Science.gov

Sample records for program human factors

  1. NASA Space Human Factors Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This booklet briefly and succinctly treats 23 topics of particular interest to the NASA Space Human Factors Program. Most articles are by different authors who are mainly NASA Johnson or NASA Ames personnel. Representative topics covered include mental workload and performance in space, light effects on Circadian rhythms, human sleep, human reasoning, microgravity effects and automation and crew performance.

  2. Review of EPRI Nuclear Human Factors Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hanes, L.F.; O`Brien, J.F.

    1996-03-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Human Factors Program, which is part of the EPRI Nuclear Power Group, was established in 1975. Over the years, the Program has changed emphasis based on the shifting priorities and needs of the commercial nuclear power industry. The Program has produced many important products that provide significant safety and economic benefits for EPRI member utilities. This presentation will provide a brief history of the Program and products. Current projects and products that have been released recently will be mentioned.

  3. Human factors technology for America's space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montemerlo, M. D.

    1982-01-01

    NASA is initiating a space human factors research and technology development program in October 1982. The impetus for this program stems from: the frequent and economical access to space provided by the Shuttle, the advances in control and display hardware/software made possible through the recent explosion in microelectronics technology, heightened interest in a space station, heightened interest by the military in space operations, and the fact that the technology for long duration stay times for man in space has received relatively little attention since the Apollo and Skylab missions. The rationale for and issues in the five thrusts of the new program are described. The main thrusts are: basic methodology, crew station design, ground control/operations, teleoperations and extra vehicular activity.

  4. Human factors engineering program review model

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is performing nuclear power plant design certification reviews based on a design process plan that describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification and an acceptable implemented design. There are two principal reasons for this approach. First, the initial design certification applications submitted for staff review did not include detailed design information. Second, since human performance literature and industry experiences have shown that many significant human factors issues arise early in the design process, review of the design process activities and results is important to the evaluation of an overall design. However, current regulations and guidance documents do not address the criteria for design process review. Therefore, the HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM) was developed as a basis for performing design certification reviews that include design process evaluations as well as review of the final design. A central tenet of the HFE PRM is that the HFE aspects of the plant should be developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The HFE PRM consists of ten component elements. Each element in divided into four sections: Background, Objective, Applicant Submittals, and Review Criteria. This report describes the development of the HFE PRM and gives a detailed description of each HFE review element.

  5. NASA information sciences and human factors program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, Lee; Hood, Ray; Montemerlo, Melvin; Jenkins, James; Smith, Paul; Dibattista, John; Depaula, Ramon; Hunter, Paul; Lavery, David

    1991-01-01

    The FY-90 descriptions of technical accomplishments are contained in seven sections: Automation and Robotics, Communications, Computer Sciences, Controls and Guidance, Data Systems, Human Factors, and Sensor Technology.

  6. NASA Information Sciences and Human Factors Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, Lee; Hood, Ray; Montemerlo, Melvin; Jenkins, James; Smith, Paul; Dibattista, John; Depaula, Ramon; Hunter, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Fiscal year 1989 descriptions of technical accomplishments in seven sections are presented: automation and robotics; communications; computer sciences; controls and guidance; data systems; human factors; and sensor technology.

  7. NASA Information Sciences and Human Factors Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, Lee B.; Mciver, Duncan E.; Dibattista, John D.; Larsen, Ronald L.; Montemerlo, Melvin D.; Wallgren, Ken; Sokoloski, Marty; Wasicko, Dick

    1985-01-01

    This report contains FY 1984/85 descriptions and accomplishments in six sections: Computer Science and Automation, Controls and Guidance, Data Systems, Human Factors, Sensor Technology, and Communications.

  8. NASA Information Sciences and Human Factors Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, Lee (Editor); Hood, Ray (Editor); Montemerlo, Melvin (Editor); Sokoloski, Martin M. (Editor); Jenkins, James P. (Editor); Smith, Paul H. (Editor); Dibattista, John D. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The FY 1987 descriptions of technical accomplishments are contained for seven areas: automation and robotics, communications systems, computer sciences, controls and guidance, data systems, human factors, and sensor technology.

  9. NASA information sciences and human factors program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, Lee; Hood, Ray; Montemerlo, Melvin; Sokoloski, Martin; Jenkins, James; Smith, Paul; Dibattista, John

    1989-01-01

    The FY 1988 descriptions of technical accomplishments is presented in seven sections: Automation and Robotics, Communications Systems, Computer Sciences, Controls and Guidance, Data Systems, Human Factors, and Sensor Technology.

  10. NASA information sciences and human factors program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Data Systems Program consists of research and technology devoted to controlling, processing, storing, manipulating, and analyzing space-derived data. The objectives of the program are to provide the technology advancements needed to enable affordable utilization of space-derived data, to increase substantially the capability for future missions of on-board processing and recording and to provide high-speed, high-volume computational systems that are anticipated for missions such as the evolutionary Space Station and Earth Observing System.

  11. Human Research Program: Space Human Factors and Habitability Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Dane M.

    2007-01-01

    The three project areas of the Space Human Factors and Habitability Element work together to achieve a working and living environment that will keep crews healthy, safe, and productive throughout all missions -- from Earth orbit to Mars expeditions. The Advanced Environmental Health (AEH) Project develops and evaluates advanced habitability systems and establishes requirements and health standards for exploration missions. The Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project s goal is to ensure a safe and productive environment for humans in space. With missions using new technologies at an ever-increasing rate, it is imperative that these advances enhance crew performance without increasing stress or risk. The ultimate goal of Advanced Food Technology (AFT) Project is to develop and deliver technologies for human centered spacecraft that will support crews on missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond.

  12. Human factors in space station architecture 1: Space station program implications for human factors research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    The space station program is based on a set of premises on mission requirements and the operational capabilities of the space shuttle. These premises will influence the human behavioral factors and conditions on board the space station. These include: launch in the STS Orbiter payload bay, orbital characteristics, power supply, microgravity environment, autonomy from the ground, crew make-up and organization, distributed command control, safety, and logistics resupply. The most immediate design impacts of these premises will be upon the architectural organization and internal environment of the space station.

  13. Usability: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina L.

    2009-01-01

    The Usability project addresses the need for research in the area of metrics and methodologies used in hardware and software usability testing in order to define quantifiable and verifiable usability requirements. A usability test is a human-in-the-loop evaluation where a participant works through a realistic set of representative tasks using the hardware/software under investigation. The purpose of this research is to define metrics and methodologies for measuring and verifying usability in the aerospace domain in accordance with FY09 focus on errors, consistency, and mobility/maneuverability. Usability metrics must be predictive of success with the interfaces, must be easy to obtain and/or calculate, and must meet the intent of current Human Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR). Methodologies must work within the constraints of the aerospace domain, be cost and time efficient, and be able to be applied without extensive specialized training.

  14. Terminal Area Productivity Program: Dynamic Spacing Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamic spacing human factors deals with the following human factors issues: define controller limits to incorporating dynamic changes in separation standards; identify timing, planning, and coordination strategies; and consider consistency with current practices, policies, and regulations. The AVOSS technologies will make it possible to reduce separation standards in the terminal area under certain meteorological conditions. This paper contains the following sections: Dynamic space human factors overview, Preliminary tests, and current research status & plans.

  15. Information Presentation: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability, Space Human Factors Engineering Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Kristina L.; Sandor, Aniko; Thompson, Shelby G.; Kaiser, Mary K.; McCann, Robert S.; Begault, D. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Beutter, B. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Godfroy, M.; Stone, L. S.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers atJohnson Space Center and Ames Research Center. T

  16. Human Factors Standards and implementation plan for waste management programs

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, W.W.

    1993-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is dedicated to assuring safety and public confidence by conducting a thorough assessment and upgrade of its nuclear policies and procedures. To ensure that DOE field operations protect the health and safety of employees, the general public and the environment, new operational procedures, standards, and implementation plans are both required and forthcoming from DOE Headquarters, NE-74. Part of this effort requires the establishment and integration of human factors engineering design standards and implementation methods to reduce the probability of human error, human injury and radiological exposure. Human Factors professionals work to assure that technology is designed and utilized safely and efficiently to serve the needs and capabilities of the people who must use this technology. The primary goal of human factors engineering is to ensure compatibility and congruence between the people, equipment, tasks, procedures and training so as to minimize human error and assure that ``total systems performance and reliability`` are achieved.

  17. Human Factors Throughout the Life Cycle: Lessons Learned from the Shuttle Program. [Human Factors in Ground Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    With the ending of the Space Shuttle Program, it is critical that we not forget the Human Factors lessons we have learned over the years. At every phase of the life cycle, from manufacturing, processing and integrating vehicle and payload, to launch, flight operations, mission control and landing, hundreds of teams have worked together to achieve mission success in one of the most complex, high-risk socio-technical enterprises ever designed. Just as there was great diversity in the types of operations performed at every stage, there was a myriad of human factors that could further complicate these human systems. A single mishap or close call could point to issues at the individual level (perceptual or workload limitations, training, fatigue, human error susceptibilities), the task level (design of tools, procedures and aspects of the workplace), as well as the organizational level (appropriate resources, safety policies, information access and communication channels). While we have often had to learn through human mistakes and technological failures, we have also begun to understand how to design human systems in which individuals can excel, where tasks and procedures are not only safe but efficient, and how organizations can foster a proactive approach to managing risk and supporting human enterprises. Panelists will talk about their experiences as they relate human factors to a particular phase of the shuttle life cycle. They will conclude with a framework for tying together human factors lessons-learned into system-level risk management strategies.

  18. 75 FR 82132 - ITS Joint Program Office; Human Factors for IntelliDrive SM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... ITS Joint Program Office; Human Factors for IntelliDrive \\SM\\ (HFID); Public Meeting; Notice of Public... Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) will host a free public meeting to discuss the Human... infrastructure, such as traffic signals and work zones. The program has the potential to significantly...

  19. Success Factors in Human Space Programs - Why Did Apollo Succeed Better Than Later Programs?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    The Apollo Program reached the moon, but the Constellation Program (CxP) that planned to return to the moon and go on to Mars was cancelled. Apollo is NASA's greatest achievement but its success is poorly understood. The usual explanation is that President Kennedy announced we were going to the moon, the scientific community and the public strongly supported it, and Congress provided the necessary funding. This is partially incorrect and does not actually explain Apollo's success. The scientific community and the public did not support Apollo. Like Apollo, Constellation was announced by a president and funded by Congress, with elements that continued on even after it was cancelled. Two other factors account for Apollo's success. Initially, the surprise event of Uri Gagarin's first human space flight created political distress and a strong desire for the government to dramatically demonstrate American space capability. Options were considered and Apollo was found to be most effective and technically feasible. Political necessity overrode both the lack of popular and scientific support and the extremely high cost and risk. Other NASA human space programs were either canceled, such as the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), repeatedly threatened with cancellation, such as International Space Station (ISS), or terminated while still operational, such as the space shuttle and even Apollo itself. Large crash programs such as Apollo are initiated and continued if and only if urgent political necessity produces the necessary political will. They succeed if and only if they are technically feasible within the provided resources. Future human space missions will probably require gradual step-by-step development in a more normal environment.

  20. Human Research Program Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichansky, Anna; Badler, Norman; Butler, Keith; Cummings, Mary; DeLucia, Patricia; Endsley, Mica; Scholtz, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (SRP) evaluated 22 gaps and 39 tasks in the three risk areas assigned to the SHFE Project. The area where tasks were best designed to close the gaps and the fewest gaps were left out was the Risk of Reduced Safety and Efficiency dire to Inadequate Design of Vehicle, Environment, Tools or Equipment. The areas where there were more issues with gaps and tasks, including poor or inadequate fit of tasks to gaps and missing gaps, were Risk of Errors due to Poor Task Design and Risk of Error due to Inadequate Information. One risk, the Risk of Errors due to Inappropriate Levels of Trust in Automation, should be added. If astronauts trust automation too much in areas where it should not be trusted, but rather tempered with human judgment and decision making, they will incur errors. Conversely, if they do not trust automation when it should be trusted, as in cases where it can sense aspects of the environment such as radiation levels or distances in space, they will also incur errors. This will be a larger risk when astronauts are less able to rely on human mission control experts and are out of touch, far away, and on their own. The SRP also identified 11 new gaps and five new tasks. Although the SRP had an extremely large quantity of reading material prior to and during the meeting, we still did not feel we had an overview of the activities and tasks the astronauts would be performing in exploration missions. Without a detailed task analysis and taxonomy of activities the humans would be engaged in, we felt it was impossible to know whether the gaps and tasks were really sufficient to insure human safety, performance, and comfort in the exploration missions. The SRP had difficulty evaluating many of the gaps and tasks that were not as quantitative as those related to concrete physical danger such as excessive noise and vibration. Often the research tasks for cognitive risks that accompany poor task or

  1. An evaluation of NASA's program in human factors research: Aircrew-vehicle system interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Research in human factors in the aircraft cockpit and a proposed program augmentation were reviewed. The dramatic growth of microprocessor technology makes it entirely feasible to automate increasingly more functions in the aircraft cockpit; the promise of improved vehicle performance, efficiency, and safety through automation makes highly automated flight inevitable. An organized data base and validated methodology for predicting the effects of automation on human performance and thus on safety are lacking and without such a data base and validated methodology for analyzing human performance, increased automation may introduce new risks. Efforts should be concentrated on developing methods and techniques for analyzing man machine interactions, including human workload and prediction of performance.

  2. Industrial-Organizational and Human Factors Graduate Program Admission: Information for Undergraduate Advisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoenfelt, Elizabeth L.; Stone, Nancy J.; Kottke, Janet L.

    2015-01-01

    Many psychology departments do not have industrial-organizational (IO) or human factors (HF) faculty members. As such, potential IO and HF graduate students may miss career opportunities because faculty advisors are unfamiliar with the disciplines and their graduate programs. To assist advisors, this article highlights the content of IO and HF…

  3. The successful management of programs for human factors certification of advanced aviation technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Rod

    1994-01-01

    In recent years there have been immense pressures to enact changes on the air traffic control organizations of most states. In addition, many of these states are or have been subject to great political, sociological and economic changes. Consequently, any new schemes must be considered within the context of national or even international changes. Europe has its own special problems, and many of these are particularly pertinent when considering human factors certification programs. Although these problems must also be considered in the wider context of change, it is usually very difficult to identify which forces are pressing in support of human factors aspects and which forces are resisting change. There are a large number of aspects which must be taken into account if human factors certification programs are to be successfully implemented. Certification programs would be new ventures, and like many new ventures it will be essential to ensure that managers have the skills, commitment and experience to manage the programs effectively. However, they must always be aware of the content and the degree of certainty to which the human factors principles can be applied - as Debons and Horne have carefully described. It will be essential to avoid the well known pitfalls which occur in the implementation of performance appraisal schemes. While most appraisal schemes are usually extremely well thought out, they often do not produce good results because they are not implemented properly and staff therefore do not have faith in them. If the manager does not have the commitment and interest in his/her staff as human beings, then the schemes will not be effective. Thus, one aspect of considering human factors certification schemes is within the context of a managed organization. This paper outlines some of the management factors which need to be considered for the air traffic control services. Many of the points received attention during the plenary sessions while others were

  4. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (NUREG-0711)Revision 3: Update Methodology and Key Revisions

    SciTech Connect

    OHara J. M.; Higgins, J.; Fleger, S.

    2012-07-22

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) programs of applicants for nuclear power plant construction permits, operating licenses, standard design certifications, and combined operating licenses. The purpose of these safety reviews is to help ensure that personnel performance and reliability are appropriately supported. Detailed design review procedures and guidance for the evaluations is provided in three key documents: the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), the HFE Program Review Model (NUREG-0711), and the Human-System Interface Design Review Guidelines (NUREG-0700). These documents were last revised in 2007, 2004 and 2002, respectively. The NRC is committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool. To this end, the NRC is updating its guidance to stay current with recent research on human performance, advances in HFE methods and tools, and new technology being employed in plant and control room design. NUREG-0711 is the first document to be addressed. We present the methodology used to update NUREG-0711 and summarize the main changes made. Finally, we discuss the current status of the update program and the future plans.

  5. Human factors programs for high-level radioactive waste handling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pond, D.J.

    1992-04-01

    Human Factors is the discipline concerned with the acquisition of knowledge about human capabilities and limitations, and the application of such knowledge to the design of systems. This paper discusses the range of human factors issues relevant to high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) management systems and, based on examples from other organizations, presents mechanisms through which to assure application of such expertise in the safe, efficient, and effective management and disposal of high-level waste. Additionally, specific attention is directed toward consideration of who might be classified as a human factors specialist, why human factors expertise is critical to the success of the HLRW management system, and determining when human factors specialists should become involved in the design and development process.

  6. Human Factors Review Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R.

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.

  7. HUMAN SUBJECT AGE AND ACTIVITY LEVEL: FACTORS ADDRESSED IN A BIOMATHEMATICAL DEPOSITION PROGRAM FOR EXTRAPOLATION MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A deterministic aerosol deposition model, previously validated by data from adult inhalation exposure experiments, is used to study factors affecting particle behavior within the developing human lung. ere, an age dependent lung morphology is presented in which the number of trac...

  8. Aircraft-vehicle system interaction. An evaluation of NASA's program in human factors research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Research in the areas of man machine interaction and human factors engineering are assessed in relation to improved effeciency and aviation safety. The appropriateness, relevance, adequacy, and timeliness of the research is evaluated, and recommendations are provided regarding the objectives, approach and content.

  9. ISS Payload Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellenberger, Richard; Duvall, Laura; Dory, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Payload Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) is the Payload Developer's resource for Human Factors. HFIT is the interface between Payload Developers and ISS Payload Human Factors requirements in SSP 57000. ? HFIT provides recommendations on how to meet the Human Factors requirements and guidelines early in the design process. HFIT coordinates with the Payload Developer and Astronaut Office to find low cost solutions to Human Factors challenges for hardware operability issues.

  10. Tools for Developing a Quality Management Program: Human Factors and Systems Engineering Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, Barrett S.

    2008-05-01

    During the past 10 years, there has been growing acceptance and encouragement of partnerships between medical teams and engineers. Using human factors and systems engineering descriptions of process flows and operational sequences, the author's research laboratory has helped highlight opportunities for reducing adverse events and improving performance in health care and other high-consequence environments. This research emphasized studying human behavior that enhances system performance and a range of factors affecting adverse events, rather than a sole emphasis on human error causation. Developing a balanced evaluation requires novel approaches to causal analyses of adverse events and, more importantly, methods of recovery from adverse conditions. Recent work by the author's laboratory in collaboration with the Regenstrief Center for Healthcare Engineering has started to address possible improvements in taxonomies describing health care tasks. One major finding includes enhanced understanding of events and how event dynamics influence provider tasks and constraints. Another element of this research examines team coordination tasks that strongly affect patient care and quality management, but may be undervalued as 'indirect patient care' activities.

  11. Second Interim Report NASA - easyJet Collaboration on the Human Factors Monitoring Program (HFMP) Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivistava, Ashok N.; Barton, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This is the second interim report jointly prepared by NASA and easyJet on the work performed under the agreement to collaborate on a study of the factors entailed in flight and cabin-crew fatigue, and decreases in performance associated with fatigue. The objective of this Agreement is to generate reliable procedures that aid in understanding the levels and characteristics of flight and cabin-crew fatigue factors, both latent and proximate, whose confluence will likely result in unacceptable crew performance. This study entails the analyses of numerical and textual data collected during operational flights. NASA and easyJet are both interested in assessing and testing NASA s automated capabilities for extracting operationally significant information from very large, diverse (textual and numerical) databases; much larger than can be handled practically by human experts.

  12. NASA - easyJet Collaboration on the Human Factors Monitoring Program (HFMP) Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivistava, Ashok N.; Barton, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This is the first annual report jointly prepared by NASA and easyJet on the work performed under the agreement to collaborate on a study of the many factors entailed in flight - and cabin-crew fatigue and documenting the decreases in performance associated with fatigue. The objective of this Agreement is to generate reliable, automated procedures that improve understanding of the levels and characteristics of flight - and cabin-crew fatigue factors, both latent and proximate, whose confluence will likely result in unacceptable flight crew performance. This study entails the analyses of numerical and textual data collected during operational flights. NASA and easyJet are both interested in assessing and testing NASA s automated capabilities for extracting operationally significant information from very large, diverse (textual and numerical) databases, much larger than can be handled practically by human experts.

  13. Human Reliability Program Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  14. Virtual Environment Computer Simulations to Support Human Factors Engineering and Operations Analysis for the RLV Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunsford, Myrtis Leigh

    1998-01-01

    The Army-NASA Virtual Innovations Laboratory (ANVIL) was recently created to provide virtual reality tools for performing Human Engineering and operations analysis for both NASA and the Army. The author's summer research project consisted of developing and refining these tools for NASA's Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program. Several general simulations were developed for use by the ANVIL for the evaluation of the X34 Engine Changeout procedure. These simulations were developed with the software tool dVISE 4.0.0 produced by Division Inc. All software was run on an SGI Indigo2 High Impact. This paper describes the simulations, various problems encountered with the simulations, other summer activities, and possible work for the future. We first begin with a brief description of virtual reality systems.

  15. Helicopter Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Even under optimal conditions, helicopter flight is a most demanding form of human-machine interaction, imposing continuous manual, visual, communications, and mental demands on pilots. It is made even more challenging by small margins for error created by the close proximity of terrain in NOE flight and missions flown at night and in low visibility. Although technology advances have satisfied some current and proposed requirements, hardware solutions alone are not sufficient to ensure acceptable system performance and pilot workload. However, human factors data needed to improve the design and use of helicopters lag behind advances in sensor, display, and control technology. Thus, it is difficult for designers to consider human capabilities and limitations when making design decisions. This results in costly accidents, design mistakes, unrealistic mission requirements, excessive training costs, and challenge human adaptability. NASA, in collaboration with DOD, industry, and academia, has initiated a program of research to develop scientific data bases and design principles to improve the pilot/vehicle interface, optimize training time and cost, and maintain pilot workload and system performance at an acceptable level. Work performed at Ames, and by other research laboratories, will be reviewed to summarize the most critical helicopter human factors problems and the results of research that has been performed to: (1) Quantify/model pilots use of visual cues for vehicle control; (2) Improve pilots' performance with helmet displays of thermal imagery and night vision goggles for situation awareness and vehicle control; (3) Model the processes by which pilots encode maps and compare them to the visual scene to develop perceptually and cognitively compatible electronic map formats; (4) Evaluate the use of spatially localized auditory displays for geographical orientation, target localization, radio frequency separation; (5) Develop and flight test control

  16. Habitability and Human Factors Contributions to Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumaya, Jennifer Boyer

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch in support of human space flight in two main areas: Applied support to major space programs, and Space research. The field of Human Factors applies knowledge of human characteristics for the design of safer, more effective, and more efficient systems. This work is in several areas of the human space program: (1) Human-System Integration (HSI), (2) Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, (3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA), (4) Lunar Surface Systems, (5) International Space Station (ISS), and (6) Human Research Program (HRP). After detailing the work done in these areas, the facilities that are available for human factors work are shown.

  17. The human factor: Biomedicine in the manned space program to 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to provide NASA personnel, NASA managers, and the biomedical and historical research communities a well-documented, historical summary of the content and organization of NASA's biomedical programs from Project Mercury up to the Shuttle program. The publication includes not only a major narrative portion, but appendixes and reference notes.

  18. Human Research Program Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig E.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of HRP is to provide human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies, and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. The Human Research Program was designed to meet the needs of human space exploration, and understand and reduce the risk to crew health and performance in exploration missions.

  19. The Human Factor: Student Reactions to the Integration of Personal Dispositions into a Counseling Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Melinda M.; Cochran, Jeff L.; Spurgeon, Shawn; Diambra, Joel F.

    2013-01-01

    The authors explored student reactions to the integration of personal dispositions, or characteristic attitudes, into a counseling program. Results suggested participants liked focusing on personal dispositions and were able to identify areas of personal growth related to these characteristics. Integrating humanistic principles by using…

  20. NASA-easyJet Collaboration on the Human Factors Monitoring Program (HFMP) Study, Second Interim Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Ashok N.; Barton, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This is the second interim report jointly prepared by NASA and easyJet on the work performed under the agreement to collaborate on a study of the factors entailed in flight- and cabin-crew fatigue and decreases in performance associated with fatigue. The objective of this Agreement is to generate reliable procedures that aid in understanding the levels and characteristics of flight- and cabin-crew fatigue factors, both latent and proximate, whose confluence will likely result in unacceptable crew performance. This study entails the analyses of numerical and textual data collected during operational flights.

  1. Hype, harmony and human factors: applying user-centered design to achieve sustainable telehealth program adoption and growth.

    PubMed

    Rossos, P G; St-Cyr, O; Purdy, B; Toenjes, C; Masino, C; Chmelnitsky, D

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of international experience with the use of information and communication technologies in healthcare delivery, widespread telehealth adoption remains limited and progress slow. Escalating health system challenges related to access, cost and quality currently coincide with rapid advancement of affordable and reliable internet based communication technologies creating unprecedented opportunities and incentives for telehealth. In this paper, we will describe how Human Factors Engineering (HFE) and user-centric elements have been incorporated into the establishment of telehealth within a large academic medical center to increase acceptance and sustainability. Through examples and lessons learned we wish to increase awareness of HFE and its importance in the successful implementation, innovation and growth of telehealth programs. PMID:25980714

  2. Human Factors in Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Byrne, Vicky; Arsintescu, Lucia; Connell, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Future space missions will be significantly longer than current shuttle missions and new systems will be more complex than current systems. Increasing communication delays between crews and Earth-based support means that astronauts need to be prepared to handle the unexpected on their own. As crews become more autonomous, their potential span of control and required expertise must grow to match their autonomy. It is not possible to train for every eventuality ahead of time on the ground, or to maintain trained skills across long intervals of disuse. To adequately prepare NASA personnel for these challenges, new training approaches, methodologies, and tools are required. This research project aims at developing these training capabilities. By researching established training principles, examining future needs, and by using current practices in space flight training as test beds, both in Flight Controller and Crew Medical domains, this research project is mitigating program risks and generating templates and requirements to meet future training needs. Training efforts in Fiscal Year 09 (FY09) strongly focused on crew medical training, but also began exploring how Space Flight Resource Management training for Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) Flight Controllers could be integrated with systems training for optimal Mission Control Center (MCC) operations. The Training Task addresses Program risks that lie at the intersection of the following three risks identified by the Project: 1) Risk associated with poor task design; 2) Risk of error due to inadequate information; and 3) Risk associated with reduced safety and efficiency due to poor human factors design.

  3. Human Factors in Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Byrne, Vicky; Arsintescu, Lucia; Connell, Erin; Sandor, Aniko

    2009-01-01

    Future space missions will be significantly longer than current shuttle missions and new systems will be more complex than current systems. Increasing communication delays between crews and Earth-based support means that astronauts need to be prepared to handle the unexpected on their own. As crews become more autonomous, their potential span of control and required expertise must grow to match their autonomy. It is not possible to train for every eventuality ahead of time on the ground, or to maintain trained skills across long intervals of disuse. To adequately prepare NASA personnel for these challenges, new training approaches, methodologies, and tools are required. This research project aims at developing these training capabilities. By researching established training principles, examining future needs, and by using current practices in space flight training as test beds, both in Flight Controller and Crew Medical domains, this research project is mitigating program risks and generating templates and requirements to meet future training needs. Training efforts in Fiscal Year 08 (FY08) strongly focused on crew medical training, but also began exploring how Space Flight Resource Management training for Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) Flight Controllers could be integrated with systems training for optimal Mission Control Center (MCC) operations. The Training Task addresses Program risks that lie at the intersection of the following three risks identified by the Project: (1) Risk associated with poor task design (2) Risk of error due to inadequate information (3) Risk associated with reduced safety and efficiency due to poor human factors design

  4. Aerospace Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    The following contains the final report on the activities related to the Cooperative Agreement between the human factors research group at NASA Ames Research Center and the Psychology Department at San Jose State University. The participating NASA Ames division has been, as the organization has changed, the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division (ASHFRD and Code FL), the Flight Management and Human Factors Research Division (Code AF), and the Human Factors Research and Technology Division (Code IH). The inclusive dates for the report are November 1, 1984 to January 31, 1999. Throughout the years, approximately 170 persons worked on the cooperative agreements in one capacity or another. The Cooperative Agreement provided for research personnel to collaborate with senior scientists in ongoing NASA ARC research. Finally, many post-MA/MS and post-doctoral personnel contributed to the projects. It is worth noting that 10 former cooperative agreement personnel were hired into civil service positions directly from the agreements.

  5. Inner City Human Factors Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Albert R.

    This evaluation examines the degree to which human factors support, relate to, or impede the successful achievements of Polaroid's Inner City mission to provide on-the-job training for the career development of disadvantaged workers. The program is cited as a model for industry-based career education. Background information is provided on the…

  6. Assessment of Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, Frances; Foley, Tico

    1999-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering, often referred to as Ergonomics, is a science that applies a detailed understanding of human characteristics, capabilities, and limitations to the design, evaluation, and operation of environments, tools, and systems for work and daily living. Human Factors is the investigation, design, and evaluation of equipment, techniques, procedures, facilities, and human interfaces, and encompasses all aspects of human activity from manual labor to mental processing and leisure time enjoyments. In spaceflight applications, human factors engineering seeks to: (1) ensure that a task can be accomplished, (2) maintain productivity during spaceflight, and (3) ensure the habitability of the pressurized living areas. DSO 904 served as a vehicle for the verification and elucidation of human factors principles and tools in the microgravity environment. Over six flights, twelve topics were investigated. This study documented the strengths and limitations of human operators in a complex, multifaceted, and unique environment. By focusing on the man-machine interface in space flight activities, it was determined which designs allow astronauts to be optimally productive during valuable and costly space flights. Among the most promising areas of inquiry were procedures, tools, habitat, environmental conditions, tasking, work load, flexibility, and individual control over work.

  7. Introduction to human factors

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    Some background is given on the field of human factors. The nature of problems with current human/computer interfaces is discussed, some costs are identified, ideal attributes of graceful system interfaces are outlined, and some reasons are indicated why it's not easy to fix the problems. (LEW)

  8. Human Factors in Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Byme, Vicky; Arsintescu, Lucia

    2008-01-01

    Future space missions will be significantly longer than current Shuttle missions and new systems will be more complex than current systems. Increasing communication delays between crews and Earth-based support means that astronauts need to be prepared to handle the unexpected on their own. As crews become more autonomous, their potential span of control and required expertise must grow to match their autonomy. It is not possible to train for every eventuality ahead of time on the ground, or to maintain trained skills across long intervals of disuse. To adequately prepare NASA personnel for these challenges, new training approaches, methodologies, and tools are required. This research project aims at developing these training capabilities. Training efforts in FY07 strongly focused on crew medical training, but also began exploring how Space Flight Resource Management training for Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) Flight Controllers could be integrated with systems training for optimal Mission Control Center operations. Beginning in January 2008, the training research effort will include team training prototypes and tools. The Training Task addresses Program risks that lie at the intersection of the following three risks identified by the Project: 1) Risk associated with poor task design; 2) Risk of error due to inadequate information; 3) Risk associated with reduced safety and efficiency due to poor human factors design.

  9. Helicopter human factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    1988-01-01

    The state-of-the-art helicopter and its pilot are examined using the tools of human-factors analysis. The significant role of human error in helicopter accidents is discussed; the history of human-factors research on helicopters is briefly traced; the typical flight tasks are described; and the noise, vibration, and temperature conditions typical of modern military helicopters are characterized. Also considered are helicopter controls, cockpit instruments and displays, and the impact of cockpit design on pilot workload. Particular attention is given to possible advanced-technology improvements, such as control stabilization and augmentation, FBW and fly-by-light systems, multifunction displays, night-vision goggles, pilot night-vision systems, night-vision displays with superimposed symbols, target acquisition and designation systems, and aural displays. Diagrams, drawings, and photographs are provided.

  10. Optimizing human factors in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Arpit; Ankola, Anil V.; Hebbal, Mamata

    2013-01-01

    Occupational health hazards among dental professionals are on a continuous rise and they have a significant negative overall impact on daily life. This review is intended to provide the information regarding risk factors and to highlight the prevention strategies for optimizing human factors in dentistry. Risk factors among dentists are multifactorial, which can be categorized into biomechanical and psychosocial. To achieve a realistic target of safety and health at work, prevention is clearly the best approach; therefore, musculoskeletal disorders can be reduced through proper positioning of dental worker and patient, regular rest breaks, general good health, using ergonomic equipment, and exercises designed to counteract the particular risk factors for the dental occupation. However, substantial evidences are still required to elucidate the potential risk factors and to formulate effective prevention programs. PMID:23946745

  11. Human Factors Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Jack is an advanced human factors software package that provides a three dimensional model for predicting how a human will interact with a given system or environment. It can be used for a broad range of computer-aided design applications. Jack was developed by the computer Graphics Research Laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania with assistance from NASA's Johnson Space Center, Ames Research Center and the Army. It is the University's first commercial product. Jack is still used for academic purposes at the University of Pennsylvania. Commercial rights were given to Transom Technologies, Inc.

  12. Trends in Humanities Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrek, Bernard, Ed.; Whitney, Loralyn, Ed.

    Proceedings from this workshop sponsored by the Center for the Study of Rural Librarianship are intended to disseminate information to assist rural librarians engaged in planning and conducting public programs that explore issues related to the humanities. This report of the proceedings includes the texts of three presented papers, reactions from…

  13. Human factors workplace considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    Computer workstations assume many different forms and play different functions today. In order for them to assume the effective interface role which they should play they must be properly designed to take into account the ubiguitous human factor. In addition, the entire workplace in which they are used should be properly configured so as to enhance the operational features of the individual workstation where possible. A number of general human factors workplace considerations are presented. This ongoing series of notes covers such topics as achieving comfort and good screen visibility, hardware issues (e.g., mouse maintenance), screen symbology features (e.g., labels, cursors, prompts), and various miscellaneous subjects. These notes are presented here in order to: (1) illustrate how one's workstation can be used to support telescience activities of many other people working within an organization, and (2) provide a single complete set of considerations for future reference.

  14. Human factors in aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Earl L. (Editor); Nagel, David C. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The fundamental principles of human-factors (HF) analysis for aviation applications are examined in a collection of reviews by leading experts, with an emphasis on recent developments. The aim is to provide information and guidance to the aviation community outside the HF field itself. Topics addressed include the systems approach to HF, system safety considerations, the human senses in flight, information processing, aviation workloads, group interaction and crew performance, flight training and simulation, human error in aviation operations, and aircrew fatigue and circadian rhythms. Also discussed are pilot control; aviation displays; cockpit automation; HF aspects of software interfaces; the design and integration of cockpit-crew systems; and HF issues for airline pilots, general aviation, helicopters, and ATC.

  15. Human Reliability Program Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Landers, John; Rogers, Erin; Gerke, Gretchen

    2014-05-18

    A Human Reliability Program (HRP) is designed to protect national security as well as worker and public safety by continuously evaluating the reliability of those who have access to sensitive materials, facilities, and programs. Some elements of a site HRP include systematic (1) supervisory reviews, (2) medical and psychological assessments, (3) management evaluations, (4) personnel security reviews, and (4) training of HRP staff and critical positions. Over the years of implementing an HRP, the Department of Energy (DOE) has faced various challenges and overcome obstacles. During this 4-day activity, participants will examine programs that mitigate threats to nuclear security and the insider threat to include HRP, Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Enhancement, and Employee Assistance Programs. The focus will be to develop an understanding of the need for a systematic HRP and to discuss challenges and best practices associated with mitigating the insider threat.

  16. Environmental Factors Inducing Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, N

    2012-01-01

    Background An explosion of research has been done in discovering how human health is affected by environmental factors. I will discuss the impacts of environmental cancer causing factors and how they continue to cause multiple disruptions in cellular networking. Some risk factors may not cause cancer. Other factors initiate consecutive genetic mutations that would eventually alter the normal pathway of cellular proliferations and differentiation. Genetic mutations in four groups of genes; (Oncogenes, Tumor suppressor genes, Apoptosis genes and DNA repairing genes) play a vital role in altering the normal cell division. In recent years, molecular genetics have greatly increased our understanding of the basic mechanisms in cancer development and utilizing these molecular techniques for cancer screening, diagnosis, prognosis and therapies. Inhibition of carcinogenic exposures wherever possible should be the goal of cancer prevention programs to reduce exposures from all environmental carcinogens. PMID:23304670

  17. The First Development of Human Factors Engineering Requirements for Application to Ground Task Design for a NASA Flight Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dischinger, H. Charles, Jr.; Stambolian, Damon B.; Miller, Darcy H.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has long applied standards-derived human engineering requirements to the development of hardware and software for use by astronauts while in flight. The most important source of these requirements has been NASA-STD-3000. While there have been several ground systems human engineering requirements documents, none has been applicable to the flight system as handled at NASA's launch facility at Kennedy Space Center. At the time of the development of previous human launch systems, there were other considerations that were deemed more important than developing worksites for ground crews; e.g., hardware development schedule and vehicle performance. However, experience with these systems has shown that failure to design for ground tasks has resulted in launch schedule delays, ground operations that are more costly than they might be, and threats to flight safety. As the Agency begins the development of new systems to return humans to the moon, the new Constellation Program is addressing this issue with a new set of human engineering requirements. Among these requirements is a subset that will apply to the design of the flight components and that is intended to assure ground crew success in vehicle assembly and maintenance tasks. These requirements address worksite design for usability and for ground crew safety.

  18. SARSCEST (human factors)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, H. Mcilvaine

    1988-01-01

    People interact with the processes and products of contemporary technology. Individuals are affected by these in various ways and individuals shape them. Such interactions come under the label 'human factors'. To expand the understanding of those to whom the term is relatively unfamiliar, its domain includes both an applied science and applications of knowledge. It means both research and development, with implications of research both for basic science and for development. It encompasses not only design and testing but also training and personnel requirements, even though some unwisely try to split these apart both by name and institutionally. The territory includes more than performance at work, though concentration on that aspect, epitomized in the derivation of the term ergonomics, has overshadowed human factors interest in interactions between technology and the home, health, safety, consumers, children and later life, the handicapped, sports and recreation education, and travel. Two aspects of technology considered most significant for work performance, systems and automation, and several approaches to these, are discussed.

  19. Human Factors in Human-Systems Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, David J.; Sandor, Aniko; Litaker, Harry L., Jr.; Tillman, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Any large organization whose mission is to design and develop systems for humans, and train humans needs a well-developed integration and process plan to deal with the challenges that arise from managing multiple subsystems. Human capabilities, skills, and needs must be considered early in the design and development process, and must be continuously considered throughout the development lifecycle. This integration of human needs within system design is typically formalized through a Human-Systems Integration (HSI) program. By having an HSI program, an institution or organization can reduce lifecycle costs and increase the efficiency, usability, and quality of its products because human needs have been considered from the beginning.

  20. Helicopter human factors research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, David C.; Hart, Sandra G.

    1988-01-01

    Helicopter flight is among the most demanding of all human-machine integrations. The inherent manual control complexities of rotorcraft are made even more challenging by the small margin for error created in certain operations, such as nap-of-the-Earth (NOE) flight, by the proximity of the terrain. Accident data recount numerous examples of unintended conflict between helicopters and terrain and attest to the perceptual and control difficulties associated with low altitude flight tasks. Ames Research Center, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate, has initiated an ambitious research program aimed at increasing safety margins for both civilian and military rotorcraft operations. The program is broad, fundamental, and focused on the development of scientific understandings and technological countermeasures. Research being conducted in several areas is reviewed: workload assessment, prediction, and measure validation; development of advanced displays and effective pilot/automation interfaces; identification of visual cues necessary for low-level, low-visibility flight and modeling of visual flight-path control; and pilot training.

  1. Human Genome Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The DOE Human Genome program has grown tremendously, as shown by the marked increase in the number of genome-funded projects since the last workshop held in 1991. The abstracts in this book describe the genome research of DOE-funded grantees and contractors and invited guests, and all projects are represented at the workshop by posters. The 3-day meeting includes plenary sessions on ethical, legal, and social issues pertaining to the availability of genetic data; sequencing techniques, informatics support; and chromosome and cDNA mapping and sequencing.

  2. Information sciences and human factors overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, Lee B.

    1988-01-01

    An overview of program objectives of the Information Sciences and Human Factors Division of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on the organizational structure, goals, the research and technology base, telerobotics, systems autonomy in space operations, space sensors, humans in space, space communications, space data systems, transportation vehicle guidance and control, spacecraft control, and major program directions in space.

  3. Human Research Program Requirements Document. Human Research Program Revision E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This document defines, documents, and allocates the Human Research Program (HRP) requirements to the HRP Program Elements. It also establishes the flow of requirements from the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) and the Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO) down to the various HRP Program Elements to ensure that human research and technology countermeasure investments support the delivery of countermeasures and technologies that satisfy HEOMD's and OCHMO's exploration mission requirements.

  4. Human Factors In Aircraft Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Report presents survey of state of art in human factors in automation of aircraft operation. Presents examination of aircraft automation and effects on flight crews in relation to human error and aircraft accidents.

  5. About the Exposure Factors Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of the latest version of the Exposure Factors Handbook (EFH): 2011 Edition (EPA/600/R-09/052F) has maintained the need for a more comprehensive program that addresses issues related to exposure factors. Since the first version of the EFH was r...

  6. Human Research Program (HRP) Overview

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Human Research Program (HRP) is a major part of the Space Life and Physical Sciences Research and Applications Division within the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD). ...

  7. Human Factors Interface with Systems Engineering for NASA Human Spaceflights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Douglas T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the past and present successes of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch (HHFB) at NASA Johnson Space Center s Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) in including the Human-As-A-System (HAAS) model in many NASA programs and what steps to be taken to integrate the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into NASA s Systems Engineering (SE) process. The HAAS model stresses systems are ultimately designed for the humans; the humans should therefore be considered as a system within the systems. Therefore, the model places strong emphasis on human factors engineering. Since 1987, the HHFB has been engaging with many major NASA programs with much success. The HHFB helped create the NASA Standard 3000 (a human factors engineering practice guide) and the Human Systems Integration Requirements document. These efforts resulted in the HAAS model being included in many NASA programs. As an example, the HAAS model has been successfully introduced into the programmatic and systems engineering structures of the International Space Station Program (ISSP). Success in the ISSP caused other NASA programs to recognize the importance of the HAAS concept. Also due to this success, the HHFB helped update NASA s Systems Engineering Handbook in December 2007 to include HAAS as a recommended practice. Nonetheless, the HAAS model has yet to become an integral part of the NASA SE process. Besides continuing in integrating HAAS into current and future NASA programs, the HHFB will investigate incorporating the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into the NASA SE Handbook. The HCDP goes further than the HAAS model by emphasizing a holistic and iterative human-centered systems design concept.

  8. Human Genome Education Program

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Myers; Lane Conn

    2000-05-01

    The funds from the DOE Human Genome Program, for the project period 2/1/96 through 1/31/98, have provided major support for the curriculum development and field testing efforts for two high school level instructional units: Unit 1, ''Exploring Genetic Conditions: Genes, Culture and Choices''; and Unit 2, ''DNA Snapshots: Peaking at Your DNA''. In the original proposal, they requested DOE support for the partial salary and benefits of a Field Test Coordinator position to: (1) complete the field testing and revision of two high school curriculum units, and (2) initiate the education of teachers using these units. During the project period of this two-year DOE grant, a part-time Field-Test Coordinator was hired (Ms. Geraldine Horsma) and significant progress has been made in both of the original proposal objectives. Field testing for Unit 1 has occurred in over 12 schools (local and non-local sites with diverse student populations). Field testing for Unit 2 has occurred in over 15 schools (local and non-local sites) and will continue in 12-15 schools during the 96-97 school year. For both curricula, field-test sites and site teachers were selected for their interest in genetics education and in hands-on science education. Many of the site teachers had no previous experience with HGEP or the unit under development. Both of these first-year biology curriculum units, which contain genetics, biotechnology, societal, ethical and cultural issues related to HGP, are being implemented in many local and non-local schools (SF Bay Area, Southern California, Nebraska, Hawaii, and Texas) and in programs for teachers. These units will reach over 10,000 students in the SF Bay Area and continues to receive support from local corporate and private philanthropic organizations. Although HGEP unit development is nearing completion for both units, data is still being gathered and analyzed on unit effectiveness and student learning. The final field testing result from this analysis will

  9. Teleoperator Human Factors Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An investigation of the spectrum of space teleoperation activities likely in the 1985 to 1995 decade focused on the resolution of critical human engineering issues and characterization of the technology effect on performance of remote human operators. The study began with the identification and documentation of a set of representative reference teleoperator tasks. For each task, technology, development, and design options, issues, and alternatives that bear on human operator performance were defined and categorized. A literature survey identified existing studies of man/machine issues. For each teleoperations category, an assessment was made of the state of knowledge on a scale from adequate to void. The tests, experiments, and analyses necessary to provide the missing elements of knowledge were then defined. A limited set of tests were actually performed, including operator selection, baseline task definition, control mode study, lighting study, camera study, and preliminary time delay study.

  10. Tuberculosis Incidence and Risk Factors Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Adults Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in a Large HIV Program in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Charlotte A.; Meloni, Seema Thakore; Eisen, Geoffrey; Chaplin, Beth; Akande, Patrick; Okonkwo, Prosper; Rawizza, Holly E.; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric; Kanki, Phyllis J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Despite the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART), tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons in Africa. Nigeria bears the highest TB burden in Africa and second highest HIV burden globally. This long-term multicenter study aimed to determine the incidence rate and predictors of TB in adults in the Harvard/AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria (APIN) and President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Nigeria ART program. Methods. This retrospective evaluation used data collected from 2004 to 2012 through the Harvard/APIN PEPFAR program. Risk factors for incident TB were determined using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression with time-dependent covariates. Results. Of 50 320 adults enrolled from 2005 to 2010, 11 092 (22%) had laboratory-confirmed active TB disease at ART initiation, and 2021 (4%) developed active TB after commencing ART. During 78 228 total person-years (PY) of follow-up, the TB incidence rate was 25.8 cases per 1000 PY (95% confidence interval [CI], 24.7–27.0) overall, and it decreased significantly both with duration on ART and calendar year. Risk factors at ART initiation for incident TB included the following: earlier ART enrollment year, tenofovir-containing initial ART regimen, and World Health Organization clinical stage above 1. Time-updated risk factors included the following: low body mass index, low CD4+ cell count, unsuppressed viral load, anemia, and ART adherence below 80%. Conclusions. The rate of incident TB decreased with longer duration on ART and over the program years. The strongest TB risk factors were time-updated clinical markers, reinforcing the importance of consistent clinical and laboratory monitoring of ART patients in prompt diagnosis and treatment of TB and other coinfections. PMID:26613097

  11. Tuberculosis Incidence and Risk Factors Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Adults Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in a Large HIV Program in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chang, Charlotte A; Meloni, Seema Thakore; Eisen, Geoffrey; Chaplin, Beth; Akande, Patrick; Okonkwo, Prosper; Rawizza, Holly E; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric; Kanki, Phyllis J

    2015-12-01

    Background.  Despite the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART), tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons in Africa. Nigeria bears the highest TB burden in Africa and second highest HIV burden globally. This long-term multicenter study aimed to determine the incidence rate and predictors of TB in adults in the Harvard/AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria (APIN) and President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Nigeria ART program. Methods.  This retrospective evaluation used data collected from 2004 to 2012 through the Harvard/APIN PEPFAR program. Risk factors for incident TB were determined using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression with time-dependent covariates. Results.  Of 50 320 adults enrolled from 2005 to 2010, 11 092 (22%) had laboratory-confirmed active TB disease at ART initiation, and 2021 (4%) developed active TB after commencing ART. During 78 228 total person-years (PY) of follow-up, the TB incidence rate was 25.8 cases per 1000 PY (95% confidence interval [CI], 24.7-27.0) overall, and it decreased significantly both with duration on ART and calendar year. Risk factors at ART initiation for incident TB included the following: earlier ART enrollment year, tenofovir-containing initial ART regimen, and World Health Organization clinical stage above 1. Time-updated risk factors included the following: low body mass index, low CD4(+) cell count, unsuppressed viral load, anemia, and ART adherence below 80%. Conclusions.  The rate of incident TB decreased with longer duration on ART and over the program years. The strongest TB risk factors were time-updated clinical markers, reinforcing the importance of consistent clinical and laboratory monitoring of ART patients in prompt diagnosis and treatment of TB and other coinfections. PMID:26613097

  12. Human genome. 1993 Program report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to update the Human Genome 1991-92 Program Report and provide new information on the DOE genome program to researchers, program managers, other government agencies, and the interested public. This FY 1993 supplement includes abstracts of 60 new or renewed projects and listings of 112 continuing and 28 completed projects. These two reports, taken together, present the most complete published view of the DOE Human Genome Program through FY 1993. Research is progressing rapidly toward 15-year goals of mapping and sequencing the DNA of each of the 24 different human chromosomes.

  13. DSN human factors project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chafin, R. L.; Martin, T. H.

    1980-01-01

    The project plan was to hold focus groups to identify the factors influencing the ease of use characteristics of software and to bond the problem. A questionnaire survey was conducted to evaluate those factors which were more appropriately measured with that method. The performance oriented factors were analyzed and relationships hypothesized. The hypotheses were put to test in the experimental phase of the project. In summary, the initial analysis indicates that there is an initial performance effect favoring computer controlled dialogue but the advantage fades fast as operators become experienced. The user documentation style is seen to have a significant effect on performance. The menu and prompt command formats are preferred by inexperienced operators. The short form mnemonic is least favored. There is no clear best command format but the short form mnemonic is clearly the worst.

  14. Human Research Program Requirements Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieger, Gabe

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to define, document, and allocate the Human Research Program (HRP) requirements to the HRP Program elements. It establishes the flow-down of requirements from Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) and Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO) to the various Program Elements of the HRP to ensure that human research and technology countermeasure investments are made to insure the delivery of countermeasures and technologies that satisfy ESMD s and OCHMO's exploration mission requirements.

  15. The motion commotion: Human factors in transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millar, A. E., Jr. (Editor); Rosen, R. L. (Editor); Gibson, J. D. (Editor); Crum, R. G. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    The program for a systems approach to the problem of incorporating human factors in designing transportation systems is summarized. The importance of the human side of transportation is discussed along with the three major factors related to maintaining a mobile and quality life. These factors are (1) people, as individuals and groups, (2) society as a whole, and (3) the natural environment and man-made environs. The problems and bottlenecks are presented along with approaches to their solutions through systems analysis. Specific recommendations essential to achieving improved mobility within environmental constraints are presented.

  16. Space human factors publications: 1980-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickson, Katherine J.

    1991-01-01

    A 10 year cummulative bibliography of publications resulting from research supported by the NASA Space Human Factors Program of the Life Science Division is provided. The goal of this program is to understand the basic mechanisms underlying behavioral adaptation to space and to develop and validate system design requirements, protocols, and countermeasures to ensure the psychological well-being, safety, and productivity of crewmembers. Subjects encompassed by this bibliography include selection and training, group dynamics, psychophysiological interactions, habitability issues, human-machine interactions, psychological support measures, and anthropometric data. Principal Investigators whose research tasks resulted in publication are identified by asterisk.

  17. Human factors analysis and design methods for nuclear waste retrieval systems. Volume III. User's guide for the computerized event-tree analysis technique. [CETAT computer program

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, S.M.; Deretsky, Z.

    1980-08-01

    This document provides detailed instructions for using the Computerized Event-Tree Analysis Technique (CETAT), a program designed to assist a human factors analyst in predicting event probabilities in complex man-machine configurations found in waste retrieval systems. The instructions contained herein describe how to (a) identify the scope of a CETAT analysis, (b) develop operator performance data, (c) enter an event-tree structure, (d) modify a data base, and (e) analyze event paths and man-machine system configurations. Designed to serve as a tool for developing, organizing, and analyzing operator-initiated event probabilities, CETAT simplifies the tasks of the experienced systems analyst by organizing large amounts of data and performing cumbersome and time consuming arithmetic calculations. The principal uses of CETAT in the waste retrieval development project will be to develop models of system reliability and evaluate alternative equipment designs and operator tasks. As with any automated technique, however, the value of the output will be a function of the knowledge and skill of the analyst using the program.

  18. Space operations and the human factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, Adam R.

    1993-10-01

    Although space flight does not put the public at high risk, billions of dollars in hardware are destroyed and the space program halted when an accident occurs. Researchers are therefore applying human-factors techniques similar to those used in the aircraft industry, albeit at a greatly reduced level, to the spacecraft environment. The intent is to reduce the likelihood of catastrophic failure. To increase safety and efficiency, space human factors researchers have simulated spacecraft docking and extravehicular activity rescue. Engineers have also studied EVA suit mobility and aids. Other basic human-factors issues that have been applied to the space environment include antropometry, biomechanics, and ergonomics. Workstation design, workload, and task analysis currently receive much attention, as do habitability and other aspects of confined environments. Much work also focuses on individual payloads, as each presents its own complexities.

  19. Human factors and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Minhali, A.

    1996-11-01

    A case study was presented in the 1994 Abu Dhabi International Exhibition and Conference (ADIPEC, 94) which discussed the importance of investigating human factors in the design of a high integrity protection system (HIPS) to be installed on an offshore high pressure gas platform, (SPE reference ADSPE 80). This paper will follow up on the design changes, installation and operation of the HIPS with emphasis on practical implications as a result of improper integration of human factors in the system reliability and risk assessment studies.

  20. Human Research Program Requirements Document (Revision C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to define, document, and allocate the Human Research Program (HRP) requirements to the HRP Program Elements. It establishes the flow-down of requirements from Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) and Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO) to the various Program Elements of the HRP to ensure that human research and technology countermeasure investments are made to insure the delivery of countermeasures and technologies that satisfy ESMD's and OCHMO's exploration mission requirements. Requirements driving the HRP work and deliverables are derived from the exploration architecture, as well as Agency standards regarding the maintenance of human health and performance. Agency human health and performance standards will define acceptable risk for each type and duration of exploration mission. It is critical to have the best available scientific and clinical evidence in setting and validating these standards. In addition, it is imperative that the best available evidence on preventing and mitigating human health and performance risks is incorporated into exploration mission and vehicle designs. These elements form the basis of the HRP research and technology development requirements and highlight the importance of HRP investments in enabling NASA's exploration missions. This PRD defines the requirements of the HRP which is comprised of the following major Program Elements: Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP), Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC), Human Health Countermeasures (HHC), ISS Medical Project (ISSMP), Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH), and Space Radiation (SR).

  1. Key factors help programs succeed.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1997-01-01

    The World Health Organization is coordinating a review (with the United Nations Population Fund and UNICEF) of key interventions designed to improve adolescent health services, focusing on the effectiveness of these efforts. Making services more available involves the attitude and training of providers, the logistics of clinic location and service, and the questions of privacy and confidentiality. Successful programs identify specific target groups defined by age, school status, marital status, and other social factors. In a recent evaluation of 70 projects focusing on adolescents, UNFPA found that almost none of them defined their target populations clearly. Marital status is particularly important, for the unmarried often face more obstacles to services. Providers should involve youth in planning and implementing reproductive health services and evaluating programs by working with youth focus groups and workshops. A review of the Family Health International's AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project of 21 peer education projects in Africa, Asia, and Latin America showed that peer education is useful for providing HIV/AIDS information. In successful peer programming selection and training, skills building, effective provision of information and referrals, and minimal turnover are key elements. Involving community leaders, parents, teachers helps achieve the balance of needs and culture and traditions. A UNFPA analysis found that most projects did not involve parents and community groups. Sex education programs were particularly divisive. The accessibility of services depends on convenience of location, clinic hours, confidentiality, and style of services. The basic evaluation tool is simple observation. In 1992 an AIDS prevention project in Kenya used an outcome evaluation with interviews and found that the target audience had more positive behavior change. Sustaining good programs should also be included in the planning phase, as was done by the CORA project

  2. Human Factors in Financial Trading

    PubMed Central

    Leaver, Meghan; Reader, Tom W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study tests the reliability of a system (FINANS) to collect and analyze incident reports in the financial trading domain and is guided by a human factors taxonomy used to describe error in the trading domain. Background Research indicates the utility of applying human factors theory to understand error in finance, yet empirical research is lacking. We report on the development of the first system for capturing and analyzing human factors–related issues in operational trading incidents. Method In the first study, 20 incidents are analyzed by an expert user group against a referent standard to establish the reliability of FINANS. In the second study, 750 incidents are analyzed using distribution, mean, pathway, and associative analysis to describe the data. Results Kappa scores indicate that categories within FINANS can be reliably used to identify and extract data on human factors–related problems underlying trading incidents. Approximately 1% of trades (n = 750) lead to an incident. Slip/lapse (61%), situation awareness (51%), and teamwork (40%) were found to be the most common problems underlying incidents. For the most serious incidents, problems in situation awareness and teamwork were most common. Conclusion We show that (a) experts in the trading domain can reliably and accurately code human factors in incidents, (b) 1% of trades incur error, and (c) poor teamwork skills and situation awareness underpin the most critical incidents. Application This research provides data crucial for ameliorating risk within financial trading organizations, with implications for regulation and policy. PMID:27142394

  3. Human factors in underwater systems.

    PubMed

    Crosson, D

    1993-10-01

    Applications of human factors to undersea engineering and the relationship to aerospace science are explored. Cooperative ventures include the TEKTITE underwater habitat and development of better procedures to prevent decompression sickness. Other research involved the use of alternate gases in diving systems, remote-operation vehicles, and diving system tests. PMID:11541030

  4. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  5. Human Factors in Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of space is one of the most fascinating domains to study from a human factors perspective. Like other complex work domains such as aviation (Pritchett and Kim, 2008), air traffic management (Durso and Manning, 2008), health care (Morrow, North, and Wickens, 2006), homeland security (Cooke and Winner, 2008), and vehicle control (Lee, 2006), space exploration is a large-scale sociotechnical work domain characterized by complexity, dynamism, uncertainty, and risk in real-time operational contexts (Perrow, 1999; Woods et ai, 1994). Nearly the entire gamut of human factors issues - for example, human-automation interaction (Sheridan and Parasuraman, 2006), telerobotics, display and control design (Smith, Bennett, and Stone, 2006), usability, anthropometry (Chaffin, 2008), biomechanics (Marras and Radwin, 2006), safety engineering, emergency operations, maintenance human factors, situation awareness (Tenney and Pew, 2006), crew resource management (Salas et aI., 2006), methods for cognitive work analysis (Bisantz and Roth, 2008) and the like -- are applicable to astronauts, mission control, operational medicine, Space Shuttle manufacturing and assembly operations, and space suit designers as they are in other work domains (e.g., Bloomberg, 2003; Bos et al, 2006; Brooks and Ince, 1992; Casler and Cook, 1999; Jones, 1994; McCurdy et ai, 2006; Neerincx et aI., 2006; Olofinboba and Dorneich, 2005; Patterson, Watts-Perotti and Woods, 1999; Patterson and Woods, 2001; Seagull et ai, 2007; Sierhuis, Clancey and Sims, 2002). The human exploration of space also has unique challenges of particular interest to human factors research and practice. This chapter provides an overview of those issues and reports on sorne of the latest research results as well as the latest challenges still facing the field.

  6. Human factors in spacecraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Albert A.; Connors, Mary M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes some of the salient implications of evolving mission parameters for spacecraft design. Among the requirements for future spacecraft are new, higher standards of living, increased support of human productivity, and greater accommodation of physical and cultural variability. Design issues include volumetric allowances, architecture and layouts, closed life support systems, health maintenance systems, recreational facilities, automation, privacy, and decor. An understanding of behavioral responses to design elements is a precondition for critical design decisions. Human factors research results must be taken into account early in the course of the design process.

  7. Human factors in spacecraft design.

    PubMed

    Harrison, A A; Connors, M M

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes some of the salient implications of evolving mission parameters for spacecraft design. Among the requirements for future spacecraft are new, higher standards of living, increased support of human productivity, and greater accommodation of physical and cultural variability. Design issues include volumetric allowances, architecture and layouts, closed life support systems, health maintenance systems, recreational facilities, automation, privacy, and decor. An understanding of behavioral responses to design elements is a precondition for critical design decisions. Human factors research results must be taken into account early in the course of the design process. PMID:11537619

  8. EPA'S HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of NERL's Exposure Research Program is to improve the scientific basis for conducting human exposure assessments that are part of the EPA's risk assessment, risk management and compliance process. Overall, we aim to address aggregate and cumulative exposures that pose...

  9. Human factors and quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Handyside, James; Suresh, Gautham

    2010-03-01

    Human factors analysis (HFE) presents a formidable contribution to quality improvement (QI) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The science behind the fundamental principles concerning the design of work systems that match the needs of the people who work in them is sound and is applied widely in other safety critical situations. Early application of HFE in NICUs has shown the usefulness of these methods for frontline teams working to improve quality, reliability, and safety. The inclusion of human factors considerations in the design of structure and process has the potential to improve outcomes for patients and families and to improve the comfort and usability of work systems for providers who work in them. New technologies and continual change must be informed and designed through the application of HFE methods and principles to realize the full potential of QI. PMID:20363451

  10. Human factors in incident reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. G.

    1993-01-01

    The paper proposes a cooperative research effort be undertaken by academic institutions and industry organizations toward the compilation of a human factors data base in conjunction with technical information. Team members in any discipline can benefit and learn from observing positive examples of decision making and performance by crews under stressful or less than optimal circumstances. The opportunity to note trends in interpersonal and interactive behaviors and to categorize them is terms of more or less desirable outcomes should not be missed.

  11. Human Factors Research for Space Exploration: Measurement, Modeling, and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Allen, Christopher S.; Barshi, Immanuel; Billman, Dorrit; Holden, Kritina L.

    2010-01-01

    As part of NASA's Human Research Program, the Space Human Factors Engineering Project serves as the bridge between Human Factors research and Human Spaceflight applications. Our goal is to be responsive to the operational community while addressing issues at a sufficient level of abstraction to ensure that our tools and solutions generalize beyond the point design. In this panel, representatives from four of our research domains will discuss the challenges they face in solving current problems while also enabling future capabilities.

  12. Integrating Data and Networks: Human Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The development of technical linkages and interoperability between scientific networks is a necessary but not sufficient step towards integrated use and application of networked data and information for scientific and societal benefit. A range of "human factors" must also be addressed to ensure the long-term integration, sustainability, and utility of both the interoperable networks themselves and the scientific data and information to which they provide access. These human factors encompass the behavior of both individual humans and human institutions, and include system governance, a common framework for intellectual property rights and data sharing, consensus on terminology, metadata, and quality control processes, agreement on key system metrics and milestones, the compatibility of "business models" in the short and long term, harmonization of incentives for cooperation, and minimization of disincentives. Experience with several national and international initiatives and research programs such as the International Polar Year, the Group on Earth Observations, the NASA Earth Observing Data and Information System, the U.S. National Spatial Data Infrastructure, the Global Earthquake Model, and the United Nations Spatial Data Infrastructure provide a range of lessons regarding these human factors. Ongoing changes in science, technology, institutions, relationships, and even culture are creating both opportunities and challenges for expanded interoperability of scientific networks and significant improvement in data integration to advance science and the use of scientific data and information to achieve benefits for society as a whole.

  13. 14 CFR 460.15 - Human factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Human factors. 460.15 Section 460.15... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew § 460.15 Human factors. An operator must take the precautions necessary to account for human factors that can affect a crew's...

  14. 14 CFR 460.15 - Human factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Human factors. 460.15 Section 460.15... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew § 460.15 Human factors. An operator must take the precautions necessary to account for human factors that can affect a crew's...

  15. Space human factors discipline science plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the comprehensive areas of behavior, performance, and human factors. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, defines critical questions in the subdiscipline areas, and identifies technological priorities. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and Exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters program offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational research and development activities, both intramural and extramural, in this area.

  16. Human Factors Considerations in System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. M. (Editor); Vanbalen, P. M. (Editor); Moe, K. L. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Human factors considerations in systems design was examined. Human factors in automated command and control, in the efficiency of the human computer interface and system effectiveness are outlined. The following topics are discussed: human factors aspects of control room design; design of interactive systems; human computer dialogue, interaction tasks and techniques; guidelines on ergonomic aspects of control rooms and highly automated environments; system engineering for control by humans; conceptual models of information processing; information display and interaction in real time environments.

  17. Understanding adverse events: human factors.

    PubMed Central

    Reason, J

    1995-01-01

    (1) Human rather than technical failures now represent the greatest threat to complex and potentially hazardous systems. This includes healthcare systems. (2) Managing the human risks will never be 100% effective. Human fallibility can be moderated, but it cannot be eliminated. (3) Different error types have different underlying mechanisms, occur in different parts of the organisation, and require different methods of risk management. The basic distinctions are between: Slips, lapses, trips, and fumbles (execution failures) and mistakes (planning or problem solving failures). Mistakes are divided into rule based mistakes and knowledge based mistakes. Errors (information-handling problems) and violations (motivational problems) Active versus latent failures. Active failures are committed by those in direct contact with the patient, latent failures arise in organisational and managerial spheres and their adverse effects may take a long time to become evident. (4) Safety significant errors occur at all levels of the system, not just at the sharp end. Decisions made in the upper echelons of the organisation create the conditions in the workplace that subsequently promote individual errors and violations. Latent failures are present long before an accident and are hence prime candidates for principled risk management. (5) Measures that involve sanctions and exhortations (that is, moralistic measures directed to those at the sharp end) have only very limited effectiveness, especially so in the case of highly trained professionals. (6) Human factors problems are a product of a chain of causes in which the individual psychological factors (that is, momentary inattention, forgetting, etc) are the last and least manageable links. Attentional "capture" (preoccupation or distraction) is a necessary condition for the commission of slips and lapses. Yet, its occurrence is almost impossible to predict or control effectively. The same is true of the factors associated with

  18. Overview: Human Factors Issues in Space Station Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    An overview is presented of human factors issues in space station architecture. The status of the space station program is given. Habitability concerns such as vibroacoustics, lighting systems, privacy and work stations are discussed in detail.

  19. Human factors in space telepresence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akin, D. L.; Howard, R. D.; Oliveria, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    The problems of interfacing a human with a teleoperation system, for work in space are discussed. Much of the information presented here is the result of experience gained by the M.I.T. Space Systems Laboratory during the past two years of work on the ARAMIS (Automation, Robotics, and Machine Intelligence Systems) project. Many factors impact the design of the man-machine interface for a teleoperator. The effects of each are described in turn. An annotated bibliography gives the key references that were used. No conclusions are presented as a best design, since much depends on the particular application desired, and the relevant technology is swiftly changing.

  20. Critical Questions for Space Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara; Bagian, Tandi

    2000-01-01

    Traditional human factors contributions to NASA's crewed space programs have been rooted in the classic approaches to quantifying human physical and cognitive capabilities and limitations in the environment of interest, and producing recommendations and standards for the selection or design of mission equipment. Crews then evaluate the interfaces, displays, or equipment, and with the assistance of human factors experts, improvements are made as funds, time, control documentation, and weight allow. We have come a long way from the early spaceflight days, where men with the ' right stuff were the solution to operating whatever equipment was given to them. The large and diverse Shuttle astronaut corps has impacted mission designs to accommodate a wide range of human capabilities and preferences. Yet with existing long duration experience, we have seen the need to address a different set of dynamics when designing for optimal crew performance: critical equipment and mission situations degrade, and human function changes with mission environment, situation, and duration. Strategies for quantifying the critical nature of human factors requirements are being worked by NASA. Any exploration-class mission will place new responsibilities on mission designers to provide the crew with the information and resources to accomplish the mission. The current duties of a Mission Control Center to monitor system status, detect degradation or malfunction, and provide a proven solution, will need to be incorporated into on-board systems to allow the crew autonomous decision-making. The current option to resupply and replace mission systems and resources, including both vehicle equipment and human operators, will be removed, so considerations of maintenance, onboard training, and proficiency assessment are critical to providing a self-sufficient crew. As we 'move in' to the International Space Station, there are tremendous opportunities to investigate our ability to design for autonomous

  1. Human Factors Checklist: Think Human Factors - Focus on the People

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Darcy; Stelges, Katrine; Barth, Timothy; Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena; Dischinger, Charles; Kanki, Barbara; Kramer, Ian

    2016-01-01

    A quick-look Human Factors (HF) Checklist condenses industry and NASA Agency standards consisting of thousands of requirements into 14 main categories. With support from contractor HF and Safety Practitioners, NASA developed a means to share key HF messages with Design, Engineering, Safety, Project Management, and others. It is often difficult to complete timely assessments due to the large volume of HF information. The HF Checklist evolved over time into a simple way to consider the most important concepts. A wide audience can apply the checklist early in design or through planning phases, even before hardware or processes are finalized or implemented. The checklist is a good place to start to supplement formal HF evaluation. The HF Checklist was based on many Space Shuttle processing experiences and lessons learned. It is now being applied to ground processing of new space vehicles and adjusted for new facilities and systems.

  2. Human Factors Engineering Standards at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Dane; Tillman, Barry; Pickett, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    NASA has begun a new approach to human factors design standards. For years NASA-STD-3000, Manned Systems Integration Standards, has been a source of human factors design guidance for space systems. In order to better meet the needs of the system developers, NASA is revising its human factors standards system. NASA-STD-3000 will be replaced by two documents: set of broad human systems design standards (including both human factors and medical topics) and a human factors design handbook. At the present time the standards document is in final review with some disagreement on several critical issues. The handbook is progressing with November 2008 as the anticipated completion date.

  3. Human Development Program: Level VI Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Geraldine

    The curriculum guide presents the activities component of the Human Development Program for grade 6. The Human Development Program (HDP) is an affective curricular approach developed by psychologists to aid teachers in instilling responsibility and self-confidence in children. The nucleus of the Human Development Program is a circle session…

  4. Trends in human factors research.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A

    1982-06-01

    As just described, NIOSH's ongoing and new activities offer varied approaches and opportunities for gaining insights into human factor and ergonomic aspects of workplace hazards and their control. They represent a blend of surveillance work (re, the prevalence survey of chronic trauma risk), in-depth studies of known workplace problems emphasizing undue physical and psychological job demands and their consequences (re, stress from machine-paced work and musculoskeletal problems from repeated lifting), first evaluations of the consequences of new technology (re, use of video display terminals), and finally problem-solving efforts (re, the evaluation and field testing of the work practice guide for reducing lifting hazards and control technology assessment). Taken together, these efforts signal an important new commitment by NIOSH in making workplaces safe for our working men and women. PMID:6896907

  5. ERBS human factors analysis: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, K. L.; Weger, C.

    1983-01-01

    The incorporation of human factors into the system development process and the benefits derived are discussed. The human factors analysis task for the Earth radiation budget satellite (ERBS) payload operations control center (POCC) is a pathfinder in the new applications approach to this discipline within the mission and data operations directorate. The topics covered include: discussions of the motivation for human factors analysis; the involvement of the human factors research group (HFRG) with project and system developers, and some examples of human factors issues addressed in the ERBS analysis task.

  6. Development of an Integrated Human Factors Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resnick, Marc L.

    2003-01-01

    An effective integration of human abilities and limitations is crucial to the success of all NASA missions. The Integrated Human Factors Toolkit facilitates this integration by assisting system designers and analysts to select the human factors tools that are most appropriate for the needs of each project. The HF Toolkit contains information about a broad variety of human factors tools addressing human requirements in the physical, information processing and human reliability domains. Analysis of each tool includes consideration of the most appropriate design stage, the amount of expertise in human factors that is required, the amount of experience with the tool and the target job tasks that are needed, and other factors that are critical for successful use of the tool. The benefits of the Toolkit include improved safety, reliability and effectiveness of NASA systems throughout the agency. This report outlines the initial stages of development for the Integrated Human Factors Toolkit.

  7. Improving Safety through Human Factors Engineering.

    PubMed

    Siewert, Bettina; Hochman, Mary G

    2015-10-01

    Human factors engineering (HFE) focuses on the design and analysis of interactive systems that involve people, technical equipment, and work environment. HFE is informed by knowledge of human characteristics. It complements existing patient safety efforts by specifically taking into consideration that, as humans, frontline staff will inevitably make mistakes. Therefore, the systems with which they interact should be designed for the anticipation and mitigation of human errors. The goal of HFE is to optimize the interaction of humans with their work environment and technical equipment to maximize safety and efficiency. Special safeguards include usability testing, standardization of processes, and use of checklists and forcing functions. However, the effectiveness of the safety program and resiliency of the organization depend on timely reporting of all safety events independent of patient harm, including perceived potential risks, bad outcomes that occur even when proper protocols have been followed, and episodes of "improvisation" when formal guidelines are found not to exist. Therefore, an institution must adopt a robust culture of safety, where the focus is shifted from blaming individuals for errors to preventing future errors, and where barriers to speaking up-including barriers introduced by steep authority gradients-are minimized. This requires creation of formal guidelines to address safety concerns, establishment of unified teams with open communication and shared responsibility for patient safety, and education of managers and senior physicians to perceive the reporting of safety concerns as a benefit rather than a threat. PMID:26466179

  8. 77 FR 14766 - Patents for Humanity Program (Formerly Humanitarian Program)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents for Humanity Program (Formerly Humanitarian Program) ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office...- 0066 Patents for Humanity Program comment'' in the subject line of the message. Mail: Susan K....

  9. Human Factors in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara J.; Mount, Frances

    2005-01-01

    After forty years of experience with human space flight (Table 1), the current emphasis is on the design of space vehicles, habitats, and missions to ensure mission success. What lessons have we learned that will affect the design of spacecraft for future space exploration, leading up to exploring Mars? This chapter addresses this issue in four sections: Anthropometry and Biomechanics; Environmental Factors; Habitability and Architecture; and Crew Personal Sustenance. This introductory section introduces factors unique to space flight. A unique consideration for design of a habitable volume in a space vehicle is the lack of gravity during a space flight, referred to as microgravity. This affects all aspects of life, and drives special features in the habitat, equipment, tools, and procedures. The difference in gravity during a space mission requires designing for posture and motion differences. In Earth s gravity, or even with partial gravity, orientation is not a variable because the direction in which gravity acts defines up and down. In a microgravity environment the working position is arbitrary; there is no gravity cue. Orientation is defined primarily through visual cues. The orientation within a particular crew station or work area is referred to as local vertical, and should be consistent within a module to increase crew productivity. Equipment was intentionally arranged in various orientations in one module on Skylab to assess the efficiency in use of space versus the effects of inconsistent layout. The effects of that arrangement were confusion on entering the module, time spent in re-orientation, and conflicts in crew space requirements when multiple crew members were in the module. Design of a space vehicle is constrained by the three major mission drivers: mass, volume and power. Each of these factors drives the cost of a mission. Mass and volume determine the size of the launch vehicle directly; they can limit consumables such as air, water, and

  10. The Unfortunate Human Factor: A Selective History of Human Factors for Technical Communicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews moments in the history of human factors that are especially relevant to the field of technical communications. Discusses human factors research that is applicable to technical communications. Focuses on qualitative usability research, minimalism, and human activity interface design. (HB)

  11. Recent technology products from Space Human Factors research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, James P.

    1991-01-01

    The goals of the NASA Space Human Factors program and the research carried out concerning human factors are discussed with emphasis given to the development of human performance models, data, and tools. The major products from this program are described, which include the Laser Anthropometric Mapping System; a model of the human body for evaluating the kinematics and dynamics of human motion and strength in microgravity environment; an operational experience data base for verifying and validating the data repository of manned space flights; the Operational Experience Database Taxonomy; and a human-computer interaction laboratory whose products are the display softaware and requirements and the guideline documents and standards for applications on human-computer interaction. Special attention is given to the 'Convoltron', a prototype version of a signal processor for synthesizing the head-related transfer functions.

  12. 14 CFR 460.15 - Human factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Human factors. 460.15 Section 460.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew § 460.15 Human factors....

  13. 14 CFR 460.15 - Human factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Human factors. 460.15 Section 460.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew § 460.15 Human factors....

  14. 14 CFR 460.15 - Human factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Human factors. 460.15 Section 460.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew § 460.15 Human factors....

  15. Human Research Program Exploration Medical Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsten, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    NASA s Human Research Program (HRP) conducts and coordinates research projects that provide human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies, and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. The Program is divided into 6 major elements, which a) Provide the Program s knowledge and capabilities to conduct research, addressing the human health and performance risks. b) Advance the readiness levels of technology and countermeasures to the point of transfer to the customer programs and organizations. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) is a partner with the HRP in developing a successful research program. 3

  16. HL-20 Vertical Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The HL-20 space taxi, Langley's candidate personnel launch system, is one of several designs being considered by NASA as a complement to the Space Shuttle. Human factors studies, using Langley volunteers as subjects, have been ongoing since March 1991 to verify crew seating arrangements, habitability, ingress and egress, equipment layout and maintenance and handling operations, and to determine visibility requirements during docking and landing operations. Langley volunteers, wearing flight suits and helmets, were put through a series of tests with the craft placed both vertically and horizontally to simulate launch and landing attitudes, The HL-20 would be launched into a low orbit by an expendable rocket and then use its own propulsion system to boost itself to the space station. Following exchange of crews or delivery of small payload, the HL-20 would return to Earth like the space shuttle, making a runway landing near the launch site, The full-scale engineering research model of the HL-20 design was constructed by students and faculty at North Carolina State University and North Carolina A&T State University with the Mars Mission Research Center under a grant from NASA Langley.

  17. Human factors in agile manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, C.

    1995-03-01

    As industries position themselves for the competitive markets of today, and the increasingly competitive global markets of the 21st century, agility, or the ability to rapidly develop and produce new products, represents a common trend. Agility manifests itself in many different forms, with the agile manufacturing paradigm proposed by the Iacocca Institute offering a generally accepted, long-term vision. In its many forms, common elements of agility or agile manufacturing include: changes in business, engineering and production practices, seamless information flow from design through production, integration of computer and information technologies into all facets of the product development and production process, application of communications technologies to enable collaborative work between geographically dispersed product development team members and introduction of flexible automation of production processes. Industry has rarely experienced as dramatic an infusion of new technologies or as extensive a change in culture and work practices. Human factors will not only play a vital role in accomplishing the technical and social objectives of agile manufacturing. but has an opportunity to participate in shaping the evolution of industry paradigms for the 21st century.

  18. Glenn Research Center Human Research Program: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nall, Marsha M.; Myers, Jerry G.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA-Glenn Research Centers Human Research Program office supports a wide range of technology development efforts aimed at enabling extended human presence in space. This presentation provides a brief overview of the historical successes, current 2013 activities and future projects of NASA-GRCs Human Research Program.

  19. N-Myc regulates a widespread euchromatic program in the human genome partially independent of its role as a classical transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Cotterman, Rebecca; Jin, Victor X.; Krig, Sheryl R.; Lemen, Jessica M.; Wey, Alice; Farnham, Peggy J.; Knoepfler, Paul S.

    2009-01-01

    Myc proteins have long been modeled to operate strictly as classical gene specific transcription factors, however we find that N-Myc has a robust role in the human genome in regulating global cellular euchromatin including that of intergenic regions. Strikingly, 90–95% of the total genomic euchromatic marks histone H3 acetylated at lysine 9 and methylated at lysine 4 is N-Myc dependent. However, Myc regulation of transcription, even of genes it directly binds and at which it is required for maintenance of active chromatin, is generally weak. Thus, Myc has a much more potent ability to regulate large domains of euchromatin than to influence transcription of individual genes. Overall, Myc regulation of chromatin in the human genome includes both specific genes, but also expansive genomic domains that invoke functions independent of a classical transcription factor. These findings support a new dual model for Myc chromatin function with important implications for the role of Myc in cancer and stem cell biology, including that of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. PMID:19047142

  20. Human factors error and patient monitoring.

    PubMed

    Walsh, T; Beatty, P C W

    2002-08-01

    A wide range of studies have shown that human factors errors are the major cause of critical incidents that threaten patient safety in the medical environments where patient monitoring takes place, contributing to approximately 87% of all such incidents. Studies have also shown that good cognitively ergonomic design of monitoring equipment for use in these environments should reduce the human factors errors associated with the information they provide. The purpose of this review is to consider the current state of knowledge concerning human factors engineering in its application to patient monitoring. It considers the prevalence of human factors error, principles of good human factors design, the effect of specific design features and the problem of the measurement of the effectiveness of designs in reducing human factors error. The conclusion of the review is that whilst the focus of human factors studies has, in recent years, moved from instrument design to organizational issues, patient monitor designers still have an important contribution to make to improving the safety of the monitored patient. Further, whilst better psychological understanding of the causes of human factors errors will in future guide better human factors engineering, in this area there are still many practical avenues of research that need exploring from the current base of understanding. PMID:12214768

  1. View factor computer program (program view) user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puccinelli, E. F.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of program VIEW is to compute view factors between specified surfaces and to be compatible with level 15.5 of the NASTRAN structural analysis program. Program VIEW is a modification of a (finite element) view factor computation program called RAVFAC. VIEW is designed to run on an IBM System/360 operating under OS (operating system), with a minimum region size of 110 K bytes. The actual computation of view factors is still performed exactly as it was in the original version of RAVFAC. In developing VIEW, RAVFAC was modified to satisfy the following compatibility requirements: (1) accept finite element input which can also be used as input to NASTRAN, (2) produce output (view factors) in a format which can be used as input to NASTRAN, and (3) follow NASTRAN program design so that in the future VIEW can be incorporated into NASTRAN as a subroutine. The VIEW program permits computation of the view factors between surfaces, taking into account the presence of any intermediate surfaces. VIEW also computes these view factors either by contour integration or by finite difference (double summation) methods.

  2. Human Rating Requirements for NASA's Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdich, Debbie

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the human system integration (HSI) process in achieving human ratings for NASA Constellation Program (CxP). The NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR) document that defines the Human Ratings Requirements is NPR 8705.2B. An example of the human rating requirements flow down is given in the handling qualities for space craft control.

  3. Comparing Package Programs for Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimberley, Ronald C.

    1978-01-01

    Earlier comparisons of packaged programs for factor analysis are updated because of recent revision in some programs. The top status of SPSS is no longer so apparent as formerly. BMD and SAS now have expanded options. SAS has flexibility and convenience. (Author)

  4. Human factors in Spacelab - Crew training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junge, M. K.

    1983-01-01

    At NASA-Ames Research Center's Life Sciences Flight Experiments Project Office two payloads for the Shuttle Spacelab are currently in development. The first payload, Spacelab-3, will launch in November 1984. Unique life sciences hardware designed to support animals in 0-g will fly for the first time. Flight crew training sessions for the Spacelab-3 astronauts began in June 1982. Human factors involvement is extensive. A thorough understanding of both the 1-g and 0-g environments is necessary. The weightlessness of the space environment creates special conditions; e.g., the time required for a 1-g laboratory experiment significantly increases in 0-g. The transportation of objects in 0-g uses different techniques than on earth. These considerations, plus others, are incorporated into the design of the Spacelab-3 crew training program.

  5. Applied human factors research at the NASA Johnson Space Center Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudisill, Marianne; Mckay, Timothy D.

    1990-01-01

    The applied human factors research program performed at the NASA Johnson Space Center's Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory is discussed. Research is conducted to advance knowledge in human interaction with computer systems during space crew tasks. In addition, the Laboratory is directly involved in the specification of the human-computer interface (HCI) for space systems in development (e.g., Space Station Freedom) and is providing guidelines and support for HCI design to current and future space missions.

  6. Human Modeling For Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Donald; Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over that last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft and launch vehicles. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the different types of human modeling used currently and in the past at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) currently, and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs.

  7. Human Modeling for Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Lawrence, Brad A.; Stelges, Katrine S.; Steady, Marie-Jeanne O.; Ridgwell, Lora C.; Mills, Robert E.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over the last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the human modeling currently used at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs

  8. Human Factors Simulation in Construction Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, M.; Adair, D.

    2010-01-01

    Successful construction management depends primarily on the representatives of the involved construction project parties. In addition to effective application of construction management tools and concepts, human factors impact significantly on the processes of any construction management endeavour. How can human factors in construction management…

  9. Human Factors Research and Nuclear Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moray, Neville P., Ed.; Huey, Beverly M., Ed.

    The Panel on Human Factors Research Needs in Nuclear Regulatory Research was formed by the National Research Council in response to a request from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NRC asked the research council to conduct an 18-month study of human factors research needs for the safe operation of nuclear power plants. This report…

  10. Human Factors and the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, Brian; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Novak, Jennifer; Rathjen, Thomas; Whitmore, Mihriban; Maida, James; Woolford, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    The purposes of this panel are to inform the human factors community regarding the challenges of designing the International Space Station (ISS) and to stimulate the broader human factors community into participating in the various basic and applied research opportunities associated with the ISS. This panel describes the variety of techniques used to plan and evaluate human factors for living and working in space. The panel members have contributed to many different aspects of the ISS design and operations. Architecture, equipment, and human physical performance requirements for various tasks have all been tailored to the requirements of operating in microgravity.

  11. Human Research Program Integrated Research Plan. Revision A January 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Research Plan (IRP) describes the portfolio of Human Research Program (HRP) research and technology tasks. The IRP is the HRP strategic and tactical plan for research necessary to meet HRP requirements. The need to produce an IRP is established in HRP-47052, Human Research Program - Program Plan, and is under configuration management control of the Human Research Program Control Board (HRPCB). Crew health and performance is critical to successful human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. The Human Research Program (HRP) is essential to enabling extended periods of space exploration because it provides knowledge and tools to mitigate risks to human health and performance. Risks include physiological and behavioral effects from radiation and hypogravity environments, as well as unique challenges in medical support, human factors, and behavioral or psychological factors. The Human Research Program (HRP) delivers human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. Without HRP results, NASA will face unknown and unacceptable risks for mission success and post-mission crew health. This Integrated Research Plan (IRP) describes HRP s approach and research activities that are intended to address the needs of human space exploration and serve HRP customers and how they are integrated to provide a risk mitigation tool. The scope of the IRP is limited to the activities that can be conducted with the resources available to the HRP; it does not contain activities that would be performed if additional resources were available. The timescale of human space exploration is envisioned to take many decades. The IRP illustrates the program s research plan through the timescale of early lunar missions of extended duration.

  12. Human factors in general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The relation of the pilot to the aircraft in general aviation is considered. The human component is analyzed, along with general aviation facilities. The man-machine interface, and the man-environment interface are discussed.

  13. Implementing human factors in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Timmons, Stephen; Baxendale, Bryn; Buttery, Andrew; Miles, Giulia; Roe, Bridget; Browes, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To understand whether aviation-derived human factors training is acceptable and useful to healthcare professionals. To understand whether and how healthcare professionals have been able to implement human factors approaches to patient safety in their own area of clinical practice. Methods Qualitative, longitudinal study using semi-structured interviews and focus groups, of a multiprofessional group of UK NHS staff (from the emergency department and operating theatres) who have received aviation-derived human factors training. Results The human factors training was evaluated positively, and thought to be both acceptable and relevant to practice. However, the staff found it harder to implement what they had learned in their own clinical areas, and this was principally attributed to features of the informal organisational cultures. Conclusions In order to successfully apply human factors approaches in hospital, careful consideration needs to be given to the local context and informal culture of clinical practice. PMID:24631959

  14. Human Factors in Cabin Accident Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chute, Rebecca D.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Human factors has become an integral part of the accident investigation protocol. However, much of the investigative process remains focussed on the flight deck, airframe, and power plant systems. As a consequence, little data has been collected regarding the human factors issues within and involving the cabin during an accident. Therefore, the possibility exists that contributing factors that lie within that domain may be overlooked. The FAA Office of Accident Investigation is sponsoring a two-day workshop on cabin safety accident investigation. This course, within the workshop, will be of two hours duration and will explore relevant areas of human factors research. Specifically, the three areas of discussion are: Information transfer and resource management, fatigue and other physical stressors, and the human/machine interface. Integration of these areas will be accomplished by providing a suggested checklist of specific cabin-related human factors questions for investigators to probe following an accident.

  15. Human Development Program: Level III Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessell, Harold

    The curriculum guide presents the activities component of the Human Development Program for the third grade. The Human Development Program (HDP) is an affective curricular approach developed by psychologists to help teachers instill responsibility and self-confidence in children. Following a brief overview of the HDP and explanation of the Magic…

  16. The human dimension of program evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.L.

    1993-05-01

    Social science issues play an important role in the evaluation of demand-side management (DSM) programs. In the very early years of DSM program evaluation in the United States, there was a fair amount of social science research applied to the behavioral aspects of energy efficiency. Since the mid-1980s, however, there has been a heavy emphasis on impact evaluation, technical measurement, and engineering methodologies. Although some have articulated the need to integrate behavioral research into energy evaluation, most emphasis has tended to center on the technical/engineering aspects. Increasingly, however, the realization is growing that it is necessary to integrate important behavioral variables into impact evaluation techniques. In addition, it is being further recognized that behavioral research questions are central to a number of critical evaluation issues: e.g., design of samples for evaluation studies, net energy savings, self-selection bias, free riders and free drivers, persistence of energy savings, process evaluation, and market impact evaluation. Finally, it is increasingly being realized that the utilization of evaluation results relies heavily on behavioral factors. Social science researchers should be poised to expect a greatly expanded role of behavioral research in evaluation. As new techniques are developed and perfected, as the results of impact evaluations become more abundant, and as the gap between technical energy savings potential and realized savings becomes more visible, research regarding the ``human dimension`` of program evaluation will be crucial. This paper provides an overview of the human dimension of program evaluation and focuses on key evaluation issues in demand-side management which will require the use of social science research for addressing these issues.

  17. Safety and the Human Factor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ann

    1982-01-01

    Discusses four elements of safety programs: (1) safety training; (2) safety inspections; (3) accident investigations; and (4) protective safety equipment. Also discusses safety considerations in water/wastewater treatment facilities focusing on falls, drowning hazards, trickling filters, confined space entry, collection/distribution system safety,…

  18. Human factors for Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.

    1988-01-01

    The implications of human participation in Mars missions are reviewed. The psychological effects of long-term confinement, tension, and boredom are examined. The medical implications of travel to Mars, including the effects of low gravity and exposure to radiation, are discussed. The difficulty of providing sufficient consumables, such as air, food, and water, is considered.

  19. Integrating Humanities and Educational Travel Abroad Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Erwin C.

    Various materials are presented to provide guidelines for integrating humanities and travel abroad programs. After noting the long tradition of educational travel and the recent emergence of travel study programs for adult learners, the study-travel program at McHenry County College, a small rural community college in Illinois, is briefly…

  20. Human factors in safety and business management.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Joachim; Leonhardt, Jorg; Koper, Birgit; Pennig, Stefan

    2010-02-01

    Human factors in safety is concerned with all those factors that influence people and their behaviour in safety-critical situations. In aviation these are, for example, environmental factors in the cockpit, organisational factors such as shift work, human characteristics such as ability and motivation of staff. Careful consideration of human factors is necessary to improve health and safety at work by optimising the interaction of humans with their technical and social (team, supervisor) work environment. This provides considerable benefits for business by increasing efficiency and by preventing incidents/accidents. The aim of this paper is to suggest management tools for this purpose. Management tools such as balanced scorecards (BSC) are widespread instruments and also well known in aviation organisations. Only a few aviation organisations utilise management tools for human factors although they are the most important conditions in the safety management systems of aviation organisations. One reason for this is that human factors are difficult to measure and therefore also difficult to manage. Studies in other domains, such as workplace health promotion, indicate that BSC-based tools are useful for human factor management. Their mission is to develop a set of indicators that are sensitive to organisational performance and help identify driving forces as well as bottlenecks. Another tool presented in this paper is the Human Resources Performance Model (HPM). HPM facilitates the integrative assessment of human factors programmes on the basis of a systematic performance analysis of the whole system. Cause-effect relationships between system elements are defined in process models in a first step and validated empirically in a second step. Thus, a specific representation of the performance processes is developed, which ranges from individual behaviour to system performance. HPM is more analytic than BSC-based tools because HPM also asks why a certain factor is

  1. Human Factors Directions for Civil Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    2002-01-01

    Despite considerable progress in understanding human capabilities and limitations, incorporating human factors into aircraft design, operation, and certification, and the emergence of new technologies designed to reduce workload and enhance human performance in the system, most aviation accidents still involve human errors. Such errors occur as a direct or indirect result of untimely, inappropriate, or erroneous actions (or inactions) by apparently well-trained and experienced pilots, controllers, and maintainers. The field of human factors has solved many of the more tractable problems related to simple ergonomics, cockpit layout, symbology, and so on. We have learned much about the relationships between people and machines, but know less about how to form successful partnerships between humans and the information technologies that are beginning to play a central role in aviation. Significant changes envisioned in the structure of the airspace, pilots and controllers' roles and responsibilities, and air/ground technologies will require a similarly significant investment in human factors during the next few decades to ensure the effective integration of pilots, controllers, dispatchers, and maintainers into the new system. Many of the topics that will be addressed are not new because progress in crucial areas, such as eliminating human error, has been slow. A multidisciplinary approach that capitalizes upon human studies and new classes of information, computational models, intelligent analytical tools, and close collaborations with organizations that build, operate, and regulate aviation technology will ensure that the field of human factors meets the challenge.

  2. Summary report of the Human Factors Committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, G. E.

    1978-01-01

    Reduced visibility as a human factors problem was studied in terms of the number of lives lost and cost of aircraft accidents and incidents. Human factors in flight through turbulence in detection and avoidance techniques, pilot and crew procedures for handling workloads and distractions caused by turbulence, and aircraft handling techniques for safe flights through turbulence are investigated. Education and training were reviewed in icing problems on aircraft. Pilots failure to recognize and detect wind shear in severe storms is examined. The pilots avoidance of lightning is discussed from the human factors point of view.

  3. Human factors certification: A useful concept?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Alistair

    1994-01-01

    This paper considers what is involved in certification processes and their relation to human factors aspects of systems. It derives from recognition of a lack of understanding of the processes and purposes of certification. This was encountered when attempting to address the workshop topic by integrating an understanding of human factors with the observed processes of certification. The paper considers what human factors (HF) certification might be and then develops a simple model of the elements of a certification process. It then tries to relate these elements to the needs of the aviation communities and other parties with an interest in the certification of advance aviation technologies.

  4. Nutritional factors in human cancers.

    PubMed

    Giovannucci, E

    1999-01-01

    A variety of external factors interacting with genetic susceptibility influence the carcinogenesis process. External factors including oxidative compounds, electrophilic agents, and chronic infections may enhance genetic damage. In addition, various hormonal factors which influence growth and differentiation are critically important in the carcinogenic process. Diet and nutrition can influence these processes directly in the gastrointestinal tract by providing bioactive compounds to specific tissues via the circulatory system, or by modulating hormone levels. Differences in certain dietary patterns among populations explain a substantial proportion of cancers of the colon, prostate and breast. These malignancies are largely influenced by a combination of factors related to diet and nutrition. Their causes are multifactorial and complex, but a major influence is the widespread availability of energy-dense, highly processed and refined foods that are also deplete in fiber. These dietary patterns in combination with physical inactivity contribute to obesity and metabolic consequences such as increased levels of IGF-1, insulin, estrogen, and possibly testosterone. These hormones tend to promote cellular growth. For prostate cancer, epidemiologic studies consistently show a positive association with high consumption of milk, dairy products, and meats. These dietary factors tend to decrease 1.25(OH)2 vitamin D, a cell differentiator, and low levels of this hormone may enhance prostate carcinogenesis. While the nutritional modulation of growth-enhancing and differentiating hormones is likely to contribute to the high prevalence of breast, colorectal, prostate, and several other cancers in the Western world, these cancers are relatively rare in less economically developed countries, where malignancies of the upper gastrointestinal tract are quite common. The major causes of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers are likely related to various food practices or preservation

  5. Human factors challenges for advanced process control

    SciTech Connect

    Stubler, W.F.; O`Hara, J..M.

    1996-08-01

    New human-system interface technologies provide opportunities for improving operator and plant performance. However, if these technologies are not properly implemented, they may introduce new challenges to performance and safety. This paper reports the results from a survey of human factors considerations that arise in the implementation of advanced human-system interface technologies in process control and other complex systems. General trends were identified for several areas based on a review of technical literature and a combination of interviews and site visits with process control organizations. Human factors considerations are discussed for two of these areas, automation and controls.

  6. Microgravity human factors workstation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Wilmington, Robert P.; Morris, Randy B.; Jensen, Dean G.

    1992-01-01

    Microgravity evaluations of workstation hardware as well as its system components were found to be very useful for determining the expected needs of the Space Station crew and for refining overall workstation design. Research at the Johnson Space Center has been carried out to provide optimal workstation design and human interface. The research included evaluations of hand controller configurations for robots and free flyers, the identification of cursor control device requirements, and the examination of anthropometric issues of workstation design such as reach, viewing distance, and head clearance.

  7. The development of human factors research objectives for civil aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, T. J.

    1970-01-01

    Human factors research programs which would support civil aviation and be suitable for accomplishment by NASA research centers are identified. Aviation problems formed the basis for the research program recommendations and, accordingly, problems were identified, ranked and briefly defined in an informal report to the project monitor and other cognizant NASA personnel. The sources for this problem foundation were literature reviews and extensive interviews with NASA and non-NASA personnel. An overview of these findings is presented.

  8. Human factors issues for interstellar spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M.; Brody, Adam R.

    1991-01-01

    Developments in research on space human factors are reviewed in the context of a self-sustaining interstellar spacecraft based on the notion of traveling space settlements. Assumptions about interstellar travel are set forth addressing costs, mission durations, and the need for multigenerational space colonies. The model of human motivation by Maslow (1970) is examined and directly related to the design of space habitat architecture. Human-factors technology issues encompass the human-machine interface, crew selection and training, and the development of spaceship infrastructure during transtellar flight. A scenario for feasible instellar travel is based on a speed of 0.5c, a timeframe of about 100 yr, and an expandable multigenerational crew of about 100 members. Crew training is identified as a critical human-factors issue requiring the development of perceptual and cognitive aids such as expert systems and virtual reality.

  9. Interviewer as Instrument: Accounting for Human Factors in Evaluation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Joel H.

    2006-01-01

    This methodological study examines an original data collection model designed to incorporate human factors and enhance data richness in qualitative and evaluation research. Evidence supporting this model is drawn from in-depth youth and adult interviews in one of the largest policy/program evaluations undertaken in the United States, the Drug,…

  10. [Human factor and occupational standardization].

    PubMed

    Rozenblat, V V

    1994-01-01

    Regulation of work is a complex social and biologic task including two independent but associated aspects. The first one is technical and economic regulation orientated to work results, and the second one, ergonomic, considers influence of work on human body. Regulation of work and consumption is based on a compromise between those two aspects. Ergonomic regulation covers such characteristics of work, as load and intensity, jeopardy and hazard, lack of attractiveness and prestige, therefore 3 subunits of ergonomic regulation are physiologic, hygienic and psychologic. Physiologic regulation is designed to set maximal allowable load (by restricting extremely high and low values which harm health) and optimum one (to improve physical and psychic abilities, activate resources for functional efforts). PMID:7728429

  11. Human factors simulation in construction management education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, M.; Adair, D.

    2010-06-01

    Successful construction management depends primarily on the representatives of the involved construction project parties. In addition to effective application of construction management tools and concepts, human factors impact significantly on the processes of any construction management endeavour. How can human factors in construction management be taught effectively? Although simulations are applied in construction management education, they have not incorporated human factors sufficiently. The focus on human factors as part of the simulation of construction management situations increases students' learning effectiveness within a cross-cultural teaching setting. This paper shows the development of discrete-event human factors in construction management simulation. A description of the source code is given. Learning effectiveness in a cross-cultural education setting was analysed by evaluating data obtained through student questionnaire surveys. The mean score obtained by the students using the simulator was 32% better than those not exposed to the simulator. The spread of results was noticeably greater for the students not exposed to the simulator. The human factors simulation provides an effective means to teach students the complexities and dynamics of interpersonal relationships in construction management.

  12. Activation of human factor V by factor Xa and thrombin

    SciTech Connect

    Monkovic, D.D.; Tracy, P.B. )

    1990-02-06

    The activation of human factor V by factor Xa and thrombin was studied by functional assessment of cofactor activity and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polycarylamide gel electrophoresis followed by either autoradiography of {sup 125}I-labeled factor V activation products or Western blot analyses of unlabeled factor V activation products. Cofactor activity was measured by the ability of the factor V/Va peptides to support the activation of prothrombin. The factor Xa catalyzed cleavage of factor V was observed to be time, phospholipid, and calcium ion dependent, yielding a cofactor with activity equal to that of thrombin-activated factor V (factor Va). The cleavage pattern differed markedly from the one observed in the bovine system. The factor Xa activated factor V subunits expressing cofactor activity were isolated and found to consist of peptides of M{sub r} 220,000 and 105,000. Although thrombin cleaved the M{sub r} 220,000 peptide to yield peptides previously shown to be products of thrombin activation, cofactor activity did not increase. N-Terminal sequence analysis confirmed that both factor Xa and thrombin cleave factor V at the same bond to generate the M{sub r} 220,000 peptide. The factor Xa dependent functional assessment of {sup 125}I-labeled factor V coupled with densitometric analyses of the cleavage products indicated that the cofactor activity of factor Xa activated factor V closely paralleled the appearance of the M{sub r} 220,000 peptide. The data indicate that factor Xa is as efficient an enzyme toward factor V as thrombin.

  13. Space Human Factors: Research to Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Human Factors has been instrumental in preventing potential on-orbit hazards and increasing overall crew safety. Poor performance & operational learning curves on-orbit are mitigated. Human-centered design is applied to optimize design and minimize potentially hazardous conditions, especially with larger crew sizes and habitat constraints. Lunar and Mars requirements and design developments are enhanced, based on ISS Lessons Learned.

  14. Environmental Design: Focusing on Human Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rydeen, James E.

    2003-01-01

    In designing schools, planners must use the criteria of health and safety, performance, comfort, and aesthetics to create a humanized physical environment that stimulates interest and provides motivation for learning and teaching. The human factors in design are sense of place, ownership, community, presence comfort, security, aesthetics,…

  15. Human Research Program Integrated Research Plan. Revision C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Crew health and performance are critical to successful human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. The Human Research Program (HRP) is essential to enabling extended periods of space exploration because it provides knowledge and tools to mitigate risks to human health and performance. Risks include physiological effects from radiation and hypogravity environments, as well as unique challenges in medical support, human factors, and behavioral or psychological factors. The Human Research Program (HRP) delivers human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. Without HRP results, NASA will face unknown and unacceptable risks for mission success and post-mission crew health. This Integrated Research Plan (IRP) describes (1) HRP's approach and research activities that are intended to address the needs of human space exploration and serve HRP customers and (2) the method of integration for risk mitigation. The scope of the IRP is limited to the activities that can be conducted with the resources available to the HRP; it does not contain activities that would be performed if additional resources were available. The timescale of human space exploration is envisioned to take many decades. The IRP illustrates the program s research plan through the timescale of early lunar missions of extended duration.

  16. Human Research Program: 2010 Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    2010 was a year of solid performance for the Human Research Program in spite of major changes in NASA's strategic direction for Human Spaceflight. Last year, the Program completed the final steps in solidifying the management foundation, and in 2010 we achieved exceptional performance from all elements of the research and technology portfolio. We transitioned from creating building blocks to full execution of the management tools for an applied research and technology program. As a team, we continue to deliver the answers and technologies that enable human exploration of space. While the Agency awaits strategic direction for human spaceflight, the Program is well positioned and critically important to helping the Agency achieve its goals.

  17. 2014 Space Human Factors Engineering Standing Review Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) participated in a WebEx/teleconference with members of the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element, representatives from the Human Research Program (HRP), the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), and NASA Headquarters on November 17, 2014 (list of participants is in Section XI of this report). The SRP reviewed the updated research plans for the Risk of Incompatible Vehicle/Habitat Design (HAB Risk) and the Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies (Train Risk). The SRP also received a status update on the Risk of Inadequate Critical Task Design (Task Risk), the Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI Risk), and the Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction (HCI Risk).

  18. Human factors and safety in emergency medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, H. G.; Helmreich, R. L.; Scheidegger, D.

    1994-01-01

    A model based on an input process and outcome conceptualisation is suggested to address safety-relevant factors in emergency medicine. As shown in other dynamic and demanding environments, human factors play a decisive role in attaining high quality service. Attitudes held by health-care providers, organisational shells and work-cultural parameters determine communication, conflict resolution and workload distribution within and between teams. These factors should be taken into account to improve outcomes such as operational integrity, job satisfaction and morale.

  19. Space Human Factors Engineering Gap Analysis Project Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudy, Cynthia; Woolford, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Humans perform critical functions throughout each phase of every space mission, beginning with the mission concept and continuing to post-mission analysis (Life Sciences Division, 1996). Space missions present humans with many challenges - the microgravity environment, relative isolation, and inherent dangers of the mission all present unique issues. As mission duration and distance from Earth increases, in-flight crew autonomy will increase along with increased complexity. As efforts for exploring the moon and Mars advance, there is a need for space human factors research and technology development to play a significant role in both on-orbit human-system interaction, as well as the development of mission requirements and needs before and after the mission. As part of the Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project within the Human Research Program (HRP), a six-month Gap Analysis Project (GAP) was funded to identify any human factors research gaps or knowledge needs. The overall aim of the project was to review the current state of human factors topic areas and requirements to determine what data, processes, or tools are needed to aid in the planning and development of future exploration missions, and also to prioritize proposals for future research and technology development.

  20. Evaluation of the BSCS Human Sciences Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, James T.

    Designed for middle and junior high school students, the Human Sciences Program (HSP) represents a three year, interdisciplinary program which focuses on the role of the natural sciences in promoting the cognitive, psycho-social, and moral development of early adolescents. The materials consist of modules of activities designed around major themes…

  1. Barriers and Challenges to the Successful Implementation of an Intensive Care Unit Mobility Program: Understanding Systems and Human Factors in Search for Practical Solutions.

    PubMed

    Honiden, Shyoko; Connors, Geoffrey R

    2015-09-01

    ICU-acquired weakness is a common problem and carries significant morbidity. Despite evidence that early mobility can mitigate this, implementation outside of the research setting is lagging. Understanding barriers at the systems as well as individual level is a crucial step in successful implementation of an ICU mobility program. This includes taking inventory of waste, overburden and inconsistencies in the work environment. Appreciating regulative, normative as well as cultural forces at work is critical. Finally, key personnel, which include organizational leaders, innovation champions and end users of the proposed change need to be accounted for at each step during program implementation. PMID:26304280

  2. Human factors analysis of plans and procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmi, L.

    1991-04-01

    The study of comprehension and retention of print material is a part of what writers call human factors. Some human factors are common knowledge to writers of plans and procedures, but many are not. Federal orders provide some guidance, but that guidance is usually limited to content or order of presentation and does not include style. Style is important in influencing understanding and remembering the content. A writing style that helps produce clear, easily understood plans and procedures is always valuable but it is particularly important for radiological emergency response documents. The procedures are often referred to during emergencies when the emergency staff is under stress and sometimes fatigued by extended work days. The purpose of this paper is to explore some of the human factors (format, sequence of topics, and writing style) that should be considered to make plans and procedures more easily used, understood, and remembered.

  3. HUMAN FACTORS GUIDANCE FOR CONTROL ROOM EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    OHARA,J.; BROWN,W.; STUBLER,W.; HIGGINS,J.; WACHTEL,J.; PERSENSKY,J.J.

    2000-07-30

    The Human-System Interface Design Review Guideline (NUREG-0700, Revision 1) was developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide human factors guidance as a basis for the review of advanced human-system interface technologies. The guidance consists of three components: design review procedures, human factors engineering guidelines, and a software application to provide design review support called the ``Design Review Guideline.'' Since it was published in June 1996, Rev. 1 to NUREG-0700 has been used successfully by NRC staff, contractors and nuclear industry organizations, as well as by interested organizations outside the nuclear industry. The NRC has committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool in the face of emerging and rapidly changing technology. This paper addresses the current research to update of NUREG-0700 based on the substantial work that has taken place since the publication of Revision 1.

  4. Human factors of the high technology cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Earl L.

    1990-01-01

    The rapid advance of cockpit automation in the last decade has outstripped the ability of the human factors profession to understand the changes in human functions required. High technology cockpits require less physical (observable) workload, but are highly demanding of cognitive functions such as planning, alternative selection, and monitoring. Furthermore, automation creates opportunity for new and more serious forms of human error, and many pilots are concerned about the possibility of complacency affecting their performance. On the positive side, the equipment works as advertized with high reliability, offering highly efficient, computer-based flight. These findings from the cockpit studies probably apply equally to other industries, such as nuclear power production, other modes of transportation, medicine, and manufacturing, all of which traditionally have looked to aviation for technological leadership. The challenge to the human factors profession is to aid designers, operators, and training departments in exploiting the positive side of automation, while seeking solutions to the negative side. Viewgraphs are given.

  5. Human Factors Engineering Guidelines for Overhead Cranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Faith; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This guideline provides standards for overhead crane cabs that can be applied to the design and modification of crane cabs to reduce the potential for human error due to design. This guideline serves as an aid during the development of a specification for purchases of cranes or for an engineering support request for crane design modification. It aids human factors engineers in evaluating existing cranes during accident investigations or safety reviews.

  6. Human factors engineering and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Matthew C; Karsh, Ben-Tzion; Densmore, Emily M

    2006-12-01

    The pediatric population has features different from those of adults and that are dynamic during the pediatric age range. Pediatric-specific issues result in potential risks for harm during medical care. Basic and applied human factors research has resulted in improvements in the performance of health adults and those adults who have functional limitations. Future work should focus on systematically understanding the human factors needs of children with the goal of redesigning systems of health care to optimize the safety of children and the performance of their care providers. PMID:17126685

  7. Annotated bibliography of human factors applications literature

    SciTech Connect

    McCafferty, D.B.

    1984-09-30

    This bibliography was prepared as part of the Human Factors Technology Project, FY 1984, sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Safety, US Department of Energy. The project was conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with Essex Corporation as a subcontractor. The material presented here is a revision and expansion of the bibliographic material developed in FY 1982 as part of a previous Human Factors Technology Project. The previous bibliography was published September 30, 1982, as Attachment 1 to the FY 1982 Project Status Report.

  8. Human Factors Engineering at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, M. C.; Hutchinson, Sonya L.

    1999-01-01

    The mission of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is to develop, implement, and maintain systems for space transportation and microgravity research. Factors impacting the MSFC position as a leader in advancing science and technology include: (1) heightened emphasis on safety; (2) increased interest in effective resource utilization; and (3) growing importance of employing systems and procedures that pragmatically support mission science. In light of these factors, MSFC is integrating human factors engineering (HFE) into the systems engineering process. This paper describes the HFE program, applications of HFE in MSFC projects, and the future of HFE at MSFC.

  9. Molecular structural studies of human factor VIII.

    PubMed

    McKee, P A; Andersen, J C; Switzer, M E

    1975-01-20

    Neither normal nor hemophilic factor VIII protein enters a 5% sosium dodecyl sulfate gel; on reduction, however, a single 195 000-molecular-weight peptide is observed. Hemophilic and normal factor VIII contain carbohydrate and appear identical in subunit molecular weight, electrical charge, and major antigenic determinants. Thrombin activation and inactivation of factor VIII does not detectably change the subunit molecular weight. Trypsin causes similar activity changes and obviously cleaves the factor VIII subunit. Human plasmin destroys factor VIII procoagulant activity and degrades the factor VIII subunit to 103 000-, 88 000-, and 17 000-molecular-weight peptides. Both normal and hemophilic factor VIII as well as thrombin-inactivated factor VIII support ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation. Purified factor VIII chromatographed on 4% agarose in 1.0 M sodium chloride shows no dissociation of the procoagulant activity from the void volume protein. Gel chromatography on 4% agarose in 0.25 M calcium chloride results in a procoagulant activity peak removed from the void volume protein; both peaks contain protein which does not enter a 5% SDS gel, but on reduction a 195 000-molecular-weight subunit band is observed for each. Both the void volume protein peak and the procoagulant activity peak from the 0.25 M calcium chloride-agarose gel column support ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation. After removal of calcium, a small amount of procoagulant activity is present only in the void volume peak. These data suggest that both the procoagulant and von Willebrand activities are on the same molecule. Thus our previous conclusion remains the same: human factor VIII is a large glycoprotein composed of identical 195 000-molecular-weight subunits jointed by disulfide bonds and is responsible for both antihemophilic and von Willebrand activities in human plasma. PMID:122889

  10. The human factors of workstation telepresence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Thomas J.; Smith, Karl U.

    1990-01-01

    The term workstation telepresence has been introduced to describe human-telerobot compliance, which enables the human operator to effectively project his/her body image and behavioral skills to control of the telerobot itself. Major human-factors considerations for establishing high fidelity workstation telepresence during human-telerobot operation are discussed. Telerobot workstation telepresence is defined by the proficiency and skill with which the operator is able to control sensory feedback from direct interaction with the workstation itself, and from workstation-mediated interaction with the telerobot. Numerous conditions influencing such control have been identified. This raises the question as to what specific factors most critically influence the realization of high fidelity workstation telepresence. The thesis advanced here is that perturbations in sensory feedback represent a major source of variability in human performance during interactive telerobot operation. Perturbed sensory feedback research over the past three decades has established that spatial transformations or temporal delays in sensory feedback engender substantial decrements in interactive task performance, which training does not completely overcome. A recently developed social cybernetic model of human-computer interaction can be used to guide this approach, based on computer-mediated tracking and control of sensory feedback. How the social cybernetic model can be employed for evaluating the various modes, patterns, and integrations of interpersonal, team, and human-computer interactions which play a central role is workstation telepresence are discussed.

  11. Human factors and safety in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, H G; Helmreich, R L; Scheidegger, D

    1994-12-01

    A model based on an input process and outcome conceptualisation is suggested to address safety-relevant factors in emergency medicine. As shown in other dynamic and demanding environments, human factors play a decisive role in attaining high quality service. Attitudes held by health-care providers, organisational shells and work-cultural parameters determine communication, conflict resolution and workload distribution within and between teams. These factors should be taken into account to improve outcomes such as operational integrity, job satisfaction and morale. PMID:7740192

  12. Human and Mechanical Factors in Ergometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, M. J.; Hubbard, R. P.

    Analysis of the human and mechanical factors inherent in ergometry suggest many strategies for the improvement of experiments related to exertion. The resistive principles of gravitation, friction, elasticity, viscosity, magnetism, and inertia used in ergometers impose different restraints on experiments. The suitability of different resistive…

  13. Human factors and productivity on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Brown, J. W.; Santy, P. A.

    1989-01-01

    Three main facets of man systems are investigated with reference to the Space Station Freedom program: specific hardware systems that focus on the human element; requirements definition for man-systems integration; and crew interface and operations analysis. Three key criteria have been identified for selecting individuals to constitute the human system or crew for Space Station Freedom missions: aptitude for mission specific skills, motivation, and sensitivity to self and others. Integration of the human system into the complex engineering and science systems planned on Space Station Freedom will require the close collaboration of engineers, physicians, psychologists, and human factors experts. Ground-based research and experiments on the KC-135 aircraft are providing information about how human systems will function on a space station and how to design other systems to interact with the crew. A laboratory for further research will be provided onboard Space Station Freedom.

  14. Applications of Human Factors in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Margerum, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    The main question for human factors practitioners is to determine if the user population can be accommodated within a design. Given the wide range of variables feeding into a design, just one of which is human factors, oftentimes designers will have restrictions that may potentially impact the level of accommodation. This paper focuses on two case studies where there have been impacts at the design level that may be detrimental to the ability of the design to meet certain criteria. The studies use novel approaches to determine what, if any, changes in population accommodation levels have occurred and what factors are important when manipulating the design in the future. The results of these studies provide a backbone for future analyses when working with design considerations.

  15. National plan to enhance aviation safety through human factors improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, Clay

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this section of the plan is to establish a development and implementation strategy plan for improving safety and efficiency in the Air Traffic Control (ATC) system. These improvements will be achieved through the proper applications of human factors considerations to the present and future systems. The program will have four basic goals: (1) prepare for the future system through proper hiring and training; (2) develop a controller work station team concept (managing human errors); (3) understand and address the human factors implications of negative system results; and (4) define the proper division of responsibilities and interactions between the human and the machine in ATC systems. This plan addresses six program elements which together address the overall purpose. The six program elements are: (1) determine principles of human-centered automation that will enhance aviation safety and the efficiency of the air traffic controller; (2) provide new and/or enhanced methods and techniques to measure, assess, and improve human performance in the ATC environment; (3) determine system needs and methods for information transfer between and within controller teams and between controller teams and the cockpit; (4) determine how new controller work station technology can optimally be applied and integrated to enhance safety and efficiency; (5) assess training needs and develop improved techniques and strategies for selection, training, and evaluation of controllers; and (6) develop standards, methods, and procedures for the certification and validation of human engineering in the design, testing, and implementation of any hardware or software system element which affects information flow to or from the human.

  16. Simulation: moving from technology challenge to human factors success.

    PubMed

    Gould, Derek A; Chalmers, Nicholas; Johnson, Sheena J; Kilkenny, Caroline; White, Mark D; Bech, Bo; Lonn, Lars; Bello, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    Recognition of the many limitations of traditional apprenticeship training is driving new approaches to learning medical procedural skills. Among simulation technologies and methods available today, computer-based systems are topical and bring the benefits of automated, repeatable, and reliable performance assessments. Human factors research is central to simulator model development that is relevant to real-world imaging-guided interventional tasks and to the credentialing programs in which it would be used. PMID:21913055

  17. TFCat: the curated catalog of mouse and human transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Debra L; Sundararajan, Saravanan; Badis, Gwenael; Hughes, Timothy R; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Roach, Jared C; Sladek, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Unravelling regulatory programs governed by transcription factors (TFs) is fundamental to understanding biological systems. TFCat is a catalog of mouse and human TFs based on a reliable core collection of annotations obtained by expert review of the scientific literature. The collection, including proven and homology-based candidate TFs, is annotated within a function-based taxonomy and DNA-binding proteins are organized within a classification system. All data and user-feedback mechanisms are available at the TFCat portal . PMID:19284633

  18. Simulation: Moving from Technology Challenge to Human Factors Success

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, Derek A.; Chalmers, Nicholas; Johnson, Sheena J.; Kilkenny, Caroline; White, Mark D.; Bech, Bo; Lonn, Lars; Bello, Fernando

    2012-06-15

    Recognition of the many limitations of traditional apprenticeship training is driving new approaches to learning medical procedural skills. Among simulation technologies and methods available today, computer-based systems are topical and bring the benefits of automated, repeatable, and reliable performance assessments. Human factors research is central to simulator model development that is relevant to real-world imaging-guided interventional tasks and to the credentialing programs in which it would be used.

  19. Human factor design of habitable space facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.

    1987-01-01

    Current fundamental and applied habitability research conducted as part of the U.S. space program is reviewed with emphasis on methods, findings, and applications of the results to the planning and design of the International Space Station. The discussion covers the following six concurrent directions of habitability research: operational simulation, functional interior decor research, space crew privacy requirements, interior layout and configuration analysis, human spatial habitability model, and analogous environments research.

  20. Human factors in high consequence manufacturing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, C.; Grose, E.

    1997-11-01

    A high consequence system is often defined as one in which the potential exists for severe or catastrophic accidents. Familiar examples include nuclear power plants, airline and other mass transportation, dams and reservoirs, and large-scale food processing. Many manufacturing systems also qualify as high consequence systems. Much of the authors` experience with high consequence systems derives from work associated with the surveillance and dismantlement of nuclear weapons for the US Department of Energy. With such operations, there exists a risk of high explosive detonation accompanied by radiological dispersal and, potentially, nuclear detonation. Analysis of major industrial accidents such as Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Bhopal have revealed that these incidents were not attributable to a single event or direct cause, but were the result of multiple factors that combined to create a condition ripe for an accident. In each case, human error was a critical factor contributing to the accident. Consequently, many authors have emphasized the need for greater appreciation of systematic factors and in particular, human activities. This paper discusses approaches used in hazard analysis of US nuclear weapons operations to assess risk associated with human factors.

  1. Overview of Human Factors and Habitability at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Janis; Arch, M.; Kaiser, Mary

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the ongoing work on human factors and habitability in the development of the Constellation Program. The focus of the work is on how equipment, spacecraft design, tools, procedures and nutrition be used to improve the health, safety and efficiency of the crewmembers. There are slides showing the components of the Constellation Program, and the conceptual designs of the Orion Crew module, the lunar lander, (i.e., Altair) the microgravity EVA suit, and the lunar surface EVA suit, the lunar rover, and the lunar surface system infrastructure.

  2. Human Factors Research for Space Exploration: Measurement, Modeling, and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Allen, Christopher S.; Barshi, Immanuel; Billman, Dorrit; Holden, Kritina L.

    2010-01-01

    As part of NASA's Human Research Program, the Space Human Factors Engineering Project serves as the bridge between Human Factors research and Human Spaceflight applications. Our goal is to be responsive to the operational community while addressing issues at a sufficient level of abstraction to ensure that our tools and solutions generalize beyond the point design. In this panel, representatives from four of our research domains will discuss the challenges they face in solving current problems while also enabling future capabilities. Historically, engineering-dominated organizations have tended to view good Human Factors (HF) as a desire rather than a requirement in system design and development. Our field has made significant gains in the past decade, however; the Department of Defense, for example, now recognizes Human-System Integration (HSI), of which HF is a component, as an integral part of their divisions hardware acquisition processes. And our own agency was far more accepting of HF/HSI requirements during the most recent vehicle systems definition than in any prior cycle. Nonetheless, HF subject matter experts at NASA often find themselves in catch up mode... coping with legacy systems (hardware and software) and procedures that were designed with little regard for the human element, and too often with an attitude of we can deal with any operator issues during training. Our challenge, then, is to segregate the true knowledge gaps in Space Human Factors from the prior failures to incorporate best (or even good) HF design principles. Further, we strive to extract the overarching core HF issues from the point-design-specific concerns that capture the operators (and managers) attention. Generally, our approach embraces a 3M approach to Human Factors: Measurement, Modeling, and Mitigation. Our first step is to measure human performance, to move from subjective anecdotes to objective, quantified data. Next we model the phenomenon, using appropriate methods in

  3. NASA Human Research Program Space Radiation Program Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Lori; Huff, Janice; Patel, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Hu, Shaowwen; Kidane, Yared; Myung-Hee, Kim; Li, Yongfeng; Nounu, Hatem; Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem; Hada, Megumi

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the NASA Human Research Program's Space Radiation Program Element is to ensure that crews can safely live and work in the space radiation environment. Current work is focused on developing the knowledge base and tools required for accurate assessment of health risks resulting from space radiation exposure including cancer and circulatory and central nervous system diseases, as well as acute risks from solar particle events. Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) Space Radiation Team scientists work at multiple levels to advance this goal, with major projects in biological risk research; epidemiology; and physical, biophysical, and biological modeling.

  4. Introduction to human factors considerations in system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapanis, A.

    1983-01-01

    A definition for human factors or ergonomics and its industrial and domestic application is presented. Human factors engineering, which discovers and applies information about human abilities, limitations, and other characteristics to the design of tools, machines, systems, tasks, jobs, and environments for safe, comfortable, and effective human use, is outlined. The origins of human factors and ergonomics, the philosophy of human factors, goals and objectives, systems development and design, are reviewed.

  5. The space station: Human factors and productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillan, D. J.; Burns, M. J.; Nicodemus, C. L.; Smith, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    Human factor researchers and engineers are making inputs into the early stages of the design of the Space Station to improve both the quality of life and work on-orbit. Effective integration of the human factors information related to various Intravehicular Activity (IVA), Extravehicular Activity (EVA), and teletobotics systems during the Space Station design will result in increased productivity, increased flexibility of the Space Stations systems, lower cost of operations, improved reliability, and increased safety for the crew onboard the Space Station. The major features of productivity examined include the cognitive and physical effort involved in work, the accuracy of worker output and ability to maintain performance at a high level of accuracy, the speed and temporal efficiency with which a worker performs, crewmember satisfaction with their work environment, and the relation between performance and cost.

  6. Human factors in aircraft maintenance and inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, William T.

    1992-01-01

    The events which have led to the intensive study of aircraft structural problems have contributed in no less measure to the study of human factors which influence aircraft maintenance and inspection. Initial research emphasis on aging aircraft maintenance and inspection has since broadened to include all aircraft types. Technicians must be equally adept at repairing old and new aircraft. Their skills must include the ability to repair sheet metal and composite materials; control cable and fly-by-wire systems; round dials and glass cockpits. Their work performance is heavily influenced by others such as designers, technical writers, job card authors, schedulers, and trainers. This paper describes the activities concerning aircraft and maintenance human factors.

  7. The role of human factors in telehealth.

    PubMed

    Demiris, George; Charness, Neil; Krupinski, Elizabeth; Ben-Arieh, David; Washington, Karla; Wu, John; Farberow, Bonne

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the field of human factors (HFs) and its role in telehealth. We discuss HF concepts and methodologies that affect the design, implementation, and evaluation of telehealth applications and provide examples from numerous application areas that highlight the significance of HF principles and methodologies. We also provide recommendations for inclusion of HFs in telehealth system design and evaluation, and discuss resulting implications for system designers, practitioners, vendors, and policy makers. PMID:20420540

  8. Analog environments in space human factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, Mary M.

    1992-01-01

    An account is given of what has been learned from space analog environments, which mimic such significant features of space as isolation, confinement, risk, and deprivation; emphasis is placed on the especially successful environments constituted by extended submarine research, undersea habitats, and Antarctic station wintering. Attention is also given to the advantages and limitations of the use of analog environments for space human factors research, and possibilities for such research efforts' management.

  9. Isolation of human serum spreading factor.

    PubMed

    Barnes, D W; Silnutzer, J

    1983-10-25

    Serum spreading factor (SF) was isolated from human serum by a four-step procedure employing affinity chromatography on glass beads, concanavalin A-Sepharose, DEAE-agarose, and heparin-agarose. The final product was purified approximately 260-fold from the starting material and was maximally active in assays of cell spreading-promoting activity at 300 ng/ml. The isolated human SF preparation consisted of two proteins of apparent molecular weights approximately 65,000 (SF65) and 75,000 (SF75). Both SF65 and SF75 have been shown previously to exhibit cell spreading-promoting activity and to bind monoclonal antibody to human serum SF. PMID:6630199

  10. Human factors in modern traffic systems.

    PubMed

    Noy, Y I

    1997-10-01

    Traffic systems are undergoing enormous change with the advent of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). Although productivity and quality of mobility are emerging interests, safety remains the predominant preoccupation of ITS human factors. It should be evident that while intelligent technologies may have the potential to improve traffic safety, they also have the potential to adversely affect it. Ultimately, the effect on safety depends on the specific technologies that are invoked and the manner in which they are incorporated within the vehicle as well as within the larger road transportation system. Current automotive developments can be characterized as technology-centred solutions rather than user-centred solutions. Greater effort must be directed at understanding and accommodating the human element in the road transportation system in order that future transportation objectives can be achieved. There is a need to expand the scope of traditional human factors to include macro-level effects as well as to place greater emphasis on understanding human interactions with other elements of the system. There is also increasing recognition of the urgent need for systematic procedures and criteria for testing the safety of ITS prior to large-scale market penetration. PMID:9339139

  11. Human factors for a sustainable future.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Andrew; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Current human activities are seriously eroding the ability of natural and social systems to cope. Clearly we cannot continue along our current path without seriously damaging our own ability to survive as a species. This problem is usually framed as one of sustainability. As concerned professionals, citizens, and humans there is a strong collective will to address what we see as a failure to protect the natural and social environments that supports us. While acknowledging that we cannot do this alone, human factors and ergonomics needs to apply its relevant skills and knowledge to assist where it can in addressing the commonly identified problem areas. These problems include pollution, climate change, renewable energy, land transformation, and social unrest amongst numerous other emerging global problems. The issue of sustainability raises two fundamental questions for human factors and ergonomics: which system requires sustaining and what length of time is considered sustainable? In this paper we apply Wilson (2014) parent-sibling-child model to understanding what is required of an HFE sustainability response. This model is used to frame the papers that appear in this Special Issue. PMID:27234806

  12. Human Factors and Habitability Challenges for Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban

    2015-01-01

    As NASA is planning to send humans deeper into space than ever before, adequate crew health and performance will be critical for mission success. Within the NASA Human Research Program (HRP), the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) team is responsible for characterizing the risks associated with human capabilities and limitations with respect to long-duration spaceflight, and for providing mitigations (e.g., guidelines, technologies, and tools) to promote safe, reliable and productive missions. SHFH research includes three domains: Advanced Environmental Health (AEH), Advanced Food Technology (AFT), and Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE). The AEH portfolio focuses on understanding the risk of microbial contamination of the spacecraft and on the development of standards for exposure to potential toxins such as chemicals, bacteria, fungus, and lunar/Martian dust. The two risks that the environmental health project focuses on are adverse health effects due to changes in host-microbe interactions, and risks associated with exposure to dust in planetary surface habitats. This portfolio also proposes countermeasures to these risks by making recommendations that relate to requirements for environmental quality, foods, and crew health on spacecraft and space missions. The AFT portfolio focuses on reducing the mass, volume, and waste of the entire integrated food system to be used in exploration missions, and investigating processing methods to extend the shelf life of food items up to five years, while assuring that exploration crews will have nutritious and palatable foods. The portfolio also delivers improvements in both the food itself and the technologies for storing and preparing it. SHFE sponsors research to establish human factors and habitability standards and guidelines in five risk areas, and provides improved design concepts for advanced crew interfaces and habitability systems. These risk areas include: Incompatible vehicle/habitat design

  13. Helicopter human factors programs and plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, E. M.

    1984-01-01

    Design concepts for pilot interaction with highly computerized systems and particularly the dialog aspects (transfer of information back and forth between the pilot and the system) are examined. Principles for blending the various input-output media are needed. Applied artificial intelligence aspects dealing with input and output grammar, message understanding, and message prioritization are studied.

  14. Human factors review for Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA)

    SciTech Connect

    Krois, P.A.; Haas, P.M.; Manning, J.J.; Bovell, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    The paper will discuss work being conducted during this human factors review including: (1) support of the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program based on an assessment of operator actions, and (2) development of a descriptive model of operator severe accident management. Research by SASA analysts on the Browns Ferry Unit One (BF1) anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) was supported through a concurrent assessment of operator performance to demonstrate contributions to SASA analyses from human factors data and methods. A descriptive model was developed called the Function Oriented Accident Management (FOAM) model, which serves as a structure for bridging human factors, operations, and engineering expertise and which is useful for identifying needs/deficiencies in the area of accident management. The assessment of human factors issues related to ATWS required extensive coordination with SASA analysts. The analysis was consolidated primarily to six operator actions identified in the Emergency Procedure Guidelines (EPGs) as being the most critical to the accident sequence. These actions were assessed through simulator exercises, qualitative reviews, and quantitative human reliability analyses. The FOAM descriptive model assumes as a starting point that multiple operator/system failures exceed the scope of procedures and necessitates a knowledge-based emergency response by the operators. The FOAM model provides a functionally-oriented structure for assembling human factors, operations, and engineering data and expertise into operator guidance for unconventional emergency responses to mitigate severe accident progression and avoid/minimize core degradation. Operators must also respond to potential radiological release beyond plant protective barriers. Research needs in accident management and potential uses of the FOAM model are described. 11 references, 1 figure.

  15. Human Factors in Accidents Involving Remotely Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merlin, Peter William

    2013-01-01

    This presentation examines human factors that contribute to RPA mishaps and provides analysis of lessons learned. RPA accident data from U.S. military and government agencies were reviewed and analyzed to identify human factors issues. Common contributors to RPA mishaps fell into several major categories: cognitive factors (pilot workload), physiological factors (fatigue and stress), environmental factors (situational awareness), staffing factors (training and crew coordination), and design factors (human machine interface).

  16. Seasonal variation in human reproduction: environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Bronson, F H

    1995-06-01

    Almost all human populations exhibit seasonal variation in births, owing mostly to seasonal variation in the frequency of conception. This review focuses on the degree to which environmental factors like nutrition, temperature and photoperiod contribute to these seasonal patterns by acting directly on the reproductive axis. The reproductive strategy of humans is basically that of the apes: Humans have the capacity to reproduce continuously, albeit slowly, unless inhibited by environmental influences. Two, and perhaps three, environmental factors probably act routinely as seasonal inhibitors in some human populations. First, it seems likely that ovulation is regulated seasonally in populations experiencing seasonal variation in food availability. More specifically, it seems likely that inadequate food intake or the increased energy expenditure required to obtain food, or both, can delay menarche, suppress the frequency of ovulation in the nonlactating adult, and prolong lactational amenorrhea in these populations on a seasonal basis. This action is most easily seen in tropical subsistence societies where food availability often varies greatly owing to seasonal variation in rainfall; hence births in these populations often correlate with rainfall. Second, it seems likely that seasonally high temperatures suppress spermatogenesis enough to influence the incidence of fertilization in hotter latitudes, but possibly only in males wearing clothing that diminishes scrotal cooling. Since most of our knowledge about this phenomenon comes from temperate latitudes, the sensitivity of spermatogenesis in both human and nonhuman primates to heat in the tropics needs further study. It is quite possible that high temperatures suppress ovulation and early embryo survival seasonally in some of these same populations. Since we know less than desired about the effect of heat stress on ovulation and early pregnancy in nonhuman mammals, and nothing at all about it in humans or any of the

  17. Human Factors Technologies: Past Promises, Future Issues. Final Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alluisi, Earl A.

    This discussion of the major issues confronting the human factors profession begins by pointing out that the concepts of systems and system design are central to the roles and functions of the human factors specialist. Three related disciplines--human factors engineering, ergonomics, and human skilled performance--are briefly described, and the…

  18. Bienestar: A Diabetes Risk-Factor Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevino, Robert P.; Pugh, Jacqueline A.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Menchaca, Velma D.; Ramirez, Robert R.; Mendoza, Monica

    1998-01-01

    The Bienestar Health Program is a diabetes risk-factor prevention program targeting Mexican American fourth graders. Program goals are to decrease overweight and dietary fats. The program is based on social cognitive theory and uses culturally relevant material. Preliminary evaluation indicates the program significantly decreases dietary fat,…

  19. Human Factors Engineering Review Model for advanced nuclear power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.; Higgins, J. ); Goodman, C.; Galletti, G.: Eckenrode, R. )

    1993-01-01

    One of the major issues to emerge from the initial design reviews under the certification process was that detailed human-systems interface (HSI) design information was not available for staff review. To address the lack of design detail issue. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is performing the design certification reviews based on a design process plan which describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification. Since the review of a design process is unprecedented in the nuclear industry. The criteria for review are not addressed by current regulations or guidance documents and. therefore, had to be developed. Thus, an HFE Program Review Model was developed. This paper will describe the model's rationale, scope, objectives, development, general characteristics. and application.

  20. Human Factors Engineering Review Model for advanced nuclear power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.; Higgins, J.; Goodman, C.; Galletti, G.: Eckenrode, R.

    1993-05-01

    One of the major issues to emerge from the initial design reviews under the certification process was that detailed human-systems interface (HSI) design information was not available for staff review. To address the lack of design detail issue. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is performing the design certification reviews based on a design process plan which describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification. Since the review of a design process is unprecedented in the nuclear industry. The criteria for review are not addressed by current regulations or guidance documents and. therefore, had to be developed. Thus, an HFE Program Review Model was developed. This paper will describe the model`s rationale, scope, objectives, development, general characteristics. and application.

  1. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    . For colorectal cancer, the stage at diagnosis of cases diagnosed in northeast Pennsylvania was compared to data from prior years. A population-based interview study of healthy adults was conducted to document the status of cancer screening and to estimate the prevalence of established cancer risk factors in this community. This study is similar in design to that used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). EXPERIMENTAL METHODS AND PROCEDURES: This program includes two distinct but related projects. The first project uses existing data to conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania, and the second is a population-based study of cancer risk factors and cancer screening behaviors in this same population. HUMAN SUBJECTS CONSIDERATIONS This program includes two projects: cancer surveillance and a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior. The cancer surveillance project involves only the use of existing aggregate data or de-identified data. As such, the surveillance project is exempt from human subjects considerations. The study of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors includes data from a random sample of adult residents of northeast Pennsylvania who are 18 or more years of age. All races, ethnicities and both sexes are included in proportion to their representation in the population. Subjects are interviewed anonymously by telephone; those who are unable to complete an interview in English are ineligible. This project has been reviewed and approved by the Scranton-Temple Residency Program IRB (IRB00001355), which is the IRB for the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute.

  2. Architecture of human translation initiation factor 3

    PubMed Central

    Querol-Audi, Jordi; Sun, Chaomin; Vogan, Jacob M.; Smith, Duane; Gu, Yu; Cate, Jamie; Nogales, Eva

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) plays a central role in protein synthesis by organizing the formation of the 43S preinitiation complex. Using genetic tag visualization by electron microscopy, we reveal the molecular organization of ten human eIF3 subunits, including an octameric core. The structure of eIF3 bears a close resemblance to that of the proteasome lid, with a conserved spatial organization of eight core subunits containing PCI and MPN domains that coordinate functional interactions in both complexes. We further show that eIF3 subunits a and c interact with initiation factors eIF1 and eIF1A, which control the stringency of start codon selection. Finally, we find that subunit j, which modulates messenger RNA interactions with the small ribosomal subunit, makes multiple independent interactions with the eIF3 octameric core. These results highlight the conserved architecture of eIF3 and how it scaffolds key factors that control translation initiation in higher eukaryotes, including humans. PMID:23623729

  3. Human factors for pleasure in product use.

    PubMed

    Jordan, P W

    1998-02-01

    Traditionally, human factors have tended to concentrate on making products 'usable'--focusing on utilitarian, functional product benefits. This paper reports an interview-based study looking at the issue of 'pleasure' in product use. The study was a 'first pass' at addressing the hedonic and experiential benefits and penalties associated with product use, and at identifying the properties of a product that influence how pleasurable or displeasurable it is to use. Feelings associated with using pleasurable products included security, confidence, pride, excitement and satisfaction. Displeasurable products, meanwhile, were associated with feelings that included annoyance, anxiety, contempt and frustration. The properties of products that were salient in terms of influencing the level of pleasure/displeasure with a product included features, usability, aesthetics, performance and reliability. Responses to questions investigating behavioural correlates to pleasure in product use suggested that pleasurable products were used more regularly and that future purchase choices would be affected by the level of pleasure in product use. It is concluded that the issue of pleasure in product use involves more than usability alone. As the user's representative in the product creation process, the human factors specialist should consider many other factors in order to ensure that the user's experience of product use is maximised. PMID:9769086

  4. Human Factors Evaluations of Two-Dimensional Spacecraft Conceptual Layouts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Toups, Larry D.; Rudisill, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Much of the human factors work done in support of the NASA Constellation lunar program has been with low fidelity mockups. These volumetric replicas of the future lunar spacecraft allow researchers to insert test subjects from the engineering and astronaut population and evaluate the vehicle design as the test subjects perform simulations of various operational tasks. However, lunar outpost designs must be evaluated without the use of mockups, creating a need for evaluation tools that can be performed on two-dimension conceptual spacecraft layouts, such as floor plans. A tool based on the Cooper- Harper scale was developed and applied to one lunar scenario, enabling engineers to select between two competing floor plan layouts. Keywords: Constellation, human factors, tools, processes, habitat, outpost, Net Habitable Volume, Cooper-Harper.

  5. Vestibular reactions to spaceflight: human factors issues.

    PubMed

    Young, L R

    2000-09-01

    Vestibular function, along with other sensory systems influencing spatial orientation, can have a profound influence on the ability of astronauts to function effectively. Beyond the well-known problems of space motion sickness, vestibular effects can influence astronaut well-being and performance during all phases of a space mission. This paper discusses some of the major vestibular reactions affecting human factors encountered in all space missions, and covers them chronologically in the following sequence: launch, early on-orbit, late on-orbit, EVA, artificial gravity, re-entry, and post-landing. PMID:10993318

  6. Multiscale factors affecting human attitudes toward snow leopards and wolves.

    PubMed

    Suryawanshi, Kulbhushansingh R; Bhatia, Saloni; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Redpath, Stephen; Mishra, Charudutt

    2014-12-01

    The threat posed by large carnivores to livestock and humans makes peaceful coexistence between them difficult. Effective implementation of conservation laws and policies depends on the attitudes of local residents toward the target species. There are many known correlates of human attitudes toward carnivores, but they have only been assessed at the scale of the individual. Because human societies are organized hierarchically, attitudes are presumably influenced by different factors at different scales of social organization, but this scale dependence has not been examined. We used structured interview surveys to quantitatively assess the attitudes of a Buddhist pastoral community toward snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and wolves (Canis lupus). We interviewed 381 individuals from 24 villages within 6 study sites across the high-elevation Spiti Valley in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. We gathered information on key explanatory variables that together captured variation in individual and village-level socioeconomic factors. We used hierarchical linear models to examine how the effect of these factors on human attitudes changed with the scale of analysis from the individual to the community. Factors significant at the individual level were gender, education, and age of the respondent (for wolves and snow leopards), number of income sources in the family (wolves), agricultural production, and large-bodied livestock holdings (snow leopards). At the community level, the significant factors included the number of smaller-bodied herded livestock killed by wolves and mean agricultural production (wolves) and village size and large livestock holdings (snow leopards). Our results show that scaling up from the individual to higher levels of social organization can highlight important factors that influence attitudes of people toward wildlife and toward formal conservation efforts in general. Such scale-specific information can help managers apply conservation measures at

  7. Enhanced human performance of utility maintenance programs

    SciTech Connect

    Fresco, A.; Haber, S.; O`Brien, J.

    1993-08-01

    Assuring the safe operation of a nuclear power plant depends, to a large extent, on how effectively one understands and manages the aging-related degradation that occurs in structures, systems, and components (SSCs). Aging-related degradation is typically managed through a nuclear plant`s maintenance program. A review of 44 Maintenance Team Inspection (MTI) Reports indicated that while some plant organizations appeared to assume a proactive mode in preventing aging-related failures of their SSCs important to safety, others seemed to be taking a passive or reactive mode. Across all plants, what is clearly needed, is a strong recognition of the importance of aging-related degradation and the use of existing organizational assets to effectively detect and mitigate those effects. Many of those assets can be enhanced by the consideration of organizational and management factors necessary for the implementation of an effective aging management program. This report provides a discussion of this program.

  8. Human Factors of Remotely Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Alan Neville

    2014-01-01

    The civilian use of remotely piloted, or unmanned aircraft is expected to increase rapidly in the years ahead. Despite being referred to as unmanned some of the major challenges confronting this emerging sector relate to human factors. As unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are introduced into civil airspace, a failure to adequately consider human factors could result in preventable accidents that may not only result in loss of life, but may also undermine public confidence in remotely piloted operations. Key issues include pilot situational awareness, collision avoidance in the absence of an out-the-window view, the effects of time delays in communication and control systems, control handovers, the challenges of very long duration flights, and the design of the control station. Problems have included poor physical layout of controls, non-intuitive automation interfaces, an over-reliance on text displays, and complicated sequences of menu selection to perform routine tasks. Some of the interface problems may have been prevented had an existing regulation or cockpit design principle been applied. In other cases, the design problems may indicate a lack of suitable guidance material.

  9. Capturing the Value: Earth Applications of Space Human Factors Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, Mary M.; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This paper details how the Space Human Factors/Life Sciences program at Ames Research Center (ARC) has provided, and continues to provide, a variety of Earth-based benefits. These benefits will be considered under five categories: aeronautics, space-like environments, general applications, human/automation interaction, and methodology. The human factors work at ARC includes a range of activities whose products serve the aerospace community. Some areas of research focus specifically on aeronautical requirements; others are driven by space needs. However, the symbiosis between these two domains allows a sharing of resources, and the insights and experimental results gathered in one domain can often be applied in the other. Aeronautics is an industry whose survival is generally viewed as critical to American competitiveness, and where benefits can result in a very high payoff. The ability to apply space-initiated research to aeronautical requirements represents one example of bringing space benefits down to Earth. The second-order value of space human factors research goes well beyond the aerospace community. Spaceflight shares with a number of other activities certain environmental characteristics that drive human factors engineering design and procedural specification. Spaceflight is an isolated activity, conducted under severely confined conditions, with a high level of risk, and where provisions are restricted and opportunities for outside help are limited. A number of Earth-based activities including submarines and other naval vessels, oil rigs, remote weather stations, and scientific and polar expeditions, share many of these characteristics. These activities serve as testbeds for space-related research and, in turn, space-related research provides beneficial insight to the conduct of these activities.

  10. Preimplantation factor (PIF) promotes human trophoblast invasion.

    PubMed

    Moindjie, Hadia; Santos, Esther Dos; Loeuillet, Laurence; Gronier, Héloise; de Mazancourt, Philippe; Barnea, Eytan R; Vialard, François; Dieudonne, Marie-Noëlle

    2014-11-01

    Preimplantation factor (PIF) is a peptide secreted by viable mammalian embryos. Moreover, it can be detected in the circulation of pregnant women. Recently, it was shown that PIF promotes invasion in trophoblast cell lines in vitro. Successful human embryo implantation depends on a deep and highly controlled invasion of extravillous trophoblast (EVT) in the maternal endometrium. Trophoblast invasion is regulated in part by matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and integrin expression. The present study demonstrates the presence of PIF in early pregnancy and characterizes its effects on primary human trophoblast invasion. At the fetomaternal interface, intense PIF labeling by immunohistochemistry was present during early gestation in villous trophoblasts and EVTs. A decrease of labeling was observed at term. Furthermore, PIF significantly promoted invasion of human EVT isolated from first-trimester placenta. The proinvasive regulatory effect of PIF in EVT was associated with 1) increased MMP9 activity and 2) reduced tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP1) mRNA expression. PIF also regulated alpha v and alpha 1 integrin mRNA expressions. Last, the proinvasive effect of PIF appeared to be mediated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), and Janus-kinase signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathways. In summary, this work describes the direct, positive effect of PIF on the control of human trophoblastic cell invasion by modulation of MMP/TIMP balance and integrin expression. Moreover, these results suggest that PIF is involved in pathological pregnancies characterized by insufficient or excessive trophoblast invasion. PMID:25232018

  11. Analysis of Adverse Events in Identifying GPS Human Factors Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Hwoschinsky, Peter V.; Adams, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze GPS related adverse events such as accidents and incidents (A/I), Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) reports and Pilots Deviations (PDs) to create a framework for developing a human factors risk awareness program. Although the occurrence of directly related GPS accidents is small the frequency of PDs and ASRS reports indicated there is a growing problem with situational awareness in terminal airspace related to different types of GPs operational issues. This paper addresses the findings of the preliminary research and a brief discussion of some of the literature on related GPS and automation issues.

  12. Human reliability program: Components and effects

    SciTech Connect

    Baley-Downes, S.

    1986-01-01

    The term ''Human Reliability Program'' (HRP) is defined as a series of selective controls which are implemented and integrated to identify the ''insider threat'' from current and prospective employees who are dishonest, disloyal and unreliable. The HRP, although not a prediction of human behaviour, is an excellent tool for decision making and should compliment security and improve employee quality. The HRP consists of several component applications such as management evaluation; appropriate background investigative requirements; occupational health examination and laboratory testing; drug/alcohol screening; psychological testing and interviews; polygraph examination; job related aberrant behaviour recognition; on-going education and training; document control; drug/alcohol rehabilitation; periodic HRP audit; and implementation of an onsite central clearing house. The components and effects of HRP are discussed in further detail in this paper.

  13. Human Factors Lessons Learned on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara; Mount, Frances E.

    2006-01-01

    Experience on International Space Station (ISS) provides many important lessons for future space flight. NASA human factors engineers have been systematically collecting lessons learned from crew debriefs, as well as working with ground support teams to continuously improve crew operations. This paper describes the methods for collecting data from debriefs, lessons learned through that process, and an example of a technology development task funded through the Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) program element in response to an identified operational need. Each ISS increment crew spends many hours after the flight answering questions from the various subsystem leads. The Flight Crew Integration subsystem lead asks questions specific to human factors and habitability issues. In addition, crew comments on many other subsystems provide insight into interface designs, operability and maintainability. The debrief comments are unique to each crew, and must be categorized to provide operational lessons learned. Personal identifiers are removed and comments aggregated to separate consistent issues from personal preferences. Examples will be given, and the procedure for incorporating the lessons into requirements and guidelines for the next human space vehicle will be described. In flight, very few astronauts are medical doctors. Written medical procedures during flight need to be easy to follow and quick to understand. The problem was analyzed as part of a SHFE task. Organization was analyzed and reorganizations were created and tested. Results will be reported. The ISS is a very important analog for planning future long-term missions. Collection of data from debriefs, studying the lessons learned and focusing on requirements for future missions are examples of the accomplishments through the SHFE program.

  14. Humanism Factors and Islam Viewpoint from Motahri's Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yousefi, Zargham; Yousefy, Alireza; Keshtiaray, Narges

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to criticize liberal humanism based on Islam viewpoint emphasizing Motahri's point of view. In this paper, the researchers tried to identify liberalism humanism factors with analytical look in order to present a new categorization called "main factor of liberal humanism". Then, each factor was studied and…

  15. Development of biomechanical models for human factors evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara; Pandya, Abhilash; Maida, James

    1993-01-01

    Computer aided design (CAD) techniques are now well established and have become the norm in many aspects of aerospace engineering. They enable analytical studies, such as finite element analysis, to be performed to measure performance characteristics of the aircraft or spacecraft long before a physical model is built. However, because of the complexity of human performance, CAD systems for human factors are not in widespread use. The purpose of such a program would be to analyze the performance capability of a crew member given a particular environment and task. This requires the design capabilities to describe the environment's geometry and to describe the task's requirements, which may involve motion and strength. This in turn requires extensive data on human physical performance which can be generalized to many different physical configurations. PLAID is developing into such a program. Begun at Johnson Space Center in 1977, it was started to model only the geometry of the environment. The physical appearance of a human body was generated, and the tool took on a new meaning as fit, access, and reach could be checked. Specification of fields-of-view soon followed. This allowed PLAID to be used to predict what the Space Shuttle cameras or crew could see from a given point.

  16. A Computer Program to Relate Factors Across Separately Factor Analyzed Variable Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, John D.; Guertin, Wilson H.

    1976-01-01

    A Fortran IV program is presented which will cross-correlate least squares estimated factor scores across separately factor analyzed variable domains without the tedious necessity of actually calculating the factor scores. (RC)

  17. Helmet-mounted pilot night vision systems: Human factors issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Brickner, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Helmet-mounted displays of infrared imagery (forward-looking infrared (FLIR)) allow helicopter pilots to perform low level missions at night and in low visibility. However, pilots experience high visual and cognitive workload during these missions, and their performance capabilities may be reduced. Human factors problems inherent in existing systems stem from three primary sources: the nature of thermal imagery; the characteristics of specific FLIR systems; and the difficulty of using FLIR system for flying and/or visually acquiring and tracking objects in the environment. The pilot night vision system (PNVS) in the Apache AH-64 provides a monochrome, 30 by 40 deg helmet-mounted display of infrared imagery. Thermal imagery is inferior to television imagery in both resolution and contrast ratio. Gray shades represent temperatures differences rather than brightness variability, and images undergo significant changes over time. The limited field of view, displacement of the sensor from the pilot's eye position, and monocular presentation of a bright FLIR image (while the other eye remains dark-adapted) are all potential sources of disorientation, limitations in depth and distance estimation, sensations of apparent motion, and difficulties in target and obstacle detection. Insufficient information about human perceptual and performance limitations restrains the ability of human factors specialists to provide significantly improved specifications, training programs, or alternative designs. Additional research is required to determine the most critical problem areas and to propose solutions that consider the human as well as the development of technology.

  18. Human Research Program: 2012 Fiscal Year Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Effenhauser, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Crew health and performance are critical to successful human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Risks to health and performance include physiologic effects from radiation, hypogravity, and planetary environments, as well as unique challenges in medical treatment, human factors, and support of behavioral health. The scientists and engineers of the Human Research Program (HRP) investigate and reduce the greatest risks to human health and performance, and provide essential countermeasures and technologies for human space exploration. In its seventh year of operation, the HRP continued to refine its management architecture of evidence, risks, gaps, tasks, and deliverables. Experiments continued on the International Space Station (ISS), on the ground in analog environments that have features similar to those of spaceflight, and in laboratory environments. Data from these experiments furthered the understanding of how the space environment affects the human system. These research results contributed to scientific knowledge and technology developments that address the human health and performance risks. As shown in this report, HRP has made significant progress toward developing medical care and countermeasure systems for space exploration missions which will ultimately reduce risks to crew health and performance.

  19. Human Factors in Virtual Reality Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Proffitt, Dennis R.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This half-day tutorial will provide an overview of basic perceptual functioning as it relates to the design of virtual environment systems. The tutorial consists of three parts. First, basic issues in visual perception will be presented, including discussions of the visual sensations of brightness and color, and the visual perception of depth relationships in three-dimensional space (with a special emphasis on motion -specified depth). The second section will discuss the importance of conducting human-factors user studies and evaluations. Examples and suggestions on how best to get help with user studies will be provided. Finally, we will discuss how, by drawing on their complementary competencies, perceptual psychologists and computer engineers can work as a team to develop optimal VR systems, technologies, and techniques.

  20. Human factors analysis and design methods for nuclear waste retrieval systems. Human factors design methodology and integration plan

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, S.M.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of the recommended activities and methods to be employed by a team of human factors engineers during the development of a nuclear waste retrieval system. This system, as it is presently conceptualized, is intended to be used for the removal of storage canisters (each canister containing a spent fuel rod assembly) located in an underground salt bed depository. This document, and the others in this series, have been developed for the purpose of implementing human factors engineering principles during the design and construction of the retrieval system facilities and equipment. The methodology presented has been structured around a basic systems development effort involving preliminary development, equipment development, personnel subsystem development, and operational test and evaluation. Within each of these phases, the recommended activities of the human engineering team have been stated, along with descriptions of the human factors engineering design techniques applicable to the specific design issues. Explicit examples of how the techniques might be used in the analysis of human tasks and equipment required in the removal of spent fuel canisters have been provided. Only those techniques having possible relevance to the design of the waste retrieval system have been reviewed. This document is intended to provide the framework for integrating human engineering with the rest of the system development effort. The activities and methodologies reviewed in this document have been discussed in the general order in which they will occur, although the time frame (the total duration of the development program in years and months) in which they should be performed has not been discussed.

  1. Human factors of first-line security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Renesse, Rudolf L.

    1998-04-01

    Human inspection of security features is based on a cycle of actions: the development and execution of a strategy, and the observation and evaluation of results. These actions aim at establishing the state of the object: genuine or fake. These actions require knowledge, which is either in the head (memorized) or in the world (provided by the object). It is argued that knowledge in the world is most suitable for adequate inspection of first line security features. In contrast, knowledge in the head cannot be relied on, unless standardization is consistently implemented. From the action cycle five pertinent questions ensue. How easily can the user: (1) determine and understand the function of the device? (2) tell what actions are possible? (3) execute the actions? (4) observe the results? (5) compare the observed results with the expected results? A set of generic design rules is derived, involving the function of the device, the execution of a strategy, and the evaluation of the result. A number of first line security features is evaluated from this human factors point of view. These comprise substrate embedded features (watermark, windowed thread), features added to the ink (iridescent pigment), printed features (intaglio, small lettering, see-throughs, latent images), and post-printed features (iridescent foils). It is concluded that many current security features do not meet basic ergonomic design rules. However, iridescent optically variable devices tend to have a potential to meet these requirements.

  2. A Review of CEFA Software: Comprehensive Exploratory Factor Analysis Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soon-Mook

    2010-01-01

    CEFA 3.02(Browne, Cudeck, Tateneni, & Mels, 2008) is a factor analysis computer program designed to perform exploratory factor analysis. It provides the main properties that are needed for exploratory factor analysis, namely a variety of factoring methods employing eight different discrepancy functions to be minimized to yield initial solutions, a…

  3. [Influence of poor factors of airports on human health].

    PubMed

    Pochekaeva, E I

    2008-01-01

    The hygienic study conducted in Rostov-on-Don has shown that air transport and airports are important sources of physical and chemical pollution of the environment. Human health examinations served to illustrate the adverse impact of airports on the environmental and hygienic living conditions of the population. The performed studies provided the basis for purpose-oriented program to enhance the environment and to reduce morbidity rates in accordance with the National Environmental Hygiene Program. The developed algorithm of the assessment and reduction of a risk for diseases under the influence of poor factors associated with the activities of airports is designed to provide the authorities and concerned organizations with information, to make managerial decisions, and to work out health-improving measures. PMID:18509916

  4. Enhancing the Human Factors Engineering Role in an Austere Fiscal Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, Jack W.

    2003-01-01

    An austere fiscal environment in the aerospace community creates pressures to reduce program costs, often minimizing or sometimes even deleting the human interface requirements from the design process. With an assumption that the flight crew can recover real time from a poorly human factored space vehicle design, the classical crew interface requirements have been either not included in the design or not properly funded, though carried as requirements. Cost cuts have also affected quality of retained human factors engineering personnel. In response to this concern, planning is ongoing to correct the acting issues. Herein are techniques for ensuring that human interface requirements are integrated into a flight design, from proposal through verification and launch activation. This includes human factors requirements refinement and consolidation across flight programs; keyword phrases in the proposals; closer ties with systems engineering and other classical disciplines; early planning for crew-interface verification; and an Agency integrated human factors verification program, under the One NASA theme. Importance is given to communication within the aerospace human factors discipline, and utilizing the strengths of all government, industry, and academic human factors organizations in an unified research and engineering approach. A list of recommendations and concerns are provided in closing.

  5. Factors Predictive of Student Completion in a Collegiate Honors Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, K. Celeste; Fuqua, Dale R.

    2008-01-01

    This study identified factors that were potential predictors of student completion in a collegiate honors program, evaluated the relative predictive importance of these factors, and used them to describe how the completion groups differed. Records were examined from 336 freshman honors program participants at a large, Midwestern, public…

  6. Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health and the Human Integration Design Handbook. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houbec, Keith; Tillman, Barry; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    For decades, Space Life Sciences and NASA as an Agency have considered NASA-STD-3000, Man-Systems Integration Standards, a significant contribution to human spaceflight programs and to human-systems integration in general. The document has been referenced in numerous design standards both within NASA and by organizations throughout the world. With research program and project results being realized, advances in technology and new information in a variety of topic areas now available, the time arrived to update this extensive suite of requirements and design information. During the past several years, a multi-NASA center effort has been underway to write the update to NASA-STD-3000 with standards and design guidance that would be applicable to all future human spaceflight programs. NASA-STD-3001 - Volumes 1 and 2 - and the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH) were created. Volume 1, Crew Health, establishes NASA s spaceflight crew health standards for the pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight phases of human spaceflight. Volume 2, Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health, focuses on the requirements of human-system integration and how the human crew interacts with other systems, and how the human and the system function together to accomplish the tasks for mission success. The HIDH is a compendium of human spaceflight history and knowledge, and provides useful background information and research findings. And as the HIDH is a stand-alone companion to the Standards, the maintenance of the document has been streamlined. This unique and flexible approach ensures that the content is current and addresses the fundamental advances of human performance and human capabilities and constraints research. Current work focuses on the development of new sections of Volume 2 and collecting updates to the HIDH. The new sections in development expand the scope of the standard and address mission operations and support operations. This effort is again collaboration

  7. Probabilistic simulation of the human factor in structural reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Ashwin R.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1991-01-01

    Many structural failures have occasionally been attributed to human factors in engineering design, analyses maintenance, and fabrication processes. Every facet of the engineering process is heavily governed by human factors and the degree of uncertainty associated with them. Factors such as societal, physical, professional, psychological, and many others introduce uncertainties that significantly influence the reliability of human performance. Quantifying human factors and associated uncertainties in structural reliability require: (1) identification of the fundamental factors that influence human performance, and (2) models to describe the interaction of these factors. An approach is being developed to quantify the uncertainties associated with the human performance. This approach consists of a multi factor model in conjunction with direct Monte-Carlo simulation.

  8. Human Factors and Robotics: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, H. McIlvaine; Kearsley, Greg P.

    The principal human factors engineering issue in robotics is the division of labor between automation (robots) and human beings. This issue reflects a prime human factors engineering consideration in systems design--what equipment should do and what operators and maintainers should do. Understanding of capabilities and limitations of robots and…

  9. Human Factors Aspects of Operating Small Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    OHara, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Deem, R.; Xing, J.; DAgostino, A.

    2010-11-07

    The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. They are considering small modular reactors (SMRs) as one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can be designed to generate hydrogen, or to process heat. Many characteristics of SMRs are quite different from those of current plants, and so may require a concept of operations (ConOps) that also is different. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has begun examining the human factors engineering- (HFE) and ConOps- aspects of SMRs; if needed, they will formulate guidance to support SMR licensing reviews. We developed a ConOps model, consisting of the following dimensions: Plant mission; roles and responsibilities of all agents; staffing, qualifications, and training; management of normal operations; management of off-normal conditions and emergencies; and, management of maintenance and modifications. We are reviewing information on SMR design to obtain data about each of these dimensions, and have identified several preliminary issues. In addition, we are obtaining operations-related information from other types of multi-module systems, such as refineries, to identify lessons learned from their experience. Here, we describe the project's methodology and our preliminary findings.

  10. Assessing the value of human factors initiatives.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Micky P; Knott, David S; Moss, Michael A; Clegg, Chris W; Horton, Robin P

    2008-05-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of human factors initiatives and addresses some difficulties reported in calculating the value of such interventions. Company representatives and researchers applied a novel probabilistic assessment tool to estimate the financial impact of two macro-ergonomic projects. Key benefits of the company intranet project include reduced administrative and operational costs compared to a paper-based system; time savings for users asking for, providing and receiving information; and improved system usability and higher levels of usage. The communities of practice project demonstrates value through more efficient distribution and retrieval of information; reduced duplication by re-using technical knowledge to solve similar problems and improved sharing of good working practices, lessons and resources. The strengths of the tool include transparency, being quick and easy to learn and the collaborative workshop format, involving researches and key representatives from the organization. It makes a useful contribution to the challenge of assessing the financial value of ergonomic interventions, and, by exploiting its diagnostic and planning capabilities, could be extended to other domains. PMID:18096132

  11. Biochemical, endocrine, and hematological factors in human oxygen tolerance extension: Predictive studies 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambertsen, C. J.; Clark, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    The Predictive Studies VI (Biochemical, endocrine, and hematological factors in human oxygen tolerance extension) Program consisted of two related areas of research activity, integrated in design and performance, that were each based on an ongoing analysis of human organ oxygen tolerance data obtained for the continuous oxygen exposures of the prior Predictive Studies V Program. The two research areas effectively blended broad investigation of systematically varied intermittent exposure patterns in animals with very selective evaluation of specific exposure patterns in man.

  12. Human factors assessments of D and D technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, C.P.; Evans, T.T.; McCabe, B.

    2000-07-01

    On April 2, 1997, the US Secretary of Energy directed the US Assistant Secretary of Environmental Management and of Safety and Health to require field input of appropriate data to ensure that safety and health considerations were properly addressed in the Accelerating Cleanup: Focus on 2006 Plan. The US Department of Energy (DOE) field managers have committed to the Secretary that they will fully implement integrated safety management systems (ISMSs) at their respective sites by the end of fiscal year 1999. The Secretary has further directed that headquarters safety and health guidance be developed to support consistent and comprehensive project baseline summaries from the field. The Secretary has committed to institutionalizing ISMS as an integral component of the way the DOE conducts its business. The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board continues to oversee and closely monitor the DOE's commitment to the safety and health of its workers. The DOE is committed to a management system approach to ensure that work is performed in a manner that protects the worker, public, and environment. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) is actively addressing the need to incorporate environmental safety and health (ES and H) considerations in developing technologies. The DDFA is partnered with the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) to evaluate the ES and H considerations of the innovative and improved decontamination and decommissioning technologies. Part of the implementation of the ES and H work practices in the field is through a cooperative agreement between the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the OENHP. The objective of this program is to establish an International Environmental Technology and Training Center to conduct human factors assessments and protocols on environmental technologies. The intent of the human factors assessments is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the technologies and to enhance

  13. Towards viable, useful and usable human factors design guidance.

    PubMed

    Burns, C M; Vicente, K J; Christoffersen, K; Pawlak, W S

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors relevant to producing effective human factors design guidance, using the Engineering Data Compendium (EDC) as a research vehicle. A series of three exploratory experiments focusing on the factors that affect the usability, usefulness and viability of human factors handbooks was conducted. The results of these studies were interpreted in the context of the process by which the EDC was developed, leading to the following recommendations: (a) human factors guidance should be organized in a manner that is stepped in context; (b) human factors guidance should be based on an explicit requirements analysis; (c) the calibration of designers' perceptions of the cost of obtaining human factors information must be improved; (d) organizational policies must be changed to induce more effective information search behaviour. PMID:9414371

  14. Citizens, Scholars and the Humanities: An Introduction to State Humanities Programs. Federation Resources 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiland, Steven, Ed.

    This collection of essays seeks to offer a composite portrait of state humanities programs from a wide range of viewpoints. Topics explored include: the role of the National Endowment for the Humanities; the importance of the humanities; origins and new directions for state programs; humanities and the issues of public policy, the arts, science,…

  15. Human factors activities in teleoperator development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Herndon, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    The Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing advanced teleoperator systems for maintenance of future nuclear reprocessing facilities. Remote maintenance systems developed by the CFRP emphasize man-in-the-loop teleoperation. Consequently, human factors issues which affect teleoperator performance must be addressed. This papers surveys research and development activities carried out by the human factors group within the Remote Control Engineering Task of the CFRP.

  16. Essential factors for a healthy RN educational mobility program.

    PubMed

    Messmer, P R; Miller, E; Spruck, M

    1994-01-01

    There is little research concerning which factors registered nurse (RN) students perceive as constituting a healthy educational mobility program. Because of this, a study was undertaken to identify the factors that RN students perceive as contributing to a healthy educational mobility RN/BSN/MSN program. Findings indicated that the RN students value flexibility, ease in planning, and convenience of course offerings as most important to their program selection. Registered nurse students emphasized the critical factors of faculty sensitivity to students' diverse opinions, faculty respect for students, and faculty expertise as important. These findings highlight the importance of sensitizing faculty members and nurse administrators to the needs of RN students. PMID:7854637

  17. Human Factors in Training - Space Medicine Proficiency Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Erin; Arsintescu, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    The early Constellation space missions are expected to have medical capabilities very similar to those currently on the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS). For Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) missions to ISS, medical equipment will be located on ISS, and carried into CEV in the event of an emergency. Flight Surgeons (FS) on the ground in Mission Control will be expected to direct the Crew Medical Officer (CMO) during medical situations. If there is a loss of signal and the crew is unable to communicate with the ground, a CMO would be expected to carry out medical procedures without the aid of a FS. In these situations, performance support tools can be used to reduce errors and time to perform emergency medical tasks. Work on medical training has been conducted in collaboration with the Medical Training Group at the Space Life Sciences Directorate and with Wyle Lab which provides medical training to crew members, Biomedical Engineers (BMEs), and to flight surgeons under the JSC Space Life Sciences Directorate s Bioastronautics contract. The space medical training work is part of the Human Factors in Training Directed Research Project (DRP) of the Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project under the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element of the Human Research Program (HRP). Human factors researchers at Johnson Space Center have recently investigated medical performance support tools for CMOs on-orbit, and FSs on the ground, and researchers at the Ames Research Center performed a literature review on medical errors. The work proposed for FY10 continues to build on this strong collaboration with the Space Medical Training Group and previous research. This abstract focuses on two areas of work involving Performance Support Tools for Space Medical Operations. One area of research building on activities from FY08, involved the feasibility of just-in-time (JIT) training techniques and concepts for real-time medical procedures. In Phase 1

  18. Human Factors in Training - Space Flight Resource Management Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryne, Vicky; Connell, Erin; Barshi, Immanuel; Arsintescu, L.

    2009-01-01

    . Work on SFRM training has been conducted in collaboration with the Expedition Vehicle Division at the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) and with United Space Alliance (USA) which provides training to Flight Controllers. The space flight resource management training work is part of the Human Factors in Training Directed Research Project (DRP) of the Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project under the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element of the Human Research Program (HRP). Human factors researchers at the Ames Research Center have been investigating team work and distributed decision making processes to develop a generic SFRM training framework for flight controllers. The work proposed for FY10 continues to build on this strong collaboration with MOD and the USA Training Group as well as previous research in relevant domains such as aviation. In FY10, the work focuses on documenting and analyzing problem solving strategies and decision making processes used in MCC by experienced FCers.

  19. Human Machine Interface Programming and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Thomas Garrison

    2013-01-01

    Human Machine Interface (HMI) Programming and Testing is about creating graphical displays to mimic mission critical ground control systems in order to provide NASA engineers with the ability to monitor the health management of these systems in real time. The Health Management System (HMS) is an online interactive human machine interface system that monitors all Kennedy Ground Control Subsystem (KGCS) hardware in the field. The Health Management System is essential to NASA engineers because it allows remote control and monitoring of the health management systems of all the Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) and associated field devices. KGCS will have equipment installed at the launch pad, Vehicle Assembly Building, Mobile Launcher, as well as the Multi-Purpose Processing Facility. I am designing graphical displays to monitor and control new modules that will be integrated into the HMS. The design of the display screen will closely mimic the appearance and functionality of the actual modules. There are many different field devices used to monitor health management and each device has its own unique set of health management related data, therefore each display must also have its own unique way to display this data. Once the displays are created, the RSLogix5000 application is used to write software that maps all the required data read from the hardware to the graphical display. Once this data is mapped to its corresponding display item, the graphical display and hardware device will be connected through the same network in order to test all possible scenarios and types of data the graphical display was designed to receive. Test Procedures will be written to thoroughly test out the displays and ensure that they are working correctly before being deployed to the field. Additionally, the Kennedy Ground Controls Subsystem's user manual will be updated to explain to the NASA engineers how to use the new module displays.

  20. Concise review: programming human pluripotent stem cells into blood.

    PubMed

    Easterbrook, Jennifer; Fidanza, Antonella; Forrester, Lesley M

    2016-06-01

    Blood disorders are treated with cell therapies including haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation as well as platelet and red blood cell transfusions. However the source of cells is entirely dependent on donors, procedures are susceptible to transfusion-transmitted infections and serious complications can arise in recipients due to immunological incompatibility. These problems could be alleviated if it was possible to produce haematopoietic cells in vitro from an autologous and renewable cell source. The production of haematopoietic cells in the laboratory from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may provide a route to realize this goal but it has proven challenging to generate long-term reconstituting HSCs. To date, the optimization of differentiation protocols has mostly relied on the manipulation of extrinsic signals to mimic the in vivo environment. We review studies that have taken an alternative approach to modulate intrinsic signals by enforced expression of transcription factors. Single and combinations of multiple transcription factors have been used in a variety of contexts to enhance the production of haematopoietic cells from human pluripotent stem cells. This programming approach, together with the recent advances in the production and use of synthetic transcription factors, holds great promise for the production of fully functional HSCs in the future. PMID:26996518

  1. Factors influencing candidates' choice of a pediatric dental residency program.

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, Marcio A; Pollock, Matthew; Majewski, Robert; Tootla, Ruwaida; Murdoch-Kinch, Carol Anne

    2007-09-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the factors and program characteristics that influenced the program ranking decisions of applicants to pediatric dentistry residency programs. A questionnaire was sent to the first-year resident class in 2005 with a response rate of 69.2 percent (n=260). Approximately 55 percent were female (104/180) and 61 percent were non-His-panic white (110/180). The respondents reported that they applied to an average of nine programs, of which five were ranked. Most applicants were interested in a program that had a hospital component with a duration of two years. A program's ability to prepare the resident for an academic career was a minimal influence for 48.6 percent (87/179), and 57.5 percent (103/179) were not interested in a master's or Ph.D. degree. Factors associated with program ranking included modern clinical facilities, high ratio of dental assistants and faculty to residents, availability of assistants for sedation and general anesthesia cases, availability of a salary or stipend, and amount of clinical experience. Important non-clinical factors included hospitality during the interview, geographic location, and perceived reputation of the program. Opportunity to speak with the current residents in private, observing the interaction between residents and faculty, and touring the facilities were also highly considered. These findings may help program directors tailor their interviews and programs to suit the needs of applicants. PMID:17761626

  2. Lunar microcosmos. [human factors of lunar habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, N.

    1974-01-01

    A human habitat on the lunar surface requires energy recycling metabolites based on the utilization of vegetative plants that are good photosynthesizers. Selection criteria involve reactions to fertilization by human excrements, suitability as food for man (with or without fractionation), physiological effects of prolonged ingestion of these plants, and technical methods for returning inedible portions back into the cycle.

  3. Conceptual framework for a Danish human biomonitoring program

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Marianne; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Vorkamp, Katrin; Frederiksen, Marie; Bach, Hanne; Bonefeld-Jorgensen, Eva Cecilie; Rastogi, Suresch; Fauser, Patrik; Krongaard, Teddy; Sorensen, Peter Borgen

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the conceptual framework for a Danish human biomonitoring (HBM) program. The EU and national science-policy interface, that is fundamental for a realization of the national and European environment and human health strategies, is discussed, including the need for a structured and integrated environmental and human health surveillance program at national level. In Denmark, the initiative to implement such activities has been taken. The proposed framework of the Danish monitoring program constitutes four scientific expert groups, i.e. i. Prioritization of the strategy for the monitoring program, ii. Collection of human samples, iii. Analysis and data management and iv. Dissemination of results produced within the program. This paper presents the overall framework for data requirements and information flow in the integrated environment and health surveillance program. The added value of an HBM program, and in this respect the objectives of national and European HBM programs supporting environmental health integrated policy-decisions and human health targeted policies, are discussed. In Denmark environmental monitoring has been prioritized by extensive surveillance systems of pollution in oceans, lakes and soil as well as ground and drinking water. Human biomonitoring has only taken place in research programs and few incidences of e.g. lead contamination. However an arctic program for HBM has been in force for decades and from the preparations of the EU-pilot project on HBM increasing political interest in a Danish program has developed. PMID:18541069

  4. Effects of lifestyle modification programs on cardiac risk factors.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Moaven; Fournier, Stephen; Shepard, Donald S; Ritter, Grant; Strickler, Gail K; Stason, William B

    2014-01-01

    Medicare conducted a payment demonstration to evaluate the effectiveness of two intensive lifestyle modification programs in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease: the Dr. Dean Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease (Ornish) and Cardiac Wellness Program of the Benson-Henry Mind Body Institute. This report describes the changes in cardiac risk factors achieved by each program during the active intervention year and subsequent year of follow-up. The demonstration enrolled 580 participants who had had an acute myocardial infarction, had undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention within 12 months, or had documented stable angina pectoris. Of these, 98% completed the intense 3-month intervention, 71% the 12-month intervention, and 56% an additional follow-up year. Most cardiac risk factors improved significantly during the intense intervention period in both programs. Favorable changes in cardiac risk factors and functional cardiac capacity were maintained or improved further at 12 and 24 months in participants with active follow-up. Multivariable regressions found that risk-factor improvements were positively associated with abnormal baseline values, Ornish program participation for body mass index and systolic blood pressure, and with coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Expressed levels of motivation to lose weight and maintain weight loss were significant independent predictors of sustained weight loss (p = 0.006). Both lifestyle modification programs achieved well-sustained reductions in cardiac risk factors. PMID:25490202

  5. Human Services Program Evaluation: "How to Improve Your Accountability and Program Effectiveness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Thomas; Sorensen, James

    2015-01-01

    The term "outcome evaluation" has become one of the most popular terms among human service providers and those whose job it is to evaluate the impact of human service programs. In the public sector alone, there are over a hundred instruments in use to evaluate the impact of state human service programs. Most states, many providers, and…

  6. Factors influencing perceived sustainability of Dutch community health programs.

    PubMed

    Vermeer, A J M; Van Assema, P; Hesdahl, B; Harting, J; De Vries, N K

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the perceived sustainability of community health programs organized by local intersectoral coalitions, as well as the factors that collaborating partners think might influence sustainability. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 31 collaborating partners of 5 community health programs in deprived neighborhoods in the southern part of the Netherlands. The interview guide was based on a conceptual framework that includes factors related to the context, the leading organization, leadership, the coalition, collaborating partners, interventions and outcomes. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and content analyzed using NVivo 8.0. Participants in each of the programs varied in their perceptions of the sustainability of the program, but those people collaborating in pre-existing neighborhood structures expressed relatively high faith in their continuation. The participating citizens in particular believed that these structures would continue to address the health of the community in the future. We found factors from all categories of the conceptual framework that were perceived to influence sustainability. The program leaders appeared to be crucial to the programs, as they were frequently mentioned in close interaction with other factors. Program leaders should use a motivating and supportive leadership style and should act as 'program champions'. PMID:24021354

  7. Factors Influencing Student Participation in College Study Abroad Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandyopadhyay, Soumava; Bandyopadhyay, Kakoli

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework to investigate the factors that influence student participation in college study abroad programs. The authors posit that students' general perceptions regarding the study abroad experience and their expectations of intercultural awareness from study abroad programs will impact their perceptions of…

  8. Factors Influencing the Occurrence of Adult Agricultural Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christmas, Oren L.; Warmbrod, J. Robert

    A study examined the institutional factors the influence whether or not adult agricultural education programs are offered in high schools. All Ohio secondary schools that offered vocational agriculture programs in agricultural production or farm business management during 1985-1986 (a total of 260 schools) were included in the study. Data were…

  9. Nucleon form factors program with SBS at JLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B.

    2014-12-01

    The physics of the nucleon form factors is the basic part of the Jefferson Laboratory program. We review the achievements of the 6-GeV era and the program with the 12- GeV beam with the SBS spectrometer in Hall A, with a focus on the nucleon ground state properties.

  10. A Voice-Radio Method for Collecting Human Factors Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askren, William B.; And Others

    Available methods for collecting human factors data rely heavily on observations, interviews, and questionnaires. A need exists for other methods. The feasibility of using two-way voice-radio for this purpose was studied. The data collection methodology consisted of a human factors analyst talking from a radio base station with technicians wearing…