developed in the GIT Ahead project, enables secondary science teachers to incorporate a variety of geospatial technology applications into wide-ranging classroom contexts. Teacher impacts were evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. Post-questionnaire responses showed significant growth in teachers' perceived technological expertise, interest, and ability to integrate geospatial technology into their science teaching. Application of the

  5. Difficulty, Discrimination, and Information Indices in the Linear Factor Analysis Model for Continuous Item Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.

    2009-01-01

    Spearman's factor-analytic model has been proposed as a unidimensional linear item response theory (IRT) model for continuous item responses. This article first proposes a reexpression of the model that leads to a form similar to that of standard IRT models for binary responses and discusses the item indices of difficulty discrimination and…

  6. Karst spring responses examined by process-based modeling.

    PubMed

    Birk, Steffen; Liedl, Rudolf; Sauter, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Ground water in karst terrains is highly vulnerable to contamination due to the rapid transport of contaminants through the highly conductive conduit system. For contamination risk assessment purposes, information about hydraulic and geometric characteristics of the conduits and their hydraulic interaction with the fissured porous rock is an important prerequisite. The relationship between aquifer characteristics and short-term responses to recharge events of both spring discharge and physicochemical parameters of the discharged water was examined using a process-based flow and transport model. In the respective software, a pipe-network model, representing fast conduit flow, is coupled to MODFLOW, which simulates flow in the fissured porous rock. This hybrid flow model was extended to include modules simulating heat and reactive solute transport in conduits. The application of this modeling tool demonstrates that variations of physicochemical parameters, such as solute concentration and water temperature, depend to a large extent on the intensity and duration of recharge events and provide information about the structure and geometry of the conduit system as well as about the interaction between conduits and fissured porous rock. Moreover, the responses of solute concentration and temperature of spring discharge appear to reflect different processes, thus complementing each other in the aquifer characterization. PMID:17087755

  7. Bioimpedance modeling to monitor astrocytic response to chronically implanted electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, G. C.; Butera, R. J.; Bellamkonda, R. V.

    2009-10-01

    The widespread adoption of neural prosthetic devices is currently hindered by our inability to reliably record neural signals from chronically implanted electrodes. The extent to which the local tissue response to implanted electrodes influences recording failure is not well understood. To investigate this phenomenon, impedance spectroscopy has shown promise for use as a non-invasive tool to estimate the local tissue response to microelectrodes. Here, we model impedance spectra from chronically implanted rats using the well-established Cole model, and perform a correlation analysis of modeled parameters with histological markers of astroglial scar, including glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) and 4',6-diamidino-2- phenylindole (DAPI). Correlations between modeled parameters and GFAP were significant for three parameters studied: Py value, Ro and |Z|1 kHz, and in all cases were confined to the first 100 µm from the interface. Py value was the only parameter also correlated with DAPI in the first 100 µm. Our experimental results, along with computer simulations, suggest that astrocytes are a predominant cellular player affecting electrical impedance spectra. The results also suggest that the largest contribution from reactive astrocytes on impedance spectra occurs in the first 100 µm from the interface, where electrodes are most likely to record electrical signals. These results form the basis for future approaches where impedance spectroscopy can be used to evaluate neural implants, evaluate strategies to minimize scar and potentially develop closed-loop prosthetic devices.

  8. Computational fluid dynamics modeling for emergency preparedness & response

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.L.; Albritton, J.R.; Ermak, D.L.; Kim, J.

    1995-07-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has played an increasing role in the improvement of atmospheric dispersion modeling. This is because many dispersion models are now driven by meteorological fields generated from CFD models or, in numerical weather prediction`s terminology, prognostic models. Whereas most dispersion models typically involve one or a few scalar, uncoupled equations, the prognostic equations are a set of highly-coupled, nonlinear equations whose solution requires a significant level of computational power. Until recently, such computer power could be found only in CRAY-class supercomputers. Recent advances in computer hardware and software have enabled modestly-priced, high performance, workstations to exhibit the equivalent computation power of some mainframes. Thus desktop-class machines that were limited to performing dispersion calculations driven by diagnostic wind fields may now be used to calculate complex flows using prognostic CFD models. The Atmospheric Release and Advisory Capability (ARAC) program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has, for the past several years, taken advantage of the improvements in hardware technology to develop a national emergency response capability based on executing diagnostic models on workstations. Diagnostic models that provide wind fields are, in general, simple to implement, robust and require minimal time for execution. Such models have been the cornerstones of the ARAC operational system for the past ten years. Kamada (1992) provides a review of diagnostic models and their applications to dispersion problems. However, because these models typically contain little physics beyond mass-conservation, their performance is extremely sensitive to the quantity and quality of input meteorological data and, in spite of their utility, can be applied with confidence to only modestly complex flows.

  9. Modeling In Vitro Cellular Responses to Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Dwaipayan; Royce, Steven G.; Sarkar, Srijata; Thorley, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Chung, Kian Fan; Tetley, Teresa D.; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2014-01-01

    Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely demonstrated to induce toxic effects to various cell types. In vitro cell exposure systems have high potential for reliable, high throughput screening of nanoparticle toxicity, allowing focusing on particular pathways while excluding unwanted effects due to other cells or tissue dosimetry. The work presented here involves a detailed biologically based computational model of cellular interactions with NPs; it utilizes measurements performed in human cell culture systems in vitro, to develop a mechanistic mathematical model that can support analysis and prediction of in vivo effects of NPs. The model considers basic cellular mechanisms including proliferation, apoptosis, and production of cytokines in response to NPs. This new model is implemented for macrophages and parameterized using in vitro measurements of changes in cellular viability and mRNA levels of cytokines: TNF, IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10. The model includes in vitro cellular dosimetry due to nanoparticle transport and transformation. Furthermore, the model developed here optimizes the essential cellular parameters based on in vitro measurements, and provides a “stepping stone” for the development of more advanced in vivo models that will incorporate additional cellular and NP interactions. PMID:25541583

  10. Modelling ionization chamber response to nonstandard beam configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantot, L.; Seuntjens, J.

    2008-02-01

    Novel technologies aiming at improving target dose coverage while minimising dose to organs at risk use delivery of radiation fields that significantly deviate from reference conditions defined in protocols such as TG-51 and TRS-398. The use of ionization chambers for patient-specific quality assurance of these new delivery procedures calibrated in reference conditions increases the uncertainties on dose delivery. The conversion of the dose to the chamber cavity to the dose to water becomes uncertain; and the geometrical details of the chamber, as well as the details of the delivery, are expected to be significant. In this study, a realistic model of the Exradin® A12 Farmer chamber is simulated. A framework is applied for the calculation of ionization chamber response to arbitrarily modulated fields as a summation of responses to pencil beams. This approach is used with the chamber model and tested against measurements in static open fields and dynamic MLC IMRT fields. As a benchmark test of the model, quality conversion factors values calculated by Monte-Carlo simulation with the chamber model are in agreement within 0.1 % and 0.4 % with those in the AAPM TG-51, for 6 MV and 18 MV photon beams, respectively. Pencil-beam kernels show a strong dependence on the geometrical details of the chamber. Kernel summations with open fields show a relative agreement within 4.0 % with experimental data; the agreement is within 2.0 % for dynamic MLC IMRT beams. Simulations show a strong sensitivity of chamber response on positioning uncertainties, sometimes leading to dose uncertainties of 15 %.

  11. Academic I.D. in jeopardy: the erosion of time, professional values, and physician satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Richard P; Edmond, Michael B

    2015-04-01

    The American public entrusts academic medicine with a varied portfolio of critical responsibilities: the thoughtful mentoring of future generations of doctors, the engagement of cutting edge discoveries, and the empathic treatment of patients with complicated illnesses. The erosion of time to perform these duties has led to an estrangement of our key professional values and thus a loss of public trust, the inability to recognize new diseases, reduced communication in our ranks, and physician dissatisfaction. Much of this is driven by an unbalanced focus on the business model of medicine, highlighting rapid patient transactions linked to professional income with financial incentives for high-volume care. Reversing the current trends requires a new type of leadership committed to long-held professional values and a recognition of what drives professional excellence. As internists and infectious diseases specialists without procedures in our practice, we are especially vulnerable to these trends. PMID:25690849

  12. Transforming Professional Development to Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Chelsea

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews teacher professional development norms as they are shifting toward collaborative practice. It is posed that passive and individual practices are inadequate to prepare teachers to integrate the academic skills that learners need for both workforce and college readiness. Promising practices in professional development are…

  13. PROFESSIONALISM IN MEDICINE PROFESSIONALISM IN MEDICINE

    E-print Network

    PROFESSIONALISM IN MEDICINE Part I PROFESSIONALISM IN MEDICINE Part I LSU HEALTH SCIENCES CENTER DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE Dayton W. Daberkow II, M.D. Associate Professor of Clinical Medicine Section of Comprehensive Medicine #12;ACGME General CompetenciesACGME General Competencies 1. Patient Care - compassionate

  14. Evaluation Competencies of Professional and Non-Professional Teachers in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ololube, Nwachukwu Prince

    2008-01-01

    Teachers' job responsibility has changed significantly in recent years, and now, more than ever, there are pressing needs for high quality teachers to meet the goals of education for sustainable development, especially in developing countries. This timely study examined the relationship between professional and non-professional teachers'…

  15. Personal Professional Trajectories of Novice and Experienced Teacher Educators in a Professional Development Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, David L.; Hadar, Linor L.

    2015-01-01

    Experience in the workforce influences teacher educators' responses to professional development efforts for adapting new practices. This study examines trajectories of novices and experienced teacher educators in a three-year longitudinal professional development community focused on infusing thinking into college teaching. A four-stage trajectory…

  16. Fast response modeling of a two building urban street canyon

    SciTech Connect

    Pardyjak, E. R. (Eric R.); Brown, M. J. (Michael J.)

    2002-01-01

    QWIC-URB is a fast response model designed to generate high resolution, 3-dimensional wind fields around buildings. The wind fields are produced using a mass consistent diagnostic wind model based on the work of Roeckle (1990, 1998) and Kaplan & Dinar (1996). QWIC-URB has been used for producing wind fields around single buildings with various incident wind angles (Pardyjak and Brown 2001). Recently, the model has been expanded to consider two-building, 3D canyon flow. That is, two rectangular parallelepipeds of height H, crosswind width W, and length L separated by a distance S. The purpose of this work is to continue to evaluate the Roeckle (1990) model and develop improvements. In this paper, the model is compared to the twin high-rise building data set of Ohba et al. (1993, hereafter OSL93). Although the model qualitatively predicts the flow field fairly well for simple canyon flow, it over predicts the strength of vortex circulation and fails to reproduce the upstream rotor.

  17. Mathematical modelling of tumour response in primary breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, D. A.; Gregory, W. M.; Bowman, A.; Leonard, R. C.

    1996-01-01

    Although breast cancer is perceived to be relatively chemosensitive, cytotoxic drug therapy only leads to cure in the adjuvant setting. In advanced disease, primary resistance and inadequate cell kill may be important in determining the lack of a durable response to cytotoxics, but for an individual patient's tumour there is no consistent way of determining the importance of these two factors. An adaptation of Skipper's log cell kill model of tumour response to chemotherapy was applied to serial tumour measurements of 46 locally advanced primary breast carcinomas undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Assuming a log-normal distribution of errors in the clinically measured volumes, the model produced, for each tumour separately, in vivo estimates of proportional cell kill, initial resistance and tumour doubling times during therapy. After 4 weeks' treatment, these data could then be used to predict subsequent tumour volumes with good accuracy. In addition, for the 13 tumours that became operable after the neoadjuvant chemotherapy, there was a significant association between the final volume as predicted by the model and the final pathological volume (P < 0.05). This approach could be usefully employed to determine those tumours that are primarily resistant to the treatment regimen, permitting changes of therapy to more effective drugs at a time when the tumour is clinically responding but destined to progress. PMID:8645588

  18. Modeling Polytomous Item Responses Using Simultaneously Estimated Multinomial Logistic Regression Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Carolyn J.; Verkuilen, Jay; Peyton, Buddy L.

    2010-01-01

    Survey items with multiple response categories and multiple-choice test questions are ubiquitous in psychological and educational research. We illustrate the use of log-multiplicative association (LMA) models that are extensions of the well-known multinomial logistic regression model for multiple dependent outcome variables to reanalyze a set of…

  19. Annular mode-like responses to external forcings in a simple atmospheric general circulation model

    E-print Network

    Ring, Michael J., 1979-

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, I investigate the response of a simple atmospheric general circulation model to applied forcings to learn whether the annular mode patterns are a preferred model response to the forcings. The thesis is ...

  20. Discrete Preisach Model for the Superelastic Response of Shape Memory Alloys 

    E-print Network

    Doraiswamy, Srikrishna

    2012-02-14

    The aim of this work is to present a model for the superelastic response of Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) by developing a Preisach Model with thermodynamics basis. The special features of SMA superelastic response is useful ...

  1. Cancer Genetics Professionals

    Cancer.gov

    The information below is from the NCI Cancer Genetics Services Directory.  This directory lists professionals who provide services related to cancer genetics (cancer risk assessment, genetic counseling, genetic susceptibility testing, and others). Professionals

  2. Mathematical Modeling of Allelopathy. III. A Model for Curve-Fitting Allelochemical Dose Responses

    PubMed Central

    Liu, De Li; An, Min; Johnson, Ian R.; Lovett, John V.

    2003-01-01

    Bioassay techniques are often used to study the effects of allelochemicals on plant processes, and it is generally observed that the processes are stimulated at low allelochemical concentrations and inhibited as the concentrations increase. A simple empirical model is presented to analyze this type of response. The stimulation-inhibition properties of allelochemical-dose responses can be described by the parameters in the model. The indices, p% reductions, are calculated to assess the allelochemical effects. The model is compared with experimental data for the response of lettuce seedling growth to Centaurepensin, the olfactory response of weevil larvae to ?-terpineol, and the responses of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra L., cv. Ensylva), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L., cv. Kenblue), perennial ryegrass (L. perenne L., cv. Manhattan), and Rebel tall fescue (F. arundinacea Schreb) seedling growth to leachates of Rebel and Kentucky 31 tall fescue. The results show that the model gives a good description to observations and can be used to fit a wide range of dose responses. Assessments of the effects of leachates of Rebel and Kentucky 31 tall fescue clearly differentiate the properties of the allelopathic sources and the relative sensitivities of indicators such as the length of root and leaf. PMID:19330111

  3. Parallel finite element modeling of earthquake ground response and liquefaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinchi Lu; Jun Peng; Ahmed Elgamal; Zhaohui Yang; Kincho H. Law

    2004-01-01

    Parallel computing is a promising approach to alleviate the computational demand in conducting large-scale finite element\\u000a analyses. This paper presents a numerical modeling approach for earthquake ground response and liquefaction using the parallel\\u000a nonlinear finite element program, ParCYCLIC, designed for distributed-memory message-passing parallel computer systems. In\\u000a ParCYCLIC, finite elements are employed within an incremental plasticity, coupled solid-fluid formulation. A constitutive

  4. A model for the nonlinear mechanism responsible for cochlear amplification.

    PubMed

    Fessel, Kimberly; Holmes, Mark H

    2014-12-01

    A nonlinear model for the mechanism responsible for the amplification of the sound wave in the ear is derived using the geometric and material properties of the system. The result is a nonlinear beam equation, with the nonlinearity appearing in a coefficient of the equation. Once derived, the beam problem is analyzed for various loading conditions. Based on this analysis it is seen that the mechanism is capable of producing a spatially localized gain, as required by any amplification mechanism, but it is also capable of increasing the spatial contrast in the signal. PMID:25365605

  5. Lessons learnt from comprehensive evaluation of community-based education in Uganda: a proposal for an ideal model community-based education for health professional training institutions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Community-based education (CBE) can provide contextual learning that addresses manpower scarcity by enabling trainees acquire requisite experiences, competence, confidence and values. In Uganda, many health professional training institutions conduct some form of community-based education (CBE). However, there is scanty information on the nature of the training: whether a curriculum exists (objectives, intended outcomes, content, implementation strategy), administration and constraints faced. The objective was to make a comprehensive assessment of CBE as implemented by Ugandan health professional training institutions to document the nature of CBE conducted and propose an ideal model with minimum requirements for health professional training institutions in Uganda. Methods We employed several methods: documentary review of curricula of 22 institutions, so as to assess the nature, purpose, outcomes, and methods of instruction and assessment; site visits to these institutions and their CBE sites, to assess the learning environment (infrastructure and resources); in-depth interviews with key people involved in running CBE at the institutions and community, to evaluate CBE implementation, challenges experienced and perceived solutions. Results CBE was perceived differently ranging from a subject, a course, a program or a project. Despite having similar curricula, institutions differ in the administration, implementation and assessment of CBE. Objectives of CBE, the curricula content and implementation strategies differ in similar institutions. On collaborative and social learning, most trainees do not reside in the community, though they work on group projects and write group reports. Lectures and skills demonstrations were the main instruction methods. Assessment involved mainly continuous assessment, oral or written reports and summative examination. Conclusion This assessment identified deficiencies in the design and implementation of CBE at several health professional training institutions, with major flaws identified in curriculum content, supervision of trainees, inappropriate assessment, trainee welfare, and underutilization of opportunities for contextual and collaborative learning. Since CBE showed potential to benefit the trainees, community and institutions, we propose a model that delivers a minimum package of CBE and overcomes the wide variation in the concept, conduct and implementation of CBE. PMID:21362181

  6. PBS Professional and Windows

    E-print Network

    Altair® PBS Professional 9.1 TM UNIX® , LINUX® and Windows® Administrator's Guide #12;PBS ProfessionalTM Administrator's Guide Altair® PBS ProfessionalTM 9.1, Updated: October 24, 2007 Edited by: Anne Urban Copyright © 2004-2007 Altair Engineering, Inc. All rights reserved. Trademark Acknowledgements

  7. Stress, and pathogen response gene expression in modeled microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaresan, Alamelu; Pellis, Neal R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Immune suppression in microgravity has been well documented. With the advent of human exploration and long-term space travel, the immune system of the astronaut must be optimally maintained. It is important to investigate the expression patterns of cytokine genes, because they are directly related to immune response. Heat shock proteins (HSPs), also called stress proteins, are a group of proteins that are present in the cells of every life form. These proteins are induced when a cell responds to stressors such as heat, cold and oxygen deprivation. Microgravity is another stressor that may regulate HSPs. Heat shock proteins trigger immune response through activities that occur both inside the cell (intracellular) and outside the cell (extracellular). Knowledge about these two gene groups could lead to establishment of a blueprint of the immune response and adaptation-related genes in the microgravity environment. Methods: Human peripheral blood cells were cultured in 1g (T flask) and modeled microgravity (MMG, rotating-wall vessel) for 24 and 72 hours. Cell samples were collected and subjected to gene array analysis using the Affymetrix HG_U95 array. Data was collected and subjected to a two-way analysis of variance. The genes related to immune and stress responses were analyzed. Results and Conclusions: HSP70 was up-regulated by more than two fold in microgravity culture, while HSP90 was significantly down-regulated. HSP70 is not typically expressed in all kinds of cells, but it is expressed at high levels in stress conditions. HSP70 participates in translation, protein translocation, proteolysis and protein folding, suppressing aggregation and reactivating denatured proteins. Increased serum HSP70 levels correlate with a better outcome for heat-stroke or severe trauma patients. At the same time, elevated serum levels of HSP70 have been detected in patients with peripheral or renal vascular disease. HSP90 has been identified in the cytosol, nucleus and endoplasmic reticulum, and exists in many tissue types. HSP90 associates with actin filaments in certain conditions and aids cell motility. The down-regulation of HSP90 could lead to deleterious effects in the lymphocytes, thereby contributing to suppressed immune function in microgravity. Interleukins such as IL 1 alpha, IL11 receptor chain alpha, IL7R, and IL4R were significantly down regulated in modeled microgravity. Further analysis of the genes involved in immune response at the protein level may provide a basis for prophylactic and countermeasure strategies to augment the human immune system for space exploration.

  8. A hybrid model for improving response time in distributed data mining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shonali Krishnaswamy; Seng W. Loke; Arkady Zaslasvky

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid distributed data mining (DDM) model for optimization of response time. The model combines a mobile agent approach with client server strategies to reduce the overall response time. The hybrid model proposes and develops accurate a priori estimates of the computation and communication components of response time as the costing strategy to support optimization. Experimental evaluation

  9. A Multidimensional Ideal Point Item Response Theory Model for Binary Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maydeu-Olivares, Albert; Hernandez, Adolfo; McDonald, Roderick P.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a multidimensional item response theory (IRT) model for binary data based on a proximity response mechanism. Under the model, a respondent at the mode of the item response function (IRF) endorses the item with probability one. The mode of the IRF is the ideal point, or in the multidimensional case, an ideal hyperplane. The model

  10. A Linear Variable-[theta] Model for Measuring Individual Differences in Response Precision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.

    2011-01-01

    Models for measuring individual response precision have been proposed for binary and graded responses. However, more continuous formats are quite common in personality measurement and are usually analyzed with the linear factor analysis model. This study extends the general Gaussian person-fluctuation model to the continuous-response case and…

  11. Some Statistics for Assessing Person-Fit Based on Continuous-Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere Joan

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes several statistics for assessing individual fit based on two unidimensional models for continuous responses: linear factor analysis and Samejima's continuous response model. Both models are approached using a common framework based on underlying response variables and are formulated at the individual level as fixed regression…

  12. Desk-top model buildings for dynamic earthquake response demonstrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, A. Gerald

    1992-01-01

    Models of buildings that illustrate dynamic resonance behavior when excited by hand are designed and built. Two types of buildings are considered, one with columns stronger than floors, the other with columns weaker than floors. Combinations and variations of these two types are possible. Floor masses and column stiffnesses are chosen in order that the frequency of the second mode is approximately five cycles per second, so that first and second modes can be excited manually. The models are expected to be resonated by hand by schoolchildren or persons unfamiliar with the dynamic resonant response of tall buildings, to gain an understanding of structural behavior during earthquakes. Among other things, this experience will develop a level of confidence in the builder and experimenter should they be in a high-rise building during an earthquake, sensing both these resonances and other violent shaking.

  13. Professional Development. Symposium 26. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This document contains three papers on professional development. "An Inquiry into the Continuing Professional Education of Information Technology Workers" (David D. Branigan) reports on a study in which the model of the critically reflective teacher was used to examine the practice of continuing education for the information technology profession.…

  14. The Taxonomy of Professionalism: Reframing the Academic Pursuit of Professional Development

    PubMed Central

    Ferrill, Mary J.

    2009-01-01

    Student professionalism continues to be an elusive goal within colleges and schools of pharmacy. Several reports have described the nature of professionalism and enumerated the characteristic traits of a professional, but educational strategies for inculcating pharmacy students with attitudes of professionalism have not been reliably effective. Some authors have suggested the need for a standard definition. If the goal can be more clearly conceptualized by both faculty members and students, and the moral construct of the fiduciary relationship between pharmacist and patient better understood, the development of professional values and behaviors should be easier to achieve. This paper describes a new approach to defining professionalism that is patterned after Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. It includes the general concept of patient care advocacy as an underlying paradigm for a new pharmacy practice model, and defines 5 behavioral elements within each of the 3 domains of professionalism: competence, connection, and character. PMID:19657501

  15. Enriching the Professional Learning of Early Years Teachers in Disadvantaged Contexts: The Impact of Quality Resources and Quality Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Jodie

    2013-01-01

    Studies indicate that very few teachers entering disadvantaged contexts feel prepared academically or professionally to teach effectively. This study focuses on the impact of a model for professional learning, the RoleM Professional Learning model (RPL), situated in a disadvantaged context over a three-year period. The participating teachers (n =…

  16. Dynamic Response of Model Lipid Membranes to Ultrasonic Radiation Force

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Martin Loynaz; Oralkan, Ömer; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.; Maduke, Merritt C.

    2013-01-01

    Low-intensity ultrasound can modulate action potential firing in neurons in vitro and in vivo. It has been suggested that this effect is mediated by mechanical interactions of ultrasound with neural cell membranes. We investigated whether these proposed interactions could be reproduced for further study in a synthetic lipid bilayer system. We measured the response of protein-free model membranes to low-intensity ultrasound using electrophysiology and laser Doppler vibrometry. We find that ultrasonic radiation force causes oscillation and displacement of lipid membranes, resulting in small (<1%) changes in membrane area and capacitance. Under voltage-clamp, the changes in capacitance manifest as capacitive currents with an exponentially decaying sinusoidal time course. The membrane oscillation can be modeled as a fluid dynamic response to a step change in pressure caused by ultrasonic radiation force, which disrupts the balance of forces between bilayer tension and hydrostatic pressure. We also investigated the origin of the radiation force acting on the bilayer. Part of the radiation force results from the reflection of the ultrasound from the solution/air interface above the bilayer (an effect that is specific to our experimental configuration) but part appears to reflect a direct interaction of ultrasound with the bilayer, related to either acoustic streaming or scattering of sound by the bilayer. Based on these results, we conclude that synthetic lipid bilayers can be used to study the effects of ultrasound on cell membranes and membrane proteins. PMID:24194863

  17. Dynamic response of model lipid membranes to ultrasonic radiation force.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Martin Loynaz; Ömer, Omer; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T; Maduke, Merritt C

    2013-01-01

    Low-intensity ultrasound can modulate action potential firing in neurons in vitro and in vivo. It has been suggested that this effect is mediated by mechanical interactions of ultrasound with neural cell membranes. We investigated whether these proposed interactions could be reproduced for further study in a synthetic lipid bilayer system. We measured the response of protein-free model membranes to low-intensity ultrasound using electrophysiology and laser Doppler vibrometry. We find that ultrasonic radiation force causes oscillation and displacement of lipid membranes, resulting in small (<1%) changes in membrane area and capacitance. Under voltage-clamp, the changes in capacitance manifest as capacitive currents with an exponentially decaying sinusoidal time course. The membrane oscillation can be modeled as a fluid dynamic response to a step change in pressure caused by ultrasonic radiation force, which disrupts the balance of forces between bilayer tension and hydrostatic pressure. We also investigated the origin of the radiation force acting on the bilayer. Part of the radiation force results from the reflection of the ultrasound from the solution/air interface above the bilayer (an effect that is specific to our experimental configuration) but part appears to reflect a direct interaction of ultrasound with the bilayer, related to either acoustic streaming or scattering of sound by the bilayer. Based on these results, we conclude that synthetic lipid bilayers can be used to study the effects of ultrasound on cell membranes and membrane proteins. PMID:24194863

  18. Development of a model to assess orthostatic responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Marilyn

    1993-01-01

    A major change for crewmembers during weightlessness in microgravity is the redistribution of body fluids from the legs into the abdomen, thorax, and head. The fluids continue to be sequestered in these areas throughout the flight. Upon reentry into gravity on landing, these same body fluids are displaced again to their normal locations, however, not without hazardous incidence to the crewmembers. The problem remains that upon landing, crewmembers are subject to orthostasis, that is, the blood flowing into the legs reduces the blood supply to the brain and may result in the crewmember fainting. The purpose of this study was to develop a model of testing orthostatic responses of blood pressure regulating mechanisms of the cardiovascular system, when challenged, to maintain blood pressure to the brain. To accomplish this, subjects' responses were assessed as they proceeded from the supine position of progressive head-up tilt positions of 30 deg, 60 deg, and 90 deg angles. A convenience sample consisted of 21 subjects, females (N=11) and males (N=10), selected from a list of potential subjects available through the NASA subject screening office. The methodology included all non-invasive measurements of blood pressure, heart rate, echocardiograms, cardiac output, cardiac stroke volume, fluid shifts in the thorax, ventricular ejection and velocity times, and skin blood perfusion. The Fischer statistical analysis was done of all data with the significance level at .05. Significant differences were demonstrated in many instances of changes of posture for all variables. Based on the significance of the findings of this study, this model for assessing orthostatic responses does provide an adequate challenge to the blood pressure regulatory systems. While individuals may use different adaptations to incremental changes in gravity, the subjects, in aggregate, demonstrated significant adaptive cardiovascular changes to orthostatic challenges which were presented to them.

  19. Teaching and Assessing Professionalism in Medical Learners and Practicing Physicians*

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Professionalism is a core competency of physicians. Clinical knowledge and skills (and their maintenance and improvement), good communication skills, and sound understanding of ethics constitute the foundation of professionalism. Rising from this foundation are behaviors and attributes of professionalism: accountability, altruism, excellence, and humanism, the capstone of which is professionalism. Patients, medical societies, and accrediting organizations expect physicians to be professional. Furthermore, professionalism is associated with better clinical outcomes. Hence, medical learners and practicing physicians should be taught and assessed for professionalism. A number of methods can be used to teach professionalism (e.g. didactic lectures, web-based modules, role modeling, reflection, interactive methods, etc.). Because of the nature of professionalism, no single tool for assessing it among medical learners and practicing physicians exists. Instead, multiple assessment tools must be used (e.g. multi-source feedback using 360-degree reviews, patient feedback, critical incident reports, etc.). Data should be gathered continuously throughout an individual’s career. For the individual learner or practicing physician, data generated by these tools can be used to create a “professionalism portfolio,” the totality of which represents a picture of the individual’s professionalism. This portfolio in turn can be used for formative and summative feedback. Data from professionalism assessments can also be used for developing professionalism curricula and generating research hypotheses. Health care leaders should support teaching and assessing professionalism at all levels of learning and practice and promote learning environments and institutional cultures that are consistent with professionalism precepts. PMID:25973263

  20. Mathematical modeling and computation of the optical response from nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuanchang

    This dissertation studies the computational modeling for nanostructures in response to external electromagnetic fields. Light-matter interactions on nanoscale are at the heart of nano-optics. To fully characterize the optical interactions with nanostructures quantum electrodynamics (QED) must be invoked, however, the required extremely intense computation and analysis prohibit QED from applications in nano-optics. To avoid the expensive computations and be able to seize the essential quantum effects a semiclassical model is developed. The wellposedness of the model partial differential equations is established. Emphasis is placed on the optical interactions with an individual nanostructure, excitons and biexcitons effects and finite-size effects are investigated. The crucial step of our model is to couple the electromagnetic fields with the motion of the excited particles to yield a new dielectric constant which contains quantum effects of interest. A novel feature of the dielectric constant is the wavevector-dependence which leads to a multi-wave propagation inside the medium. Additional boundary conditions are proposed to deal with this situation. We proceed with incorporating this dielectric constant to Maxwell's equations, and by solving a scattering problem the quantum effects can be captured in the scattered spectra.