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Sample records for prognoosimine hpoosmootse testi

  1. Cancer of the Testis

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 8,720 % of All New Cancer Cases 0.5% Estimated Deaths in 2016 380 % of All Cancer Deaths ... of This Cancer : In 2013, there were an estimated 240,372 men living with testis cancer in ...

  2. Electroporation of the Testis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yomogida, Kentaro

    The mature mammalian testis is a marvelous organ that produces numerous sperm cells during its reproductive phase. This biologically significant process consists of three steps: stem cell self-renewal and differentiation, meiosis and genetic recombination, and haploid cell morphogenesis into sperm (Russell et al., 1990). The first step provides a good model for investigating the molecular mechanism of stem cell regulation. Currently, the mechanism underlying sperm cell production is a very exciting topic in regenerative medicine (Lensch et al. 2007; Okita et al., 2007). The spermatogonial stem cell system has several advantages, including the easy histological identification of stem cells (Russell et al., 1990), a clear relationship between stem cells and the supporting Sertoli cells, which provide a stem cell niche (Tadokoro et al., 2002; Yomogida et al., 2003), and a transplantation assay for stem cell activity (Oatley & Brinster, 2006). Although germline stem (GS) cells derived from the gonocytes in newborn testis constitute a suitable in vitro system for investigating the properties of spermatogonial stem cells (Kanatsu-Shinohara et al., 2003, 2004), studies using living mammalian testes continue to provide information regarding the roles of the stem cell niche. In vivo electroporation of the supporting cells in the testis will expand our ability to study it.

  3. Timing in the Testis.

    PubMed

    Bittman, Eric L

    2016-02-01

    The testis provides not just one but several models of temporal organization. The complexity of its rhythmic function arises in part from its compartmentalization and diversity of cell types: not only does the testis produce gametes, but it also serves as the major source of circulating androgens. Within the seminiferous tubules, the germ cells divide and differentiate while in intimate contact with Sertoli cells. The tubule is highly periodic: a spermatogenic wave travels along its length to determine the timing of the commitment of spermatogonia to differentiate, the phases of meiotic division, and the rate of differentiation of the postmeiotic germ cells. Recent evidence indicates that oscillations of retinoic acid play a major role in determining periodicity of the seminiferous epithelium. In the interstitial space, Leydig cells produce the steroid hormones required both for the completion of spermatogenesis and the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics throughout the body. This endocrine output also oscillates; although the pulse generator lies outside the gonad, the steroidogenic function of Leydig cells is tuned to a regular episodic input. While the oscillations of the intratubular and interstitial cells have multihour (ultradian) and multiday (infradian) periodicities, respectively, the functions of both compartments also display dramatic seasonal rhythms. Furthermore, circadian rhythms are evident in some of the cell types, although their amplitude and pervasiveness are not as great as in many other tissues of the same organism, and their detection may require methods that recognize the heterogeneity of the testis. This review examines the periodicity of testicular function along multiple time scales. PMID:26656623

  4. 4- Pubertal and Adult Testis.

    PubMed

    Nistal, Manuel; Paniagua, Ricardo; Gonzalez-Peramato, Pilar; Reyes-Múgica, Miguel

    2014-07-30

    Abstract The testis is a complex organ that undergoes significant changes from puberty to adulthood. An accurate knowledge of its histology, ultrastructure and physiological-morphological maturation process is required in order to interpret the many variations within the normal and abnormal (pathological) conditions. Here we describe in detail the different testicular compartments, showing correlations with the process of spermatogenesis at the histological and ultrastructural level. PMID:25075958

  5. Rat spermatogenesis in mouse testis

    PubMed Central

    Clouthier, David E.; Avarbock, Mary R.; Maika, Shanna D.; Hammer, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, transplantation of mouse donor spermatogonial stem cells from a fertile testis to an infertile recipient mouse testis was described1,2. The donor cells established spermatogenesis in the seminiferous tubules of the host, and normal spermatozoa were produced. In the most successful transplants, the recipient mice were fertile and sired up to 80 per cent of progeny from donor cells2. Here we examine the feasibility of transplanting spermatogonial stem cells from other species to the mouse seminiferous tubule to generate spermatogenesis. Marked testis cells from transgenic rats were transplanted to the testes of immunodeficient mice, and in all of 10 recipient mice (in 19 of 20 testes), rat spermatogenesis occurred. Epididymides of eight mice were examined, and the three from mice with the longest transplants (≥110 days) contained rat spermatozoa with normal morphology. The generation of rat spermatogenesis in mouse testes suggests that spermatogonial stem cells of many species could be transplanted, and opens the possibility of xenogeneic spermatogenesis for other species. PMID:8632797

  6. A novel false-positive cause in testis scintigraphy in the diagnosis of testis torsion

    PubMed Central

    Koç, Zehra Pinar; Onur, Rahmi; Balci, Tansel Ansal

    2012-01-01

    Testis scintigraphy is the most reliable modality in the diagnosis of testis torsion since it directly reflects the vascularity of the testis. The ‘rim sign’ is considered as the pathognomonic sign of the missed torsion. However, there are some possible false-positive cases. In this case report, we would like to present an unexpected false-positive cause of the ‘rim sign’ in testis scintigraphy in an 18-year-old male patient. PMID:22987904

  7. Cancer testis antigen and immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Krishnadas, Deepa Kolaseri; Bai, Fanqi; Lucas, Kenneth G

    2013-01-01

    The identification of cancer testis (CT) antigens has been an important advance in determining potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. Multiple previous studies have shown that CT antigen vaccines, using both peptides and dendritic cell vaccines, can elicit clinical and immunologic responses in several different tumors. This review details the expression of melanoma antigen family A, 1 (MAGE-A1), melanoma antigen family A, 3 (MAGE-A3), and New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1 (NY-ESO-1) in various malignancies, and presents our current understanding of CT antigen based immunotherapy.

  8. [Endocrine tumors of the testis].

    PubMed

    Loy, V; Linke, J

    2003-07-01

    The most characteristic endocrine tumours of the testis are germ cell tumours and sex cord/gonadal stromal tumours. They include the primary carcinoid, the relation of which to teratomas is still unclear. In general, gonadal stromal tumours are rare, however, endocrine activity occurs in at least 10%-20%. Among gonadal stromal tumours, only Leydig cell tumours and Sertoli cell tumours are of practical importance. Endocrine disorders are mostly related to Leydig cell tumours (gynaecomastia, pubertas praecox). Although less frequent than the other gonadal stromal tumours, they can, in principle, occur. The large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumour occurs in association with other complex disorders (i.e. Peutz-Jeghers syndrome). Valuable markers are: inhibin, calretinin, cytokeratin, melan-A, CD-99, Ki-67, androgen receptor and p53. As the conventional morphology and immunohistological markers frequently overlap, unclear cases should be referred to specialised centres. PMID:14513279

  9. Development of the human fetal testis.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Peter J; Fowler, Paul A

    2014-05-01

    Masculinisation and adult fertility in the male are dependent on appropriate fetal endocrine programming. There is also now increasing evidence to indicate that the same mechanisms which regulate masculinisation also affect the general wellbeing of males throughout their life and, particularly, during ageing. Testosterone, secreted by the fetal testes, is the main factor regulating these processes and an understanding of fetal testis development in the human male is essential if we are to prevent adult reproductive disorders. This review focuses on what is known about human testis development and describes the effects of maternal smoking, a surrogate of possible xenotoxicant exposure on fetal testis and fetal liver function. PMID:24746112

  10. Comparative and functional analysis of testis-specific genes.

    PubMed

    Liu, FuJun; Jin, ShaoHua; Li, Ning; Liu, Xin; Wang, HaiYan; Li, JianYuan

    2011-01-01

    The testis is the special male gonad responsible for spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis with complex gene expressions. Characterizing and comparing the testis-specific genes in different species can reveal key genes related to testis specific functions and provide supplementary information for study of human testis function. We screened testis-specific genes from Unigene libraries, total 317, 449 and 147 testis-specific genes were identified for human, mouse and rat, respectively. Ten from thirteen selected human testis-specific genes were validated exclusively expressed in the testis by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Systematic bioinformatics analysis showed that specific genes were mainly related to spermatogenesis and testis development process with significant Glycolysis and Pyruvate metabolism. Enrichment functions were discussed. PMID:21212513

  11. Preservation and transplantation of porcine testis tissue.

    PubMed

    Zeng, W; Snedaker, A K; Megee, S; Rathi, R; Chen, F; Honaramooz, A; Dobrinski, I

    2009-01-01

    Grafting of immature mammalian testis tissue to mouse hosts can preserve the male germline. To make this approach applicable to a clinical or field situation, it is imperative that the testis tissue and/or spermatozoa harvested from grafted tissue are preserved successfully. The aim of the present study was to evaluate protocols for the preservation of testis tissue in a porcine model. Testis tissue was stored at 4 degrees C for short-term preservation or cryopreserved by slow-freezing, automated slow-freezing or vitrification for long-term storage. Preserved tissue was transplanted ectopically to mouse hosts and recovered xenografts were analysed histologically. In addition, spermatozoa were harvested from xenografts and cryopreserved. Total cell viability and germ cell viability remained high after tissue preservation. Complete spermatogenesis occurred in xenografts preserved by cooling up to 48 h, whereas spermatogenesis progressed to round spermatids in the xenografts that were frozen-thawed before grafting. Approximately 50% of spermatozoa harvested from xenografts remained viable after freezing and thawing. The in vivo developmental potential of cryopreserved tissue was reduced despite high post-thaw viability. Therefore, it is important to evaluate germ cell differentiation in vivo in addition to cell viability in vitro when optimising freezing protocols for testis tissue. PMID:19261226

  12. Cryptorchid testis with torsion: Inguinoscrotal whirlpool sign

    PubMed Central

    Indiran, Venkatraman

    2016-01-01

    Non contrast helical computed tomography (CT) study of the abdomen is frequently performed in evaluation of suspected ureteric colic. We present CT images of a young adult male patient who had torsion of an undescended, non-neoplastic testis and describe the “Inguinoscrotal whirlpool sign on CT”. PMID:27555688

  13. Congenital Erythropoietic Porphyria with Undescended Testis

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Sandeep; Harith, Arun Kumar; Sodhi, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary porphyrias are a group of metabolic disorders of heme biosynthesis pathway that are characterized by acute neurovisceral symptoms, skin lesions, or both. Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) is an extremely rare disease with a mutation in the gene that codes for uroporphyrinogen III synthase leading to accumulation of porphyrin in different tissues and marked cutaneous photosensitivity. We report a case of CEP with infancy onset blistering, photosensitivity, red colored urine, and teeth along with scarring. Examination revealed an undescended testis of the left side. Mutation analysis revealed mutation in the uroporphyrinogen III synthase gene (UROS) resulting in c. 56 A > G (Tyr19Cys). The presence of undescended testis with a rare mutation in a case of CEP which itself is an extremely rare condition make the case interesting. PMID:27512208

  14. An update of the macaque testis proteome

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tao; Guo, Yueshuai; Zhou, Zuomin; Guo, Xuejiang; Sha, Jiahao

    2015-01-01

    The genome sequence of rhesus macaque is a draft version with many errors and is lack of Y chromosome annotation. In the present dataset, we reanalyzed the previously published macaque testis proteome. We searched for refined protein sequences, potential Y chromosome proteins and transcripts predicted proteins in addition to the latest Ensembl protein sequences of macaque. A total of 74,433 peptides corresponding to 9247 protein groups were identified, and the data are supplied in this paper. The updated version of macaque testis proteome provided evidences for predicted genes or transcripts at the peptide level. It can be used for further in-depth proteogenomic annotation of macaque genome and is useful for studying the mechanisms of macaque spermatogenesis. PMID:26484360

  15. Malignant Leydig cell tumour of the testis.

    PubMed

    Powari, Manish; Kakkar, Nandita; Singh, S K; Rai, R S; Jogai, Sanjay

    2002-01-01

    A case of malignant Leydig cell tumour is presented. It is a rare primary malignant tumour of the testis and occurs exclusively in adults. The present case is of interest because it occurred at the young age of 25 years which is rare. Histologically it showed almost all features which suggest malignancy and also had metastases to the lungs and liver. The clinical details and pathology of this tumour are discussed. PMID:11803271

  16. Bilateral synchronous plasmacytoma of the testis.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Geetha; Joseph, Rona; Soman, Lali V

    2016-04-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) is usually seen in the head and neck regions and in the upper respiratory, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems. Testis is a rare site for EMP, and bilateral synchronous testicular plasmacytoma occurring as an isolated event at initial presentation has been reported only once previously. We present herein the second such report in a 70-year-old man who underwent bilateral orchidectomy. PMID:27034568

  17. Bilateral synchronous plasmacytoma of the testis

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Rona; Soman, Lali V.

    2016-01-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) is usually seen in the head and neck regions and in the upper respiratory, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems. Testis is a rare site for EMP, and bilateral synchronous testicular plasmacytoma occurring as an isolated event at initial presentation has been reported only once previously. We present herein the second such report in a 70-year-old man who underwent bilateral orchidectomy. PMID:27034568

  18. Thyroid Hormone and Leptin in the Testis

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Cristiane Fonte; Zamoner, Ariane

    2014-01-01

    Leptin is primarily expressed in white adipose tissue; however, it is expressed in the hypothalamus and reproductive tissues as well. Leptin acts by activating the leptin receptors (Ob-Rs). Additionally, the regulation of several neuroendocrine and reproductive functions, including the inhibition of glucocorticoids and enhancement of thyroxine and sex hormone concentrations in human beings and mice are leptin functions. It has been suggested that thyroid hormones (TH) could directly regulate leptin expression. Additionally, hypothyroidism compromises the intracellular integration of leptin signaling specifically in the arcuate nucleus. Two TH receptor isoforms are expressed in the testis, TRa and TRb, with TRa being the predominant one that is present in all stages of development. The effects of TH involve the proliferation and differentiation of Sertoli and Leydig cells during development, spermatogenesis, and steroidogenesis. In this context, TH disorders are associated with sexual dysfunction. An endocrine and/or direct paracrine effect of leptin on the gonads inhibits testosterone production in Leydig cells. Further studies are necessary to clarify the effects of both hormones in the testis during hypothyroidism. The goal of this review is to highlight the current knowledge regarding leptin and TH in the testis. PMID:25505448

  19. Glycosylation pattern in the appendix testis in children with cryptorchidism.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Gerardo; Jmenez, Salvador; Martinez, Ruth; Pina, Maria del Socorro; Gallegos, Belem; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Zenteno, Edgar; Hernández, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    In humans, at about week 6, sex cords develop within the forming testes. Testes normally descend to the scrotum; cryptorchidism occurs when one or two testes do not descend to scrotum and in some case are accompanied by the appendix testis. The appendix testis is a small sessile or polypoid structure located at the antero superior pole of the testis, adjacent to the head of the epididymis. Glycans can be involved in development of the appendix testis and cryptorchidism. In this work, lectin histochemistry was used to evaluate glycans expression in appendix testis in children with cryptorchidism. Our results showed that lectin from Lens culinaris, Ulex europaeus I., Canavalia ensiformis, Artocarpus integrifolia, Glycine max, and Griffonia simplicifolia recognizes epithelial and estromal cells. Not interaction was observed with lectin from Amaranthus leucocarpus, while lectin from Dolichus biflorus lectin only recognizes epithelial cells. Our results suggest that O-glycans linked in some glycoproteins represent important elements in appendix testis development. PMID:21229461

  20. Circannual Testis Changes in Seasonally Breeding Mammals.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Rafael; Burgos, Miguel; Barrionuevo, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    In the non-equatorial zones of the Earth, species concentrate their reproductive effort in the more favorable season. A consequence of seasonal breeding is seasonal testis regression, which implies the depletion of the germinative epithelium, permeation of the blood-testis barrier, and reduced androgenic function. This process has been studied in a number of vertebrates, but the mechanisms controlling it are not yet well understood. Apoptosis was assumed for years to be an important effector of seasonal germ cell depletion in all vertebrates, including mammals, but an alternative mechanism has recently been reported in the Iberian mole as well as in the large hairy armadillo. It is based on the desquamation of meiotic and post-meiotic germ cells as a consequence of altered Sertoli-germ cell adhesion molecule expression and distribution. Desquamated cells are either discarded alive through the epididymis, as in the mole, or subsequently die by apoptosis, as in the armadillo. Also, recent findings on the reproductive cycle of the greater white-toothed shrew at the meridional limits of its distribution area have revealed that the mechanisms controlling seasonal breeding are in fact far more plastic and versatile than initially suspected. Perhaps these higher adaptive capacities place mammals in a better position to face the ongoing climate change. PMID:26375035

  1. Sertoli cells secrete both testis-specific and serum proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, W W; Musto, N A; Mather, J P; Bardin, C W

    1981-01-01

    The secretions of the Sertoli cell were examined with two polyvalent antisera--one prepared against proteins in rat serum and the other against testis-specific proteins in rete testis fluid. These antisera detected 12 serum and 9 testis-specific proteins in rete testis fluid. To determine the origin of these proteins, primary cultures enriched in Sertoli cells were incubated with [35S]methionine, and the radiolabeled proteins in the medium were immunoprecipitated. Gel electrophoresis of the two immunoprecipitates resolved eight serum and nine testis-specific proteins. These two sets of proteins were specifically bound to their respective antiserum and were immunologically distinct. Medium from Sertoli cell cultures contained 10 times more of the testis-specific proteins than did cultures enriched for testicular myoid or interstitial cells. The concentration of the serum proteins in Sertoli cell medium was 5 and 10 times greater, respectively, than in myoid or interstitial cell preparations. The proteins from Sertoli cells were next characterized on two-dimensional gels. Seven of the proteins recognized by antiserum against serum proteins had identical molecular weights and isoelectric points as serum proteins. Three of these proteins were ceruloplasmin, transferrin, and glycoprotein 2. In addition to the proteins immunoprecipitated by the two antisera, more than 60 other proteins were detected on two-dimensional gels of the total secretory proteins. We conclude that the Sertoli cell secretes many proteins, some of which are specific to the testis and others of which are similar to serum proteins. Images PMID:6950398

  2. Circadian rhythm of lactate dehydrogenase in rat testis.

    PubMed

    Vermouth, N T; Ponce, R H; Carriazo, C S; Blanco, A

    1984-01-01

    Activity of total lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and of the isozyme X (LDH X or C4) have been determined at 2 hr intervals during 24 hr cycles in testis of adult rats maintained since birth in a photoperiod of 14 hr light: 10 hr dark. LDH X activity of epididymal sections (caput, corpus and cauda) from the same animals was also determined. Total LDH and LDH X activities in testis exhibited circadian rhythms with different timing. LDH X in the three portions of epididymis showed diurnal variations similar to those in testis. Rats subjected to constant light or constant dark presented marked modifications of LDH X profiles, indicating that the photoperiod plays a synchronizer role. While total soluble proteins did not show variations in testis of rats exposed to the photoperiod, a circadian rhythm was demonstrated in animals maintained in constant light or dark. PMID:6467917

  3. Ameboid cells in spermatogenic cysts of caecilian testis.

    PubMed

    Smita, Mathew; Jancy, M George; Akbarsha, M A; Oommen, Oommen V

    2005-03-01

    Sertoli cells constitute a permanent feature of the testis lobules in caecilians irrespective of the functional state of the testis. The developing germ cells are intimately associated with the Sertoli cells, which are adherent to the basal lamina, until spermiation. There are irregularly shaped cells in the cores of the testis lobules that interact with germ cells at the face opposite to their attachment with Sertoli cells. These irregularly shaped (ameboid) cells first appear in the lumen of the cysts containing primary spermatocytes and are continually present until spermiation. We did not observe any cytoplasmic continuity between a Sertoli cell and an ameboid cell. Both light microscopic and TEM observations reveal a phagocytic role for the ameboid cells: they scavenge the residual bodies shed by spermatozoa. Organization of the ameboid cells is grossly different from that of the spermatogenic and Sertoli cells. They appear to develop from the epithelium at the juncture of the collecting ductule with the testis lobule. PMID:15688448

  4. A modified cryosection method for mouse testis tissue.

    PubMed

    Xu, X; Xu, P X

    2001-04-01

    We have previously described a modified cryosection technique that improved the quality of histological sections as well as increasing the sensitivity to detect specific mRNA expression during early insect embryogenesis. Here, we report the use of this technique to produce high-quality sections of mouse testis tissue. The possibility of applying this technique to section the loose rat testis tissue is also discussed. PMID:11392674

  5. Torsion of the Appendix Testis in a Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Arvind; Rich, Mark A.; Swana, Hubert S.

    2016-01-01

    Torsion of the appendix testis is a rare cause of scrotal swelling in the neonatal period. We present a case of torsion of the appendix testis in a one-day-old male. We discuss the physical examination and radiologic studies used to make the diagnosis. Nonoperative therapy was recommended and the patient has done well. Recognition of this condition in the neonatal period can prevent surgical intervention and its associated risks. PMID:27379193

  6. Primary B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma of the testis.

    PubMed

    Tombolini, Flavia; Lacetera, Vito; Gini, Guido; Capelli, Debora; Leoni, Pietro; Montironi, Rodolfo; Galosi, Andrea Benedetto; Muzzonigro, Giovanni

    2014-12-01

    We present a rare case of primary lymphoblastic B-cell lymphoma of the testis focusing on ultrasonographic and pathological features and clinical implications. Pathological examination revealed primary testicular lymphoblastic B-cell lymphoma which was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy, including rachicentesis with administration of chemotherapy and with radiotherapy of contralateral testis. Primary testicular lymphoblastic B cell lymphoma is an aggressive disease and it is necessary a multimodal therapy (surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy) to prevent metastasis. PMID:25641484

  7. Testis expressed 19 is a novel cancer-testis antigen expressed in bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jianhua; Chen, Yan; Liao, Xinhui; Li, Jiaqiang; Wang, Han; Wu, Chenglong; Zou, Xiaowen; Yang, Gang; Shi, Jing; Luo, Liya; Liu, Litao; Deng, Jianping; Tang, Aifa

    2016-06-01

    Bladder cancer exhibits high mortality as a result of limited therapeutic options and a high recurrence rate. Accordingly, novel treatments such as immunotherapy have emerged as promising therapeutic modalities to prolong overall patient survival and effect a disease cure, which has renewed enthusiasm for the identification of tumor-specific target antigens. Cancer-testis (CT) antigens are recognized as ideal targets for immunotherapy because of their expression features and high immunogenicity profiles. Here, we investigate the expression pattern of a novel CT antigen, testis-expressed 19 (TEX19), in patients with bladder carcinoma and among multiple human tissues. Six bladder cancer cell lines (T24, UM-UC-3, J82, 5637, SW780, and RT4) were also analyzed for TEX19 expression. Our results reveal that TEX19 expression in normal tissue is restricted to human testis. In addition, TEX19 mRNA expression was detected in 60 % (24/40) bladder cancer samples, whereas 58.20 % (110/189) were positive for TEXT19 protein expression. Compared to low-grade tumors, TEX19 exhibited increased expression in high-grade tumors, from 53.69 to 77.14 %, respectively (P = 0.011). TEX19 was also expressed in all six bladder cancer cell lines. Together, our findings suggest that TEX19 represents a novel CT gene and might play a role in the progression of bladder cancer and that this gene therefore provides a potential target for immunotherapy treatment strategies against bladder cancer. PMID:26695143

  8. Radiation therapy of seminoma of the testis

    SciTech Connect

    Tu-nan, Q.; Yu-hua, H.; Chih-xian, C.; Yu-qin, Q.; Da-zhong, G.; Xian-zhi, G.

    1981-06-01

    Seventy-three consecutive patients with seminoma of the testis were treated by orchiectomy followed by radiation alone. Sixty-six patients (91%) survived for more than five years. Forty-nine of fifty-six (87%) survived for more than ten years. The five-year survival for 54 patients with Stage I disease was 100%; it was 92% for 13 patients with Stage II disease. None of the six Stage III patients survived. All those who survived for five years were leading an active and normal life as of this writing. The Karnofsky's performance status was 90 to 100 for 50 patients who were followed in detail. Routine postoperative irradiation of the para-aortic lymphatics was sufficient to produce a permanent cure without resorting to chemotherapy or prophylactic irradiation of mediastinum and supraclavicular regions. The optimal tissue dose was 3000 rad. It may be increased to 3500 to 4000 rad by reducing the portal, but the total dose should be kept under 4000 rad. Pulmonary metastases were treated by bilateral whole lung irradiation of 1000 to 1500 rad followed by a local boost dose of 2000 to 2500 rad. The treatment was well-tolerated by the patient. Large intra-abdominal metastases involving the internal organs should be treated by means other than radiation alone.

  9. Sources of the porcine testis innervation.

    PubMed

    Sienkiewicz, W

    2010-12-01

    This study was carried out on three adult male pigs of the large White Polish breed weighing 110-130 kg each. The animals were anaesthetised and injected with retrograde tracer Fast Blue (FB) into right testis. Three weeks later, the pigs were deeply anaesthetised and perfused transcardially with fixative (4% paraformaldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer pH 7.4). Collected ganglia were cut with freezing microtome into 12-μm-thick sections. The sections were examined under a fluorescent microscope (Zeiss). FB-positive neurones were found in pelvic ganglia (anterior pelvic ganglion) (15.4% of all FB(+) neurones), prevertebral ganglia (caudal mesenteric, testicular, aortico-renal and renal ganglia) (59% of all FB(+) neurones), sympathetic chain ganglia (last four lumbar and first three sacral ganglia) (18.1% of all FB(+) neurones) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) (first three lumbar and first three sacral ganglia) (7.4% of all FB(+) neurones). The majority of FB-positive nerve cell bodies were observed in ipsilateral ganglia, but they were also found in contralateral ganglia (approximately 85% and 15% respectively). Thus, FB-positive neurones were located in the left prevertebral, sympathetic chain and DRG, but surprisingly, they were absent in left anterior pelvic ganglia. PMID:21105891

  10. Gestational bisphenol A exposure and testis development

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Cecilia; Bondesson, Maria; Krementsov, Dimitry N; Teuscher, Cory

    2015-01-01

    Virtually all humans are exposed to bisphenol A (BPA). Since BPA can act as a ligand for estrogen receptors, potential hazardous effects of BPA should be evaluated in the context of endogenous estrogenic hormones. Because estrogen is metabolized in the placenta, developing fetuses are normally exposed to very low endogenous estrogen levels. BPA, on the other hand, passes through the placenta and might have distinct adverse consequences during the sensitive stages of fetal development. Testicular gametogenesis and steroidogenesis begin early during fetal development. These processes are sensitive to estrogens and play a role in determining the number of germ stem cells, sperm count, and male hormone levels in adulthood. Although studies have shown a correlation between BPA exposure and perturbed reproduction, a clear consensus has yet to be established as to whether current human gestational BPA exposure results in direct adverse effects on male genital development and reproduction. However, studies in animals and in vitro have provided direct evidence for the ability of BPA exposure to influence male reproductive development. This review discusses the current knowledge of potential effects of BPA exposure on male reproductive health and whether gestational exposure adversely affects testis development. PMID:26167515

  11. In Vivo Microinjection and Electroporation of Mouse Testis

    PubMed Central

    Michaelis, Marten; Sobczak, Alexander; Weitzel, Joachim M.

    2014-01-01

    This video and article contribution gives a comprehensive description of microinjection and electroporation of mouse testis in vivo. This particular transfection technique for testicular mouse cells allows the study of unique processes in spermatogenesis. The following protocol focuses on transfection of testicular mouse cells with plasmid constructs. Specifically, we used the reporter vector pEGFP-C1, which expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and also the pDsRed2-N1 vector expressing red fluorescent protein (DsRed2). Both encoded reporter genes were under the control of the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter (CMV). For performing gene transfer into mouse testes, the reporter plasmid constructs are injected into testes of living mice. To that end, the testis of an anaesthetized animal is exposed and the site of microinjection is prepared. Our preferred place of injection is the efferent duct, with the ultimately connected rete testis as the anatomical transport route of the spermatozoa between the testis and the epididymis. In this way, the filling of the seminiferous tubules after microinjection is excellently managed and controlled due to the use of stained DNA solutions. After observing a sufficient filling of the testis by its colored tubule structure, the organ is electroporated. This enables the transfer of the DNA solution into the testicular cells. Following 3 days of incubation, the testis is removed and investigated under the microscope for green or red fluorescence, illustrating transfection success. Generally, this protocol can be employed for delivering DNA- or RNA- constructs into living mouse testis in order to (over)express or knock down genes, facilitating in vivo gene function analysis. Furthermore, it is suitable for studying reporter constructs or putative gene regulatory elements. Thus, the main advantages of the electroporation technique are fast performance in combination with low effort as well as the moderate

  12. Human testis expresses a specific poly(A)-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Féral, C; Guellaën, G; Pawlak, A

    2001-05-01

    In testis mRNA stability and translation initiation are extensively under the control of poly(A)-binding proteins (PABP). Here we have cloned a new human testis-specific PABP (PABP3) of 631 amino acids (70.1 kDa) with 92.5% identical residues to the ubiquitous PABP1. A northern blot of multiple human tissues hybridised with PABP3- and PABP1-specific oligonucleotide probes revealed two PABP3 mRNAs (2.1 and 2.5 kb) detected only in testis, whereas PABP1 mRNA (3.2 kb) was present in all tested tissues. In human adult testis, PABP3 mRNA expression was restricted to round spermatids, whereas PABP1 was expressed in these cells as well as in pachytene spermatocytes. PABP3-specific antibodies identified a protein of 70 kDa in human testis extracts. This protein binds poly(A) with a slightly lower affinity as compared to PABP1. The human PABP3 gene is intronless with a transcription start site 61 nt upstream from the initiation codon. A sequence of 256 bp upstream from the transcription start site drives the promoter activity of PABP3 and its tissue-specific expression. The expression of PABP3 might be a way to bypass PABP1 translational repression and to produce the amount of PABP needed for active mRNA translation in spermatids. PMID:11328870

  13. Measurement of the linear dynamics of the descent of the bovine fetal testis

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, MJ; Smith, MSR; Freeman, B

    2003-01-01

    Measurements were made on 86 male bovine fetuses collected from abattoirs in the vicinity of Sydney, Australia. The fetal body length was used to calculate the approximate day of gestational age (DGA); most fetuses were between 60 and 150 DGA. The distances from the caudal pole of the kidney (metanephros) to, respectively, the tip of the scrotum, the distal end of the testis and the internal ring of the inguinal canal were measured, as well as the dimensions of the testis and gubernaculum testis. Distances of (1) testis to inguinal canal, (2) inguinal canal to scrotum, (3) testis to scrotum and (4) gubernaculum to scrotum were calculated from these measurements, which were made on both left and right sides. The total length of the gubernaculum testis increased during transabdominal passage and during transinguinal passage of the testis. Furthermore, the gubernaculum appeared to maintain the testis at a relatively fixed distance from the scrotum during transabdominal passage so that the inguinal canal appeared to move towards the testis. The greatest distance between the testis and the tip of the scrotum was found during the transinguinal passage of the testis and was 2.8 cm for the left testis and 2.3 cm for the right. When located within the scrotum, each testis was still 1.6–1.7 cm from the tip of the scrotum, so the distance to be traversed was only 0.6–1.2 cm. Following passage of the testis through the inguinal canal, the gubernaculum became shorter and its distal tip was displaced toward the distal end of the scrotum. Traction by the gubernaculum could account for the final transposition of the testis from the external inguinal ring to the scrotum. Other factors involved in displacement of the testis include differential growth patterns as well as increases in the dimensions of the testis itself. PMID:12892412

  14. TGF-β superfamily: how does it regulate testis development.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yun-Shu; Hu, Yan-Jun; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2012-04-01

    Testis development is a highly regulated sequence of developmental process that spans from the establishment of germ cell lineage during embryonic development to the periodic wave of spermatogenesis in adulthood. The normal development of testes and the fertility of male animals require specific cell types to respond correctly at a specific time point, the process of which is precisely regulated by various factors. Several members of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily are shown to be the key mediators. They act as the extracellular ligand of signaling transduction that regulates the proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and other cell behaviors to help coordinate the physiology of the cells to the overall development of the testis and the organism. This paper reviews the current understanding of some of TGF-βs' major regulatory roles in the overall process of testis development, analyzes the current studies and their limitations and points out the research areas that need further investigation. PMID:21947950

  15. Macrophages Contribute to the Spermatogonial Niche in the Adult Testis

    PubMed Central

    DeFalco, Tony; Potter, Sarah J.; Williams, Alyna V.; Waller, Brittain; Kan, Matthew J.; Capel, Blanche

    2015-01-01

    Summary The testis produces sperm throughout the male reproductive lifespan by balancing self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Part of the SSC niche is thought to lie outside the seminiferous tubules of the testis; however, specific interstitial components of the niche that regulate spermatogonial divisions and differentiation remain undefined. We identified distinct populations of testicular macrophages, one of which lies on the surface of seminiferous tubules in close apposition to areas of tubules enriched for undifferentiated spermatogonia. These macrophages express spermatogonial proliferation- and differentiation-inducing factors, such as colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) and enzymes involved in retinoic acid (RA) biosynthesis. We show that transient depletion of macrophages leads to a disruption in spermatogonial differentiation. These findings reveal an unexpected role for macrophages in the spermatogonial niche in the testis, and raise the possibility that macrophages play previously unappreciated roles in stem/progenitor cell regulation in other tissues. PMID:26257171

  16. Expression and Localization of Lung Surfactant Proteins in Human Testis

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Walter; Matthies, Cord; Ruf, Christian; Hartmann, Arndt; Garreis, Fabian; Paulsen, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    Background Surfactant proteins (SPs) have been described in various tissues and fluids including tissues of the nasolacrimal apparatus, airways and digestive tract. Human testis have a glandular function as a part of the reproductive and the endocrine system, but no data are available on SPs in human testis and prostate under healthy and pathologic conditions. Objective The aim of the study was the detection and characterization of the surfactant proteins A, B, C and D (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, SP-D) in human testis. Additionally tissue samples affected by testicular cancer were investigated. Results Surfactant proteins A, B, C and D were detected using RT-PCR in healthy testis. By means of Western blot analysis, these SPs were detected at the protein level in normal testis, seminoma and seminal fluid, but not in spermatozoa. Expression of SPs was weaker in seminoma compared to normal testicular tissue. SPs were localized in combination with vimentin immunohistochemically in cells of Sertoli and Leydig. Conclusion Surfactant proteins seem to be inherent part of the human testis. By means of physicochemical properties the proteins appear to play a role during immunological and rheological process of the testicular tissue. The presence of SP-B and SP-C in cells of Sertoli correlates with their function of fluid secretion and may support transportation of spermatozoa. In seminoma the expression of all SP's was generally weaker compared to normal germ cells. This could lead to a reduction of immunomodulatory and rheology processes in the germ cell tumor. PMID:26599233

  17. Triorchidism: Presenting as Undescended Testis in a Case of Indirect Inguinal Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Saurabh S.; Patel, Chintan B.; Wagh, Amol N.; Gawli, Virendra; Jain, Nimesh A.

    2016-01-01

    Triorchidism is the commonest variety of polyorchidism, an entity with more than two testis is an extremely rare congenital anomaly of the testis. Although excision of the abnormal testis is a safer alternative proposed, recent literature suggests more conservative approach in normal testes with watchful regular follow up to screen for malignancy. This case presented as a left inguinal swelling diagnosed as indirect left inguinal hernia. The left side testis was of smaller size (about half) with normal sperm count, morphology and motility. Intraoperatively indirect inguinal hernia was noted with supernumerary testis at deep ring in addition to normal left testis in left scrotal sac. The ectopic testis were small (2.5×2.5×1 cm) lacking epididymis and with short vas deferens. An evident normal semen analysis and varied anatomy, the decision for orchidectomy of ectopic testis was taken. The histopathological finding was consistent with arrest in germ cell development. PMID:27478577

  18. Primary follicular lymphoma of the testis in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lones, Mark A; Raphael, Martine; McCarthy, Keith; Wotherspoon, Andrew; Terrier-Lacombe, Marie-Josee; Ramsay, Alan D; Maclennan, Ken; Cairo, Mitchell S; Gerrard, Mary; Michon, Jean; Patte, Catherine; Pinkerton, Ross; Sender, Leonard; Auperin, Anne; Sposto, Richard; Weston, Claire; Heerema, Nyla A; Sanger, Warren G; von Allmen, Daniel; Perkins, Sherrie L

    2012-01-01

    This study reports 6 cases of primary follicular lymphoma of the testis (PFLT) in children and adolescents correlated with clinical presentation, pathologic features, treatment, and outcome. All 6 patients (age, 3 to 16 y; median, 4 y) had PFLT grade 3 with disease limited to the testis, completely resected and treated with 2 courses of chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, doxorubicin). Event-free survival was 100% (follow-up: median, 73 mo; mean, 53 mo; range, 6 to 96 mo). In conclusion, clinical outcome in children and adolescents with PFLT is excellent with treatment including complete surgical resection and 2 courses of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, doxorubicin. PMID:22215099

  19. Transgenerational Epigenetic Programming of the Embryonic Testis Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Anway, Matthew D.; Rekow, Stephen S.; Skinner, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    Embryonic exposure to the endocrine disruptor vinclozolin during gonadal sex determination appears to promote an epigenetic reprogramming of the male germ-line that is associated with transgenerational adult onset disease states. Transgenerational effects on the embryonic day 16 (E16) testis demonstrated reproducible changes in the testis transcriptome for multiple generations (F1-F3). The expression of 196 genes were found to be influenced, with the majority of gene expression being decreased or silenced. Dramatic changes in the gene expression of methyltransferases during gonadal sex determination were observed in the F1 and F2 vinclozolin generation (E16) embryonic testis, but the majority returned to control generation levels by the F3 generation. The most dramatic effects were on the germ-line associated Dnmt3A and Dnmt3L isoforms. Observations demonstrate that an embryonic exposure to vinclozolin appears to promote an epigenetic reprogramming of the male germ-line that correlates with transgenerational alterations in the testis transcriptome in subsequent generations. PMID:18042343

  20. Comparative Analysis of Testis Protein Evolution in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Leslie M.; Chuong, Edward B.; Hoekstra, Hopi E.

    2008-01-01

    Genes expressed in testes are critical to male reproductive success, affecting spermatogenesis, sperm competition, and sperm–egg interaction. Comparing the evolution of testis proteins at different taxonomic levels can reveal which genes and functional classes are targets of natural and sexual selection and whether the same genes are targets among taxa. Here we examine the evolution of testis-expressed proteins at different levels of divergence among three rodents, mouse (Mus musculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus), and deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), to identify rapidly evolving genes. Comparison of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from testes suggests that proteins with testis-specific expression evolve more rapidly on average than proteins with maximal expression in other tissues. Genes with the highest rates of evolution have a variety of functional roles including signal transduction, DNA binding, and egg–sperm interaction. Most of these rapidly evolving genes have not been identified previously as targets of selection in comparisons among more divergent mammals. To determine if these genes are evolving rapidly among closely related species, we sequenced 11 of these genes in six Peromyscus species and found evidence for positive selection in five of them. Together, these results demonstrate rapid evolution of functionally diverse testis-expressed proteins in rodents, including the identification of amino acids under lineage-specific selection in Peromyscus. Evidence for positive selection among closely related species suggests that changes in these proteins may have consequences for reproductive isolation. PMID:18689890

  1. Results of the use of autotransplantation of the intraabdominal testis using microsurgical vascular anastomosis.

    PubMed

    MacMahon, R A; O'Brien, B M; Aberdeen, J; Richardson, W; Cussen, L J

    1980-02-01

    This study indicates that where facilities are available, the use of autotransplantation of the intraabdominal testis with microsurgical anastomosis to vessels of the groin is an acceptable, and possibly the best, alternative to orchidectomy for the intraabdominal testis. It is certainly justifiable in the case of the bilateral intraabdominal testis but in the case of the unilateral intraabdominal testis with a normally descended and apparently normal testis in the opposite hemiscrotum, the incresed incidence of neoplasia in intraabdominal testes should be taken into account in the decision on the method of treatment. PMID:6102597

  2. Cancer/testis (CT) antigens, carcinogenesis and spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    During spermatogenesis, spermatogonial stem cells, undifferentiated and differentiated spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa all express specific antigens, yet the functions of many of these antigens remain unexplored. Studies in the past three decades have shown that many of these transiently expressed genes in developing germ cells are proto-oncogenes and oncogenes, which are expressed only in the testis and various types of cancers in humans and rodents. As such, these antigens are designated cancer/testis antigens (CT antigens). Since the early 1980s, about 70 families of CT antigens have been identified with over 140 members are known to date. Due to their restricted expression in the testis and in various tumors in humans, they have been used as the target of immunotherapy. Multiple clinical trials at different phases are now being conducted with some promising results. Interestingly, in a significant number of cancer patients, antibodies against some of these CT antigens were detected in their sera. However, antibodies against these CT antigens in humans under normal physiological conditions have yet to be reported even though many of these antigens are residing outside of the blood-testis barrier (BTB), such as in the basal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium and in the stem cell niche in the testis. In this review, we summarize latest findings in the field regarding several selected CT antigens which may be intimately related to spermatogenesis due to their unusual restricted expression during different discrete events of spermatogenesis, such as cell cycle progression, meiosis and spermiogenesis. This information should be helpful to investigators in the field to study the roles of these oncogenes in spermatogenesis. PMID:22319669

  3. Post-hatching development of Alligator mississippiensis ovary and testis

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brandon C.; Hamlin, Heather J.; Botteri, Nicole L.; Lawler, Ashley N.; Mathavan, Ketan K.; Guillette, Louis J.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated ovary and testis development of Alligator mississippiensis during the first five months post-hatch. To better describe follicle assembly and seminiferous cord development, we employed histochemical techniques to detect carbohydrate-rich extracellular matrix components in one-week, one-month, three-month, and five-month-old gonads. We found profound morphological changes in both ovary and testis. During this time, oogenesis progressed up to diplotene arrest and meiotic germ cells increasingly interacted with follicular cells. Concomitant with follicles becoming invested with full complements of granulosa cells, a periodic acid Schiff’s (PAS)-positive basement membrane formed. As follicles enlarged and thecal layers were observed, basement membranes and thecal compartments gained periodic acid-methionine silver (PAMS)-reactive fibers. The ovarian medulla increased first PAS- and then PAMS-reactivity as it fragmented into wide lacunae lined with low cuboidal to squamous epithelia. During this same period, testicular germ cells found along the tubule margins were observed progressing from spermatogonia to round spermatids located within the center of tubules. Accompanying this meiotic development, interstitial Leydig cell clusters become more visible and testicular capsules thickened. During the observed testis development, the thickening tunica albuginea and widening interstitial tissues showed increasing PAS- and PAMS-reactivity. We observed putative inter-sex structures in both ovary and testis. On the coelomic aspect of testes were cell clusters with germ cell morphology and at the posterior end of ovaries, we observed “medullary rests” resembling immature testis cords. We hypothesize laboratory conditions accelerated gonad maturation due to optimum conditions, including nutrients and temperature. Laboratory alligators grew more rapidly and with increased body conditions compared to previous measured, field-caught animals. Additionally, we

  4. Tissue-specific binding of testis nuclear proteins to a sequence element within the promoter of the testis-specific histone H1t gene.

    PubMed

    Grimes, S R; Wolfe, S A; Koppel, D A

    1992-08-01

    The rat histone H1t gene is transcribed only in testis germinal cells. This testis-specific chromosomal protein is first synthesized during spermatogenesis in pachytene spermatocytes and the entire complement of testis histones is replaced during the midspermatid stage of spermiogenesis by positively charged transition nuclear proteins TP1 and TP2. Mobility shift assays conducted using crude nuclear protein extracts from different tissues and an 18-bp DNA sequence element within the H1t promoter as a probe reveal binding only with nuclear proteins from testis. The binding is specifically competed with an excess of the same unlabeled DNA fragment but not with heterologous competitors. A larger oligonucleotide corresponding to the same sequence element plus 18 bp of the adjacent downstream H1/CCAAT element binds nuclear proteins from all tissues tested, but a unique low mobility band is formed only with testis extracts. Protein-DNA crosslinking experiments reveal that two major polypeptides with molecular weights of approximately 13 and 30 kDa bind to the 18-bp H1t promoter sequence element. This strong correlation between the tissue where the H1t gene is transcribed and the presence of testis-specific nuclear proteins that bind to a sequence element within the testis histone H1t promoter supports the possibility that these DNA-binding proteins may participate in formation of an active transcription initiation complex with the testis H1t promoter. PMID:1632632

  5. Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor of the rete testis.

    PubMed

    Sajadi, Kamran P; Dalton, Rory R; Brown, James A

    2009-01-01

    A 34-year-old tetraplegic patient with suppurative epididymitis was found on follow-up examination and ultrasonography to have a testicular mass. The radical orchiectomy specimen contained an undifferentiated spindled sex cord-stromal tumor arising in the rete testis. Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are far less common than germ cell neoplasms and are usually benign. The close relationship between sex cords and ductules of the rete testis during development provides the opportunity for these uncommon tumors to arise anatomically within the rete tesis. This undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor, occurring in a previously unreported location, is an example of an unusual lesion mimicking an intratesticular malignant neoplasm. PMID:19125206

  6. Bilateral cystic dysplasia of the rete testis with renal adysplasia.

    PubMed

    Bouron-Dal Soglio, Dorothée; Harvey, Isabelle; Jovanovic, Mubina; Oligny, Luc L; Fournet, Jean-Christophe

    2006-01-01

    Cystic dyplasia of the rete testis (CDRT) is an uncommon, generally unilateral lesion characterized by anastomosing cystic spaces lined by a flattened simple cuboidal epithelium in the rete testis. In the literature this lesion often is associated with an ipsilateral urogenital lesion such as renal agenesia or multicystic dysplasia of the kidney, in order of frequency. The pathogenesis is explained by some authors by their common embryologic origin. We are reporting the finding of bilateral CDRT associated with ultrasound-diagnosed renal adysplasia in a 20-week gestational age fetus with oligohydramnios. Although CDRT has been referred to as being associated with multicystic renal dysplasia or renal agenesis, the present case appears to be unique in combining all the malformations together. PMID:16822083

  7. Clinical NIR spectroscopy and optical tomography of the testis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampel, Uwe; Schleicher, Eckhard; Zepnick, H.; Freyer, Richard

    2001-10-01

    Optical tomography and NIR spectroscopy are potential methods to improve the diagnosis of testicular pathologies. To evaluate the methods clinically we developed a special measurement device with the capability of spatially resolved laser spectroscopy and optical tomography of the testis. Simple spectroscopy is primarily used to obtain global tissue optical properties of the testis and to find correlations of optical parameters with type and stage of certain pathologies. Optical tomography is applied to visualize spectral contrasts in limited tissue volumes, such as tumors. In the course of the study we will determine whether NIR techniques posses the required specifity and sensitivity to give additional quantitative information about tissue perfusion parameters and to serve for a tumor differentiation.

  8. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumor of the Rete Testis

    PubMed Central

    Sajadi, Kamran P.; Dalton, Rory R.; Brown, James A.

    2009-01-01

    A 34-year-old tetraplegic patient with suppurative epididymitis was found on follow-up examination and ultrasonography to have a testicular mass. The radical orchiectomy specimen contained an undifferentiated spindled sex cord-stromal tumor arising in the rete testis. Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are far less common than germ cell neoplasms and are usually benign. The close relationship between sex cords and ductules of the rete testis during development provides the opportunity for these uncommon tumors to arise anatomically within the rete tesis. This undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor, occurring in a previously unreported location, is an example of an unusual lesion mimicking an intratesticular malignant neoplasm. PMID:19125206

  9. The immune privilege of testis and gravid uterus: same difference?

    PubMed

    Arck, Petra; Solano, María Emilia; Walecki, Magdalena; Meinhardt, Andreas

    2014-01-25

    The fetus in the gravid uterus and the developing spermatogenic cells in the adult testis both comprise special challenges for the host immune system. Protection of the neoantigens of the fetus and male germ cells from immune attack, defined as immune privilege, is fundamental for the propagation of species. Immune privilege is not simply the absence of leukocytes, but involves immune and non-immune cells acting synergistically together at multiple levels to create a unique tolerogenic environment. A number of the pathways are shared by the testis and gravid uterus. Amongst them steroid hormones, namely testosterone in the male and progesterone in the female, seem to function as key molecules that govern the local production of immunoregulatory factors which finally control the overall immune environment. PMID:24076096

  10. Comparative testis proteome dataset between cattleyak and yak.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang; Mipam, TserangDonko; Sun, Lei; Yu, Shumin; Cai, Xin

    2016-09-01

    Cattleyak are hybrid between cattle and yak, which exhibit equivalent adaptability on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau as yak and much higher capability in economic traits. However, the F1 males of cattleyak are infertile due to spermatogenic arrest and this greatly restricts the effective utilization of this hybrid. In this data article, differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified from testis proteome of cattleyak and yak using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). All the DEPs were subjected to functional classification by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and gene-pathway annotation by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). The comparative testis proteome dataset here can shed new light on the molecular characteristics of male infertility of cattleyak on proteome level, "Comparative iTRAQ proteomics revealed proteins associated with spermatogenic arrest of cattleyak" [1]. PMID:27366779

  11. Tumors of the Testis: Morphologic Features and Molecular Alterations.

    PubMed

    Howitt, Brooke E; Berney, Daniel M

    2015-12-01

    This article reviews the most frequently encountered tumor of the testis; pure and mixed malignant testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT), with emphasis on adult (postpubertal) TGCTs and their differential diagnoses. We additionally review TGCT in the postchemotherapy setting, and findings to be integrated into the surgical pathology report, including staging of testicular tumors and other problematic issues. The clinical features, gross pathologic findings, key histologic features, common differential diagnoses, the use of immunohistochemistry, and molecular alterations in TGCTs are discussed. PMID:26612222

  12. Capillary hemangioma of the testis: A rare benign tumour

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Nathan Colin; Dason, Shawn; Pozdnyakov, Sergey; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Greenspan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Testicular capillary hemangioma is a rare benign vascular tumour. We report a case of a 66-year-old man who underwent an uncomplicated radical orchiectomy for a painless left testicular mass. Pathology showed capillary hemangioma of the testis. There are only 22 cases reported in the English literature, including the presented case. Appropriate intra-operative recognition of this entity is vital to assess for potential testicular-sparing surgery. PMID:26085871

  13. Impact of electronic-cigarette refill liquid on rat testis.

    PubMed

    El Golli, N; Rahali, D; Jrad-Lamine, A; Dallagi, Y; Jallouli, M; Bdiri, Y; Ba, N; Lebret, M; Rosa, J P; El May, M; El Fazaa, S

    2016-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are becoming the fashionable alternative to decrease tobacco smoking, although their impact on health has not been fully assessed yet. The present study was designed to compare the impact of e-cigarette refill liquid (e-liquid) without nicotine to e-liquid with nicotine on rat testis. For this purpose, e-liquid with nicotine and e-liquid without nicotine (0.5 mg/kg of body weight) were administered to adult male Wistar rats via the intraperitoneally route during four weeks. Results showed that e-liquid with or without nicotine leads to diminished sperm density and viability, such as a decrease in testicular lactate dehydrogenase activity and testosterone level. Furthermore, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis identified a reduction in cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450 scc) and 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17βHSD) mRNA level, two key enzymes of steroidogenesis. Following e-liquid exposure, histopathological examination showed alterations in testis tissue marked by germ cells desquamation, disorganization of the tubular contents of testis and cell deposits in seminiferous tubules. Finally, analysis of oxidative stress status pointed an outbreak of antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and gluthatione-S-transferase, as well as an important increase in sulfhydril group content. Taken together, these results indicate that e-liquid per se induces toxicity in Wistar rat testis, similar to e-liquid with nicotine, by disrupting oxidative balance and steroidogenesis. PMID:27098213

  14. Immunotherapy in Multiple Myeloma Using Cancer-Testis Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh; Seifi-Alan, Mahnaz; Shamsi, Roshanak; Esfandiary, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Context: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B-cell malignancy characterized by monoclonal expansion of abnormal plasma cells in the bone marrow. It accounts for 10% of hematological malignancies. Although patients respond to a wide range of anticancer modalities, relapse occurs in a significant number of the cases. Immunotherapeutic approaches have been evolved to tackle this problem. Cancer-testis antigens CTAs as a group of tumor-associated antigens are appropriate targets for cancer immunotherapy as they have restricted expression pattern in normal tissues except for testis which is an immune-privileged site. Expression of these antigens has been assessed in different malignancies including MM. Evidence Acquisition: We performed a computerized search of the MEDLINE/PubMed databases with key words: multiple myeloma, cancer-testis antigen, and cancer stem cell and immunotherapy. Results: Several CTAs including NY-ESO-1, MAGE and GAGE family have been shown to be expressed in MM patients. Cellular and humoral immune responses against these antigens have been detected in MM patients. Conclusions: The frequent and high expression level of CTAs in MM patients shows that these antigens can be applied as cancer biomarkers as well as targets for immunotherapy in these patients. PMID:26634107

  15. Id4 Marks Spermatogonial Stem Cells in the Mouse Testis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Feng; Xu, Qing; Zhao, Danfeng; Degui Chen, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian spermatogenesis is a classic adult stems cell–dependent process, supported by the self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). However, the identification of SSCs and elucidation of their behaviors in undisturbed testis has long been a big challenge. Here, we generated a knock-in mouse model, Id4-2A-CreERT2-2A-tdTomato, which allowed us to mark Id4-expressing (Id4+) cells at different time points in situ and track their behaviors across distinct developmental stages during steady-state and regenerating spermatogenesis. We found that Id4+ cells continue to produce spermatogonia, spermatocytes and sperm in mouse testis, showing they are capable of self-renewal and have differentiation potential. Consistent with these findings, ablation of Id4+ cells in mice results in a loss of spermatogenesis. Furthermore, developmental fate mapping reveals that Id4+ SSCs originate from neonate Id4+ gonocytes. Therefore, our results indicate that Id4 marks spermatogonial stem cells in the mouse testis. PMID:26621350

  16. In vitro transformation of mouse testis cells by oncogene transfection.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Hiroko; Lee, Jiyoung; Tanaka, Takashi; Ishii, Kei; Toyokuni, Shinya; Kanatsu-Shinohara, Mito; Shinohara, Takashi

    2012-05-01

    Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are unique in that they exhibit diverse biological characteristics and pathological features. Although several in vivo GCT models are available, studies on GCTs are hampered because in vivo development of GCTs is time consuming and prevents a detailed molecular analysis of the transformation process. Here we developed a novel strategy to transform mouse testis cells in vitro. Lentivirus-mediated transfection of dominant negative Trp53, Myc, and activated Hras1 into a CD9-expressing testis cells caused tumorigenic conversion in vitro. Although these cells resembled embryonic stem (ES) cells, they were aneuploid and lacked Nanog expression, which is involved in the maintenance of the undifferentiated state in ES cells. Euploid ES-like cells were produced by transfecting the Yamanaka factors (Pou5f1, Myc, Klf4, and Sox2) into the same cell population. Although these cells expressed Nanog, they were distinct from ES cells in that they expressed CD44, a cancer stem cell antigen. Both treatments induced similar changes in the DNA methylation patterns in differentially methylated regions of imprinted genes. Moreover, despite the differences in their phenotype and karyotype, both cell types similarly produced mixed GCTs on transplantation, which were composed of teratomas, seminomas, and embryonal carcinomas. Thus, in vitro testis cell transformation facilitates an analysis of the GCT formation process, and our results also suggest the close similarity between GCT formation and reprogramming. PMID:22357549

  17. Phosphorylated testis-specific serine/threonine kinase 4 may phosphorylate Crem at Ser-117.

    PubMed

    Fu, Guolong; Wei, Youheng; Wang, Xiaoli; Yu, Long

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the internal existence status of testis-specific serine/threonine kinase 4 (Tssk4) and the interaction of Tssk4 and Cre-responsive element modulator (Crem). The internal existence status of Tssk4 in testis of mice was detected using western blotting and dephosphorylation method. The interaction of Tssk4 and Crem was analyzed by western blotting, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, in vitro co-immunoprecipitation assays, and in vitro kinase assay. The results revealed that Tssk4 existed in testis both in phosphorylation and unphosphorylation status by a temporal manner with the development of testis. Immunofluorescence results showed that Tssk4 had identical distribution pattern with Crem in testis, which was utterly different to the localization of Cre-responsive element binding (Creb). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that phosphorylated Tssk4 might participate in testis genes expressions by phosphorylating Crem at Ser-117. PMID:26940607

  18. Pdgfr-α mediates testis cord organization and fetal Leydig cell development in the XY gonad

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Jennifer; Tilmann, Christopher; Capel, Blanche

    2003-01-01

    During testis development, the rapid morphological changes initiated by Sry require the coordinate integration of many signaling pathways. Based on the established role of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family of ligands and receptors in migration, proliferation, and differentiation of cells in various organ systems, we have investigated the role of PDGF in testis organogenesis. Analysis of expression patterns and characterization of the gonad phenotype in Pdgfr-α−/− embryos identified PDGFR-α as a critical mediator of signaling in the early testis at multiple steps of testis development. Pdgfr-α−/− XY gonads displayed disruptions in the organization of the vasculature and in the partitioning of interstitial and testis cord compartments. Closer examination revealed severe reductions in characteristic XY proliferation, mesonephric cell migration, and fetal Leydig cell differentiation. This work identifies PDGF signaling through the α receptor as an important event downstream of Sry in testis organogenesis and Leydig cell differentiation. PMID:12651897

  19. Intraspecific variation in testis asymmetry in birds: evidence for naturally occurring compensation

    PubMed Central

    Calhim, Sara; Birkhead, Tim R.

    2009-01-01

    In many taxa, the left and right testes often differ in size. The compensation hypothesis states that one testis of the pair serves as a ‘back-up’ for any reduced function in the other and provides a mechanism to explain intraspecific variation in degree and direction of gonad asymmetry. Although testis asymmetry is common in birds, evidence for natural testis compensation is unknown. Using a novel quantitative approach that can be applied to any bilateral organ or structure, we show that testis compensation occurs naturally in birds and can be complete when one testis fails to develop. Owing to a recurrent risk of testis impairment and an evolutionary trade-off between natural and sexual selections acting on the arrangement of internal organs in species with abdominal and/or seasonal testes, compensation adds an important, but neglected, dimension to measures of male reproductive investment. PMID:19324740

  20. Effects of a simulated microgravity model on cell structure and function in rat testis and epididymis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadley, Jill A.; Hall, Joseph C.; O'Brien, Ami; Ball, Richard

    1992-01-01

    The effect of simulated microgravity on the structure and function of the testis and epididymis cells was investigated in rats subjected to 7 days of tail suspension. Results of a histological examination revealed presence of disorganized seminiferous tubules and accumulation of large multinucleated cells and spermatids in the lumen of the epididymis. In addition, decreases in the content of testis protein and in testosterone levels in the testis, the interstitial fluid, and the epididymis were observed.

  1. Roles of connexins in testis development and spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kidder, Gerald M; Cyr, Daniel G

    2016-02-01

    The development and differentiation of cells involved in spermatogenesis requires highly regulated and coordinated interactions between cells. Intercellular communication, particularly via connexin43 (Cx43) gap junctions, plays a critical role in the development of germ cells during fetal development and during spermatogenesis in the adult. Loss of Cx43 in the fetus results in a decreased number of germ cells, while the loss of Cx43 in the adult Sertoli cells results in complete inhibition of spermatogenesis. Connexins 26, 32, 33, 36, 45, 46 and 50 have also been localized to specific compartments of the testis in various mammals. Loss of Cx46 is associated with an increase in germ cell apoptosis and loss of the integrity of the blood-testis barrier, while loss of other connexins appears to have more subtle effects within the seminiferous tubule. Outside the seminiferous tubule, the interstitial Leydig cells express connexins 36 and 45 along with Cx43; deletion of the latter connexin did not reveal it to be crucial for steroidogenesis or for the development and differentiation of Leydig cells. In contrast, loss of Cx43 from Sertoli cells results in Leydig cell hyperplasia, suggesting important cross-talk between Sertoli and Leydig cells. In the epididymis connexins 26, 30.3, Cx31.1, 32, and 43 have been identified and differentiation of the epithelium is associated with dramatic changes in their expression. Decreased expression of Cx43 results in decreased sperm motility, a function acquired by spermatozoa during epididymal transit. Clearly, intercellular gap junctional communication within the testis and epididymis represents a critical aspect of male reproductive function and fertility. The implications of this mode of intercellular communication for male fertility remains a poorly understood but important facet of male reproduction. PMID:26780117

  2. Cadmium inhibits testis and epididymal acidification in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Caflisch, C.r.p; DuBose, T.D. Jr.

    1986-03-01

    The testis is known to be highly sensitive to functional impairment by cadmium, a widely distributed trace metal. Both vascular compromise and inhibition of Leydig cell androgen production may result in impaired sperm maturation and motility. Recent studies by our laboratory have confirmed the presence of an acid mileau in the testis and epididymis which may play an important role in sperm maturation. In this study the effect of cadmium on luminal acidification was assessed in rat seminiferous tubules, caput and cauda epididymis by glass membrane double-barrelled pH microelectrodes in vivo. Four Sprague-Dawley rats received CdCl/sub 2/ (0.015 mM/kg s.c.) 24 hrs. prior to micropuncture and 4 rats served as controls. Arterial blood gas values were within the normal range and were not different in the two groups. Cadmium resulted in marked alkalinization of seminiferous tubule fluid compared to controls (7.30 +/- 0.01 (15) vs 6.97 +/- 0.01 (25)) (p < 0.001). Similarly, the pH in proximal caput after CdCl/sub 2/ was 7.07 +/- 0.02 (19) a value significantly more alkaline (p < 0.001) than 6.58 +/- 0.02 (24) in untreated animals. In contrast, however, pH in the distal caput was 6.90 +/- 0.03 (19), a value indistinguishable from that observed in controls. In summary, CdCl/sub 2/ administration is associated with marked impairment of acidification in the testis and proximal epididymus while acidification in the distal epididymus remains intact.

  3. Steroid signaling promotes stem cell maintenance in the Drosophila testis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yijie; Ma, Qing; Cherry, Christopher M; Matunis, Erika L

    2014-10-01

    Stem cell regulation by local signals is intensely studied, but less is known about the effects of hormonal signals on stem cells. In Drosophila, the primary steroid twenty-hydroxyecdysone (20E) regulates ovarian germline stem cells (GSCs) but was considered dispensable for testis GSC maintenance. Male GSCs reside in a microenvironment (niche) generated by somatic hub cells and adjacent cyst stem cells (CySCs). Here, we show that depletion of 20E from adult males by overexpressing a dominant negative form of the Ecdysone receptor (EcR) or its heterodimeric partner ultraspiracle (usp) causes GSC and CySC loss that is rescued by 20E feeding, uncovering a requirement for 20E in stem cell maintenance. EcR and USP are expressed, activated and autonomously required in the CySC lineage to promote CySC maintenance, as are downstream genes ftz-f1 and E75. In contrast, GSCs non-autonomously require ecdysone signaling. Global inactivation of EcR increases cell death in the testis that is rescued by expression of EcR-B2 in the CySC lineage, indicating that ecdysone signaling supports stem cell viability primarily through a specific receptor isoform. Finally, EcR genetically interacts with the NURF chromatin-remodeling complex, which we previously showed maintains CySCs. Thus, although 20E levels are lower in males than females, ecdysone signaling acts through distinct cell types and effectors to ensure both ovarian and testis stem cell maintenance. PMID:25093968

  4. Revascularization of the testis using a vascular induction technique: a potential approach for staged orchiopexy in high-undescended testis.

    PubMed

    Erçöçen, Ali Riza; Soejima, Kazutaka; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Yenidünya, Sibel; Kikuchi, Yuji; Nozaki, Motohiro

    2004-02-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether a fasciovascular flap as a vascular carrier could be used to revascularize the undescended testis for avoiding the hazardous effects of the Fowler-Stephens procedure, high division of the spermatic vessels, and for bringing high-undescended testes into the scrotum. A total of 25 Wistar rats were divided into five groups of five rats each. In each group, surgical procedures were performed bilaterally, i.e. ten testes in each group, as follows: sham-operated controls (group 1), undescended testes (group 2), high division of the spermatic vessels (group 3), vascular induction with immediate division of spermatic vessels (group 4), and with delayed division of spermatic vessels (group 5). Evaluations were done by measuring the testicular weight and volume, testicular blood flow, and testicular biopsy scores and by microangiography. A moderate to severe decrease in testicular weight and volume in all experimental groups was observed compared with the sham-operated controls (group 1), but this was significantly less in groups 2 and 5. High division of the spermatic vessels in groups 3 and 4 resulted in a significantly greater decrease in the testicular blood flow, but this did not occur in group 5. Microangiographically, an impaired vascular supply from the deferential artery in group 3 and insufficient revascularization from the fasciovascular carrier in group 4 were observed. However, efficient revascularization stemming from the superficial epigastric artery of the fasciovascular flap was found in group 5. The testicular biopsy scores of groups 2 and 5 were significantly greater than those of groups 3 and 4. The results of the present study demonstrate that the fasciovascular flap as a vascular carrier revascularizes the testis through spermatic vessels after delayed division and provides an adjuvant treatment modality or first-stage procedure in a salvage operation for high-undescended testis during staged

  5. Differential expression of estrogen receptor α and progesterone receptor in the normal and cryptorchid testis of a dog.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyo Young; Yoo, Dae Young; Jo, Young Kwang; Kim, Geon A; Chung, Jin Young; Choi, Jung Hoon; Jang, Goo; Hwang, In Koo

    2016-06-01

    Descending of the testes is an important process for spermatogenesis and cryptorchidism is one of the most relevant genital defects in dogs. In a previous study, we observed abnormal morphology and proliferation of Sertoli cells in a cryptorchid testis. In the present study, we investigated the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the normal and cryptorchid testis of a dog. Elective orchidectomy was performed on the dog's abdominal right testis (undescended, cryptorchid) and scrotal left testis (descended, normal). In the normal testis, estrogen receptor α immunoreactivity was detected in Leydig cells alone, while estrogen receptor α immunoreactivity in the cryptorchid testis was significantly prominent in the Sertoli cells as well. In addition, progesterone receptor immunoreactivity in the control testis was detected in the spermatids, but was not detected in the cryptorchid testis. This result suggests that unilateral cryptorchidism causes increases of estrogen receptor α expression in Sertoli cells. PMID:27382382

  6. Differential expression of estrogen receptor α and progesterone receptor in the normal and cryptorchid testis of a dog

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyo Young; Yoo, Dae Young; Jo, Young Kwang; Kim, Geon A; Chung, Jin Young; Choi, Jung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Descending of the testes is an important process for spermatogenesis and cryptorchidism is one of the most relevant genital defects in dogs. In a previous study, we observed abnormal morphology and proliferation of Sertoli cells in a cryptorchid testis. In the present study, we investigated the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the normal and cryptorchid testis of a dog. Elective orchidectomy was performed on the dog's abdominal right testis (undescended, cryptorchid) and scrotal left testis (descended, normal). In the normal testis, estrogen receptor α immunoreactivity was detected in Leydig cells alone, while estrogen receptor α immunoreactivity in the cryptorchid testis was significantly prominent in the Sertoli cells as well. In addition, progesterone receptor immunoreactivity in the control testis was detected in the spermatids, but was not detected in the cryptorchid testis. This result suggests that unilateral cryptorchidism causes increases of estrogen receptor α expression in Sertoli cells. PMID:27382382

  7. The effect of microgravity on tissue structure and function of rat testis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ye; Tang, Jin; Zou, Jun; She, Ruiping; Wang, Yinghua; Yue, Zhuo; Tian, Jijing; Xia, Kangkang; Yin, Jun; Wang, Desheng

    2011-12-01

    To explore whether an environment of weightlessness will cause damage to the reproductive system of animals, we used the tail-suspension model to simulate microgravity, and investigated the effect of microgravity on the tissue structure and function of the testis in sexually mature male rats. Forty-eight male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were randomly assigned to three groups (N = 16 each): control, tail traction, and tail suspension. After the rats were suspended for 7 or 14 days, morphological changes of testis were evaluated by histological and electron microscopic methods. The expression of HSP70, bax/bcl-2 and AR (androgen receptor) in testis was measured by immunohistochemistry. Obvious pathological lesions were present in the testis after the rats were suspended for 7 or 14 days. We detected overexpression of HSP70 and an increase of apoptotic cells, which may have contributed to the injury to the testis. The expression of AR, as an effector molecule in the testis, was significantly decreased in the suspended groups compared to control (P < 0.01). We also observed that, with a longer time of suspension, the aforementioned pathological damage became more serious and some pathological injury to the testis was irreversible. The results demonstrated that a short- or medium-term microgravity environment could lead to severe irreversible damage to the structure of rat testis. PMID:22042268

  8. Effects of different storage protocols on cat testis tissue potential for xenografting and recovery of spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mota, Paula C; Ehmcke, Jens; Westernströer, Birgit; Gassei, Kathrin; Ramalho-Santos, João; Schlatt, Stefan

    2012-01-15

    The loss of genetic diversity due to premature death of valuable individuals is a significant problem in animal conservation programs, including endangered felids. Testis tissue xenografting has emerged as a system to obtain spermatozoa from dead immature animals, however protocols to store this tissue before xenografting are still lacking. This study focused on testis tissue cryopreservation and storage from the domestic cat (Felis catus) classified as "pre-pubertal" and "pubertal" according to spermatogenesis development. Grafts from testis tissue cryopreserved with DMSO 1.4M, recovered after 10 weeks xenografting, presented seminiferous tubules with no germ cells. On the contrary, testis tissue from pre-pubertal animals preserved in ice-cold medium for 2 to 5 days presented no loss of viability or spermatogenic potential, while the number of grafts of pubertal cat testis tissue with germ cells after 10 weeks of xenografting decreased with increasing storage time. Nevertheless, even grafts from pre-pubertal cat testis tissue presented lower anti-DDX4 and anti-BOULE staining (proteins necessary for the meiosis completion), when compared with adult cat testis. Finally, a strong correlation found between testis weight and xenograft outcome may help choose good candidates for xenografting. PMID:21958640

  9. Primary adenocarcinoma of rete testis with distinct biphasic pattern: An extremely rare entity and diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Prithwijit; Saha, Kaushik

    2015-01-01

    Primary adenocarcinoma of rete testis is one of the rarest intrascrotal tumors. Very few cases have been reported in the literature. In addition, presence of biphasic component creates difficulty in the diagnosis. We present here a unique third case of rete testis adenocarcinoma having distinct cytologically malignant spindle cell component in a young male who presented with recurrent hydrocele. PMID:25810664

  10. Cystic rete testis with testicular dysplasia in a rabbit.

    PubMed

    Chambers, James K; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Murata, Yousuke; Watanabe, Ken-ichi; Ise, Kenichiro; Miwa, Yasutsugu; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2014-05-01

    An 8-year-old intact rabbit was presented to a veterinary hospital with a complaint of enlarged left scrotum. Histological examination revealed a single large cyst adjacent to an efferent ductule-like tissue. The cyst wall was composed of monolayer cuboidal cells surrounded by dysplastic testicular tissue, and the seminiferous tubules were not developed at all. The epithelial cells of the cyst possessed the same properties as the epithelial cells of the rete testis that were positive for CD 10 and cytokeratin 18, negative for p63 and lacked desmin-positive muscular layer. The dysplastic testicular tissue was composed of two types of cells: small pleomorphic cells with a condensed nucleus (sex cord-like cells) and large round cells with cytoplasmic lipid droplets (Leydig cells). Both of these cells were positive for vimentin and melan A that are consistent with the staining pattern of Sertoli cells and Leydig cells. This is the first report to demonstrate cystic rete testis with testicular dysplasia in animals. PMID:24430659

  11. Cadmium-induced genetic instability in mice testis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Helena; Lopes, Tina; Almeida, Tânia; Pereira, Maria de Lourdes; Santos, Conceição

    2012-12-01

    Cadmium is a well recognized carcinogenic, cytotoxic and mutagenic transition metal. Recent evidence suggests that the proteins participating in the DNA repair systems, especially in excision and mismatch repair (MMR), are sensitive targets of cadmium toxicity. Microsatellite instability (MSI) is regarded as one of the phenotypes of defective DNA MMR and, consequently, as a marker of high risk for cancer. The purpose of this work is to determine whether cadmium, in the form of cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)), may induce microsatellite mutations in murine testes. For this study, 2-month-old male ICR-CD1 mice were treated by a single subcutaneous injection of 1, 2 and 3 mg CdCl(2)/kg body weight and killed after 35 days. A panel of six microsatellite markers, previously reported as being the most sensitive in detecting MSI in murine tumours, was used in this study. The results show that CdCl(2) in the doses of 2 and 3 mg/kg induced a decrease in the testis weight and severe histopathologic changes with complete disorganization of testicular structure and evidences of severe necrosis. In addition, the animals exposed to the lowest CdCl(2) dose presented MSI in the testis. The results indicate the existence of MSI in at least two nuclear loci suggesting putative genotoxic effects induced by cadmium. PMID:22699117

  12. A novel circulating hormone of testis origin in humans.

    PubMed

    Foresta, Carlo; Bettella, Andrea; Vinanzi, Cinzia; Dabrilli, Paolo; Meriggiola, Maria Cristina; Garolla, Andrea; Ferlin, Alberto

    2004-12-01

    Insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3) is a member of the relaxin-insulin family, and it is expressed in pre- and postnatal Leydig cells of the testis. This peptide affects testicular descent during embryonic development, and mutations in INSL3 gene or its receptor LGR8 (leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 8)/GREAT (G protein-coupled receptor affecting testicular descent) cause cryptorchidism in humans. The expression of LGR8/GREAT in different tissues and the production of INSL3 also by adult-type Leydig cells suggest additional roles of this hormonal system in adulthood. In this preliminary report we performed the first analysis in humans of INSL3 using a novel RIA kit to measure INSL3 concentrations in serum of normal men and with different testicular pathologies. The results show that INSL3 is circulating in adult men, and it is almost exclusively of testicular origin. Subjects with severe testicular damage, such as men with severe infertility, produce low amount of INSL3, and the concentrations of this hormone seem to reflect the functional status of the Leydig cells. In particular, INSL3 concentrations may be an even more sensitive marker of Leydig cell function than testosterone itself. Analysis of men treated with different combinations of hormones of the hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis suggests that the production of INSL3 is related to LH in a manner similar to that of the LH-testosterone axis. PMID:15579743

  13. The insensitivity to uncouplers of testis mitochondrial ATPase.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Memije, M E; Izquierdo-Reyes, V; Delhumeau-Ongay, G

    1988-01-01

    Albumin-free testis mitochondrial ATPase activity failed to be stimulated by either 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) or carbonyl cyanide rho-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP). DNP scarcely enhanced the state 4 respiration and mitochondria proved to be poorly coupled. When 1% bovine serum albumin was added to the isolation medium, DNP or FCCP stimulated ATPase nearly twofold and the dose-response curves for the uncouplers on the QO2 reached a plateau at five- to sixfold. The DNP coupling index (q) also showed a 30-40% improvement. A dose-response curve for oligomycin on the rate of [gamma-32P]ATP synthesis showed a stimulation of ATP synthase activity by 10-100 ng inhibitor/mg protein, suggesting a possible blockade of "open" F0 channels. In the albumin preparation oligomycin inhibited ATP synthesis in the range 10-100 ng/mg protein. Since testis ATPase is known to be loosely bound to the membrane, an effect of albumin, improving tightness in the interaction of the F1 and the F0 sectors of the ATPase, is suggested. PMID:2449129

  14. Fertility after homologous prepubertal testis transplantation in the dog.

    PubMed

    Pullium, J K; Milner, R; Tuma, G A; Lin, P H

    2008-10-01

    Canine models of hereditary human diseases are widely used throughout the biomedical community, particularly when no suitable rodent model exists. In several models, the homozygote dogs die prior to puberty, or have substantially reduced fertility. Prepubertal transplantation of the testes was used to propagate the genotype of a mutant dog that would not otherwise have survived until puberty. The transplant recipient remained fertile 7 years postoperatively. To begin determining the factors necessary for successful function in testis transplants, prepubertal dogs that were dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) identical and disparate were examined for fertility and compared to the original transplant recipient as well as unoperated and sham-operated dogs. Immunosuppression was maintained with cyclosporine (CyA) and prednisone in the immediate postoperative period and CyA alone thereafter. The DLA-identical dogs demonstrated initial acceptance of the transplant, whereas one of two underwent chronic rejection. Both DLA-disparate dogs had subacute rejection prior to sexual maturity. These results demonstrate that homologous transplantation of prepubertal testes can be an effective method to preserve genotype in DLA-identical dogs. This model may also be useful for studying testis development and immunobiology. PMID:18929852

  15. Ovarian-type epithelial tumours of the testis: immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of two serous borderline tumours of the testis.

    PubMed

    Bürger, Tobias; Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Inniger, Reinhard; Hansen, Joachim; Mayer, Peter; Schweyer, Stefan; Radzun, Heinz Joachim; Ströbel, Philipp; Bremmer, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Tumours of ovarian-epithelial type of the testis, including serous borderline tumours, represent very rare entities. They are identical to the surface epithelial tumours of the ovary and have been reported in patients from 14 to 68 years of age. We describe two cases of a 46- and a 39-year old man with incidental findings of intratesticular masses of the left respectively right testis. Under the assumption of a malignant testicular tumour the patients were subjected to inguinal orchiectomy. Histologically, the tumours were identical to their ovarian counterparts: They showed a cystic configuration with a fibrous wall and irregular papillary structures lined by partially multistratified columnar cells and areas of hobnail cells. Furthermore, there was mild cytological atypia with a proliferative activity of below 5% as proved by Ki67 staining; mitoses could not be detected. Immunohistochemically, the tumour cells displayed expression of pan-cytokeratin AE3, progesterone receptor, Wilms' tumour protein (WT1), and PAX8 (Paired box gene 8). Estrogen receptor was expressed in one case. Octamer-binding transcription factor-4 (OCT4), calretinin, thrombomodulin, and D2-40 were not expressed. Mutation testing of BRAF revealed a BRAF V600E mutation in one case, while testing for KRAS mutations proved to be negative in both. The BRAF mutated tumour showed strong cytosolic and membranous positivity for B-Raf also on immunohistochemical analysis. Comparative genomic hybridization of one case could not reveal any chromosomal aberrations. PMID:26197800

  16. Effects of plants and plant products on the testis

    PubMed Central

    D'Cruz, Shereen Cynthia; Vaithinathan, Selvaraju; Jubendradass, Rajamanickam; Mathur, Premendu Prakash

    2010-01-01

    For centuries, plants and plant-based products have been used as a valuable and safe natural source of medicines for treating various ailments. The therapeutic potential of most of these plants could be ascribed to their anticancer, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antispasmodic, analgesic and various other pharmacological properties. However, several commonly used plants have been reported to adversely affect male reproductive functions in wildlife and humans. The effects observed with most of the plant and plant-based products have been attributed to the antispermatogenic and/or antisteroidogenic properties of one or more active ingredients. This review discusses the detrimental effects of some of the commonly used plants on various target cells in the testis. A deeper insight into the molecular mechanisms of action of these natural compounds could pave the way for developing therapeutic strategies against their toxicity. PMID:20562897

  17. The transmediastinal arteries of the human testis: an anatomical study.

    PubMed

    Pais, D; Fontoura, P; Esperança-Pina, J A

    2004-10-01

    Although the arterial supply of the human testis via the testicular artery is a well-studied subject, the pattern of approach that this vessel takes when reaching the gland is, on the other hand, not as well described. Based on the observation of angiological preparations of 196 adult human testes, the authors describe the presence of transmediastinal testicular vessels in one fourth of the cases. These were of two varieties, as regards the testicular mediastinum: centrifugal and centripetal. The centrifugal vessels were briefly mentioned in the nineteenth century scientific literature, undescribed in twentieth century anatomical studies and only recently referred to in color Doppler ultrasonographic studies; the centripetal vessels are previously undescribed. The authors propose the terms transmediastinal centrifugal and centripetal arteries to designate them. PMID:15205918

  18. Epidermoid cyst of the testis: An atypical sonographic appearance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Ting; Chiou, Hong-Jen; Pan, Chin-Chen; Shen, Shu-Huei; Chou, Yi-Hong; Tiu, Chui-Mei; Wang, Hsin-Kai; Lai, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yung-Hui; Wang, Jane; Chang, Cheng-Yen

    2016-09-01

    Epidermoid cysts are rare. They represent the most common benign tumor of the testis. The sonographic appearances of testicular epidermoid cysts usually include avascular, mostly lamellated, heterogeneous internal echotexture, with hypoechoic and hyperechoic concentric rings, accounting for the typical onion-ring appearance. On MRI, epidermoid cysts show a low-signal-intensity center, with internal concentric rings of alternating high- and low-signal intensity on T2-weighted images, which correlates with the onion-ring appearance. We report a patient with testicular epidermoid cyst with atypical ultrasound and MRI appearances that led to the erroneous initial diagnosis of "burned-out" tumor. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 44:448-451, 2016. PMID:27028726

  19. Studies on gonadotropin receptor of rat ovary and testis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Q.

    1989-01-01

    The subunit structure of the testicular LH/hCG receptor was studied by a chemical cross-linking technique. Leydig cells isolated from rat testis were incubated with {sup 125}I-hCG, following which the bound {sup 125}I-hCG was covalently cross-linked to the receptor on the cell surface with a cleavable or a non-cleavable cross-linking reagent. The hormone-receptor complex was extracted and then either subjected to gel permeation chromatography under nondenaturing conditions, or resolved by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by autoradiographic analysis. The ovarian LH/hCG receptor was studied with luteal cells from pseudopregnant rats. Purification of the receptor was achieved by ligand affinity chromatography following detergent solubilization of the plasma membrane. The purified hCG receptor displayed properties identical to the membrane bound receptor with regard to binding specificity and affinity, and exhibited a molecular weight of approximately 130,000 dalton.

  20. Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination

    SciTech Connect

    Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective.

  1. Steroidogenesis of the testis -- new genes and pathways.

    PubMed

    Flück, Christa E; Pandey, Amit V

    2014-05-01

    Defects of androgen biosynthesis cause 46,XY disorder of sexual development (DSD). All steroids are produced from cholesterol and the early steps of steroidogenesis are common to mineralocorticoid, glucocorticoid and sex steroid production. Genetic mutations in enzymes and proteins supporting the early biosynthesis pathways cause adrenal insufficiency (AI), DSD and gonadal insufficiency. The classic androgen biosynthesis defects with AI are lipoid CAH, CYP11A1 and HSD3B2 deficiencies. Deficiency of CYP17A1 rarely causes AI, and HSD17B3 or SRD5A2 deficiencies only cause 46,XY DSD and gonadal insufficiency. All androgen biosynthesis depends on 17,20 lyase activity of CYP17A1 which is supported by P450 oxidoreductase (POR) and cytochrome b5 (CYB5). Therefore 46,XY DSD with apparent 17,20 lyase deficiency may be due to mutations in CYP17A1, POR or CYB5. Illustrated by patients harboring mutations in SRD5A2, normal development of the male external genitalia depends largely on dihydrotestosterone (DHT) which is converted from circulating testicular testosterone (T) through SRD5A2 in the genital skin. In the classic androgen biosynthetic pathway, T is produced from DHEA and androstenedione/-diol in the testis. However, recently found mutations in AKR1C2/4 genes in undervirilized 46,XY individuals have established a role for a novel, alternative, backdoor pathway for fetal testicular DHT synthesis. In this pathway, which has been first elucidated for the tammar wallaby pouch young, 17-hydroxyprogesterone is converted directly to DHT by 5α-3α reductive steps without going through the androgens of the classic pathway. Enzymes AKR1C2/4 catalyse the critical 3αHSD reductive reaction which feeds 17OH-DHP into the backdoor pathway. In conclusion, androgen production in the fetal testis seems to utilize two pathways but their exact interplay remains to be elucidated. PMID:24793988

  2. A Case of Adult Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Testis

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Stephen B.; Morilla, Dan B.; Schaber, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Female, 22 Final Diagnosis: Testis granulosa cell tumor Symptoms: Pain in testicles • swelling of epididymides • tenderness of epididymiides Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Urology Objective: Rare disease Background: Adult granulosa cell tumors of the testis (AGCTT) are classified as sex cord-stromal tumors. Only 31 cases have been reported. Typical presentation includes a slowly enlarging, painless testicular mass. Associated findings are gynecomastia, decreased libido, and erectile dysfunction. Immunohistochemistry can be used to confirm the diagnosis. Case Rrport: A 22-year-old male presented with complaint of mild pain in both testicles. A testicular ultrasound revealed a 4.0×3.8×4.6 mm hypoechoic lesion within the left testicle. Serum tumor markers (STM) included lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) measuring 146 IU/L (98–192), serum alpha-1-fetoprotein (AFP), 2.89 ng/mL (0–9), and plasma beta human chorionic gonadotropin (Beta HCG) measuring less than 0.50 mIU/mL (<0.50–2.67). Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis with oral and intravenous contrast was normal. A radical orchiectomy was recommended but the patient refused. He agreed to surveillance with imaging and serum tumor markers (STM). The patient’s testicular ultrasound showed the mass to be stable in size and STMs remained negative. The patient agreed to an orchiectomy 9 months after his diagnosis. This case is the first reported with c-kit-positive immunohistochemistry. His post-operative course has been unremarkable. Conclusions: AGCTT is a rare tumor and information regarding its presentation, gross and microscopic morphology, and immunohistochemical characteristics is lacking. This report provides an update of the immunohistochemical findings and adds to the available data concerning this tumor. Based on the results of this case, future reports that include c-kit immunohistochemistry would be beneficial to evaluate its utility in diagnosing AGCTT. PMID

  3. Dynamics of INSL3 peptide expression in the rodent testis.

    PubMed

    Anand-Ivell, Ravinder; Heng, Kee; Hafen, Bettina; Setchell, Brian; Ivell, Richard

    2009-09-01

    The Leydig cell-specific factor insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) is involved in testicular descent during embryo development, and has been suggested to regulate spermatogenesis and bone metabolism in the adult. Using a new, sensitive assay specific for rodent INSL3, we have mapped the secretion of INSL3 into peripheral blood in mice and during postnatal male rat development (in female rats, circulating INSL3 is at the level of detection). Maximum INSL3 is measured at Postnatal Day (PD) 40 in the rat and decreases to a significantly lower, stable value by PD60, indicating an "overshoot" effect in the establishment of Leydig cell functionality during the first wave of spermatogenesis. Aging rats ( approximately 24 mo) have markedly reduced circulating INSL3 levels, as do humans. Treatment of young adult rats with ethane dimethylsulfonate (EDS) leads to loss of mature Leydig cells and no detectable INSL3 in peripheral blood. INSL3 can be detected first at Day 27 after EDS treatment, returning to near normal levels by Day 37. Both primary rat Leydig cells and the mouse MA-10 tumor cell line secrete substantial amounts of INSL3 into the culture media in a constitutive manner, unregulated by common effectors, including hCG. Analysis of different testicular fluid compartments shows highest INSL3 concentration in the interstitial fluid (391.4 +/- 47.8 ng/ml). However, INSL3 evidently traverses the blood-testis barrier to enter the seminiferous compartment, rete testis, and epididymis in sufficient concentration to be able to address the specific INSL3 receptors (RXFP2) on post-meiotic germ cells and in the epididymis. PMID:19420383

  4. The effect of opium dependency on testis volume: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Cyrus, Ali; Solhi, Hassan; Azizabadi Farahani, Mahdi; Khoddami Vishteh, Hamid Reza; Goudarzi, Davoud; Mosayebi, Ghasem; Mohamadian, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given the paucity of data on possible testis changes in opioid dependents, we sought to compare the testis volumes between a group of opium dependents and a group of healthy controls. Objective: Comparison of testis volume between opium dependents and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: This case-control study recruited 100 men with opium dependency (cases) and 100 healthy men (controls) in Iran, in 2008. A checklist containing questions about age, height, weight, daily amount of cigarette use, and duration of cigarette use for all the participants as well as daily amount of opium use (grams) and duration of opium use (years) for the case group was completed. Additionally, the dimensions of each testis were measured by a single person using calipers, and the mean of the left and right testes volume was compared between these two groups. Results: The mean of the testis volumes in the case group was significantly lower than that of the case group (11.2±2.2 and 25.1±2.7cm³, p<0.001). The results of the ANCOVA test showed that even after the omission of the cigarette smoking effect (p=0.454), the testis volume remained lower in the opium dependents (R2=0.884, p<0.001). In the case group, there were significant reverse correlations between testis volume and age (r=-0.404, p<0.001), daily amount of opium use (r=-0/207, p=0.039) and duration of opium use (r=-0.421, p<0.001). Conclusion: We found that the testis volume in the male opium dependents was lower than that of the healthy controls. We would recommend that future studies into the impact of drugs on the testis dimensions pay heed to possible histological changes in the testes owing to opium dependency. PMID:25246920

  5. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes and Signaling Pathways between XY and YY Testis in Yellow Catfish

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Junjie; Xiong, Shuting; Jing, Jing; Chen, Xin; Wang, Weimin; Gui, Jian-Fang; Mei, Jie

    2015-01-01

    YY super-males have rarely been detected in nature and only been artificially created in some fish species including tilapia and yellow catfish (Pelteobagrusfulvidraco), which provides a promising model for testis development and spermatogenesis. In our previous study, significant differences in morphology and miRNA expression were detected between XY and YY testis of yellow catfish. Here, solexa sequencing technology was further performed to compare mRNA expression between XY and YY testis. Compared with unigenes expressed in XY testis, 1146 and 1235 unigenes have significantly higher and lower expression in YY testis, respectively. 605 differentially expressed unigenes were annotated to 1604 GO terms with 319 and 286 genes having relative higher expression in XY and YY testis. KEGG analysis suggested different levels of PI3K-AKT and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathways between XY and YY testis. Down-regulation of miR-141/429 in YY testis was speculated to promote testis development and maturation, and several factors in PI3K-AKT and GPCR signaling pathways were found as predicted targets of miR-141/429, several of which were confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assays. Our study provides a comparative transcriptome analysis between XY and YY testis, and reveals interactions between miRNAs and their target genes that are possibly involved in regulating testis development and spermatogenesis. PMID:26241040

  6. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes and Signaling Pathways between XY and YY Testis in Yellow Catfish.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junjie; Xiong, Shuting; Jing, Jing; Chen, Xin; Wang, Weimin; Gui, Jian-Fang; Mei, Jie

    2015-01-01

    YY super-males have rarely been detected in nature and only been artificially created in some fish species including tilapia and yellow catfish (Pelteobagrusfulvidraco), which provides a promising model for testis development and spermatogenesis. In our previous study, significant differences in morphology and miRNA expression were detected between XY and YY testis of yellow catfish. Here, solexa sequencing technology was further performed to compare mRNA expression between XY and YY testis. Compared with unigenes expressed in XY testis, 1146 and 1235 unigenes have significantly higher and lower expression in YY testis, respectively. 605 differentially expressed unigenes were annotated to 1604 GO terms with 319 and 286 genes having relative higher expression in XY and YY testis. KEGG analysis suggested different levels of PI3K-AKT and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathways between XY and YY testis. Down-regulation of miR-141/429 in YY testis was speculated to promote testis development and maturation, and several factors in PI3K-AKT and GPCR signaling pathways were found as predicted targets of miR-141/429, several of which were confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assays. Our study provides a comparative transcriptome analysis between XY and YY testis, and reveals interactions between miRNAs and their target genes that are possibly involved in regulating testis development and spermatogenesis. PMID:26241040

  7. Cavernous haemangioma of the testis mimicking testicular malignancy in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Naveed, S; Quari, H; Sharma, H

    2013-11-01

    Haemangioma of the testis is a rare condition. This benign vascular neoplasm may arise either within the testicular parenchyma (intratesticular) as in this case or from adnexal structures of the testis (extratesticular). Intratesticular haemangioma is rarer than extratesticular form. Intratesticular vascular neoplasms are extremely rare tumours and mostly seen in children or young adults. There are 21 reported testicular haemangioma cases in the literature as indexed in PubMed. Since 2007, only 19 cases of cavernous haemangioma have been reported in the literature in PubMed and other indexed sites. We report a case of cavernous haemangioma of the testis to attract attention to testicular haemangioma and also to prevent invasive surgery of the testis. PMID:24215057

  8. Nuclear Protein of the Testis Midline Carcinoma Masquerading as a Primary Mediastinal Seminoma

    PubMed Central

    Sayapina, Maria S.; Savelov, Nikita A.; Karseladze, Apollon I.; Bulanov, Anatoly A.; Tryakin, Alexey A.; Nosov, Dmitry A.; Garin, Avgust M.; Tjulandin, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear protein of the testis (NUT) midline carcinomas are rare aggressive carcinomas characterized by chromosomal rearrangements that involve the gene encoding the NUT. This article reviews the clinicopathologic features and the differential diagnosis of these malignancies. PMID:27441078

  9. Epidermal Cyst in the Scrotum Successfully Treated while Preserving the Testis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Takuya; Kawahara, Takashi; Matsumoto, Taro; Yamamoto, Yuko; Tsutsui, Miho; Ohtani, Masako; Ohtaka, Mari; Kumano, Yohei; Maeda, Yoko; Mochizuki, Taku; Mori, Kohei; Asai, Takuo; Kuroda, Shinnosuke; Takeshima, Teppei; Hattori, Yusuke; Teranishi, Jun-ichi; Miyoshi, Yasuhide; Yumura, Yasushi; Yao, Masahiro; Inayama, Yoshiaki; Uemura, Hiroji

    2016-01-01

    A 66-year-old male was referred to our hospital for further examination of a scrotal mass. Because of the risk of testicular cancer, we first clamped the vessels as a course of higher orchiectomy. Then, we approached the tumor through the scrotum and successfully resected it while preserving the testis. A histopathological diagnosis revealed an epidermal cyst. We herein report a rare case of an intrascrotal epidermal cyst successfully treated while preserving the testis. PMID:27194984

  10. Misuse of ultrasound for palpable undescended testis by primary care providers: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Nathan C.; Bansal, Rahul K.; Lorenzo, Armando J.; DeMaria, Jorge; Braga, Luis H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Although previous evidence has shown that ultrasound is unreliable to diagnose undescended testis, many primary care providers (PCP) continue to misuse it. We assessed the performance of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool for palpable undescended testis, as well as the diagnostic agreement between PCP and pediatric urologists. Methods: We performed a prospective observational cohort study between 2011 and 2013 for consecutive boys referred with a diagnosis of undescended testis to our tertiary pediatric hospital. Patients referred without an ultrasound and those with non-palpable testes were excluded. Data on referring diagnosis, pediatric urology examination and ultrasound reports were analyzed. Results: Our study consisted of 339 boys. Of these, patients without an ultrasound (n = 132) and those with non-palpable testes (n = 38) were excluded. In the end, there were 169 pateints in this study. Ultrasound was performed in 50% of referred boys showing 256 undescended testis. The mean age at time of referral was 45 months. When ultrasound was compared to physical examination by the pediatric urologist, agreement was only 34%. The performance of ultrasound for palpable undescended testis was: sensitivity = 100%; specificity = 16%; positive predictive value = 34%; negative predictive value = 100%; positive likelihood ratio = 1.2; and negative likelihood ratio = 0. Diagnosis of undescended testis by PCP was confirmed by physical examination in 30% of cases, with 70% re-diagnosed with normal or retractile testes. Conclusion: Ultrasound performed poorly to assess for palpable undescended testis in boys and should not be used. Although the study has important limitations, there is an increasing need for education and evidence-based guidelines for PCP in the management of undescended testis. PMID:26788226

  11. Pathogenesis of teratoid tumors of the ovary and testis.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, R M

    1975-01-01

    Based upon a representative sample of testicular tumors studied at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, several testicular and ovarian tumors observed in Denver, pertinent papers in the literature, and the singular thesis of Chevassu on tumors of the testis, the pathogenesis of such neoplasms is elaborated. The findings are philosophical, speculative, and established. Man is a multicellular individual to be regarded as a vehicle for the transmission of unicellular organisms or germ cells from one generation to the next. These cells remain distinct from somatic and trophoblastic cells. The mature human female not only tolerates the normal expression of the fertilized ovum during pregnancy (sex cells, blastoderm, and trophoblast) but also seems capable of greater differentiation of immature somatic cells resulting from parthenogenesis of one or more ova into cells of the three germ layers, as well as the suppression of the growth of neoplastic sex cells and trophoblast cells, with benign cystic teratoma as the most common culmination. The preponderance of malignant teratoid tumors before sexual maturity is a corollary. In contrast, the human male is not equipped with organizers postulated for the human female and thus is unable to differentiate malignant immature somatic cells, the most common cancerous element in testicular tumors. The explanation for such neoplasms must be on the basis of segregation of such cells and abnormal spermatogonia or less often trophoblastic cells in the embryo, with later expression as neoplastic cells, since spermatogonia and progeny are unable to form a new individual. To paraphrase Wilms, the statement may be made that malignant testicular and ovarian tumors of teratoid type are related, despite their different microscopic appearance, to a common form. They differ only in the quality, not in the quantity, of the different tissues comprising them. These tumors contain neoplastic blastodermic cells and differentiated cells of the

  12. Testicular Ectopia in the Anterior Abdominal Wall of a Neonate: A Rare Site of Ectopic Testis.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Salman Atiq; Marei, Tamer Ibrahim; Al-Makhaita, Ghada

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Abnormal testicular descent can either be undescended or, less commonly, ectopic. Most undescended testes complete the course of descent by the first year of life only if these remain in the normal path of descent. The deviation of the testis may occur to an ectopic location during the transinguinal phase. Of the known ectopic sites, the anterior abdominal wall is the rarest site of testicular ectopia and to our knowledge only 3 cases of this nature have been reported in the available literature to date.  CASE REPORT This rare case of testicular ectopia occurred in a 3-day-old boy in whom the right scrotal sac was empty; on abdominal ultrasound, the right testis was found in the subcutaneous tissues of the right antero-lateral abdominal wall. These findings were confirmed on abdominal MRI, where the right testis was seen beneath the skin between the subcutaneous tissues and external oblique aponeurosis. No aponeurotic or muscular defect was appreciable under the abdominal wall. The neonate underwent orchiopexy at the age of 6 months and remained uneventful postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS Preoperative imaging is recommended to detect and confirm the ectopic site as well as the morphology of testis, thereby increasing the chance of surveillance and preservation of an ectopic testis. Imaging can serve as preoperative road mapping to localize the exact site for surgical exploration of an ectopic testis if there is no apparent or palpable swelling over the anterior abdominal wall. PMID:27411886

  13. Ontogenesis and cell specific localization of Fas ligand expression in the rat testis.

    PubMed

    D'Abrizio, Piera; Baldini, Enke; Russo, Paola F; Biordi, Leda; Graziano, Filomena M; Rucci, Nadia; Properzi, Giuliana; Francavilla, Sandro; Ulisse, Salvatore

    2004-10-01

    Over the past few years, a number of experimental evidences suggested the involvement of Fas Ligand (FasL) expressing Sertoli cells to induce apoptosis of Fas bearing germ cells. However, the FasL expression during testicular development and its cell specific localization within the testis is still a matter of debate. In the present study, we have monitored FasL expression during rat testis development by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and evaluated cell specific localization of FasL expression, by in situ RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, on adult rat testis. RT-PCR analysis, performed on total RNA from rat testes obtained from 1 day up to 1-year-old animals, demonstrated the presence of FasL transcripts at all developmental stages examined. In situ RT-PCR analysis clearly indicated the presence of FasL mRNA in Sertoli cells of adult testis, while we could never detect FasL transcripts in germ cells. Immunohistochemistry experiments showed a strong immunostaining for FasL in Sertoli cells of adult testis and again, no immunopositivity was observed in germ cells. In conclusion, our data suggest that FasL expression in rat testis is present from the early postnatal days up to the adult, and the Sertoli cells is the main FasL expressing cell within the seminiferous tubule. PMID:15379972

  14. Fas and Fas ligand expression in fetal and adult human testis with normal or deranged spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Francavilla, S; D'Abrizio, P; Rucci, N; Silvano, G; Properzi, G; Straface, E; Cordeschi, G; Necozione, S; Gnessi, L; Arizzi, M; Ulisse, S

    2000-08-01

    In mice, the Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) system has been shown to be involved in germ cell apoptosis. In the present study we evaluated the expression of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) in fetal and adult human testis. Semiquantitative RT-PCR demonstrated the expression of Fas and FasL messenger ribonucleic acids in adult testis, but not in fetal testis (20-22 weeks gestation). In situ RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry experiments on adult human testis demonstrated the expression of FasL messenger ribonucleic acid and protein in Sertoli and Leydig cells, whereas the expression of Fas was confined to the Leydig cells and sporadic degenerating spermatocytes. The number of Fas-positive germ cells per 100 Sertoli cell nuclei was increased in 10 biopsies with postmeiotic germ cell arrest compared to 10 normal testis biopsies (mean, 3.82 +/- 0.45 vs. 2.02 +/- 0.29; P = 0.0001), but not in 10 biopsies with meiotic germ cell arrest (mean, 1.56 +/- 1.07). Fas and FasL proteins were not expressed in cases of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Together, these findings may suggest that Fas/FasL expression in the human testis is developmentally regulated and under gonadotropin control. The increased germ cell expression of Fas in patients with postmeiotic germ cell arrest suggests that the Fas/FasL system may be involved in the quality control mechanism of the produced gametes. PMID:10946867

  15. Plastins regulate ectoplasmic specialization via its actin bundling activity on microfilaments in the rat testis.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Wong, Chris Kc; Cheng, C Yan

    2016-01-01

    Plastins are a family of actin binding proteins (ABPs) known to cross-link actin microfilaments in mammalian cells, creating actin microfilament bundles necessary to confer cell polarity and cell shape. Plastins also support cell movement in response to changes in environment, involved in cell/tissue growth and development. They also confer plasticity to cells and tissues in response to infection or other pathological conditions (e.g., inflammation). In the testis, the cell-cell anchoring junction unique to the testis that is found at the Sertoli cell-cell interface at the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and at the Sertoli-spermatid (e.g., 8-19 spermatids in the rat testis) is the basal and the apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES), respectively. The ES is an F-actin-rich anchoring junction constituted most notably by actin microfilament bundles. A recent report using RNAi that specifically knocks down plastin 3 has yielded some insightful information regarding the mechanism by which plastin 3 regulates the status of actin microfilament bundles at the ES via its intrinsic actin filament bundling activity. Herein, we provide a brief review on the role of plastins in the testis in light of this report, which together with recent findings in the field, we propose a likely model by which plastins regulate ES function during the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis via their intrinsic activity on actin microfilament organization in the rat testis. PMID:26608945

  16. 0610009K11Rik, a testis-specific and germ cell nuclear receptor-interacting protein

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Heng; Denhard, Leslie A.; Zhou Huaxin; Liu Lanhsin; Lan Zijian

    2008-02-22

    Using an in silico approach, a putative nuclear receptor-interacting protein 0610009K11Rik was identified in mouse testis. We named this gene testis-specific nuclear receptor-interacting protein-1 (Tnrip-1). Tnrip-1 was predominantly expressed in the testis of adult mouse tissues. Expression of Tnrip-1 in the testis was regulated during postnatal development, with robust expression in 14-day-old or older testes. In situ hybridization analyses showed that Tnrip-1 is highly expressed in pachytene spermatocytes and spermatids. Consistent with its mRNA expression, Tnrip-1 protein was detected in adult mouse testes. Immunohistochemical studies showed that Tnrip-1 is a nuclear protein and mainly expressed in pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation analyses showed that endogenous Tnrip-1 protein can interact with germ cell nuclear receptor (GCNF) in adult mouse testes. Our results suggest that Tnrip-1 is a testis-specific and GCNF-interacting protein which may be involved in the modulation of GCNF-mediated gene transcription in spermatogenic cells within the testis.

  17. Plastins regulate ectoplasmic specialization via its actin bundling activity on microfilaments in the rat testis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Wong, Chris KC; Cheng, C Yan

    2016-01-01

    Plastins are a family of actin binding proteins (ABPs) known to cross-link actin microfilaments in mammalian cells, creating actin microfilament bundles necessary to confer cell polarity and cell shape. Plastins also support cell movement in response to changes in environment, involved in cell/tissue growth and development. They also confer plasticity to cells and tissues in response to infection or other pathological conditions (e.g., inflammation). In the testis, the cell-cell anchoring junction unique to the testis that is found at the Sertoli cell-cell interface at the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and at the Sertoli-spermatid (e.g., 8–19 spermatids in the rat testis) is the basal and the apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES), respectively. The ES is an F-actin-rich anchoring junction constituted most notably by actin microfilament bundles. A recent report using RNAi that specifically knocks down plastin 3 has yielded some insightful information regarding the mechanism by which plastin 3 regulates the status of actin microfilament bundles at the ES via its intrinsic actin filament bundling activity. Herein, we provide a brief review on the role of plastins in the testis in light of this report, which together with recent findings in the field, we propose a likely model by which plastins regulate ES function during the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis via their intrinsic activity on actin microfilament organization in the rat testis. PMID:26608945

  18. Chronic pain has a negative impact on sexuality in testis cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Pühse, Gerald; Wachsmuth, Julia Urte; Kemper, Sebastian; Husstedt, Ingo W; Evers, Stefan; Kliesch, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Testis cancer is a disease that directly affects a man's sense of masculinity and involves treatments compromising sexual function. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and the influence of chronic pain on sexuality in long-term testis cancer survivors. Thus, we examined 539 patients after they had one testis removed because of a testicular germ cell tumor. Having completed oncologic therapy, all patients received a detailed questionnaire asking about the occurrence and clinical presentation of testis pain before and after orchiectomy. In addition, items from the abridged International Index of Erectile Function and Brief Sexual Function Inventory were used to gain precise information on individual sexual function. Overall, 34.5% of our testicular cancer survivors complained of reduced sexual desire, and sexual activity was reduced in 41.6%. Erectile dysfunction was present in up to 31.5% of patients. In 24.4%, the ability to maintain an erection during intercourse was impaired. Ejaculatory disorders (premature, delayed, retrograde, or anejaculation) occurred in 84.9% of our testis cancer survivors. A total of 32.4% of our participants experienced a reduced intensity of orgasm, and 95.4% experienced reduced overall sexual satisfaction. There was a significant correlation between the occurrence of chronic pain symptoms and the relative frequency and intensity of erectile dysfunction, inability to maintain an erection, ejaculation disorders, and reduced intensity of orgasm. In conclusion, chronic pain has a negative impact on sexuality in testis cancer survivors. PMID:21474790

  19. Tissue-Based Proteogenomics Reveals that Human Testis Endows Plentiful Missing Proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yao; Li, Qidan; Wu, Feilin; Zhou, Ruo; Qi, Yingzi; Su, Na; Chen, Lingsheng; Xu, Shaohang; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Chengpu; Cheng, Gang; Chen, Xinguo; Kong, Degang; Wang, Yujia; Zhang, Tao; Zi, Jin; Wei, Wei; Gao, Yuan; Zhen, Bei; Xiong, Zhi; Wu, Songfeng; Yang, Pengyuan; Wang, Quanhui; Wen, Bo; He, Fuchu; Xu, Ping; Liu, Siqi

    2015-09-01

    Investigations of missing proteins (MPs) are being endorsed by many bioanalytical strategies. We proposed that proteogenomics of testis tissue was a feasible approach to identify more MPs because testis tissues have higher gene expression levels. Here we combined proteomics and transcriptomics to survey gene expression in human testis tissues from three post-mortem individuals. Proteins were extracted and separated with glycine- and tricine-SDS-PAGE. A total of 9597 protein groups were identified; of these, 166 protein groups were listed as MPs, including 138 groups (83.1%) with transcriptional evidence. A total of 2948 proteins are designated as MPs, and 5.6% of these were identified in this study. The high incidence of MPs in testis tissue indicates that this is a rich resource for MPs. Functional category analysis revealed that the biological processes that testis MPs are mainly involved in are sexual reproduction and spermatogenesis. Some of the MPs are potentially involved in tumorgenesis in other tissues. Therefore, this proteogenomics analysis of individual testis tissues provides convincing evidence of the discovery of MPs. All mass spectrometry data from this study have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange (data set identifier PXD002179). PMID:26282447

  20. The Roles of Testicular C-kit Positive Cells in De novo Morphogenesis of Testis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Man; Zhou, Hai; Zheng, Chunxing; Xiao, Jun; Zuo, Erwei; Liu, Wujuan; Xie, Da; Shi, Yufang; Wu, Chunlian; Wang, Hongyan; Li, Dangsheng; Li, Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    C-kit positive (c-kit+) cells are usual tissue-specific stem cells. However, in postnatal testis, undifferentiated spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are c-kit negative (c-kit−) and activation of c-kit represents the start of SSC differentiation, leaving an intriguing question whether other c-kit+ cells exist and participate in the postnatal development of testis. To this end, a feasible system for testicular reconstitution, in which a specific type of cells can be manipulated, is needed. Here, we first establish de novo morphogenesis of testis by subcutaneous injection of testicular cells from neonatal testes into the backs of nude mice. We observe testicular tissue formation and spermatogenesis from all injected sites. Importantly, functional spermatids can be isolated from these testicular tissues. Using this system, we systemically analyze the roles of c-kit+ cells in testicular reconstitution and identify a small population of cells (c-kit+:CD140a+:F4/80+), which express typical markers of macrophages, are critical for de novo morphogenesis of testis. Interestingly, we demonstrate that these cells are gradually replaced by peripheral blood cells of recipient mice during the morphogenesis of testis. Thus, we develop a system, which may mimic the complete developmental process of postnatal testis, for investigating the testicular development and spermatogenesis. PMID:25088917

  1. Simian immunodeficiency virus infection and immune responses in the pig-tailed macaque testis.

    PubMed

    Winnall, Wendy R; Lloyd, Sarah B; De Rose, Robert; Alcantara, Sheilajen; Amarasena, Thakshila H; Hedger, Mark P; Girling, Jane E; Kent, Stephen J

    2015-03-01

    The testis is a site of immune privilege in rodents, and there is evidence that T cell responses are also suppressed in the primate testis. Local immunosuppression is a potential mechanism for HIV persistence in tissue reservoirs that few studies have examined. The response of the pig-tailed macaque testis to SIVmac239 infection was characterized to test this possibility. Testes were surgically removed during early-chronic (10 wk) and late-chronic (24-30 wk) SIV infection in 4 animals and compared with those from 7 uninfected animals. SIV infection caused only minor disruption to the seminiferous epithelium without marked evidence of inflammation or consistent changes in total intratesticular leukocyte numbers. Infection also led to an increase in the relative proportion of testicular effector memory CD8(+) T cell numbers and a corresponding reduction in central memory CD4(+) T cells. A decrease in the relative proportion of resident-type CD163(+) macrophages and DCs was also observed. SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells were detectable in the testis, 10-11 wk after infection by staining with SIV Gag-specific or Tat-specific MHC-I tetramers. However, testicular CD8(+) T cells from the infected animals had suppressed cytokine responses to mitogen activation. These results support the possibility that local immunosuppression in the testis may be restricting the ability of T cells to respond to SIV or HIV infection. Local immunosuppression in the testis may be an underexplored mechanism allowing HIV persistence. PMID:25605872

  2. Integrative Discovery of Epigenetically Derepressed Cancer Testis Antigens in NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Glazer, Chad A.; Smith, Ian M.; Ochs, Michael F.; Begum, Shahnaz; Westra, William; Chang, Steven S.; Sun, Wenyue; Bhan, Sheetal; Khan, Zubair; Ahrendt, Steven; Califano, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) were first discovered as immunogenic targets normally expressed in germline cells, but differentially expressed in a variety of human cancers. In this study, we used an integrative epigenetic screening approach to identify coordinately expressed genes in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose transcription is driven by promoter demethylation. Methodology/Principal Findings Our screening approach found 290 significant genes from the over 47,000 transcripts incorporated in the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 expression array. Of the top 55 candidates, 10 showed both differential overexpression and promoter region hypomethylation in NSCLC. Surprisingly, 6 of the 10 genes discovered by this approach were CTAs. Using a separate cohort of primary tumor and normal tissue, we validated NSCLC promoter hypomethylation and increased expression by quantitative RT-PCR for all 10 genes. We noted significant, coordinated coexpression of multiple target genes, as well as coordinated promoter demethylation, in a large set of individual tumors that was associated with the SCC subtype of NSCLC. In addition, we identified 2 novel target genes that exhibited growth-promoting effects in multiple cell lines. Conclusions/Significance Coordinated promoter demethylation in NSCLC is associated with aberrant expression of CTAs and potential, novel candidate protooncogenes that can be identified using integrative discovery techniques. These findings have significant implications for discovery of novel CTAs and CT antigen directed immunotherapy. PMID:19997593

  3. Sertoliform cystadenoma: a rare benign tumour of the rete testis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Sertoliform cystadenoma of the rete testis represents an uncommon benign tumour. They appear in patients from 26 to 62 years of age. We describe a case of a 66-year-old man with a tumour in the area of the epididymal head. The tumour markers were not increased. Under the assumption of a malignant testicular tumour an inguinal orchiectomy was performed. The cut surface of this tumour was of grey/white color and showed small cysts. The tumour consisted of two compartments. The epithelial like tumour cells showed a sertoliform growth pattern and cystic dilatations. In between the tumour cells repeatedly actin expressing sclerotic areas could be recognized as the second tumour component. Proliferative activity was not increased. Immunohistochemically the tumour cells were positiv for inhibin, S-100, and CD 99. Alpha feto protein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-HCG) and placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) as well as synaptophysin, epithelial membrane antigene (EMA), and BCL-2 were not expressed. As far as we know this is the sixth reported case of this tumour. Because of the benign nature of this tumour the correct diagnosis is important for the intra- and postoperative management. Here we present a case of this rare tumour and discuss potential differential diagnosis. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1956026143857335 PMID:23406299

  4. Activation of Bcl-2-Caspase-9 Apoptosis Pathway in the Testis of Asthmatic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junjuan; Ding, Zhaolei; Sheng, Jianhui; Li, Juan; Tan, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background Apoptosis plays a critical role in controlling the proliferation and differentiation of germ cells during spermatogenesis. Dysregulation of the fine-tuned balance may lead to the onset of testicular diseases. In this study, we investigated the activation status of apoptosis pathways in the testicular tissues under the background of an asthmatic mouse model. Methods Ten BALB/c mice were divided into two groups: the acute asthma group and the control group. In the acute asthma group, ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice were challenged with aerosolized OVA for 7 days, while the control group was treated with physiological saline. After that, both epididymis and testis were collected to determine the sperm count and motility. Apoptosis in the testis was evaluated by DNA ladder, immunochemistry and further by PCR array of apoptosis-related genes. Finally, the cleavage of caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) was determined by western blot and the enzymatic activities of caspase-9 and 3/7 were assessed using Caspase-Glo kits. Results Compared with control mice, significant decreases in the body weight, testis weight, sperm count and motility were seen in the experimental group. DNA ladder and immunochemistry showed significant increase in apoptotic index of the asthmatic testis, whereas a decrease in mRNA expression of Bcl-2 and increases in Bax, BNIP3, caspase-9, and AIF were observed in the asthma group. Furthermore, protein levels of AIF were significantly upregulated, while the translational expression of Bcl-2 was downregulated markedly. Consistently, caspase-9 activity in the testis of asthma mice was significantly higher than that of the control group. Conclusion Collectively, these results showed that Bcl-2-caspase-9 apoptosis pathway was clearly activated in the testis of asthmatic mice with the increased expression of apoptosis-related genes and proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that asthma could lead to the

  5. Testicular Ectopia in the Anterior Abdominal Wall of a Neonate: A Rare Site of Ectopic Testis

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Salman Atiq; Marei, Tamer Ibrahim; Al-Makhaita, Ghada

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 3-day Final Diagnosis: Ectopic right testis in anterior abdominal wall Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Testicular ultrasound and MRI abdomen Specialty: Radiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Abnormal testicular descent can either be undescended or, less commonly, ectopic. Most undescended testes complete the course of descent by the first year of life only if these remain in the normal path of descent. The deviation of the testis may occur to an ectopic location during the transinguinal phase. Of the known ectopic sites, the anterior abdominal wall is the rarest site of testicular ectopia and to our knowledge only 3 cases of this nature have been reported in the available literature to date. Case Report: This rare case of testicular ectopia occurred in a 3-day-old boy in whom the right scrotal sac was empty; on abdominal ultrasound, the right testis was found in the subcutaneous tissues of the right antero-lateral abdominal wall. These findings were confirmed on abdominal MRI, where the right testis was seen beneath the skin between the subcutaneous tissues and external oblique aponeurosis. No aponeurotic or muscular defect was appreciable under the abdominal wall. The neonate underwent orchiopexy at the age of 6 months and remained uneventful postoperatively. Conclusions: Preoperative imaging is recommended to detect and confirm the ectopic site as well as the morphology of testis, thereby increasing the chance of surveillance and preservation of an ectopic testis. Imaging can serve as preoperative road mapping to localize the exact site for surgical exploration of an ectopic testis if there is no apparent or palpable swelling over the anterior abdominal wall. PMID:27411886

  6. Genetic ablation of androgen receptor signaling in fetal Leydig cell lineage affects Leydig cell functions in adult testis.

    PubMed

    Kaftanovskaya, Elena M; Lopez, Carolina; Ferguson, Lydia; Myhr, Courtney; Agoulnik, Alexander I

    2015-06-01

    It is commonly accepted that androgen-producing fetal Leydig cells (FLC) are substituted by adult Leydig cells (ALC) during perinatal testis development. The mechanisms influencing this process are unclear. We used mice with a retinoid acid receptor 2 promoter-Cre recombinase transgene (Rarb-cre) expressed in embryonic FLC precursors, but not in postnatal testis, and a dual fluorescent Cre recombinase reporter to label FLC and ALC in vivo. All FLC in newborn testis had the recombinant, whereas the majority of LC in adult testis had the nonrecombinant reporter. Primary LC cultures from adult testis had either recombinant (20%) or nonrecombinant (80%) cells, demonstrating that the FLC survive in adult testis and their ontogeny is distinct from ALC. Conditional inactivation of androgen receptor (AR) allele using the Rarb-cre transgene resulted in a 50% increase of AR-negative LC in adult testis. The mutant males became infertile with age, with all LC in older testis showing signs of incomplete differentiation, such as a large number of big lipid droplets, an increase of finger-like protrusions, and a misexpression of steroidogenic or FLC- and ALC-specific genes. We propose that the antiandrogenic exposure during early development may similarly result in an increase of FLC in adult testis, leading to abnormal LC differentiation. PMID:25713029

  7. The Type 3 Deiodinase Is a Critical Determinant of Appropriate Thyroid Hormone Action in the Developing Testis.

    PubMed

    Martinez, M Elena; Karaczyn, Aldona; Stohn, J Patrizia; Donnelly, William T; Croteau, Walburga; Peeters, Robin P; Galton, Valerie A; Forrest, Douglas; St Germain, Donald; Hernandez, Arturo

    2016-03-01

    Timely and appropriate levels of thyroid hormone (TH) signaling are necessary to ensure normal developmental outcomes in many tissues. Studies using pharmacological models of altered TH status have revealed an influence of these hormones on testis development and size, but little is known about the role of endogenous determinants of TH action in the developing male gonads. Using a genetic approach, we demonstrate that the type 3 deiodinase (D3), which inactivates TH and protects developing tissues from undue TH action, is a key factor. D3 is highly expressed in the developing testis, and D3-deficient (D3KO) mice exhibit thyrotoxicosis and cell proliferation arrest in the neonatal testis, resulting in an approximately 75% reduction in testis size. This is accompanied by larger seminiferous tubules, impaired spermatogenesis, and a hormonal profile indicative of primary hypogonadism. A deficiency in the TH receptor-α fully normalizes testis size and adult testis gene expression in D3KO mice, indicating that the effects of D3 deficiency are mediated through this type of receptor. Similarly, genetic deficiencies in the D2 or in the monocarboxylate transporter 8 partially rescue the abnormalities in testis size and gonadal axis gene expression featured in the D3KO mice. Our study highlights the testis as an important tissue in which determinants of TH action coordinately converge to ensure normal development and identifies D3 as a critical factor in testis development and in testicular protection from thyrotoxicosis. PMID:26727108

  8. Protective effects of L-carnitine and homogenized testis tissue on the testis and sperm parameters of busulfan-induced infertile male rats

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Farzaneh; Hassanpour, Ashraf; Poost-pasand, Aghdas; Noorafshan, Ali; Karbalay-Doust, Saeid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Busulfan(Bus) is a chemotherapy drug that is widely used for cancer treatment. However, administration of busulfan may cause temporary or permanent sterility in male patients. Therefore, reduction of this side is necessary. Objective: evaluation of the protective effects of L-carnitine and testis homogenized tissue(THT) on sperm parameters and the testis structure after busulfan treatment. Materials and Methods: Twenty rats were divided four groups. Group I (Control) received a single dose of DMSO and 1mL of distilled water (I.P.). Group II (Bus) received a single of busulfan (10 mg/kg) plus 1 ml of the distilled water(I.P.). Group III (Bus+THT) received busulfan plus 1mL of THT daily by oral gavages. Group IV (Bus+L-car) received a single dose of busulfan plus 100 mg/kg/day L-carnitine(I.P.). after 48 dayst, the Stereological technique was used for the estimating volume and diameter of testis, seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissue, flagella length, germinal epithelium height and spermatoginic cell number. Semen analysis was used for the assessment of sperm parameters. Results: THT increased volume of testis (6.5%), seminiferous tubule and interstitial tissue volume (6.5%), 6.9% and 11.7% respectively), germinal epithelium height (13%), sperm count (7.5%), and decreased sperm with abnormal morphology (1%) in comparison with the L-carnitine in busulfan treated group. Conclusion: It seems the use of L-carnitine and THT decreases side effects of busulfan on the male reproductive system. However, in our study, THT is more effective than L-carnitine and leads to the recovery testis structure and sperm parameters after treatment with busulfan. This article extracted from M.Sc. thesis. (Ashraf Hassanpour) PMID:24639808

  9. Beneficial effects of aminoguanidine on radiotherapy-induced kidney and testis injury.

    PubMed

    Ekici, K; Temelli, O; Parlakpinar, H; Samdanci, E; Polat, A; Beytur, A; Tanbek, K; Ekici, C; Dursun, I H

    2016-08-01

    This experimental study was designed to investigate both protective and therapeutic effects of aminoguanidine (AG), on radiotherapy (RT)-induced oxidative stress in kidney and testis. Forty rats were divided into five groups equally as follows: (i) control, (ii) RT, (iii) AG, (iv) AG+RT and (v) RT+AG group. Histopathological findings and biochemical evaluations, including tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione (GSH), total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity, oxidative stress index (OSI), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Cr) and testosterone levels, were determined. MDA, TOS and OSI were significantly higher in RT-treated groups, whereas SOD, CAT, GPX and GSH were significantly lower in these groups when compared with the control rats in the kidney and testis tissue. AG treatment significantly decreased MDA, TOS and OSI levels and increased SOD, CAT, GPX and GSH levels, when compared to the RT-treated groups in both kidney and testis tissue. BUN and Cr levels did not change among the groups, whereas testosterone levels were found as reduced in the RT-treated rats. AG treatment significantly augmented these hazardous effects of RT on testis tissue. According to our results, AG has beneficial effects against RT-induced kidney and testis injury. PMID:26610736

  10. Does testis weight decline towards the Subarctic? A case study on the common frog, Rana temporaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettyey, Attila; Laurila, Anssi; Herczeg, Gábor; Jönsson, K. Ingemar; Kovács, Tibor; Merilä, Juha

    2005-04-01

    Interpopulation comparisons of variation in resource availability and in allocation patterns along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients allow insights into the mechanisms shaping the life history of animals. Patterns of between-population differences in female life history traits have been studied intensively across a wide range of taxa, but similar investigations in males have remained scarce. To study if testis weight—a measure of reproductive investment—varies on a geographical scale in anurans, we focussed on the variation in relative testis weight (RelTW) and asymmetry in 22 populations of the common frog Rana temporaria along a 1,600-km latitudinal transect across the Scandinavian peninsula. We found that RelTW decreased towards the north. Body mass and body length both had independent positive effects on testes mass. We found evidence for directional asymmetry (DA) in testis weight with the right testis being larger than the left. The level of DA in testis weight was not related to latitude, but both body mass and testes mass had independent positive effects on asymmetry. We discuss the northwards decrease in RelTW in terms of a decreased reproductive investment as a possible consequence of harsher environmental conditions, and perhaps also, weaker sexual selection in the north than in the south.

  11. Translational activation of developmental messenger RNAs during neonatal mouse testis development.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Vesna A; Busada, Jonathan T; Keiper, Brett D; Geyer, Christopher B

    2013-09-01

    The basic tenets of germ cell development are conserved among metazoans. Following lineage commitment in the embryo, germ cells proliferate, transition into meiosis, and then differentiate into gametes capable of fertilization. In lower organisms such as Drosophila and C. elegans, germline stem cells make the decision to proliferate or enter meiosis based in large part on the regulated expression of genes by translational control. This study undertakes a direct characterization of mRNAs that experience translational control and their involvement in similar decisions in the mammalian testis. We previously showed that translation of mRNA encoding the germ cell-specific gene Rhox13 was suppressed in the fetal and neonatal testis. By investigating changes in message utilization during neonatal testis development, we found that a large number of mRNAs encoding both housekeeping and germ cell-specific proteins experience enhanced translational efficiency, rather than increase in abundance, in the testis as quiescent gonocytes transition to mitotic spermatogonia. Our results indicate that translational control is a significant regulator of the germ cell proteome during neonatal testis development. PMID:23926285

  12. Trace elemental analysis in cancer-afflicted tissues of penis and testis by PIXE technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naga Raju, G. J.; John Charles, M.; Bhuloka Reddy, S.; Sarita, P.; Seetharami Reddy, B.; Rama Lakshmi, P. V. B.; Vijayan, V.

    2005-04-01

    PIXE technique was employed to estimate the trace elemental concentrations in the biological samples of cancerous penis and testis. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. From the present results it can be seen that the concentrations of Cl, Fe and Co are lower in the cancerous tissue of the penis when compared with those in normal tissue while the concentrations of Cu, Zn and As are relatively higher. The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Br, Sr and Pb are in agreement within standard deviations in both cancerous and normal tissues. In the cancerous tissue of testis, the concentrations of K, Cr and Cu are higher while the concentrations of Fe, Co and Zn are lower when compared to those in normal tissue of testis. The concentrations of Cl, Ca, Ti and Mn are in agreement in both cancerous and normal tissues of testis. The higher levels of Cu lead to the development of tumor. Our results also support the underlying hypothesis of an anticopper, antiangiogenic approach to cancer therapy. The Cu/Zn ratios of both penis and testis were higher in cancer tissues compared to that of normal.

  13. Dosimetry for a study of effects of 2. 45-GHz microwaves on mouse testis

    SciTech Connect

    Cairnie, A.B.; Hill, D.A.; Assenheim, H.M.

    1980-01-01

    In order to determine the effects of microwave radiation on the testis, it is necessary to express the physical insult in animal studies in a way that can be replicated elsewhere and ultimately used as a basis for extrapolation to man. However, there is conflict--especially in chronic experiments--between the desire for precise dosimetry and the need to minimise alteration of the normal physiological functions of the animals. The compromise arrangement used in this study was to house the mice singly, in cages with limited food and water, and to irradiate them for up to 30 days (16 h/day) in an anechoic chamber. The only measurements taken routinely were of power density in the positions normally occupied by the cages. In addition, a series of absorption measurements was made in mouse carcasses: Whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR); energy-deposition patterns (determined thermographically); and local SAR in testis (using a miniature electric (E)-field probe). It was concluded that the SAR in testis was considerably less than the whole-body SAR. Exposure for 16 h at 50 mW/cm2 elevated rectal but not testis temperature, thus demonstrating the ability of the conscious mouse to regulate the temperature of its testis.

  14. Can Hypertrophy of the Contralateral Testis Predict the Absence of a Viable Testis in Infancy with Cryptorchidism: A Prospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hee Seo; Lee, Yong Seung; Im, Young Jae; Kim, Sang Woon; Chi, Byung Hoon; Han, Sang Won

    2016-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to evaluate whether Contralateral compensatory testicular hypertrophy (CTH) is valid as a predictive tool for a non-viable testis in children aged between 6 and 18 months, and whether CTH is affected by mini-puberty. Seventy-two testes from 60 boys aged between 6 and 18 months were categorized into three groups: 24 testes contralateral to surgically removed non-viable testes (NVTs), 24 testes contralateral to surgically corrected undescended testes (UDTs), and 24 testes from a normal controls. Contralateral testicular length and volume were measured with ultrasonography and compared among the groups. Group 1 (NVT) had a significantly longer length and larger volume than group 2 (UDT). The length and volume of each group among three developmental periods (6–10, 10–14, and 14–18 months) were also analyzed. In the controls, the length was significantly larger at 6–10 months than at 10–14 months in accordance with previously reported changes in testicular size due to the effect of “mini-puberty.” The volume of controls showed a similar pattern, though without statistical significance. However, this pattern was not observed in the NVT and UDT groups. A receiver operating curve revealed that a testicular length of 16.1 mm or a volume of 0.59 ml had the highest sensitivity and specificity for predicting NVTs. The CTH was also found to be valid as a predictive tool for a NVT in children of ages 6 to 18 months, as the effect of mini-puberty appeared to be absent in the NVT and UDT groups. However, the cut-off values were less than those of previous reports. The proper cut-off level according to the age and measurement method should be applied in this developmental period. PMID:26990979

  15. Blueberry Extracts Protect Testis from Hypobaric Hypoxia Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zepeda, Andrea; Aguayo, Luis G.; Fuentealba, Jorge; Figueroa, Carolina; Acevedo, Alejandro; Salgado, Perla; Calaf, Gloria M.; Farías, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia causes oxidative damage to male rat reproductive function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of a blueberry extract (BB-4) in testis of rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. Morphometric analysis, cellular DNA fragmentation, glutathione reductase (GR), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were evaluated. Our results showed that supplementation of BB-4 reduced lipid peroxidation, decreased apoptosis, and increased GR and SOD activities in rat testis under hypobaric hypoxia conditions (P < 0.05). Therefore, this study demonstrates that blueberry extract significantly reduced the harmful effects of oxidative stress caused by hypobaric hypoxia in rat testis by affecting glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities. PMID:23213351

  16. Stage IE nonHodgkin's lymphoma of the testis: a need for a brief aggressive chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Roche, H.; Suc, E.; Pons, A.; Woodman, F.; Huguet-Rigal, F.; Caveriviere, P.; Carton, M.

    1989-03-01

    Primary nonHodgkin's lymphoma of the testis is a localized disease in 50 per cent of the cases. Clinical records and pathological material from 9 stage IE cancer patients treated at our institutions were reviewed. All but 1 patient had B cell type lymphomas of intermediate (6) or high (3) grade according to the Working Formulation. Mean survival was 49 months and actuarial survival was 74 per cent at 5 years. Chemotherapy differed with time and frequently was associated with subdiaphragmatic involved field and prophylactic contralateral testis radiotherapy. In view of the good prognosis of patients receiving doxorubicin-based chemotherapy and recent reports on low stage nonHodgkin's lymphoma we recommend an aggressive brief therapy for stage IE lymphoma of the testis after orchiectomy.

  17. Effects of silver nanoparticles on neonatal testis development in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi-Feng; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-01-01

    Background Metal nanoparticles (MNPs) play an important role in consumer products. An increasing use of MNPs has raised concerns about potential risks for human health. Therefore, in vivo tests of MNPs are urgently required. Using mice as a model animal, the aim of the present study was designed to investigate the effect of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on spermatogenesis in neonatal mice. Methods AgNPs were synthesized using Bacillus funiculus. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized using various analytical techniques such as UV–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The prepared AgNPs were used to investigate testis development in neonatal mice. Institute of Cancer Research neonatal male mice were used in all experiments and were treated with different doses (0, 1, and 5 mg/kg) of AgNPs five times (interval of 3 days from postnatal day [PND] 8–21) by abdominal subcutaneous injection. Results The results showed that the sperm abnormalities such as quality and quantity were significantly increased by the synthesized AgNPs. The diameter of the convoluted tubules shrank significantly in mice treated with AgNPs on PND28 and PND42. The results of reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction indicated that the E1f1ay, Gsta4, and Fdx1 genes were up-regulated, and the Amh, Cx43, and Claudin-11 genes were down-regulated in response to AgNPs exposure on PND28; however, these genes recovered at PND60. AgNPs had no effect on the recombination levels of chromosomes in germ cells. Conclusion These results demonstrated the adverse effects of AgNPs on the male reproductive tract, particularly spermatogenesis and the quality of sperm. This study suggests that the development of nanomaterials should be safer and non-toxic to the living organisms and the potential reprotoxicity of AgNPs should be investigated more carefully. PMID:26491295

  18. Testis structure and function in a nongenetic hyperadipose rat model at prepubertal and adult ages.

    PubMed

    França, L R; Suescun, M O; Miranda, J R; Giovambattista, A; Perello, M; Spinedi, E; Calandra, R S

    2006-03-01

    There are few data for hormonal levels and testis structure and function during postnatal development in rats neonatally treated with monosodium L-glutamate (MSG). In our study, newborn male pups were ip injected with MSG (4 mg/g body weight) every 2 d up to 10 d of age and investigated at prepubertal and adult ages. Plasma levels of leptin, LH, FSH, prolactin, testosterone (T), corticosterone, and free T4 (FT4) were measured. MSG rats displayed elevated circulating levels of corticosterone and hyperadiposity/hyperleptinemia, regardless of the age examined; conversely, circulating prolactin levels were not affected. Moreover, prepubertal MSG rats revealed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in testis weight and the number of Sertoli (SC) and Leydig cells per testis. Leptin plasma levels were severalfold higher (2.41 vs. 8.07; P < 0.05) in prepubertal MSG rats, and these animals displayed plasma LH, FSH, T, and FT4 levels significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Taken together, these data indicate that testis development, as well as SC and Leydig cell proliferation, were disturbed in prepubertal MSG rats. Adult MSG rats also displayed significantly higher leptin plasma levels (7.26 vs. 27.04; P < 0.05) and lower (P < 0.05) LH and FSH plasma levels. However, T and FT4 plasma levels were normal, and no apparent alterations were observed in testis structure of MSG rats. Only the number of SCs per testis was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in the adult MSG rats. In conclusion, although early installed hyperadipose/hyperleptinemia phenotype was probably responsible for the reproductive axis damages in MSG animals, it remains to be investigated whether this condition is the main factor for hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis dysfunction in MSG rats. PMID:16339210

  19. Sox9-related signaling controls zebrafish juvenile ovary–testis transformation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, D; Zhang, Y; Wang, C; Hua, X; Zhang, X A; Yan, J

    2013-01-01

    In almost all vertebrates, the downstream of the sox9 signaling axis is well conserved for testis differentiation. The upstream genes of this pathway vary from species to species during evolution. Yet, little is known about how these signaling cascades are regulated and what cellular processes are dominant in ovary–testis transformation in juvenile zebrafish. In this study, we find that the transforming gonads undergo activation of sox9a-expressing stromal cells with increased deposition of extracellular matrix and formation of degenerative compartments. This leads to follicle disassembly, oocyte degeneration, follicle cell-cyp19a1a-amh conversions, and, eventually, formation of the testis cord. In vitro primary culture of juvenile ovary tissue in gonadotropins increases cytoplasmic accumulation of sox9a and p-Erk1/2, and induces mesenchymal morphology. MAPK inhibitors (MKI), a mixture of PD98059 and U0216, eliminate the cytoplasmic distribution but do not eradicate nuclear localization of sox9a and p-Erk1/2. Nuclear p53 are relatively increased in MKI-treated cells that exhibit less spreading and reduced proliferation. Despite uniform nuclear condensation, only a fraction of cells displayed the apoptotic phenotype. These results suggest that high levels of cytoplasmic sox9a and p-Erk1/2 activity activate stromal cells and enhance the production of extracellular matrix required for testis cord formation, whereas deregulation and translocation of sox9a and p-Erk1/2 induce follicle disassembly and incomplete apoptosis associated with nuclear p53. Together with the established FSH/cAMP/MAPK/AMH pathway in mammalian granulosa and Sertoli cells, we demonstrated that the sox9 axis signaling that determines testis formation in mammals also induces zebrafish ovary–testis transition, and adds to its conserved role in sex reversal. PMID:24263104

  20. Meiotic germ cells antagonize mesonephric cell migration and testis cord formation in mouse gonads

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Humphrey H.-C.; DiNapoli, Leo; Capel, Blanche

    2014-01-01

    Summary The developmental fate of primordial germ cells in the mammalian gonad depends on their environment. In the XY gonad, Sry induces a cascade of molecular and cellular events leading to the organization of testis cords. Germ cells are sequestered inside testis cords by 12.5 dpc where they arrest in mitosis. If the testis pathway is not initiated, germ cells spontaneously enter meiosis by 13.5 dpc, and the gonad follows the ovarian fate. We have previously shown that some testis-specific events, such as mesonephric cell migration, can be experimentally induced into XX gonads prior to 12.5 dpc. However, after that time, XX gonads are resistant to the induction of cell migration. In current experiments, we provide evidence that this effect is dependent on XX germ cells rather than on XX somatic cells. We show that, although mesonephric cell migration cannot be induced into normal XX gonads at 14.5 dpc, it can be induced into XX gonads depleted of germ cells. We also show that when 14.5 dpc XX somatic cells are recombined with XY somatic cells, testis cord structures form normally; however, when XX germ cells are recombined with XY somatic cells, cord structures are disrupted. Sandwich culture experiments suggest that the inhibitory effect of XX germ cells is mediated through short-range interactions rather than through a long-range diffusible factor. The developmental stage at which XX germ cells show a disruptive effect on the male pathway is the stage at which meiosis is normally initiated, based on the immunodetection of meiotic markers. We suggest that at the stage when germ cells commit to meiosis, they reinforce ovarian fate by antagonizing the testis pathway. PMID:14561636

  1. Transgenic characterization of two testis-specific promoters in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Bi, H; Chen, R; Aslam, A F M; Li, Z; Ling, L; Zeng, B; Huang, Y; Tan, A

    2015-04-01

    Sex-specific regulatory elements are key components for developing insect genetic sexing systems. The current insect genetic sexing system mainly uses a female-specific modification system whereas little success was reported on male-specific genetic modification. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, a lepidopteran model insect with economic importance, a transgene-based, female-specific lethality system has been established based on sex-specific alternative splicing factors and a female-specific promoter BmVgp (vitellogenin promoter) has been identified. However, no male-specific regulatory elements have yet been identified. Here we report the transgenic identification of two promoters that drive reporter gene expression in a testis-specific manner in B. mori. Putative promoter sequences from the B. mori Radial spoke head 1 gene (BmR1) and beta-tubulin 4 gene (Bmβ4) were introduced using piggybac-based germline transformation. In transgenic silkworms, expression of the reporter gene enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) directed by either BmR1 promoter (BmR1p) or Bmβ4p showed precisely testis-specific manners from the larval to adult stage. Furthermore, EGFP expression of these two transgenic lines showed different localization in the testis, indicating that BmR1p or Bmβ4p might be used as distinct regulatory elements in directing testis-specific gene expression. Identification of these testis-specific promoters not only contributes to a better understanding of testis-specific gene function in insects, but also has potential applications in sterile insect techniques for pest management. PMID:25387604

  2. Beyond Testis Size: Links between Spermatogenesis and Sperm Traits in a Seasonal Breeding Mammal

    PubMed Central

    Pintus, Eliana; Ros-Santaella, José Luis; Garde, José Julián

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is a costly process that is expected to be under selection to maximise sperm quantity and quality. Testis size is often regarded as a proxy measure of sperm investment, implicitly overlooking the quantitative assessment of spermatogenesis. An enhanced understanding of testicular function, beyond testis size, may reveal further sexual traits involved in sperm quantity and quality. Here, we first estimated the inter-male variation in testicular function and sperm traits in red deer across the breeding and non-breeding seasons. Then, we analysed the relationships between the testis mass, eight parameters of spermatogenic function, and seven parameters of sperm quality. Our findings revealed that the Sertoli cell number and function parameters vary greatly between red deer males, and that spermatogenic activity co-varies with testis mass and sperm quality across the breeding and non-breeding seasons. For the first time in a seasonal breeder, we found that not only is the Sertoli cell number important in determining testis mass (r = 0.619, p = 0.007 and r = 0.248, p = 0.047 for the Sertoli cell number assessed by histology and cytology, respectively), but also sperm function (r = 0.703, p = 0.002 and r = 0.328, p = 0.012 for the Sertoli cell number assessed by histology and cytology, respectively). Testicular histology also revealed that a high Sertoli cell number per tubular cross-section is associated with high sperm production (r = 0.600, p = 0.009). Sperm production and function were also positively correlated (r = 0.384, p = 0.004), suggesting that these traits co-vary to maximise sperm fertilisation ability in red deer. In conclusion, our findings contribute to the understanding of the dynamics of spermatogenesis, and reveal new insights into the role of testicular function and the Sertoli cell number on testis size and sperm quality in red deer. PMID:26430740

  3. Sox9 and Sox8 protect the adult testis from male-to-female genetic reprogramming and complete degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Barrionuevo, Francisco J; Hurtado, Alicia; Kim, Gwang-Jin; Real, Francisca M; Bakkali, Mohammed; Kopp, Janel L; Sander, Maike; Scherer, Gerd; Burgos, Miguel; Jiménez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The new concept of mammalian sex maintenance establishes that particular key genes must remain active in the differentiated gonads to avoid genetic sex reprogramming, as described in adult ovaries after Foxl2 ablation. Dmrt1 plays a similar role in postnatal testes, but the mechanism of adult testis maintenance remains mostly unknown. Sox9 and Sox8 are required for postnatal male fertility, but their role in the adult testis has not been investigated. Here we show that after ablation of Sox9 in Sertoli cells of adult, fertile Sox8-/- mice, testis-to-ovary genetic reprogramming occurs and Sertoli cells transdifferentiate into granulosa-like cells. The process of testis regression culminates in complete degeneration of the seminiferous tubules, which become acellular, empty spaces among the extant Leydig cells. DMRT1 protein only remains in non-mutant cells, showing that SOX9/8 maintain Dmrt1 expression in the adult testis. Also, Sox9/8 warrant testis integrity by controlling the expression of structural proteins and protecting Sertoli cells from early apoptosis. Concluding, this study shows that, in addition to its crucial role in testis development, Sox9, together with Sox8 and coordinately with Dmrt1, also controls adult testis maintenance. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15635.001 PMID:27328324

  4. Sox9 and Sox8 protect the adult testis from male-to-female genetic reprogramming and complete degeneration.

    PubMed

    Barrionuevo, Francisco J; Hurtado, Alicia; Kim, Gwang-Jin; Real, Francisca M; Bakkali, Mohammed; Kopp, Janel L; Sander, Maike; Scherer, Gerd; Burgos, Miguel; Jiménez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The new concept of mammalian sex maintenance establishes that particular key genes must remain active in the differentiated gonads to avoid genetic sex reprogramming, as described in adult ovaries after Foxl2 ablation. Dmrt1 plays a similar role in postnatal testes, but the mechanism of adult testis maintenance remains mostly unknown. Sox9 and Sox8 are required for postnatal male fertility, but their role in the adult testis has not been investigated. Here we show that after ablation of Sox9 in Sertoli cells of adult, fertile Sox8(-/-) mice, testis-to-ovary genetic reprogramming occurs and Sertoli cells transdifferentiate into granulosa-like cells. The process of testis regression culminates in complete degeneration of the seminiferous tubules, which become acellular, empty spaces among the extant Leydig cells. DMRT1 protein only remains in non-mutant cells, showing that SOX9/8 maintain Dmrt1 expression in the adult testis. Also, Sox9/8 warrant testis integrity by controlling the expression of structural proteins and protecting Sertoli cells from early apoptosis. Concluding, this study shows that, in addition to its crucial role in testis development, Sox9, together with Sox8 and coordinately with Dmrt1, also controls adult testis maintenance. PMID:27328324

  5. A study of the rete testis epithelium in several wild birds.

    PubMed

    Barker, S G; Kendall, M D

    1984-01-01

    Material from six wild non-breeding starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), twelve adult wild quelea (Quelea quelea) in prenuptial, full and post-breeding condition and one wild puffin (Fratercula arctica) was examined by light and electron microscopy. Contrary to previous accounts of avian material, the epithelium of the rete testis was composed of a mixture of numerous non-ciliated and fewer ciliated cells. Both cell types contained many inclusions in the cytoplasm all of which indicated that the cells could modify the luminal contents. All rete testis epithelial cells showed a strong reaction with stains for alkaline phosphatase. PMID:6706832

  6. Study of follitropin receptors in testis using a homologous system. Binding of porcine follitropin to plasma membranes from immature porcine testis and correlation with adenylate cyclase stimulation.

    PubMed

    Maghuin-Rogister, G; Closset, J; Combarnous, Y; Hennen, G; Dechenne, C; Ketelslegers, J M

    1978-05-01

    The properties of follitropin receptors in immature porcine testis were determined using highly purified porcine follitropin. 1. The characteristics of follitropin binding to a subcellular fraction rich in plasma membranes were studied using a 125I-labelled follitropin with high specific activity (75-100 Ci/g) and high binding activity. The binding is dependent on time, temperature and pH. It is specific to follitropin as demonstrated by the very low binding activity of the follitropin alpha and beta subunits and of the other glycoprotein hormones. Scatchard analysis of binding data indicated an equilibrium association constant of 2 x 10(10) M-1 and a concentration of high affinity binding sites of 500 fmol/mg membrane proteins. 2. A sensitive radio-ligand receptor assay was developed. Fifty percent inhibition of binding was obtained with as little as 2 ng of porcine follitropin. Ovine and bovine follitropins and pregnant mare serum gonadotropin gave binding inhibition curves parallel to that given by porcine follitropin. With equine and human follitropin, significantly different slopes were recorded. 3. Kinetics of dissociation of labelled follitropin from its testis receptors showed the presence of at least two compartments with fast and slow dissociation rate constants. The ratio between the sizes of the slow and fast compartments appeared dependent upon preincubation time. 4. A temporal correlation was observed between binding of follitropin to testis receptors and activation of membrane bound adenylate cyclase. PMID:207514

  7. Sex-Biased miRNAs in Gonad and Their Potential Roles for Testis Development in Yellow Catfish

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Jing; Wu, Junjie; Liu, Wei; Xiong, Shuting; Ma, Wenge; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Weimin; Gui, Jian-Fang; Mei, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Recently, YY super-male yellow catfish had been created by hormonal-induced sex reversal and sex-linked markers, which provides a promising research model for fish sex differentiation and gonad development, especially for testis development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been revealed to play crucial roles in the gene regulation and gonad development in vertebrates. In this study, three small RNA libraries constructed from gonad tissues of XX female, XY male and YY super-male yellow catfish were sequenced. The sequencing data generated a total of 384 conserved miRNAs and 113 potential novel miRNAs, among which 23, 30 and 14 miRNAs were specifically detected in XX ovary, XY testis, and YY testis, respectively. We observed relative lower expression of several miR-200 family members, including miR-141 and miR-429 in YY testis compared with XY testis. Histological analysis indicated a higher degree of testis maturity in YY super-males compared with XY males, as shown by larger spermatogenic cyst, more spermatids and fewer spermatocytes in the spermatogenic cyst. Moreover, five miR-200 family members were significantly up-regulated in testis when treated by 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), high dose of which will impair testis development and cell proliferation. The down-regulation of miR-141 and 429 coincides with the progression of testis development in both yellow catfish and human. At last, the expression pattern of nine arbitrarily selected miRNAs detected by quantitative RT-PCR was consistent with the Solexa sequencing results. Our study provides a comprehensive miRNA transcriptome analysis for gonad of yellow catfish with different sex genotypes, and identifies a number of sex-biased miRNAs, some of that are potentially involved in testis development and spermatogenesis. PMID:25229553

  8. Distinguishing epigenetic features of preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to seminomas and nonseminomas.

    PubMed

    Gainetdinov, Ildar V; Kondratieva, Sofia A; Skvortsova, Yulia V; Zinovyeva, Marina V; Stukacheva, Elena A; Klimov, Alexey; Tryakin, Alexey A; Azhikina, Tatyana L

    2016-04-19

    PIWI pathway proteins are expressed during spermatogenesis where they play a key role in germ cell development. Epigenetic loss of PIWI proteins expression was previously demonstrated in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), implying their involvement in TGCT development. In this work, apart from studying only normal testis and TGCT samples, we also analyzed an intermediate stage, i.e. preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to TGCTs. Importantly, in this study, we minimized the contribution of patient-to-patient heterogeneity by using matched preneoplastic/TGCT samples. Surprisingly, expression of germ cell marker DDX4 suggests that spermatogenesis is retained in premalignant testis tissues adjacent to nonseminoma, but not those adjacent to seminoma. Moreover, this pattern is followed by expression of PIWI pathway genes, which impacts one of their functions: DNA methylation level over LINE-1 promoters is higher in preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to nonseminomas than those adjacent to seminomas. This finding might imply distinct routes for development of the two types of TGCTs and could be used as a novel diagnostic marker, possibly, noninvasively. Finally, we studied the role of CpG island methylation in expression of PIWI genes in patient samples and using in vitro experiments in cell line models: a more complex interrelation between DNA methylation and expression of the corresponding genes was revealed. PMID:26843623

  9. EXPRESSION OF THE SPERMATOGENIC CELL-SPECIFIC GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE (GAPDS) IN RAT TESTIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spermatogenic cell-specific variant of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDS) has been cloned from a rat testis cDNA library and its pattern of expression determined. A 1417 nucleotide cDNA has been found to encode an enzyme with substantial homology to mouse GAPDS...

  10. Targeting cancer testis antigens for biomarkers and immunotherapy in colorectal cancer: Current status and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Suri, Anil; Jagadish, Nirmala; Saini, Shikha; Gupta, Namita

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer ranks third among the estimated cancer cases and cancer related mortalities in United States in 2014. Early detection and efficient therapy remains a significant clinical challenge for this disease. Therefore, there is a need to identify novel tumor associated molecules to target for biomarker development and immunotherapy. In this regard, cancer testis antigens have emerged as a potential targets for developing novel clinical biomarkers and immunotherapy for various malignancies. These germ cell specific proteins exhibit aberrant expression in cancer cells and contribute in tumorigenesis. Owing to their unique expression profile and immunogenicity in cancer patients, cancer testis antigens are clinically referred as the most promising tumor associated antigens. Several cancer testis antigens have been studied in colorectal cancer but none of them could be used in clinical practice. This review is an attempt to address the promising cancer testis antigens in colorectal cancer and their possible clinical implications as biomarkers and immunotherapeutic targets with particular focus on challenges and future interventions. PMID:26691579

  11. CFTR Deletion in Mouse Testis Induces VDAC1 Mediated Inflammatory Pathway Critical for Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Huijuan, Liao; Jiang, Xie; Ming, Yang; Huaqin, Sun; Wenming, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is the most common genetic disease among Caucasians and affects tissues including lung, pancreas and reproductive tracts. It has been shown that Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress and heat shock response are two major deregulated functional modules related to CFTR dysfunction. To identify the impact of CFTR deletion during spermatogenesis, we examined the expression of spermiogenesis-related genes in the testis of CFTR mutant mice (CF mice). We confirmed expression changes of MSY2, a germ cell specific RNA binding protein, resulting from deletion of CFTR in testis. Furthermore, real time PCR and Western blot results showed that an inflammatory response was activated in CF mice testis, as reflected by the altered expression of cytokines. We demonstrate for the first time that expression of MSY2 is decreased in CF mice. Our results suggest that CFTR deletion in testis influences inflammatory responses and these features are likely to be due to the unique environment of the seminiferous tubule during the spermatogenesis process. The current study also suggests avenues to understand the pathophysiology of CFTR during spermatogenesis and provides targets for the possible treatment of CFTR-related infertility. PMID:27483469

  12. CFTR Deletion in Mouse Testis Induces VDAC1 Mediated Inflammatory Pathway Critical for Spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chen; Lang, Qin; Huijuan, Liao; Jiang, Xie; Ming, Yang; Huaqin, Sun; Wenming, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is the most common genetic disease among Caucasians and affects tissues including lung, pancreas and reproductive tracts. It has been shown that Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress and heat shock response are two major deregulated functional modules related to CFTR dysfunction. To identify the impact of CFTR deletion during spermatogenesis, we examined the expression of spermiogenesis-related genes in the testis of CFTR mutant mice (CF mice). We confirmed expression changes of MSY2, a germ cell specific RNA binding protein, resulting from deletion of CFTR in testis. Furthermore, real time PCR and Western blot results showed that an inflammatory response was activated in CF mice testis, as reflected by the altered expression of cytokines. We demonstrate for the first time that expression of MSY2 is decreased in CF mice. Our results suggest that CFTR deletion in testis influences inflammatory responses and these features are likely to be due to the unique environment of the seminiferous tubule during the spermatogenesis process. The current study also suggests avenues to understand the pathophysiology of CFTR during spermatogenesis and provides targets for the possible treatment of CFTR-related infertility. PMID:27483469

  13. Characterization and localization of in vivo phospholipid methylation in the hamster testis

    SciTech Connect

    Schlegel, P.N.; Wright, W.W.; Chang, T.S.

    1989-06-01

    Although previous studies have demonstrated that phospholipid methylation occurs in the testis and may be involved in Leydig cell function, phospholipid methylation in spermatogenic cells has not been characterized. In this study we describe the occurrence, time course, and localization of phospholipid methylation in the hamster testis following intratesticular injection of radioactive methyl precursor. Adult and pubertal (seven day old) hamsters were injected intratesticularly with (/sup 3/H-methyl)-methionine and sacrificed 10 min. to 31 hours thereafter. The testes were then removed and homogenized or dispersed into cell suspensions. Spermatogenic cell and Leydig cell enriched preparations were isolated from the dispersed cell preparations using elutriation and Percoll gradient centrifugation and assayed for methylated phospholipids and proteins. These experiments demonstrated that (1) phospholipid methylation occurs in the hamster testis at a level seven-fold greater than protein methylation, (2) the incorporation of radioactivity associated with phospholipid methylation is progressive over time, and (3) in vivo, spermatogenic cell preparations enriched with pachytene spermatocytes have an almost four-fold higher level of measurable phospholipid methylation when compared to whole testis preparations. Taken together, these results suggest that phospholipid methylation may play an important stage-specific role in spermatogenesis.

  14. The Drosophila micropia retrotransposon encodes a testis-specific antisense RNA complementary to reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed Central

    Lankenau, S; Corces, V G; Lankenau, D H

    1994-01-01

    The micropia transposable element of Drosophila hydei is a long terminal repeat-containing retrotransposon present in both the autosomes and the Y chromosome. micropia expression gives rise to a complex set of sense and antisense RNAs transcribed primarily during spermatogenesis. The most abundant sense RNAs constitute an assortment of heterogeneous high-molecular-weight transcripts expressed as constituents of the Y-chromosomal lampbrush loops of primary spermatocytes. In addition, micropia encodes a full-length RNA that extends between the two long terminal repeats of the element. The major 1.0-kb antisense RNA characterized is complementary to the reverse transcriptase and RNase H coding regions of micropia. It is expressed from a testis-specific promoter during the primary spermatocyte stages and is detectable until spermatid elongation stages. Sequence comparison of this promoter with the 5' region of other testis-specific genes allows the conception of a conserved sequence that is responsible for this pattern of expression. A 284-bp fragment containing this sequence is able to drive testis-specific expression of the Escherichia coli lacZ gene in Drosophila melanogaster. This sequence is conserved in the micropia elements present in other Drosophila species that also encode an antisense RNA. The evolutionary conservation of micropia antisense RNA expression and the sequences responsible for its testis-specific transcription suggests a role for this antisense RNA in the control of germ line expression of the full-length transcript or transposon-encoded proteins. Images PMID:7509447

  15. METABOLOMIC EVALUATION OF RAT LIVER AND TESTIS TO CHARACTERIZE THE TOXICITY OF TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of two triazole fungicides, myclobutanil and triadimefon, on endogenous rat metabolite profiles in blood serum, liver, and testis was assessed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed daily by gavage for...

  16. A comparative study of mast cells and eosinophil leukocytes in the mammalian testis.

    PubMed

    Anton, F; Morales, C; Aguilar, R; Bellido, C; Aguilar, E; Gaytán, F

    1998-05-01

    The existence of a physiological integration between the immune and endocrine systems has long been recognized. In spite of the abundant literature data on the presence of cells of the immune system in the testis, mast cells and eosinophil leukocytes have received little attention. We have studied the presence, distribution and numbers of mast cells and eosinophils in the testes of 12 mammalian species. Mast cells were frequently found in equine (stallion, ass and mule) and human testis, whereas eosinophils were nearly absent. On the contrary, eosinophils were abundant in the hare testis, while mast cells were lacking. Both cells types were present in high numbers in swine (wild and domestic boar) testis. Otherwise, mast cells and eosinophils were absent from the testicular parenchyma of several species (rat, dog, cat, bull and deer), although they were present, in most cases, around blood vessels in the tunica albuginea. The presence of high numbers of mast cells and/or eosinophil leukocytes in the testicular parenchyma of some species suggest a role for these cells in local regulatory pathways. PMID:9697421

  17. Localization of S-100 proteins in the testis and epididymis of poultry and rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Abd-Elmaksoud, Ahmed; Marei, Hany E. S.

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to demonstrate S-100 protein in the testis and epididymis of adult chickens, Sudani ducks, pigeons, and rabbits. This study may represent the first indication for the presence of S-100 in the male reproductive organs of these species and might therefore serve as a milestone for further reports. In the testis of chickens, pigeons and rabbits, intense S-100 was seen in Sertoli cells. S-100 was also seen in the endothelial lining of blood vessels in rabbit testis. On the contrary, no S-100 reaction was detected in the Sertoli cells of Sudani ducks. In epididymis, the localization of S-100 had varied according to species studied; it was seen in the basal cells (BC) of epididymal duct in duck, non-ciliated cells of the distal efferent ductules in pigeons and ciliated cells of the efferent ductules and BC of rabbit epididymis. Conversely, S-100 specific staining was not detected in the epithelial lining of the rooster and pigeon epididymal duct as well as the principal cells of the rabbit epididymis. In conclusion, the distribution of the S-100 proteins in the testis and epididymis might point out to its roles in the male reproduction. PMID:25276477

  18. Expression of Zinc Finger Protein 105 in the Testis and its Role in Male Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huaxin; Liu, Lan-Hsin; Zhang, Heng; Lei, Zhenmin; Lan, Zi-Jian

    2011-01-01

    Using an in silico approach, we identified a putative zinc finger domain-containing transcription factor (zinc finger protein 105, ZFP105) that was enriched in the adult mouse testis. RT-PCR analyses showed that Zfp105 was indeed highly expressed in adult mouse testis and that its expression was regulated during postnatal development. To further characterize Zfp105 expression, we generated a Zfp105:β-galactosidase (LacZ) knock-in reporter mouse line (Zfp105LacZ/+) in which a Zfp105:LacZ fusion gene was expressed. Whole-mount LacZ analyses of adult Zfp105LacZ/+ tissues showed robust LacZ staining in the testis, very weak staining in the ovary and no staining in the spleen, liver, kidney, heart, lung, thymus, adrenal gland, uterus or oviduct. Sectional LacZ staining showed that ZFP105 was highly expressed in pachytene spermatocytes. ZNF35, the human ortholog of ZFP105, was also expressed in male germ cells of normal human testis. More importantly, reduced male fertility and sloughed spermatogenic cells were observed in adult Zfp105LacZ/LacZ mice. Taken together, our results suggest that ZFP105 is a male germ-cell factor and plays a role in male reproduction. PMID:20186958

  19. Distinguishing epigenetic features of preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to seminomas and nonseminomas

    PubMed Central

    Skvortsova, Yulia V.; Zinovyeva, Marina V.; Stukacheva, Elena A.; Klimov, Alexey; Tryakin, Alexey A.; Azhikina, Tatyana L.

    2016-01-01

    PIWI pathway proteins are expressed during spermatogenesis where they play a key role in germ cell development. Epigenetic loss of PIWI proteins expression was previously demonstrated in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), implying their involvement in TGCT development. In this work, apart from studying only normal testis and TGCT samples, we also analyzed an intermediate stage, i.e. preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to TGCTs. Importantly, in this study, we minimized the contribution of patient-to-patient heterogeneity by using matched preneoplastic/TGCT samples. Surprisingly, expression of germ cell marker DDX4 suggests that spermatogenesis is retained in premalignant testis tissues adjacent to nonseminoma, but not those adjacent to seminoma. Moreover, this pattern is followed by expression of PIWI pathway genes, which impacts one of their functions: DNA methylation level over LINE-1 promoters is higher in preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to nonseminomas than those adjacent to seminomas. This finding might imply distinct routes for development of the two types of TGCTs and could be used as a novel diagnostic marker, possibly, noninvasively. Finally, we studied the role of CpG island methylation in expression of PIWI genes in patient samples and using in vitro experiments in cell line models: a more complex interrelation between DNA methylation and expression of the corresponding genes was revealed. PMID:26843623

  20. Serological identification of Tektin5 as a cancer/testis antigen and its immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Identification of new cancer antigens is necessary for the efficient diagnosis and immunotherapy. A variety of tumor antigens have been identified by several methodologies. Among those antigens, cancer/testis (CT) antigens have became promising targets. Methods The serological identification of antigens by the recombinant expression cloning (SEREX) methodology has been successfully used for the identification of cancer/testis (CT) antigens. We performed the SEREX analysis of colon cancer. Results We isolated a total of 60 positive cDNA clones comprising 38 different genes. They included 2 genes with testis-specific expression profiles in the UniGene database, such as TEKT5 and a CT-like gene, A kinase anchoring protein 3 (AKAP3). Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of TEKT5 was restricted to the testis in normal adult tissues. In malignant tissues, TEKT5 was aberrantly expressed in a variety of cancers, including colon cancer. A serological survey of 101 cancer patients with different cancers by ELISA revealed antibodies to TEKT5 in 13 patients, including colon cancer. None of the 16 healthy donor serum samples were reactive in the same test. Conclusion We identified candidate new CT antigen of colon cancer, TEKT5. The findings indicate that TEKT5 is immunogenic in humans, and suggest its potential use as diagnostic as well as an immunotherapeutic reagent for cancer patients. PMID:23151147

  1. Role of Testis-Specific Gene Expression in Sex-Chromosome Evolution of Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Dean A.; Russell, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Gene expression in Anopheles gambiae shows a deficiency of testis-expressed genes on the X chromosome associated with an excessive movement of retrogene duplication. We suggest that the degeneration of sex chromosomes in this monandrous species is likely the result of pressures from X inactivation, dosage compensation, and sexual antagonism. PMID:21890740

  2. Structure of human nucleosome containing the testis-specific histone variant TSH2B

    SciTech Connect

    Urahama, Takashi; Horikoshi, Naoki; Osakabe, Akihisa; Tachiwana, Hiroaki; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2014-03-25

    The crystal structure of human nucleosome containing the testis-specific TSH2B variant has been determined. The TSH2B Ser85 residue does not interact with H4 in the nucleosome, and induces a local structural difference between TSH2B and H2B in nucleosomes. The human histone H2B variant TSH2B is highly expressed in testis and may function in the chromatin transition during spermatogenesis. In the present study, the crystal structure of the human testis-specific nucleosome containing TSH2B was determined at 2.8 Å resolution. A local structural difference between TSH2B and canonical H2B in nucleosomes was detected around the TSH2B-specific amino-acid residue Ser85. The TSH2B Ser85 residue does not interact with H4 in the nucleosome, but in the canonical nucleosome the H2B Asn84 residue (corresponding to the TSH2B Ser85 residue) forms water-mediated hydrogen bonds with the H4 Arg78 residue. In contrast, the other TSH2B-specific amino-acid residues did not induce any significant local structural changes in the TSH2B nucleosome. These findings may provide important information for understanding how testis-specific histone variants form nucleosomes during spermatogenesis.

  3. Chyloperitoneum and chylothorax: a combined rare occurrence after retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy and radiotherapy for testis tumor.

    PubMed

    Dharman, K; Temes, S P; Wetherell, F E; Kendrick, M J

    1984-02-01

    We report a case of chyloperitoneum and chylothorax 5 weeks after retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy and radiotherapy for embryonal cell carcinoma of the testis. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of this rare combined complication. The patient was treated successfully with an alimental dietary regimen (medium chain triglycerides and Vivonex), coupled with thoracenteses and paracenteses. PMID:6699970

  4. Comparison of ex vivo DSP and in vitro MBP Exposures on Fetal Testis Testosterone Production

    EPA Science Inventory

    In utero exposure to di‐butyl phthalate (DBP) during sex differentiation reduces androgen production and produces a characteristic profile of gene expression changes in the fetal testis. The DPB metabolite mono‐butyl phthalate (MBP) is hypothesized to produce these changes by ...

  5. GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO ETHANE DIMETHANESULFONATE (EDS) ALTERS DEVELOPMENT OF THE MOUSE TESTIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO ETHANE DIMETHANESULFONATE (EDS) ALTERS DEVELOPMENT OF THE MOUSE TESTIS. D.K. Tarka*1,2, J.D. Suarez*2, N.L. Roberts*2, J.M. Rogers*1,2, M.P. Hardy3, and G.R. Klinefelter1,2. 1University of North Carolina, Curriculum in Toxicology, Chapel Hill, NC; 2USEPA,...

  6. IN VITRO CONAZOLE EXPOSURE INHIBITS TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION IN ADULT AND NEONATAL RAT TESTIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    IN VITRO CONAZOLE EXPOSURE INHIBITS TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION IN THE ADULT AND NEONATAL TESTIS
    Chad R. Blystone1, 2, David J. Dix2, and John C. Rockett2
    1Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Box 7633, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA and 2U.S. Envi...

  7. Use of genetically engineered swine to elucidate testis function in the boar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The second mammalian GnRH isoform (GnRH-II) and its specific receptor (GnRHR-II) are abundant within the testis, suggesting a critical role. Gene coding errors prevent their production in many species, but both genes are functional in swine. We have demonstrated that GnRHR-II localizes to porcine Le...

  8. Steroidogenesis by testis and accessory glands of the Lusitanian toadfish, Halobatrachus didactylus, during reproductive season.

    PubMed

    Modesto, Teresa; Freitas, Ana M M S; Canario, Adelino V M

    2015-11-01

    In teleost fish sex steroids are essential for gonadal function and have marked effects in reproductive and agonistic behavior and in the expression of secondary sexual characteristics. The Lusitanian toadfish, Halobatrachus didactylus, has two male morphotypes: type I males are territorial nest-holders and have large accessory glands while type II males are smaller, have a relatively large testis and small accessory glands. In the present study, the steroidogenic activity of the testis and accessory testicular glands of the Lusitanian toadfish were examined in vitro as well as their presence in urine. The testis of type I males produced 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) and 11β-hydroxy-4-androstene-3,17-dione (11βA) from tritiated 17-hydroxyprogesterone, while those of type II males produced testosterone (T) and 11β,17β-dihydroxy-4-andosten-3-one (11βT), but not 11KT. Additionally, the testis and accessory glands of both morphs produced mostly 5β,3α-reduced and 17,20α-hydroxylated metabolites. Type I, but not of type II, males synthesised 5β-reduced androgens in their accessory glands. The presence of 11βA exclusively in the urine of type I males during reproductive season suggests an association with maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics and behavior in this morph. The urine of both types of males contained two 5α-androstane and 5β-pregnane glucuronides. Among the latter steroids, those that are 17,21-dihydroxylated are potentially metabolites from cortisol and were found only in type I males during the spawning season. The diversity of metabolites produced by the testis and accessory glands and the presence of some in urine is suggestive of a potential role in chemical communication and reproductive behavior. PMID:26435361

  9. Producing Recombinant mTEX101; a Murine Testis Specific Protein

    PubMed Central

    Barzegar Yarmohammadi, Leila; Modarresi, Mohammad Hossein; Talebi, Saeed; Hadavi, Reza; Ostad Karampour, Mahyar; Mahmoudi, Ahmad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Rabbani, Hodjattallah; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Production of antibodies against specific proteins of testis germ cells is of great significance for the investigation of processes involved in spermatogenesis, study of infertility problems and determination of the probable role of these proteins as cancer-testis antigens. Murine Testis Specific Recombinant Protein 101 (mTEX101) is a 38kDa, GPI-anchored protein which is expressed in testis germ cells of adult mice but it seems to be absent in other tissues. The structure and function of mTEX101 is not completely understood yet, but it is speculated that it may transduce biochemical signals into the cytoplasm since mTEX101 does not have an intracellular domain but the precise mechanisms are still ambiguous. Materials and Methods RNA was extracted from three adult mice testis. The RNA was used in RT-PCR, employing a pair of specific primers for mTEX101 ORF region. TA-cloning technique was performed by the insertion of mTEX101 into a pGEM-T Easy Vector, followed by its subcloning into a His-tagged expression vector, pET-28a (+). The recombinant mTEX101 was then produced by transfection of the expression vector into BL 21 (DE3) E. coli strain. Results A recombinant protein, weighing 27kDa, was produced upon IPTG-induction of the bacterial host. The presence of mTEX101 protein was detected through Western blot analysis by anti-mTEX101 peptide antibodies. Conclusion We produced mTEX101 recombinant protein that could be used for the production of mono and polyclonal antibodies. PMID:23926468

  10. Effect of varicocelectomy on testis volume and semen parameters in adolescents: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tie; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Qi; Li, Lei; Cao, Huan; Xu, Chuan-Liang; Chen, Guang-Hua; Sun, Ying-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Varicocele repair in adolescent remains controversial. Our aim is to identify and combine clinical trials results published thus far to ascertain the efficacy of varicocelectomy in improving testis volume and semen parameters compared with nontreatment control. A literature search was performed using Medline, Embase and Web of Science, which included results obtained from meta-analysis, randomized and nonrandomized controlled studies. The study population was adolescents with clinically palpable varicocele with or without the testicular asymmetry or abnormal semen parameters. Cases were allocated to treatment and observation groups, and testis volume or semen parameters were adopted as outcome measures. As a result, seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized controlled trials studying bilateral testis volume or semen parameters in both treatment and observation groups were identified. Using a random effect model, mean difference of testis volume between the treatment group and the observation group was 2.9 ml (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.6, 5.2; P< 0.05) for the varicocele side and 1.5 ml (95% CI: 0.3, 2.7; P< 0.05) for the healthy side. The random effect model analysis demonstrated that the mean difference of semen concentration, total semen motility, and normal morphology between the two groups was 13.7 × 106 ml−1 (95% CI: −1.4, 28.8; P = 0.075), 2.5% (95% CI: −3.6, 8.6; P= 0.424), and 2.9% (95% CI: −3.0, 8.7; P= 0.336) respectively. In conclusion, although varicocelectomy significantly improved bilateral testis volume in adolescents with varicocele compared with observation cases, semen parameters did not have any statistically significant difference between two groups. Well-planned, properly conducted RCTs are needed in order to confirm the above-mentioned conclusion further and to explore whether varicocele repair in adolescents could improve subsequently spontaneous pregnancy rates. PMID:25677136

  11. Characterization of the promoter region of the rat testis-specific histone H1t gene.

    PubMed

    Clare, S E; Hatfield, W R; Fantz, D A; Kistler, W S; Kistler, M K

    1997-01-01

    Histone H1t is synthesized only in male germ cells during the late pachytene stage of meiosis and is retained in spermatids until the nucleus elongates. Transgenic experiments suggest that spermatocyte-directing sequences lie within 140 base pairs of the cap site. To study the mechanism of this specificity we compared the DNase I footprints made on the immediate promoter regions of H1t and H1d (a typical somatic H1) by testis and liver extracts and observed both common and differentially protected regions. The common footprints of H1t included an Sp1 consensus (GC box 1) and a CCAAT motif. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) identified ubiquitous binding factors for GC box 1 and a binding factor for the CCAAT element that we identified immunologically as H1TF2. H1t-specific footprints occurred over the palindrome CCTAGG and a GC-rich sequence downstream of the TATA box (GC box 2). EMSA analysis of the palindrome identified testis-specific as well as ubiquitous binding factors. UV irradiation of a palindrome-binding reaction generated a cross-linked doublet of about 50 kDa from both testis and liver. Protein factors that bound to the GC box 2 sequence were similar from testis and liver, and GC box 1 and an Sp1 consensus competed for them. In vitro transcription directed by H1t occurred at comparable levels in testis and liver extracts. The importance of both GC box 1 and CCAAT elements was demonstrated by deletion analysis and by oligonucleotide competition. No dependence on the H1t palindrome was observed for in vitro transcription. PMID:9002635

  12. CRISPR/Cas9 Promotes Functional Study of Testis Specific X-Linked Gene In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xue; Chen, Yuxi; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Xiya; Liang, Puping; Zhan, Shaoquan; Cao, Shanbo; Songyang, Zhou; Huang, Junjiu

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian spermatogenesis is a highly regulated multistage process of sperm generation. It is hard to uncover the real function of a testis specific gene in vitro since the in vitro model is not yet mature. With the development of the CRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated 9) system, we can now rapidly generate knockout mouse models of testis specific genes to study the process of spermatogenesis in vivo. SYCP3-like X-linked 2 (SLX2) is a germ cell specific component, which contains a Cor1 domain and belongs to the XLR (X-linked, lymphocyte regulated) family. Previous studies suggested that SLX2 might play an important role in mouse spermatogenesis based on its subcellular localization and interacting proteins. However, the function of SLX2 in vivo is still elusive. Here, to investigate the functions of SLX2 in spermatogenesis, we disrupted the Slx2 gene by using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Since Slx2 is a testis specific X-linked gene, we obtained knockout male mice in the first generation and accelerated the study process. Compared with wild-type mice, Slx2 knockout mice have normal testis and epididymis. Histological observation of testes sections showed that Slx2 knockout affected none of the three main stages of spermatogenesis: mitosis, meiosis and spermiogenesis. In addition, we further confirmed that disruption of Slx2 did not affect the number of spermatogonial stem cells, meiosis progression or XY body formation by immunofluorescence analysis. As spermatogenesis was normal in Slx2 knockout mice, these mice were fertile. Taken together, we showed that Slx2 itself is not an essential gene for mouse spermatogenesis and CRISPR/Cas9 technique could speed up the functional study of testis specific X-linked gene in vivo. PMID:26599493

  13. Effective Delivery of Male Contraceptives Behind the Blood-Testis Barrier (BTB) - Lesson from Adjudin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiqi; Mruk, Dolores D; Xia, Weiliang; Bonanomi, Michele; Silvestrini, Bruno; Cheng, Chuen-Yan

    2016-01-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is one of the tightest blood-tissue barriers in the mammalian body. It divides the seminiferous epithelium of the seminiferous tubule, the functional unit of the testis, where spermatogenesis takes place, into the basal and the adluminal (apical) compartments. Functionally, the BTB provides a unique microenvironment for meiosis I/II and post-meiotic spermatid development which take place exclusively in the apical compartment, away from the host immune system, and it contributes to the immune privilege status of testis. However, the BTB also poses major obstacles in developing male contraceptives (e.g., adjudin) that exert their effects on germ cells in the apical compartment, such as by disrupting spermatid adhesion to the Sertoli cell, causing germ cell exfoliation from the testis. Besides the tight junction (TJ) between adjacent Sertoli cells at the BTB that restricts the entry of contraceptives from the microvessels in the interstitium to the adluminal compartment, drug transporters, such as P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), are also present that actively pump drugs out of the testis, limiting drug bioavailability. Recent advances in drug formulations, such as drug particle micronization (<50 μm) and co-grinding of drug particles with ß-cyclodextrin have improved bioavailability of contraceptives via considerable increase in solubility. Herein, we discuss development in drug formulations using adjudin as an example. We also put emphasis on the possible use of nanotechnology to deliver adjudin to the apical compartment with multidrug magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles. These advances in technology will significantly enhance our ability to develop effective non-hormonal male contraceptives for men. PMID:26758796

  14. Transcriptional changes of cytokines in rooster testis and epididymis during sexual maturation stages and Salmonella infection.

    PubMed

    Anastasiadou, M; Michailidis, G

    2016-08-01

    Infection of rooster testis and epididymis by pathogens can lead to impaired fertility, resulting in economic losses in the poultry industry. Antimicrobial protection of rooster reproductive organs is, therefore, an important aspect of reproductive physiology. Salmonellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases, caused by Salmonella bacteria including Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) and is usually the result of infection of the reproductive organs. Thus, knowledge of the endogenous innate immune mechanisms of the rooster testis and epididymis is an emerging aspect of reproductive physiology. Cytokines are key factors for stimulating the immune response and inflammation in chickens to Salmonella infection. In the present study the expression profile of 11 pro-inflammatory cytokine genes in the rooster testis and epididymis in vivo and transcriptional changes in these organs during sexual maturation and SE infection were investigated. Gene expression analysis data revealed that in both testis and epididymis nine cytokines namely the IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-15, IL-16, IL-17 and IL-18 genes were expressed, while no mRNA transcripts were detected in both organs for IL-2 and IL-4. Furthermore, the expression of various cytokine genes during sexual maturation appeared to be developmentally regulated, while SE infection resulted in a significant up-regulation of IL-1β, -6, -12 and -18 genes in the testis and an increase in the mRNA relative abundance of IL-1β, -6, -12, -16 and -18 in the epididymis of SE-infected sexually mature 28-week-old roosters. These results suggest a cytokine-mediated immune response mechanism against Salmonella infection in the rooster reproductive tract. PMID:27289435

  15. Testis stereology, seminiferous epithelium cycle length, and daily sperm production in the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis).

    PubMed

    Silva, R C; Costa, G M J; Andrade, L M; França, L R

    2010-01-15

    Similar to most wild felids, the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is an endangered species. However, knowledge regarding reproductive biology of the ocelot is very limited. Germ cell transplantation is an effective technique for investigating spermatogenesis and stem cell biology in mammals, and the morphologic characterization of germ cells and knowledge of cycle length are potential tools for tracking the development of transplanted germ cells. Our goal was to investigate basic aspects related to testis structure, particularly spermatogenesis, in the ocelot. Four adult males were used. After unilateral orchiectomy, testis samples were routinely prepared for histologic, stereologic, and autoradiographic analyses. Testis weight and the gonadosomatic index were 11+/-0.6g and 0.16+/-0.01%, respectively, whereas the volume density of seminiferous tubules and Leydig cells was 83.2+/-1.6% and 9.8+/-1.5%. Based on the acrosomic system, eight stages of spermatogenesis were characterized, and germ cell morphology was very similar to that of domestic cats. Each spermatogenic cycle lasted 12.5+/-0.4 d, and the entire spermatogenic process lasted 56.3+/-1.9 d. Individual Leydig cell volume was 2522mum(3), whereas the number of Leydig and Sertoli cells per gram of testis was 38+/-5x10(6) and 46+/-3x10(6). Approximately 4.5 spermatids were found per Sertoli cell, whereas daily sperm production per gram of testis was 18.3+/-1x10(6), slightly higher than values reported for other felids. The knowledge obtained in this study could be very useful to the preservation of the ocelot using domestic cat testes to generate and propagate the ocelot genome. PMID:19853903

  16. Genetic Analyses Reveal Functions for MAP2K3 and MAP2K6 in Mouse Testis Determination.

    PubMed

    Warr, Nick; Siggers, Pam; Carré, Gwenn-Aël; Wells, Sara; Greenfield, Andy

    2016-05-01

    Testis determination in mammals is initiated by expression of SRY in somatic cells of the embryonic gonad. Genetic analyses in the mouse have revealed a requirement for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in testis determination: targeted loss of the kinases MAP3K4 and p38 MAPK causes complete XY embryonic gonadal sex reversal. These kinases occupy positions at the top and bottom level, respectively, in the canonical three-tier MAPK-signaling cascade: MAP3K, MAP2K, MAPK. To date, no role in sex determination has been attributed to a MAP2K, although such a function is predicted to exist. Here, we report roles for the kinases MAP2K3 and MAP2K6 in testis determination. C57BL/6J (B6) embryos lacking MAP2K3 exhibited no significant abnormalities of testis development, whilst those lacking MAP2K6 exhibited a minor delay in testis determination. Compound mutants lacking three out of four functional alleles at the two loci also exhibited delayed testis determination and transient ovotestis formation as a consequence, suggestive of partially redundant roles for these kinases in testis determination. Early lethality of double-knockout embryos precludes analysis of sexual development. To reveal their roles in testis determination more clearly, we generated Map2k mutant B6 embryos using a weaker Sry allele (Sry(AKR)). Loss of Map2k3 on this highly sensitized background exacerbates ovotestis development, whilst loss of Map2k6 results in complete XY gonadal sex reversal associated with reduction of Sry expression at 11.25 days postcoitum. Our data suggest that MAP2K6 functions in mouse testis determination, via positive effects on Sry, and also indicate a minor role for MAP2K3. PMID:27009039

  17. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF TRIETHYLENEMELAMINE EXPOSURE ON MOUSE TESTIS CELLS AND SPERM CHROMATIN STRUCTURE ASSAYED BY FLOW CYTOMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxic and potentially mutagenic actions of triethylenemelamine (TEM) on mouse body and testis weights, testicular cell kinetics, sperm production, sperm head morphology, and sperm chromatin structure were assessed in two experiments. he first experiment examined effects of fo...

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of Spermatogenically Regressed, Recrudescent and Active Phase Testis of Seasonally Breeding Wall Lizards Hemidactylus flaviviridis

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Mukesh; Mathur, Amitabh; Khan, Meraj Alam; Majumdar, Subeer S.; Rai, Umesh

    2013-01-01

    Background Reptiles are phylogenically important group of organisms as mammals have evolved from them. Wall lizard testis exhibits clearly distinct morphology during various phases of a reproductive cycle making them an interesting model to study regulation of spermatogenesis. Studies on reptile spermatogenesis are negligible hence this study will prove to be an important resource. Methodology/Principal Findings Histological analyses show complete regression of seminiferous tubules during regressed phase with retracted Sertoli cells and spermatognia. In the recrudescent phase, regressed testis regain cellular activity showing presence of normal Sertoli cells and developing germ cells. In the active phase, testis reaches up to its maximum size with enlarged seminiferous tubules and presence of sperm in seminiferous lumen. Total RNA extracted from whole testis of regressed, recrudescent and active phase of wall lizard was hybridized on Mouse Whole Genome 8×60 K format gene chip. Microarray data from regressed phase was deemed as control group. Microarray data were validated by assessing the expression of some selected genes using Quantitative Real-Time PCR. The genes prominently expressed in recrudescent and active phase testis are cytoskeleton organization GO 0005856, cell growth GO 0045927, GTpase regulator activity GO: 0030695, transcription GO: 0006352, apoptosis GO: 0006915 and many other biological processes. The genes showing higher expression in regressed phase belonged to functional categories such as negative regulation of macromolecule metabolic process GO: 0010605, negative regulation of gene expression GO: 0010629 and maintenance of stem cell niche GO: 0045165. Conclusion/Significance This is the first exploratory study profiling transcriptome of three drastically different conditions of any reptilian testis. The genes expressed in the testis during regressed, recrudescent and active phase of reproductive cycle are in concordance with the testis

  19. Expression of POTE protein in human testis detected by novel monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Ise, Tomoko; Das, Sudipto; Nagata, Satoshi; Maeda, Hiroshi; Lee, Yoomi; Onda, Masanori; Anver, Miriam R.; Pastan, Ira

    2008-01-25

    The POTE gene family is composed of 13 highly homologous paralogs preferentially expressed in prostate, ovary, testis, and placenta. We produced 10 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against three representative POTE paralogs: POTE-21, POTE-2{gamma}C, and POTE-22. One reacted with all three paralogs, six MAbs reacted with POTE-2{gamma}C and POTE-22, and three MAbs were specific to POTE-21. Epitopes of all 10 MAbs were located in the cysteine-rich repeats (CRRs) motifs located at the N-terminus of each POTE paralog. Testing the reactivity of each MAb with 12 different CRRs revealed slight differences among the antigenic determinants, which accounts for differences in cross-reactivity. Using MAbs HP8 and PG5 we were able to detect a POTE-actin fusion protein in human testis by immunoprecipitation followed by Western blotting. By immunohistochemistry we demonstrated that the POTE protein is expressed in primary spermatocytes, implying a role in spermatogenesis.

  20. Comparison of the N-acetylhexosaminidase components in the ram testis and epididymis by isoelectric focusing

    PubMed Central

    Winchester, B. G.

    1971-01-01

    1. Several enzymic components, with both N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase and N-acetyl-β-galactosaminidase activity, have been demonstrated in the ram testis and epididymis by isoelectric focusing. 2. The component (I), which predominates in the testis and caput of the epididymis, is isoelectric at pH6.2±0.1, whereas the predominant component (II) in the epididymal isthmus and cauda is isoelectric at pH7.0±0.1. 3. The total activity and the relative proportions of the enzymic components vary in the different sections of the epididymis. 4. Although their pH optima are slightly different, the appropriate Km values for components I and II for the hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-β-glucosaminide and N-acetyl-β-galactosaminide and the ratios of the maximal velocities towards the two substrates are very similar. PMID:5131014

  1. Persistent mullerian duct syndrome presenting as retractile testis with hypospadias: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Vanikar, Aruna V; Nigam, Lovelesh A; Patel, Rashmi D; Kanodia, Kamal V; Suthar, Kamlesh S; Thakkar, Umang G

    2016-01-01

    A rare entity of persistent mullerian duct syndrome usually presents with a common symptom of undescended testis (UDT) or hernia. Male pseudo-hermaphroditism with persistent internal mullerian duct structures can present with a 46, XY karyotype with normal external genitalia and. It arises due to deficiency of anti-mullerian substance, resulting from reduced production/responsiveness to mullerian duct, leading to persistence of mullerian duct along with normal development of Wolffian duct structures. Presence of mullerian structure prevents testicular descent increasing the risk of testicular vanishing syndrome. The authors here report a case of 16 years old phenotypical male who came with retractile right sided testis and left side UDT in the urology out-patient department. Explorative laparotomy was performed and an ill-defined mass was excised and sent for histopathological examination. Histopathology revealed presence of mullerian structures. The serum testosterone level was normal, buccal smear cytology and karyotyping revealed a 46, XY genotype of the patient. PMID:27326401

  2. Persistent mullerian duct syndrome presenting as retractile testis with hypospadias: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Vanikar, Aruna V; Nigam, Lovelesh A; Patel, Rashmi D; Kanodia, Kamal V; Suthar, Kamlesh S; Thakkar, Umang G

    2016-06-16

    A rare entity of persistent mullerian duct syndrome usually presents with a common symptom of undescended testis (UDT) or hernia. Male pseudo-hermaphroditism with persistent internal mullerian duct structures can present with a 46, XY karyotype with normal external genitalia and. It arises due to deficiency of anti-mullerian substance, resulting from reduced production/responsiveness to mullerian duct, leading to persistence of mullerian duct along with normal development of Wolffian duct structures. Presence of mullerian structure prevents testicular descent increasing the risk of testicular vanishing syndrome. The authors here report a case of 16 years old phenotypical male who came with retractile right sided testis and left side UDT in the urology out-patient department. Explorative laparotomy was performed and an ill-defined mass was excised and sent for histopathological examination. Histopathology revealed presence of mullerian structures. The serum testosterone level was normal, buccal smear cytology and karyotyping revealed a 46, XY genotype of the patient. PMID:27326401

  3. [Functional state of the testis after the use of certain antibiotics and nitrofuran preparations].

    PubMed

    Iunda, I F; Kushniruk, Iu I

    1975-09-01

    The functional state of the testis due to the effect of antibacterial therapy was studied in 50 patients suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases of the urinary-genital system and treated with neomycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, furadonin and furagin. It was shown that the above nitrofurans and neomycin had a negative effect on the testis function lowering the number of the spermatozoa in 1 ml and the whole ejaculate and their mobility. Contrary to it tetracycline therapy had no significant effect on the spermatozoa number, while the use of streptomycin was accompanied by a certain tendency to an increase in their number. The data were to some extent in certain accordance with the results of the experimental studies. PMID:1180539

  4. Repeated administrations of carbon nanotubes in male mice cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yuhong; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Jingping; Mu, Qingxin; Zhang, Weidong; Butch, Elizabeth R.; Snyder, Scott E.; Yan, Bing

    2010-09-01

    Soluble carbon nanotubes show promise as materials for in vivo delivery and imaging applications. Several reports have described the in vivo toxicity of carbon nanotubes, but their effects on male reproduction have not been examined. Here, we show that repeated intravenous injections of water-soluble multiwalled carbon nanotubes into male mice can cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility. Nanotubes accumulated in the testes, generated oxidative stress and decreased the thickness of the seminiferous epithelium in the testis at day 15, but the damage was repaired at 60 and 90 days. The quantity, quality and integrity of the sperm and the levels of three major sex hormones were not significantly affected throughout the 90-day period. The fertility of treated male mice was unaffected; the pregnancy rate and delivery success of female mice that mated with the treated male mice did not differ from those that mated with untreated male mice.

  5. Cytomorphology of lung metastasis of pure choriocarcinoma of testis in a 58-year-old male.

    PubMed

    Puri, Shailja; Sood, Shivani; Mohindroo, Shobha; Kaushal, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Choriocarcinoma is malignancy arising from the trophoblastic tissue. Pure choriocarcinoma is rare in testis. Choriocarcinoma of testis is more commonly associated with other germ cell tumors. The usual age of presentation is 2nd-3rd decade. Distant metastasis is known to occur in choriocarcinoma. We present a rare case of testicular pure choriocarcinoma in a male patient. The patient was treated with orchidectomy, lymphadenectomy, and chemotherapy. Three months later the patient presented with hemoptysis and a lung mass. The aspiration cytology of the lung mass revealed metastatic deposits of syncytiotrophoblastic and cytiotrophoblastic cells. We are reporting this case due to its rarity, rare age of presentation, and characteristic cytology at metastatic focus. PMID:26881635

  6. The Testis Completely Replaced by a Huge Epidermal Cyst in an Older Man

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung Kgi; Hyun, Chang Lim; Kim, Sung Dae; Kim, Young Joo

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal cysts are commonly encountered, slow-growing superficial cysts in the hair-bearing areas of the body, and are usually discovered in the second and fourth decades of life. These cysts tend to be superficial, meaning that they can be easily found by ultrasound and digital palpation at a moderate degree of growth. However, we found a huge testicular cyst that went undetected until old age. In this report, we describe the interesting case of a patient in whom the right testis was totally replaced with an epidermal cyst. The cyst was found by ultrasonography and further evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging. We performed orchiectomy under the impression of an epidermal cyst. The pathologic report confirmed this clinical impression. Over 24 months of follow-up, we did not find any recurrence of a growing mass on the testis. PMID:26331129

  7. Germ cell development in the postnatal testis: the key to prevent malignancy in cryptorchidism?

    PubMed Central

    Hutson, John M.; Li, Ruili; Southwell, Bridget R.; Petersen, Bodil L.; Thorup, Jorgen; Cortes, Dina

    2013-01-01

    To permit normal postnatal germ cell development, the mammalian testis undergoes a complex, multi-staged process of descent to the scrotum. Failure of any part of this process leads to congenital cryptorchidism, wherein the malpositioned testis finds itself at the wrong temperature after birth, which leads to secondary germ cell loss and later infertility and risk of cancer. Recent studies suggest that neonatal gonocytes transform into the putative spermatogenic stem cells between 3 and 9 months, and this initial postnatal step is deranged in cryptorchid testes. In addition, it is thought the abnormality high temperature may also impair apoptosis of remaining gonocytes, allowing some to persist to become the possible source of carcinoma in situ and malignancy after puberty. The biology of postnatal germ cell development is of intense interest, as it is likely to be the key to the optimal timing for orchidopexy. PMID:23316184

  8. A study of the rete testis epithelium in several wild birds.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, S G; Kendall, M D

    1984-01-01

    Material from six wild non-breeding starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), twelve adult wild quelea (Quelea quelea) in prenuptial, full and post-breeding condition and one wild puffin (Fratercula arctica) was examined by light and electron microscopy. Contrary to previous accounts of avian material, the epithelium of the rete testis was composed of a mixture of numerous non-ciliated and fewer ciliated cells. Both cell types contained many inclusions in the cytoplasm all of which indicated that the cells could modify the luminal contents. All rete testis epithelial cells showed a strong reaction with stains for alkaline phosphatase. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:6706832

  9. Metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene by isolated perfused testis and testicular homogenate

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.L.; Lee, I.P.

    1980-12-01

    In an effort to improve the extrapolation of laboratory data to man and estimate risk of human reproductive toxicity associated with environmental exposure, the pharmacokinetic parameters of the testicular compartment are being studied. Of particular interest is the variety of enzyme systems capable of activating and detoxicating environmental chemicals and drugs. This report compares the metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene by the isolated perfused testis and testicular homogenates in vitro. The cell free in vitro system metabolized benzo(a)pyrene at a much greater rate than the perfused testis and produced a different spectrum of metabolites. Reliable laboratory prediction of biotransformation by the whole organ or intact animal is an essential aspect of reproductive toxicology.

  10. Identification of testis-specific ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Naoto; Harada, Yoshito; Sawada, Hitoshi

    2010-07-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system is known to play a key role in fertilization in ascidians, sea urchins, and mammals. To obtain insights into the ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (Ube2) involved in reproductive systems, we systematically explored Ube2 enzymes expressed in the testis of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Here, we report cDNA cloning and characterization of a novel type of Ube2r (Ci0100152677) that is capable of making a thiolester bond with ubiquitin. Northern analysis, whole-mount in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry indicate that this enzyme is exclusively expressed in the testis, mainly in the germ cells during the late stage of spermatogenesis, and is localized in the sperm head and tail, suggesting possible participation in fertilization or spermatogenesis/spermiogenesis. PMID:20578064

  11. Isolation and characterization of all-trans-retinoic acid-responsive genes in the rat testis.

    PubMed

    Gaemers, I C; Van Pelt, A M; Themmen, A P; De Rooij, D G

    1998-05-01

    By way of differential screening of testis cDNA libraries from vitamin A-deficient (VAD) rats before and after administration of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), genes, the transcription of which was influenced by ATRA, were isolated. Most clones with an increased transcription encoded different subunits of the same mitochondrial protein complex, cytochrome c oxidase (COX). The mRNA expression of COX increased by a factor 3.9 +/- 1.5 (mean +/- SD, n = 4). This increased expression seems to reflect an increased energy demand in the ATRA-supplemented VAD testis. Also, one gene was isolated, the transcription of which was reduced to about 70% by ATRA. This gene, sulfated glycoprotein 2 (Sgp-2), is a major secretion product of Sertoli cells, the function of which is still unknown. The effect of ATRA on Sgp-2 expression may be direct, since the promoter of Sgp-2 contains a putative ATRA-responsive element (RARE). PMID:9547504

  12. DNA methylation and demethylation events during meiotic prophase in the mouse testis.

    PubMed Central

    Trasler, J M; Hake, L E; Johnson, P A; Alcivar, A A; Millette, C F; Hecht, N B

    1990-01-01

    The genes encoding three different mammalian testis-specific nuclear chromatin proteins, mouse transition protein 1, mouse protamine 1, and mouse protamine 2, all of which are expressed postmeiotically, are marked by methylation early during spermatogenesis in the mouse. Analysis of DNA from the testes of prepubertal mice and isolated testicular cells revealed that transition protein 1 became progressively less methylated during spermatogenesis, while the two protamines became progressively more methylated; in contrast, the methylation of beta-actin, a gene expressed throughout spermatogenesis, did not change. These findings provide evidence that both de novo methylation and demethylation events are occurring after the completion of DNA replication, during meiotic prophase in the mouse testis. Images PMID:2320009

  13. Targeting testis-specific proteins to inhibit spermatogenesis: lesson from endocrine disrupting chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Wan, HT; Mruk, Dolores D; Wong, Chris KC; Cheng, C Yan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has recently been linked to declining fertility in men in both developed and developing countries. Since many EDCs possess intrinsic estrogenic or androgenic activities, thus, the gonad is one of the major targets of EDCs. Areas covered For the past 2 decades, studies found in the literature regarding the disruptive effects of these EDCs on reproductive function in human males and also rodents were mostly focused on oxidative stress-induced germ cell apoptosis, disruption of steroidogenesis, abnormal sperm production and disruption of spermatogenesis in particular cell adhesion function and the blood–testis-barrier (BTB) function. Herein, we highlight recent findings in the field illustrating testis-specific proteins are also targets of EDCs. Expert opinion This information should be helpful in developing better therapeutic approach to manage ECD-induced reproductive toxicity. This information is also helpful to identify potential targets for male contraceptive development. PMID:23600530

  14. Molecular cloning of a novel nuclear factor, TDRP1, in spermatogenic cells of testis and its relationship with spermatogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xuanchun; Jiang, Haowen; Zhou, Wenbai; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Yang, Zhihong; Lu, Yong; Lu, Bin; Wang, Xiang; Ding, Qiang; Hu, Renming

    2010-03-26

    We reported the identification of a novel gene termed TDRP (encoding testis development-related protein) that might be involved in spermatogenesis. The human TDRP gene had two distinct transcripts, TDRP1 and TDRP2, which encoded proteins of 183 aa and 198 aa respectively. Tdrp mRNA was predominantly expressed in testis tissue. We generated rabbit polyclonal antibodies specific against human TDRP1. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed TDRP1 was expressed in spermatogenic cells, especially with high expression in spermatocytes. We provided evidence that TDRP1 distributed in both cytoplasm and nuclei of spermatogenic cells. Expression patterns of Tdrp1 mRNA and its protein were investigated in the rat testis tissues of different developmental stages. Both Tdrp1 mRNA and its protein were barely detected in the testis of neonatal rats, increased remarkably at 3 weeks postpartum, and peaked at 2 months postpartum. We also investigated TDRP1 expressions in testis tissues of azoospermic men with defective spermatogenesis. Western blot analysis showed that TDRP1 expressions were significantly lower in the testis tissues of azoospermic men compared with normal controls. These current data demonstrated that as a nuclear factor, TDRP1 might play an important role in spermatogenesis.

  15. Photoperiod-modulated testis maturation in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, L.).

    PubMed

    Almeida, Fernanda F L; Taranger, Geir Lasse; Norberg, Birgitta; Karlsen, Orjan; Bogerd, Jan; Schulz, Rüdiger W

    2009-04-01

    Precocious male puberty is a significant problem in Atlantic cod aquaculture. While photoperiod manipulation can inhibit testis growth, a detailed analysis of effects on spermatogenesis is missing. Starting July 1, 2004, prepubertal fish were exposed to different photoperiod regimens in indoor tanks for 17 mo. Testis histology, germ cell dynamics (proliferation and apoptosis), and plasma androgen levels were analyzed. In the natural light (NL) group, testis growth started in September 2004 and was completed in February 2005, when a 2-mo spawning period started. In the constant light (LL) group, none or very few spermatogenic cysts were recruited into spermatogenesis, and apoptotic germ cell loss was high. A change of photoperiod from NL to LL at winter solstice (December 21, 2004) resulted in premature (2 mo) completion of the reproductive cycle, while changing from LL to NL at winter solstice triggered faster than normal testis development. Plasma testosterone levels increased in the NL group from spermatogonial proliferation toward meiosis, while those of 11-ketotestosterone increased toward spermiogenesis and spermiation. Plasma androgen levels did not rise under LL conditions. Comparing fish with developing testes from all groups indicated that low androgen levels were associated with a high incidence of spermatogonial apoptosis; we also found that androgen receptor mRNA expression was most prominent in Sertoli cells in contact with growing spermatogonial clones. Our data show that an inhibitory photoperiod (LL) reduced or blocked differentiation of spermatogonia, increased apoptosis (particularly among proliferating spermatogonia), and was associated with reduced androgen levels, a situation possibly reflecting insufficient gonadotropic stimulation. PMID:19038862

  16. Rapid evolution of mammalian X-linked testis-expressed homeobox genes.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2004-01-01

    Homeobox genes encode transcription factors that function in various developmental processes and are usually evolutionarily conserved in their sequences. However, two X-chromosome-linked testis-expressed homeobox genes, one from rodents and the other from fruit flies, are known to evolve rapidly under positive Darwinian selection. Here we report yet another case, from primates. TGIFLX is an X-linked homeobox gene that originated by retroposition of the autosomal gene TGIF2, most likely in a common ancestor of rodents and primates. While TGIF2 is ubiquitously expressed, TGIFLX is exclusively expressed in adult testis. A comparison of the TGIFLX sequences among 16 anthropoid primates revealed a significantly higher rate of nonsynonymous nucleotide substitution (d(N)) than synonymous substitution (d(S)), strongly suggesting the action of positive selection. Although the high d(N)/d(S) ratio is most evident outside the homeobox, the homeobox has a d(N)/d(S) of approximately 0.89 and includes two codons that are likely under selection. Furthermore, the rate of radical amino acid substitutions that alter amino acid charge is significantly greater than that of conservative substitutions, suggesting that the selection promotes diversity of the protein charge profile. More interestingly, an analysis of 64 orthologous homeobox genes from humans and mice shows substantially higher rates of amino acid substitution in X-linked testis-expressed genes than in other genes. These results suggest a general pattern of rapid evolution of mammalian X-linked testis-expressed homeobox genes. Although the physiological function of and the exact selective agent on TGIFLX and other rapidly evolving homeobox genes are unclear, the common expression pattern of these transcription factor genes led us to conjecture that the selection is related to one or more aspects of male reproduction and may contribute to speciation. PMID:15238536

  17. Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis: prenatal diagnosis and prescrotal approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal testicular tumors are rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of newborn scrotal masses. Juvenile granulosa cell tumor (JGCT) accounts for about 5% of all prepubertal testis tumors. As a benign neoplasm, radical orchiectomy is sufficient for treatment. We report a case of a newborn with a prenatal diagnosis of scrotal mass. After surgery, the histological diagnosis was juvenile granulosa cell tumor. To date the patient is healthy. PMID:23217189

  18. Membrane Transporters for Sulfated Steroids in the Human Testis - Cellular Localization, Expression Pattern and Functional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wapelhorst, Britta; Grosser, Gary; Günther, Sabine; Alber, Jörg; Döring, Barbara; Kliesch, Sabine; Weidner, Wolfgang; Galuska, Christina E.; Hartmann, Michaela F.; Wudy, Stefan A.; Bergmann, Martin; Geyer, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Sulfated steroid hormones are commonly considered to be biologically inactive metabolites, but may be reactivated by the steroid sulfatase into biologically active free steroids, thereby having regulatory function via nuclear androgen and estrogen receptors which are widespread in the testis. However, a prerequisite for this mode of action would be a carrier-mediated import of the hydrophilic steroid sulfate molecules into specific target cells in reproductive tissues such as the testis. In the present study we detected predominant expression of the Sodium-dependent Organic Anion Transporter (SOAT), the Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 6A1, and the Organic Solute Carrier Partner 1 in human testis biopsies. All of these showed significantly lower or even absent mRNA expression in severe disorders of spermatogenesis (arrest at the level of spermatocytes or spermatogonia, Sertoli cell only syndrome). Only SOAT was significantly lower expressed in biopsies showing hypospermatogenesis. By use of immunohistochemistry SOAT was localized to germ cells at various stages in human testis biopsies showing normal spermatogenesis. SOAT immunoreactivity was detected in zygotene primary spermatocytes of stage V, pachytene spermatocytes of all stages (I–V), secondary spermatocytes of stage VI, and round spermatids (step 1 and step 2) in stages I and II. Furthermore, SOAT transport function for steroid sulfates was analyzed with a novel liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry procedure capable of profiling steroid sulfate molecules from cell lysates. With this technique, the cellular inward-directed SOAT transport was verified for the established substrates dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and estrone-3-sulfate. Additionally, β-estradiol-3-sulfate and androstenediol-3-sulfate were identified as novel SOAT substrates. PMID:23667501

  19. Antibacterial and Antiviral Roles of a Fish β-Defensin Expressed Both in Pituitary and Testis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jun-Yan; Zhou, Li; Wang, Yang; Li, Zhi; Zhao, Jiu-Gang; Zhang, Qi-Ya; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Defensins are a group of cationic peptides that exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. In this study, we cloned and characterized a β-defensin from pituitary cDNA library of a protogynous hermaphroditic orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Interestingly, the β-defensin was shown to be dominantly expressed in pituitary and testis by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, and its transcript level is significantly upregulated in reproduction organs from intersexual gonad to testis during the natural and artificial sex reversal. Promoter sequence and the responsible activity region analyses revealed the pituitary-specific POU1F1a transcription binding site and testis-specific SRY responsible site, and demonstrated that the pituitary-specific POU1F1a transcription binding site that locates between −180 and −208 bp is the major responsible region of grouper β-defensin promoter activity. Immunofluorescence localization observed its pituicyte expression in pituitary and spermatogonic cell expression in testis. Moreover, both in vitro antibacterial activity assay of the recombinant β-defensin and in vivo embryo microinjection of the β-defensin mRNA were shown to be effective in killing Gram-negative bacteria. And, its antiviral role was also demonstrated in EPC cells transfected with the β-defensin construct. Additionally, the antibacterial activity was sensitive to concentrations of Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. The above intriguing findings strongly suggest that the fish β-defensin might play significant roles in both innate immunity defense and reproduction endocrine regulation. PMID:21188147

  20. Expression of zinc finger protein 105 in the testis and its role in male fertility.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huaxin; Liu, Lan-Hsin; Zhang, Heng; Lei, Zhenmin; Lan, Zi-Jian

    2010-06-01

    Using an in silico approach, we identified a putative zinc finger domain-containing transcription factor (zinc finger protein 105, ZFP105) enriched in the adult mouse testis. RT-PCR analyses showed that Zfp105 was indeed highly expressed in adult mouse testis and that its expression was regulated during postnatal development. To further characterize Zfp105 expression, we generated a Zfp105:beta-galactosidase (LacZ) knock-in reporter mouse line (Zfp105(LacZ/+)) in which a Zfp105:LacZ fusion gene was expressed. Whole-mount LacZ analyses of adult Zfp105(LacZ/+) tissues showed robust LacZ staining in the testis, very weak staining in the ovary, and no staining in the spleen, liver, kidney, heart, lung, thymus, adrenal gland, uterus, or oviduct. Sectional LacZ staining showed that ZFP105 was highly expressed in pachytene spermatocytes. ZNF35, the human ortholog of Zfp105, was also highly expressed in human testis. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that ZNF35 was located primarily in the cytoplasm of male germ cells. More importantly, reduced male fertility was observed in adult Zfp105(LacZ/LacZ) mice. Histological studies showed the presence of undifferentiated spermatogenic cells in the lumen of seminiferous tubules at stage VII and in the epididymal lumen of adult Zfp105(LacZ/LacZ) mice. Taken together, our results suggest that ZFP105 is a male germ-cell factor and plays a role in male reproduction. PMID:20186958

  1. Gene expression profiling in liver and testis of rats to characterize the toxicity of triazole fungicides

    SciTech Connect

    Tully, Douglas B.; Bao Wenjun; Goetz, Amber K.; Blystone, Chad R.; Ren, Hongzu; Schmid, Judith E.; Strader, Lillian F.; Wood, Carmen R.; Best, Deborah S.; Narotsky, Michael G.; Wolf, Douglas C.; Rockett, John C.; Dix, David J. . E-mail: dix.david@epa.gov

    2006-09-15

    Four triazole fungicides were studied using toxicogenomic techniques to identify potential mechanisms of action. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed for 14 days by gavage with fluconazole, myclobutanil, propiconazole, or triadimefon. Following exposure, serum was collected for hormone measurements, and liver and testes were collected for histology, enzyme biochemistry, or gene expression profiling. Body and testis weights were unaffected, but liver weights were significantly increased by all four triazoles, and hepatocytes exhibited centrilobular hypertrophy. Myclobutanil exposure increased serum testosterone and decreased sperm motility, but no treatment-related testis histopathology was observed. We hypothesized that gene expression profiles would identify potential mechanisms of toxicity and used DNA microarrays and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to generate profiles. Triazole fungicides are designed to inhibit fungal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 51 enzyme but can also modulate the expression and function of mammalian CYP genes and enzymes. Triazoles affected the expression of numerous CYP genes in rat liver and testis, including multiple Cyp2c and Cyp3a isoforms as well as other xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME) and transporter genes. For some genes, such as Ces2 and Udpgtr2, all four triazoles had similar effects on expression, suggesting possible common mechanisms of action. Many of these CYP, XME and transporter genes are regulated by xeno-sensing nuclear receptors, and hierarchical clustering of CAR/PXR-regulated genes demonstrated the similarities of toxicogenomic responses in liver between all four triazoles and in testis between myclobutanil and triadimefon. Triazoles also affected expression of multiple genes involved in steroid hormone metabolism in the two tissues. Thus, gene expression profiles helped identify possible toxicological mechanisms of the triazole fungicides.

  2. Comparative analysis of testis transcriptomes from triploid and fertile diploid cyprinid fish.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kang; Wen, Ming; Duan, Wei; Ren, Li; Hu, Fangzhou; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Jing; Tao, Min; Zhang, Chun; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Yun; Liu, Shaojun

    2015-04-01

    The fertility of fish is a key factor in fish breeding. RNA-seq is widely used in high-throughput sequencing and provides a rapid method to examine the molecular mechanisms underlying a biological process. To probe fertility-related molecular mechanisms, we obtained testis transcriptomes from diploid and triploid cyprinid fish and tested for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the testis. A total of 6730 transcripts were differentially expressed between the triploid and diploid fish. In these transcripts, 2428 transcripts showed reduced expression and 4302 transcripts were overexpressed in triploid fish compared to the diploid fish. Functional analyses revealed that partial genes related to reproductive, developmental, and locomotion processes, and the axoneme, were differentially expressed in triploid fish relative to diploid fish. Pathway analysis indicated that variations in the gene expression levels of the "ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis pathway" and the "apoptotic pathway" played a central role in the sterility of triploid male fish. A series of genes (DNAHs, DNAL1, IFTs, and DNAAF1) associated with sperm flagellar assembly and motility, and testis-specific candidate markers (Tcte1, Tekt1, Tekt4, Spag17, Spag5, Spag9a, Spag1b, and Spef2), had low expression levels in the testis of triploid fish. We validated these DEGs in triploid fish using quantitative PCR to quantify expression of eight representative genes. Furthermore, 276 putative transcription factors, 6 chromatin remodeling factors, and 35 transcription cofactors exhibited differential expression in triploid compared to diploid fish. This study provides insight into the regulatory mechanisms causing sterility in male triploid fish. PMID:25761592

  3. The effect of zinc supplementation on the effects of lead on the rat testis.

    PubMed

    Batra, N; Nehru, B; Bansal, M P

    1998-01-01

    With increasing concerns about environmental pollution, the interaction of micronutrients with toxic metals is of great interest. The present study was designed to investigate testicular effects of lead following concomitant administration of zinc. Lead was administered orally as lead acetate (50 mg/kg b.w.) daily for 3 months to male Portan rats with or without zinc (1 mg/kg b.w. as zinc sulphate). The control group was given the same volume of distilled water. Endpoints included lead concentration in various body organs as well as in the reproductive system, including testicular subfractions; the testicular enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase; the marker enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALAD); and testicular histoarchitecture. The concentrations of lead in bone, kidney, prostate, testis, liver, epididymis, spleen, seminal vesicles, and blood were significantly higher in lead-treated rats. Lead deposition was reduced in animals that received supplemental zinc. There was a 30% reduction in lead deposition in the testis when zinc was coadministered. At the subcellular level, there was differential accumulation of lead; the nucleus preferentially took up the metal after lead treatment alone, while zinc coadministration shifted lead accumulation to the mitochondria. A significant decrease in delta-ALAD and in SOD activity was seen in the testis with lead treatment. Coadministration of zinc prevented these decreases, at least partially. Zinc coadministration did not prevent the inhibition of catalase observed with lead treatment. Histologically, the alterations in the testis with lead treatment alone were more pronounced compared to animals in which zinc was supplemented. Improvement in the inhibition of delta-ALAD and in the ubiquitous cellular enzyme SOD suggests less testicular tissue damage due to detoxification of free radicals. In conclusion, zinc supplementation ameliorates lead-induced testicular damage both at the cellular and

  4. Screening targeted testis-specific genes for molecular assessment of aberrant sperm quality

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xue Xia; Shen, Xiao Fang; Liu, Fu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Teratospermia is a heterogeneous and complex disorder, which is closely associated with male fertility. Genes and gene products associated with teratospermia may serve as targeted biomarkers that help understand the underlying mechanisms of male infertility; however, systematic information on the subject remains to be elucidated. The present study performed a comparative bioinformatics analysis to identify biomarkers associated with sperm quality, particular focusing on testis-specific biomarkers. A stepwise screening approach identified 1,085 testis/epididymis-specific genes and 3,406 teratospermia-associated genes, resulting in 348 testis-specific genes associated with aberrant sperm quality. These genes were functionally associated with the reproduction process. Gene products corresponding to heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 4 like (HSPA4L) and phosphoglycerate kinase 2 were characterized at the cellular level in human testes and ejaculated spermatozoa. HSPA4L expression in sperm was revealed to be associated with sperm quality. The present study provided a novel insight into the understanding of sperm quality, and a potential method for the diagnosis and assessment of sperm quality in the event of male infertility. PMID:27356588

  5. Primary adenomatoid tumor of the testis: report of a case and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Binwu; Zhang, Yin-Ping; Wei, Huan-Huan; Ma, Mao; Nan, Xunyi

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatoid tumor (AT) is an extremely rare benign tumor in the testis of infants. A case of 14-month-old boy with testicular adenomatoid tumor was reported in this study. On physical examination, a smooth solid nodule sized 8 mm could be palpated with little tenderness on the head of the right testis. It could be clearly revealed by B ultrasonic scanning and computerized tomography. The patient underwent right radical orchiectomy. In postoperative histopathological study, the tumor was characterized by diffuse sheets of epithelioid cell and desmo-stroma structures. There was positive immunohistochemical staining of mesothelioma-associated antigens. The tumor should be differentiated from the tumor of the male genital tract including benign and malignant tumors of both epithelial and stromal origin. And we followed the case and no nodule was found in his scrotum by physical examination and scrotal ultrasonography after 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 54, 60 months. These findings have important implications that the histogenesis of adenomatoid tumor of the testis is unclear yet. The diagnosis depends on pathologic studies, and should be differentiated from paratesticular malignant mesothelioma and sclerosed lipogranuloma. Radical surgery is the common choice, and as a result of getting a good prognosis. PMID:26191318

  6. Clinical and molecular evidence for the role of androgens and WT1 in testis descent.

    PubMed

    Lim, H N; Hughes, I A; Hawkins, J R

    2001-12-20

    Testicular maldescent is a common congenital disorder associated with testicular cancer and infertility. In this study, testis position was assessed in subjects with genital abnormalities due to AR mutations, Denys-Drash and WAGR syndromes or an unknown aetiology. Subjects with completely female genitalia and an AR mutation or an unknown aetiology had a greater proportion of maldescended testes (intra-abdominal and inguinal) than those with less severe abnormalities (P=0.00027 and P<0.000001, respectively). Whereas subjects with severe, moderate or mild abnormalities and an unknown aetiology, had similar testis positions. The Denys-Drash and WAGR syndrome group had a greater proportion of maldescended testes than the AR mutation (P=0.013) and unknown aetiology groups (P=0.00019). Androgen production and AR binding were normal in three subjects with Denys-Drash and WAGR syndromes. These findings indicate that the relationship between testis descent and genital abnormalities is a multi-factorial process with greater complexity than previously proposed. PMID:11738793

  7. Comprehensive functional characterization of cancer–testis antigens defines obligate participation in multiple hallmarks of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maxfield, Kimberly E.; Taus, Patrick J.; Corcoran, Kathleen; Wooten, Joshua; Macion, Jennifer; Zhou, Yunyun; Borromeo, Mark; Kollipara, Rahul K.; Yan, Jingsheng; Xie, Yang; Xie, Xian-Jin; Whitehurst, Angelique W.

    2015-01-01

    Tumours frequently activate genes whose expression is otherwise biased to the testis, collectively known as cancer–testis antigens (CTAs). The extent to which CTA expression represents epiphenomena or confers tumorigenic traits is unknown. In this study, to address this, we implemented a multidimensional functional genomics approach that incorporates 7 different phenotypic assays in 11 distinct disease settings. We identify 26 CTAs that are essential for tumor cell viability and/or are pathological drivers of HIF, WNT or TGFβ signalling. In particular, we discover that Foetal and Adult Testis Expressed 1 (FATE1) is a key survival factor in multiple oncogenic backgrounds. FATE1 prevents the accumulation of the stress-sensing BH3-only protein, BCL-2-Interacting Killer (BIK), thereby permitting viability in the presence of toxic stimuli. Furthermore, ZNF165 promotes TGFβ signalling by directly suppressing the expression of negative feedback regulatory pathways. This action is essential for the survival of triple negative breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Thus, CTAs make significant direct contributions to tumour biology. PMID:26567849

  8. Tudor Domain Containing Protein TDRD12 Expresses at the Acrosome of Spermatids in Mouse Testis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min; Ki, Byeong Seong; Hong, Kwonho; Park, Se-Pill; Ko, Jung-Jae; Choi, Youngsok

    2016-07-01

    Tdrd12 is one of tudor domain containing (Tdrd) family members. However, the expression pattern of Tdrd12 has not been well studied. To compare the expression levels of Tdrd12 in various tissues, real time-polymerase chain reaction was performed using total RNAs from liver, small intestine, heart, brain, kidney, lung, spleen, stomach, uterus, ovary, and testis. Tdrd12 mRNA was highly expressed in testis. Antibody against mouse TDRD12 were generated using amino acid residues SQRPNEKPLRLTEKKDC of TDRD12 to investigate TDRD12 localization in testis. Immunostaining assay shows that TDRD12 is mainly localized at the spermatid in the seminiferous tubules of adult testes. During postnatal development, TDRD12 is differentially expressed. TDRD12 was detected in early spermatocytes at 2 weeks and TDRD12 was localized at acrosome of the round spermatids. TDRD12 expression was not co-localized with TDRD1 which is an important component of piRNA pathway in germ cells. Our results indicate that TDRD12 may play an important role in spermatids and function as a regulator of spermatogenesis in dependent of TDRD1. PMID:26954166

  9. Sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide affected male reproduction by disturbing blood-testis barrier in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhai; Li, Zhihui; Qie, Mingli; Zheng, Ruibo; Shetty, Jagathpala; Wang, Jundong

    2016-08-01

    Fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2), two well-known environmental toxicants, have been implicated to have adverse effects on male reproductive health in humans and animals. The objective of this study to investigate if the BTB is one of the pathways that lead to reproductive toxicity of sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide alone or in combination, in view of the key role of blood testis barrier (BTB) in testis. The results showed that a marked decrease in sperm quality, and altered morphology and ultrastructure of BTB in testis of mice exposure to fluoride (100 mg NaF/L in drinking water) or/and sulfur dioxide (28 mg SO2/m(3), 3 h/day). Meanwhile, the mRNA expression levels of some vital BTB-associated proteins, including occluding, claudin-11, ZO-1, Ncadherin, α-catenin, and connexin-43 were all strikingly reduced after NaF exposure, although only the reduction of DSG-2 was statistically significant in all treatment groups. Moreover, the proteins expressions also decreased significantly in claudin-11, N-cadherin, α-catenin, connexin-43 and desmoglein-2 in mice treated with fluoride and/or SO2. These changes in BTB structure and constitutive proteins may therefore be connected with the low sperm quality in these mice. The role of fluoride should deserves more attention in this process. PMID:27237588

  10. Sertoli Cells Maintain Leydig Cell Number and Peritubular Myoid Cell Activity in the Adult Mouse Testis

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Ana; Milne, Laura; Cruickshanks, Lyndsey; Jeffrey, Nathan; Guillou, Florian; Freeman, Tom C.; Mitchell, Rod T.; Smith, Lee B.

    2014-01-01

    The Sertoli cells are critical regulators of testis differentiation and development. In the adult, however, their known function is restricted largely to maintenance of spermatogenesis. To determine whether the Sertoli cells regulate other aspects of adult testis biology we have used a novel transgenic mouse model in which Amh-Cre induces expression of the receptor for Diphtheria toxin (iDTR) specifically within Sertoli cells. This causes controlled, cell-specific and acute ablation of the Sertoli cell population in the adult animal following Diphtheria toxin injection. Results show that Sertoli cell ablation leads to rapid loss of all germ cell populations. In addition, adult Leydig cell numbers decline by 75% with the remaining cells concentrated around the rete and in the sub-capsular region. In the absence of Sertoli cells, peritubular myoid cell activity is reduced but the cells retain an ability to exclude immune cells from the seminiferous tubules. These data demonstrate that, in addition to support of spermatogenesis, Sertoli cells are required in the adult testis both for retention of the normal adult Leydig cell population and for support of normal peritubular myoid cell function. This has implications for our understanding of male reproductive disorders and wider androgen-related conditions affecting male health. PMID:25144714

  11. Phthalate esters affect maturation and function of primate testis tissue ectopically grafted in mice

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Sosa, Jose R; Bondareva, Alla; Tang, Lin; Avelar, Gleide F.; Coyle, Krysta M.; Modelski, Mark; Alpaugh, Whitney; Conley, Alan; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; França, Luiz R; Meyers, Stuart; Dobrinski, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Di-n-Butyl (DBP) and Di-(2-EthylHexyl) (DEHP) phthalates can leach from daily-use products resulting in environmental exposure. In male rodents, phthalate exposure results in reproductive effects. To evaluate effects on the immature primate testis, testis fragments from 6-month-old rhesus macaques were grafted subcutaneously to immune-deficient mice, which were exposed to 0, 10, or 500 mg/kg of DBP or DEHP for 14 weeks or 28 weeks (DBP only). DBP exposure reduced the expression of key steroidogenic genes, indicating that Leydig cell function was compromised. Exposure to 500 mg/kg impaired tubule formation and germ cell differentiation and reduced numbers of spermatogonia. Exposure to 10 mg/kg did not affect development, but reduced Sertoli cell number and resulted in increased expression of inhibin B. Exposure to DEHP for 14 week also affected steroidogenic genes expression. Therefore, long-term exposure to phthalate esters affected development and function of the primate testis in a time and dosage dependent manner. PMID:25450860

  12. Metabolism, sperm and fluid production of the isolated perfused testis of the sheep and goat

    PubMed Central

    Linzell, J. L.; Setchell, B. P.

    1969-01-01

    1. A total of nineteen ram and three goat testes have been perfused in isolation at 34-35° C for 3½-9 hr with heparinized blood and an added 5-HT antagonist (bromolysergic acid diethylamide) and their function compared with that of the normal ram testes in vivo. 2. The metabolism of the perfused testes and the testes in vivo was similar but blood flow through the perfused testes was two to three times normal. 3. Vasoconstriction was produced by adrenaline and noradrenaline (10-20 μg I.A.) and by electrical stimulation of nerves in the spermatic cord or of the lumbar sympathetic chain; these responses were abolished or reduced by phenoxybenzamine. 4. Flow of fluid from the rete testis continued only if ischaemia was reduced to a minimum and glucose concentration in the blood perfusing the testis was kept above about 25 mg/100 ml.; the fluid secreted during perfusion was of normal composition. 5. The perfused testis showed no evidence of autoregulation and the flow of fluid was not affected by changes in perfusion pressure. 6. When the temperature of three testes was raised to 40° C for 2 hr, metabolism increased but blood flow was unaltered; the flow of fluid and the concentration of spermatozoa decreased during heating. 7. The testes perfused at normal scrotal temperatures (34-35° C) were histologically normal but some abnormalities were observed in the heated testes. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:5773547

  13. Molecular and genetic regulation of testis descent and external genitalia development.

    PubMed

    Klonisch, Thomas; Fowler, Paul A; Hombach-Klonisch, Sabine

    2004-06-01

    Testicular descent as a prerequisite for the production of mature spermatozoa and normal external genitalia morphogenesis, and therefore facilitating copulation and internal fertilization, are essential developmental steps in reproduction of vertebrate species. Cryptorchidism, the failure of testis descent, and feminization of external genitalia in the male, usually in the form of hypospadias, in which the opening of the urethra occurs along the ventral aspect of the penis, are the most frequent pediatric complications. Thus, elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of testis descent and the formation of external genitalia merits a special focus. Natural and transgenic rodent models have demonstrated both morphogenic processes to be under the control of a plethora of genetic factors with complex time-, space-, and dose-restricted expression pattern. The review elucidates the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of testis descent and the formation of external genitalia and, wherever possible, assesses the differences between these rodent animal models and other mammalian species, including human. PMID:15136137

  14. Protective Effects of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides on Testis Spermatogenic Injury Induced by Bisphenol A in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Anzhong; Sun, Xiaona; Li, Xiaocai; Zhao, Xinghua; Li, Shuang

    2013-01-01

    To observe the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on testis spermatogenic injuries induced by Bisphenol A (BPA) in mice. BPA was subcutaneously injected into mice at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight (BW) for 7 consecutive days. LBP was administered simultaneously with BPA by gavage daily at the dose of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg BW for 7 days. After treatment, the weight and the histopathology changes of testis and epididymis were examined; the contents of T, LH, GnRH, antioxidant enzyme, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum were detected; proapoptotic protein Bax and antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 were also detected by immunohistochemical method. Results showed that the weights of testis and epididymis were all increased after supplement with different dosages of LBP compared with BPA group, and the activities of SOD and GSH-Px were significantly increased in LBP groups, while MDA contents were gradually decreased. Moreover, the levels of T, LH, and GnRH were significantly elevated in serum treated with 100 mg/kg LBP. LBP also shows significant positive effects on the expression of Bcl-2/Bax in BPA treated mice. It is concluded that LBP may be one of the potential ingredients protecting the adult male animals from BPA induced reproductive damage. PMID:24454506

  15. Expression of DMRT1 in the mammalian ovary and testis--from marsupials to mice.

    PubMed

    Pask, A J; Behringer, R R; Renfree, M B

    2003-01-01

    Doublesex and mab3 related transcript (DMRT1) was identified as a candidate gene for human 9p24.3 associated sex reversal. DMRT1 orthologues have highly conserved roles in sexual differentiation from flies and worms to humans. A DMRT1 orthologue was isolated from a marsupial, the tammar wallaby Macropus eugenii. The wallaby gene is highly conserved with other vertebrate DMRT1 genes, especially within the P/S and DM domains. It is expressed in the differentiating testis from the late fetus, during pouch life and in the adult. As in eutherian mammals, DMRT1 protein was localized in the germ cells and the Sertoli cells of the testis, but in addition it was detected in the Leydig cells, peri-tubular myoid cells and within the acrosome of the sperm heads. DMRT1 protein was also detected in the fetal and adult ovary pre-granulosa, granulosa and germ cells. Similarly, we also detected DMRT1 in the granulosa cells of all developing follicles in the adult mouse ovary. This is the first report of DMRT1 expression in the adult mammalian ovary, and suggests a wider role for this gene in mammals, in both the testis and ovarian function. PMID:14684988

  16. Prophylactic efficacy of Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) on testis of lead-exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Veena; Kansal, Leena; Sharma, Arti

    2010-09-01

    Lead poisoning is a worldwide health problem, and its treatment is under investigation. The aim of this study was to access the efficacy of Coriandrum sativum (coriander) in reducing lead-induced changes in mice testis. Animal exposed to lead nitrate showed significant decrease in testicular SOD, CAT, GSH, total protein, and tissue lead level. This was accompanied by simultaneous increase in the activities of LPO, AST, ALT, ACP, ALP, and cholesterol level. Serum testosterone level and sperm density were suppressed in lead-treated group compared with the control. These influences of lead were prevented by concurrent daily administration of C. sativum extracts to some extent. Treating albino mice with lead-induced various histological changes in the testis and treatment with coriander led to an improvement in the histological testis picture. The results thus led us to conclude that administration of C. sativum significantly protects against lead-induced oxidative stress. Further work need to be done to isolate and purify the active principle involved in the antioxidant activity of this plant. PMID:19902160

  17. Presumed normal ultrasonographic findings of the testis and epididymis of botos (Inia geoffrensis).

    PubMed

    Alves, Flávio Ribeiro; da Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira; Martin, Anthony Richard; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo; Giglio, Robson Fortes; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2012-12-01

    Fifteen live adult male botos, or Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis), were examined using ultrasonography during the yearly capture expedition, between October and November 2005, at the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, within the Brazilian Amazon (3 degrees S, 65 degrees W). All examinations were performed with a Sonosite 180 plus ultrasound unit in conjunction with a 2- to 5-MHz multifrequency transducer convex array 180 Plus/Elite-C60. Age and maturity estimates were determined considering the body length, weight, and external characteristics. In all examinations, the testes were discerned by the presence of a hyperechoic central line, called the mediastinum testis, a landmark for their identification during ultrasonography. No significant differences in echogenicity were detected on the ultrasonographic appearance of the testes among the studied animals. On adult male botos, apparent parenchymal nodulation of the testis was observed on scanning in most of the animals and probably constituted evidence of reproductive maturity. Using the color Doppler technique, blood flow was detected along the mediastinum testis that progressively decreased toward the periphery of this organ. Little blood flow could be identified by color Doppler. Power Doppler allowed better accuracy to identify testicular vessels, their topography, and their differentiation from adjacent structures. Ultrasonographic examination provides useful data for morphologic characterization of the boto's testes. Examination using Doppler techniques was considered a valuable tool to evidence blood flow through the testicular parenchyma. PMID:23272345

  18. Microsurgical inguinal varicocelectomy with delivery of the testis: an artery and lymphatic sparing technique.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, M; Gilbert, B R; Dicker, A P; Dwosh, J; Gnecco, C

    1992-12-01

    Conventional techniques of varicocele repair are associated with substantial risks of hydrocele formation, ligation of the testicular artery, and varicocele recurrence. We describe a microsurgical technique of varicocelectomy that significantly lowers the incidence of these complications. The testicle is delivered through a 2 to 3 cm. inguinal incision, and all external spermatic and gubernacular veins are ligated. The testis is returned to the scrotum and the spermatic cord is dissected under the operating microscope. The testicular artery and lymphatics are identified and preserved. All internal spermatic veins are doubly ligated with small hemoclips or 4-zero silk and divided. The vas deferens and its vessels are preserved. Initially, we performed 33 conventional inguinal varicocelectomies in 24 men without delivery of the testis or use of a microscope. Postoperatively, 3 unilateral hydroceles (9%) and 3 unilateral recurrences (9%) were detected. For the next 12 cases 2.5x loupes were used resulting in no hydroceles but another recurrence (8%). We then performed 640 varicocelectomies in 429 men using the microsurgical technique with delivery of the testis. Among 382 men available for followup examination from 6 months to 7 years postoperatively no hydroceles and no cases of testicular atrophy were found. A total of 4 unilateral recurrent varicoceles (0.6%) was identified. The differences between the techniques in the incidence of hydrocele formation and varicocele recurrence are highly significant (p < 0.001). No wound infections occurred in any men. Four scrotal hematomas (0.6%), 1 of which required surgical drainage, occurred in the group with microsurgical ligation and delivery of the testis compared to none with the conventional technique. Preoperative and postoperative semen analyses (mean 3.57 analyses per patient) were obtained on 271 men. The changes in sperm count x 10(6) cc (36.9 to 46.8, p < 0.001), per cent motility (39.6 to 45.7%, p < 0.001) and per

  19. A testis-specific and testis developmentally regulated tumor protein D52 (TPD52)-like protein TPD52L3/hD55 interacts with TPD52 family proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Qinhong; Chen Jie; Zhu Li; Liu Yun; Zhou Zuomin; Sha Jiahao; Wang Shui; Li Jianmin . E-mail: jianminli@njmu.edu.cn

    2006-06-09

    Tumor protein D52-like proteins (TPD52) are small coiled-coil motif bearing proteins that were first identified in breast cancer. TPD52 and related proteins have been implicated in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and vesicle trafficking. To date, three human TPD52 members had been identified, named hD52 (TPD52), hD53 (TPD52L1), and hD54 (TPD52L2). The most important characteristic of the protein family is a highly conserved coiled-coil motif that is required for homo- and heteromeric interaction with other TPD52-like proteins. Herein, we identified a novel TPD52-like sequence (TPD52L3, or hD55) in human testis using cDNA microarray. Sequence analysis of the deduced protein suggests that hD55 contains a coiled-coil motif and is highly conserved compared with other TPD52-like sequences. Yeast two-hybrid and GST pull-down assays revealed that hD55 interacts with hD52, hD53, hD54, and itself. cDNA microarray detection found that hD55 was expressed at 5.6-fold higher levels in adult testis than in fetal testis. Additionally, the expression profile shows that hD55 is testis-specific, indicating a potential role for hD55 in testis development and spermatogenesis.

  20. Nodavirus Colonizes and Replicates in the Testis of Gilthead Seabream and European Sea Bass Modulating Its Immune and Reproductive Functions

    PubMed Central

    Valero, Yulema; Arizcun, Marta; Esteban, M. Ángeles; Bandín, Isabel; Olveira, José G.; Patel, Sonal; Cuesta, Alberto; Chaves-Pozo, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are threatening pathogens for fish aquaculture. Some of them are transmitted through gonad fluids or gametes as occurs with nervous necrosis virus (NNV). In order to be transmitted through the gonad, the virus should colonize and replicate inside some cell types of this tissue and avoid the subsequent immune response locally. However, whether NNV colonizes the gonad, the cell types that are infected, and how the immune response in the gonad is regulated has never been studied. We have demonstrated for the first time the presence and localization of NNV into the testis after an experimental infection in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), and in the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), a very susceptible and an asymptomatic host fish species, respectively. Thus, we localized in the testis viral RNA in both species using in situ PCR and viral proteins in gilthead seabream by immunohistochemistry, suggesting that males might also transmit the virus. In addition, we were able to isolate infective particles from the testis of both species demonstrating that NNV colonizes and replicates into the testis of both species. Blood contamination of the tissues sampled was discarded by completely fish bleeding, furthermore the in situ PCR and immunocytochemistry techniques never showed staining in blood vessels or cells. Moreover, we also determined how the immune and reproductive functions are affected comparing the effects in the testis with those found in the brain, the main target tissue of the virus. Interestingly, NNV triggered the immune response in the European sea bass but not in the gilthead seabream testis. Regarding reproductive functions, NNV infection alters 17β-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone production and the potential sensitivity of brain and testis to these hormones, whereas there is no disruption of testicular functions according to several reproductive parameters. Moreover, we have also studied the NNV infection of the testis in vitro to

  1. Expression of preproenkephalin-like mRNA and its peptide products in mammalian testis and ovary.

    PubMed Central

    Kilpatrick, D L; Howells, R D; Noe, M; Bailey, L C; Udenfriend, S

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of preproenkephalin mRNA and proenkephalin-derived peptides have been examined in gonadal tissues from rats, hamsters, and cattle. A preproenkephalin mRNA band was detected in the ovaries of all three species and in hamster testis that is identical in size to the 1450-nucleotide mRNA typically found in tissues that express proenkephalin. Rat testis, on the other hand, expresses at least one preproenkephalin-like mRNA that is substantially greater in size (1900 nucleotides). [Met]enkephalin-containing peptides were also detected in each of the gonadal tissues examined. Although the abundance of preproenkephalin-like mRNA in rat testis was comparable to that in rat brain, the testicular content of proenkephalin-derived [Met]enkephalin sequences was less than 4% of the rat brain content. Together these data suggest that preproenkephalin-like mRNA in rat testis is not efficiently translated, proenkephalin-derived peptides undergo rapid turnover in this tissue, or the mRNA in rat testis has a frameshift resulting in an altered coding sequence. Images PMID:3864164

  2. Novel noncoding RNA from human Y distal heterochromatic block (Yq12) generates testis-specific chimeric CDC2L2

    PubMed Central

    Jehan, Zeenath; Vallinayagam, Sambandam; Tiwari, Shrish; Pradhan, Suman; Singh, Lalji; Suresh, Amritha; Reddy, Hemakumar M.; Ahuja, Y.R.; Jesudasan, Rachel A.

    2007-01-01

    The human Y chromosome, because it is enriched in repetitive DNA, has been very intractable to genetic and molecular analyses. There is no previous evidence for developmental stage- and testis-specific transcription from the male-specific region of the Y (MSY). Here, we present evidence for the first time for a developmental stage- and testis-specific transcription from MSY distal heterochromatic block. We isolated two novel RNAs, which localize to Yq12 in multiple copies, show testis-specific expression, and lack active X-homologs. Experimental evidence shows that one of the above Yq12 noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) trans-splices with CDC2L2 mRNA from chromosome 1p36.3 locus to generate a testis-specific chimeric β sv13 isoform. This 67-nt 5′UTR provided by the Yq12 transcript contains within it a Y box protein-binding CCAAT motif, indicating translational regulation of the β sv13 isoform in testis. This is also the first report of trans-splicing between a Y chromosomal and an autosomal transcript. PMID:17095710

  3. Testis hormone-sensitive lipase expression in spermatids is governed by a short promoter in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Blaise, R; Guillaudeux, T; Tavernier, G; Daegelen, D; Evrard, B; Mairal, A; Holm, C; Jégou, B; Langin, D

    2001-02-16

    A testicular form of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL(tes)), a triacylglycerol lipase, and cholesterol esterase, is expressed in male germ cells. Northern blot analysis showed HSL(tes) mRNA expression in early spermatids. Immunolocalization of the protein in human and rodent seminiferous tubules indicated that the highest level of expression occurred in elongated spermatids. We have previously shown that 0.5 kilobase pairs of the human HSL(tes) promoter directs testis-specific expression of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene in transgenic mice and determined regions binding nuclear proteins expressed in testis but not in liver (Blaise, R., Grober, J., Rouet, P., Tavernier, G., Daegelen, D., and Langin, D. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 9327-9334). Mutation of a SRY/Sox-binding site in one of the regions did not impair in vivo testis-specific expression of the reporter gene. Further transgenic analyses established that 95 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site were sufficient for correct testis expression. In gel retardation assays using early spermatid nuclear extracts, a germ cell-specific DNA-protein interaction was mapped between -46 and -29 base pairs. The DNA binding nuclear protein showed properties of zinc finger transcription factors. Mutation of the region abolished reporter gene activity in transgenic mice, showing that it is necessary for testis expression of HSL(tes). PMID:11076952

  4. Adenocarcinoma of the rete testis with prominent papillary structure and clear neoplastic cells: morphologic and immunohistochemical findings and differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pei-Wen; Chang, Kuo-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the rete testis is rare, and its etiology is unknown. The definite diagnosis merely depends on the exclusion of other tumors and histological features. We first describe a 38-year-old man with a carcinoma arising in the rete testis. The tumor was characterized by clear neoplastic cells and branching papillary growth. Focal stromal invasion and transition of normal rete epithelium to neoplastic cells were seen. The neoplastic cells were positive for epithelial membrane antigen, Ber-Ep4, vimentin, renal cell carcinoma marker, and CD10, while negative for Wilms' tumor 1, thyroid transcription factor-1, estrogen receptor, prostate specific antigen, placental alkaline phosphate, CD117, and alpha-1-fetoprotein. According to the above features, we diagnosed this tumor as adenocarcinoma of the rete testis. To our best knowledge, this is the first reported case of adenocarcinoma of the rete testis with prominently papillary structure and clear neoplastic cells. The rarity of adenocarcinoma of the rete testis and the unique features in our case cause diagnostic pitfalls. A complete clinicopathological study and thorough differential diagnosis are crucial for the correct result. PMID:25885143

  5. Effects of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus macranthus and Basella alba in mature rat testis function.

    PubMed

    Moundipa, F P; Kamtchouing, P; Koueta, N; Tantchou, J; Foyang, N P; Mbiapo, F T

    1999-05-01

    Mature male albino Wistar rats (180-220 g) were given by gastric intubation Hibiscus macranthus Hochst A ex Rich (Malvaceae) and Basella alba L. (Basellaceae) aqueous extract from both fresh and dry leaves, at a dose equivalent to 0.720 or 0.108 g of plant, respectively per kg body weight. This was to evaluate their effects on male reproductive function. Control groups were treated equally, but given water instead of the extract. After the treatment periods, animals were killed, their blood collected, the testes and some annex glands removed for histological and biochemical analysis. Results showed that the extract from fresh leaves significantly increased the body weight of rats by 17% from day 7 as compared to controls, whereas the increase was less pronounced (4%) when the rats were given dry leaf extract. The weight of seminal vesicles of rats given the extracts also increased after 15 days. The histological analysis of testis showed abundant spermatozoa in the lumen of the seminiferous tubulus from day 7 in rats fed with the extract when compared to the controls. The serum level of testosterone was significantly increased on the 15th day by 80% in rats given both types of extracts compared to the controls. Testis of treated rats showed high testosterone production in vitro (136 and 62%, respectively for treated and control after 15 days, compared to those of 3 days). Activity of prostatic acid phosphatase was high in prostate, testis and serum of treated rats in all experimental period. From these findings and observation, it was concluded that the aqueous extract of H. macranthus and B. alba had anabolizing and virilizing effects. PMID:10465653

  6. Testis follicles ultrastructure of three species of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Mazzei, V; Longo, G; Brundo, M V

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the research, carried out on three species of terrestrial isopods - Armadillidium granulatum, Halophiloscia hirsuta and Trichoniscus alexandrae - is to bring a first consistent contribution to the knowledge of the ultrastructural organization of the testis follicles. The testis follicles are seat of a remarkable dynamic activity of their cell components (somatic cells and germ cells) that results in a continuous variation, related to the trend of spermatogenesis, of their morphology, organization and of the relationships between the two cell populations. The somatic cells, known in literature as follicular cells, nurse cells or Sertoli cells, are arranged at the periphery of the follicle to form an epithelial layer of variable thickness resting on a thin basal lamina in turn surrounded by a discontinuous network of muscle cells. In A. granulatum and H. hirsuta, two types of Sertoli cells are present: a first type, the nurse cells, envelop the spermatids in cavities within their cytoplasm and through their secretion activity play a fundamental role in the formation of the spermatophores; moreover, they phagocytizes the residual cytoplasm of spermatids. A second type of Sertoli cells shows features that leave clearly identify its supporting role to the spermatophores in formation. In T. alexandrae, instead, only one type of Sertoli cells, the nurse cell, is present, whose features are widely superimposable to those observed in the other two species. Moreover, two septa of Sertoli cells depart from the periphery of the testis follicle to constitute an articulated compartmentalization of the follicle itself, probably targeted to realize at its inside a series of microenvironments functionally diversified in order to meets the needs of the different stages of the spermatogenic cycle. PMID:26276088

  7. Effects of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol on the testis of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkenfeld, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of xenobiotics on the male reproductive system have become a growing concern. During an investigation into the acute toxicity of the volatile solvent 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) following inhalation, it was noted that testicular damage was a consistent effect. Single intraperitoneal doses of TFE as low as 25 mg/kg produced damage to spermatogonia and spermatocytes, but had no effect on postmeiotic germ cells or interstitial structures. Damage to the testis was rapid, first being detectable by light microscopy 8 hours following a single i.p. dose. In order to determine the effects of subchronic inhalation exposre on male reproductive function, rats were exposed to trifluoroethanol at concentrations of 0, 100 ppM and 200 ppM, for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for two weeks. The absorption, distribution, and excretion of intraperitoneally injected trifluoroethanol (5 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg was studied using 2-/sup 14/C-TFE. Testicular and epididymal blood flow, as determined using 15 ..mu..m /sup 57/Co-microspheres, was not altered 15 minutes, 1, 3, or 6 hours following 100 mg TFE/kg. In vivo protein incorporation of /sup 14/C-leucine in the testis was not altered 6 hours after TFE. It appears that TFE-induced testicular damage is not due to decreased blood flow, as has been suggested for cadmium-induced damage. Alteration of the redox state of the testis may be suggested by the decrease in lactate concentration. 114 references, 16 figures, 25 tables.

  8. Spermatogonial stem cells in the testis of an endangered bovid: Indian black buck (Antilope cervicapra L.).

    PubMed

    Goel, Sandeep; Reddy, Niranjan; Mahla, Ranjeet Singh; Suman, Sanjay Kumar; Pawar, Rahul Mohanchandra

    2011-07-01

    Numerous wild bovids are facing threat of extinction owing to the loss of habitat and various other reasons. Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) represent the only germline stem cells in adult body that are capable of self-renewal and that can undergo differentiation to produce haploid germ cells. SSCs can, therefore, serve as a useful resource for preservation of germplasm of threatened and endangered mammals. The Indian black buck (Antilope cervicapra L.) is a small Indian antelope that is listed as endangered by the Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. Immunohistochemical analysis of testes tissues of black buck revealed the presence of spermatogonia that were specifically stained by lectin-Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA). The expression of pluripotent cell-specific markers, NANOG and stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA-1), was detected in spermatogonia. Interestingly, the expression of POU5F1 (OCT3/4) was absent from spermatogonia, however, it was detected in differentiating cells such as spermatocytes and round spermatids but not in elongated spermatids. The expression of NANOG protein was also present in spermatocytes but absent in round and elongated spermatids. Using the testis transplantation assay, stem cell potential of black buck spermatogonia was confirmed as indicated by the presence of colonized DBA-stained cells in the basal membrane of seminiferous tubules of xenotransplanted mice testis. The findings from this study suggest the presence of SSCs in the testis of an endangered bovid for the first time and open new possibility to explore the use of SSCs in conservation. PMID:21719218

  9. Secretion of free and conjugated steroids by the horse testis into lymph and venous blood.

    PubMed

    Setchell, B P; Cox, J E

    1982-01-01

    In 3 testes of 2 adult Pony stallions under halothane anaesthesia, catheters were inserted into a vein and a lymphatic vessel in the spermatic cord and into a vein on the surface of the testis. Lymph and venous blood were collected from the catheters in the cord and p-aminohippurate (2% w/v, 0 . 1 ml/min) was infused into the vein on the testis to determine blood flow by dilution. After 1 h, 6000 i.u. hCG was injected i.v. and collections continued for 45 min. The testes weighed 126-176 g. Lymph flow was 20-150 microliter/min before hCG and 100-270 microliter/min after hCG; the range of blood flow, with a haematocrit of about 22%, was unchanged (27-47 ml/min) after hCG. The concentration of testosterone in spermatic venous blood rose from 6-20 ng/ml to 160-270 ng/ml within about 30 min after hCG. Peripheral levels rose from about 2 to 6 ng/ml and lymph levels increased from 9-20 to 34-150 ng/ml after hCG. In contrast, the concentrations of oestrone sulphate in spermatic venous blood were about 400 ng/ml, compared with about 250 ng/ml in peripheral blood, while lymph values ranged from 600 to 1500 ng/ml; hCG had no consistent effect. DHA and its sulphate were present in spermatic venous blood at concentrations (about 3 and 5 ng/ml respectively) slightly higher than in peripheral blood (1 . 7 and 2 . 5 ng/ml), but the sulphate was at a very much higher concentration in lymph (about 5 and 200 ng/ml respectively). These results indicate that testicular lymph is an important route for the secretion of conjugated steroids by the horse testis. PMID:6300388

  10. Extreme divergence of Wolbachia tropism for the stem-cell-niche in the Drosophila testis.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Michelle E; Frydman, Horacio M

    2014-12-01

    Microbial tropism, the infection of specific cells and tissues by a microorganism, is a fundamental aspect of host-microbe interactions. The intracellular bacteria Wolbachia have a peculiar tropism for the stem cell niches in the Drosophila ovary, the microenvironments that support the cells producing the eggs. The molecular underpinnings of Wolbachia stem cell niche tropism are unknown. We have previously shown that the patterns of tropism in the ovary show a high degree of conservation across the Wolbachia lineage, with closely related Wolbachia strains usually displaying the same pattern of stem cell niche tropism. It has also been shown that tropism to these structures in the ovary facilitates both vertical and horizontal transmission, providing a strong selective pressure towards evolutionary conservation of tropism. Here we show great disparity in the evolutionary conservation and underlying mechanisms of stem cell niche tropism between male and female gonads. In contrast to females, niche tropism in the male testis is not pervasive, present in only 45% of niches analyzed. The patterns of niche tropism in the testis are not evolutionarily maintained across the Wolbachia lineage, unlike what was shown in the females. Furthermore, hub tropism does not correlate with cytoplasmic incompatibility, a Wolbachia-driven phenotype imprinted during spermatogenesis. Towards identifying the molecular mechanism of hub tropism, we performed hybrid analyses of Wolbachia strains in non-native hosts. These results indicate that both Wolbachia and host derived factors play a role in the targeting of the stem cell niche in the testis. Surprisingly, even closely related Wolbachia strains in Drosophila melanogaster, derived from a single ancestor only 8,000 years ago, have significantly different tropisms to the hub, highlighting that stem cell niche tropism is rapidly diverging in males. These findings provide a powerful system to investigate the mechanisms and evolution of

  11. Extreme Divergence of Wolbachia Tropism for the Stem-Cell-Niche in the Drosophila Testis

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, Michelle E.; Frydman, Horacio M.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial tropism, the infection of specific cells and tissues by a microorganism, is a fundamental aspect of host-microbe interactions. The intracellular bacteria Wolbachia have a peculiar tropism for the stem cell niches in the Drosophila ovary, the microenvironments that support the cells producing the eggs. The molecular underpinnings of Wolbachia stem cell niche tropism are unknown. We have previously shown that the patterns of tropism in the ovary show a high degree of conservation across the Wolbachia lineage, with closely related Wolbachia strains usually displaying the same pattern of stem cell niche tropism. It has also been shown that tropism to these structures in the ovary facilitates both vertical and horizontal transmission, providing a strong selective pressure towards evolutionary conservation of tropism. Here we show great disparity in the evolutionary conservation and underlying mechanisms of stem cell niche tropism between male and female gonads. In contrast to females, niche tropism in the male testis is not pervasive, present in only 45% of niches analyzed. The patterns of niche tropism in the testis are not evolutionarily maintained across the Wolbachia lineage, unlike what was shown in the females. Furthermore, hub tropism does not correlate with cytoplasmic incompatibility, a Wolbachia-driven phenotype imprinted during spermatogenesis. Towards identifying the molecular mechanism of hub tropism, we performed hybrid analyses of Wolbachia strains in non-native hosts. These results indicate that both Wolbachia and host derived factors play a role in the targeting of the stem cell niche in the testis. Surprisingly, even closely related Wolbachia strains in Drosophila melanogaster, derived from a single ancestor only 8,000 years ago, have significantly different tropisms to the hub, highlighting that stem cell niche tropism is rapidly diverging in males. These findings provide a powerful system to investigate the mechanisms and evolution of

  12. Identification of cancer/testis-antigen genes by massively parallel signature sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yao-Tseng; Scanlan, Matthew J.; Venditti, Charis A.; Chua, Ramon; Theiler, Gregory; Stevenson, Brian J.; Iseli, Christian; Gure, Ali O.; Vasicek, Tom; Strausberg, Robert L.; Jongeneel, C. Victor; Old, Lloyd J.; Simpson, Andrew J. G.

    2005-01-01

    Massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) generates millions of short sequence tags corresponding to transcripts from a single RNA preparation. Most MPSS tags can be unambiguously assigned to genes, thereby generating a comprehensive expression profile of the tissue of origin. From the comparison of MPSS data from 32 normal human tissues, we identified 1,056 genes that are predominantly expressed in the testis. Further evaluation by using MPSS tags from cancer cell lines and EST data from a wide variety of tumors identified 202 of these genes as candidates for encoding cancer/testis (CT) antigens. Of these genes, the expression in normal tissues was assessed by RT-PCR in a subset of 166 intron-containing genes, and those with confirmed testis-predominant expression were further evaluated for their expression in 21 cancer cell lines. Thus, 20 CT or CT-like genes were identified, with several exhibiting expression in five or more of the cancer cell lines examined. One of these genes is a member of a CT gene family that we designated as CT45. The CT45 family comprises six highly similar (>98% cDNA identity) genes that are clustered in tandem within a 125-kb region on Xq26.3. CT45 was found to be frequently expressed in both cancer cell lines and lung cancer specimens. Thus, MPSS analysis has resulted in a significant extension of our knowledge of CT antigens, leading to the discovery of a distinctive X-linked CT-antigen gene family. PMID:15905330

  13. Cancer/testis antigens and obligate participation in multiple hallmarks of cancer: an update

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Steven M; Rajagopalan, Krithika; Rangarajan, Govindan; Kulkarni, Prakash

    2016-01-01

    The Cancer/Testis Antigens (CTAs) are a group of so-called tumor antigens that exhibit provocative expression patterns in most types of cancer. However, because most CTAs appear to be intrinsically disordered, they are recalcitrant to classical structural studies. Thus, the functions of most, if not all, CTAs have remained elusive and their potential as pharmacological targets in cancer has remained largely unexplored. In this viewpoint, we suggest that perhaps, an integrative approach applying dynamical systems theory and a system-level perspective rather a merely reductionist view, may shine new light on these enigmatic molecules. PMID:26908068

  14. Changes in testosterone concentration in the fetal rabbit testis after removal of the hypothalamus (encephalectomy)

    SciTech Connect

    Proshlyakova, E.V.; Rumyantseva, O.N.; Mitskevich, M.S.

    1986-10-01

    The aim of this investigation was to obtain direct data on the role of the hypothalamus in regulation of the adrogen function of the testes in rabbit fetuses. Testosterone was determined by radioimmunoassay. Changes in testostereone concentration in rabbit fetal testis after encephalectomy and after injection of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) into encephalectomized fetuses is shown. Results obtained are evidence that the hypothalamus, pituitary and testes in the rabbit aged 23-25 days of prenatal development constitute a single functional system. It is concluded that in both rabbit and hog fetuses, the hypothalamus begins to regulate pituitary gonadotrophic activity after LHRH can be detected in the hypothalamus itself.

  15. Occurrence and cellular distribution of estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ in the testis and epididymal region of roosters.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, André G; Dornas, Rubem A P; Mahecha, Germán A B; Oliveira, Cleida A

    2011-02-01

    Estrogen signaling is required for the maintenance of male reproductive function and is mediated by the estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ. These receptors are widely distributed in mammalian reproductive tissues, but information is limited in non-mammalian species including birds. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and cellular distribution of ERα and ERβ in the testis and epididymal region of roosters. The results showed for the first time that ERβ was the predominant receptor detected in the testis, being expressed in the somatic and some germ cells. Within the epididymal region, ERβ was strongly expressed in all segments, whereas the most intense reaction for ERα was found in the distal efferent ductules. The differential expression of ERα and ERβ within the rooster testis and epididymal region suggests that these organs may be a target for different actions of estrogen. PMID:21118691

  16. Protective role of garlic oil against oxidative damage induced by furan exposure from weaning through adulthood in adult rat testis.

    PubMed

    El-Akabawy, Gehan; El-Sherif, Neveen M

    2016-06-01

    Furan is produced in a wide variety of heat-treated foods via thermal degradation. Furan contamination is found to be relatively high in processed baby foods, cereal products, fruits juices, and canned vegetables. Several studies have demonstrated that furan is a potent hepatotoxin and hepatocarcinogen in rodents. However, few studies have investigated the toxic effects of furan in the testis. In addition, the exact mechanism(s) by which furan exerts toxicity in the testis has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the potential of furan exposure from weaning through adulthood to induce oxidative stress in adult rat testis, as well as the potential of garlic oil (GO) to ameliorate the induced toxicity. Our results reveal that furan administration significantly reduced serum testosterone levels and increased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA); furthermore, furan administration decreased significantly the enzymatic activity of testicular antioxidants, including glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) and induced histopathological alterations in the testis. GO co-administration ameliorated the reduction in testosterone levels and dramatically attenuated the furan-induced oxidative and histopathological changes. In addition, Go significantly down-regulated the increased caspase-3 and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression in the furan-treated testis. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate the furan-induced oxidative changes in the adult rat testis and the protective role of GO to ameliorate these changes through its antioxidant effects and its ability to inhibit CYP2E1 production. PMID:27130490

  17. Ehd4 is required to attain normal pre-pubertal testis size but dispensable for fertility in male mice

    PubMed Central

    George, Manju; Rainey, Mark A.; Naramura, Mayumi; Ying, GuoGuang; Harms, Don W.; Vitaterna, Martha H.; Doglio, Lynn; Crawford, Susan E.; Hess, Rex A.; Band, Vimla; Band, Hamid

    2010-01-01

    The four highly homologous members of the C-terminal EH domain-containing (EHD) protein family (EHD1-4) regulates endocytic recycling. To delineate the role of EHD4 in normal physiology and development, mice with a conditional knockout of the Ehd4 gene were generated. PCR of genomic DNA and Western blotting of organ lysates from Ehd4−/− mice confirmed EHD4 deletion. Ehd4−/− mice were viable and born at expected Mendelian ratios; however, males showed a 50% reduction in testis weight, obvious from postnatal day 31. An early (day 10) increase in germ cell proliferation and apoptosis and a later increase in apoptosis (day 31) were seen in the Ehd4−/− testis. Other defects included a progressive reduction in seminiferous tubule diameter, dysregulation of seminiferous epithelium and head abnormalities in elongated spermatids. As a consequence, lower sperm counts and reduced fertility were observed in Ehd4−/− males. Interestingly, EHD protein expression was seen to be temporally regulated in the testis and levels peaked between days 10 and 15. In the adult testis, EHD4 was highly expressed in primary spermatocytes and EHD4 deletion altered the levels of other EHD proteins in an age-dependent manner. We conclude that high levels of EHD1in the adult Ehd4−/− testis functionally compensate for lack of EHD4 and prevents the development of severe fertility defects. Our results suggest a role for EHD4 in the proper development of post-mitotic and post-meiotic germ cells and implicate EHD protein-mediated endocytic recycling as an important process in germ cell development and testis function. PMID:20213691

  18. In utero exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of PCB 153 and PCB 118 disrupts fetal testis development in sheep.

    PubMed

    Krogenæs, Anette K; Ropstad, Erik; Gutleb, Arno C; Hårdnes, Nina; Berg, Vidar; Dahl, Ellen; Fowler, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are environmental pollutants linked to adverse health effects including endocrine disruption and disturbance of reproductive development. This study aimed to determine whether exposure of pregnant sheep to three different mixtures of PCB 153 and PCB 118 affected fetal testis development. Ewes were treated by oral gavage from mating until euthanasia (d 134), producing three groups of fetuses with distinct adipose tissue PCB levels: high PCB 153/low PCB 118 (n = 13), high PCB 118/low PCB 153 (n = 14), and low PCB 153/low PCB 118 (n = 14). Fetal testes and blood samples were collected for investigation of testosterone, testis morphology, and testis proteome. The body weight of the offspring was lower in the high PCB compared to the low PCB group, but there were no significant differences in testis weight between groups when corrected for body weight. PCB exposure did not markedly affect circulating testosterone. There were no significant differences between groups in number of seminiferous tubules, Sertoli cell only tubules, and ratio between relative areas of seminiferous tubules and interstitium. Two-dimensional (2D) gel-based proteomics was used to screen for proteomic alterations in the high exposed groups relative to low PCB 153/low PCB 118 group. Twenty-six significantly altered spots were identified by liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectroscopy (MS)/MS. Changes in protein regulation affected cellular processes as stress response, protein synthesis, and cytoskeleton regulation. The study demonstrates that in utero exposure to different environmental relevant PCB mixtures exerted subtle effects on developing fetal testis proteome but did not significantly disturb testis morphology and testosterone production. PMID:24754397

  19. ACTIONS OF THE ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR METHOXYCHLOR AND ITS ESTROGENIC METABOLITE ON IN VITRO EMBRYONIC RAT SEMINIFEROUS CORD FORMATION AND PERINATAL TESTIS GROWTH. (R827405)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The current study examines the actions of methoxychlor and its estrogenic metabolite, 2, 2-bis-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1, 1, 1-trichloroethane (HPTE), on seminiferous cord formation and growth of the developing rat testis. The developing testis in the embryonic and ...

  20. Recent adverse trends in semen quality and testis cancer incidence among Finnish men

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, N; Vierula, M; Jacobsen, R; Pukkala, E; Perheentupa, A; Virtanen, H E; Skakkebæk, N E; Toppari, J

    2011-01-01

    Impaired semen quality and testicular cancer may be linked through a testicular dysgenesis syndrome of foetal origin. The incidence of testis cancer has been shown to increase among Finnish men, whereas there is no recent publication describing temporal trends in semen quality. Therefore, we carried out a prospective semen quality study and a registry study of testis cancer incidence among Finnish men to explore recent trends. A total of 858 men were investigated in the semen quality study during 1998–2006. Median sperm concentrations were 67 (95% CI 57–80) million/mL, 60 (51–71) and 48 (39–60) for birth cohorts 1979–81, 1982–83 and 1987; total sperm counts 227 (189–272) million, 202 (170–240) and 165 (132–207); total number of morphologically normal spermatozoa 18 (14–23) million, 15 (12–19) and 11 (8–15). Men aged 10–59 years at the time of diagnosis with testicular cancer during 1954–2008 were included in the registry study, which confirmed the increasing incidence of testicular cancer in recent cohorts. These simultaneous and rapidly occurring adverse trends suggest that the underlying causes are environmental and, as such, preventable. Our findings necessitate not only further surveillance of male reproductive health but also research to detect and remove the underlying factors. PMID:21366607

  1. Identification and cellular localisation of voltage-operated calcium channels in immature rat testis.

    PubMed

    Fragale, A; Aguanno, S; Kemp, M; Reeves, M; Price, K; Beattie, R; Craig, P; Volsen, S; Sher, E; D'Agostino, A

    2000-04-25

    Sertoli cells regulate the spermatogenic process mainly through the secretion of a complex fluid into the lumen of the seminiferous tubules behind the blood-testis barrier, containing many of the essential proteins necessary for maintenance and maturation of male germ cells. Thus, the study of Sertoli cell secretory processes is strictly correlated with the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of spermatogenesis. In this work the authors have explored the voltage-sensitive calcium channel variety in the immature rat testis, their localisation and distribution within the seminiferous epithelium and peritubular and interstitial tissues as well as the possible role in the control of Sertoli cell secretion. The results reported in this paper, obtained by in situ hybridisation, immunohistology of rat testicular sections and Western blot analysis of Sertoli cell plasma membranes, show that mammalian Sertoli cells express mRNA encoding for several voltage-operated calcium channel subunits and express such proteins on their surface. Experiments performed on Sertoli cell monolayers cultured in the presence of specific toxins indicate that both N and P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels are involved in the regulation of protein secretion. PMID:10854695

  2. Regulation of blood-testis barrier by actin binding proteins and protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Tang, Elizabeth I.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2016-01-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is an important ultrastructure in the testis since the onset of spermatogenesis coincides with the establishment of a functional barrier in rodents and humans. It is also noted that a delay in the assembly of a functional BTB following treatment of neonatal rats with drugs such as diethylstilbestrol or adjudin also delays the first wave of spermiation. While the BTB is one of the tightest blood-tissue barriers, it undergoes extensive remodeling, in particular at stage VIII of the epithelial cycle to facilitate the transport of preleptotene spermatocytes connected in clones across the immunological barrier. Without this timely transport of preleptotene spermatocytes derived from type B spermatogonia, meiosis will be arrested, causing aspermatogenesis. Yet the biology and regulation of the BTB remains largely unexplored since the morphological studies in the 1970s. Recent studies, however, have shed new light on the biology of the BTB. Herein, we critically evaluate some of these findings, illustrating that the Sertoli cell BTB is regulated by actin binding proteins (ABPs), likely supported by non-receptor protein kinases, to modulate the organization of actin microfilament bundles at the site. Furthermore, microtubule (MT)-based cytoskeleton is also working in concert with the actin-based cytoskeleton to confer BTB dynamics. This timely review provides an update on the unique biology and regulation of the BTB based on the latest findings in the field, focusing on the role of ABPs and non-receptor protein kinases. PMID:26628556

  3. Ectopic Expression of Testis Germ Cell Proteins in Cancer and Its Potential Role in Genomic Instability

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Aaraby Yoheswaran; Gjerstorff, Morten Frier

    2016-01-01

    Genomic instability is a hallmark of human cancer and an enabling factor for the genetic alterations that drive cancer development. The processes involved in genomic instability resemble those of meiosis, where genetic material is interchanged between homologous chromosomes. In most types of human cancer, epigenetic changes, including hypomethylation of gene promoters, lead to the ectopic expression of a large number of proteins normally restricted to the germ cells of the testis. Due to the similarities between meiosis and genomic instability, it has been proposed that activation of meiotic programs may drive genomic instability in cancer cells. Some germ cell proteins with ectopic expression in cancer cells indeed seem to promote genomic instability, while others reduce polyploidy and maintain mitotic fidelity. Furthermore, oncogenic germ cell proteins may indirectly contribute to genomic instability through induction of replication stress, similar to classic oncogenes. Thus, current evidence suggests that testis germ cell proteins are implicated in cancer development by regulating genomic instability during tumorigenesis, and these proteins therefore represent promising targets for novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:27275820

  4. Protective effects of propolis on methotrexate-induced testis injury in rat.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Mehmet Fatih; Çilenk, Kübra Tuğçe; Karabulut, Derya; Ünalmış, Sunay; Deligönül, Erkan; Öztürk, İsmet; Kaymak, Emin

    2016-04-01

    Propolis is an adhesive substance which is collected and used by honeybees. Propolis is a potent antioxidant and a free radical scavenger. This study was designed to determine whether propolis could protect against dysfunction and oxidative stress induced by methotrexate-induced injury in rat testis. A total of 40 male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: group 1 was the untreated control. On the eighth day of the experiment, groups 2 and 3 received single intraperitoneal injections of methotrexate (MTX) at 20mg/kg. Groups 3 and 4 received 100mg/kg/day propolis (by oral gavage) for 15 days by the first day of the experimental protocol. Then the rats were decapitated under anesthesia, and their testes were removed. The histopathological and biochemical analysis along with apoptosis assessment of testis tissues were compared. Immunohistochemical analysis of Heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70) and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) were performed. The phenolic characterization of propolis was performed by Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Methotrexate caused tended to increase in malondialdehyde level and in the number of apoptotic cells; it also caused a decrease in MSTD and JTBS, PCNA and HSP-70 expression and xanthine oxidase levels in group 2. Propolis prevented the rise in malondialdehyde, xanthine oxidase levels and HSP-70 expression and improved testicular morphology and JTBS. It was found that, methorexate gives rise to serious damage in the testes and propolis is a potent antioxidant agent in preventing testicular injury. PMID:27044811

  5. Effects of Subchronic Exposure to Cadmium and Diazinon on Testis and Epididymis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cabaj, Michal; Massanyi, Peter; Martiniakova, Monika; Omelka, Radoslav; Krajcovicova, Vladimira; Duranova, Hana

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to elucidate the structural changes in testis and epididymis of adult rats following subchronic peroral administration of cadmium at 30 mg/L, diazinon at 40 mg/L, cadmium at 30 mg/L, and diazinon at 40 mg/L, respectively. At the end of 90-day experiment, the samples of the testes and epididymis were assayed by qualitative and quantitative histological methods. The testis and epididymis weights increased following exposure to cadmium and simultaneous exposure to cadmium and diazinon. Testicular damage following cadmium and diazinon coexposure was significantly less expressive than in groups with individual administration of these compounds. Cadmium caused a significant thickening of seminiferous epithelium, cellular degeneration, and necrosis. Desquamation of immature germ cells resulted in a significant increase of intraepithelial spaces and reduced tubule volume in all experimental groups. Vascular dilation and congestion were detected in the interstitial tissue. The changes in epididymal histology in the group exposed to cadmium and group exposed simultaneously included a reduction of epithelium, necrotic epithelial cells, vasoconstriction, and interstitial edema together with mononuclear cell infiltration. Results did not indicate a synergistic or any additional effect from the simultaneous administration of both toxicants. Further research is needed to determine the significance and the mechanism of the adverse effects. PMID:25548789

  6. Ectopic Expression of Testis Germ Cell Proteins in Cancer and Its Potential Role in Genomic Instability.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Aaraby Yoheswaran; Gjerstorff, Morten Frier

    2016-01-01

    Genomic instability is a hallmark of human cancer and an enabling factor for the genetic alterations that drive cancer development. The processes involved in genomic instability resemble those of meiosis, where genetic material is interchanged between homologous chromosomes. In most types of human cancer, epigenetic changes, including hypomethylation of gene promoters, lead to the ectopic expression of a large number of proteins normally restricted to the germ cells of the testis. Due to the similarities between meiosis and genomic instability, it has been proposed that activation of meiotic programs may drive genomic instability in cancer cells. Some germ cell proteins with ectopic expression in cancer cells indeed seem to promote genomic instability, while others reduce polyploidy and maintain mitotic fidelity. Furthermore, oncogenic germ cell proteins may indirectly contribute to genomic instability through induction of replication stress, similar to classic oncogenes. Thus, current evidence suggests that testis germ cell proteins are implicated in cancer development by regulating genomic instability during tumorigenesis, and these proteins therefore represent promising targets for novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:27275820

  7. Expression, Localization, and Binding Activity of the Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin Proteins in the Mouse Testis

    PubMed Central

    Wakayama, Tomohiko; Nakata, Hiroki; Kurobo, Miho; Sai, Yoshimichi; Iseki, Shoichi

    2009-01-01

    The ezrin, radixin, and moesin (ERM) proteins represent a family of adaptor proteins linking transmembrane proteins to the cytoskeleton. The seminiferous epithelium undergoes extensive changes in cellular composition, location, and shape, implicating roles of the membrane–cytoskeleton interaction. It remains unknown, however, whether the ERM proteins are expressed and play significant roles in the testis. In the present study, we examined the spatiotemporal expression of ERM proteins in the mouse testis by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Ezrin immunoreactivity was demonstrated in the cytoplasm of steps 15 and 16 spermatids from 5 weeks postpartum through adulthood, whereas radixin immunoreactivity was in the apical cytoplasm of Sertoli cells from 1 week through 2 weeks postpartum. No immunoreactivity for moesin was detected at any age. Immunoprecipitation demonstrated that ezrin was bound to the cytoskeletal component actin, whereas radixin was bound to both actin and tubulin. Of the transmembrane proteins known to interact with ERM proteins, only cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, a chloride transporter, was bound to ezrin in elongated spermatids. These results suggest that ezrin is involved in spermiogenesis whereas radixin is involved in the maturation of Sertoli cells, through interaction with different sets of membrane proteins and cytoskeletal components. (J Histochem Cytochem 57:351–362, 2009) PMID:19064715

  8. Cancer/Testis Antigen MAGE-C1/CT7: New Target for Multiple Myeloma Therapy

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Fabricio; Vettore, André L.; Colleoni, Gisele W. B.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer/Testis Antigens (CTAs) are a promising class of tumor antigens that have a limited expression in somatic tissues (testis, ovary, fetal, and placental cells). Aberrant expression of CTAs in cancer cells may lead to abnormal chromosome segregation and aneuploidy. CTAs are regulated by epigenetic mechanisms (DNA methylation and acetylation of histones) and are attractive targets for immunotherapy in cancer because the gonads are immune privileged organs and anti-CTA immune response can be tumor-specific. Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable hematological malignancy, and several CTAs have been detected in many MM cell lines and patients. Among CTAs expressed in MM we must highlight the MAGE-C1/CT7 located on the X chromosome and expressed specificity in the malignant plasma cells. MAGE-C1/CT7 seems to be related to disease progression and functional studies suggests that this CTA might play a role in cell cycle and mainly in survival of malignant plasma cells, protecting myeloma cells against spontaneous as well as drug-induced apoptosis. PMID:22481966

  9. Silver nanoparticles disrupt germline stem cell maintenance in the Drosophila testis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Cynthia; Lee, Qian Ying; Cai, Yu; Liu, Xiaoli; Ding, Jun; Yung, Lin-Yue Lanry; Bay, Boon-Huat; Baeg, Gyeong-Hun

    2016-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), one of the most popular nanomaterials, are commonly used in consumer products and biomedical devices, despite their potential toxicity. Recently, AgNP exposure was reported to be associated with male reproductive toxicity in mammalian models. However, there is still a limited understanding of the effects of AgNPs on spermatogenesis. The fruit fly Drosophila testis is an excellent in vivo model to elucidate the mechanisms underlying AgNP-induced defects in spermatogenesis, as germ lineages can be easily identified and imaged. In this study, we evaluated AgNP-mediated toxicity on spermatogenesis by feeding Drosophila with AgNPs at various concentrations. We first observed a dose-dependent uptake of AgNPs in vivo. Concomitantly, AgNP exposure caused a significant decrease in the viability and delay in the development of Drosophila in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, AgNP-treated male flies showed a reduction in fecundity, and the resulting testes contained a decreased number of germline stem cells (GSCs) compared to controls. Interestingly, testes exposed to AgNPs exhibited a dramatic increase in reactive oxygen species levels and showed precocious GSC differentiation. Taken together, our study suggests that AgNP exposure may increase ROS levels in the Drosophila testis, leading to a reduction of GSC number by promoting premature GSC differentiation.

  10. Epigenetic Regulation of Stem Cell Maintenance in the Drosophila Testis via the Nucleosome Remodeling Factor NURF

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, Christopher M.; Matunis, Erika L.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Regulation of stem cells depends on both tissue-specific transcriptional regulators and changes in chromatin organization, yet the coordination of these events in endogenous niches is poorly understood. In the Drosophila testis, local JAK-STAT signaling maintains germline and somatic stem cells (GSCs and cyst progenitor cells, or CPCs) in a single niche. Here we show that epigenetic regulation via the nucleosome remodeling factor (NURF) complex ensures GSC and CPC maintenance by positively regulating JAK-STAT signaling, thereby preventing premature differentiation. Conversely, NURF is not required in early differentiating daughter cells of either lineage. Since three additional ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers (ACF, CHRAC, and dMi-2/NuRD) are dispensable for stem cell maintenance in the testis, epigenetic regulation of stem cells within this niche may rely primarily on NURF. Thus, local signals cooperate with specific chromatin remodeling complexes in intact niches to coordinately regulate a common set of target genes to prevent premature stem cell differentiation. PMID:20569693

  11. Long-term effect of yolk carotenoid levels on testis size in a precocial bird.

    PubMed

    Giraudeau, Mathieu; Ziegler, Ann-Kathrin; Tschirren, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Conditions experienced during prenatal development can have long-lasting organizational effects on offspring. Maternal carotenoids deposited in the eggs of birds and other oviparous species play an important role during fast embryonic growth and chick development through their antioxidant properties. However, the long-term consequences of variation in maternal carotenoid transfer for the offspring have seldom been considered. Since plasma carotenoid levels at adulthood are known to influence testis size and yolk carotenoid levels influence the ability to extract carotenoids later in life, we hypothesized that maternally transmitted carotenoids might influence gonad size at adulthood. Here, we showed that male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) originating from a carotenoid-enriched egg had smaller testes than control individuals at adulthood. This result shows that yolk carotenoids have long-term organizational effects. In addition, given that carotenoid intake at sexual maturity increases sperm quality and that a decreased testis size is associated with a lower sperm production, we propose that carotenoid exposure during embryo development might influence a trade-off between ejaculate size and sperm quality. PMID:27122006

  12. Torsion of the spermatic cord--a long term study of the contralateral testis.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, J; Sinha Hikim, A P; Jhunjhunwala, J

    1986-01-01

    The object of the present investigation was to study the long-term effects of the unilateral torsion of the spermatic cord on the contralateral testis. Eighteen guinea pigs were divided into 3 groups. In group I of six animals, unilateral torsion of the spermatic cords was maintained until the time of sacrifice. In group II of six animals, torsion of the spermatic cords was maintained for 8-12 h, then the spermatic cords were untwisted and the animals were maintained until the day of sacrifice. Group III six animals, received an injection of pentobarbital, which served as control. All animals were sacrificed after 16 months. Extensive light and electron microscopic studies were carried out. In the contralateral testes of the experimental group of animals, several degenerative changes were noted, which included excessive intraepithelial vacuolization, a loss of germ cells and the presence of tubules containing only Sertoli cells and a few spermatogonia. 10.6% and 19.5% seminiferous tubules were damaged in the contralateral testes of torsion maintained and the torsion reversed groups of animals, respectively in comparison to 3.1% tubular damage (indicated only by occasional presence of intraepithelial vacuoles and necrotic germ cells), in the control testis. It was concluded that long-term effect of unilateral torsion of the spermatic cord is permanent and irreversible in nature. PMID:3798613

  13. Long-term ex vivo maintenance of testis tissues producing fertile sperm in a microfluidic device

    PubMed Central

    Komeya, Mitsuru; Kimura, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hiroko; Yokonishi, Tetsuhiro; Sato, Takuya; Kojima, Kazuaki; Hayashi, Kazuaki; Katagiri, Kumiko; Yamanaka, Hiroyuki; Sanjo, Hiroyuki; Yao, Masahiro; Kamimura, Satoshi; Inoue, Kimiko; Ogonuki, Narumi; Ogura, Atsuo; Fujii, Teruo; Ogawa, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to cell cultures, particularly to cell lines, tissues or organs removed from the body cannot be maintained for long in any culture conditions. Although it is apparent that in vivo regional homeostasis is facilitated by the microvascular system, mimicking such a system ex vivo is difficult and has not been proved effective. Using the culture system of mouse spermatogenesis, we addressed this issue and devised a simple microfluidic device in which a porous membrane separates a tissue from the flowing medium, conceptually imitating the in vivo relationship between the microvascular flow and surrounding tissue. Testis tissues cultured in this device successfully maintained spermatogenesis for 6 months. The produced sperm were functional to generate healthy offspring with micro-insemination. In addition, the tissue kept producing testosterone and responded to stimulation by luteinizing hormone. These data suggest that the microfluidic device successfully created in vivo-like conditions, in which testis tissue maintained its physiologic functions and homeostasis. The present model of the device, therefore, would provide a valuable foundation of future improvement of culture conditions for various tissues and organs, and revolutionize the organ culture method as a whole. PMID:26892171

  14. Silver nanoparticles disrupt germline stem cell maintenance in the Drosophila testis

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Cynthia; Lee, Qian Ying; Cai, Yu; Liu, Xiaoli; Ding, Jun; Yung, Lin-Yue Lanry; Bay, Boon-Huat; Baeg, Gyeong-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), one of the most popular nanomaterials, are commonly used in consumer products and biomedical devices, despite their potential toxicity. Recently, AgNP exposure was reported to be associated with male reproductive toxicity in mammalian models. However, there is still a limited understanding of the effects of AgNPs on spermatogenesis. The fruit fly Drosophila testis is an excellent in vivo model to elucidate the mechanisms underlying AgNP-induced defects in spermatogenesis, as germ lineages can be easily identified and imaged. In this study, we evaluated AgNP-mediated toxicity on spermatogenesis by feeding Drosophila with AgNPs at various concentrations. We first observed a dose-dependent uptake of AgNPs in vivo. Concomitantly, AgNP exposure caused a significant decrease in the viability and delay in the development of Drosophila in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, AgNP-treated male flies showed a reduction in fecundity, and the resulting testes contained a decreased number of germline stem cells (GSCs) compared to controls. Interestingly, testes exposed to AgNPs exhibited a dramatic increase in reactive oxygen species levels and showed precocious GSC differentiation. Taken together, our study suggests that AgNP exposure may increase ROS levels in the Drosophila testis, leading to a reduction of GSC number by promoting premature GSC differentiation. PMID:26847594

  15. In vitro maintenance of spermatogenesis in Xenopus laevis testis explants cultured in serum-free media

    SciTech Connect

    Risley, M.S.; Miller, A.; Bumcrot, D.A.

    1987-05-01

    Spermatogenesis has been maintained for extended periods in Xenopus laevis testis explants cultured in serum-free media supplemented with bovine serum albumin, insulin, transferrin, follicle-stimulating hormone, dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, retinol, ascorbate, and tocopherol. The organization of the testis fragments was maintained for 28 days, and all stages of development were present throughout the culture period. /sup 3/H-Thymidine-labeled secondary (Type B) spermatogonia developed in 28 days into spermatids at the acrosomal vesicle stage whereas labeled zygotene spermatocytes became mature spermatids in 28 days. Spermatogonial proliferation also continued in vitro for 28 days. Germ cell differentiation was not dependent upon exogenous testosterone, ascorbate, or tocopherol since /sup 3/H-labeled spermatogonia became mature spermatids in testes cultured 35 days in media lacking these supplements. Autoradiography demonstrated that 55% of the luminal sperm present in explants cultured 10 days had differentiated in vitro. Sperm from testes cultured 10-35 days were similar to sperm from freshly dissected testes with regard to motility and fecundity, and eggs fertilized with sperm from explant cultures developed normally into swimming tadpoles. The results demonstrate the feasibility of maintaining vertebrate spermatogenesis in culture and suggest that in vitro analysis of Xenopus spermatogenesis using defined media may provide important insights into the evolution of regulatory mechanisms in spermatogenesis.

  16. Regulation of blood-testis barrier by actin binding proteins and protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Tang, Elizabeth I; Cheng, C Yan

    2016-03-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is an important ultrastructure in the testis, since the onset of meiosis and spermiogenesis coincides with the establishment of a functional barrier in rodents and humans. It is also noted that a delay in the assembly of a functional BTB following treatment of neonatal rats with drugs such as diethylstilbestrol or adjudin also delays the first wave of spermiation. While the BTB is one of the tightest blood-tissue barriers, it undergoes extensive remodeling, in particular, at stage VIII of the epithelial cycle to facilitate the transport of preleptotene spermatocytes connected in clones across the immunological barrier. Without this timely transport of preleptotene spermatocytes derived from type B spermatogonia, meiosis will be arrested, causing aspermatogenesis. Yet the biology and regulation of the BTB remains largely unexplored since the morphological studies in the 1970s. Recent studies, however, have shed new light on the biology of the BTB. Herein, we critically evaluate some of these findings, illustrating that the Sertoli cell BTB is regulated by actin-binding proteins (ABPs), likely supported by non-receptor protein kinases, to modulate the organization of actin microfilament bundles at the site. Furthermore, microtubule-based cytoskeleton is also working in concert with the actin-based cytoskeleton to confer BTB dynamics. This timely review provides an update on the unique biology and regulation of the BTB based on the latest findings in the field, focusing on the role of ABPs and non-receptor protein kinases. PMID:26628556

  17. Identification of cancer-testis genes expressed by melanoma and soft tissue sarcoma using bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Segal, Neil H; Blachere, Nathalie E; Guevara-Patiño, Jose A; Gallardo, Humilidad F; Shiu, Ho Yin A; Viale, Agnes; Antonescu, Cristina R; Wolchok, Jedd D; Houghton, Alan N

    2005-02-01

    Cancer-testis or germ cell antigens (GCAs) are a category of tumor antigens expressed by male germ cells and by cancers of diverse histological origin, but not usually by normal adult somatic tissue. These antigens include products encoded by the MAGE, BAGE, GAGE, SSX, and LAGE/NY-ESO-1 families that encode antigenic peptides recognized by T lymphocytes. In this study, we exploit oligonucleotide technology to identify genes in melanoma and soft tissue sarcoma (STS) that display a cancer-testis/GCA expression profile. We identified 59 such genes, including GCAs we knew to be recognized by T lymphocytes. Among our findings are the expression of PRAME in monophasic synovial sarcoma, PRAME and NY-ESO-1 in myxoid/round cell liposarcoma, and SSX2 and members of the GAGE family in malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Furthermore, the proto-oncogene DBL/MCF2 was identified as encoding a novel candidate GCA expressed by clear cell sarcoma/melanoma of soft parts (MSP). DBL/MCF2 peptides that are bound to HLA-A*0201 were identified and recognized by T lymphocytes. These results show the utility of high-throughput expression analysis in the efficient screening and identification of GCA candidates in cancer, and its application to the discovery of candidate targets for T cell immunity against GCAs expressed by cancer. PMID:15683221

  18. [Traumatic luxation of the testis due to self-mutilation: a case report].

    PubMed

    Ishibiki, Yuji; Matsumura, Tsutomu

    2006-01-01

    A 16-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital with traumatic luxation of right testis due to self-mutilation with a retractable knife on Apr. 20, 2004. He had been followed as temporal lobe epilepsy and suspicions of gender identify disorder by a pediatrician. He was fully oriented with a clear sensory and normal perception, but had no memory of what he had done. His parents were free of psychiatric disease, and he was the youngest in siblings of two older brothers. The laboratory examination showed no abnormal findings. Under general anesthesia, right testis was replaced in the scrotum and the scrotal wound was closed at the emergency operation. He had an attack of epilepsy and recovered by itself on the next day. He was discharged on the eighth postoperative day. After the operation, no recurrence has been seen until now. To our knowledge, this is the 37th case of male genital self-mutilation reported in the Japanese literature. PMID:16485555

  19. Profiling of androgen response in rainbow trout pubertal testis: relevance to male gonad development and spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Antoine D; Lardenois, Aurélie; Goupil, Anne-Sophie; Lareyre, Jean-Jacques; Houlgatte, Rémi; Chalmel, Frédéric; Le Gac, Florence

    2013-01-01

    The capacity of testicular somatic cells to promote and sustain germ cell differentiation is largely regulated by sexual steroids and notably androgens. In fish species the importance of androgens is emphasized by their ability to induce sex reversal of the developing fries and to trigger spermatogenesis. Here we studied the influence of androgens on testicular gene expression in trout testis using microarrays. Following treatment of immature males with physiological doses of testosterone or 11-ketotestosterone, 418 genes that exhibit changes in expression were identified. Interestingly, the activity of testosterone appeared stronger than that of 11-ketotestosterone. Expression profiles of responsive genes throughout testis development and in isolated germ cells confirmed androgens to mainly affect gene expression in somatic cells. Furthermore, specific clusters of genes that exhibit regulation coincidently with changes in the natural circulating levels of androgens during the reproductive cycle were highlighted, reinforcing the physiological significance of these data. Among somatic genes, a phylogenetic footprinting study identified putative androgen response elements within the proximal promoter regions of 42 potential direct androgen target genes. Finally, androgens were also found to alter the germ line towards meiotic expression profiles, supporting the hypothesis of a role for the somatic responsive genes in driving germ cell fate. This study significantly increases our understanding of molecular pathways regulated by androgens in vertebrates. The highly cyclic testicular development in trout together with functions associated with regulated genes reveal potential mechanisms for androgen actions in tubule formation, steroid production, germ cell development and sperm secretion. PMID:23301058

  20. Mammalian transcription in support of hybrid mRNA and protein synthesis in testis and lung.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Carolyn; Sikora, Curtis; Lawson, Vannice; Dong, Karen; Cheng, Min; Oko, Richard; van der Hoorn, Frans A

    2006-12-15

    Post-transcriptional mechanisms including differential splicing expand the protein repertoire beyond that provided by the one gene-one protein model. Trans-splicing has been observed in mammalian systems but is low level (sometimes referred to as noise), and a contribution to hybrid protein expression is unclear. In the study of rat sperm tail proteins a cDNA, called 1038, was isolated representing a hybrid mRNA derived in part from the ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 3 (Oaz3) gene located on rat chromosome 2 fused to sequences encoded by a novel gene on chromosome 4. Cytoplasmic Oaz3 mRNA is completely testis specific. However, in several tissues Oaz3 is transcribed and contributes to hybrid 1038 mRNA synthesis, without concurrent Oaz3 mRNA synthesis. 1038 mRNA directs synthesis of a hybrid 14-kDa protein, part chromosome 2- and part chromosome 4-derived as shown in vitro and in transfected cells. Antisera that recognize a chromosome 4-encoded C-terminal peptide confirm the hybrid character of endogenous 14-kDa protein and its presence in sperm tail structures and 1038-positive tissue. Our data suggest that the testis-specific OAZ3 gene may be an example of a mammalian gene that in several tissues is transcribed to contribute to a hybrid mRNA and protein. This finding expands the repertoire of known mechanisms available to cells to generate proteome diversity. PMID:17040916

  1. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia and vanishing testis: rare case of male pseudohermaphroditism

    PubMed Central

    Ghanei, Azam; Mohammadzade, Golnaz; Zarepur, Ehsan; Soheilikhah, Sedigheh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and vanishing testes are uncommon diseases that can result from hormonal and mechanical factors. Classic CAH is determined by ambiguous genitalia and increase in amount of 17-Hydroxyprogesterone. Simultaneous occurrence of CAH and vanishing testes is a rare condition. Case: A 22-year-old boy, known case of CAH who was diagnosed as female pseudohermaphroditism due to ambiguous genitalia, was referred to Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Yazd, Iran with colicky abdominal pain and hematuria. Ultrasonography has been performed and prostate tissue was reported. Karyotyping was done because of uncertainty in primary diagnosis, which revealed 46XY. For finding location of testes, ultrasonography and MRI were done and nothing was found in abdomen, inguinal canal or scrotum. Inhibin B serum level was measured to find out whether testis tissue was present in the body, which was <1 pg/ml and vanishing testis was confirmed. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent further sequels and karyotyping for all patients with CAH is recommended. Lifelong treatment with synthetic glucocorticoid replacement is necessary. PMID:27294221

  2. Toxic effects of cadmium on testis of birds and mammals: a review.

    PubMed

    Marettová, E; Maretta, M; Legáth, J

    2015-04-01

    In humans and other mammals, cadmium (Cd) causes various damages to different organs and tissues of the body. This review presents a comprehensive overview on the effect of Cd on the structure of seminiferous tubules, Leydig cells and blood vessels in the testis. The main observation of the effect of Cd is destruction of the seminiferous tubules with severe necrotic areas. Damage is to all stages of developing germ cells by inducing their structural changes and the apoptotic cell death. Sertoli supporting cells are considered the most vulnerable cells. Their damage results in cytoplasmic rearrangement and disruption of inter-Sertoli tight junctions resulting in increased permeability of the blood-testis barrier, structural changes in the Leydig cells and decreased testosterone secretion. After long time of Cd exposure an increase of the amount of interstitial connective tissue occurs. In blood vessels Cd exposure causes various morphological and physiological changes in vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. In humans and other mammals, the range of effect depends on the dose, route, ways, and duration of exposure. After necrosis of the sensitive cells Cd produced lesions in surrounding tissue and activate free cells. Atrophy of the seminiferous tubules is followed by Leydig cell regeneration and interstitial revascularization. In birds, spermatogenic cells underwent irreversible degeneration or atrophy of seminiferous tubules in the absence of significant vascular lesions. PMID:25726439

  3. Exposure of the mouse perinatal testis to radiation leads to hypospermia at sexual maturity.

    PubMed

    Forand, A; Messiaen, S; Habert, R; Bernardino-Sgherri, J

    2009-03-01

    The first round of mouse spermatogenesis begins from 3 to 4 days after birth through differentiation of gonocytes into spermatogonial-stem cells and type A spermatogonia. Consequently, this step of differentiation may determine generation of the original population of stem cells and the fertility potential of the adult mouse. We aimed to determine the effect of perinatal exposure to ionizing radiation on the testis at the end of the first wave of spermatogenesis and at sexual maturity. Our results show that, radiation sensitivity of the testis substantially decreases from late foetal life to the end of the first week after birth. In addition, partial or full recovery from radiation induced testicular weight loss occurred between the first round of spermatogenesis and sexual maturity, and this was associated with the stimulation of spermatogonial proliferation. Exposure of mice at 17.5 days after conception or at 1 day after birth to gamma-rays decreased the sperm counts at sexual maturity, while exposure of 8 day-old mice had no effect. This suggests that irradiation of late foetal or early neonatal testes has a direct impact on the generation of the neonatal spermatogonial-stem cell pool. PMID:19109333

  4. Molecular cloning and expression of the KIF3A gene in the frog brain and testis.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, T; Miura, I; Kashiwagi, A; Nakamura, M

    1997-12-01

    KIF3A is a member of the kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs), but its gene has been cloned only in mouse and sea urchin. We have cloned a homolog of KIF3A from the frog, Rana rugosa (rrKIF3A). The sequence encoded a 699 amino acid protein that shares 93% similarity with mouse KIF3A (mKIF3A) and 69% with sea urchin kinesin-related protein (SpKRP85). The putative ATP-binding domain was completely identical to that of mKIF3A and SpKRP85. The level of rrKIF3A mRNA appeared to be high in the brain and testis of adult frogs, but low in the heart, lung and kidney. The results suggest that the rrKIF3A gene is expressed in the brain and testis more than other tissues of adult frogs examined, and that KIF3A is widely distributed in eukaryotic organisms. PMID:9520632

  5. Escargot restricts niche cell to stem cell conversion in the Drosophila testis

    PubMed Central

    Voog, Justin; Sandall, Sharsti L.; Hime, Gary R.; Resende, Luís Pedro F.; Loza-Coll, Mariano; Aslanian, Aaron; Yates, John R.; Hunter, Tony; Fuller, Margaret T.; Jones, D. Leanne

    2014-01-01

    Summary Stem cells reside within specialized microenvironments, or niches, that control many aspects of stem cell behaviour. Somatic hub cells in the Drosophila testis regulate the behaviour of cyst stem cells (CySCs) and germline stem cells (GSCs) and are a primary component of the testis stem cell niche. The shutoff (shof) mutation, characterized by premature loss of GSCs and CySCs, was mapped to a locus encoding the evolutionarily conserved transcription factor Escargot (Esg). Hub cells depleted of Esg acquire CySC characteristics and differentiate as cyst cells, resulting in complete loss of hub cells and eventually, CySCs and GSCs, similar to the shof mutant phenotype. We identified Esg-interacting proteins and demonstrate an interaction between Esg and the co-repressor C-terminal binding protein (CtBP), which was also required for maintenance of hub cell fate. Our results indicate that niche cells can acquire stem cell properties upon removal of a single transcription factor in vivo. PMID:24794442

  6. Escargot restricts niche cell to stem cell conversion in the Drosophila testis.

    PubMed

    Voog, Justin; Sandall, Sharsti L; Hime, Gary R; Resende, Luís Pedro F; Loza-Coll, Mariano; Aslanian, Aaron; Yates, John R; Hunter, Tony; Fuller, Margaret T; Jones, D Leanne

    2014-05-01

    Stem cells reside within specialized microenvironments, or niches, that control many aspects of stem cell behavior. Somatic hub cells in the Drosophila testis regulate the behavior of cyst stem cells (CySCs) and germline stem cells (GSCs) and are a primary component of the testis stem cell niche. The shutoff (shof) mutation, characterized by premature loss of GSCs and CySCs, was mapped to a locus encoding the evolutionarily conserved transcription factor Escargot (Esg). Hub cells depleted of Esg acquire CySC characteristics and differentiate as cyst cells, resulting in complete loss of hub cells and eventually CySCs and GSCs, similar to the shof mutant phenotype. We identified Esg-interacting proteins and demonstrate an interaction between Esg and the corepressor C-terminal binding protein (CtBP), which was also required for maintenance of hub cell fate. Our results indicate that niche cells can acquire stem cell properties upon removal of a single transcription factor in vivo. PMID:24794442

  7. Multipotent somatic stem cells contribute to the stem cell niche in the Drosophila testis.

    PubMed

    Voog, Justin; D'Alterio, Cecilia; Jones, D Leanne

    2008-08-28

    Adult stem cells reside in specialized microenvironments, or niches, that have an important role in regulating stem cell behaviour. Therefore, tight control of niche number, size and function is necessary to ensure the proper balance between stem cells and progenitor cells available for tissue homeostasis and wound repair. The stem cell niche in the Drosophila male gonad is located at the tip of the testis where germline and somatic stem cells surround the apical hub, a cluster of approximately 10-15 somatic cells that is required for stem cell self-renewal and maintenance. Here we show that somatic stem cells in the Drosophila testis contribute to both the apical hub and the somatic cyst cell lineage. The Drosophila orthologue of epithelial cadherin (DE-cadherin) is required for somatic stem cell maintenance and, consequently, the apical hub. Furthermore, our data indicate that the transcriptional repressor escargot regulates the ability of somatic cells to assume and/or maintain hub cell identity. These data highlight the dynamic relationship between stem cells and the niche and provide insight into genetic programmes that regulate niche size and function to support normal tissue homeostasis and organ regeneration throughout life. PMID:18641633

  8. The social status of the male Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) influences testis structure and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Pfennig, Frank; Kurth, Thomas; Meissner, Stefan; Standke, Andrea; Hoppe, Markus; Zieschang, Freia; Reitmayer, Christine; Göbel, Andy; Kretzschmar, Georg; Gutzeit, Herwig O

    2012-01-01

    Dominant and territorial behaviour are known social phenomena in cichlids and social stress influences reproduction and growth. The gonadotropic hormones trigger spermatogenesis and subordinate males have typically lower levels of gonadotropins than dominant males. In this study, we compared testis morphology and gene expression of dominant and subordinate Nile tilapia males (d- and s-males) in socially stable communities. The d-males had the highest gonadosomatic index but they were not the largest animals in the majority of studied cases. Long-term d-males showed large groups of Leydig cells and hyperplasia of the tunica albuginea due to numerous cytochrome-P450-11β-hydroxylase (Cyp11b) expressing myoid cells. Increased Cyp11b expression in d-males was reflected by elevated 11-ketotestosterone plasma values. However, immunofluorescence microscopy and expression analysis of selected genes revealed that most s-males conserved their capability for spermatogenesis and are, therefore, ready for reproduction when the social environment changes. Moreover, in s-males gene expression analysis by quantitative RT-PCR showed increased transcript levels for germ line-specific genes (vasa, sox2 and dmc1) and Sertoli-specific genes (amh, amhrII and dmrt1) whereas gene expression of key factors for steroid production (sf1 and cyp11b) were reduced. The Nile tilapia is a promising model to study social cues and gonadotropic signals on testis development in vertebrates. PMID:22031714

  9. TAp73 is essential for germ cell adhesion and maturation in testis

    PubMed Central

    Holembowski, Lena; Kramer, Daniela; Riedel, Dietmar; Sordella, Raffaella; Nemajerova, Alice; Dobbelstein, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    A core evolutionary function of the p53 family is to protect the genomic integrity of gametes. However, the role of p73 in the male germ line is unknown. Here, we reveal that TAp73 unexpectedly functions as an adhesion and maturation factor of the seminiferous epithelium orchestrating spermiogenesis. TAp73 knockout (TAp73KO) and p73KO mice, but not ΔNp73KO mice, display a “near-empty seminiferous tubule” phenotype due to massive premature loss of immature germ cells. The cellular basis of this phenotype is defective cell–cell adhesions of developing germ cells to Sertoli nurse cells, with likely secondary degeneration of Sertoli cells, including the blood–testis barrier, which leads to disruption of the adhesive integrity and maturation of the germ epithelium. At the molecular level, TAp73, which is produced in germ cells, controls a coordinated transcriptional program of adhesion- and migration-related proteins including peptidase inhibitors, proteases, receptors, and integrins required for germ–Sertoli cell adhesion and dynamic junctional restructuring. Thus, we propose the testis as a unique organ with strict division of labor among all family members: p63 and p53 safeguard germ line fidelity, whereas TAp73 ensures fertility by enabling sperm maturation. PMID:24662569

  10. Systematic identification of genes with a cancer-testis expression pattern in 19 cancer types

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng; Gu, Yayun; Zhang, Kai; Xie, Kaipeng; Zhu, Meng; Dai, Ningbin; Jiang, Yue; Guo, Xuejiang; Liu, Mingxi; Dai, Juncheng; Wu, Linxiang; Jin, Guangfu; Ma, Hongxia; Jiang, Tao; Yin, Rong; Xia, Yankai; Liu, Li; Wang, Shouyu; Shen, Bin; Huo, Ran; Wang, Qianghu; Xu, Lin; Yang, Liuqing; Huang, Xingxu; Shen, Hongbing; Sha, Jiahao; Hu, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    Cancer-testis (CT) genes represent the similarity between the processes of spermatogenesis and tumorigenesis. It is possible that their selective expression pattern can help identify driver genes in cancer. In this study, we integrate transcriptomics data from multiple databases and systematically identify 876 new CT genes in 19 cancer types. We explore their relationship with testis-specific regulatory elements. We propose that extremely highly expressed CT genes (EECTGs) are potential drivers activated through epigenetic mechanisms. We find mutually exclusive associations between EECTGs and somatic mutations in mutated genes, such as PIK3CA in breast cancer. We also provide evidence that promoter demethylation and close non-coding RNAs (namely, CT-ncRNAs) may be two mechanisms to reactivate EECTG gene expression. We show that the meiosis-related EECTG (MEIOB) and its nearby CT-ncRNA have a role in tumorigenesis in lung adenocarcinoma. Our findings provide methods for identifying epigenetic-driver genes of cancer, which could serve as targets of future cancer therapies. PMID:26813108