Sample records for program small-scale industrial

  1. Occupational health management and service for small-scale industries in Shanghai

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lu Wei; Wu Shi-da

    2004-01-01

    Because occupational hazards of small-scale industries were severe and the occupational health management lagged behind in Shanghai, we selected some districts as experimental units to explore a model of community management and service for the occupational health in small-scale industries for controlling occupational hazards. The results indicated that the model is useful. The features of occupational health in these small-scale

  2. The Economics of Rural and Urban Small-Scale Industries in Sierra Leone. African Rural Economy Paper No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liedholm, Carl; Chuta, Enyinna

    Small-scale industry in Sierra Leone, Africa was examined in terms of: labor intensity; output generated per unit of capital; generation of positive economic profits by small-scale industry groups/processes; and seasonal and locational variations. Key analytical issues were the nature of small-scale industry supply and demand processes. Data were…

  3. Brevion: the new small-scale industrial gamma irradiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinney, Dan; Perrins, Robert; Gibson, Wayne; Levesque, Daniel

    2002-03-01

    The economical processing of low-volume products has been a challenge to the gamma industry since inception, influencing customers to send their products to contractors or choose alternative technologies. With the introduction of the Brevion irradiator (patent pending), economical gamma processing of low annual volume product lines is now possible. This innovative design is specifically targeted at plants processing product volumes of up to 20,000 m 3/yr. Brevion provides good cobalt efficiency and good dose uniformity, thus processing these volumes efficiently and economically. The Brevion facility has the distinct advantage of a low capital cost, compared to medium-sized automatic tote plants, while maintaining similar performance. Lead-time for the construction phase is also considerably shorter, resulting in significantly lower start-up costs. Companies with low-volume product lines can now achieve the control provided by in-house processing, and eliminate transportation time and costs associated with shipping products off-site.

  4. Summary Report on FY12 Small-Scale Test Activities High Temperature Electrolysis Program

    SciTech Connect

    James O'Brien

    2012-09-01

    This report provides a description of the apparatus and the single cell testing results performed at Idaho National Laboratory during January–August 2012. It is an addendum to the Small-Scale Test Report issued in January 2012. The primary program objectives during this time period were associated with design, assembly, and operation of two large experiments: a pressurized test, and a 4 kW test. Consequently, the activities described in this report represent a much smaller effort.

  5. Levels and Influencing Factors of Noise Pollution from Small-Scale Industries (SSIs) in a Developing Country

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen E. Mbuligwe

    2004-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine levels and factors that influence noise pollution from small-scale industries (SSIs) in Dar es Salaam City Tanzania. Two sites for wood- and metalworks industries were investigated. Both sites exhibited equivalent noise levels higher than 90.0 dBA, the permissible exposure level limit for occupational noise. At a woodworks SSI, noise levels were found to

  6. Summary of Large-and Small-Scale Unreinforced Masonry Test Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, K.E.

    2002-06-28

    A five-year, large- and small-scale, static and dynamic experimental research program, in which more than 700 tests were conducted, has demonstrated that unreinforced masonry infills are more ductile and resist lateral loads more effectively than anticipated by conventional code procedures. The tests were conducted both in the laboratory and on existing structures at the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex. The experimental data indicate that the combination of a steel frame and infill material efficiently resists lateral loads--the infilling provides significant lateral stiffness while the surrounding frame adds ductility and confinement to the overall system. The results from approximately 25 moderate- and full-scale tests on infills showed that with simulated seismic loads, the frames confined the masonry, and the load-carrying capacity of the infill was considerably above the load that caused initial cracking. This finding was a significant departure from classical code approaches that assumed first cracking to be failure of an unreinforced masonry wall. The experimental program, performed for the US Department of Energy, consisted of the following large-scale tests on infills: in situ airbag pressure testing, shake-table tests, and the application of quasi-static in-plane and out-of-plane drift loads. This paper provides a summary of the overall experimental methodology and results.

  7. Interactive analysis of waste recycling and energy recovery program in a small-scale incinerator.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jeng-Chung; Chen, Wei-Hsin; Chang, Ni-Bin; Davila, Eric; Tsai, Cheng-Hsien

    2005-09-01

    Conflicting goals affecting solid waste management are explored in this paper to find the best implementation of resource recovery with a small-scale waste-to-energy process. Recycling paper and plastic material often leaves a shortage of thermal energy to support incineration that forces operators to supplement the process with auxiliary fuels. Although there are considerable profits to be made from material recovery, the increase of fuel usage causes conflict given that it is cost prohibitive. A series of trials performed on a small-scale 1.5-t/day incineration plant with a cyclone heat recovery system found that material recycling can impede performance. Experimental results are expressed as empirical regression formulas with regard to combustion temperature, energy transfer, and heat recovery. Process optimization is possible if the waste moisture content remains <30%. To test the robustness of the optimization analysis, a series of sensitivity analyses clarify the extent of material recycling needed with regard to plastic, paper, and metal. The experiments also test whether the moisture in the waste would decrease when recycling paper because of its exceptional capacity to absorb moisture. Results show that recycling paper is strongly recommended when the moisture content is >20%, whereas plastic recycling is not necessary at that moisture condition. Notably, plastic recovery reduces the heat needed to vaporize the water content of the solid waste, thus it is recommended only when the moisture content is <10%. For above-normal incineration temperatures, plastic recycling is encouraged, because it removes excess energy. Metal is confirmed as an overall priority in material recycling regardless of the moisture content of the incoming waste. PMID:16259431

  8. The Role of Small Scale Industry in Employment Generation and Rural Development: Initial Research Results from Sierra Leone. African Rural Employment Paper No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuta, Enyinna; Liedholm, Carl

    Urban and rural small scale industry and employment generation in Sierra Leone, Africa were studied via a 2 phase procedure. Phase 1 data collection (March-June, 1974) involved a random sampling procedure based on locality size. The following information was obtained from each of the localities (cities, towns, and villages) and "enumeration areas"…

  9. Abatement of mercury pollution in the small-scale gold mining industry: Restructuring the policy and research agendas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gavin Hilson

    2006-01-01

    This paper critiques contemporary research and policy approaches taken toward the analysis and abatement of mercury pollution in the small-scale gold mining sector. Unmonitored releases of mercury from gold amalgamation have caused considerable environmental contamination and human health complications in rural reaches of sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and Asia. Whilst these problems have caught the attention of the scientific community

  10. Small-scale Interstellar Structure Toward the Open Cluster Chi Persei; Program ID: BO29 (Cycle 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, David M.

    2004-01-01

    The primary objective of this program was to obtain FUSE observations of the interstellar H2 absorption toward six early-type stars in the core of the open star cluster Chi Persei. High resolution optical observations of the interstellar Na I absorption toward these stars and others in the core of Chi Per have revealed a rich variety of small-scale diffuse ISM structure in both the distant Perseus and more local Orion spiral arms. At the 1 arc minute angular scales typically probed by the separations of these stars, this structure corresponds to respective physical length scales of 0.6 and 0.15 pc in the Perseus and Orion arm gas. The principal scientific goal of the FUSE observations was to determine if this small-scale Na I structure toward the core of Chi Per was reflected in the abundance and/or excitation of interstellar H2. In September 2001, we obtained FUSE observations of the Chi Per stars BD +56 563, BD +56 571, BD +56 573, BD +56 574, BD +56 575, and BD +56 578 for this program. The data reveal that the Perseus arm gas exhibits significant small-scale variations in the strength of its molecular hydrogen absorption while the Orion arm H2 absorption is relatively uniform. We presented these results at the January 2003 American Astronomical Society meeting in Seattle, WA (points, Meyer, Lauroesch, Nguyen, and Friedman 2002, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 34,1229). Since Na I is not a dominant ion in H I clouds, the variations detected in the Perseus arm Na I line profiles could be due to spatial differences in either the physical structure or the physical conditions in the gas. Although many of the H2 absorption profiles are too saturated or too weak to be definitive in this regard, it is clear that small-scale variations are present in H2 gas with excitation as high as the J=4 rotational level. In contrast, lower spatial resolution H I 21 cm studies of the Perseus arm gas across the face of the h and Chi Per double cluster have shown smoother, continuous variations on the larger scale. In order to investigate if the global velocity structure of H2 toward h and Chi Per more closely follows the chaotic structure seen in interstellar Na I absorption or the smoother, continuous H I structure, we have expanded our FUSE study with a Cycle 4 program (D902, PI: Points) to survey the H2 absorption toward a number of other stars across the face of the double cluster. We have obtained FUSE spectra of 14 additional h and Chi Per stars through this program and are now combining all of the data into a comprehensive study that will be submitted for publication next year.

  11. Formal Modeling and Verification of Operational Flight Program in a Small-Scale Unmanned Helicopter

    E-print Network

    and verified with the SPIN and UPPAAL model checkers. While the SPIN model checker is widely used for modeling Engineers. CE Database subject headings: Verification; Models; Communication; Aircraft. Author keywords: Formal verification; Formal modeling; Process communication; Operational flight program; SPIN; UPPAAL

  12. Formal Verification of Process Communications in Operational Flight Program for a Small-Scale Unmanned Helicopter

    E-print Network

    Formal Verification of Process Communications in Operational Flight Program for a Small in demonstrating safety and correctness of safety-critical systems such as airplanes and helicopters. Small and defense applications. The HELISCOPE project is aiming to develop an unmanned helicopter and its on-flight

  13. Small Scale Organic Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, V.; Crist, DeLanson R.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of using small scale experimentation in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. Describes small scale filtration techniques as an example of a semi-micro method applied to small quantities of material. (MLH)

  14. DOE small-scale hydroelectric demonstration program. F. W. E. Stapenhorst, Inc., Goodyear Lake hydroelectric-generating-station redevelopment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-07-01

    Monthly and year long data on the performance, maintenance, power generation, flow conditions, and operating costs during the period from August 11, 1981 to August 10, 1982 at the Goodyear Lake (New York) small-scale hydroelectric power plant are presented. During this period the plant generated 5,806,500 kWh of power for a total income of $194.401, which represents approximately 79% of predicted values. The shortfall in output resulted from the failure of Generator Unit No. 1 which was out of operation for two months.

  15. Advanced Industrial Materials Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stooksbury, F.

    1994-06-01

    The mission of the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) program is to commercialize new/improved materials and materials processing methods that will improve energy efficiency, productivity, and competitiveness. Program investigators in the DOE national laboratories are working with about 100 companies, including 15 partners in CRDA's. Work is being done on intermetallic alloys, ceramic composites, metal composites, polymers, engineered porous materials, and surface modification. The program supports other efforts in the Office of Industrial Technologies to assist the energy-consuming process industries. The aim of the AIM program is to bring materials from basic research to industrial application to strengthen the competitive position of US industry and save energy.

  16. Small scale windmill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Robert; Vickers, Mike; Kim, Hyeoungwoo; Priya, Shashank

    2007-01-01

    In this letter the authors report experimental results on an optimized small scale piezoelectric windmill, which can solve the problems associated with autonomous sensor networks in outdoor, remote or inaccessible locations. The whole structure of the windmill is made of plastic, and it utilizes 18 piezoelectric bimorphs which makes this design extremely cost effective. The windmill was tested at average wind speed of 10miles/h and it provided 5mW continuous power. The threshold wind speed for the windmill was found to be of the order of 5.4miles/h. Further, the authors present analysis on two other windmill structures which illustrate the design parameters required for small scale windmill.

  17. Factors affecting the design of a partnership program to facilitate adoption of agricultural practices among small-scale farmers, Mpongwe, Zambia 

    E-print Network

    Musoma, Henry Kasonde

    2002-01-01

    , environmentally friendly agricultural practices by the small-scale farmers in Mpongwe District, Zambia. Eleven separate surveys were conducted to gather descriptive information from four groups: 210 small-scale farmers, traditional chiefs, government departments...

  18. Small Scale Irrigation Systems: A Training Manual. Planning--Construction--Operation and Maintenance of Small Scale Irrigation Systems. A Two-Week In-Service Training Program for Peace Corps Volunteers. Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Planning and Research Associates, Inc., Manhattan, KS.

    This manual provides materials for a two-week inservice training program for Peace Corps volunteers on the planning, construction, and operation and maintenance of small-scale irrigation systems. The workshop is designed to be given by two experienced professionals: one with practical knowledge of irrigation system design, operation, and…

  19. NOAA/USAID SMALL-SCALE SHRIMP PRODUCER TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM FOR NICARAGUA, ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING COMPONENT - FINAL REPORT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Through the NOAA/USAID Small Shrimp Producer Assistance Program for Nicaragua: Environmental Monitoring Component, a water quality monitoring program for the Estero Real system was designed in consultation with the NOAA Consultative Group for Aquaculture and implemented by the Center for Environmen...

  20. Small-scale test program to develop a more efficient swivel nozzle thrust deflector for V/STOL lift/cruise engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlundt, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    The installed performance degradation of a swivel nozzle thrust deflector system obtained during increased vectoring angles of a large-scale test program was investigated and improved. Small-scale models were used to generate performance data for analyzing selected swivel nozzle configurations. A single-swivel nozzle design model with five different nozzle configurations and a twin-swivel nozzle design model, scaled to 0.15 size of the large-scale test hardware, were statically tested at low exhaust pressure ratios of 1.4, 1.3, 1.2, and 1.1 and vectored at four nozzle positions from 0 deg cruise through 90 deg vertical used for the VTOL mode.

  1. The Industrial Electrification Program 

    E-print Network

    Harry, I. L.

    1982-01-01

    . The calendar for the process application meetings is listed below Electric Melting - Pittsburgh, July, 198 Metals Fabrication - April, 1982 Chemical - April, 1982 Textiles - May, 1982 INDUSTRIAL ELECTRIFICATION STUDIES Prior to July, 1980, EPRI had... and additional information about EPRI and the industrial electrification program was forwarded to the attendees prior to the meeting. This meeting was held in Pittsburgh on July 23-24, 1981. In September, 1981, EPRI made a presentation to the Committee...

  2. Goodyear Lake Hydroelectric Generating Station redevelopment final construction and cost report. DOE small-scale hydroelectric demonstration program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This project is one of the US Department of Energy's original seven low-head hydroelectric demonstration projects. The demonstration project was initiated by the release of a Program Opportunity Notice (PON) ET-78-N-07-1711 dated November 1, 1978. The purpose for the demonstration is to show the feasibility of small hydroelectric power development projects at a number of existing dam sites across the country. The Goodyear Lake Power Station provided an excellent example of the redevelopment of a discontinued low-head hydroelectric facility. The dam and power station were previously owned by the New York State Electric and Gas Corporation. Prior to F.W.E. Stapenhorst's involvement, it was the Utility's intention to breach the dam and dewater the lake. In order to rehabilitate the power station, title was transferred to F.W.E. Stapenhorst Inc., upon finalization of a Power Agreement (whereby F.W.E. Stapenhorst Inc. would sell the power generated to New York State Electric and Gas Corporation) and issuance of the FERC license. The station, as renovated, is fully automatic and utilizes two Ossberger Cross-Flow type turbines - turbines which, due to their flat efficiency curve, are well suited for small rivers and streams where the flow varies over a wide range. Both technical and financial feasibility of the project were carefully analyzed prior to the commencement of the project. The US Department of Energy awarded a cooperative agreement whereby DOE would share $245,000 of the project costs. The Goodyear Lake Station was the first demonstration project under the auspices of the Department of Energy to achieve power-on-line and to be officially dedicated.

  3. Oklahoma Industrial Energy Management Program

    E-print Network

    Estes, C. B.; Turner, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    this, the Oklahoma Department of Energy designed a program to acquaint Oklahoma industry with the potential savings available through energy management and some basic techniques. The program is, entitled "Oklahoma Industrial Energy Management Program...

  4. Small-Scale Fisheries Bycatch Jeopardizes Endangered Pacific Loggerhead Turtles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Hoyt Peckham; David Maldonado Diaz; Andreas Walli; Georgita Ruiz; Larry B. Crowder; Wallace J. Nichols

    2007-01-01

    Background. Although bycatch of industrial-scale fisheries can cause declines in migratory megafauna including seabirds, marine mammals, and sea turtles, the impacts of small-scale fisheries have been largely overlooked. Small-scale fisheries occur in coastal waters worldwide, employing over 99% of the world's 51 million fishers. New telemetry data reveal that migratory megafauna frequent coastal habitats well within the range of small-scale

  5. SMALL SCALE ETHANOL DRYING - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    This program exceeded all key milestones. Using cellulose Waste, CMS demonstrated novel ethanol drying membranes via small scale dephlegmation process that yields fuel grade ethanol (FGE) at a lower cost than large switch grass ethanol plants. This success yields positive valu...

  6. Back to small-scale hydro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1979-01-01

    Alexander Hamilton's post-Revolution plan ofor developing small-scale hydro power is reexamied in light of the present need to supply industrial production with domestic energy. The 1200 participants in a government-sponsored inthernational conference on the subject discussed the possibilities of producing electric and mechanical power as well as the commerical production of hydrogen and ozone. The Administration and the US Army

  7. DOE small scale fuel alcohol plant design

    SciTech Connect

    LaRue, D.M.; Richardson, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    The Department of Energy, in an effort to facilitate the deployment of rural-based ethanol production capability, has undertaken this effort to develop a basic small-scale plant design capable of producing anhydrous ethanol. The design, when completed, will contain all necessary specifications and diagrams sufficient for the construction of a plant. The design concept is modular; that is, sections of the plant can stand alone or be integrated into other designs with comparable throughput rates. The plant design will be easily scaled up or down from the designed flow rate of 25 gallons of ethanol per hour. Conversion factors will be provided with the final design package to explain scale-up and scale-down procedures. The intent of this program is to provide potential small-scale producers with sound information about the size, engineering requirements, costs and level of effort in building such a system.

  8. Goodyear Lake Hydroelectric Generating Station redevelopment. First annual report: operating year 1, August 11, 1980-August 10, 1981. DOE Small-Scale Hydroelectric Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The first year of operation of the Goodyear Lake small-scale hydro plant near Oneonta, NY is reported with monthly data for August 1980 through July 1981 on power generated, operating costs, income generated, and maintenance requirements. Due to the dryest year in living memory in the area with an average flow of 60% of the mean flow for the past 20 years, the plant produced on 3,886,050 kWh versus an estimated 7,500,000 kWh. Actual operating costs were $89,011 as compared with an estimate of $99,840. (LCL)

  9. Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gleeson, L.

    1991-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

  10. US industrial thermal energy storage program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olszewski, M.

    Three major programs to reduce oil and gas consumption in industry are described. The programs include in-plant reuse of industrial reject heat, external reuse of industrial reject heat, and the use of alternate fuels. Projects, the organization of the US Industrial Thermal Energy Storage Program, and future program directions are described with some specifics cited in the food processing and paper industries.

  11. The Industrial Electrification Program

    E-print Network

    Harry, I. L.

    1982-01-01

    Finishing Processes ? (1) UV and electron beam curing of coatings (2) Low temperature plasma surface treating ? Welding (1) Komopolar Pulse (2) Electron Beam (3) Laser (4) Resistance (5) Arc c. Process Industries ? High Temperature Heat...) Electrolytic Processes (2) Plasma Processes B. Material Fabrication Processes Heating Processes ? ( 1) Induction (2) Electron Beam (3) Laser (4) Resistance Forming Processes ? ( 1) Electromagnetic (2) Electrohydraulic (3) Electrodeposition...

  12. Occupational health services for small-scale enterprises in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyesook; Ha, Eunhee; Kim, Jiyong; Jung, Hyesun; Paek, Domyung

    2002-01-01

    Korea needs national strategies to handle problems of Small Scale Enterprises (SSEs) systematically. Since 1993, the Korean government has begun to provide financial subsidy programs for Occupational Health Services (OHSs) in SSEs from Occupational Injury Prevention Fund. To identify the health care status in SSEs in Korea, 5,080 factories, which had participated in the Government-funded Subsidy Program in 1997, were surveyed. The overall morbidity of the workers in these SSEs was higher than the national average for both general and occupational diseases. Based on the health examinations for occupational disease of those workers exposed to occupational hazards such as noise, dust, or solvents, we could find the industry-specific occupational disease patterns. From this result, we would plan the targeted occupational health services to specific groups. In spite that the effectiveness of this program is not completely assessed, our results indicate that it is desirable for this program to be continued in Korea. In addition, this program may be a good model for rapidly developing countries. PMID:11926509

  13. Accrediting industrial safety training programs

    SciTech Connect

    Beitel, L.

    1992-12-31

    There are job-specific training requirements established by regulations that Impose stringent training requirements on a contractor, for example, the Occupational Safety & Health Act (OSHA). Failure to comply with OSHA training requirements can result in severe penalties being levied against a company. Although an accredited training program is expensive, it is a possible solution for minimizing risks associated with job-specific training requirements for employees. Operating DOE contractors direct approximately 10 percent of the operating funds toward training activities. Training needs for contractors span a broad range, from requirements awareness training for managers, to general training required on a one-time basis for all employees, to highly specialized training programs for employees involved In clean-up operations at hazardous waste sites. With this kind of an investment in training, it is logical to maximize the most return on an investment of training funds and to limit exposure to liability suits whenever possible. This presentation will provide an overview of accredited industrial safety programs. The criteria for accredited industrial safety programs will be defined. The question of whether accredited training programs are necessary will be examined. Finally, advantages and disadvantages will be identified for accrediting industrial safety training programs.

  14. Accrediting industrial safety training programs

    SciTech Connect

    Beitel, L.

    1992-01-01

    There are job-specific training requirements established by regulations that Impose stringent training requirements on a contractor, for example, the Occupational Safety Health Act (OSHA). Failure to comply with OSHA training requirements can result in severe penalties being levied against a company. Although an accredited training program is expensive, it is a possible solution for minimizing risks associated with job-specific training requirements for employees. Operating DOE contractors direct approximately 10 percent of the operating funds toward training activities. Training needs for contractors span a broad range, from requirements awareness training for managers, to general training required on a one-time basis for all employees, to highly specialized training programs for employees involved In clean-up operations at hazardous waste sites. With this kind of an investment in training, it is logical to maximize the most return on an investment of training funds and to limit exposure to liability suits whenever possible. This presentation will provide an overview of accredited industrial safety programs. The criteria for accredited industrial safety programs will be defined. The question of whether accredited training programs are necessary will be examined. Finally, advantages and disadvantages will be identified for accrediting industrial safety training programs.

  15. Oklahoma Industrial Energy Management Program

    E-print Network

    Turner, W. C.; Estes, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    In Oklahoma, industry consumes about 35% of the total energy consumed. While it is true that much work has been done in the larger companies, most small to medium sized companies have yet to undertake a substantial energy management program. Often...

  16. Program Budgeting for Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gramberg, Merlyn Ludwig

    In recognition of the increasing concern for the expenditure of tax dollars and the resulting need for accountability in budgeting, this study provides a model for program budgeting at the collegiate level in industrial education. Course outlines for drafting and woodworking at the University of Northern Colorado were analyzed and activities were…

  17. Industrial Assessment Center Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kolarik, William J.

    2007-02-26

    Over the five-year period (2002-2006) the Oklahoma State University Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) performed energy assessments for 106 different clients, writing 835 recommendations, for a total of $23,937,099 in potential estimated annual savings. IAC clients served consisted of small and medium-sized manufacturers ranging from food manufactures to foundries. The OSU IAC served clients in Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri, Arkansas, and Texas. In addition to client service, student training and instruction was a major accomplishment. The OSU IAC employed (and trained) 12 baccalaureate-level students, 17 masters-level graduate students, and 7 doctoral-level graduate students. Most are practicing in the energy management area. Training was focused on both energy assessment and safety. Safety training was both center-based training as well as on-site training. Energy management related training was focused on classroom (for academic credit) work at both the undergraduate and graduate level. IEM 4923 (Energy and Water Management) was developed to serve both the IAC as well as non-IAC students. It was delivered once per year, with enrollments of typically 10 to 20 students. This course was required for IAC student employees, both undergraduate and graduate. This course was patterned after the AEE CEM (five-day) course for practicing professionals. IEM 4923 required each student to attend at least one on-site assessment and write at least one recommendation for their client’s report. Hence, a hands-on approach was practiced. Advance level courses were used to train graduate students. Two courses played major roles here: IEM 5923 (Advanced Energy and Water Management) and IEM 5943 (Hazardous Material and Waste). Graduate student participation in these courses helped the IAC to gain additional perspectives in on-site assessment and resulting recommendations. Numerous hands-on demonstration/training was conducted by directors and graduate students in order to gain proficiency in using the combustion analyzer, IR camera, logging equipment, light metering equipment, and other equipment. Instruction included usage and basic maintenance. While undergraduate students worked with the coursework and on-the-job training, graduate students were expected to do more. A typical MS student was required to complete a 3-hour independent study in some interesting facet of energy management under the supervision of a director. PhD students were expected to complete from three to six hours of independent study work in the energy management field, as well as center their dissertation research in the general area of energy/productivity/quality management. During the project period, two PhDs were completed, with several more near completion.

  18. UW Computer Science & Engineering Industry Affiliates Program

    E-print Network

    Borenstein, Elhanan

    UW Computer Science & Engineering Industry Affiliates Program 2013-14 Contributions for the CSE Industry Affiliates Program are to be used to further the Computer Science & Engineering program-Benton Industrial Affiliates Program University of Washington Computer Science & Engineering Box 352350 Seattle, WA

  19. The Effectiveness of Videotape Programs as a Communication Tool in the Small-Scale Livestock for Rural Farming Women Project, Honduras.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Dean, Lynn

    This study examines economic development in Third World countries and the use of portable video systems in development projects. The study, conducted in 1985, attempts to measure the level of effectiveness of videotape programs as a communication tool for training rural subsistence women in Honduras in technical aspects of pig-keeping. Classical…

  20. Using Qualitative and Quantitative Methods to Evaluate Small-Scale Disease Management Pilot Programs. Population Health Management, vol. 12, no. 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominick Esposito; Erin Fries Taylor; Marsha Gold

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-method approach for evaluating 10 small interventions that participated in the Medicaid Value Program, which sought to improve quality of care for Medicaid beneficiaries with multiple chronic conditions. The approach relied on quantitative and qualitative methods to develop a complete understanding of each intervention. The collective experiences suggest that well-conceived efforts to integrate care across the

  1. Industrial and Organizational Psychology Doctoral Program Handbook

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Industrial and Organizational Psychology Doctoral Program Handbook University of Central Florida...............................................................23 B. Satisfactory Academic Performance Psychology. U

  2. Small scale structure on cosmic strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Andreas

    1989-01-01

    The current understanding of cosmic string evolution is discussed, and the focus placed on the question of small scale structure on strings, where most of the disagreements lie. A physical picture designed to put the role of the small scale structure into more intuitive terms is presented. In this picture it can be seen how the small scale structure can feed back in a major way on the overall scaling solution. It is also argued that it is easy for small scale numerical errors to feed back in just such a way. The intuitive discussion presented here may form the basis for an analytic treatment of the small scale structure, which argued in any case would be extremely valuable in filling the gaps in the present understanding of cosmic string evolution.

  3. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Energy Projects. Guidelines for Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassan, Elizabeth Ann; Wood, Timothy S., Ed.

    This manual is the fourth volume in a series of publications that provide information for the planning of environmentally sound small-scale projects. Programs that aim to protect the renewable natural resources that supply most of the energy used in developing nations are suggested. Considerations are made for physical environmental factors as…

  4. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Water Projects. Guidelines for Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Gus

    This manual is the second volume in a series of publications on community development programs. Guidelines are suggested for small-scale water projects that would benefit segments of the world's urban or rural poor. Strategies in project planning, implementation and evaluation are presented that emphasize environmental conservation and promote…

  5. Small Scale Charcoal Making: A Manual for Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karch, Ed; And Others

    This training program offers skills training in all stages of the development of technologies related to small-scale charcoal production, including the design, construction, operation, maintenance, repair, and evaluation of prototype kilns. The kiln designs are selected to be as consistent as possible with the realities of rural areas in…

  6. The Dairy Industrial Fellowship Research Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Trout; William White; M. J. Mack; P. A. Downs; E. L. Fouts

    1939-01-01

    This article is a report of the Dairy Industrial Fellowship Research Program, sponsored jointly by the Dairy Industries Supply Association and the American Dairy Science Association. This report 1, offers a permanent record of the program and 2, gives to the dairy industry an account of the research undertaken and completed under the scholarship grants. The program was formulated in

  7. Directives Relatives a l'Elaboration de Programmes de Conseil en Gestion pour Petites Entreprises (Guidelines for Management Consulting Programs for Small-Scale Enterprise). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Manual Series No. M-29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Gary L.

    Written in French, this manual is designed to assist management consultants in working with small-scale entrepreneurs in developing countries. Addressed in an overview of the small-scale enterprise (SSE) are the role of the SSE in Third World development, problems of SSEs, and target firms. The second chapter deals with various forms of management…

  8. Method and system for small scale pumping

    DOEpatents

    Insepov, Zeke (Darien, IL); Hassanein, Ahmed (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2010-01-26

    The present invention relates generally to the field of small scale pumping and, more specifically, to a method and system for very small scale pumping media through microtubes. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for small scale pumping, comprising the following steps: providing one or more media; providing one or more microtubes, the one or more tubes having a first end and a second end, wherein said first end of one or more tubes is in contact with the media; and creating surface waves on the tubes, wherein at least a portion of the media is pumped through the tube.

  9. Oklahoma Industrial Energy Management Program 

    E-print Network

    Turner, W. C.; Webb, R. E.; Phillips, J. M.; Viljoen, T. A.

    1979-01-01

    series of tuition free Industrial Energy Management Conferences (over 20 given to date involving many Oklahoma industries). 2. A free energy newsletter entitled "Energy Channel" mailed to all participating Oklahoma industries. 3. A series of Energy...

  10. China's Energy Management System Program for Industry

    E-print Network

    Hedman, B.; Yu, Y.; Friedman, Z.; Taylor, R.

    2014-01-01

    | iipnetwork.org China’s Energy Management System Program for Industry Bruce Hedman, Yongmiao Yu, Robert Taylor, Zach Friedman Institute for Industrial Productivity May 21 IETC 2014 ESL-IE-14-05-24 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy... Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 | iipnetwork.org • Introduction to IIP and global industrial energy use trends • Profile of China’s industrial energy use • Overview of China’s industrial energy efficiency programs • Overview of China...

  11. Small-scale physics of the ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    Progress in research on the small-scale physics of the ocean is reviewed. The contribution of such research to the understanding of the large scales is addressed and compared for various depth ranges of the ocean. The traditional framework for discussing small-scale measurements and turbulence is outlined, and recent research in the area is reviewed, citing references. Evidence for the existence of salt fingering in oceanic mixing is discussed. Factors that might inhibit the growth of salt fingers are assessed, and the influence of differences between laboratory tank and ocean in studying the fingers is discussed. The role of salt fingers in creating intrusions is examined. Instruments and methods used to measure the smallest scales at which there is appreciable variation and the stability of the patch of ocean in which the small-scale motions take place are considered.

  12. Small Scale Coal Power Plant in Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taufik Sastrawinata

    The Indonesian situation has arisen from the imbalance of electric power demand growth and the development of its supply capacity. With the difficult condition of investment as today, it is difficult to implement network expansion and power plant construction. The advantages of developing small scale power plant are: relatively more competitive compared to Diesel Plant, can be used to provide

  13. SMALL SCALE BIOMASS FUELED GAS TURBINE ENGINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new generation of small scale (less than 20 MWe) biomass fueled, power plants are being developed based on a gas turbine (Brayton cycle) prime mover. These power plants are expected to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of generating power from fuels such as wood. The n...

  14. Small-scale coronal structure, part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, David F.

    1986-01-01

    Recent observations and models pertaining specifically to solar coronal bright points (BPs) and generally to small-scale coronal structure are reviewed. Two questions were addressed: What is the degree of correspondence among various alleged signatures of BPs at different levels of atmosphere and what can PBs tell about the emerging flux spectrum of the sun?

  15. EPRI's Industrial Energy Management Program

    E-print Network

    Mergens, E.; Niday, L.

    , and wood Materials Production-metals, glass, and mining/minerals processing Process Industries-food and agriculture, pulp and paper, textiles, chemicals, and petroleum Efforts in each sector include research, development, and commercialization... ladle refining, plasma cupola commercialization, and EAF dust treatment commercialization. Process Industry OfficeslPIOj The United States food and agriculture, textiles, chemicals, and petroleum industries consume 320 billion kWh per year, almost...

  16. Industrial Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Applied Tech., Adult, and Community Education.

    This document contains vocational education program course standards for exploratory courses, practical arts courses, and job preparatory programs offered at the secondary and postsecondary level as part of the industrial education component in Florida. Curriculum frameworks are provided for 144 programs/clusters; representative topics are as…

  17. Classification of wetlands vegetation using small scale color infrared imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. S. L.

    1975-01-01

    A classification system for Chesapeake Bay wetlands was derived from the correlation of film density classes and actual vegetation classes. The data processing programs used were developed by the Laboratory for the Applications of Remote Sensing. These programs were tested for their value in classifying natural vegetation, using digitized data from small scale aerial photography. Existing imagery and the vegetation map of Farm Creek Marsh were used to determine the optimal number of classes, and to aid in determining if the computer maps were a believable product.

  18. Industrial Alcoholism Programs: The Problem, The Program, The Professional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Lawrence M.

    1976-01-01

    Alcoholism, as a national health problem, is receiving increasingly more attention from private industry as well as from federal and local government. The author addresses himself to the problem of alcoholism in industry and reviews the historical development of industrial alcoholism programs. He concludes with suggestions for the community…

  19. Industrial Energy Efficiency Programs: Development and Trends 

    E-print Network

    Chittum, A.; Kaufman, N.; Elliot, N.

    2010-01-01

    As more states establish Energy Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS), goals for energy efficiency savings are increasing across the country. Increasingly, states are relying on their industrial energy efficiency programs to find and help implement...

  20. The Genetic Programming of Industrial Microorganisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopwood, David A.

    1981-01-01

    Traces the development of the field of industrial microbial genetics, describing a range of techniques for genetic programing. Includes a discussion of site-directed mutagenesis, protoplast fusion, and recombinant DNA manipulations. (CS)

  1. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the southeast: new impetus for an old energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The Southeastern conference, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power: New Impetus for an Old Energy Source, was convened to provide a forum for state legislators and other interested persons to discuss the problems facing small-scale hydro developers, and to recommend appropriate solutions to resolve those problems. During the two-day meeting state legislators and their staffs, along with dam developers, utility and industry representatives, environmentalists and federal/state officials examined and discussed the problems impeding small-scale hydro development at the state level. Based upon the problem-oriented discussions, alternative policy options were recommended for consideration by the US Department of Energy, state legislatures and the staff of the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). Emphasis was placed on the legal, institutional, environmental and economic barriers at the state level, as well as the federal delays associated with licensing small-scale hydro projects. Whereas other previously held conferences have emphasized the identification and technology of small-scale hydro as an alternative energy source, this conference stressed legislative resolution of the problems and delays in small-scale hydro licensing and development. Panel discussions and workshops are summarized. Papers on the environmental, economic, and legal aspects of small-scale hydropower development are presented. (LCL)

  2. Industrial Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This document contains the Florida program course standards for 151 courses in industrial education. For each course, the following information is provided: program title, effective date of standards, code number, whether secondary or postsecondary, credits, educational level, certification coverage, major concepts/content, laboratory activities,…

  3. Aeronautics Leadership Program Canada's aerospace industry

    E-print Network

    Aeronautics Leadership Program Canada's aerospace industry is one of the largest in the world looking for its new hires to hold university degrees. www.uwindsor.ca/aeronautics The UWindsor Aeronautics of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences #12;Aeronautics Leadership Program We look forward to meeting you

  4. Forging strategic partnerships with industry: The Industrial Fellows Program

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, K.; Castain, R.; Hynes, M.V.; Sanders, V.; Siemon, R.; Tellier, A.; Tiedman, A.; Umbarger, J.; Wilson, M.

    1995-04-01

    Science, technology, and industrial policy are at an important nexus due to long developing trends in the national and international economy and recent events in national security affairs. The research and development assets built by the American taxpayer in response to the Cold War face a quest for relevance in the new era. National competitiveness in international markets has emerged as an important new priority. To better understand the perspective of US industry the management of the Los Alamos National Laboratory has initiated an Industrial Fellows Program which has placed six individuals at US corporations. Their goal is to create strategic partnerships through increased understanding of technical needs of industry and the technical capabilities of the Laboratory.

  5. Helping small scale hydro come back

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    The design, performance, and economics of vertical pumps run in reverse as turbines for small-scale hydroelectric power plants were studied. The results indicate that turbine-pumps provide significant advantages. They are simple to install, operate, and maintain. The pump tested can operate at efficiencies up to 87%, covering 30 to 60 ft of head, and flow rates up to 600 cfs. On the basis of cost per kilowatt hour, the reverse pump is competitive with a tubular turbine, and better than a Kaplan turbine. Capital investment for a pump is smaller than for a turbine. In cases where water can be impounded, a reverse pump can attain full water utilization. (The previous analysis was based on run of river operations.) A relatively small plant of 336 kW can provide power at a cost of 3.8 cents per kWh, which is lower than the units discussed above. When a small scale hydro power developer is limited by the amount of capital he can raise, the reverse pump arrangement should become attractive.

  6. Small-scale modular wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressers, Scott; Vernier, Chris; Regan, Jess; Chappell, Stephen; Hotze, Mark; Luhman, Stephen; Avirovik, Dragan; Priya, Shashank

    2010-04-01

    This study reports the design, fabrication, and implementation of a horizontal-axis, small-scale modular wind turbine termed as "small-scale wind energy portable turbine (SWEPT)". Portability, efficient operation at low wind speeds, and cost-effectiveness were the primary goals of SWEPT. The fabrication and component design for SWEPT are provided along with the modifications that can provide improvement in performance. A comparative analysis is presented with the prototype reported in literature. The results show that current version of SWEPT leads to 150% increase in output power. It was found that SWEPT can generate 160 mW power at rated wind speed of 7 mph and 500mW power at wind speeds above 10 mph with a cut-in wind speed of 3.8 mph. Furthermore, the prototype was subjected to field testing in which the average output was measured to be 40 mW despite the average wind distribution being centered around 3 mph.

  7. DOE small-scale hydroelectric demonstration program. F. W. E. Stapenhorst Inc. , Goodyear Lake hydroelectric-generating-station redevelopment. Second annual report, operating year 2, August 11, 1981-August 10, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Monthly and year-long data are presented on the performance, maintenance, power generation, flow conditions, and operating costs during the period from August 11, 1981 to August 10, 1982 at the Goodyear Lake (New York) small-scale hydroelectric power plant. During this period the plant generated 5,806,500 kWh of power for a total income of $194,401, which represents approximately 79% of predicted values. The shortfall in output resulted from the failure of Generator Unit No. 1 which was out of operation for two months. (LCL)

  8. Creating Tech Programs Industry Wants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Community colleges serve on the front line of workforce development. With their focus on applied science associate degrees and technical certificate programs, they provide students with a high-quality, low-cost education that prepares them for careers in one to two years. And for students who can't take time away from their family or work to…

  9. Oklahoma Industrial Energy Management Program 

    E-print Network

    Estes, C. B.; Turner, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    is being done in large companies; but most small to medium companies have yet to undertake a substantial energy management program. The reasons are many but often they simply I do not understand the savings possible or the techniques available. Recognizing...

  10. Industrial energy-efficiency-improvement program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Progress made by industry toward attaining the voluntary 1980 energy efficiency improvement targets is reported. The mandatory reporting population has been expanded from ten original industries to include ten additional non-targeted industries and all corporations using over one trillion Btu's annually in any manufacturing industry. The ten most energy intensive industries have been involved in the reporting program since the signing of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act and as industrial energy efficiency improvement overview, based primarily on information from these industries (chemicals and allied products; primary metal industry; petroleum and coal products; stone, clay, and glass products; paper and allied products; food and kindred products; fabricated metal products; transportation equipment; machinery, except electrical; and textile mill products), is presented. Reports from industries, now required to report, are included for rubber and miscellaneous plastics; electrical and electronic equipment; lumber and wood; and tobacco products. Additional data from voluntary submissions are included for American Gas Association; American Hotel and Motel Association; General Telephone and Electronics Corporation; and American Telephone and Telegraph Company. (MCW)

  11. Small-Scale Smart Grid Construction and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surface, Nicholas James

    The smart grid (SG) is a commonly used catch-phrase in the energy industry yet there is no universally accepted definition. The objectives and most useful concepts have been investigated extensively in economic, environmental and engineering research by applying statistical knowledge and established theories to develop simulations without constructing physical models. In this study, a small-scale version (SSSG) is constructed to physically represent these ideas so they can be evaluated. Results of construction show data acquisition three times more expensive than the grid itself although mainly due to the incapability to downsize 70% of data acquisition costs to small-scale. Experimentation on the fully assembled grid exposes the limitations of low cost modified sine wave power, significant enough to recommend pure sine wave investment in future SSSG iterations. Findings can be projected to full-size SG at a ratio of 1:10, based on the appliance representing average US household peak daily load. However this exposes disproportionalities in the SSSG compared with previous SG investigations and recommended changes for future iterations are established to remedy this issue. Also discussed are other ideas investigated in the literature and their suitability for SSSG incorporation. It is highly recommended to develop a user-friendly bidirectional charger to more accurately represent vehicle-to-grid (V2G) infrastructure. Smart homes, BEV swap stations and pumped hydroelectric storage can also be researched on future iterations of the SSSG.

  12. Small-Scale Features in Pulsating Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sarah; Jaynes, Allison N.; Knudsen, David J.; Trondsen, Trond; Lessard, Marc

    2011-01-01

    A field study was conducted from March 12-16, 2002 using a narrow-field intensified CCD camera installed at Churchill, Manitoba. The camera was oriented along the local magnetic zenith where small-scale black auroral forms are often visible. This analysis focuses on such forms occurring within a region of pulsating aurora. The observations show black forms with irregular shape and nonuniform drift with respect to the relatively stationary pulsating patches. The pulsating patches occur within a diffuse auroral background as a modulation of the auroral brightness in a localized region. The images analyzed show a decrease in the brightness of the diffuse background in the region of the pulsating patch at the beginning of the offphase of the modulation. Throughout the off phase the brightness of the diffuse aurora gradually increases back to the average intensity. The time constant for this increase is measured as the first step toward determining the physical process.

  13. Industry's Interest in Ocean Engineering Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbich, John B.

    This publication presents the results of a survey conducted to determine the viewpoint of industry regarding the subject matter that should be included in ocean engineering education programs. Questionnaires were mailed to over 1,000 individuals; 270 replies, or 27 percent of those surveyed, respond. Seventy percent of the replies indicated…

  14. GAS INDUSTRY GROUNDWATER RESEARCH PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Sorensen; John R. Gallagher; Steven B. Hawthorne; Ted R. Aulich

    2000-10-01

    The objective of the research described in this report was to provide data and insights that will enable the natural gas industry to (1) significantly improve the assessment of subsurface glycol-related contamination at sites where it is known or suspected to have occurred and (2) make scientifically valid decisions concerning the management and/or remediation of that contamination. The described research was focused on subsurface transport and fate issues related to triethylene glycol (TEG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and ethylene glycol (EG). TEG and DEG were selected for examination because they are used in a vast majority of gas dehydration units, and EG was chosen because it is currently under regulatory scrutiny as a drinking water pollutant. Because benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (collectively referred to as BTEX) compounds are often very closely associated with glycols used in dehydration processes, the research necessarily included assessing cocontaminant effects on waste mobility and biodegradation. BTEX hydrocarbons are relatively water-soluble and, because of their toxicity, are of regulatory concern. Although numerous studies have investigated the fate of BTEX, and significant evidence exists to indicate the potential biodegradability of BTEX in both aerobic and anaerobic environments (Kazumi and others, 1997; Krumholz and others, 1996; Lovely and others, 1995; Gibson and Subramanian, 1984), relatively few investigations have convincingly demonstrated in situ biodegradation of these hydrocarbons (Gieg and others, 1999), and less work has been done on investigating the fate of BTEX species in combination with miscible glycols. To achieve the research objectives, laboratory studies were conducted to (1) characterize glycol related dehydration wastes, with emphasis on identification and quantitation of coconstituent organics associated with TEG and EG wastes obtained from dehydration units located in the United States and Canada, (2) evaluate the biodegradability of TEG and DEG under conditions relevant to subsurface environments and representative of natural attenuation processes, and (3) examine the possibility that high concentrations of glycol may act as a cosolvent for BTEX compounds, thereby enhancing their subsurface mobility. To encompass a wide variety of potential wastes representative of different natural gas streams and dehydration processes, raw, rich, and lean glycol solutions were collected from 12 dehydration units at eight different gas-processing facilities located at sites in Texas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Alberta. To generate widely applicable environmental fate data, biodegradation and mobility experiments were performed using four distinctly different soils: three obtained from three gas-producing areas of North America (New Mexico, Louisiana, and Alberta), and one obtained from a North Dakota wetland to represent a soil with high organic matter content.

  15. Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Miller

    2009-03-22

    This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

  16. A small-scale turbulence model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundgren, T. S.

    1993-01-01

    A previously derived analytical model for the small-scale structure of turbulence is reformulated in such a way that the energy spectrum may be computed. The model is an ensemble of two-dimensional (2D) vortices with internal spiral structure, each stretched by an axially symmetric strain flow. Stretching and differential rotation produce an energy cascade to smaller scales in which the stretching represents the effect of instabilities and the spiral structure is the source of dissipation at the end of the cascade. The energy spectrum of the resulting flow may be expressed as a time integration involving only the enstrophy spectrum of the time evolving 2D cross section flow, which may be obtained numerically. Examples are given in which a k exp -5/3 spectrum is obtained by this method. The k exp -5/3 inertial range spectrum is shown to be related to the existence of a self-similar enstrophy preserving range in the 2D enstrophy spectrum. The results are found to be insensitive to time dependence of the strain rate, including even intermittent on-or-off strains.

  17. Slip Dynamics in Small Scale Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maass, Robert; Derlet, Peter; Greer, Julia; Volkert, Cynthia

    2015-03-01

    Classical work showed that dislocation velocities are strongly dependent on applied stress. Numerous experiments have validated this for individual or groups of dislocations in macroscopic crystals by using imaging techniques combined with either mechanical data or time resolved topological data. Developments in small scale mechanical testing allow to correlate the intermittency of collective dislocation motion with the mechanical response. Discrete forward surges in displacement can be related to dislocation avalanches, which are triggered by the evolving dislocation sub-structure. We study the spatiotemporal characteristics of intermittent plastic flow in quasi-statically sheared single crystalline Au crystals with diameters between 300 nm and 10000 nm, whose displacement bursts were recorded at several kHz (Scripta Mater. 2013, 69, 586; Small, available online). Both the crystallographic slip magnitude, as well as the velocity of the slip events are exhibiting power-law scaling as. The obtained slip velocity distribution has a cubic decay at high values, and a saturated flat shoulder at lower velocities. No correlation between the slip velocity and the applied stress or plastic strain is found. Further, we present DD-simulations that are supportive of our experimental findings. The simulations suggest that the dynamics of the internal stress fields dominate the evolving dislocation structure leading to velocities that are insensitive to the applied stress - a regime indicative of microplasticity.

  18. Impact of small scale fermentation technology on food safety in developing countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasmine Motarjemi

    2002-01-01

    Fermentation is one of the oldest technologies used for food preservation. Over the centuries, it has evolved and been refined and diversified. Today, a variety of food products is derived from this technology in households, small-scale food industries as well as in large enterprises. Furthermore, fermentation is an affordable food preservation technology and of economic importance to developing countries.In the

  19. First Principle Approach to Modeling of Small Scale Helicopter

    E-print Network

    Budiyono, A; Lesmana, H

    2008-01-01

    The establishment of global helicopter linear model is very precious and useful for the design of the linear control laws, since it is never afforded in the published literatures. In the first principle approach, the mathematical model was developed using basic helicopter theory accounting for particular characteristic of the miniature helicopter. No formal system identification procedures are required for the proposed model structure. The relevant published literatures however did not present the linear models required for the design of linear control laws. The paper presents a step by step development of linear model for small scale helicopter based on first-principle approach. Beyond the previous work in literatures, the calculation of the stability derivatives is presented in detail. A computer program is used to solve the equilibrium conditions and then calculate the change in aerodynamics forces and moments due to the change in each degree of freedom and control input. The detail derivation allows the c...

  20. A R&D Program for Advanced Industrial Heat Pumps

    E-print Network

    Hayes, A. J.

    The overall goal of the DOE Industrial Heat Pump Program is to foster research and development which will allow more efficient and economical recovery of waste energy in industry. Specifically, the program includes the identification of appropriate...

  1. Canada's Voluntary Industrial Energy Conservation Program 

    E-print Network

    Wolf, C. A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    themselves with the Voluntary Task Force system. TIlE PROGRAM The question that can reasonably be asked is ''Why would industrial firms choose to voluntarily practise energy conservation and commit to reporting via the Sector Task Force programme... people is necessary to improve efficiencies. Sane examples of "retrofit" projects would be: double glazing windows, adding insulation to pipes and walls, installing control devices on boilers and electrical circuits, replacing equipment like motors...

  2. A Cooperative M.S. Program in Industrial Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Guy; Gupton, John

    1983-01-01

    A well-established graduate program in industrial chemistry with a considerable degree of academic-industrial interaction is described. Students in the program undertake joint, industrially related research projects on campus (University of Central Florida) and at cooperating companies. Program objectives and eight required courses are discussed.…

  3. Exposure assessment in SMES: a low-cost approach to bring OHS services to small-scale enterprises.

    PubMed

    Seneviratne, Mahinda; Phoon, Wai On

    2006-01-01

    There is increased attention to improving occupational health and safety in small to medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). The Workers Health Centre, a not-for-profit OHS service in western Sydney, assessed workplace exposures in two SMEs following intervention by regulatory agencies. A low-cost monitoring program for noise, airbone dust, fibers and chemicals was conducted at these two metal working industry workplaces. Results showed that exposure to the hazards were above the statutory limits and there was generally an unhealthy access to OHS information by the predominantly immigrant or low literate worker population, were identified. The potential for using a program of low-cost exposure assessments, accompanied by a strategy to provide OHSs information for workers in small-scale enterprises, is discussed. PMID:16610529

  4. A methodology for small scale rural land use mapping in semi-arid developing countries using orbital imagery. 1: Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangenderen, J. L. (principal investigator); Lock, B. F.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This research program has developed a viable methodology for producing small scale rural land use maps in semi-arid developing countries using imagery obtained from orbital multispectral scanners.

  5. Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, E. T.

    1974-01-01

    The Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP) was originated in 1959 by the Army, Navy, and Air Force Ballistic Missile Agencies. Known at that time as IDEP--Interservice Data Exchange Program--its intent was to eliminate duplicate testing of parts and components by disseminating pertinent test data among Department of Defense contractors and various government agencies. In 1966 both the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Canadian Military Electronics Standards Agency (CAMESA) recognized the value of the data provided by the program and became participants. Today, GIDEP provides the interchange of specialized technical data to all the military services, participating government contractors and numerous government agencies such as the Atomic Energy Commission, Federal Aviation Administration, Defense Supply Agency, and the Small Business Administration.

  6. Exploring Small-Scale Sport Event Tourism in Malaysia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aminuddin Yusof; Mohd Sofian Omar-Fauzee; Parilah Mohd Shah; Soh Kim Geok

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the potential of a small-scale sport event as tourist attraction in Malaysia using Leiper's (1990) tourist attraction system as framework. This paper reports the results of a study conducted on a small scale event sport tourism in Lake Kenyir Malaysia. Data for this study were collected quantitatively from 400 subjects using the

  7. Analysis of Small-Scale Hydraulic Systems Jicheng Xia

    E-print Network

    Durfee, William K.

    Analysis of Small-Scale Hydraulic Systems Jicheng Xia Department of Mechanical Engineering, MN, 55455 Email: wkdurfee@umn.edu We investigated small-scale hydraulic power system using a system- mine whether the high power density advantage of hydraulic power system holds at small sizes. Hydraulic

  8. Small scale adaptive optics experiment systems engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boykin, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Assessment of the current technology relating to the laser power beaming system which in full scale is called the Beam Transmission Optical System (BTOS). Evaluation of system integration efforts are being conducted by the various government agencies and industry. Concepts are being developed for prototypes of adaptive optics for a BTOS.

  9. Program of Studies: Trade and Industrial: Grades 9-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax County Schools, VA.

    Part 1 of the trade and industrial education curriculum guide for grades 9-12 contains a brief program overview and Vocational Industrial Clubs of America (VICA) description, more detailed descriptions of in-school and out-of-school programs and program classification methods, a list of references, and charts of various programs and training…

  10. The Environmental protection agency industrial technology transfer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suter, K. H.

    1974-01-01

    Today TAC consists of a full service information center and five programs, which are: (1) our industrial program; (2) the energy information center; (3) the business and industry extension program; (4) the remote sensing program; and (5) the center for environmental research and development.

  11. INDUSTRIAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY MASTER'S DEGREE PROGRAM HANDBOOK

    E-print Network

    Foroosh, Hassan

    INDUSTRIAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY MASTER'S DEGREE PROGRAM HANDBOOK University of Central Research Process Thesis Process Practicum Process PROGRAM MILESTONES 13 Orientation Milestone First Psychology. We refer to our program as "applied" and "professional." The "applied" refers to our focus

  12. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the relevant physical properties projected for actual WTP process streams.

  13. NASA/industry advanced turboprop technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemianski, Joseph A.; Whitlow, John B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental and analytical effort shows that use of advanced turboprop (propfan) propulsion instead of conventional turbofans in the older narrow-body airline fleet could reduce fuel consumption for this type of aircraft by up to 50 percent. The NASA Advanced Turboprop (ATP) program was formulated to address the key technologies required for these thin, swept-blade propeller concepts. A NASA, industry, and university team was assembled to develop and validate applicable design codes and prove by ground and flight test the viability of these propeller concepts. Some of the history of the ATP project, an overview of some of the issues, and a summary of the technology developed to make advanced propellers viable in the high-subsonic cruise speed application are presented. The ATP program was awarded the prestigious Robert J. Collier Trophy for the greatest achievement in aeronautics and astronautics in America in 1987.

  14. Garnering the Industrial Sector: A Comparison of Cutting Edge Industrial DSM Programs 

    E-print Network

    Kyricopoulos, P. F.; Wikler, G. A.; Faruqui, A.; Wood, B. G.

    1995-01-01

    . INDUSTRIAL DSM PLAYERS The principal players in industrial DSM programs are the customer, the utility, and trade allies (equipment manufacturers, distributors, sales engineers, professional trade associations). Successful DSM programs balance the needs... and implement programs, pay incentive costs, and hire industry technical experts to assess operations and provide design assistance. These costs need to be balanced against the avoided cost benefits, in order for a program to be cost effective. Utilities...

  15. Greenhouse Gas Programs, Energy Efficiency, and the Industrial Sector 

    E-print Network

    Zhou, A.; Tutterow, V.; Harris, J.

    2009-01-01

    is central to addressing climate change issues in the industrial sector. This paper describes the energy-efficiency programs, methodologies, and technologies that can economically lead to significant GHG reductions in the industrial sector. The paper also...

  16. Big Ideas at a Very Small Scale

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Claudia Khourey-Bowers

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to share a learning-cycle sequence of lessons designed to convey the particulate nature of matter through use of physical models and analogical thinking. This activity was adapted from Conceptual Chemistry, a long-running professional development program for teachers of grades 4–9. Conceptual Chemistry’s approach is to emphasize broad conceptual understanding, students’ ideas about science, and content-focused literacy skills. As a result of engaging in this series of lessons, students will observe macroscopic properties of matter and begin to develop scientific models to explain the particulate nature of matter.

  17. Small-scale forestry in the Italian Alps: from mass

    E-print Network

    Pettenella, Davide

    integration, small-scale level both of harvesting and of sawmilling activities) Three main reasons: 2) market differentiated, often available in relatively limited quantities (e.g. specialities like truffles). Important

  18. Small-Scale Anode Activity in Vacuum Arcs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. P. Harris

    1982-01-01

    Coordinated high-speed movies, streak photographs, and voltage\\/current oscillograms have been taken for vacuum arcs on copper-based electrodes at peak currents up to 70 kA in half-cycle pulses. These results show that small-scale transient luminous anode-spot activity is associated with the strong voltage noise that precedes the establishment of the conventional large anode spots. The characteristic dimensions of the small-scale spots

  19. Introduction of Car Alternators for Small Scale Wind Power Generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nanayakkara D. P. N

    Generally Permanent Magnet Generators (PMGs) are widely used for small-scale wind power generation. But in Sri Lanka, it is difficult to find a competitive market for such generators and permanent magnets, since the price of a PMG is very high and is very rare.Due to such conditions, expansion of small-scale wind power applications among rural communities are significantly limited. The

  20. The Physical Character of Small-Scale Interstellar Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauroesch, James T.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this program was to obtain FUSE observations of the multiple interstellar absorption lines of H2 toward the members of 3 resolvable binary/multiple star systems to explore the physical conditions in known interstellar small-scale structures. Each of the selected systems was meant to address a different aspect of the models for the origin of these structures: 1) The stars HD 32039/40 were meant to probe a temporally varying component which probed a cloud with an inferred size of tens to a few hundreds of AU. The goal was to see if there was any significant H2 associated with this component; 2) The star HD 36408B and its companion HD 36408A (observed as part of FUSE GTO program P119) show significant spatial and temporal (proper motion induced) Na I column variations in a strong, relatively isolated component, as well as a relatively simple component structure. The key goal here was to identify any differences in H2 or C I excitation between the sightlines, and to measure the physical conditions (primarily density and temperature) in the temporally varying component; 3) The stars HD 206267C and HD 206267D are highly reddened sightlines which showed significant variations in K I and molecular absorption lines in multiple velocity components. Coupled with FUSE GTO observations of HD 206267A (program P116), the goal was to study the variations in H2 along sightlines which are significantly more distant, with larger separations, and with greater extinctions than the other selected binary systems.

  1. Advanced Industrial Materials Program. Annual progress report, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Stooksbury, F. [comp.

    1994-06-01

    Mission of the AIM program is to commercialize new/improved materials and materials processing methods that will improve energy efficiency, productivity, and competitiveness. Program investigators in the DOE national laboratories are working with about 100 companies, including 15 partners in CRDAs. Work is being done on intermetallic alloys, ceramic composites, metal composites, polymers, engineered porous materials, and surface modification. The program supports other efforts in the Office of Industrial Technologies to assist the energy-consuming process industries. The aim of the AIM program is to bring materials from basic research to industrial application to strengthen the competitive position of US industry and save energy.

  2. Summary of current state industrial energy conservation programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Anderson; A. R. Evans; P. J. Grogan

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary study of industrial energy conservation measures initiated by states under the State Energy Conservation Program is presented. Elements, targets, and administration of state programs are briefly examined. As the results of the study indicate, the states perceive the need for Federal assistance in programs to: establish a forum for coordination of state programs and interchange of approaches and

  3. An NSF Industry/University Cooperative Research Program CCMC PROSPECTUS

    E-print Network

    An NSF Industry/University Cooperative Research Program CCMC PROSPECTUS May 2005 CERAMIC ........................................................................................21 #12;PROSPECTUS, MAY 2005 3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Ceramic and Composite Materials Center NSF Industry Jersey (Rutgers) and Pennsylvania State University (Penn State). It is part of the NSF Industry

  4. A proposed university/industry/government cooperative aero educational program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodsky, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    A program is proposed to provide mutual aid between the beleaguered Aero Engineering degree-granting departments in the United States and United States industry/government. It is proposed that any accrued cost differentials be supported by the latter groups, although all programs proposed will provide true mutual assistance. The program suggested is designed to provide assured industrial experience for Aero faculty members, combat engineering obsolescence for industry engineers, provide assured summer work for Aero undergraduates, encourage industry/government input in curriculum and course planning, and funnel significant laboratory devices into the university system.

  5. Model University-Industry Engineering Programs. An AEA Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Electronics Association, Palo Alto, CA.

    This guide presents 37 sample industry-university programs as part of the American Electronics Association's leadership role of encouraging companies to increase investments in engineering education. Model university-industry partnerships in the following areas are presented: faculty assistance grants; faculty loan programs; endowments; graduate…

  6. Analytical Methods for Implementing Industrial Load Management Programs 

    E-print Network

    Hassig, N.; Chan, M.; Carlson, R.

    1982-01-01

    -of-day rates for industrial customers. Utilities are relying on analytical tools such as PERT/CPM, linear programming, and decision analysis to plan and administer the programs. Industrial users should be aware of the methods utilities are using to design...

  7. A Small-College Undergraduate Program in Industrial Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasinski, Jerry P.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a program designed to prepare students to work upon graduation in the industrial chemical field as chief chemists in production plants; in analytical laboratories; or in sales, management, or public relations within chemical firms. Also describes industry-college relationship established to achieve program objectives. (JN)

  8. Educational Technology Looks at Industry-Sponsored Economics Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedermeyer, Fred C.

    1990-01-01

    Surveys the technical characteristics of 22 industry-sponsored instructional programs in economics, and identifies the objectives of economics education. Contends that the 22 concepts identified by the Joint Council on Economic Education need to be translated into a framework of learning objectives. Concludes that industry sponsored programs could…

  9. Energy Conservation Program Guide for Industry and Commerce (EPIC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massey

    1975-01-01

    The first supplement to the National Bureau of Standards Handbook 115 ''Energy Conservation Program for Industry and Commerce (EPIC),'' provides more ideas and suggestions to aid in energy conservation efforts by industrial companies, educational systems, hospitals, and government agencies. The supplement includes a revised explanation of how to implement an energy conservation program, an expanded checklist of energy conservation opportunities,

  10. Analysis of curricular units of a graduate industrial hygiene program

    E-print Network

    Collier, Stephen Ward

    1983-01-01

    May 1983 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene ANALYSIS OF CURRICULAR UNITS OF A GRADUATE INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE PROGRAM A Thesis by STEPHEN WARD COLLIER Approved as to style and content by: J. Vernon (Chairman of Committee) C. L. Gilmore (member... J. Vernon In order to examine the nature of curricular units and methods of instruction used in graduate level industrial hygiene programs, 20 previously validated task/activities were selected anc 20 corresponding enabling objectrves were...

  11. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Annual progress report FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This Annual Report for FY 1995 contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Areas covered here are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  12. Manufacturing and testing of monoblock tungsten small-scale mock-ups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Visca; B Riccardi; A Orsini; C Testani

    2001-01-01

    In the frame of the European Technology R&D program for ITER, and in the area of High Heat Flux plasma facing Components (HHFC), representative small-scale mock-ups were manufactured and tested to compare different concepts and joining technologies (i.e. active brazing, Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIPping), diffusion bonding, etc.). On the basis of the results obtained by thermal fatigue tests, the monoblock

  13. 77 FR 68104 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Socio-Economic Profile of Small-Scale...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ...Socio-Economic Profile of Small-Scale Commercial Fisheries in the U.S...collect socio-economic data about small scale fishermen and seafood dealers operating...socio-economic performance of small- scale fleets, and evaluate the...

  14. Office of Industry Research and Technology Programs Greetings to Industry

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    center has expertise in a variety of areas and is looking for additional partners/members. The Hoosier a few industry partners and are looking for more. This issue's featured faculty is Professor Gary Cheng recent work includes high speed laser crystallization of thin film solar cells, laser dynamic forming

  15. Computer Adaptive Testing for Small Scale Programs and Instructional Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.; Guo, Fanmin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates measurement decision theory (MDT) as an underlying model for computer adaptive testing when the goal is to classify examinees into one of a finite number of groups. The first analysis compares MDT with a popular item response theory model and finds little difference in terms of the percentage of correct classifications. The…

  16. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program annual progress report, FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is a part of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of AIM is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. OIT has embarked on a fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrating on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans, some of which have been completed. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support.

  17. Industrial Machinery Maintenance and Repair. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This vocational program guide is intended to assist in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a program in industrial machinery maintenance and repair in school districts, area vocational centers, and community colleges. The following topics are covered: job duties of millwrights, maintenance mechanics, and machinery erectors; program

  18. PETITION AND AUTHORIZATION FOR INTERNSHIP PROGRAM IN INDUSTRY: BME 6991

    E-print Network

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    PETITION AND AUTHORIZATION FOR INTERNSHIP PROGRAM IN INDUSTRY: BME 6991 Student's Name permission to register in BME 6991 for _________hour(s) of credit to be earned through Internship program must be approved and signed by your internship supervisor and Graduate Program Chair). o Internship

  19. A Comparative Study to Determine the Efficacy of Two Industrial Arts Program Approaches Upon Pupils' Attitudes Toward Manufacturing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazzini, Phillip Albert

    This experimental study was designed to determine the differences in attitudes toward the manufacturing industry among pupils enrolled in (1) a conventional industrial arts program, (2) an innovative industrial arts program, and (3) a parochial school having no industrial arts program. A self-constructed attitude scale was administered to 128…

  20. On the Small-Scale Morphology of Asthenospheric Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, V.; Davaille, A.; Crambes, C.

    2003-12-01

    We investigated the interaction of small-scale cold instabilities dripping from a cooling lithosphere with a shear flow confined in the asthenosphere, using analog experiments. Rayleigh numbers ranged between 104 and 108. The fluids were either polymer solutions (constant viscosity), sugar or corn syrups (viscosity depending on temperature), or wax (phase transition). When cooling away from the ridge, the thickening lithosphere becomes thermally unstable and develops small-scale convective instabilities at its bottom. For sufficiently fast asthenospheric flow, these instabilities are sheared and remain trapped in the asthenosphere, following a helicoidal path aligned with the direction of plate motion. A phase diagram and scaling laws for the flow characteristics were determined. The observed helicoidal pattern could explain some geophysical observables such as small wavelength lineations in the terrestrial gravity field, or seismic anisotropy anomalies under the Pacific plate. Moreover, the distance from the ridge at which the small-scale instabilities form depends on the underlying mantle temperature: for a hotter mantle, they are generated closer to the ridge. Therefore, in the case of a ridge-centered plume, the hot temperature anomaly due to the plume triggers small-scale instabilities almost at the ridge. The heat transfer out of the mantle is accelerated, and the thickening of the lithosphere away from the ridge is delayed. Therefore, a groove at the bottom of the lithosphere may be expected along the track of a ridge-centred hotspot.

  1. DISPOSAL OF SMALL-SCALE FISH PROCESSING WASTE THROUGH COMPOSTING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large catfish processors in the U.S. typically recycle fish waste into fish meal. For small-scale processors or aquaculture research facilities, fish waste disposal can be problematic. We adapted a design developed for composting wastes from Minnesota fishing lodges and tested it for suitability fo...

  2. A SMALL SCALE BIOMASS FUELED GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Purvis; J. D. Craig

    A new generation of small scale (less than 20 MWe) biomass fueled, power plants are being developed based on a gas turbine (Brayton cycle) prime mover. These power plants are expected to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of generating power from fuels such as wood. The new power plants are also expected to economically utilize annual plant growth

  3. Economic assessment of small-scale electricity generation from wind 

    E-print Network

    McAllister, Kristen Dawn

    2007-09-17

    Analysis was done to determine if small-scale wind energy could be economically feasible on a cotton farm with 1,200 irrigated acres, a house, and a barn. Lubbock and Midland were locations chosen for this model farm and the twenty-year analysis. A...

  4. Small-scale transition in a plane mixing layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lein-Saing Huang; Chih-Ming Ho

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the generation process of random small-scale turbulence in an originally laminar mixing layer. The evolutions of the two types of deterministic structures, the spanwise and streamwise vortices, were first clarified in order to determine their roles in the transition process. A scaling rule for the streamwise distance from the trailing edge of the

  5. ROBUST INTELLIGENT CONTROL OF SMALL-SCALE MECHATRONIC DEVICES

    E-print Network

    Efe, Mehmet Önder

    ROBUST INTELLIGENT CONTROL OF SMALL-SCALE MECHATRONIC DEVICES Mehmet Önder Efe1 , Lemi Dahan Acay2 and Pradeep K. Khosla3 1 Atilim University, Department of Mechatronics Engineering, ncek, 06836 Ankara, Turkey Engineering Department, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213-3890, U.S.A. e-mail: pkk@ece.cmu.edu Abstract Mechatronics

  6. ORIGINAL PAPER Small-scale spatial heterogeneity of arbuscular mycorrhizal

    E-print Network

    Pringle, Anne

    . Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi . Wetland . Calcareous fen . T-RFLP Introduction Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungiORIGINAL PAPER Small-scale spatial heterogeneity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal abundance December 2006 # Springer-Verlag 2006 Abstract Although it has become increasingly clear that arbuscular

  7. 2010 Thin Film & Small Scale Mechanical Behavior Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Thomas Balk

    2010-07-30

    Over the past decades, it has been well established that the mechanical behavior of materials changes when they are confined geometrically at least in one dimension to small scale. It is the aim of the 2010 Gordon Conference on 'Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior' to discuss cutting-edge research on elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation as well as degradation mechanisms like fracture, fatigue and wear at small scales. As in the past, the conference will benefit from contributions from fundamental studies of physical mechanisms linked to material science and engineering reaching towards application in modern applications ranging from optical and microelectronic devices and nano- or micro-electrical mechanical systems to devices for energy production and storage. The conference will feature entirely new testing methodologies and in situ measurements as well as recent progress in atomistic and micromechanical modeling. Particularly, emerging topics in the area of energy conversion and storage, such as material for batteries will be highlighted. The study of small-scale mechanical phenomena in systems related to energy production, conversion or storage offer an enticing opportunity to materials scientists, who can provide new insight and investigate these phenomena with methods that have not previously been exploited.

  8. Study of small-scale cavity growth mechanisms for UCG

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Yeary; J. B. Riggs

    1987-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to evaluate previously proposed small-scale cavity growth mechanisms in Underground Coal Gasification (UCG). Quarried blocks of lignite from Rockdale, Texas, and subbituminous coal from Hanna, Wyoming, were exposed to high-temperature gases in a refractory chamber in order to access their behavior under UCG conditions. Effects of gas temperature, gas composition, and gas flow rate

  9. Small-scale convection and divergent plate boundaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Boutilier; C. E. Keen

    1999-01-01

    This paper explores the suggestion that observations of large igneous crustal thickness at rifted volcanic margins may in part be explained by small-scale convection in the upper mantle. This may increase the delivery of magma to the overlying lithosphere without the need for anomalously high mantle temperatures. This concept is quantitatively assessed by numerical modeling of the flow, caused by

  10. Understanding of shape and size on small scale atlas maps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rod Gerber

    1991-01-01

    Teachers regularly use small scale maps with their classes in their geography and social studies work to locate places or to conduct more detailed studies. Many of these maps are derived from school atlases. It is assumed that the different sizes and shapes of the continents, regional areas and other areas are understood by the children as they are presented

  11. Evaluating the Evolution of Small Scale Open Source Software Systems

    E-print Network

    Cordy, James R.

    new features. This growth is accompanied by increasing complexity of the software. At a certain pointEvaluating the Evolution of Small Scale Open Source Software Systems Chanchal Kumar Roy and James R://www.cs.queensu.ca/~cordy Abstract. For real-world software to remain satisfactory to its stake- holders requires its continual

  12. A small scale biomass fueled gas turbine engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Craig; C. R. Purvis

    1999-01-01

    A new generation of small scale (less than 20 MWd) biomass fueled, power plants are being developed based on a gas turbine (Brayton cycle) prime mover. These power plants are expected to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of generating power from fuels such as wood. The new power plants are also expected to economically utilize annual plant growth

  13. Analysis of Small-Scale Hydraulic Actuation Jicheng Xia

    E-print Network

    Durfee, William K.

    of force and power while at the same time being relatively light weight compared to the equivalent to an equivalent electromechanical system comprised of off-the-shelf components. Calculation results revealed that high operating pressures are needed for small-scale hydraulics to be lighter than the equivalent

  14. Performance analysis of small-scale experimental facility of TWDEC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryoh Kawana; Motoo Ishikawa; Hiromasa Takeno; Takayoshi Yamamoto; Yasuyoshi Yasaka

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present paper is to analyze small-scale experimental facilities of TWDEC (Travelling Wave type Direct Energy Converter) and to propose a modification in regard to a measuring device of the facilities by means of numerical simulation with the axisymmetrical two-dimensional approximation (a PIC method). The numerical simulation has given the following results: (1) tendency of the numerical

  15. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Forestry Projects. Guidelines for Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ffolliott, Peter F.; Thames, John L.

    This manual, the third in a series of publications that address community development possibilities in developing nations, provides guidelines for small-scale forestry projects that are integrative and conservation-oriented. Chapters focus on: (1) users and uses (specifying targeted audience and general objectives); (2) planning process (including…

  16. Turbulence Small Scale Properties Investigated by Light Scattering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antar Ghassan Y

    2001-01-01

    The small scales properties of turbulent density fluctuations are experimentally investigated using light scattering. This technique yields the Fourier transform of the density fluctuations. The fully developed turbulent flow is a compressed air-jet issuing from a convergent nozzle. The deviation of the signal probability distribution from a Gaussian is quantified using the flatness factor that tends to 3 with decreasing

  17. The Role of Leadership in Small Scale Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Wei; DeBrot, David; Witney, Carol

    2015-01-01

    By investigating the factors facilitating and hindering a small scale educational change, this study highlights the crucial role of leadership in designing and implementing an educational change at a transnational university in Vietnam. During its initiation stage, the programme leaders seemed to fail to (1) set up a clear schedule for changing,…

  18. Small-scale resistance spot welding of austenitic stainless steels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinji Fukumoto; Kana Fujiwara; Shin Toji; Atsushi Yamamoto

    2008-01-01

    Small-scale resistance spot welding (SSRSW) was carried out for austenitic stainless steels. A weld lobe that shows the process window for making sound joints was obtained for type 304 stainless steel thin sheets, and the effects of welding current, force and weld time on joint strength and nugget size were investigated. The cooling rate that was estimated from the solidification

  19. Energy Programs of the Texas Industrial Commission 

    E-print Network

    Heare, J.; dePlante, L. E.

    1979-01-01

    for each industry wi I I be held in the geographic areas where a predominance 646 ESL-IE-79-04-73 Proceedings from the First Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 22-25, 1979 I 1 of the group exists. Energy intensive operations...

  20. The Texas Industrial Energy Conservation Program 

    E-print Network

    Waldrop, T.

    1982-01-01

    Industry is Texas' largest consumer of energy (46+% of total). With foresight of the escalating cost of energy, it was apparent these additional costs to industry would have two adverse effects. First, the cost of their product to the consumer would...

  1. The Carlson School Medical Industry Leadership Programs

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    industry--from insurance, medical devices, pharmaceuticals, and biotechnology to the delivery of care in Minnesota, which maintains one of the nation's largest concentrations of health care and medical device, quality, usability, and affordability. The Medical Industry Leadership Institute prepares students

  2. DOE/Industry Matching Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    John C. Lee

    2003-09-30

    For the academic year 2001-2002, the Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences received $50,000 of industrial contributions, matched by a DOE grant of $35,000. We used the combined DOE/Industry Matching Grant of $85,000 toward (a) undergraduate merit scholarships and research support, (b) graduate student support, and (c) partial support of a research scientist.

  3. Industrial Maintenance. Program CIP: 47.0303 - Industrial Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Curriculum Unit, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  4. Jet Collimation by Small-Scale Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li-Xin

    2002-01-01

    A popular model for jet collimation is associated with the presence of a large-scale and predominantly toroidal magnetic field originating from the central engine (a star, a black hole, or an accretion disk). Besides the problem of how such a large-scale magnetic field is generated, in this model the jet suffers from the fatal long-wave mode kink magnetohydrodynamic instability. In this paper we explore an alternative model: jet collimation by small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields are assumed to be local, chaotic, and tangled, but are dominated by toroidal components. Just as in the case of a large-scale toroidal magnetic field, we show that the ``hoop stress'' of the tangled toroidal magnetic fields exerts an inward force which confines and collimates the jet. The magnetic ``hoop stress'' is balanced either by the gas pressure of the jet or by centrifugal force if the jet is spinning. Since the length scale of the magnetic field is small (< the cross-sectional radius of the jet << the length of the jet), in this model the jet does not suffer from the long-wave mode kink instability. Many other problems associated with the large-scale magnetic field are also eliminated or alleviated for small-scale magnetic fields. Though it remains an open question how to generate and maintain the required small-scale magnetic fields in a jet, the scenario of jet collimation by small-scale magnetic fields is favored by the current study on disk dynamo which indicates that small-scale magnetic fields are much easier to generate than large-scale magnetic fields.

  5. Overview of the US industrial thermal energy storage program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olszewski, M.

    1981-02-01

    Thermal energy storage can contribute to industrial conservation efforts directed at saving premium (gas and oil) fuels, which is a priority national need. This can be done by using storage to allow the recycling of industrial reject heat to reduce primary energy consumption or to allow alternate fuels to replace gas and oil. Industrial thermal energy storage efforts include three major areas: in-plant reuse of industrial reject heat; external reuse of industrial reject heat for applications in the industrial or buildings sector; and use of alternate fuels to replace gas and oil. The program currently includes engineering field tests in the brick and aluminum industries. In addition, technology transfer activities are underway in the pulp and paper industry.

  6. Industry program needed for nuclear accident management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klopp

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for a management program for nuclear power accidents. According to the author, the tools and technology for severe accident management exist. The need for a clear, realistic definition of nuclear accident program requirements is discussed.

  7. Industrial cogeneration optimization program. Final report, September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Jerry; McWhinney, Jr., Robert T.

    1980-01-01

    This study program is part of the DOE Integrated Industry Cogeneration Program to optimize, evaluate, and demonstrate cogeneration systems, with direct participation of the industries most affected. One objective is to characterize five major energy-intensive industries with respect to their energy-use profiles. The industries are: petroleum refining and related industries, textile mill products, paper and allied products, chemicals and allied products, and food and kindred products. Another objective is to select optimum cogeneration systems for site-specific reference case plants in terms of maximum energy savings subject to given return on investment hurdle rates. Analyses were made that define the range of optimal cogeneration systems for each reference-case plant considering technology applicability, economic factors, and energy savings by type of fuel. This study also provides guidance to other parts of the program through information developed with regard to component development requirements, institutional and regulatory barriers, as well as fuel use and environmental considerations. (MCW)

  8. Technology Roadmap Research Program for the Steel Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph R. Vehec

    2010-12-30

    The steel industry's Technology Roadmap Program (TRP) is a collaborative R&D effort jointly sponsored by the steel industry and the United States Department of Energy. The TRP program was designed to develop new technologies to save energy , increase competitiveness, and improve the environment. TRP ran from July, 1997 to December, 2008, with a total program budget of $38 million dollars. During that period 47 R&D projects were performed by 28 unique research organizations; co-funding was provided by DOE and 60 industry partners. The projects benefited all areas of steelmaking and much know-how was developed and transferred to industry. The American Iron and Steel Institute is the owner of all intellectual property developed under TRP and licenses it at commercial rates to all steelmakers. TRP technologies are in widespread use in the steel industry as participants received royalty-free use of intellectual property in return for taking the risk of funding this research.

  9. Providing Utilities with Tools for Industrial Marketing Programs 

    E-print Network

    Cahill, L. E.

    1986-01-01

    Marketing electrotechnologies to industrial customers can be a complex task unless the right tools are available to marketing representatives. The Center for Metals Fabrication is using several tools to tailor marketing programs for 18 electric...

  10. Analysis of curricular units of a graduate industrial hygiene program 

    E-print Network

    Collier, Stephen Ward

    1983-01-01

    in the recognition, evaluation, and control of hazards, as opposed to the mem- orization of technical industrial hygiene formulae. A very clear message, calling for graduate programs to produce industrial hygienists who are educated rather than trained... to being bona fide industrial hygienists, but their competencies would seriously degrade the repu- tation for skills, abilities, knowledge, finesse, etc. , which has been characteristic of the image of indus- trial hygiene to date. The American Academy...

  11. The French National Energy Conservation Program - The Case of Industry 

    E-print Network

    Zyss, J.

    1980-01-01

    THE FRENCH NATIrnAL ENERGY CONSERVATIrn PROGRAM THE CASE OF INDUSTRY JACQUES ZYSS HEAD OF THE INDUSTRY AND AGRICULTURE DIVISION ENERGY CONSERVATION AGENCY DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRY-FRANCE PARIS, FRANCE France is certainly one... import. FRANCEJAPON RFA Therefore, France. had, from year l~/j on, to redefine a brand new energy policy and shifted its emphasis into the three following directions : - energy conservation ; - reduction of our vulnerability with respect to oil...

  12. Saint Augustine's College training program in industrial hygiene and safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROAMLESS HUDSON; WILLIAM T. SMALL

    1978-01-01

    There is a swelling upsurge of interest among smaller educational institutions in the development of undergraduate industrial hygiene programs. The following article is presented to provide broad and rapid dissemination of information useful to similar institutions contemplating entry into the industrial hygiene educational field. Also, future employers should be aware of this important new development, aimed at supplying the trained

  13. Technical Evaluation of Industrial Test Program : Wood Products : Final Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1986-01-01

    The report presents the findings of our analysis of the 10 case studies on electrical energy conservation opportunities performed under the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Industrial Test Program for Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) 2400 (Wood Products). Five studies were performed by Carroll, Hatch and Associates (CH and A) of Portland, Oregon, and five studies were performed by URS\\/ TransEnergy Systems

  14. Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP) and NASA Advisories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP) and NASA Advisories policy to practice. The contents include: 1) Purpose of the Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP); 2) NASA and GSFC Documentation; 3) NASA Advisories, differences from GIDEP; 4) GIDEP Distribution by Originator; 5) New Interim GIDEP Policy for Suspect Counterfeits; 6) NASA and Suspect Counterfeits; 7) Threats to GIDEP; and 8) Conclusions and Contact Information.

  15. Providing Utilities with Tools for Industrial Marketing Programs

    E-print Network

    Cahill, L. E.

    PROVIDING UTILITIES WITH TOOLS FOR INDUSTRIAL MARKETING PROGRAMS Laura E. Cahi 11 Center "for Metals Fabrication Columbus, Ohio Marketing electrotechnologies to industrial customers can be a complex task unless the right tools are available... to marketing representa tives. The Center for Metals Fabrication is using several tools to tailor marketing programs for 18 electric utilities. CMF provides: o A hotline that customer and utility representatives can use to get advice on implenenting...

  16. 32 CFR 2004.20 - National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (NISPOM) [201(a)].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual...to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE... National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual...release of classified information during all phases...

  17. 32 CFR 2004.20 - National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (NISPOM) [201(a)].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual...to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE... National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual...release of classified information during all phases...

  18. 32 CFR 2004.20 - National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (NISPOM) [201(a)].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual...to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE... National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual...release of classified information during all phases...

  19. The small-scale clustering properties of dwarf galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vader, J. P.; Sandage, Allan

    1991-01-01

    Two results on the small-scale clustering properties of dwarf galaxies are reported, which were identified in the vicinity of early-type Shapley-Ames galaxies on high-resolution photographic plates. The first result indicates that dwarf galaxies display the same trend of stronger clustering toward earlier morphological type on small scales as their giant counterparts on larger scales. It is suggested that early-type dwarfs can be used as dynamical probes of dark halos around early-type giant galaxies and as tracers of the dynamical evolution of such halos in dense environments. The second result pertains to the trend of increasing early-type dwarf frequency per early-type giant with environment richness previously established for rich groups. It is found that a minimum value of isolated early-type galaxies is approximately 0.25, as compared to a maximum of approximately 8 in rich environments like the Virgo Cluster.

  20. Special Issues for Program Design and Evaluation for Industrial Energy Programs 

    E-print Network

    Megdal, L.

    2007-01-01

    Designing energy efficiency programs that include serving industrial customers, and evaluating them, carries with it a set of challenges. A summary view from prior efficiency program evaluations will be presented that examines these challenges, how...

  1. Special Issues for Program Design and Evaluation for Industrial Energy Programs

    E-print Network

    Megdal, L.

    2007-01-01

    Designing energy efficiency programs that include serving industrial customers, and evaluating them, carries with it a set of challenges. A summary view from prior efficiency program evaluations will be presented that examines these challenges, how...

  2. Optoelectronic training program in industry: Philips Optoelectronics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bart H. Verbeek; Sander Arentsen

    1997-01-01

    The training program that has been developed for operators, engineers and technicians in the factory and development department of Philips Optoelectronics is described. Optoelectronics is a supplier of optoelectronic devices like semiconductor lasers, photodetectors and optical amplifiers for digital telecom, CATV and multimedia applications. The program is based on small dedicated modules with a clear learning objective and all modules

  3. Advanced Manufacturing Office (Formerly Industrial Technologies Program)

    E-print Network

    and efficiently direct energy to forming the product. Examples include additive manufacturing, selective heating.g. Additive Manufacturing; Composite Manufacture DOD: DARPA; Man.Tech. Program X Project X Program Y Project Y TBtus per year of energy use Steam Process heat Machine drive Non- process Other processes* Source

  4. ATTITUDE CONTROL OPTIMIZATION FOR A SMALL-SCALE UNMANNED HELICOPTER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard Mettler; Takeo Kanade; Mark B. Tischler; William Messner

    This paper presents results from the attitude control optimization for a small-scale helicopter by using an identified model of the vehicle dynamics that explicitly accounts for the coupled rotor\\/stabilizer\\/fuselage (r\\/s\\/f) dynamics. The accuracy of the model is verified by showing that it successfully predicts the performance of the control system currently used for Carnegie Mellon's autonomous helicopter (baseline controller). Elementary

  5. On the Dynamics of Small-Scale Solar Magnetic Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, T. E.; Title, A. M.

    1996-01-01

    We report on the dynamics of the small-scale solar magnetic field, based on analysis of very high resolution images of the solar photosphere obtained at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope. The data sets are movies from 1 to 4 hr in length, taken in several wavelength bands with a typical time between frames of 20 s. The primary method of tracking small-scale magnetic elements is with very high contrast images of photospheric bright points, taken through a 12 A bandpass filter centered at 4305 A in the Fraunhofer 'G band.' Previous studies have established that such bright points are unambiguously associated with sites of small-scale magnetic flux in the photosphere, although the details of the mechanism responsible for the brightening of the flux elements remain uncertain. The G band bright points move in the intergranular lanes at speeds from 0.5 to 5 km/s. The motions appear to be constrained to the intergranular lanes and are primarily driven by the evolution of the local granular convection flow field. Continual fragmentation and merging of flux is the fundamental evolutionary mode of small-scale magnetic structures in the solar photosphere. Rotation and folding of chains or groups of bright points are also observed. The timescale for magnetic flux evolution in active region plage is on the order of the correlation time of granulation (typically 6-8 minutes), but significant morphological changes can occur on timescales as short as 100 S. Smaller fragments are occasionally seen to fade beyond observable contrast. The concept of a stable, isolated subarcsecond magnetic 'flux tube' in the solar photosphere is inconsistent with the observations presented here.

  6. Moving bed biofilm reactors: a small-scale treatment solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Daude; T. Stephenson

    2003-01-01

    The design and operational suitability of the moving bed process for small-scale sewage treatment systems were evaluated. A prototype plant was installed at a new housing development near Winchester, UK, and operated under different conditions over an eight-month period. During normal operation, the MBBR plant produced a good quality effluent with average values for BOD5, COD, SS and NH4-N of

  7. Interaction of dynamic rupture with small-scale heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galis, Martin; Mai, P. Martin

    2014-05-01

    Broadband ground motion simulations, with frequencies up to 10Hz, are important for engineering purposes, in particular for seismic hazard assessment for critical facilities. One problem in such simulations is the generation of high frequency radiation emitted during the dynamic rupture process. Ad-hoc kinematic rupture characterizations can be tweaked through empirical models to radiate over the desired frequency range, but their physical consistency remains questionable. In contrast, for physically self-consistent dynamic rupture modeling, controlled by friction, material parameters and the adopted physical laws, the mechanism that may lead to appropriate high-frequency radiation require heterogeneity in friction, stress, or fault geometry (or even all three quantities) at unknown but small length scales. Dunham at al. (2011) studied dynamic rupture propagation on rough faults in 2D, and described how fault roughness excites high-frequency radiation. In our study, we focus on the interaction of the dynamic rupture with small-scale heterogeneities on planar faults in 3D. We study effects of the interaction of dynamic rupture with 1) small-scale heterogeneities in the medium (that is, randomized 3D wave speed and density variations), and 2) small-scale heterogeneities in the frictional parameters. Our numerical results show significant variations in rupture velocity or peak slip velocity if small-scale heterogeneities are present. This indicates that the dynamic rupture is sensitive to both types of spatial inhomogeneity. At the same time we observe that the resulting near-source seismic wave fields are not very sensitive to these rupture variations, indicating that wavefront healing effects may "simplify" the complex seismic radiation once the waves propagated several wave-lengths away from the fault.

  8. The small-scale structure of electrostatic shocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Temerin; C. Cattell; R. Lysak; M. Hudson; R. B. Torbert; F. S. Mozer; R. D. Sharp; P. M. Kintner

    1981-01-01

    It is noted that small-scale regions of large electric fields have been observed above the auroral zone by the S3-3 satellite. The data from five such electrostatic shocks are examined in great detail. The three higher altitude shocks (all above 5,700 km) are found to be associated with upward-going ion beams, indicating that the potential associated with the shock closed

  9. ‘‘Flicker’’ in small scale laser–plasma self-focusing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Coggeshall; W. C. Mead; R. D. Jones

    1988-01-01

    Small amplitude, short wavelength ion acoustic waves in laser-produced plasmas cause fluctuations in the trajectories of light rays that can lead to time-dependent, self-sustaining shifting of focal spots and a somewhat random redistribution of the light near the critical surface. This flickering is seen in simulations involving small scale beam inhomogeneities over a uniform background laser profile, which model the

  10. 'Flicker' in small scale laser-plasma self-focusing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Coggeshall; W. C. Mead; R. D. Jones

    1988-01-01

    Small amplitude, short wavelength ion acoustic waves in laser-produced plasmas cause fluctuations in the trajectories of light rays that can lead to time-dependent, self-sustaining shifting of focal spots and a somewhat random redistribution of the light near the critical surface. This flickering is seen in simulations involving small scale beam inhomogeneities over a uniform background laser profile, which model the

  11. Small-scale AFBC hot air gas turbine power cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Ashworth; H. M. Keener; A. W. Hall

    1995-01-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC), the Will-Burt Company (W-B) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have successfully developed and completed pilot plant tests on a small scale atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) system. This system can be used to generate electricity, and\\/or hot water, steam. Following successful pilot plant

  12. On fractal properties of small-scale ionospheric irregularities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Alimov; F. I. Vybornov; A. V. Rakhlin

    2007-01-01

    We consider the problem of relating the local structure of small-scale ionospheric turbulence to the measured frequency-spectrum\\u000a indices and fractal dimensions of amplitude records of the signals received on the Earth during remote sensing of the ionosphere\\u000a onboard the satellites. It is shown that knowledge of these parameters permits one to determine the true values of the local-spectrum\\u000a indices of

  13. Measurement of small-scale turbulence structure with hot wires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J C Wyngaard

    1968-01-01

    Expressions are derived for turbulence spectra measured with a single hot wire and wires in an X-array, and are applied to the problem of measurement of spectra at small scales. Isotropic turbulence and Pao's form for the three-dimensional spectrum are assumed. Calculated curves for one-dimensional spectra measured with a single wire and an X-array are presented. Experimental data in good

  14. Streamers generation by small-scale drift-Alfvén waves

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, J. S. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yu, M. Y. [Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation and Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China and Institute for Theoretical Physics I, Ruhr University, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Excitation of streamers by modulationally unstable small-scale drift-Alfvén wave (SSDAW) is investigated. It is found that the excitation depends strongly on the propagation direction of the SSDAW, and the ion and electron diamagnetic drift waves are both unstable due to the generation of streamers. It is also shown that zonal flows can be effectively excited by the SSDAW with the propagation direction different from that for streamer excitation.

  15. Does Small Scale Structure Significantly Affect Cosmological Dynamics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamek, Julian; Clarkson, Chris; Durrer, Ruth; Kunz, Martin

    2015-02-01

    The large-scale homogeneity and isotropy of the Universe is generally thought to imply a well-defined background cosmological model. It may not. Smoothing over structure adds in an extra contribution, transferring power from small scales up to large. Second-order perturbation theory implies that the effect is small, but suggests that formally the perturbation series may not converge. The amplitude of the effect is actually determined by the ratio of the Hubble scales at matter-radiation equality and today—which are entirely unrelated. This implies that a universe with significantly lower temperature today could have significant backreaction from more power on small scales, and so provides the ideal testing ground for understanding backreaction. We investigate this using two different N -body numerical simulations—a 3D Newtonian and a 1D simulation which includes all relevant relativistic effects. We show that while perturbation theory predicts an increasing backreaction as more initial small-scale power is added, in fact the virialization of structure saturates the backreaction effect at the same level independently of the equality scale. This implies that backreaction is a small effect independently of initial conditions. Nevertheless, it may still contribute at the percent level to certain cosmological observables and therefore it cannot be neglected in precision cosmology.

  16. Empirical spatial econometric modelling of small scale neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerkman, Linda

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the paper is to model small scale neighbourhood in a house price model by implementing the newest methodology in spatial econometrics. A common problem when modelling house prices is that in practice it is seldom possible to obtain all the desired variables. Especially variables capturing the small scale neighbourhood conditions are hard to find. If there are important explanatory variables missing from the model, the omitted variables are spatially autocorrelated and they are correlated with the explanatory variables included in the model, it can be shown that a spatial Durbin model is motivated. In the empirical application on new house price data from Helsinki in Finland, we find the motivation for a spatial Durbin model, we estimate the model and interpret the estimates for the summary measures of impacts. By the analysis we show that the model structure makes it possible to model and find small scale neighbourhood effects, when we know that they exist, but we are lacking proper variables to measure them.

  17. Dislocation dynamics simulations of plasticity at small scales

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Caizhi

    2010-12-15

    As metallic structures and devices are being created on a dimension comparable to the length scales of the underlying dislocation microstructures, the mechanical properties of them change drastically. Since such small structures are increasingly common in modern technologies, there is an emergent need to understand the critical roles of elasticity, plasticity, and fracture in small structures. Dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations, in which the dislocations are the simulated entities, offer a way to extend length scales beyond those of atomistic simulations and the results from DD simulations can be directly compared with the micromechanical tests. The primary objective of this research is to use 3-D DD simulations to study the plastic deformation of nano- and micro-scale materials and understand the correlation between dislocation motion, interactions and the mechanical response. Specifically, to identify what critical events (i.e., dislocation multiplication, cross-slip, storage, nucleation, junction and dipole formation, pinning etc.) determine the deformation response and how these change from bulk behavior as the system decreases in size and correlate and improve our current knowledge of bulk plasticity with the knowledge gained from the direct observations of small-scale plasticity. Our simulation results on single crystal micropillars and polycrystalline thin films can march the experiment results well and capture the essential features in small-scale plasticity. Furthermore, several simple and accurate models have been developed following our simulation results and can reasonably predict the plastic behavior of small scale materials.

  18. Extraction of Extended Small-Scale Objects in Digital Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, V. Y.

    2015-05-01

    Detection and localization problem of extended small-scale objects with different shapes appears in radio observation systems which use SAR, infra-red, lidar and television camera. Intensive non-stationary background is the main difficulty for processing. Other challenge is low quality of images, blobs, blurred boundaries; in addition SAR images suffer from a serious intrinsic speckle noise. Statistics of background is not normal, it has evident skewness and heavy tails in probability density, so it is hard to identify it. The problem of extraction small-scale objects is solved here on the basis of directional filtering, adaptive thresholding and morthological analysis. New kind of masks is used which are open-ended at one side so it is possible to extract ends of line segments with unknown length. An advanced method of dynamical adaptive threshold setting is investigated which is based on isolated fragments extraction after thresholding. Hierarchy of isolated fragments on binary image is proposed for the analysis of segmentation results. It includes small-scale objects with different shape, size and orientation. The method uses extraction of isolated fragments in binary image and counting points in these fragments. Number of points in extracted fragments is normalized to the total number of points for given threshold and is used as effectiveness of extraction for these fragments. New method for adaptive threshold setting and control maximises effectiveness of extraction. It has optimality properties for objects extraction in normal noise field and shows effective results for real SAR images.

  19. DOE's Geothermal Program: New emphasis on industrial participation

    SciTech Connect

    Mock, John, E.; Beeland, Gene

    1991-01-01

    In line with industry's traditional strong role in targeting research priorities for the Department of Energy's geothermal program, the new policy thrust toward industry-driven R&D will complement our existing planning processes. Cost-sharing and leveraging of DOE's limited research resources remain critical elements, especially at The Geysers where DOE-funded research must have a very strong potential for yielding early industrial application. Upcoming geothermal reservoir engineering program initiatives respond to industry's expressed need for new exploration technologies to find undiscovered geothermal resources where there are little or no surface manifestations and for drilling innovations to reduce the costs of exploration for such resources. In accord with the Department's policy of focusing on research supported by industry, long-term research on geopressured and hot dry rock resources has been reduced in scope or deferred.

  20. Ph.D. Program Handbook Industrial & Systems Engineering Department

    E-print Network

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    Ph.D. Program Handbook Industrial & Systems Engineering Department Wayne State University 4815-8833 http://www.ise.wayne.edu Last Revision: December 17, 2010 Table of Contents Ph.D. Admissions.................................................................................................... 2 General Instructions for Applying to the Ph.D. Program

  1. Spiegel -A Visualization Framework for Large and Small Scale Hans-Peter Bischof, Edward Dale, Tim Peterson

    E-print Network

    Bischof, Hans-Peter

    Spiegel - A Visualization Framework for Large and Small Scale Systems Hans-Peter Bischof, Edward nature of the simulation without having a visualization of the data. Very often the data is transformed allows one to visualize data. A visualization framework provides facilities to program its components

  2. Material Management Program Can Attract Local Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magad, Eugene L.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the material management certificate and the associate in applied science degree programs at William Rainey Harper College, Palatine, Illinois. Material management functions include purchasing, production control, inventory control, material handling, warehousing, packaging, computer applications, and transportation. (MF)

  3. Formation and evolution of small-scale solar magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, D. A.

    2008-06-01

    In this thesis I investigate the formation and evolution of small-scale magnetic fields on the surface of the Sun. I observe the magnetic field in quiet sun regions in an effort to further understand the baseline magnetic field that exists throughout the photosphere at all phases of the solar cycle. An automated feature tracking algorithm that I helped develop allows me to systematically analyze datasets containing over 10 5 evolving magnetic features. In 1.2"-resolution Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) magnetograms, I find that 30% of features identified by our algorithm originate without other detectable flux within 2.2 Mm. These features having an apparent unipolar origin account for 94% of the flux newly detected by the algorithm. I infer from their ensemble average that these features are actually previously existing flux, coalesced by surface flows into concentrations large and strong enough to detect. Flux coalescence is at least as important as bipolar ephemeral region emergence for introducing detectable flux into the photosphere, underscoring the importance of small-scale fields to the overall photospheric flux budget. Using 0.3"-resolution magnetograms from the Narrowband Filter Imager (NFI) on the recently-launched Hinode spacecraft, I confirm that apparent unipolar emergence seen with MDI is indeed flux coalescence. I then demonstrate that apparent unipolar emergence seen in NFI magnetograms also corresponds to coalescence of previously existing weak field. The uncoalesced flux, detectable only in the ensemble average of hundreds of these events, accounts for 30-50% of the total flux within 3 Mm of the detected features. Finally, I study small-scale fields around intermediate-scale supergranular network concentrations. This is motivated by simulations and observations showing suppression of flux production by background magnetic fields at small and large scales. Within 12 Mm of the network concentrations, I find no evidence that the concentrations systematically affect the local production of weak fields. Rather, the small-scale field usually traces the evolution of the much larger network concentrations, which evolve under the influence of the supergranular flow. These studies show the degree to which the formation and evolution of small-scale magnetic fields is intertwined with surface flows and magnetic fields on both smaller and larger scales.

  4. Industrial Waste Reduction Program annual report, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy`s Industrial Waste Reduction Program (IWRP) sponsors the development, demonstration, and deployment of technologies that offer a significant opportunity to reduce waste generation, improve productivity, and enhance environmental performance in US industry. The program emphasizes technology-driven solutions that are economically beneficial and environmentally sound. Its goal is to improve the energy efficiency and competitiveness of private industry by cost-effectively reducing waste. Industry, universities, national laboratories and other government agencies are working cooperatively to meet this goal. The IWRP emphasizes the timely commercialization of new technologies that can produce measurable energy, environmental, and economic benefits. All projects are substantially cost-shared with private companies to foster the commercialization process. The program is proud to claim four successfully commercialized technologies that have begun generating benefits. The current IWRP portfolio boasts 32 projects in progress. Funding for the IWRP has grown from $1.7 million in 1990 to $13 million in 1994. New companies join the program each year, reaping the benefits of working cooperatively with government. New technologies are expected to reach commercial success in fiscal year (FY) 1994, further increasing the benefits already accrued. Future Annual Reports will also include projects from the Waste Utilization and Conversion Program. Descriptions of the program`s 32 active projects are organized in this report according these elements. Each project description provides a brief background and the major accomplishments during FY 1993.

  5. Handbook for Small-Scale Densified Biomass Fuel (Pellets) Manufacturing for Local Markets.

    SciTech Connect

    Folk, Richard L.; Govett, Robert L.

    1992-07-01

    Wood pellet manufacturing in the Intermountain West is a recently founded and rapidly expanding energy industry for small-scale producers. Within a three-year period, the total number of manufacturers in the region has increased from seven to twelve (Folk et al., 1988). Small-scale industry development is evolving because a supply of raw materials from small and some medium-sized primary and secondary wood processors that has been largely unused. For the residue producer considering pellet fuel manufacturing, the wastewood generated from primary products often carries a cost associated with residue disposal when methods at-e stockpiling, landfilling or incinerating. Regional processors use these methods for a variety of reasons, including the relatively small amounts of residue produced, residue form, mixed residue types, high transportation costs and lack of a local market, convenience and absence of regulation. Direct costs associated with residue disposal include the expenses required to own and operate residue handling equipment, costs for operating and maintaining a combustor and tipping fees charged to accept wood waste at public landfills. Economic and social costs related to environmental concerns may also be incurred to include local air and water quality degradation from open-air combustion and leachate movement into streams and drinking water.

  6. Impact of small scale fermentation technology on food safety in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Motarjemi, Yasmine

    2002-05-25

    Fermentation is one of the oldest technologies used for food preservation. Over the centuries, it has evolved and been refined and diversified. Today, a variety of food products is derived from this technology in households, small-scale food industries as well as in large enterprises. Furthermore, fermentation is an affordable food preservation technology and of economic importance to developing countries. In the report of an FAO/WHO Workshop (FAO/WHO, 1996), fermentation was reviewed and the nutritional and safety aspects of fermentation technologies and their products were assessed. Fermentation enhances the nutritional quality of foods and contributes to food safety particularly under conditions where refrigeration or other foods processing facilities are not available. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) studies of some fermented products have demonstrated that depending on the process and the hygienic conditions observed during preparation, some fermented foods, e.g. togwa prepared in Tanzania, may pose a safety risk. Fermented foods must therefore be studied following HACCP principles and small-scale food industries and households must be advised on the critical control points of fermentation processes and the control measures to be applied at these points. This paper reviews the risks and benefits of fermentation and demonstrates the application of the HACCP system to some fermented foods in developing countries. PMID:12036144

  7. 7 CFR 4279.175 - Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside...AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Business and Industry Loans § 4279.175 Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set...

  8. 7 CFR 4279.175 - Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside...AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Business and Industry Loans § 4279.175 Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set...

  9. 7 CFR 4279.175 - Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside...AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Business and Industry Loans § 4279.175 Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set...

  10. 7 CFR 4279.175 - Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside...AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Business and Industry Loans § 4279.175 Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set...

  11. 7 CFR 4279.175 - Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside...AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Business and Industry Loans § 4279.175 Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set...

  12. Investigation of the small-scale structure and dynamics of Uranus' atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eshleman, Von R.; Hinson, David P.

    1991-01-01

    This document constitutes the final technical report of the Uranus Analysis Program. Papers and/or abstracts resulting from this research are presented. The following topics are covered: (1) past and future of radio occultation studies of planetary atmospheres; (2) equatorial waves in the stratosphere of Uranus; (3) the atmosphere of Uranus- results of radio occultation measurements with Voyager 2; (4) Uranus' atmospheric dynamics and circulation; (5) small-scale structure and dynamics in the atmosphere of Uranus; (6) evidence for inertia-gravity waves in the stratosphere of Uranus derived from Voyager 2 radio occultation data; and (7) planetary waves in the equatorial stratosphere of Uranus.

  13. Small scale structure in diffuse molecular gas from repeated FUSE and visible spectra of HD 34078

    E-print Network

    Patrick Boisse; Emmanuel Rollinde; Franck Le Petit; Guillaume Pineau des Forets; Evelyne Roueff; Cecile Gry; B-G Andersson; Vincent Le Brun

    2001-10-04

    We present preliminary results from an ongoing program devoted to a study of small scale structure in the spatial distribution of molecular gas. Our work is based on multi-epoch FUSE and visible observations of HD34078. A detailed comparison of H2, CH and CH+ absorption lines is performed. No short term variations are seen (except for highly excited H2) but long-term changes in N(CH) are clearly detected when comparing our data to spectra taken about 10 years ago.

  14. Examples of backreaction of small-scale inhomogeneities in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Stephen R.; Wald, Robert M.

    2013-06-01

    In previous work, we introduced a new framework to treat large-scale backreaction effects due to small-scale inhomogeneities in general relativity. We considered one-parameter families of spacetimes for which such backreaction effects can occur, and we proved that, provided the weak energy condition on matter is satisfied, the leading effect of small-scale inhomogeneities on large-scale dynamics is to produce a traceless effective stress-energy tensor that itself satisfies the weak energy condition. In this work, we illustrate the nature of our framework by providing two explicit examples of one-parameter families with backreaction. The first, based on previous work of Berger, is a family of polarized vacuum Gowdy spacetimes on a torus, which satisfies all of the assumptions of our framework. As the parameter approaches its limiting value, the metric uniformly approaches a smooth background metric, but spacetime derivatives of the deviation of the metric from the background metric do not converge uniformly to zero. The limiting metric has nontrivial backreaction from the small-scale inhomogeneities, with an effective stress energy that is traceless and satisfies the weak energy condition, in accord with our theorems. Our second one-parameter family consists of metrics which have a uniform Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker limit. This family satisfies all of our assumptions with the exception of the weak energy condition for matter. In this case, the limiting metric has an effective stress-energy tensor which is not traceless. We emphasize the importance of imposing energy conditions on matter in studies of backreaction.

  15. Cyclic Behavior of the Sun's Small-scale Magnetic Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingxiu; Jin, C.

    2011-05-01

    With the unique database from the Michelson Doppler Imager on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory in an interval embodying solar cycle 23, the cyclic behavior of solar small-scale magnetic elements is studied. More than 13 million small-scale magnetic elements are selected, and their cyclic behavior is analyzed in comparison with the changes of sunspot numbers and active region magnetic flux. From the small to large end of the flux spectrum, the variations of numbers and total flux of the network elements show no correlation, anti-correlation, and correlation with sunspots, respectively. The anti-correlated elements, covering the flux of (2.9-32.0)×1018 Mx, occupy 77.2% of the total element number and 37.4% of the quiet-Sun flux. Unlike the correlated elements, which follow the sunspot butterfly diagram, the anti-correlated elements cover very broad range of latitude and do not show clear latitude migration during the cycle. These results provide insight for understanding the anti-correlations of small-scale magnetic activity during the solar cycle. The quiet regions dominate the Sun's magnetic flux for about 8 years in the 12.25 year duration of cycle 23, their monthly average magnetic flux is 1.12 times that of the active regions in the cycle. For the 28 continuous months from July 2007 to October 2009, the six-month running average ratio of quiet region flux to that of the total Sun is larger than 90.0%, which characterizes the gram minima in cycles 23 and 24 very well.

  16. Models for Direct Industry Support of US Civil Engineering Programs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Casey, Michael

    Of the approximately 250 accredited civil engineering programs in the US, the proportion that have direct and formal advisement from local industry is unknown. Where present, external, corporate-style advisory boards made up of practicing engineers and executives from local engineering and construction firms provide formal support in the form of curricular development advice, scholarships and operational funding, as well as co-op and internship programs. The presence and involvement of advisory bodies focused on the departmental rather than the college or university level is perceived as a distinct program advantage and has been recognized by ABET program evaluators. Still, the relative benefits of direct industry support and advisement have not previously been measured. This paper will describe the various forms of informal and formal CE program support and present a survey methodology for evaluating whether these arrangements have a quantifiable effect on program success. A database of advisory boards from surveyed programs is presented and analyzed. The objectives of this work are to correlate the relative performance of CE programs' enrollment, research expenditures, and other factors with direct advisement and support by external boards; and to enumerate the co-incentives that advisory boards and CEprograms share. A case study is presented based on the Civil Engineering Institute (CEI), a nonprofit Virginia corporation and formal advisory board established in 1989 whose purpose is to assist with the Civil and Infrastructure Engineering program of GMU. The paper will finally present guidance and suggestions for implementing formal program support.

  17. Vertical transport by small scale stratospheric turbulence: A critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewan, E. M.

    1981-02-01

    This paper reviews the estimates to date of the vertical 'effective diffusion coefficient' for stratospheric small scale turbulence transport, KB. These estimates range (in order of magnitude) from 1.0 sq. meter/s to 0.01 sq. meter/s, that is to say from a value which would make turbulence a dominant factor in stratospheric transport to a value which would make it totally insignificant. Such a large range implies much ignorance in this subject. The various techniques are closely examined and the unanswered experimental questions are exhibited. The conclusion is reached that more experimental work needs to be done before one has a reliable estimate for KB.

  18. Optimal Tracking Controller Design for a Small Scale Helicopter

    E-print Network

    Budiyono, Agus

    2008-01-01

    A model helicopter is more difficult to control than its full scale counterparts. This is due to its greater sensitivity to control inputs and disturbances as well as higher bandwidth of dynamics. This works is focused on designing practical tracking controller for a small scale helicopter following predefined trajectories. A tracking controller based on optimal control theory is synthesized as part of the development of an autonomous helicopter. Some issues in regards to control constraints are addressed. The weighting between state tracking performance and control power expenditure is analyzed. Overall performance of the control design is evaluated based on its time domain histories of trajectories as well as control inputs.

  19. Velocity pattern of small-scale magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Dara, H.C.; Alissandrakis, C.E.; Koutchmy, S.

    1990-01-01

    High resolution observations of horizontal proper motions, as well as vertical Doppler velocities measured over two selected regions of small scale magnetic elements show a coherent behaviour. In a region with two opposite polarities, approaching with a velocity of 0.4 km/s, the material in between moves downwards with a velocity of 0.10 to 0.45 km/s; while in a region with two peaks of the same polarity, moving apart with a velocity of 0.3 km/s, the material in between moves predominantly upwards, with a velocity of up to 0.3 km/s.

  20. ''Flicker'' in small scale laser--plasma self-focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Coggeshall, S.V.; Mead, W.C.; Jones, R.D.

    1988-10-01

    Small amplitude, short wavelength ion acoustic waves in laser-produced plasmas cause fluctuations in the trajectories of light rays that can lead to time-dependent, self-sustaining shifting of focal spots and a somewhat random redistribution of the light near the critical surface. This flickering is seen in simulations involving small scale beam inhomogeneities over a uniform background laser profile, which model the center of a realistic laser beam. The effect can cause significant intensity multiplication in long scale length high-Z plasmas with only modest beam imperfections.

  1. Innovative equipment for small-scale hydro developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, J. D.; Pereira, L.

    1981-06-01

    The feasibility of using off the shelf pumps as turbines, with induction motors as generators, and combinations of available equipment such as speed increasers, inlet valves, and gates for typical small scale hydro installations are discussed. A computer simulation model was developed in the study which provides a basis to estimate the performance of pumps in the turbine mode of operation. It is indicated that a major part of the small hydro plant potential can be economically covered by the use of pumps as turbines and induction motors as generators especially for the smaller ratings.

  2. Numerical study of the small scale structures in Boussinesq convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinan, E.; Shu, Chi-Wang

    1992-01-01

    Two-dimensional Boussinesq convection is studied numerically using two different methods: a filtered pseudospectral method and a high order accurate Essentially Nonoscillatory (ENO) scheme. The issue whether finite time singularity occurs for initially smooth flows is investigated. The numerical results suggest that the collapse of the bubble cap is unlikely to occur in resolved calculations. The strain rate corresponding to the intensification of the density gradient across the front saturates at the bubble cap. We also found that the cascade of energy to small scales is dominated by the formulation of thin and sharp fronts across which density jumps.

  3. Development of small scale soft x-ray lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D.; Suckewer, S. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab. Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering); Skinner, C.H.; Voorhees, D. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1991-05-01

    At present rapid progress is being made in the application of soft x-ray lasers to fields such as microscopy and microlithography. A critical factor in the range of suitable applications is the scale and hence cost of the soft x-ray lasers. At Princeton, gain at 183{angstrom} has been obtained with relatively low pump laser energies (as low as 6J) in a portable'' small-scale soft x-ray laser system. We will also discuss aspects of data interpretation and pitfalls to be avoided in measurements of gain in such systems. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Small-Scale Fruit Production: A Comprehensive Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    Created and maintained by Penn State University Agricultural Services, this guide is a resource for "people who wish to produce fruit on a small scale (on one acre or less) and who are not legally licensed to use pesticides." The guide discusses topics such as getting started, pruning and training fruit trees, pests and pesticides, and controlling wildlife damage. It also includes individual chapters for each fruit type (pome, stone, grapes, berries, kiwi, etc.). Each of these includes fruit-specific information on planting, nutrition, harvest, and pest management, among other topics. All in all, this is a well-organized and very handy resource for anyone planning or maintaining a fruit garden.

  5. Small-Scale Fruit Production: A Comprehensive Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created and maintained by Penn State University Agricultural Services, this guide is a resource for "people who wish to produce fruit on a small scale (on one acre or less) and who are not legally licensed to use pesticides." The guide discusses topics such as getting started, pruning and training fruit trees, pests and pesticides, and controlling wildlife damage. It also includes individual chapters for each fruit type (pome, stone, grapes, berries, kiwi, etc.). Each of these includes fruit-specific information on planting, nutrition, harvest, and pest management, among other topics. All in all, this is a well-organized and very handy resource for anyone planning or maintaining a fruit garden.

  6. Industry relations with emergency medicine graduate medical education programs.

    PubMed

    Kowalenko, Terry; Char, Douglas; Marco, Catherine; Asher, Shellie; Raja, Ali; Farrell, Sue; Sokolove, Peter E

    2009-10-01

    A panel of physicians from the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) Graduate Medical Education (GME), Ethics, and Industry Relations Committees were asked by the SAEM Board of Directors to write a position paper on the relationship of emergency medicine (EM) GME with industry. Using multiple sources as references, the team derived a set of guidelines that all EM GME training programs can use when interacting with industry representatives. In addition, the team used a question-answer format to provide educators and residents with a practical approach to these interactions. The SAEM Board of Directors endorsed the guidelines in June 2009. PMID:19799581

  7. Tobacco industry sociological programs to influence public beliefs about smoking

    PubMed Central

    Glantz, Stanton; Landman, Anne; Cortese, Daniel K

    2008-01-01

    The multinational tobacco companies responded to arguments about the social costs of smoking and hazards of secondhand smoke by quietly implementing the Social Costs/Social Values project (1979–1989), which relied upon the knowledge and authoritative power of social scientists to construct an alternate cultural repertoire of smoking. Social scientists created and disseminated non-health based, pro-tobacco arguments without fully acknowledging their relationship with the industry. After the U.S. Surgeon General concluded that nicotine was addictive in 1988, the industry responded by forming “Associates for Research in the Science of Enjoyment” (c.1988–1999), whose members toured the world promoting the health benefits of the use of legal substances, including tobacco, for stress relief and relaxation, without acknowledging the industry’s role. In this paper we draw on previously secret tobacco industry documents, now available on the internet to show how both of these programs utilized academic sociologists, political scientists, anthropologists, psychologists, philosophers and economists, and allowed the industry to develop and widely disseminate friendly research through credible channels. Strategies included creating favorable surveys and opinions, infusing them into the lay press and media through press releases, articles and conferences, publishing, promoting and disseminating books, commissioning and placing favorable book reviews, providing media training for book authors and organizing media tours. These programs allowed the tobacco industry to affect public and academic discourse on the social acceptability of smoking. PMID:18164524

  8. Small-scale current structures observed with Ørsted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubert, T.; Sedgemore, F.; Christiansen, F.; Watermann, J.

    2003-04-01

    High-precision vector magnetic field observations from the Ørsted high-inclination, LEO satellite, taken at 25 and 100 Hz, are used to investigate the fine-structure of field-aligned currents (FACs) on spatial scales down to 150 m along the satellite track. During quiet geomagnetic conditions, small-scale currents are observed with densities of a few tens of ?Am-2, while during disturbed conditions currents reach several hundred ?Am-2. These values are 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than the typical magnitude of large-scale region 1 and 2 currents, but are consistent with observations from the Freja and Astrid satellites, and also with currents inferred from ground-based incoherent scatter radar data. Currents of such high intensity are expected to deposit a substantial amount of energy in the thermosphere. Because of a slow drift in local time of the orbit, the data from the complete Ørsted lifetime, from launch in February 1999 up to present, cover all local times and a range of geomagnetic and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. The dependence of small-scale FACs on these conditions is explored.

  9. Atmospheric dispersion modelling over complex terrain at small scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosek, S.; Janour, Z.; Kukacka, L.; Jurcakova, K.; Kellnerova, R.; Gulikova, E.

    2014-03-01

    Previous study concerned of qualitative modelling neutrally stratified flow over open-cut coal mine and important surrounding topography at meso-scale (1:9000) revealed an important area for quantitative modelling of atmospheric dispersion at small-scale (1:3300). The selected area includes a necessary part of the coal mine topography with respect to its future expansion and surrounding populated areas. At this small-scale simultaneous measurement of velocity components and concentrations in specified points of vertical and horizontal planes were performed by two-dimensional Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) and Fast-Response Flame Ionization Detector (FFID), respectively. The impact of the complex terrain on passive pollutant dispersion with respect to the prevailing wind direction was observed and the prediction of the air quality at populated areas is discussed. The measured data will be used for comparison with another model taking into account the future coal mine transformation. Thus, the impact of coal mine transformation on pollutant dispersion can be observed.

  10. Effects of thermal inflation on small scale density perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sungwook E.; Lee, Hyung-Joo; Lee, Young Jae; Stewart, Ewan D.; Zoe, Heeseung

    2015-06-01

    In cosmological scenarios with thermal inflation, extra eras of moduli matter domination, thermal inflation and flaton matter domination exist between primordial inflation and the radiation domination of Big Bang nucleosynthesis. During these eras, cosmological perturbations on small scales can enter and re-exit the horizon, modifying the power spectrum on those scales. The largest modified scale, kb, touches the horizon size when the expansion changes from deflation to inflation at the transition from moduli domination to thermal inflation. We analytically calculate the evolution of perturbations from moduli domination through thermal inflation and evaluate the curvature perturbation on the constant radiation density hypersurface at the end of thermal inflation to determine the late time curvature perturbation. Our resulting transfer function suppresses the power spectrum by a factor 0~ 5 at k gg kb, with kb corresponding to anywhere from megaparsec to subparsec scales depending on the parameters of thermal inflation. Thus, thermal inflation might be constrained or detected by small scale observations such as CMB distortions or 21cm hydrogen line observations.

  11. MODELING THE VERY SMALL SCALE CLUSTERING OF LUMINOUS RED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Douglas F.; Berlind, Andreas A.; McBride, Cameron K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 1807 Station B, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Masjedi, Morad [Goldman Sachs and Co., 85 Broad Street, New York, NY 10004 (United States)

    2010-01-20

    We model the small-scale clustering of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Specifically, we use the halo occupation distribution formalism to model the projected two-point correlation function of LRGs on scales well within the sizes of their host halos (0.016 h {sup -1} Mpc <= r <= 0.42 h {sup -1} Mpc). We start by varying P(N|M), the probability distribution that a dark matter halo of mass M contains N LRGs, and assuming that the radial distribution of satellite LRGs within halos traces the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) dark matter density profile. We find that varying P(N|M) alone is not sufficient to match the small-scale data. We next allow the concentration of satellite LRG galaxies to differ from that of dark matter and find that this is also not sufficient. Finally, we relax the assumption of an NFW profile and allow the inner slope of the density profile to vary. We find that this model provides a good fit to the data and the resulting value of the slope is -2.17 +- 0.12. The radial density profile of satellite LRGs within halos is thus not compatible with that of the underlying dark matter, but rather is closer to an isothermal distribution.

  12. Small-scale morphology across the surf zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thornton, E.B.; Swayne, J.L.; Dingler, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Small-scale (< 5 m horizontal length) nearshore morphologic height variations were measured by combining CRAB surveys with bed elevations acquired with a 1 MHz sonic altimeter mounted on the CRAB during the October Phase of the DUCK94 experiment. Bedform plan views were recorded simultaneously using a 500 kHz side-scan sonar mounted on the CRAB. Waves and currents were measured at the same time. Significant temporal and spatial variations in the small-scale morphology were measured in response to changing waves and currents during the 2 weeks examined. Three cases are examined in detail: (1) mild waves and weak longshore currents resulting in wave ripples throughout the study area; (2) storm waves with strong longshore currents resulting in lunate and straight-crested mega-ripples in the trough of the barred beach; and (3) narrow-band, normally incident waves with a strong rip current resulting in a planar bed except in the throat of the rip where mega-ripples were measured. Wavenumber spectra of the bed were generally broad, indicating newly formed ripples coexisted with residual ripples from the past to form complex, multi-scaled ripple patterns.

  13. Industrial Technologies Program ORNL-developed cast nickel aluminide rolls

    E-print Network

    friction stir welding, electron beam processing, twin roll casting of advanced alloys, functionalization-making, aluminum,, metal casting, chemicals, and forest products, and are leaders in next generation superboilerIndustrial Technologies Program ORNL-developed cast nickel aluminide rolls prior to installation

  14. Program Improvement Project for Industrial Education. Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaeffer, Bruce W.

    Designed to improve industrial education programs through the development of minimum uniform quality standards, a project developed a task list, educationally sequenced the identified tasks, and developed a recommended shop layout and equipment list for four occupational areas: diesel repair, appliance repair, office machine repair, and small…

  15. Developing Customized Programs for Steel and Other Heavy Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Philip R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Describes Dundalk Community College's (DCC's) customized training programs for local industries. Looks at employment problems and outlook in Baltimore County, the development of a training agreement with Bethlehem Steel, the use of the Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process to develop skill profiles, and future directions. (DMM)

  16. Florida Vocational Program Guide for Electronics, Industrial Electronics, Electronic Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Raymond; And Others

    This guide is intended for local school district and community college administrators, instructors, and other advisory and coordinating groups charged with developing and offering courses in electronics, industrial electronics, and electronic technology. The following topics are covered: legal authority (program standards, planning, structure,…

  17. Update on the Standards for Industrial Arts Education Programs Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugger, William E., Jr.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The Standards for Industrial Arts Education Programs Project has three objectives. The first phase, data collection, has been completed. The development and validation of the standards is in progress, and the dissemination of the standards and user handbooks is projected for 1981. (SK)

  18. Small scale tests on the progressive retreat of soil slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voulgari, Chrysoula; Utili, Stefano; Castellanza, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the influence due to the presence of cracks on the morphologic evolution of natural cliffs subject to progressive retreat induced by weathering is investigated through small scale laboratory tests. Weathering turns hard rocks into soft rocks that maintain the structure of the intact rocks, but are characterised by higher void ratios and reduced bond strengths; soft rocks are transformed into granular soils generally called residual soils. A number of landslides develop in slopes due to weathering which results in the progressive retrogression of the slope face and the further degradation within the weathering zone. Cracks, that are widely present, can be a result of weathering and they can cause a significant decrease in their stability, as they provide preferential flow channels which increase the soil permeability and decrease the soil strength. The geological models employed until now are mainly empirical. Several researchers have tried to study the stability of slopes through experimental procedures. Centrifuge modelling is widely used to investigate the failure of slopes. Small scale tests are also an important approach, in order to study the behaviour of a slope under certain conditions, such as the existence of water, as they allow the observation of the infiltration processes, the movement of the weathering front, deformation and failure. However, the deformation response of a slope subject to weathering is not yet thoroughly clarified. In this work, a set of experiments were conducted to investigate weathering induced successive landslides. Weathering was applied to the slope model by wetting the slope crest through a rainfall simulator device. The moisture content of the soil during the tests was monitored by soil moisture sensors that were buried inside the slope model. High resolution cameras were recording the behaviour of the slope model. GeoPIV was used to analyse the frames and obtain the deformations of the slope model during the tests. After a short time of rainfall, vertical cracks appear in the slope model and significant vertical deformations start to occur around the crack, until the first failure is reached, the procedure carries on until a second failure is observed. Experimental results indicate that there is a strong connection between moisture content and the occurrence of a landslide. A prediction model of slope failures can be introduced based on the observed moisture content response of the slope models. KEYWORDS: slopes, cracks, landslide, weathering, small scale test

  19. Design and testing of small scale fish meat bone separator useful for fish processing.

    PubMed

    Ali Muhammed, M; Manjunatha, N; Murthy, K Venkatesh; Bhaskar, N

    2015-06-01

    The present study relates to the food processing machinery and, more specifically machine for producing boneless comminuted meat from raw fish fillet. This machine is of belt and drum type meat bone separator designed for small scale fish processing in a continuous mode. The basic principal involved in this machine is compression force. The electric geared motor consists of 1HP and the conveyor belt has a linear velocity of 19 to 22 m min(-1), which was sufficient to debone the fish effectively. During the meat bone separation trials an efficiency up to 75 % on dressed fish weight basis was observed and with a capacity to separate 70 kg h(-1) of meat from fish at the machine speed of 25 rpm. During the trials, it was demonstrated that there was no significant change in the proximate composition of comminuted fish meat when compared to unprocessed fish meat. This design has a greater emphasis on hygiene, provision for cleaning-in-place (CIP) and gives cost effective need and reliability for small scale industries to produce fish meat in turn used for their value added products. PMID:26028734

  20. Small-scale features of temperature and salinity surface fields in the Christophe Maes,1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Small-scale features of temperature and salinity surface fields in the Coral Sea Christophe Maes,1 August 2013; accepted 11 August 2013. [1] The small-scale features in sea surface temperature¸on, and D. Varillon (2013), Small-scale features of temperature and salinity surface fields in the Coral Sea

  1. Curricular emphasis in Industrial Distribution programs and programs of similar theme 

    E-print Network

    Miller, John Edward

    2004-09-30

    Industrial Distribution programs and those of similar theme, this portion of the study provides managers in the field with information to consider when evaluating schools as potential sources of new hires. State-sponsored schools in the study were identified...

  2. CAMUI Type Hybrid Rocket as Small Scale Ballistic Flight Testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Harunori; Uematsu, Tsutomu; Ito, Kenichi

    The authors have been developing CAMUI (Cascaded Multistage Impinging-jet) type hybrid rockets, explosive-flee small rocket motors. This is to downsize the scale of suborbital flight experiments on space related technology development. A key idea is a new fuel grain design to increase gasification rates of a solid fuels. By the new fuel grain design, the combustion gas repeatedly impinges on fuel surfaces to hasten the heat transfer to the fuel. Suborbital flight experiments by sounding rockets provide variety of test beds to accumulate basic technologies common to the next step of space development in Japan. By using hybrid rockets one can take the cost advantage of small-scale rocket experiments. This cost advantage improves robustness of space technology development projects by dispersion of risk.

  3. Evaluation of the TSI small-scale powder disperser

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B.T.; Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Fan, Bijian

    1994-11-01

    Several dry powder generators, including the Wright-dust-feed, the fluidized-bed, the venturi tube, and the jet-o-mizer systems, have been used for inhalation toxicity studies involving relatively high concentrations of aerosols. For fundamental laboratory studies, however, a powder generator that can produce a limited quantity of test aerosol is more practical than a system that generates high concentrations. The TSI small-scale powder disperser (SSPD) is a low flow rate, low mass output generator that uses venturi aspiration through a capillary tube to remove particles from the surface of a turntable, like a vacuum cleaner. The particles are then deagglomerated in a venturi throat and an expansion cone. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the SSPD by investigating the effects of flow rate, particle size, and particle shape on the generation efficiency and internal losses.

  4. Small-Scale Geothermal Power Plant Field Verification Projects: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.

    2001-07-03

    In the spring of 2000, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory issued a Request for Proposal for the construction of small-scale (300 kilowatt [kW] to 1 megawatt [MW]) geothermal power plants in the western United States. Five projects were selected for funding. Of these five, subcontracts have been completed for three, and preliminary design work is being conducted. The three projects currently under contract represent a variety of concepts and locations: a 1-MW evaporatively enhanced, air-cooled binary-cycle plant in Nevada; a 1-MW water-cooled Kalina-cycle plant in New Mexico; and a 750-kW low-temperature flash plant in Utah. All three also incorporate direct heating: onion dehydration, heating for a fish hatchery, and greenhouse heating, respectively. These projects are expected to begin operation between April 2002 and September 2003. In each case, detailed data on performance and costs will be taken over a 3-year period.

  5. The challenge of small-scale repeats for indel discovery.

    PubMed

    Narzisi, Giuseppe; Schatz, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive sequences are abundant in the human genome. Different classes of repetitive DNA sequences, including simple repeats, tandem repeats, segmental duplications, interspersed repeats, and other elements, collectively span more than 50% of the genome. Because repeat sequences occur in the genome at different scales they can cause various types of sequence analysis errors, including in alignment, de novo assembly, and annotation, among others. This mini-review highlights the challenges introduced by small-scale repeat sequences, especially near-identical tandem or closely located repeats and short tandem repeats, for discovering DNA insertion and deletion (indel) mutations from next-generation sequencing data. We also discuss the de Bruijn graph sequence assembly paradigm that is emerging as the most popular and promising approach for detecting indels. The human exome is taken as an example and highlights how these repetitive elements can obscure or introduce errors while detecting these types of mutations. PMID:25674564

  6. Small-scale volcanoes on Mars: distribution and types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broz, Petr; Hauber, Ernst

    2015-04-01

    Volcanoes differ in sizes, as does the amount of magma which ascends to a planetary surface. On Earth, the size of volcanoes is anti-correlated with their frequency, i.e. small volcanoes are much more numerous than large ones. The most common terrestrial volcanoes are scoria cones (small-scale volcanoes were not intensely studied for a long time due to a lack of high-resolution data enabling their proper identification; however their existence and basic characteristics were predicted on theoretical grounds. Streams of new high-resolution images now enable discovering and studying kilometer-size volcanoes with various shapes in unprecedented detail. Several types of small-scale volcanoes in various regions on Mars were recently described. Scoria cones provide a record of magmatic volatile content and have been identified in Tharsis (Ulysses Colles), on flanks of large volcanoes (e.g., Pavonis Mons), in the caldera of Ulysses Patera, in chaotic terrains or other large depressions (Hydraotes Colles, Coprates Chasma) and in the northern lowlands. Tuff rings and tuff cones, formed as a result of water-magma interaction, seem to be relatively rare on Mars and were only tentatively identified in three locations (Nepenthes/Amenthes region, Arena Colles and inside Lederberg crater), and alternative interpretations (mud volcanoes) seem possible. Other relatively rare volcanoes seem to be lava domes, reported only from two regions (Acracida Planitia and Terra Sirenum). On the other hand, small shields and rootless cones (which are not primary volcanic landforms) represent widely spread phenomena recognized in Tharsis and Elysium. Based on these new observations, the distribution of small volcanoes on Mars seems to be much more widespread than anticipated a decade ago. There are sometimes significant differences in the final morphologies between Martian hypothesized and possible terrestrial analogs, despite fact that the physical processes behind volcano formation should be similar on both planets. For example, Martian scoria cones are ~2.6 times wider than terrestrial analogues, as lower gravity and atmospheric pressure enable wider dispersion of pyroclasts from the vent. In addition, exit velocities of ejected particles should be increased on Mars because the lower atmospheric pressure favors more rapid exsolution of dissolved gases from the magma, which also favors a wider dispersion of ejected particles. Therefore, care must be taken when applying terrestrial morphometric relationships to the interpretation of hypothesized volcanic features on Mars and other terrestrial bodies. As on Earth, small-scale volcanoes on Mars display diverse shapes and hence provide insight into diverse volcanic processes responsible for such variations. Those diverse processes may point to various mechanisms of magma ascent and eruption styles in dependency on magma properties (e.g., amount of volatiles) and the paleo-environment at the time of formation. Hence the investigation of small-scale volcanoes provides useful tool enabling us to deepen our knowledge about the variety and richness of volcanism on Mars.

  7. Formation control for a network of small-scale robots.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoonsoo

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a network of small-scale robots (typically centimeter-scale robots) equipped with artificial actuators such as electric motors is considered. The purpose of this network is to have the robots keep a certain formation shape (or change to another formation shape) during maneuvers. The network has a fixed communication topology in the sense that robots have a fixed group of neighbors to communicate during maneuvers. Assuming that each robot and its actuator can be modeled as a linear system, a decentralized control law (such that each robot activates its actuator based on the information from its neighbors only) is introduced to achieve the purpose of formation keeping or change. A linear matrix inequality (LMI) for deriving the upper bound on the actuator's time constant is also presented. Simulation results are shown to demonstrate the merit of the introduced control law. PMID:25942833

  8. Numerical Simulation and Optimazation of Small Scale LNG Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. Y.; Jia, L. X.; Fan, Q. H.; Yin, Q. S.

    2006-04-01

    The LNG20 is a small-scale natural gas liquefier. Its capacity is 20 cube meters LNG per day. This liquefier could be used for the pipeline gas, coalbed gas, oil field gas liquefaction and peakshaving plant for town gas gate station and natural gas power plant. Two processing cycles are applied to LNG20, nitrogen expander cycle and mixed refrigerant cycle. In this report, two feed gases are the target sources; one is the pipeline gas in "West-to-east pipeline gas" in a gate station in Zhejiang province and coalbed gas in Northeast China. The numerical simulation and optimization for the LNG20 were carried out to obtain the design parameters.

  9. The Challenge of Small-Scale Repeats for Indel Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Narzisi, Giuseppe; Schatz, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive sequences are abundant in the human genome. Different classes of repetitive DNA sequences, including simple repeats, tandem repeats, segmental duplications, interspersed repeats, and other elements, collectively span more than 50% of the genome. Because repeat sequences occur in the genome at different scales they can cause various types of sequence analysis errors, including in alignment, de novo assembly, and annotation, among others. This mini-review highlights the challenges introduced by small-scale repeat sequences, especially near-identical tandem or closely located repeats and short tandem repeats, for discovering DNA insertion and deletion (indel) mutations from next-generation sequencing data. We also discuss the de Bruijn graph sequence assembly paradigm that is emerging as the most popular and promising approach for detecting indels. The human exome is taken as an example and highlights how these repetitive elements can obscure or introduce errors while detecting these types of mutations. PMID:25674564

  10. Small Scale Response and Modeling of Periodically Forced Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bos, Wouter; Clark, Timothy T.; Rubinstein, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The response of the small scales of isotropic turbulence to periodic large scale forcing is studied using two-point closures. The frequency response of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate, and the phase shifts between production, energy and dissipation are determined as functions of Reynolds number. It is observed that the amplitude and phase of the dissipation exhibit nontrivial frequency and Reynolds number dependence that reveals a filtering effect of the energy cascade. Perturbation analysis is applied to understand this behavior which is shown to depend on distant interactions between widely separated scales of motion. Finally, the extent to which finite dimensional models (standard two-equation models and various generalizations) can reproduce the observed behavior is discussed.

  11. LLNL small-scale drop-hammer impact sensitivity test

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, L.R.; Foltz, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    Small-scale safety testing of explosives and other energetic materials is done to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli including friction, static spark, and impact. This testing is typically done to discover potential handling problems for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing ``ERL Type 12 Drop Weight Impact Sensitivity Apparatus``, or ``Drop Hammer Machine``, and the methods used to determine the impact sensitivity of energetic materials, Also discussed are changes made to both the machine and methods since the inception of impact sensitivity testing at LLNL in 1956. The accumulated data for the materials tested in not listed here, the exception being the discussion of those specific materials (primary calibrants: PETN, RDX, Comp-B3,and TNT; secondary calibrants: K-6, RX-26-AF, and TATB) used to calibrate the machine.

  12. Spatial Variability of Raindrop Size Distribution at small scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pio D'Adderio, Leo; Tokay, Ali; Porcu, Federico; Petersen, Walter A.; Wolff, David B.

    2015-04-01

    The retrieval of raindrop size distribution (DSD) from dual frequency precipitation radar (DPR) on board the NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core satellite is one of the key objectives of GPM mission. The DPR algorithm developers adopted three-parameter gamma distribution and suggested methodologies for the DSD retrieval process. The footprint of the DPR is nearly circular with approximately 5 km diameter and the DSD variability within the footprint is one of the uncertainties of the retrieved size distribution. The highly variable nature of DSD is also evident in retrieved precipitation estimates from ground-based radars. This study investigates the spatial variability of DSD at two different spatial scales. The small-scale variability of DSD was studied through disdrometer measurements at NASA-MC3E (Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment) and compared with results from NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) disdrometer measurements. Seven two-dimensional video disdrometers (2DVD) were installed, and the distances between each couple of instruments ranges from 0.4 to 9.2 km. A three-parameter exponential function was used to investigate the spatial variability of fifteen DSD parameters. The correlation distance and the shape parameter of the function was estimated for each parameter. The RMSE gives an indication about the goodness of the fit. The results were compared with which obtained at WFF, where the twelve disdrometers installed (six 2DVD and six Parsivel2) had a maximum distance of 2.3 km. The results obtained are the first present in literature from high quality disdrometer network at two different small scales. The results show that the most of DSD parameters are correlated within a satellite footprint or radar pixel. The DSD integral parameters (i.e. RR, LWC, Z, etc.) have, generally, lower correlation distance than DSD parameters (i.e. Dmass, Dmax, Nw, etc.).

  13. American Chemical Society (ACS) Regional Industrial Innovation Awards Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The American Chemical Society's (ACS) "Regional Industrial Innovation Awards Program celebrates the successful innovations of industrial chemists and chemical engineers that contribute to the health of their local and regional economy and the corporate leadership for its advancement of a healthy economy." The website illustrates the significance of a nomination and describes the criteria and eligibility for a nominee. Users can find out about the honorees' exciting opportunity to present their innovations at a symposium. Visitors can read synopses of the outstanding developments of past recipients.

  14. Industrial pollution prevention programs in selected developing Asian countries

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Shen-yann [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the information on current activities to promote industrial pollution prevention (P2) in five selected Asian economies including Hong Kong, Republic of Korea, the Philippines, ROC in Taiwan, and Thailand. These activities, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into 6 categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technology development an demonstration, technical assistance, and financial incentives. Although participation is voluntary, these programs are all important at the early stages of P2 promotion and should be useful in informing industries of the benefit of P2 and helping them identify specific P2 measures as viable environmental management alternatives.

  15. MTU MICUP Program and Industrial Technology Recruitment Efforts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Irwin, John

    This presentation reviews an ongoing community college outreach/recruiting initiative, MICUP delivered at MTU, Houghton Michigan, outlines a BS degree in Industrial Technology program designed for community college transfer students with an AS in approved technical disciplines, and reviews future recruitment and retention initiatives. MICUP is the Michigan College/University Partnership Program, MTU's Unlock Your Future Program, which is funded by the Michigan Department of Labor and Economic Growth, King-Chavez-Parks Initiative. This is a partnership program among MTU, Delta College, Grand Rapids Community College, and Northwestern Michigan College. Candidates who qualify for this program receive a competitive stipend to cover the cost of travel. Participants take a 3-credit MTU summer course at no cost to get a glimpse into what it is like to attend MTU as a full time student before making a huge commitment of time and money. (Cost of textbooks is not included.) Participants live on our campus for six weeks with room and meal plans included. The student participates in an Undergraduate Research Internship in their area of study. MTU's vision is that the Industrial Technology program attractiveness to community college transfer students will add to the overall enrollment and create a more diverse population in the School of Technology while educating a business savvy technical generalist necessary in a competitive global manufacturing market.

  16. Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC) process. Health programs: industrial hygiene, clinical and toxicological programs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hubis, W.

    1982-03-01

    This final report summarizes the Health Program under the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Process Contract from January 1, 1976 through December 31, 1981 with particular emphasis on the period January 1, 1980 through December 31, 1981. The major areas of activity within the Health program were: an industrial hygiene monitoring program, a clinical medical examination program, a personal hygiene and educational program, an epidemiology program, and a toxicological program. The industrial hygiene monitoring program during the past two years continued evaluation of occupational exposures to various air contaminants. The major emphasis was directed to the development, refinement and implementation of the skin contamination evaluation project. The medical examination program continued to indicate the absence of discernible occupationally related changes in employee medical profiles. In addition, appreciable effort was expended on efforts to develop a single layered garment which would prevent the appearance of black specks on the anterior thighs of plant operators working in areas of high particulate concentrations. The employee personal hygiene and educational program was extended to include both temporary and contract personnel. An epidemiology program was initiated during the period and efforts were concentrated primarily on program design and data collection. In the toxicological program, acute and genetic studies were completed on most of the SRC-II materials but no studies were initiated in the SRC-I portion of the program because of unavailability of test materials.

  17. A proficiency testing program for the agricultural laboratory industry results of the 1994 program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert O. Miller; Nat B. Dellavalle

    1996-01-01

    The accuracy of soil and plant analytical results are occasionally called into question by laboratory clientele. Although laboratories generally conduct internal quality assurance procedures, there are few external performance testing programs for the industry. In the spring of 1994, a proficiency testing program was initiated for soil and plant samples for agricultural laboratories in the Western United States to provide

  18. Government Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP) - A program for technology transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edwin T. Richards

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents information on the current capability and future potential of the Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP) as a viable data exchange program in terms of technology transfer and resources conservation providing a key to technological growth and profit. This information transfer function of technology utilization is an important aspect to be considered. This paper presents an overview of

  19. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Industrial Programs and Their Impacts 

    E-print Network

    Weakley, S. A.; Roop, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) has been working with industry since 1976 to encourage the development and adoption of new, energy-efficient technologies. ITP has helped industry not only use energy...

  20. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Industrial Programs and Their Impacts 

    E-print Network

    Weakley, S. A.; Roop, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) has been working with industry since 1976 to encourage the development and adoption of new, energy-efficient technologies. ITP has helped industry not only use energy...

  1. 75 FR 56651 - ITS Joint Program Office; Trucking Industry Mobility & Technology Coalition Annual Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ...Joint Program Office; Trucking Industry Mobility & Technology Coalition Annual Meeting...The Trucking Industry Mobility & Technology Coalition (TIMTC) Annual...that improve the industry's safety and mobility. Send your contact information to...

  2. Analysis of industrial pollution prevention programs in selected Asian countries

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Industrialization in developing countries is causing increasing environmental damage. Pollution prevention (P2) is an emerging environmental concept that could help developing countries achieve leapfrog goals, bypassing old and pollutive technologies and minimizing traditional control practices. The current P2 promotion activities in Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand are discussed. These programs, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into five categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technical assistance, and financial incentives. All important at the early stages of P2 promotion, these programs should inform industries of the benefits of P2 and help them identify applicable P2 measures. Participation in these programs is voluntary. The limited data indicate that adoption of P2 measures in these countries is not yet widespread. Recommendations for expanding P2 promotion activities include (1) strengthening the design and enforcement of environmental regulations; (2) providing P2 training and education to government workers, nongovernmental organizations and labor unions officials, university faculties, and news media; (3) tracking the progress of P2 programs; (4) implementing selected P2 mandatory measures; (5) identifying cleaner production technologies for use in new facilities; (6) implementing special programs for small and medium enterprises; and (7) expanding P2 promotion to other sectors, such as agriculture and transportation, and encouraging green design and green consumerism.

  3. First NASA/Industry High Speed Research Program Nozzle Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long-Davis, Mary Jo

    1999-01-01

    The First High Speed Research (HSR) Nozzle Symposium was hosted by NASA Lewis Research Center on November 17-19, 1992 in Cleveland, Ohio, and was sponsored by the HSR Source Noise Working Group. The purpose of this symposium was to provide a national forum for the government, industry, and university participants in the program to present and discuss important low noise nozzle research results and technology issues related to the development of appropriate nozzles for a commercially viable, environmentally compatible, U.S. High-Speed Civil Transport. The HSR Phase I research program was initiated in FY90 and is approaching the first major milestone (end of FY92) relative to an initial FAR 36 Stage 3 nozzle noise assessment. Significant research results relative to that milestone were presented. The opening session provided a brief overview of the Program and status of the Phase H plan. The next five sessions were technically oriented and highlighted recent significant analytical and experimental accomplishments. The last Session included a panel discussion by the Session Chairs, summarizing the progress seen to date and discussing issues relative to further advances in technology necessary to achieve the Program Goals. Attendance at the Symposium was by invitation only and included only industry, academic, and government participants who are actively involved in the High-Speed Research Program. The technology presented in this meeting is considered commercially sensitive.

  4. Implementing an industrial hearing conservation program in the schools.

    PubMed

    Roeser, R J; Coleman, T; Adams, R M

    1983-09-01

    The harmful effects of exposure to high noise levels have been well-documented and include auditory and non-auditory factors. The most notable auditory effect is permanent loss of hearing, many times accompanied by the constant perception of a ringing-type noise in the ears (tinnitus). Despite this, there has been insufficient attention given to the hazardous effects of noise in the school health education curriculum. The industrial arts program is one area that deserves special attention because of the noise levels that teachers and students are exposed to in the classroom and the assumed future exposure that students will experience in their recreational and work experiences. This report describes a hearing conservation program implemented in the Industrial Arts Program in the Dallas Independent School District that attempts to provide: 1) protection for students and teachers using equipment that produces excessive, damaging noise; and 2) information to students on the hazardous effects of noise, so they will understand the consequences of not protecting their ears when exposed to excessive noise and the available means to protect their hearing. As the cost of the program was minimal, other school districts could implement similar programs with little additional resources and effort. PMID:6556389

  5. 48 CFR 1446.170 - Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP). 1446... General 1446.170 Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP...on products, components (including construction materials), manufacturing...

  6. 48 CFR 1446.170 - Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP). 1446... General 1446.170 Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP...on products, components (including construction materials), manufacturing...

  7. 48 CFR 1446.170 - Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP). 1446... General 1446.170 Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP...on products, components (including construction materials), manufacturing...

  8. 48 CFR 1446.170 - Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP). 1446... General 1446.170 Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP...on products, components (including construction materials), manufacturing...

  9. 48 CFR 1446.170 - Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP). 1446... General 1446.170 Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP...on products, components (including construction materials), manufacturing...

  10. 7 CFR 4279.279 - Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program. 4279.279 Section 4279...Biorefinery Assistance Loans § 4279.279 Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program. The provisions of §...

  11. 7 CFR 4279.279 - Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program. 4279.279 Section 4279...Biorefinery Assistance Loans § 4279.279 Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program. The provisions of §...

  12. Emerging technology from the DOE industrial heat pump program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Plaster; R. N. Chappell

    1984-01-01

    In 1976 a program was established to develop industrial heat pumps that could recover waste energy from and return it to the same process. Three research and development projects support that objective: A waste-heat-powered, steam-compression system was developed. This system, powered by a waste-heat-driven turbine, extracts 34.7 million Btu\\/h from dirty steam at 25 psia to produce 20.9 million Btu

  13. An Energy Conservation Program in the Food Industry

    E-print Network

    Farner, C. T.

    AN ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY Carl T. Farner General Foods Corporation White Plains, General Foods Corporation is one of the largest food manufacturing companies in the United States. It's brand names are well known..., covering a wide range of food products. Maxwell House coffee, Post cereals, Birds Eye frozen vegetables, Jell-O desserts and Kool-Aid powdered drink mixes are some of the more prominent ones. The company also manufactures some food ingredients...

  14. Commercial and Industrial Energy Conservation Programs in Illinois

    E-print Network

    Thomas, S. K.

    1980-01-01

    by the end of 1979. i , 0" conservation practices, fuel switching opportunities INR developed a manual for a waste heat recover1 and renewable energy sources. Primary attention is program during 1979. I given to citizens, businesses and institutions most... and distributed audit manuals for ducted approximately 50 energy audits and made the following establishments and operations in energy conservation recommendations at commercial 1979: restaurants, supermarkets, department and industrial faci1ities throughout...

  15. Work Ethic of Prison Inmates Who Participate in Correctional Industries Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Timothy J.

    A study examined the relationship between correctional industry work experience and the work ethic of the inmate workers assigned to certain Florida correctional industry programs. Inmate workers (n=369) assigned to three of PRIDE Enterprises's correctional industry programs were participants. These industries were selected for the study:…

  16. Small scale flow processes in aqueous heterogeneous porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Rashidi, M.; Dickenson, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Programs Directorate

    1996-04-01

    Small scale flow processes in aqueous heterogeneous porous systems have been studied experimentally via novel nonintrusive fluorescence imaging techniques. The techniques involve 3D visualization and quantification of flow fields within a refractive index-matched transparent porous column. The refractive index-matching yields a transparent porous medium, free from any scattering and refraction at the solid-liquid interfaces, as a result allowing direct optical probing at any point within the porous system. By illuminating the porous regions within the column with a planar sheet of laser beam, flow processes through the porous medium can be observed microscopically, and qualitative and quantitative in-pore transport information can be obtained at a good resolution and a good accuracy. A CCD camera is used to record the fluorescent images at every vertical plane location while sweeping back and forth across the column. These digitized flow images are then analyzed and accumulated over a 3D volume within the column. Series of flow experiments in aqueous, refractive index-matched, porous systems packed with natural mineral particles have been performed successfully in these laboratories.

  17. Requirements for future development of small scale rainfall simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iserloh, Thomas; Ries, Johannes B.; Seeger, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Rainfall simulation with small scale simulators is a method used worldwide to assess the generation of overland flow, soil erosion, infiltration and interrelated processes such as soil sealing, crusting, splash and redistribution of solids and solutes. Following the outcomes of the project "Comparability of simulation results of different rainfall simulators as input data for soil erosion modelling (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - DFG, Project No. Ri 835/6-1)" and the "International Rainfall Simulator Workshop 2011" in Trier, the necessity for further technical improvements of simulators and strategies towards an adaption of designs and methods becomes obvious. Uniform measurements of artificially generated rainfall and comparative measurements on a prepared bare fallow with rainfall simulators used by European research groups showed limitations of the comparability of the results. The following requirements, essential for small portable rainfall simulators, were identified: (I) Low and efficient water consumption for use in areas with water shortage, (II) easy handling and control of test conditions, (III) homogeneous spatial rainfall distribution, (IV) best possible drop spectrum (physically), (V) reproducibility and knowledge of spatial distribution and drop spectrum, (VI) easy and fast training of operators to obtain reproducible experiments and (VII) good mobility and easy installation for use in remote areas and in regions where highly erosive rainfall events are rare or irregular. The presentation discusses possibilities for a common use of identical plot designs, rainfall intensities and nozzles.

  18. Cassini RTGs small scale module tests -- Part two

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, C.E.; Klee, P.M. [Lockheed Martin Astro Space, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper is an update of small scale module tests being performed to establish confidence in the predicted performance of the Cassini Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Test results from three modules containing thermoelectric couples identical to those to be used in the RTGs are presented. One module has been tested for over 10,000 hours at 100 C over the design hot junction temperature. A second module also at accelerated test conditions has exceeded 9,600 hours. The third module is operating at nominal design conditions and has reached 5,400 hours. The purpose of the module tests is twofold. First, they are used to confirm the thermoelectric performance, power output and voltage characteristics of the couples. The second purpose is to confirm the effectiveness of the silicon nitride coating which is applied to the unicouple to suppress sublimation. Measurements of the isolation resistance trends between the thermoelectric circuit and the foil insulation are compared with the previous data base. Test results to date continue to indicate that the Cassini RTGs will meet all mission requirements.

  19. Small Scale Magnetic Reconnection in the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Alice; Owen, Christopher; Forsyth, Colin; Rae, Jonathan; Fazakerley, Andrew; Carr, Christopher; Dandouras, Iannis

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies of magnetic reconnection in the solar wind have suggested that a single reconnection X-line can extend and be active over millions of kilometres. We present a case study of an event observed in the solar wind on the 2nd March 2006 by the four Cluster spacecraft. We utilised the four point measurement capability to study the event at sub-second resolution over separation distances of 10,000 km as well as over the larger scales separating Cluster from ACE and WIND. We thus test the consistency of the temporal and spatial structure of magnetic reconnection from large scales to small scales. This reconnection event showed significant differences between the Cluster spacecraft, particularly in the magnetic field data, suggesting reconnection in the solar wind can be variable over relatively small temporal and or spatial scales (< 60 s and/or ~ 10,000 km). This leads to the conclusion that magnetic reconnection in the solar wind is not necessarily large scale and may be patchy in nature. This result raises questions about our current understanding of magnetic reconnection in the solar wind.

  20. Small Scale Energy Cascade of the Solar Wind Turbulence

    E-print Network

    O. Alexandrova; V. Carbone; P. Veltri; L. Sorriso-Valvo

    2007-10-03

    Magnetic fluctuations in the solar wind are distributed according to Kolmogorov's power law $f^{-5/3}$ below the ion cyclotron frequency $f_{ci}$. Above this frequency, the observed steeper power law is usually interpreted in two different ways: a dissipative range of the solar wind turbulence or another turbulent cascade, the nature of which is still an open question. Using the Cluster magnetic data we show that after the spectral break the intermittency increases toward higher frequencies, indicating the presence of non-linear interactions inherent to a new inertial range and not to the dissipative range. At the same time the level of compressible fluctuations raises. We show that the energy transfer rate and intermittency are sensitive to the level of compressibility of the magnetic fluctuations within the small scale inertial range. We conjecture that the time needed to establish this inertial range is shorter than the eddy-turnover time, and is related to dispersive effects. A simple phenomenological model, based on the compressible Hall MHD, predicts the magnetic spectrum $\\sim k^{-7/3+2\\alpha}$, which depends on the degree of plasma compression $\\alpha$.

  1. Study of small-scale cavity growth mechanisms for UCG

    SciTech Connect

    Yeary, D.L.; Riggs, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to evaluate previously proposed small-scale cavity growth mechanisms in Underground Coal Gasification (UCG). Quarried blocks of lignite from Rockdale, Texas, and subbituminous coal from Hanna, Wyoming, were exposed to high-temperature gases in a refractory chamber in order to access their behavior under UCG conditions. Effects of gas temperature, gas composition, and gas flow rate on the surface recession rates were studied for coal samples using the bedding plan orientation of the side wall of the cavity. The effect of gas temperature on the surface recession rate with cavity roof bedding plane orientation was also studied. For the side wall tests, structural failure of the char or ash was not observed. In addition, the surface recession rate was round to increase significantly with gas temperature and gas flow rate. These results indicate that the surface recession process was heat transfer controlled gasification. For the tests conducted using the bedding plane orientation of the cavity roof, it was found that significant structural failure of the lignite resulted while no structural failure of the subbituminous coal was observed. As a result, the surface recession rate for lignite was three times that for subbituminous coal at 1300/sup 0/K. It is theorized that the structural failure of the lignite is caused by clay stringers present in the lignite.

  2. The small-scale structure of electrostatic shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temerin, M.; Cattell, C.; Lysak, R.; Hudson, M.; Torbert, R. B.; Mozer, F. S.; Sharp, R. D.; Kintner, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    It is noted that small-scale regions of large electric fields have been observed above the auroral zone by the S3-3 satellite. The data from five such electrostatic shocks are examined in great detail. The three higher altitude shocks (all above 5,700 km) are found to be associated with upward-going ion beams, indicating that the potential associated with the shock closed below the satellite to give rise to the parallel electric field required for the acceleration of the ion beam. In all these cases, electrostatic ion cyclotron waves are found to be adjacent to the shock and to extend throughout the upward-going ion beam region. The lack of noticeable Doppler shift in the electrostatic ion cyclotron waves in association with large convective drift velocities is seen as indicating that the wavelength of the electrostatic ion cyclotron wave can be several kilometers and that the potential difference within the wave can be on the order of 100 V.

  3. Small Scale Evaporation Kinetics of a Binary Fluid Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basdeo, Carl; Ye, Dezhuang; Kalonia, Devendra; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Mechanical Engineering Team; Pharmaceutical Sciences Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Evaporation induces a concentrating effect in liquid mixtures. The transient process has significant influence on the dynamic behaviors of a complex fluid. To simultaneously investigate the fluid properties and small-scale evaporation kinetics during the transient process, the quartz crystal microbalance is applied to a binary mixture droplet of light alcohols including both a single volatile component (a fast evaporation followed by a slow evaporation) and a mixture of two volatile components with comparable evaporation rates. The density and viscosity stratification are evaluated by the shear wave, and the evaporation kinetics is measured by the resonant signature of the acoustic p-wave. The evaporation flux can be precisely determined by the resonant frequency spikes and the complex impedance. To predict the concentration field, the moving interface, and the precision evaporation kinetics of the mixture, a multiphase model is developed to interpret the complex impedance signals based on the underlying mass and momentum transport phenomena. The experimental method and theoretical model are developed for better characterizing and understanding of the drying process involving liquid mixtures of protein pharmaceuticals.

  4. Developments in a small scale test of violence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorber, Susan; Stennett, Chris; Goldsmith, Matt

    2012-03-01

    Utilising recent advances in diagnostic technologies, a test is under development to obtain a numerical value for the violence of response to thermal stimuli on a small explosive sample. The assembly is designed to accept pressed explosive pellets which enables the test to be conducted at the small-scale development stage and thus is anticipated to be of use in the screening of new materials. Building on previously published work describing the test development, twenty-three new cook-off experiments have been conducted. Eleven explosive compositions were subjected to the same slow heat input profile. As a sample rapidly decomposed, part of the steel confinement was designed to rupture, producing a pellet whose velocity was measured using a Heterodyne Velocimeter (Het-V). Temperatures of the confinement unit were also recorded. A development aim is to interpret this data to provide useful information on the violence of decomposition. This is discussed in the paper and leads to the data from these experiments being presented in order of increasing violence of response.

  5. Small-Scale Irregularities in Equatorial Spread-F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimant, Yakov; Oppenheim, Meers

    2014-10-01

    Equatorial Spread-F is a spectacular plasma phenomenon that reshapes the nighttime ionosphere and disrupts GPS navigation and radio communication. Current computer models simulate the evolution of large-scale spread-F phenomena (1000km-to-kilometer), but they do not explain what causes the meter-scale irregularities observed by radars and space-borne instruments. Our recent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of weakly collisional plasma have demonstrated that large-scale plasma density gradients and related electric fields may drive local plasma instabilities, although only for a limited set of parameters. Motivated by these PIC simulations, we have revisited the linear theory of this instability, employing a novel and sophisticated eigenmode analysis. This method identified eigenmode wave structures in regions having strong plasma density gradients. These wave structures are not linearly unstable, but are not damped either. This means that small-scale fluctuations provided by an external source (e.g., by a nonlinear spectral cascade from longer-wavelength spread-F turbulence) can be resonantly amplified and may explain radar observations without invoking linear instability. Work supported by NASA LWS Grant 10-LWSTRT10-0078.

  6. Advanced conversion technologies for small-scale remote power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lamp, T.R. [Wright Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Forest fires that endangered remote US Air Force sites equipped with radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) prompted the assessment of power generating systems that could be substituted for RTGs in small scale (10--120 watt) applications. Other non-RTG sites were also studied during the assessment. The power system assessment was conducted by the US Air Forces` Wright Laboratory and included the evaluation of engine-driven generators, solar, wind generators, propane thermoelectric generators (TEGs), batteries, fuel cells, and power systems based on advanced conversion technologies; such as, thermionics, free piston Stirling Engines (FPSE), alkali metal thermoelectric conversion (AMTEC), and thermophotovoltaics (TPV). The assessment team concluded that continued use of the RTGs is clearly the safest, most reliable, and most economical approach to supplying electrical power for remote, difficult to access locations. If political considerations force the replacement of the RTGs, the likely replacement is a hybrid system consisting of solar-PV with a propane-TEG for off-solar times. The transport of combustible fuels in Arctic environments is extremely expensive. It is this high logistics cost that signaled the need to consider the option of more efficient and cost effective power sources for the remote, Arctic applications. This paper summarizes the assessment of some of the more attractive power systems that are based on the advanced conversion technologies of AMTEC, TPV and FPSE.

  7. Some features of the small-scale solar wind fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zastenker, G.; Eiges, P.; Avanov, L.; Astafyeva, N.; Zurbuchen, Th.; Bochsler, P.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated small-scale variations of the solar wind ion flux measured with Faraday cups onboard the Prognoz-8 satellite. These measurements have a high time resolution of 1.24 seconds for intervals with a duration of several hours and as high as 0.02 seconds for some periods of about 1 hour duration. The main goal of this work is the determination of the quantitative features of fast ion flux fluctuations using mainly spectral analysis but also other methods. We also identify their association with interplanetary plasma parameters. Particularly, it is shown that the slope of the power spectra in the frequency range from 1E-4 to 6E-2 Hz is close to the classical Kolmogorov (-5/3) law. We also discuss some intervals with a very high level of the relative amplitude of flux fluctuations (10-20 percent) which were observed near the Earth's bow shock in the foreshock region. The use of the wavelet method for the long time series allows us to study the temporal evolution of power spectra.

  8. Social and Ecological Dynamics of Small-Scale Fisheries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, K.; Kramer, D.; Frank, K.

    2012-12-01

    Globalization's reach is rapidly extending to touch some of the most remote communities of the world, but we have yet to understand its scale and impact. On Nicaragua's previously remote Miskitu Coast, the introduction of new markets and global demand for seafood has resulted in changes in fishermen's harvest behavior manifested within the local fishery. Small-scale fisheries are a significant component in sustaining global fish trade, ensuring food security, and alleviating poverty, but because the fishermen are disperse, numerous and located in remote areas, the social and ecological dynamics of the system are poorly understood. Previous work has indicated a decline in fish abundance as a result of connection to markets, yet fishermen's response to this decline and the resulting shift in harvest strategy requires further examination. I identify the ecological and social factors that explain changes in fishermen behavior and use an innovative application of social network analysis to understand these changes. I also use interviews with fishermen and fishery-dependent surveys to measure catch and release behavior and seasonal gear use. Results demonstrate multiple cliques within a community that mitigate the response of fishermen to changes in the fishery. This research applies techniques in social science to address challenges in sustainable management of fisheries. As fisheries managers consider implementing new regulations, such as seasonal restrictions on gear, it is essential to understand not just how this might impact fish abundance, but how and why human systems respond as they do.

  9. Turbulence Small Scale Properties Investigated by Light Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghassan Y, Antar

    2001-11-01

    The small scales properties of turbulent density fluctuations are experimentally investigated using light scattering. This technique yields the Fourier transform of the density fluctuations. The fully developed turbulent flow is a compressed air-jet issuing from a convergent nozzle. The deviation of the signal probability distribution from a Gaussian is quantified using the flatness factor that tends to 3 with decreasing scales. The k-spectrum is determined and displays a power law which deviates from the Kolmogorov prediction. The behavior of the three-dimensional spectrum in time is shown to exhibit what we qualify as a singular behavior in agreement with what could be expected from the multifractal model. The spectrum of singularities, computed to quantify this aspect, tends towards a mono-fractal spectrum with increasing wave number. The temporal correlation coefficient is shown to tend towards a white noise. These results can be interpreted as caused by a lack of eddies generation in the inertial sub-range with decreasing scales.

  10. Small Scale Turbopump Manufacturing Technology and Material Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, Erika; Morgan, Kristin; Wells, Doug; Zimmerman, Frank

    2011-01-01

    As part of an internal research and development project, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been developing a high specific impulse 9,000-lbf LOX/LH2 pump-fed engine testbed with the capability to throttle 10:1. A Fuel Turbopump (FTP) with the ability to operate across a speed range of 30,000-rpm to 100,000-rpm was developed and analyzed. This small size and flight-like Fuel Turbopump has completed the design and analysis phase and is currently in the manufacturing phase. This paper highlights the manufacturing and processes efforts to fabricate an approximately 20-lb turbopump with small flow passages, intricately bladed components and approximately 3-in diameter impellers. As a result of the small scale and tight tolerances of the hardware on this turbopump, several unique manufacturing and material challenges were encountered. Some of the technologies highlighted in this paper include the use of powder metallurgy technology to manufacture small impellers, electron beam welding of a turbine blisk shroud, and casting challenges. The use of risk reduction efforts such as non-destructive testing (NDT) and evaluation (NDE), fractography, material testing, and component spin testing are also discussed in this paper.

  11. Structures and Intermittency in Small Scales Solar Wind Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Sahraoui, Fouad [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 20771 (United States); Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique-UPMC, Velizy, 78140 (France); Goldstein, Melvyn [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 20771 (United States)

    2010-03-25

    Several observations in space plasmas have reported the presence of coherent structures at different plasma scales. Structure formation is believed to result from nonlinear interactions between the plasma modes, which depend strongly on their phase synchronization. Despite this important role of the phases in turbulence, very limited work has been devoted to study the phases as potential tracers of nonlinearities in comparison with the wealth of literature on power spectra of turbulence where phases are totally missed. The reason why the phases are seldom used is probably because they usually appear to be completely mixed (due to their dependence on an arbitrary time origin and to 2pi periodicity). To handle the phases properly, a new method based on using surrogate data has been developed recently to detect coherent structures in magnetized plasmas [Sahraoui, PRE, 2008]. Here, we show new applications of the technique to study the nature (weak vs strong, self-similar vs intermittent) of the small scale turbulence in the solar wind using the Cluster observations.

  12. Shaping mobile belts by small-scale convection.

    PubMed

    Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W

    2010-06-01

    Mobile belts are long-lived deformation zones composed of an ensemble of crustal fragments, distributed over hundreds of kilometres inside continental convergent margins. The Mediterranean represents a remarkable example of this tectonic setting: the region hosts a diffuse boundary between the Nubia and Eurasia plates comprised of a mosaic of microplates that move and deform independently from the overall plate convergence. Surface expressions of Mediterranean tectonics include deep, subsiding backarc basins, intraplate plateaux and uplifting orogenic belts. Although the kinematics of the area are now fairly well defined, the dynamical origins of many of these active features are controversial and usually attributed to crustal and lithospheric interactions. However, the effects of mantle convection, well established for continental interiors, should be particularly relevant in a mobile belt, and modelling may constrain important parameters such as slab coherence and lithospheric strength. Here we compute global mantle flow on the basis of recent, high-resolution seismic tomography to investigate the role of buoyancy-driven and plate-motion-induced mantle circulation for the Mediterranean. We show that mantle flow provides an explanation for much of the observed dynamic topography and microplate motion in the region. More generally, vigorous small-scale convection in the uppermost mantle may also underpin other complex mobile belts such as the North American Cordillera or the Himalayan-Tibetan collision zone. PMID:20520711

  13. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Orifice Plugging Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Kimura, Marcia L.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2012-09-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities, is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations published in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials present in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty introduced by extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches in which the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are largely absent. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine the aerosol release fractions and aerosol generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents (AFA) was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. The purpose of the study described in this report is to provide experimental data for the first key technical area, potential plugging of small breaches, by performing small-scale tests with a range of orifice sizes and orientations representative of the WTP conditions. The simulants used were chosen to represent the range of process stream properties in the WTP. Testing conducted after the plugging tests in the small- and large-scale test stands addresses the second key technical area, aerosol generation. The results of the small-scale aerosol generation tests are included in Mahoney et al. 2012. The area of spray generation from large breaches is covered by large-scale testing in Schonewill et al. 2012.

  14. Small Scale Cold Traps on Airless Planetary Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayne, Paul O.; Aharonson, O.; Williams, J.; Siegler, M. A.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Bandfield, J.; Vasavada, A. R.; Paige, D. A.; Diviner Lunar Radiometer Science Team

    2013-10-01

    Lacking an atmosphere to transport heat, temperatures on airless bodies are primarily controlled by latitude and local time. However, local topography strongly affects temperatures at the surface and in the subsurface by changing the intensity and timing of insolation. In the case of low-obliquity bodies such as Mercury and the Earth’s moon, topography near the poles casts perennial shadows where volatiles such as water ice may be cold-trapped for billions of years. Prior studies have focused primarily on large contiguous cold traps > 1 km resolvable by instruments in lunar orbit. In this investigation, we used infrared measurements of the Moon, thermal models, and a statistical rough surface model to show that such cold traps may exist on a vast range of scales, from the largest impact craters, down to the skin depth of the diurnal temperature oscillation. The extremely insulating nature of planetary regolith leads to extreme temperature gradients and shallow diurnal skin depths. For example, the lunar 29-day diurnal temperature oscillation is damped to ~1% at a depth of 0.5 m. Therefore, at latitudes > 60° where perennial shadow exists, cold traps as small as a few tens of centimeters could exist. As two test cases, we calculated the fractional surface areas on the Moon (obliquity = 1.6°) and Ceres (3-5°) where temperatures remain < 110 K all year round, such that water ice is thermally stable at the surface for billions of years. We also calculated fractional areas where subsurface temperatures are < 145 K, such that subsurface ice deposits are stable on similar timescales. Finally, we will discuss the implications of these proposed small-scale cold traps for other airless bodies, including asteroids and giant planet satellites.

  15. Stability of small-scale baryon perturbations during cosmological recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venumadhav, Tejaswi; Hirata, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we study small-scale fluctuations (baryon pressure sound waves) in the baryon fluid during recombination. In particular, we look at their evolution in the presence of relative velocities between baryons and photons on large scales (k ˜1 0-1 Mpc-1 ), which are naturally present during the era of decoupling. Previous work concluded that the fluctuations grow due to an instability of sound waves in a recombining plasma, but that the growth factor is small for typical cosmological models. These analyses model recombination in an inhomogenous universe as a perturbation to the parameters of the homogenous solution. We show that for relevant wave numbers k ?1 03 Mpc-1 the dynamics are significantly altered by the transport of both ionizing continuum (h ? >13.6 eV ) and Lyman-? photons between crests and troughs of the density perturbations. We solve the radiative transfer of photons in both these frequency ranges and incorporate the results in a perturbed three-level atom model. We conclude that the instability persists at intermediate scales. We use the results to estimate a distribution of growth rates in 1 07 random realizations of large-scale relative velocities. Our results indicate that there is no appreciable growth; out of these 1 07 realizations, the maximum growth factor we find is less than ?1.2 at wave numbers of k ?1 03 Mpc-1 . The instability's low growth factors are due to the relatively short duration of the recombination epoch during which the electrons and photons are coupled.

  16. Propulsion engineering study for small-scale Mars missions

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J.

    1995-09-12

    Rocket propulsion options for small-scale Mars missions are presented and compared, particularly for the terminal landing maneuver and for sample return. Mars landing has a low propulsive {Delta}v requirement on a {approximately}1-minute time scale, but at a high acceleration. High thrust/weight liquid rocket technologies, or advanced pulse-capable solids, developed during the past decade for missile defense, are therefore more appropriate for small Mars landers than are conventional space propulsion technologies. The advanced liquid systems are characterize by compact lightweight thrusters having high chamber pressures and short lifetimes. Blowdown or regulated pressure-fed operation can satisfy the Mars landing requirement, but hardware mass can be reduced by using pumps. Aggressive terminal landing propulsion designs can enable post-landing hop maneuvers for some surface mobility. The Mars sample return mission requires a small high performance launcher having either solid motors or miniature pump-fed engines. Terminal propulsion for 100 kg Mars landers is within the realm of flight-proven thruster designs, but custom tankage is desirable. Landers on a 10 kg scale also are feasible, using technology that has been demonstrated but not previously flown in space. The number of sources and the selection of components are extremely limited on this smallest scale, so some customized hardware is required. A key characteristic of kilogram-scale propulsion is that gas jets are much lighter than liquid thrusters for reaction control. The mass and volume of tanks for inert gas can be eliminated by systems which generate gas as needed from a liquid or a solid, but these have virtually no space flight history. Mars return propulsion is a major engineering challenge; earth launch is the only previously-solved propulsion problem requiring similar or greater performance.

  17. Small scale folding observed in the NEEM ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Daniela; Llorens, Maria-Gema; Westhoff, Julien; Steinbach, Florian; Bons, Paul D.; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Griera, Albert; Weikusat, Ilka

    2015-04-01

    Disturbances on the centimeter scale in the layering of the NEEM ice core (North Greenland) can be mapped by means of visual stratigraphy as long as the ice does have a visual layering, such as, for example, cloudy bands. Different focal depths of the visual stratigraphy method allow, to a certain extent, a three dimensional view of the structures. In this study we present a structural analysis of the visible folds, discuss characteristics and frequency and present examples of typical fold structures. With this study we aim to quantify the potential impact of small scale folding on the integrity of climate proxy data. We also analyze the structures with regard to the stress environment under which they formed. The structures evolve from gentle waves at about 1700 m to overturned z-folds with increasing depth. Occasionally, the folding causes significant thickening of layers. Their shape indicates that they are passive features and are probably not initiated by rheology differences between layers. Layering is heavily disturbed and tracing of single layers is no longer possible below a depth of 2160 m. Lattice orientation distributions for the corresponding core sections were analyzed where available in addition to visual stratigraphy. The data show axial-plane parallel strings of grains with c.axis orientations that deviate from that of the matrix, which has more or less a single-maximum fabric at the depth where the folding occurs. We conclude from these data that folding is a consequence of deformation along localized shear planes and kink bands. The findings are compared with results from other deep ice cores. The observations presented are supplemented by microstructural modeling using a crystal plasticity code that reproduces deformation, applying a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), coupled with ELLE to include dynamic recrystallization processes. The model results reproduce the development of bands of grains with a tilted orientation relative to the single maximum fabric of the matrix and also the associated local deformation.

  18. Small-scale Ring Structure Observed In Cassini UVIS Occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sremcevic, Miodrag; Esposito, L. W.; Colwell, J.

    2009-09-01

    In this paper we give an overview of small-scale structure directly observed throughout Saturn's main rings. After 5 years of Cassini mission the UVIS instrument recorded more than hundred stellar occultations by Saturn's rings. Most of the observed occultations have excellent resolution on the order of ten meters. We use statistical and spectral methods (Fourier and wavelet transforms, and autocorrelations of the signal) to infer the properties of the microstructure. The multitude of observations allows us to infer the orientation and two-dimensional picture of the underlying structure. Most of the A ring and outer B ring show 10-50m structure pitched by about 20 degrees from the orbital motion. These observations are consistent with Tomre type self-gravity wakes reported by other researchers, and moreover give direct spatial measurements. The inner A ring and lower optical depth regions in the B ring show 100-200m scale regular waves. These waves have no pitch angle and are consistent with a viscous oscillatory instability, better known as overstability. Additionally, occultation geometry dependence of the observed optical depth indicates the presence of self-gravity wakes within the wave structure. In higher optical depth regions of B ring the most dominant structure is irregular with spatial scales of about 100m. The structure has no pitch angle, thus it is aligned with the orbital motion, and is very distinct from the signature of either self-gravity wakes or overstable waves reported up to now. So far the only plausible theoretical candidate for the explanation is viscous or diffusion instability. Such interpretation would require either fairly elastic particle properties not observed so far, or alternatively small ring particles. The C ring and Cassini division are void of obvious self-gravity wakes or overstable waves. However, few occultations of double stars indicate presence of microstructure possibly on scales smaller than instrument resolution.

  19. Potential small-scale development of western oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.; Renk, R.; Nordin, J.; Chatwin, T.; Harnsberger, M.; Fahy, L.J.; Cha, C.Y.; Smith, E.; Robertson, R.

    1989-10-01

    Several studies have been undertaken in an effort to determine ways to enhance development of western oil shale under current market conditions for energy resources. This study includes a review of the commercial potential of western oil shale products and byproducts, a review of retorting processes, an economic evaluation of a small-scale commercial operation, and a description of the environmental requirements of such an operation. Shale oil used as a blend in conventional asphalt appears to have the most potential for entering today's market. Based on present prices for conventional petroleum, other products from oil shale do not appear competitive at this time or will require considerable marketing to establish a position in the marketplace. Other uses for oil shale and spent shale, such as for sulfur sorbtion, power generation, cement, aggregate, and soil stabilization, are limited economically by transportation costs. The three-state area area consisting of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming seems reasonable for the entry of shale oil-blended asphalt into the commercial market. From a review of retorting technologies and the product characteristics from various retorting processes it was determined that the direct heating Paraho and inclined fluidized-bed processes produce a high proportion of heavy material with a high nitrogen content. The two processes are complementary in that they are each best suited to processing different size ranges of materials. An economic evaluation of a 2000-b/d shale oil facility shows that the operation is potentially viable, if the price obtained for the shale oil residue is in the top range of prices projected for this product. Environmental requirements for building and operating an oil shale processing facility are concerned with permitting, control of emissions and discharges, and monitoring. 62 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. DESIGN AND TEST OF SMALL-SCALE ROTARY ENGINE POWER SYSTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yisheng Liu; Wei Li; Canjun Yang; Ruiyin Song

    2007-01-01

    In order to develop a portable, autonomous power generation system with a magnitude improvement in energy density over alkaline or lithium-ion batteries, the liquid hydrocarbons fueled small-scale rotary (Wankel-type) internal combustion engines project is directed toward the development of a practical small-scale power generator. Micro combustion and seal are two of the most prominent questions of the design of small-scale

  1. Solar synthesis of advanced materials: A solar industrial program initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, A.

    1992-06-01

    This is an initiative for accelerating the use of solar energy in the advanced materials manufacturing industry in the United States. The initiative will be based on government-industry collaborations that will develop the technology and help US industry compete in the rapidly expanding global advanced materials marketplace. Breakthroughs in solar technology over the last 5 years have created exceptional new tools for developing advanced materials. Concentrated sunlight from solar furnaces can produce intensities that approach those on the surface of the sun and can generate temperatures well over 2000{degrees}C. Very thin layers of illuminated surfaces can be driven to remarkably high temperatures in a fraction of a second. Concentrated solar energy can be delivered over large areas, allowing for rapid processing and high production rates. By using this technology, researchers are transforming low-cost raw materials into high-performance products. Solar synthesis of advanced materials uses bulk materials and energy more efficiently, lowers processing costs, and reduces the need for strategic materials -- all with a technology that does not harm the environment. The Solar Industrial Program has built a unique, world class solar furnace at NREL to help meet the growing need for applied research in advanced materials. Many new advanced materials processes have been successfully demonstrated in this facility, including the following: Metalorganic deposition, ceramic powders, diamond-like carbon materials, rapid heat treating, and cladding (hard coating).

  2. Office of Industrial Technologies: Summary of program results

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Working in partnership with industry, the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) is helping reduce industrial energy use, emissions, and waste while boosting productivity. Operating within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE), OIT conducts research, development, demonstration, and technology transfer efforts that are producing substantial, measurable benefits to industry. This document summarizes some of the impacts of OIT`s programs through 1997. OIT tracks energy savings as well as other benefits associated with the successfully commercialized technologies resulting from OIT-supported research partnerships. Specifically, a chart shows current and cumulative energy savings as well as cumulative reductions of various air pollutants including particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}), and the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The bulk of the document consists of four appendices. Appendix 1 describes the technologies currently available commercially, along with their applications and benefits; Appendix 2 describes the OIT-supported emerging technologies that are likely to be commercialized within the next year or two; Appendix 3 describes OIT-sponsored technologies used in commercial applications in the past that are no longer tracked; and Appendix 4 describes the methodology used to assess and track OIT-supported technologies.

  3. Growth rate of small-scale dynamo at low magnetic Prandtl numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleeorin, Nathan; Rogachevskii, Igor

    2012-07-01

    In this study, we discuss two key issues relating to a small-scale dynamo instability at low magnetic Prandtl numbers and large magnetic Reynolds numbers, namely: (i) the scaling for the growth rate of a small-scale dynamo instability in the vicinity of the dynamo threshold; (ii) the existence of the Golitsyn spectrum of magnetic fluctuations in small-scale dynamos. There are two different asymptotics for the small-scale dynamo's growth rate: in the vicinity of the threshold of the excitation of the small-scale dynamo instability, \\lambda \\propto \\ln \\left ({Rm} / {Rm}^{ { cr}}\\right ) , and when the magnetic Reynolds number is much larger than the threshold of the excitation of the small-scale dynamo instability, ??Rm1/2, where Rmcr is the small-scale dynamo instability threshold in the magnetic Reynolds number Rm. We demonstrate that the existence of the Golitsyn spectrum of magnetic fluctuations requires a finite correlation time of the random velocity field. On the other hand, the influence of the Golitsyn spectrum on the small-scale dynamo instability is minor. This is the reason why it is so difficult to observe this spectrum in direct numerical simulations for the small-scale dynamo with low magnetic Prandtl numbers.

  4. Experiments for comparison of small scale rainfall simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iserloh, T.; Ries, J. B.

    2012-04-01

    Small scale portable rainfall simulators are an essential tool in research of recent process dynamics of soil erosion. Such rainfall simulators differ in design, rainfall intensities, rain spectra etc., impeding comparison of the results. Due to different research questions a standardisation of rainfall simulation is not in sight. Nevertheless, the data become progressively important for soil erosion modelling and therefore the basis for decision-makers in application-oriented erosion protection. The project aims at providing a criteria catalogue for estimation of the different simulators as well as the comparability of the results and a uniform calibration procedure for generated rainfall. Within the project "Comparability of simulation results of different rainfall simulators as input data for soil erosion modelling (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - DFG, Project No. Ri 835/6-1)" many rainfall simulators used by European research groups were compared. The artificially generated rainfall of the rainfall simulators at the Universities Basel, La Rioja, Malaga, Trier, Tübingen, Valencia, Wageningen, Zaragoza and at different Spanish CSIC-institutes (Almeria, Cordoba, Granada, Murcia, Zaragoza) were measured with the same methods (Laser Precipitation Monitor for drop spectra and rain collectors for spatial distribution). The data are very beneficial for improvements of simulators and comparison of simulators and results. Furthermore, they can be used for comparative studies with natural rainfall spectra. A broad range of rainfall data was measured (e.g. intensity: 30 - 149 mmh-1, Christiansen Coefficient for spatial rainfall distribution 61 - 98 %, mean drop diameter 0.375 - 5.0 mm, mean kinetic energy expenditure 25 - 1322 J m-2 h-1, mean kinetic energy per unit area and unit depth of rainfall 4 - 14 J m-2 mm-1). Similarities among the simulators could be found e.g. concerning drop size distributions (maximum drop numbers are reached within the two smallest drop classes < 1 mm) and low fall velocities of bigger drops due to a general physical restriction. The comparison provides a good data base for improvements and a consistent picture of the parameters of the simulators. To assess the influence of rainfall simulator type and plot dimensions on runoff and erosion, rainfall simulators from Freiberg, Tübingen, Trier, Valencia, Zaragoza, Basel and Wageningen were compared on a prepared bare fallow field during the Rainfall Simulator Workshop in Trier (Germany). The results show a clear and consistent relationship in runoff, erosion and infiltration behaviour of the different used rainfall simulators. With all the devices total soil loss was measurable, but different plot sizes, intensities and kinetic energies of the simulated rainfall caused differences in soil loss and runoff quantities per unit of area. Regarding course characteristics over runs, similarities could be observed especially in runoff behaviour.

  5. Integrated bioenergy conversion concepts for small scale gasification power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldas, Rizaldo Elauria

    Thermal and biological gasification are promising technologies for addressing the emerging concerns in biomass-based renewable energy, environmental protection and waste management. However, technical barriers such as feedstock quality limitations, tars, and high NOx emissions from biogas fueled engines impact their full utilization and make them suffer at the small scale from the need to purify the raw gas for most downstream processes, including power generation other than direct boiler use. The two separate gasification technologies may be integrated to better address the issues of power generation and waste management and to complement some of each technologies' limitations. This research project investigated the technical feasibility of an integrated thermal and biological gasification concept for parameters critical to appropriately matching an anaerobic digester with a biomass gasifier. Specific studies investigated the thermal gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks in four fixed-bed gasification experiments: (1) updraft gasification of rice hull, (2) indirect-heated gasification of rice hull, (3) updraft gasification of Athel wood, and (4) downdraft gasification of Athel and Eucalyptus woods. The effects of tars and other components of producer gas on anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperature of 36°C and the biodegradation potentials and soil carbon mineralization of gasification tars during short-term aerobic incubation at 27.5°C were also examined. Experiments brought out the ranges in performance and quality and quantity of gasification products under different operating conditions and showed that within the conditions considered in the study, these gasification products did not adversely impact the overall digester performance. Short-term aerobic incubation demonstrated variable impacts on carbon mineralization depending on tar and soil conditions. Although tars exhibited low biodegradation indices, degradation may be improved if the microorganisms used to deal with tars are selected and pre-conditioned to the tar environment. Overall, the results provided a basis for operational and design strategy for a combined gasification system but further study is recommended such as determination of the impacts in terms of emissions, power, efficiency and costs associated with the use of producer gas-enriched biogas taking advantage of hydrogen enrichment to reduce NOx and other pollutants in reciprocating engines and other energy conversion systems.

  6. Visualization of small scale structures on high resolution DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokalj, Žiga; Zakšek, Klemen; Pehani, Peter; ?otar, Klemen; Oštir, Krištof

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge on the terrain morphology is very important for observation of numerous processes and events and digital elevation models are therefore one of the most important datasets in geographic analyses. Furthermore, recognition of natural and anthropogenic microrelief structures, which can be observed on detailed terrain models derived from aerial laser scanning (lidar) or structure-from-motion photogrammetry, is of paramount importance in many applications. In this paper we thus examine and evaluate methods of raster lidar data visualization for the determination (recognition) of microrelief features and present a series of strategies to assist selecting the preferred visualization of choice for structures of various shapes and sizes, set in varied landscapes. Often the answer is not definite and more frequently a combination of techniques has to be used to map a very diverse landscape. Researchers can only very recently benefit from free software for calculation of advanced visualization techniques. These tools are often difficult to understand, have numerous options that confuse the user, or require and produce non-standard data formats, because they were written for specific purposes. We therefore designed the Relief Visualization Toolbox (RVT) as a free, easy-to-use, standalone application to create visualisations from high-resolution digital elevation data. It is tailored for the very beginners in relief interpretation, but it can also be used by more advanced users in data processing and geographic information systems. It offers a range of techniques, such as simple hillshading and its derivatives, slope gradient, trend removal, positive and negative openness, sky-view factor, and anisotropic sky-view factor. All included methods have been proven to be effective for detection of small scale features and the default settings are optimised to accomplish this task. However, the usability of the tool goes beyond computation for visualization purposes, as sky-view factor, for example, is an essential variable in many fields, e.g. in meteorology. RVT produces two types of results: 1) the original files have a full range of values and are intended for further analyses in geographic information systems, 2) the simplified versions are histogram stretched for visualization purposes and saved as 8-bit GeoTIFF files. This means that they can be explored in non-GIS software, e.g. with simple picture viewers, which is essential when a larger community of non-specialists needs to be considered, e.g. in public collaborative projects. The tool recognizes all frequently used single band raster formats and supports elevation raster file data conversion.

  7. Small-scale ring structure observed in Cassini UVIS occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sremcevic, M.; Colwell, J. E.; Esposito, L. W.

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we give an overview of small-scale structure directly observed throughout Saturn's main rings. After 5 years of Cassini mission the UVIS instrument recorded more than hundred stellar occultations by Saturn's rings. Most of the observed occultations have excellent resolution on the order of ten meters. We use statistical and spectral methods (Fourier and wavelet transforms, and autocorrelations of the signal) to infer the properties of the microstructure. The multitude of observations allows us to infer the orientation and two-dimensional picture of the underlying structure. Most of the A ring and outer B ring show 10-50m structures pitched by about 20 degrees from the orbital motion. These observations are consistent with Toomre type self-gravity wakes reported by other researchers, and moreover allow to directly infer their spatial scalings. In a recent, specially crafted high-resolution occultation of the mid A ring we for the first time directly resolved individual self-gravity wakes. The occultation was designed to track the orbital motion of ring particles, achieving the true resolution in the co-rotating ring plane of below a meter. The self-gravity wakes appear nearly opaque and inter-spaced with almost void gaps. The transition between the wakes and gaps is rather sharp. The inner A ring and lower optical depth regions in the B ring show 100-200m scale regular waves. These waves have no pitch angle and are consistent with a viscous oscillatory instability, better known as overstability. The most surprising aspect of the wave structure is their patchy appearance throughout the rings. Additionally, occultation geometry dependence of the observed optical depth indicates the presence of self-gravity wakes within the wave structure. In higher optical depth regions of the B ring the most dominant structure is irregular with spatial scales of about 100m.The structure is axisymmetric and very distinct from the signature of both self-gravity wakes and overstable waves reported up to now. So far the only plausible theoretical candidate for the explanation is viscous or diffusion instability. Such interpretation, however, require either fairly elastic particle properties not observed so far, or alternatively small ring particles. The C ring and Cassini division are void of obvious self-gravity wakes or overstable waves. However, few occultations of double stars indicate the presence of microstructure, but its exact nature remains mysterious.

  8. The Statistical Order of Small Scales in Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolovitzky, Gustavo Alejandra

    In this thesis we study the statistical behavior of the small scales in turbulence. We focus on three quantities: the velocity increments (Delta u_ {r}), the locally averaged dissipation (epsilon_{r}), and a stochastic variable (V) that relates the previous two quantities. Kolmogorov's refined similarity hypotheses, which postulate a universal behavior for V, are assessed experimentally, and their basic tenets are confirmed. Under some assumptions, we derive an equation that relates the second and third moments of V directly from the Navier -Stokes equations. This equation provides theoretical support for the refined similarity hypotheses. Kolmogorov's hypotheses are shown to go beyond the domain of turbulence to hold true in the realm of general stochastic processes as well. For fractional Brownian motion, we find an analytical expression for the probability density function (pdf) of V which, except for its lack of skewness, describes in many details the pdf of the turbulence V. In the classical phenomenological models, r epsilon_{r} is specified via a product of multipliers which are assumed independent. We show that this assumption is incorrect. The correlation between multipliers originates in the dependence of the multiplier distribution on the local rate of strain. We present a correlated-multiplier model which takes this physical consideration into account, and find that its multifractal properties coincide with the predictions of uncorrelated-multiplier models, except for features associated with very small values of repsilon_ {r}. We explain the reasons why the independence assumption gives excellent results in spite of its lack of realism. The knowledge of the properties of repsilon _{r} and V allows us to derive analytical expressions for the pdfs of Delta u_{r}. Our expressions match the experimental data very well. The shape of these pdfs can be approximated using stretched exponential functions, with stretching exponents that range from 0.5 in the dissipative range to 2 at the integral scales. Finally, we propose a new method for computing the scaling of the structure functions, by means of interpolation formulas called scaling functions, which permit the determination of scaling exponents even at moderate Reynolds numbers when the scaling region is small.

  9. Advanced Turbine Systems Program industrial system concept development

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, S.

    1995-12-31

    Solar approached Phase II of ATS program with the goal of 50% thermal efficiency. An intercolled and recuperated gas turbine was identified as the ultimate system to meet this goal in a commercial gas turbine environment. With commercial input from detailed market studies and DOE`s ATS program, Solar redefined the company`s proposed ATS to fit both market and sponsor (DOE) requirements. Resulting optimized recuperated gas turbine will be developed in two sizes, 5 and 15 MWe. It will show a thermal efficiency of about 43%, a 23% improvement over current industrial gas turbines. Other ATS goals--emissions, RAMD (reliability, availability, maintainability, durability), cost of power--will be met or exceeded. During FY95, advanced development of key materials, combustion and component technologies proceeded to the point of acceptance for inclusion in ATS Phase III.

  10. Development program to support industrial coal gasification. Quarterly report 1

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1982-01-15

    The Development Program to Support Industrial Coal Gasification is on schedule. The efforts have centered on collecting background information and data, planning, and getting the experimental program underway. The three principal objectives in Task I-A were accomplished. The technical literature was reviewed, the coals and binders to be employed were selected, and tests and testing equipment to be used in evaluating agglomerates were developed. The entire Erie Mining facility design was reviewed and a large portion of the fluidized-bed coal gasification plant design was completed. Much of the work in Task I will be experimental. Wafer-briquette and roll-briquette screening tests will be performed. In Task II, work on the fluidized-bed gasification plant design will be completed and work on a plant design involving entrained-flow gasifiers will be initiated.

  11. Industrial Rates and Demand-Side Management Programs 

    E-print Network

    Kasprowicz, L. M.; House, R.

    1993-01-01

    The industrial sector in Texas is large and energy intensive. Industrial sales constitute a major portion of total sales for several utilities in Texas. Industrial demand-side management (DSM) can be used by utilities to provide industrial customers...

  12. Industry-Specific Training Programs. An Overview. Information Series No. 314.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Walter R.

    For those individuals wishing to know more about the topic, this publication provides an introduction to industry-specific training. The need for industry-specific training programs (ISTPs) is addressed. An overview follows of how to develop the capacity needed in state and local organizations to design and implement industry-specific programs. A…

  13. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Industrial Programs and Their Impacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven A. Weakley; Joseph M. Roop

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energys Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) has been working with industry since 1976 to encourage the development and adoption of new, energy-efficient technologies. ITP has helped industry not only use energy and materials more efficiently but also improve environmental performance, product quality, and productivity. To help ITP determine the impacts of its programs, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

  14. U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Industrial Programs and Their Impacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven A. Weakley; Joseph M. Roop

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) has been working with industry since 1976 to encourage the development and adoption of new, energy-efficient technologies. ITP has helped industry not only use energy and materials more efficiently but also improve environmental performance, product quality, and productivity. To help ITP determine the impacts of its programs, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

  15. SUMMER PROGRAM FOR UPDATING THE TECHNICAL COMPETENCY OF TEACHERS OF INDUSTRIAL SUBJECTS. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOHN, RALPH C.

    STUDENTS OF THE INSERVICE PROGRAM WERE 96 INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION TEACHERS FROM THE AREAS OF AUTO AND POWER, DRAFTING, ELECTRONICS, AND METALS WHO WERE SELECTED FROM 576 APPLICANTS. OBJECTIVES WERE TO (1) DEVELOP MODELS FOR INDUSTRY-SCHOOL COOPERATIVE PROGRAMS, (2) INTEGRATE INSTRUCTION ON INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS, CYBERNETICS, AND AUTOMATION INTO THE…

  16. INDUSTRY/UNIVERSITY COOPERATIVE GRADUATE STUDENT RESEARCH PROGRAM REQUEST FOR APPLICATIONS

    E-print Network

    Fork, Richard

    INDUSTRY/UNIVERSITY COOPERATIVE GRADUATE STUDENT RESEARCH PROGRAM REQUEST FOR APPLICATIONS 1 in cooperation with an industry partner, under the guidance of their UAH Dissertation or Thesis Advisor to degree completion within the industrial partner's organization. This program will provide participating

  17. Sampling Large Landscapes with Small-Scale Stratification--User's Manual

    E-print Network

    Torgersen, Christian

    Sampling Large Landscapes with Small-Scale Stratification--User's Manual Open-File Report 2011-Scale Stratification--User's Manual By Jonathan Bart Open-File Report 2011­1247 U.S. Department of the Interior U with small-scale stratification--User's Manual: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1247, 14 p. #12

  18. CPT and N-resonance phenomena in rubidium vapor for small-scale atomic clocks

    E-print Network

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    CPT and N-resonance phenomena in rubidium vapor for small-scale atomic clocks A thesis presented: Christopher Lee Smallwood CPT and N-resonance phenomena in rubidium vapor for small-scale atomic clocks-scale atomic clocks. The first of these is the charac- terization of a vertical cavity surface emitting laser

  19. Impacts of irrigation and aquaculture development on small-scale aquatic resources

    E-print Network

    Lorenzen, Kai

    Impacts of irrigation and aquaculture development on small-scale aquatic resources (R 7235) T H Development Environment Research Programme #12;2 Cover photograph: Irrigation weir at Huay Xay, Namphou scheme, Savannakhet. #12;3 Impacts of irrigation and aquaculture development on small-scale aquatic resources (R 7235

  20. The characteristics of sharp (small-scale) boundaries of solar wind plasma and magnetic field structures

    E-print Network

    Richardson, John

    The characteristics of sharp (small-scale) boundaries of solar wind plasma and magnetic field investigate properties of large (>20%) and sharp (solar wind ion flux changes using INTERBALL-1 are the boundaries of small-scale and mid- dle-scale solar wind structures. We describe the behavior of the solar

  1. Reasons for adoption and spread of conservation agriculture among small-scale

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    Reasons for adoption and spread of conservation agriculture among small-scale farmers Laikipia sustainable resource use several case studies were introduced from all over the world. Also small scale farmers in Kenya, their livelihood strategies and the problems occurring because of the unreliable rains

  2. Small Scale Variants of the AES C. Cid # , S. Murphy, and M.J.B. Robshaw

    E-print Network

    Small Scale Variants of the AES C. Cid # , S. Murphy, and M.J.B. Robshaw Information Security Group.Cid,S.Murphy,M.Robshaw}@rhul.ac.uk Abstract. In this paper we define small scale variants of the AES. These variants inherit the design features of the AES and provide a suitable framework for comparing di#erent cryptanalytic methods

  3. dMT: inexpensive throughput enhancement in small-scale embedded microprocessors with

    E-print Network

    Skadron, Kevin

    dMT: inexpensive throughput enhancement in small-scale embedded microprocessors with differential (dMT) as an attractive organisation for increasing throughput in simple, small-scale, pipelined processors like those used in embedded environments. dMT copes with pipeline stalls due to hazards and data

  4. Small-scale spatial variation of benthic algal assemblages in a peat bog Katerina Cerna n

    E-print Network

    Small-scale spatial variation of benthic algal assemblages in a peat bog Katerina Cerna´ n test Peat bog a b s t r a c t Spatial patterns on a very small scale (10 cm), and the effect microhabitat types were investigated. Samples were taken in a peat bog along linear transects on a scale of 10

  5. SMALL SCALE HOT GAS CLEANING DEVICE FOR SOFC UTILISATION OF WOODY BIOMASS PRODUCT GAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Schweiger; U. Hohenwarter

    Decentralized small scale combined heat and power plants (CHP) are getting more important in future electricity production. Due to energy losses during the conversion from biomass to electricity, small-scale power plants only reach low electric efficiencies. To increase the overall efficiency, the combination of small biomass gasification plants with high temperature fuel cells seems to be a promising technology for

  6. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Livestock Projects. Guidelines for Planning Series Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Linda

    This document was developed in response to the need for simplified technical information for planning environmentally sound small-scale projects in third world countries. It is aimed specifically at those who are planning or managing small-scale livestock projects in less-developed areas of the tropics and sub-tropics. The guidelines included in…

  7. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2013-05-29

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and net generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of antifoam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. For the combination of both test stands, the round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the much larger flow rates and equipment that would be required. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

  8. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2012-11-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

  9. Large- and small-scale constraints on power spectra in Omega = 1 universes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelb, James M.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami; Frieman, Joshua A.

    1993-01-01

    The CDM model of structure formation, normalized on large scales, leads to excessive pairwise velocity dispersions on small scales. In an attempt to circumvent this problem, we study three scenarios (all with Omega = 1) with more large-scale and less small-scale power than the standard CDM model: (1) cold dark matter with significantly reduced small-scale power (inspired by models with an admixture of cold and hot dark matter); (2) cold dark matter with a non-scale-invariant power spectrum; and (3) cold dark matter with coupling of dark matter to a long-range vector field. When normalized to COBE on large scales, such models do lead to reduced velocities on small scales and they produce fewer halos compared with CDM. However, models with sufficiently low small-scale velocities apparently fail to produce an adequate number of halos.

  10. Profile of the chemicals industry in California: Californiaindustries of the future program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Galitsky; Ernst Worrell

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) established the Industries of the Future (IOF) program to increase energy efficiency, reduce waste production and to improve competitiveness, currently focusing on nine sectors. The IOF is a partnership strategy involving industry, the research community and the government, working together to identify technology needs, promote industrial partnerships and implement

  11. Apiculture de Petite Eschelle (Small Scale Beekeeping). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Manual Series No. M-26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Curtis

    This French-language manual is designed to assist Peace Corps volunteers in French-speaking countries in the implementation of small-scale beekeeping programs as a tool for development. Addressed in the individual chapters are bees and humans; project planning; the types and habits of bees; the essence of beekeeping; bee space and beehives;…

  12. Summary of the Mid-Atlantic conference on small-scale hydropower in the Mid-Atlantic states: resolution of the barriers impeding its development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The workshop was conducted to bring together interested persons to examine and discuss the major problems associated with small-scale hydroelectric dam development in the Mid-Atlantic region. The conference opened with an introductory panel which outlined the objectives and the materials available to conference participants. Two of the workshops discussed problems and policy responses raised by state and Federal regulation. The other two workshops concerned economic issues confronting small-scale hydro development and the operation and usefulness of the systems dynamics model under development by the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth. Various Federal and state programs designed to stimulate small-scale hydro development were discussed. A plenary session completed the workshops.

  13. Alabama Industrial Technician Education Cooperative Demonstration Program (I-TEC). Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John M. Patterson State Technical Coll., Montgomery, AL.

    A cooperative demonstration program between industry (General Electric) and education (John Patterson State Technical College, Alabama) designed and conducted a training program and competency assessment for individuals entering high technology positions related to industrial production in Alabama. The program was designed to develop employees as…

  14. The Industrial Affiliates Program at the University of Puerto Rico Mayaguez

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Velez-Reyes; M. A. Perez-Quinones; J. L. Cruz-Rivera

    1999-01-01

    The Industrial Affiliates Program (IAP) is an industry sponsored undergraduate research program at the University of Puerto Rico Mayaguez. The program has the support of more than 12 companies, many of them internationally recognized companies. IAP is administered by the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and has student and professor participation from all departments in the School of Engineering.

  15. Fruitful Linkages with Business and Industry in Program Development: Recent Trends in Industrialized Nations and Some Effective Examples from Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turker, A. Vural

    Vocational education planning is complex and extensive and requires the proper and adequate involvement of business and industry circles in program development. To rebuild their institutions and replenish adversely affected systems and depleted resources after World War II, industrialized nations have implemented education and training for…

  16. Sponsors of CIEEDAC: Environment Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation, Aluminium Industry Association, Canadian Chemical Producers' Association, Canadian Electricity

    E-print Network

    for Energy Conservation, Aluminium Industry Association, Canadian Chemical Producers' Association, CanadianSponsors of CIEEDAC: Environment Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Industry Program and Mines. CIEEDAC Baseline 1990 Data for the Canadian Iron and Steel Manufacturing Industries Prepared for

  17. Sponsors of CIEEDAC: Environment Canada Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation, Aluminium Industry Association, Canadian Chemical Producers' Association, Canadian Electricity

    E-print Network

    for Energy Conservation, Aluminium Industry Association, Canadian Chemical Producers' Association, CanadianSponsors of CIEEDAC: Environment Canada Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Industry Program and Mines. CIEEDAC GHG Emissions Trend Analysis in the Fossil Fuel Production Industries 2008 Update

  18. Satellite observations of the small-scale cyclonic eddies in the western South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Tang, S.; Chen, C.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution ocean color observations offer an opportunity to investigate the oceanic small-scale processes. In this study, the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) daily 300 m data were used to study small-scale processes in the western South China Sea. It is indicated that the cyclonic eddies with horizontal scales of 10 km are frequently observed during the upwelling season of each year over the 2004-2009 period. These small-scale eddies were generated in the vicinity of the southern front of the cold tongue, and then propagated eastward with a speed of approximately 12 cm s-1. This propagation speed was consistent with the velocity of the western boundary current. As a result, the small-scale eddies kept the high levels of phytoplankton rotating away from the coastal areas, resulting in the accumulation of phytoplankton in the interior of the eddies. The generation of the small-scale eddies may be associated with strengthening of the relative movement between the rotation speed of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies and the offshore transport. With the increases of the normalized rotation speed of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies relative to the offshore transport, the offshore current became a meander under the impacts of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies. The meandered cold tongue and instability front may stimulate the generation of the small-scale eddies. Unidirectional uniform wind along the cold tongue may also contribute to the formation of the small-scale eddies.

  19. Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion for small scale market sectors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, R.A.; Plessinger, D.A.; Sommer, T.M. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Orville, OH (United States); Keener, H.M. [Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, OH (United States); Webner, R.L. [Will-Burt Co., Orrville, OH (United States)

    1997-03-31

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate and promote the commercialization of coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) systems, with limestone addition for SO{sub 2} emissions control and a baghouse for particulate emissions control. This AFBC system was targeted for small scale industrial-commercial-institutional space and process heat applications. A cost effective and environmentally acceptable AFBC technology in this size range would displace a considerable amount of gas/oil with coal while resulting in significant total cost savings to the owner/operators. In the Proof-of-Concept Phase, a 2.2 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr unit was installed and successfully operated at Cedar Lane Farms (CLF), a commercial nursery in Ohio. The heat from the fluidized bed was used to heat hot water which was recirculated through greenhouses for cool weather heating. The system was designed to be fully automated with minimal operator attention required. The AFBC system installed at CLF was an improved design that incorporated flyash/sorbent reinjection and an underbed feed system to improve limestone utilization. With these additions it was possible to lower the Ca/S ratio from {approximately} 3.0 to 2.0, and still maintain an SO{sub 2} emissions level of 1.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu when burning the same high sulfur Ohio coal tested at OARDC.

  20. Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project. Pennsylvania Hydroelectric Development Corporation Flat Rock Dam: Project summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Gleeson, L.

    1991-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

  1. Entering Industry: A Case Study of Links between a School Vocational Program and the Building and Construction Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Anthea

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have tracked youth transition beyond the immediate post-school period or have looked at the longer-term outcomes of post-school programs. This study reports the findings of a case study investigating links between an industry-specific school vocational education and training (VET) program and subsequent work transitions to the building…

  2. 78 FR 9431 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ...committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy...to 12:00 p.m. ADDRESSES: National Archives and Records Administration...Senior Program Analyst, ISOO, National Archives Building, 700 Pennsylvania Avenue...

  3. 78 FR 38077 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ...committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy...to 12:00 p.m. ADDRESSES: National Archives and Records Administration...Senior Program Analyst, ISOO, National Archives Building, 700 Pennsylvania Avenue...

  4. 77 FR 34411 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ...committee meeting. To discuss National Industrial Security Program policy...to 12:00 p.m. ADDRESSES: National Archives and Records Administration...Senior Program Analyst, ISOO, National Archives Building, 700 Pennsylvania Avenue...

  5. 75 FR 39582 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ...meeting will be held to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy...m. to 12 p.m. ADDRESSES: National Archives and Records Administration...Senior Program Analyst, ISOO, National Archives Building, 700 Pennsylvania Avenue,...

  6. 75 FR 10507 - Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ...meeting will be held to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy...m. to 12 p.m. ADDRESSES: National Archives and Records Administration...Senior Program Analyst, ISOO, National Archives Building, 700 Pennsylvania Avenue,...

  7. 77 FR 63893 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ...committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy...to 12:00 p.m. ADDRESSES: National Archives and Records Administration...Senior Program Analyst, ISOO, National Archives Building, 700 Pennsylvania Avenue...

  8. 78 FR 64024 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ...committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy...to 12:00 p.m. ADDRESSES: National Archives and Records Administration...Senior Program Analyst, ISOO, National Archives Building, 700 Pennsylvania Avenue...

  9. 76 FR 67484 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ...committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy...m. to 12 p.m. ADDRESSES: National Archives and Records Administration...Senior Program Analyst, ISOO, National Archives Building, 700 Pennsylvania Avenue...

  10. 75 FR 65526 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ...committee meeting, to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy...m. to 12 p.m. ADDRESSES: National Archives and Records Administration...Senior Program Analyst, ISOO, National Archives Building, 700 Pennsylvania Avenue,...

  11. Autonomous Guidance of Agile Small-scale Rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettler, Bernard; Feron, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a guidance system for agile vehicles based on a hybrid closed-loop model of the vehicle dynamics. The hybrid model represents the vehicle dynamics through a combination of linear-time-invariant control modes and pre-programmed, finite-duration maneuvers. This particular hybrid structure can be realized through a control system that combines trim controllers and a maneuvering control logic. The former enable precise trajectory tracking, and the latter enables trajectories at the edge of the vehicle capabilities. The closed-loop model is much simpler than the full vehicle equations of motion, yet it can capture a broad range of dynamic behaviors. It also supports a consistent link between the physical layer and the decision-making layer. The trajectory generation was formulated as an optimization problem using mixed-integer-linear-programming. The optimization is solved in a receding horizon fashion. Several techniques to improve the computational tractability were investigate. Simulation experiments using NASA Ames 'R-50 model show that this approach fully exploits the vehicle's agility.

  12. Small-scale dynamo action in multi-scale magnetohydrodynamic and micro-turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiquan; Kishimoto, Y.

    2012-03-01

    Nonlinear interplay between resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) magnetic island and drift wave micro-turbulence is investigated using direct Landau-fluid simulations. A twisting oscillation of magnetic island associated with the driving force of micro-turbulence is observed, which is referred to as magnetic island seesaw. In the initiating phase of the seesaw oscillation, small-scale current and magnetic field fluctuations increase dramatically while the magnetic induction grows exponentially at small-scales corresponding to the spatial scale of micro-turbulence, showing a small-scale dynamo action. A minimal model consisting of reduced MHD turbulence and a micro-instability is proposed to elucidate the underlying mechanism. It is identified that the island seesaw is driven by a net oscillatory electromagnetic torque, which results from small-scale dynamo-generated current and magnetic field. The dynamo mechanism may offer an important energy exchange channel between MHD and micro-turbulence in magnetic fusion plasmas.

  13. Nonlinear Generation of shear flows and large scale magnetic fields by small scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aburjania, G.

    2009-04-01

    EGU2009-233 Nonlinear Generation of shear flows and large scale magnetic fields by small scale turbulence in the ionosphere by G. Aburjania Contact: George Aburjania, g.aburjania@gmail.com,aburj@mymail.ge

  14. Design of a small-scale continuous linear motion pharmaceutical filtration module

    E-print Network

    Wong, Katherine Wing-Shan

    2010-01-01

    A new small-scale continuous linear motion pharmaceutical filtration prototype was designed, fabricated, and tested. The goal of this unit is to filter an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) from a mixture of API ...

  15. Limitations for detecting small-scale faults using the coherency analysis of seismic data

    E-print Network

    Barnett, David Benjamin

    2006-08-16

    Coherency analyzes the trace to trace amplitude similarities recorded by seismic waves. Coherency algorithms have been used to identify the structural or stratigraphic features of an area but the limitations for detecting small-scale features...

  16. Small-scale structures in three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence P.D. Mininni1

    E-print Network

    Pouquet, Annick

    Small-scale structures in three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence P.D. Mininni1 , A, extreme events in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) being observed to be more intense than in neutral flu- ids; e

  17. Small scale hydroelectric power potential in Nevada: a preliminary reconnaissance survey

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, G.F.; Fordham, J.W.; Richard, K.; Loux, R.

    1981-04-01

    This preliminary reconnaissance survey is intended to: develop a first estimate as to the potential number, location and characteristics of small-scale (50 kW to 15 MW) hydroelectric sites in Nevada; provide a compilation of various Federal and state laws and regulations, including tax and financing regulations, that affect small-scale hydroelectric development and provide information on sources of small-scale hydroelectric generation hardware and consultants/ contractors who do small scale hydroelectric work. The entire survey has been conducted in the office working with various available data bases. The site survey and site evaluation methods used are described, and data are tabulated on the flow, power potential, predicted capital expenditures required, etc. for 61 potential sites with measured flows and for 77 sites with derived flows. A map showing potential site locations is included. (LCL)

  18. Radiation and dissipation of internal waves generated by geostrophic motions impinging on small-scale topography

    E-print Network

    Nikurashin, Maxim (Maxim Anatolevich)

    2009-01-01

    Observations and inverse models suggest that small-scale turbulent mixing is enhanced in the Southern Ocean in regions above rough topography. The enhancement extends 1 km above the topography suggesting that mixing is ...

  19. Markets for small-scale, advanced coal-combustion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Placet, M.; Kenkeremath, L.D.; Streets, D.G.; Dials, G.E.; Kern, D.M.; Nehring, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.

    1988-12-01

    This report examines the potential of using US-developed advanced coal technologies (ACTs) for small combustors in foreign markets; in particular, the market potentials of the member countries of the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) were determined. First, the United States and those OECD countries with very low energy demands were eliminated. The remaining 15 countries were characterized on the basis of eight factors that would influence their decision to use US ACTs: energy plan and situation, dependence on oil and gas imports, experience with coal, residential/commercial energy demand, industrial energy demand, trade relationship with the United States, level of domestic competition with US ACT manufacturers, and environmental pressure to use advanced technology. Each country was rated high, medium-high, low-medium, or low on each factor, based on statistical and other data. The ratings were then used to group the countries in terms of their relative market potential (good, good but with impediments, or limited). The best potential markets appear to be Spain, Italy, turkey, Greece, and Canada. 25 refs., 1 fig., 37 tabs.

  20. AFBC - operation of small scale demonstration for greenhouse heating

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, R.A.; Plessinger, D.A.; Webner, R.L.; Machamer, T.

    1996-12-31

    A 2.2 million Btu/hr unit prototype AFBC system was installed in 1995 at Cedar Lane Farms, a commercial nursery in Ohio. The AFBC is in operation and is heating hot water for greenhouse temperature control. A team consisting of the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation, the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center of Ohio State University and the Will-Burt Company developed this technology with funding support from the Ohio Coal Development Office and the U.S. Department of Energy. The system is fully automated with little operator attention being required. Operating experience at Cedar Lane Farms has shown that only 2 hours per day of operation attention is required for the system. The system includes flyash/sorbent reinjection and underbed coal/limestone feed. These features provide for good limestone utilization; a Ca/S (in coal) ratio of 2.5 will maintain an SO{sub 2} emissions level of 1.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu when burning high sulfur (3.2%) Ohio coal. A baghouse is used to control particulate emissions. Based on the success of the prototype unit, a design has been recently completed for a commercial size 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr capacity range. Multiple AFBC units can be used to provide larger heat outputs. Potential coal-fired AFBC users include institutions (schools, hospitals, prisons, government), light industry (agricultural, food processing), commercial users (shopping centers), and large residential users (apartment complexes). 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. A case report of anti-smoking measures at a Japanese small-scale worksite.

    PubMed

    Ariyoshi, Hiromi

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to introduce spatial separation of smoking areas and to perform and evaluate smoking cessation support and anti-smoking education at a small scale business site (Worksite "A"), where sweeping anti-smoking measures have not been enforced. The smoking environments at Worksite "A" and at other companies were examined, health education was introduced, and through the cooperation of the Health and Safety Committee, a program for the separation of smoking areas was proposed. The Health and Safety Committee at Worksite "A" played a central role in changing of the women's toilets into a designated smoking area. Through smoking cessation support and anti-smoking education as a part of general health education, and the creation of a designated smoking area, the workplace environment was improved. Through spatial separation of smoking areas and the execution of anti-smoking education, the workplace environment improved and the importance of anti-smoking was better understood by workers, which led to the creation of a comfortable workplace environment based on the ideology of health promotion. PMID:19533857

  2. Small Scale Trace Contaminant Testing of SA9T at Ambient and Reduced Pressure Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broerman, Craig; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    A principle concern for air revitalization technology in a closed loop system is the capability to control carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity (H2O). An amine based sorbent technology, SA9T, has long been evaluated for use in this application and several programs are evaluating it for use in both a cabin as well as space suit applications. While the CO2 and H2O performance of the sorbent has been tested extensively, the question of how trace contaminants impact performance requires further evaluation. This paper presents experimental results of small scale SA9T testing that was performed over a variety of test conditions and with a variety of trace contaminants. Testing evaluated the ability of SA9T media to sufficiently remove CO2 and H2O after exposure to a fully saturated trace contaminant at ambient conditions. Testing also evaluated the impact of CO2 and H2O removal performance at suit loop pressures during cyclic operation with a constant inlet contaminant load. In addition, testing evaluated the performance of SA9T at ambient conditions in a continuous 30-day test with a mixed trace contaminant stream.

  3. Small Scale Experiment Design to study CO2 Leakage through a shallow Subsurface System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, P.; Basirat, F.; Fagerlund, F.; Niemi, A. P.

    2012-12-01

    CO2 leakage to the ground surface is one of the main concerns associated with geological carbon storage. A solid understanding of how CO2 which has leaked from a storage reservoir behaves in the shallow subsurface is critical for developing effective leakage-monitoring programs. CO2 may reach the unsaturated zone by different leakage mechanisms such as exsolution from CO2-supersaturated water, continuous bubbling or gas flow along a leakage path. In the unsaturated zone, the CO2 is heavier than air and may accumulate below the ground surface and move laterally. In this study, a small scale experimental setup is designed and applied for measuring CO2 distribution in time and space through a near-surface soil. The CO2 concentrations are measured using sensitive gas sensors at several locations in the soil. To interpret the experimental results and develop better understanding of the near-surface CO2 migration processes, the experiments are modeled with the TOUGH2/EOS7CA numerical simulator, including multiphase flow of CO2, water and air. The combination of experiments and modeling is used to investigate the influence of the leakage rates on CO2 concentrations in unsaturated zone and emissions to the atmosphere. The effects of soil water content and depth of the water table on the migration of the leaked CO2 are also investigated.

  4. Velocity Measurements Near the Empennage of a SmallScale Helicopter Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorton, Susan Althoff; Meyers, James F.; Berry, John D.

    1996-01-01

    A test program was conducted in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel to measure the flow near the empennage of a small-scale powered helicopter model with an operating tail fan. Three-component velocity profiles were measured with Laser Velocimetry (LV) one chord forward of the horizontal tail for four advance ratios to evaluate the effect of the rotor wake impingement on the horizontal tail angle of attack. These velocity data indicate the horizontal tail can experience unsteady downwash angle variations of over 30 degrees due to the rotor wake influence. The horizontal tail is most affected by the rotor wake above advance ratios of 0.10. Velocity measurements of the flow on the inlet side of the fan were made for a low-speed flight condition using both conventional LV techniques and a promising, non-intrusive, global, three-component velocity measurement technique called Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV). The velocity data show an accelerated flow near the fan duct, and vorticity calculations track the passage of main rotor wake vortices through the measurement plane. DGV shows promise as an evolving tool for rotor flowfield diagnostics.

  5. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level in Maryland are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The dual regulatory system is examined with the aim of creating a more orderly understanding of the vagaries of the system, focusing on the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. In Maryland, by common law rule, title to all navigable waters and to the soil below the high-water mark of those waters is vested in the state as successor to the Lord Proprietary who had received it by grant from the Crown. Rights to non-navigable water, public trust doctrine, and eminent domain are also discussed. Direct and indirect regulations, continuing obligations, loan programs, and regional organizations are described in additional sections.

  6. Fatigue of Small-Scale Metal Materials: From Micro to Nano-Scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. P. Zhang; Z. G. Wang

    This work considers currently-developed fatigue testing techniques and evaluation methods for the small-scale metal materials.\\u000a Then, a number of studies on fatigue damage behavior and fatigue properties are presented and highlighted as a function of\\u000a the length scales. The relationship between length-scale-dependent microstructure evolution and fatigue behavior is addressed\\u000a to understand fatigue damage mechanisms at small scales. Finally, the perspectives

  7. Small-scale forest carbon projects: Adapting CDM to low-income communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily Boyd; Maria Gutierrez; Manyu Chang

    2007-01-01

    Given the decision to include small-scale sinks projects implemented by low-income communities in the clean development mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol, the paper explores some of the basic governance conditions that such carbon forestry projects will have to meet if they are to be successfully put in practice. To date there are no validated small-scale sinks projects and investors have

  8. Small-Scale Wind Disturbances Observed by the MU Radar during the Passage of Typhoon Kelly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaoru Sato; Kaoru

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes small-scale wind disturbances associated with Typhoon Kelly (October 1987) that were observed by the MU radar, one of the MST (mesosphere, stratosphere, and troposphere) radars, continuously for about 60 hours with fine time and height resolution. First, in order to elucidate the background of small-scale disturbances, synoptic-scale variation in atmospheric stability related to the typhoon structure during

  9. Fish passage experience at small-scale hydro-electric power plants in France

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Larinier

    2008-01-01

    There are more than 1,700 small-scale hydro-electric power stations in France today, which can be found on the majority of\\u000a rivers with migratory species in them. This article gives an overview of the different types of fish facilities in use at\\u000a these small-scale hydro plants. The relative advantages and drawbacks of each type of fish pass are discussed, with reference

  10. Small-scale mechanical characterization of viscoelastic adhesive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shean, T. A. V.

    Aero engine hot end components are often covered with ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs). Laser drilling in the TBC coated components can be a source of service life TBC degradation and spallation. The present study aims to understand the mechanisms of TBC delamination and develop techniques to drill holes without damaging the TBC, Nimonic 263 workpieces coated with TBC are used in the experiments. Microwave non-destructive testing (NDT) is employed to monitor the integrity of the coating /substrate interfaces of the post-laser drilled materials. A numerical modelling technique is used to investigate the role of melt ejection on TBC delamination. The model accounts for the vapour and the assist gas flow effects in the process. Broadly, melt ejection induced mechanical stresses for the TBC coating / bond coating and thermal effects for the bond coating / substrate interfaces are found the key delamination mechanisms. Experiments are carried out to validate the findings from the model. Various techniques that enable laser drilling without damaging the TBC are demonstrated. Twin jet assisted acute angle laser drilling is one successful technique that has been analysed using the melt ejection simulation. Optimisation of the twin jet assisted acute angle laser drilling process parameters is carried out using Design of Experiments (DoE) and statistical modelling approaches. Finally, an industrial case study to develop a high speed, high quality laser drilling system for combustor cans is described. Holes are drilled by percussion and trepan drilling in TBC coated and uncoated Haynes 230 workpieces. The production rate of percussion drilling is significantly higher than the trepan drilling, however metallurgical hole quality and reproducibility is poor. A number of process parameters are investigated to improve these characteristics. Gas type and gas pressure effects on various characteristics of the inclined laser drilled holes are investigated through theoretical and experimental work.

  11. A Stochastic Analysis of the Impact of Small-scale Fluctuations on Climate Sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Storch, J.; Seiffert, R.

    2008-12-01

    Climate sensitivity is generally studied using climate models which have finite spatial and temporal resolutions. Different representations of subgrid-scale components can induce different types of small-scale fluctuations. These small-scale fluctuations can alter climate sensitivity via at least two mechanisms. First, the small-scale fluctuations could change the fluctuating behavior of the global mean temperature as measured by its statistical damping. The statistical damping acts as a restoring forcing that determines, according to the fluctuation-dissipation theory, the amplitude of climate response to a change in CO2 concentration. Second, the small-scale fluctuations could affect processes that occur only in response to the CO2 increase, thereby altering the effective forcing for global mean temperature. In this study, climate change experiments obtained from a comprehensive climate model with different representations of small-scale fluctuations are analyzed. By applying a stochastic model to the experimental results, the different roles of small-scale fluctuations on climate sensitivity are investigated.

  12. Ethnographic Approaches to Understanding Social Sustainability in Small-scale Water Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wutich, A.

    2011-12-01

    Social sustainability is an important, but often neglected, aspect of determining the success of small-scale water systems. This paper reviews ethnographic approaches for understanding how indigenous knowledge enhances social sustainability of small-scale water systems, particularly in small-scale water systems threatened by water scarcity. After reviewing the literature on common-pool and traditional resource management strategies, the paper will focus on the case of a community-managed small-scale water system in Cochabamba, Bolivia. This study uses ethnographic evidence to demonstrate how indigenous institutions can be used to manage a small-scale urban water system sustainably. Several factors were crucial to the institution's success. First, indigenous residents had previous experience with common management of rural irrigation systems which they were able to adapt for use in an urban environment. Second, institutional rules were designed to prioritize the conservation of the water source. Third, indigenous Andean social values of uniformity, regularity, and transparency ensured that community members perceived the system as legitimate and complied with community rules. Fourth, self-governance enabled community members to quickly adapt to changing environmental conditions, such as seasonal scarcity and groundwater overdraft. The paper concludes with a discussion of the promise and limitations of ethnographic approaches and indigenous knowledge for understanding social sustainability in small-scale water systems.

  13. New Directions and Trends in Industrial Training and Their Implications for Vocational Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashley, William L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A basic position of industry is that it picks up where schools leave off. Training policy within industry is diverse in theory and practice. Companies vary in their approach to training, ranging from highly informal to highly formal. The many new trends in industrial training may be analyzed in four dimensions: in-house education programs,…

  14. Problems and countermeasures in the investment and financing of rural small-scale water conservancy facilities in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junnan Du

    2009-01-01

    Small-scale irrigation and water conservancy facilities are significant to the improvement of agricultural infrastructure. Construction of small-scale irrigation and water conservancy facilities in rural China is seriously lagged at present. Many small-scale water conservancies are seriously aged or totally damaged without maintaining. Some measures should be adopted to enhance the construction of rural small-scale water conservancy facilities, such as increasing

  15. The Department of Energy`s Solar Industrial Program: 1994 review

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This is a report on DOE`s Solar Industrial Program. The topics of the report include an overview of the program, it`s participants and it`s objectives; solar detoxification--using solar energy to destroy environmental contaminants in air, water, and soil; solar process heat--generating industrial quantities of hot water, steam, and hot air from solar energy; and advanced processes--using concentrated solar energy to manufacture high-technology materials and develop new industrial processes.

  16. Determination of elements for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Engineering programs at the Masters level 

    E-print Network

    Duke, James Edward

    1992-01-01

    DETERMINATION OF ELEMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE AND SAFETY ENGINEERING PROGRAMS AT THE MASTERS LEVEL A Thesis by JAMES EDWARD DUKE JR. Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene DETERMINATION OF ELEMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE AND SAFETY ENGINEERING PROGRAM% AT THE MASTERS LEVEL A Thesis by JAMES EDWARD DUKE JR. Submitted to Texas...

  17. Profile of the chemicals industry in California: Californiaindustries of the future program

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst

    2004-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) established the Industries of the Future (IOF) program to increase energy efficiency, reduce waste production and to improve competitiveness, currently focusing on nine sectors. The IOF is a partnership strategy involving industry, the research community and the government, working together to identify technology needs, promote industrial partnerships and implement joint measures with all partners involved. The State Industries of the Future (SIOF) program delivers the accomplishments of the national Industries of the Future strategy to the local level, to expand the technology opportunities to a larger number of partners and reach smaller businesses and manufacturers that were not initially involved in the IOF effort. The state programs bring together industry, academia, and state agencies to address the important issues confronting industry in the state. These public-private coalitions facilitate industry solutions locally and enhance economic development. California has started a State Industries of the Future effort, in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy. The California Energy Commission (CEC) is leading the SIOF program in California, as part of many other programs to improve the energy efficiency and performance of industries in California. The California State IOF program aims to build a network of participants from industry, academia and government in four selected industrial sectors as a basis for the development of a strategic partnership for industrial energy efficient technology in the state. In California the IOF effort focuses petroleum refining, chemical processing, food processing and electronics. As part of this effort, the SIOF program will develop roadmaps for technology development for the selected sectors. On the basis of the roadmap, the program will develop successful projects with co-funding from state and federal government, and promote industry-specific energy-efficiency. An important element of the SIOF-program is the preparation of R&D roadmaps for each of the selected industries. The roadmap will help to identify priority needs for the participating industries to meet their energy challenges. The roadmap effort builds on the roadmaps developed by DOE, and on the conditions specific for the industry in California. Key to the successful preparation of a roadmap in the selected industries is the development of a profile of the industries. The profile provides a basis for the participants in the roadmap-effort, especially as the structure of the industries in California can be different than in the nation. The sector profiles describe the current economic and energy situation of these industries in California, the processes and energy uses, and the potential future developments in each industry. The profiles are an integral part of the roadmap, to help working group partners to evaluate the industry's R&D needs for their industry in California. In this report, we focus on the chemicals industry. The industry is an important economic factor in the state, providing over 82,300 jobs directly, and more in indirect employment. Value of shipments in 2001 was just under $25.7 Billion, or 6% of all manufacturing in California. There are over 1,500 chemical plants in California, of which 52% are pharmaceutical companies. Many companies operate chemical plants in California. The industry consumes 8% of the electricity and 5% of the natural gas in California. In this report, we start with a description of the chemical industry in the United States and California. This is followed by a discussion of the energy consumption and energy intensity of the Californian chemical industry. Chapter 3 focuses on the main sub-sectors. For each of the sub-sectors a general process description is provided in Chapter 4. Based on this analysis, in Chapter 5, we discuss potential technology developments that can contribute to further improving the energy efficiency in chemical plants, with a focus on the situation in California.

  18. Industrial demand-side management programs: What`s happened, what works, what`s needed

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, J.A.; Nadel, S.M. [American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-03-01

    In order to analyze experience to date with industrial demand-side management (DSM), a survey of utilities was conducted and a database of industrial DSM programs was prepared. More than eighty utilities and third-party organizations were interviewed. Data were collected via phone, fax, and/or mail from the utilities and entered into a database. In order to limit the scope of this study, the database contains incentive-based, energy-saving programs and not load management or information-only programs (including technical assistance programs). Programs in the database were divided into four categories: two ``prescriptive rebate`` categories and two ``custom rebate`` categories. The database contains 31 incentive-based, energy-saving industrial DSM programs offered by 17 utilities. The appendix to this report summarizes the results approximately 60 industrial DSM programs. Most of the programs included in the appendix, but not in the database, are either C&I programs for which commercial and industrial data were not disaggregated or new industrial DSM programs for which data are not yet available.

  19. Small-Scale Bioenergy Alternatives for Industry, Farm, and Institutions : A User`s Perspective.

    SciTech Connect

    Folk, Richard [ed.] [Idaho Univ., Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Forest Products

    1991-12-31

    This report presents research on biomass as an energy source. Topics include: bioenergy development and application; bioenergy combustion technology; and bioenergy from agricultural, forest, and urban resources. There are a total of 57 individual reports included. Individual reports are processed separately for the databases.

  20. Industry Self-Regulation without Sanctions: The Chemical Industry's Responsible Care Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew A. King; Michael J. Lenox

    1999-01-01

    thispaper, we adopt the term "industry self-regulation" because this most clearly suggests the form ofinstitution that we are interested in -- trade association sponsored industry standards. Suchstandards have proliferated in recent years and consequently have attracted attention frombusiness, government, and environmental activists (Rees, 1997). In such industry self-regulation,a group of companies join together to regulate their collective action to avoid

  1. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) program. Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments FY 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven {open_quotes}Vision Industries{close_quotes} that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. These are: (1) Aluminum; (2) Chemical; (3) Forest Products; (4) Glass; (5) Metal Casting; (6) Refineries; and (7) Steel. This report is a compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments on materials.

  2. State Demand-Side Management Programs Funds are Exploding! How Industries Can Best Use These Programs to Maximize Their Benefits 

    E-print Network

    Nicol, J.

    2008-01-01

    and organizations can best make the case for allocating more of these funds for the Industrial sector. John Nicol Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Industrial Program Manager 608-277-2941 nicolj@saic.com ESL-IE-08-05-34 Proceedings...

  3. 77 FR 27785 - Request for Information Regarding the NIH-Industry Program To Discover New Therapeutic Uses for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ...experts from the pharmaceutical industry, government...researchers and the pharmaceutical industry as well as your...incentives of the NIH- Industry Program: Discovering...biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies and...

  4. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments, FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The mission of the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. A fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrates on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support. Assessments of materials needs and opportunities in the process industries are an on-going effort within the program. These assessments are being used for program planning and priority setting, followed by support of work to satisfy those needs. All the industries have identified materials as critical, particularly for high-temperature strength, corrosion resistance, and wear resistance. Also important from the energy efficiency viewpoint are membranes, catalytic membranes, and reactors for separations, both for processing and waste reduction. AIM focuses, therefore, on high-temperature materials, corrosion resistant materials, wear resistant materials, strong polymers, coatings, and membrane materials for industrial applications.

  5. Handbook for Trade-Related Curriculum Development in a Cooperative Adult Basic Education Program in Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, Mimi Edge

    Designed as a how-to guide in initiating, developing, and operating an adult basic education program in industry, referred to as Cooperative Adult Basic Education (CABE), this handbook is based on experience gained during the development of the in-plant adult basic education program at Planters, the Planter's Employee Training Program (PET). The…

  6. Evaluation of the Industrial Maintenance Program at Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipes, V. David

    In 1982-83, a study was conducted at Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute to determine whether the objectives of the Industrial Maintenance Program were being met, to measure program success, and to identify aspects needing improvement. Surveys were sent to 30 students who graduated from the program before 1978, yielding a 57%…

  7. Career Preparation Program Curriculum Guide for: Hospitality/Tourism Industry (Food Services).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria. Curriculum Development Branch.

    This curriculum outline provides secondary and postsecondary instructors with detailed information on student learning outcomes for completion of the food services program requirements in the hospitality/tourism industry. A program overview discusses the aims of education; secondary school philosophy; and career preparation programs and their…

  8. Options on Roles, Organization, and Programs of the Private Industry Council. Private Industry Council Training Series: 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Alliance of Business, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This handbook, developed by the National Alliance of Business, is designed as a tool for Private Industry Councils (PICs) in promoting permanent partnerships between public and private interests in training and employing the disadvantaged. Basic information on roles, organizational issues, and program activities of the PIC are considered in four…

  9. Cyber Security Testing and Training Programs for Industrial Control Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Noyes

    2012-01-01

    Service providers rely on industrial control systems (ICS) to manage the flow of water at dams, open breakers on power grids, control ventilation and cooling in nuclear power plants, and more. In today's interconnected environment, this can present a serious cyber security challenge. To combat this growing challenge, government, private industry, and academia are working together to reduce cyber risks.

  10. Generation of large-scale magnetic fields by small-scale dynamo in shear flows

    E-print Network

    Squire, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new mechanism for turbulent mean-field dynamo in which the magnetic fluctuations resulting from a small-scale dynamo drive the generation of large-scale magnetic fields. This is in stark contrast to the common idea that small-scale magnetic fields should be harmful to large-scale dynamo action. These dynamos occur in the presence of large-scale velocity shear and do not require net helicity, resulting from off-diagonal components of the turbulent resistivity tensor as the magnetic analogue of the "shear-current" effect. Given the inevitable existence of non-helical small-scale magnetic fields in turbulent plasmas, as well as the generic nature of velocity shear, the suggested mechanism may help to explain generation of large-scale magnetic fields across a wide range of astrophysical objects.

  11. Irreversibility and small-scale generation in 3D turbulent flows

    E-print Network

    Pumir, Alain; Grauer, Rainer; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2015-01-01

    In three-dimensional turbulent flows energy is supplied at large scales and cascades down to the smallest scales where viscosity dominates. The flux of energy through scales implies the generation of small scales from larger ones, which is the fundamental reason for the irreversibility of the dynamics of turbulent flows. As we showed recently, this irreversibility manifests itself by an asymmetry of the probability distribution of the instantaneous power $p$ of the forces acting on fluid elements. In particular, the third moment of $p$ was found to be negative. Yet, a physical connection between the irreversibility manifested in the distribution of $p$ and the energy flux or small-scale generation in turbulence has not been established. Here, with analytical calculations and support from numerical simulations of fully developed turbulence, we connect the asymmetry in the power distribution, {\\it i.e.}, the negative value of $\\langle p^3 \\rangle$, to the generation of small scales, or more precisely, to the am...

  12. SCION: CubeSat Mission Concept to Observe Midlatitude Small-Scale Irregularities and Scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, T.; Moldwin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The SCintillation and Ionospheric Occultation NanoSats (SCION) mission concept is to deploy two low-cost CubeSat spacecraft that maintain a separation distance <1 km to measure scintillation and associated small-scale density irregularities in the midlatitude ionosphere. Each spacecraft is equipped with a dual frequency GPS receiver to measure total electron content (TEC) and the S4 scintillation index along raypaths from the receiver to the GPS constellation. Scintillation causing small-scale density irregularities are increasingly observed in the vicinity of large TEC gradients associated with storm enhanced density (SED) regions. Detection of irregularities of the scale that cause GPS and VHF scintillation has previously relied on assumptions about their structural stability and drift speed. Space-based, multipoint observations would provide broad, regional coverage and disambiguation of temporal and spatial density fluctuations in order to detect small-scale irregularities without these assumptions.

  13. Binary Quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Evidence for Excess Clustering on Small Scales

    E-print Network

    Joseph F. Hennawi; Michael A. Strauss; Masamune Oguri; Naohisa Inada; Gordon T. Richards; Bartosz Pindor; Donald P. Schneider; Robert H. Becker; Michael D. Gregg; Patrick B. Hall; David E. Johnston; Xiaohui Fan; Scott Burles; David J. Schlegel; James E. Gunn; Robert Lupton; Neta A. Bahcall; Robert J. Brunner; Jon Brinkman

    2005-04-25

    We present a sample of 218 new quasar pairs with proper transverse separations R_prop Quasar Redshift Survey quasars. This sample includes 26 new binary quasars with separations R_prop binaries selected with homogeneous criteria and compute its selection function, taking into account sources of incompleteness. The first measurement of the quasar correlation function on scales 10 kpc/h 3 Mpc/h quasar correlation function, extrapolated down as a power law to the separations probed by our binaries. The excess grows to ~ 30 at R_prop ~ 10 kpc/h, and provides compelling evidence that the quasar autocorrelation function gets progressively steeper on sub-Mpc scales. This small scale excess can likely be attributed to dissipative interaction events which trigger quasar activity in rich environments. Recent small scale measurements of galaxy clustering and quasar-galaxy clustering are reviewed and discussed in relation to our measurement of small scale quasar clustering.

  14. Experimental investigation of spatiotemporal evolution of femtosecond laser pulses during small-scale self-focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y. B.; Fu, X. Q.; Tan, C.; Yang, H.; Deng, S. G.; Xiong, C. X.; Zhang, G. F.

    2014-03-01

    Small-scale self-focusing (SF) causes rapid increase in the partial spatial intensity, breaking up the spatial profile of the beam into an intensity increasing zone (IZ) and a non-increasing zone (NIZ). We measure the evolutions of the pulse width at the IZ and NIZ with small-scale SF, and our results show that the pulse width at the IZ becomes narrower with increasing partial spatial intensity. The pulse width at the NIZ is almost unchanged with increasing laser power. We find that our experimental results are in good agreement with an approximate theoretical analysis.

  15. Small-scale self-focusing in a tapered optical beam.

    PubMed

    Jia, Huaiting; Xu, Bing; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Lidan

    2012-09-01

    The analysis of Bespalov and Talanov concerning small scale self-focusing or filamentation effects for plane waves is generalized to a tapered beam case in this paper. A model of nonlinear phase and amplitude perturbations different from Siegman's is suggested. The previous conclusion that self-focusing is very ineffectual for strongly tapered, both divergent and convergent, beams in optical Kerr media as compared to small-scale self-focusing in plane waves is found to be inappropriate. Moreover, the different conditions of phase matching in cases of cylindrical and spherical waves are explicated, which could throw some light on the issue. PMID:22945155

  16. Study of heat transfer in attics with a small scale simulator

    E-print Network

    Katipamula, Srinivas

    1985-01-01

    STUDY OF HEAT TRANSFER IN ATTICS WITH A SMALL SCALE SIMULATOR A Thesis by SRINIYAS KATIPAMULA Submitted to the Graduate College ol' Texas A&t':M I:niversity in partial fulfillment of t, hc rc&1uircment for t, he degr?ol' MASTER OF SCIENCE... Decernbcr I98, & Major Subject: Mechani& al I. ngineering STUDY OF HEAT TRANSFER IN ATTICS WITH A SMALL SCALE SIMULATOR A Thesis by SRINIVAS KATIPAMULA Approved as to style and content by: W. D. . Turner (Chairn&an of Committee) W. E. M urphy...

  17. Freedom of Development for Industry and Consumers. Small Business and the Social Market Economy in the Federal Republic of Germany. Sonderdienst Special Report No. 1. Code No. 79. Q 6016.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Wilhelm; Breuer, Michael

    Small businesses have made a decisive contribution to the reconstruction and development of the German economy and society since World War II. The Federal Republic of Germany considers small-scale industry important and has granted tax relief and initiated a wide range of loan and guarantee programs for them. The Act against Restraints of…

  18. Graduate Programs in Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering The industrial and manufacturing (IME) department at WSU

    E-print Network

    systems, ergonomics/human factors, or manufacturing systems engineering. In order to be admitted to the Ph. Ergonomics/Human Factors. Emphases include industrial ergonomics; bio-mechanics; human-machine systems; occupational safety and other industrial hygiene issues; and ergonomics and human factors issues in aviation

  19. Analytical Methods for Implementing Industrial Load Management Programs

    E-print Network

    Hassig, N.; Chan, M.; Carlson, R.

    1982-01-01

    Many utilities have completed long-term planning studies and have shown that a load management program is cost effective. They are now actively implementing large-scale, system-wide programs such as demand subscription, interruptable rates, and time...

  20. A Low Cost Energy Management Program at Engelhard Industries Division 

    E-print Network

    Brown, T. S.; Michalek, R.; Reiter, S.

    1982-01-01

    in technology related to precious metals and nonmetallic minerals. It manufactures high-performance chemical and precious metals products, including catalysts for the petroleum and automotive industries. Engelhard's energy costs have risen dramatically over...

  1. Industrial Energy: Counseling the Marriage Between Energy Users and Efficiency Programs 

    E-print Network

    Russell, C.

    2013-01-01

    Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 YOU-TUBE: search ?Energy Pathfinder Investment Calculator? The Industrial Energy Harvest North American Energy Audit Program Best Practices Energy PathFINDER .com Christopher Russell @ENERGYpathfndr...

  2. New 3E Plus Computer Program- A Tool for Improving Industrial Energy Efficiency 

    E-print Network

    Brayman, N. J.

    1997-01-01

    The task of determining how much insulation is necessary in the US industrial and manufacturing sector to save money, use less energy, reduce plant emissions and improve process efficiency has been greatly simplified thanks to a software program...

  3. An investigation of a professional development program using industry partnerships and student achievement 

    E-print Network

    Sullivan, Helen Grace

    2008-10-10

    This investigation examined the impact on student achievement of teachers who participated in a professional development program using industry partnerships. One treatment and one non-treatment school in a large urban school district served...

  4. 76 FR 56125 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ...RIN 1904-AC56 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,...

  5. Prospective evaluation of a cluster program for Finnish forestry and forest industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Salo; T. Gustafsson; P. Mild

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we report a prospective evaluation process for a major research program for the Finnish forestry and forest industries. To a significant extent, this process was based on fifteen participatory workshops where tools of operational research F most notably multi-criteria methods embedded in a group support system F were deployed to help representatives from industry, the research community,

  6. FINS: A Guide to the LaConner School District's Program In Fishing Industry Specialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Paul J.; And Others

    Fishing Industry Specialization, or FINS, is a 2-year alternative education program designed in 1979 by the LaConner (Washington) School District to encourage high school completion by students wanting to enter the fishing industry. With encouragement from the Swinomish Indian Tribe and help from an active citizens advisory board, school officials…

  7. 2012/2013 Race Track Industry Program Section A. All students must complete following courses.

    E-print Network

    Guerriero, Vince

    2012/2013 Race Track Industry Program Section A. All students must complete following courses to the Animal Racing Industry 2 units F ________ AN S 270 Introductory Horse Science 3 units F ________ AN S 301 Financial and Economic Strategies 3 units F ________ AN S 340 Race Track Marketing and Media Communication 3

  8. 2014-2015 Race Track Industry Program Section A. All students must complete following courses.

    E-print Network

    Guerriero, Vince

    2014-2015 Race Track Industry Program Section A. All students must complete following courses to the Animal Racing Industry 2 units F ________ AN S 270 Introductory Horse Science 3 units F ________ AN S 301 Financial and Economic Strategies 3 units F ________ AN S 340 Race Track Marketing and Media Communication 3

  9. International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-SettingPrograms

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-02-02

    Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.

  10. ORIGINAL PAPER Causes for the small scale variability of nitrate concentration

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ORIGINAL PAPER Causes for the small scale variability of nitrate concentration in seepage water-Verlag France 2012 Abstract & Context In N-saturated forests nitrate concentrations in seepage water (NO3 À of net N mineralization in the organic layer is decisive for the nitrate production in the soil. Roots

  11. Experimental autonomous flight of a small-scaled helicopter using accurate

    E-print Network

    -cost sensors; unmanned vehicle; data fusion; autonomous helicopter; embedded systems; Kalman filterExperimental autonomous flight of a small-scaled helicopter using accurate dynamics model and low of a successful reported autonomous hovering flight, the derivation of the model. We give numerous details about

  12. A Simplified Self-Help Approach to Sizing of Small-Scale Cogeneration Systems 

    E-print Network

    Somasundaram, S.; Turner, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    The following report is a description of a simplified and a self-help approach to determining the economic feasibility of a small-scale Cogeneration system. It has been compiled for use by the energy managers/physical plant directors of various...

  13. Detecting Answer Copying Using Alternate Test Forms and Seat Locations in Small-Scale Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ark, L. Andries; Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2008-01-01

    Two types of answer-copying statistics for detecting copiers in small-scale examinations are proposed. One statistic identifies the "copier-source" pair, and the other in addition suggests who is copier and who is source. Both types of statistics can be used when the examination has alternate test forms. A simulation study shows that the…

  14. HF radar observations of small-scale surface current variability in the Straits of Florida

    E-print Network

    Miami, University of

    HF radar observations of small-scale surface current variability in the Straits of Florida A. B-frequency Wellen radar (WERA), transmitting at 16.045 MHz, was deployed along the eastern Florida Shelf current measurements within the radar footprint along the shelf break at 86-m depth. The shallowest ADCP

  15. SMALL SCALE TURBULENCE AND INSTABILITIES OBSERVED SIMULTANEOUSLY BY RADIOSONDES AND THE MU RADAR

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SMALL SCALE TURBULENCE AND INSTABILITIES OBSERVED SIMULTANEOUSLY BY RADIOSONDES AND THE MU RADAR R in September 2011 for three weeks at Shigaraki MU observatory (34.85N, 136.15E; Japan). The VHF MU radar radiosondes were succesfully launched during the campaign when the radar was operated. Reference [2] showed

  16. Analysis of Stability, Response and LQR Controller Design of a Small Scale Helicopter Dynamics

    E-print Network

    Dharmayanda, Hardian Reza; Lee, Young Jae; Sung, Sangkyung

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents how to use feedback controller with helicopter dynamics state space model. A simplified analysis is presented for controller design using LQR of small scale helicopters for axial and forward flights. Our approach is simple and gives the basic understanding about how to develop controller for solving the stability of linear helicopter flight dynamics.

  17. Assessment of battery energy storage systems for small-scale renewable energy integration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niraj Garimella; Nirmal-Kumar C. Nair

    2009-01-01

    Battery energy storage systems (BESS) will most likely play an important role in enabling integration of small-scale renewable energy sources, from residential and smaller commercial enterprises, into the electricity networks. With benefits ranging from greater use of cleaner energy sources to potential cost savings, battery energy storage systems can ensure security and continuity of supply. This paper assesses battery storage

  18. Preliminary investigation of small scale superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Schwartz; E. E. Burkhardt; W. R. Taylor

    1996-01-01

    Most Army installations purchase electricity from local utilities and pay an additional charge for peak demand. If the peak demand can be reduced, installations can realize significant cost savings. This research investigated the technical and economic issues associated with constructing a small scale superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system for reducing peak demand at Army installations. Analyses included magnetic design

  19. Validity of small scale tests for turret/fairing loads and cavity effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermott, D. J.; Vankuren, J. T.

    1980-01-01

    Data from several wind tunnel experiments along with available flight test data are used to discuss the validity of small scale tests and their inherent limitations. Tests were performed at transonic speeds to measure the turbulence levels in a cavity with and without a forward porous fence, turret drag with and without an aerodynamic fairing, and turret/fairing unsteady pressures.

  20. Small-scale Mashing Procedure for Predicting Ethanol Yield of Sorghum Grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A small-scale mashing (SSM) procedure requiring only 300 mg of sample was investigated as a possible method of predicting ethanol yield of sorghum grain. The initial SSM procedure, which was conducted similarly to the mashing step in a traditional fermentation test, hydrolyzed just 38.5-47.2% of to...

  1. Experimental and theoretical analysis of a small scale thermoacoustic cooler driven by two sources

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Experimental and theoretical analysis of a small scale thermoacoustic cooler driven by two sources by scaling down thermoacoustic coolers to provide practical solutions for thermal heat management, especially the optimal field which optimizes thermoacoustic effects. Moreover, the working frequency is not related

  2. Small-scale self-focusing of laser radiation in amplifier systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. N. Rozanov; V. A. Smirnov

    1980-01-01

    A matrix method is presented for the calculation of small-scale self-focusing effects in laser amplifiers consisting of active elements with a nonlinear refractive index separated by air gaps or lens systems. The calculations for collimated and divergent laser beams show that spatial filters with beam expansion are preferable in amplifier systems; these calculations can be also used to optimize the

  3. The response of a New Guinean avifauna to conversion of forest to small-scale agriculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart J. Marsden; Craig T. Symes; Andrew L. Mack

    2007-01-01

    In comparison with other tropical forest land uses such as selective logging, little is known of the impacts on wildlife of the many forms of small-scale agriculture practised across the tropics. We present density estimates, derived using a point count distance sampling method, for 31 bird species in primary forest, old abandoned gardens and active\\/recently abandoned gardens at two altitudes

  4. Solar wind energy and momentum from the emergence of new small-scale flux

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Schwadron

    2007-01-01

    Recent Hinode observations have shown the remarkably rapid reconfiguration of the Sun's small-scale magnetic flux. On the size-scale of granules, solar magnetic flux is reconfigured over only 10 minutes. On the larger scales of supergranules, magnetic flux is continually and rapidly reconfigured over about a day. We discuss how the reconfiguration processes observed by Hinode, TRACE, and SOHO, may be

  5. Small-scale self-focusing effects in a high power glass laser amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Jr. Fleck; J. R. Morris; E. S. Bliss

    1978-01-01

    Experimental data and the results of detailed numerical calculations are presented for small scale beam breakup due to non-linear self-focusing in Cyclops, a high power Nd-glass laser amplifier. Both perturbed plane wave and nonlinear whole beam calculations were carried out. The whole beam calculations were carried out using a dust particle model of beam perturbations.

  6. A Small-Scale Pilot Study into Language Difficulties in Children Who Offend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Games, Fran; Curran, Anita; Porter, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This small-scale pilot research project investigates the prevalence of Speech Language and Communication Difficulties in a sample of children attending a Youth Offending Service in the UK. Using the CELF-4, approximately 90% of the sample displayed some form of language difficulty and, overall, this population displayed mild to moderate…

  7. Updating global Hg emissions from small-scale gold mining and assessing its environmental impacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luiz Drude de Lacerda

    2003-01-01

    Small-scale gold mining is a significant source of Hg to the environment and may reach an annual input of about 450 t of Hg, mostly in South America, Russia and Asia. Countries of the Amazon Basin and Russia are the major contributors. On a regional scale, this source can contribute to more than 50% of the total Hg anthropogenic emission.

  8. GENERALIZING DIGITAL ELEVATION MODELSFOR SMALL SCALE HYPSOMETRIC LEONOWICZ A.(1), JENNYB.(2)

    E-print Network

    Jenny, Bernhard

    CO-443 GENERALIZING DIGITAL ELEVATION MODELSFOR SMALL SCALE HYPSOMETRIC TINTING LEONOWICZ A.(1-scale hypsometric layers from digital elevation models. A custom generalisation procedure was developed to remove unnecessary details from the elevation model: (1) the elevation data are filtered with lower and upper

  9. Small-scale dispersal and population structure in stream-living brown trout (Salmo trutta) inferred

    E-print Network

    Bernatchez, Louis

    Small-scale dispersal and population structure in stream-living brown trout (Salmo trutta) inferred-scale location change of resident brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a small stream (1500 m). During the first summer pour étudier l'importance des changements d'emplacement à petite échelle de la truite de mer (Salmo

  10. Development of Biogas Processing for Small Scale Cattle Farm in Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teguh Wikan Widodo; Agung Hendriadi

    Small scale cattle farm in Indonesia in average has 2 - 5 heads that spread on wide area. Such conditions made difficult to handle the waste wisely by integration to the farming system in order to minimize negative effects on environment. Generally, farmer manage the waste in simple way, such as by composting or spread directly into farming field. To

  11. Assessing Arsenic Removal by Metal (Hydr)Oxide Adsorptive Media Using Rapid Small Scale Column Tests

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapid small scale column test (RSSCT) was use to evaluate the the performance of eight commercially available adsorptive media for the removal of arsenic. Side-by-side tests were conducted using RSSCTs and pilot/full-scale systems either in the field or in the laboratory. ...

  12. Small-scale Syncline near the Blackbird Cobalt-Copper Mine

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Small-scale syncline in siltite of banded siltite unit of Apple Creek Formation, within a zone of tight, north-plunging chevron folds, exposed on the south-facing slope above the upper part of Little Deer Creek, east of the Blackbird cobalt-copper mine area, in east-central Idaho....

  13. Original Article The evolutionary fitness of personality traits in a small-scale subsistence society

    E-print Network

    Gurven, Michael

    Original Article The evolutionary fitness of personality traits in a small-scale subsistence in humans. Among Tsimane forager­horticulturalists (n = 632), we test whether personality traits (assessed is highly heritable, yet how heritable genetic variation in personality traits is maintained over

  14. Small-scale field tests of attract-and-kill stations for pest Tephritid fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field tests were conducted at UF-TREC, Homestead to test efficacy of wax-matrix bait stations and mass trapping for control of the Caribbean fruit fly in a 5 by 30 tree guava planting. Results of the study and the ability to document control using small-scale field tests will be discussed....

  15. Fostering Community Cohesion to Sustain Small Scale Online Professional Development Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This research explores how community cohesion can sustain teacher participation in a small scale, mixed mode (face to face and online) PD course. Secondary school teachers in Queensland undertook a mixed mode PD course utilising Education Queensland's Learning Place. The results indicate significantly longer participation than required and when…

  16. Study into a Small-Scale Water-Driven Domestic Heat Pump: Design and Performance Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BEKIR S. YILBAS; AHMED Z. AL-GARNI; AHMET Z. ?AHIN

    1996-01-01

    A heal pump of domestic capacity and applicable for a water-powered system is studied. A design of the necessary parts is carried out, and realization of the heat pump system is achieved. In realization of the system, output power of a small-scale water turbine is considered, and an electrical motor requiring similar power is employed. The estimation of capital cost

  17. Internet access in UK public libraries: notes and queries from a small scale study : EDITORIAL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David McMenemy

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this editorial is to discuss the findings of a small scale study of internet access in UK public libraries. It aims to examine all aspects of access, from the moment the service is requested, to the acceptable use policy (AUP) for each library, to specific Internet sites that are banned. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The methodology involved

  18. Strain Gradient Effects in Periodic Flat Punch Indenting at Small Scales

    E-print Network

    Hutchinson, John W.

    Strain Gradient Effects in Periodic Flat Punch Indenting at Small Scales K.L. Nielsena, , C yielded evidence that, besides the required punch load, both the size and shape of imprinted features punch indenters is considered, and a gradient enhanced material model that allows for a numerical

  19. Vascular plants and small-scale spatial heterogeneity in semi-natural grasslands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aina Pihlgren

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Abiotic factors such as variation in micro topography, soil properties, light and microsite composition can create small-scale heterogeneity and influence plant assemblages. Apart from abiotic factors many biotic sources can increase heterogeneity. Factors such as grazing, ant mounds, spiny and unpalatable plants, trees and shrubs have strong influences on plant communities. Grazing animals can significantly influence grassland heterogeneity by

  20. DESIGN OF SMALL SCALE GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS FOR UNMANNED-AERIAL VEHICLES

    E-print Network

    Camci, Cengiz

    Aerial Vehicles (UAV) (4) Turbomachinery Component Design Centrifugal compressor design for reduced sizeDESIGN OF SMALL SCALE GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS FOR UNMANNED-AERIAL VEHICLES (AERSP 597/497-K) SPRING 814 865 9871 cxc11@psu.edu Summary : The proposed course is a three-credit gas turbine design course

  1. Website Creation and Management Issues for Small Scale Non-Profit Organizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Guy Posey; Marcus Byrd; Deneil Reeves

    Web design guidelines are often derived from best practices, conventional wisdom, or small- scale usability studies conducted in labs. Researchers have not developed standards for categorizing problems users encounter, understanding navigational issues, identifying the social and psychological factors that differentiate users, and gaining insights into what causes the website development experience a success or a failure. Research is needed to

  2. A green revolution betrayed? Seed technology and small-scale maize farmers in Zimbabwe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Leiman; Alexander Behar

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1960s both large- and small-scale Zimbabwean maize farmers have been replacing open pollinated varieties (OPVs) with locally developed hybrids. By the 1990s, most were buying hybrid seed, though the adoption rates of new seed types were slowing. With the collapse of the Zimbabwean economy many small farmers returned to planting OPVs and saving seed, not only because hybrid

  3. Small-Scale Bullying Prevention Discussion Video for Classrooms: A Preliminary Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migliaccio, Todd; Raskauskas, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    Bullying has been shown to be negatively related to both academic performance and attendance among students. The present study examined a small-scale bullying intervention using a video-discussion model. Eighty-one students in grades 4 through 6 completed pre- and posttests examining gains in knowledge of bullying and responses to it. Results…

  4. Thermoelectric materials 1998 -- The next generation materials for small-scale refrigeration and power generation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tritt, T.M. (ed.) (Clemson Univ., SC (United States)); Kanatzidis, M.G. (ed.) (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)); Mahan, G.D. (ed.) (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)); Lyon, H.B. Jr. (ed.) (Marlow Industries, Dallas, TX (United States))

    1999-01-01

    Thermoelectric materials are used in a wide variety of applications related to small-scale solid-state refrigeration or power generation. Over the past 30 years, alloys based on the Bi-Te compounds (refrigeration) [(Bi[sub 1[minus]x]Sb[sub x])[sub 2] (Te[sub 1[minus]x]Se[sub x])[sub 3

  5. Analysis of the load density of small-scale general selenographic maps of the moon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. B. Shingareva; V. P. Shashkina

    1975-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the load density of small-scale lunar maps is carried out. Crater counts were made over a normalized area. Analysis has shown that there exist only local differences in load density between the Lunar Astronautical Chart (U.S.) and the Soviet map of the equatorial zone of the visible hemisphere of the moon. The load density of the maps

  6. Evaluation of the joint effect of glyphosate and dimethoate using a small-scale terrestrial ecosystem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel J. G. Santos; Rui Morgado; Nuno Gonçalo C. Ferreira; Amadeu M. V. M. Soares; Susana Loureiro

    2011-01-01

    In the present work a small-scale terrestrial ecosystem (STEM) containing a soil collected from an agricultural field in Central Portugal was used to evaluate the effects of the combination of the herbicide glyphosate and the insecticide dimethoate. Earthworms (Eisenia andrei), isopods (Porcellionides pruinosus), turnip seeds (Brassica rapa), and bait-lamina strips were placed in the STEM. The results showed that the

  7. Economic analysis of small-scale agricultural digesters in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic digestion is a manure treatment option that is gaining popularity throughout the world due to its multiple environmental and economic benefits. However, further research is needed for anaerobic technology to become more readily available, cost effective and manageable for small-scale to m...

  8. Detecting small-scale genotypeenvironment interactions in apomictic dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) populations

    E-print Network

    Vellend, Mark

    species). Here, we tested for G · E in asexual dandelions (Taraxacum officinale) by subjecting sixDetecting small-scale genotype­environment interactions in apomictic dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) populations K. A. MCLEOD* , M. SCASCITELLI* & M. VELLEND*à *Departments of Botany and Zoology

  9. Automated Reduction of Visual Complexity in Small-Scale Relief Shading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna M. Leonowicz; Bernhard Jenny; Lorenz Hurni

    2010-01-01

    Shaded relief derived automatically from digital elevation models differs distinctly from traditional manual shading. Par- ticularly at small scales, many small topographic details that are present in terrain models disturb the clear portrayal of the main relief features. Automatic shading is therefore not appropriate for high-quality cartographic products. This paper proposes a new method of generalizing digital elevation models for

  10. Small scale thermal violence experiments for combined insensitive high explosive and booster materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip J Rae; Clare L Bauer; C Stennett; H M Flower

    2010-01-01

    A small scale cook-off experiment has been designed to provide a violence metric for both booster and IHE materials, singly and in combination. The experiment has a simple, axisymmetric geometry provided by a 10 mm internal diameter cylindrical steel confinement up to 80 mm in length. Heating is applied from one end of the sample length creating pseudo 1-D heating

  11. Small scale prototype of a DC\\/DC multilevel converter for high voltage applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Alejandro Castano; Gabriel Perilla; Rafael Diez; Diego Patino

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a particular DC\\/DC multilevel converter topology called ladder topology for high voltage applications. This topology elevates the input supply voltage using few control signals. Some simple comparisons with the classical flying capacitor converter are carried out. Moreover, power losses are also analyzed. The good performance of the topology is tested through a small scale prototype. The article

  12. AN EMBEDDED SYSTEM FOR SMALL-SCALED AUTONOMOUS David Vissi`ere and Nicolas Petit

    E-print Network

    the problem of designing a modular real-time embedded system for control applications with unmanned vehicles designed a versatile and simple real time embedded system, which can be easily used as real time guidanceAN EMBEDDED SYSTEM FOR SMALL-SCALED AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES David Vissi`ere and Nicolas Petit D

  13. Small-scale medical waste incinerators - experiences and trials in South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. C. Rogers; Alan C. Brent

    Formal waste management services are not accessible for the majority of primary healthcare clinics on the African continent, and affordable and practicable technology solutions are required in the developing country context. In response, a protocol was established for the first quantitative and qualitative evaluation of relatively low cost small-scale incinerators for use at rural primary healthcare clinics. The protocol comprised

  14. Small-scale medical waste incinerators – experiences and trials in South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. C.. Rogers; Alan C. Brent

    2006-01-01

    Formal waste management services are not accessible for the majority of primary healthcare clinics on the African continent, and affordable and practicable technology solutions are required in the developing country context. In response, a protocol was established for the first quantitative and qualitative evaluation of relatively low cost small-scale incinerators for use at rural primary healthcare clinics. The protocol comprised

  15. Small scale wind power guide for New Zealand, Australia and the South Pacific

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Edwards

    1986-01-01

    This report reviews the present and potential use of wind energy in small-scale applications with particular reference to New Zealand and Australia. The report is written in the form of a systems level guide to potential users and designers of wind power systems who have little or no prior knowledge in this field. The main emphasis is on remote area

  16. The decline in book borrowing from Britain's public libraries: a small scale Scottish study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frances Breslin; David McMenemy

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – To discuss and investigate the reasons for the decline in book borrowing in UK public libraries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper presents an extensive literature review and a small scale survey. Findings – The reasons why adults were not borrowing as many books from public libraries as the past were many faceted, including intrinsic and extrinsic reasons. Some of

  17. Small-Scale Steam Distillation Plant for Cymbopogon Nardus Essential Oil Extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohd Hezri Fazalul Rahiman; Hamazul Azhar Hamzah; Mazidah Tajjudin; Mohd Nasir Taib

    This paper presents the extraction result and quality analysis of Cymbopogon Nardus leaves using a small-scale steam distillation plant. The extraction plant was successfully developed and interfaced to a computer for monitoring and control purposes. The plant performance was analyzed in terms of its efficiency and the quality of the oil produced. The oil quality was assessed by means of

  18. REGULAR ARTICLE Small-scale variability in water storage and plant available

    E-print Network

    Schwinning, Susan - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    REGULAR ARTICLE Small-scale variability in water storage and plant available water in shallow in water storage and plant access to water in the rocky soils of a karst savanna dominated by Ashe juniper used to infer recharge and plant uptake of soil water. Predawn water potentials of trees were sampled

  19. Big Science, Small Scale Western University has made significant investments in nanotechnology

    E-print Network

    Denham, Graham

    Big Science, Small Scale Western University has made significant investments in nanotechnology in materials and biomaterials. Nanotechnology is poised to revolutionize and advance many vital sectors in nanotechnology and photonics · Houses state-of-the-art instruments, with tools for SEM capabilities and focused

  20. BACIE Register of Programmed Instruction in the Field of Education and Training in Commerce and Industry. Volume 2, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Association for Commercial and Industrial Education, London (England).

    The British Association for Commercial and Industrial Education has included in its register of annotated programed instructional materials: programs available in the United Kingdom; programs dealing with industrial and commercial training and related further education; and information as supplied by the authors or producers of programs. The areas…

  1. A New Industrial Laser Chemistry Program In Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, G. L.

    1984-05-01

    In a country which the OECD ranks 23rd of 24 nations in the value of technology-intensive exports over imports, which "has been an industrial museum and our factories are working mdoels of the age of chisels, spanners and hammers" according to its Minister for Science and Technology and which now, according to the same man has a "detailed Science and Technology Policy, the best of any political party in the English speaking world" there are indications of change. Over the past seven years there have been grants of 135M to encourage major industrial research and development projects by companies and a further 20M has been contracted for 18 projects seen to have potential benefit for Australia. Our laser photochemistry project has been funded under the latter scheme. A brief review will be given of Government support of industrial chemistry projects in Australia. The nature of the industry-academic interaction required in our contract will be compared with the normal approach by academics to industrial research.

  2. Detection of transgenes in local maize varieties of small-scale farmers in eastern cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Marianne; Grønsberg, Idun M; van den Berg, Johnnie; Fischer, Klara; Aheto, Denis Worlanyo; Bøhn, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale subsistence farmers in South Africa have been introduced to genetically modified (GM) crops for more than a decade. Little is known about i) the extent of transgene introgression into locally recycled seed, ii) what short and long-term ecological and socioeconomic impacts such mixing of seeds might have, iii) how the farmers perceive GM crops, and iv) to what degree approval conditions are followed and controlled. This study conducted in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, aims primarily at addressing the first of these issues. We analysed for transgenes in 796 individual maize plants (leaves) and 20 seed batches collected in a village where GM insect resistant maize was previously promoted and grown as part of an governmental agricultural development program over a seven year period (2001-2008). Additionally, we surveyed the varieties of maize grown and the farmers' practices of recycling and sharing of seed in the same community (26 farmers were interviewed). Recycling and sharing of seeds were common in the community and may contribute to spread and persistence of transgenes in maize on a local or regional level. By analysing DNA we found that the commonly used transgene promoter p35s occurred in one of the 796 leaf samples (0.0013%) and in five of the 20 seed samples (25%). Three of the 20 seed samples (15%) included herbicide tolerant maize (NK603) intentionally grown by the farmers from seed bought from local seed retailers or acquired through a currently running agricultural development program. The two remaining positive seed samples (10%) included genes for insect resistance (from MON810). In both cases the farmers were unaware of the transgenes present. In conclusion, we demonstrate that transgenes are mixed into seed storages of small-scale farming communities where recycling and sharing of seeds are common, i.e. spread beyond the control of the formal seed system. PMID:25551616

  3. New framework for analyzing the effects of small scale inhomogeneities in cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Stephen R.; Wald, Robert M. [Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    We develop a new, mathematically precise framework for treating the effects of nonlinear phenomena occurring on small scales in general relativity. Our approach is an adaptation of Burnett's formulation of the shortwave approximation, which we generalize to analyze the effects of matter inhomogeneities as well as gravitational radiation. Our framework requires the metric to be close to a background metric, but allows arbitrarily large stress-energy fluctuations on small scales. We prove that, within our framework, if the matter stress-energy tensor satisfies the weak energy condition (i.e., positivity of energy density in all frames), then the only effect that small-scale inhomogeneities can have on the dynamics of the background metric is to provide an effective stress-energy tensor that is traceless and has positive energy density-corresponding to the presence of gravitational radiation. In particular, nonlinear effects produced by small-scale inhomogeneities cannot mimic the effects of dark energy. We also develop perturbation theory off of the background metric. We derive an equation for the long-wavelength part of the leading order deviation of the metric from the background metric, which contains the usual terms occurring in linearized perturbation theory plus additional contributions from the small-scale inhomogeneities. Under various assumptions concerning the absence of gravitational radiation and the nonrelativistic behavior of the matter, we argue that the short-wavelength deviations of the metric from the background metric near a point x should be accurately described by Newtonian gravity, taking into account only the matter lying within a homogeneity length scale of x. Finally, we argue that our framework should provide an accurate description of the actual universe.

  4. Specialized Apprentice-Level Training Programs for Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edling, Walter

    Lorain County Community College (LCCC) has provided training programs for the employees of the United States Steel Corporation since 1969 and for the Lorain Telephone Company since 1977. These training programs are campus-based, and the students attend classes for four or five week periods at a time. An effort has been made to adhere as closely as…

  5. THE OPERATIONS RESEARCH PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING

    E-print Network

    Bialas, Wayne

    AT BUFFALO MATHEMATICAL METHODS FOR MULTILEVEL PLANNING by Wayne F. Bialas Mark H. Karwan Research Report No. 79-2 February 1979 Department of Industrial Engineering State University of New York at Buffalo Buffalo, New York 14260 #12;Mathematical Methods for Multilevel Planning Wayne F. Bialas Mark H. Karwan

  6. Teaching Resource Recovery in Industrial Arts. Resource Recovery Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Resource Recovery, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guide, one component of the Resource Recovery Education Kit (See SO 007 866 for a description), contains ideas and activities for teaching about solid waste disposal in secondary level industrial arts classes. Among the course objectives are the following: (1) to understand that litter represents a small but highly visible portion of our…

  7. Dean's Message 2 Industrial Associates Program Turns 40 3

    E-print Network

    Cantlon, Jessica F.

    the weekend before. "The technology on board that ship was just incredible,"she said, adding that every field of engineer- ing had contributed to the ship's various weapons, communications, and health systems."And while is taking to maintain its robust relationship with the optics industry. When we talk about the Hajim School

  8. Industrial Education, General Programs. Courseware Evaluation for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Gordon; And Others

    This courseware evaluation rates a set of 25 industrial education general software programs developed by the Iowa Department of Public Instruction. (These programs--not contained in this document--include measurement drill, fraction drill, loan and interest cost analysis, assault vehicle speeds, sun's rays, Ohm's law, concrete calculations, roof…

  9. Industrial Arts Education Guide for Curriculum and Program Planning, Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    Guidelines for the development of courses and programs of industrial arts for local school districts in New York State are provided in this guide designed for administrators, curriculum personnel, supervisors, and teachers. Following a discussion of student program options, a basic series of suggested courses (titles and course topics) are…

  10. Developing an Industry-Education Community: The United Auto Workers/General Motors Quality Educator Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Stephen; Walline, James

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we review the evolution of the Quality Educator Program (QEP), a program sponsored by the United Auto Workers (UAW)/General Motors (GM) that employs school teachers, administrators, and college and university faculty each summer in GM assembly plants. The QEP provides educators and those in industry the unique opportunity to interact…

  11. Bringing you a prosperous future where energy is clean, abundant, reliable and affordable Industrial Technologies Program

    E-print Network

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Bringing you a prosperous future where energy is clean, abundant, reliable and affordable Program A Strong Energy Portfolio for a Strong America Energy efficiency and clean, renewable energy Industrial Technologies Program U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

  12. Bringing you a prosperous future where energy is clean, abundant, reliable and affordable Industrial Technologies Program

    E-print Network

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Bringing you a prosperous future where energy is clean, abundant, reliable and affordable Technologies Program A Strong Energy Portfolio for a Strong America Energy efficiency and clean, renewable Industrial Technologies Program U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

  13. Educating the Employed Disadvantaged for Upgrading. A Report on Remedial Education Programs in the Paper Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, Richard L.; Northrup, Herbert R.

    A study to determine the impact of adult basic education programs on the upward mobility of disadvantaged workers is presented. The paper industry was chosen for case analysis because of the nature of the upgrading problems, the vast adjustments required by the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the fact that these ABE programs have been operational…

  14. Deciphering the V-Chip: An Examination of the Television Industry's Program Rating Judgments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunkel, Dale; Farinola, Wendy Jo Maynard; Farrar, Kirstie; Donnerstein, Edward; Biely, Erica; Zwarun, Lara

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the validity of the television industry's labeling of sensitive program content following the advent of the V-chip television ratings system. Examines programs for the nature and extent of portrayals of violence, sexual behavior and dialogue, and adult language. Suggests there are substantial limitations in the ability of the V-chip…

  15. Evaluating Industry-Based Doctoral Research Programs: Perspectives and Outcomes of Australian Cooperative Research Centre Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manathunga, Catherine; Pitt, Rachael; Cox, Laura; Boreham, Paul; Mellick, George; Lant, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Researchers of the future will need to be able to work across the increasingly porous boundaries between university, industry, government and community sectors. Concerns have been raised internationally for several decades about the content and approaches adopted in doctoral programs. Innovative doctoral programs that facilitate students'…

  16. Determining the Influence of Groundwater Composition on the Performance of Arsenic Adsorption Columns Using Rapid Small-Scale Column Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragon, A. R.; Siegel, M.

    2004-12-01

    The USEPA has established a more stringent drinking water standard for arsenic, reducing the maximum contaminant level (MCL) from 50 ? g/L to 10 ? g/L. This will affect many small communities in the US that lack the appropriate treatment infrastructure and funding to reduce arsenic to such levels. For such communities, adsorption systems are the preferred technology based on ease of operation and relatively lower costs. The performance of adsorption media for the removal of arsenic from drinking water is dependent on site-specific water quality. At certain concentrations, co-occurring solutes will compete effectively with arsenic for sorption sites, potentially reducing the sorption capacity of the media. Due to the site-specific nature of water quality and variations in media properties, pilot scale studies are typically carried out to ensure that a proposed treatment technique is cost effective before installation of a full-scale system. Sandia National Laboratories is currently developing an approach to utilize rapid small-scale columns in lieu of pilot columns to test innovative technologies that could significantly reduce the cost of treatment in small communities. Rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCTs) were developed to predict full-scale treatment of organic contaminants by adsorption onto granular activated carbon (GAC). This process greatly reduced the time and costs required to verify performance of GAC adsorption columns. In this study, the RSSCT methodology is used to predict the removal of inorganic arsenic using mixed metal oxyhydroxide adsorption media. The media are engineered and synthesized from materials that control arsenic behavior in natural and disturbed systems. We describe the underlying theory and application of RSSCTs for the performance evaluation of novel media in several groundwater compositions. Results of small-scale laboratory columns are being used to predict the performance of pilot-scale systems and ultimately to design full-scale systems. RSSCTs will be performed on a suite of water compositions representing the variety of water supplies in the United States that are affected by the new drinking water standard. Ultimately, this approach will be used to carry out inexpensive short-term pilot studies at a large number of sites where large-scale pilots are not economically feasible. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  17. AICD: Advanced Industrial Concepts Division Biological and Chemical Technologies Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, G.; Bair, K.; Ross, J.

    1994-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1993 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1993 (ASR 93) contains the following: A program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives), program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1993, detailed descriptions of individual projects, and a listing of program output including a bibliography of published work, patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

  18. Small-Scale Temporal and Spatial Variability in Regional-Scale CO2 Mixing Ratio Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosson, E.; Corbin, K. D.; Davis, K. J.; Denning, S.; Lokupitiya, E. Y.; Miles, N.; Richardson, S.

    2009-05-01

    The study of regional-scale CO2 concentrations and fluxes lies between the detailed understanding of ecological processes that can be gathered via intensive local field study, and the overarching but mechanistically poor understanding of the global carbon cycle that is gained by analyzing the atmospheric CO2 budget. In addition to the importance of regional studies toward the fundamental goal of understanding the carbon balance of the continent, regional-scale studies are becoming increasingly important as the necessity of tracking progress in CO2 emissions reduction arises. This work is part of the NACP's Midcontinental Intensive (MCI) study. Specifically it adds a regional network of five communications-tower based atmospheric CO2 observations ("Ring 2") from April 2007 through October 2008 to the long-term atmospheric CO2 observing network (tall towers, aircraft profiles, and well- calibrated CO2 measurements on Ameriflux towers) in the mid-continent intensive region. The Ring 2 measurements are based on relatively new technology for CO2 measurement, wavelength-scanned cavity ring down spectroscopy (Picarro, Inc.), and the locations are regional in scale (roughly a 500-km diameter ring). We present results concerning data quality of the new instruments, including water vapor correction and uncertainties, as well as small-scale temporal and spatial variations that can be seen with this unique network. For example, the daily daytime average throughout the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons indicated a 50-ppm seasonal drawdown, with significant synoptic variability. The drawdown in this largely agricultural region (heavily influenced by corn) is significantly larger than the 20-30 ppm typically seen in forested regions. Also during the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons, the CO2 mixing ratio at the sites nearly always differs by more than 5 ppm, while at times the inter-site difference is as large as 30-50 ppm. While variability in the regional spatial gradients is expected because of synoptic changes and differing source regions, the magnitude observed is surprisingly large given the sites' relative proximity. The data suggest that similarly constructed networks could form the essential framework for the continuous monitoring of continental, regional and municipal CO2 fluxes as required to support, for example, international treaty verification, regional ambient air regulations and cap-and-trade programs.

  19. Industry\\/College Partnerships: Using industry partnerships, corporate donations, and grants to create an ERP program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bobby Alexander

    The demand for graduates trained in enterprise resource planning (ERP) software and methodology has been steadily growing in the corporate community and there have not been enough employees available to fill industry demands for people able to use ERP software and to do ERP work. The College of Business Administration (CoBA) at the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) sought

  20. Environmental Monitoring and the Gas Industry: Program Manager Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory D. Gillispie

    1997-12-01

    This document has been developed for the nontechnical gas industry manager who has the responsibility for the development of waste or potentially contaminated soil and groundwater data or must make decisions based on such data for the management or remediation of these materials. It explores the pse of common analytical chemistry instrumentation and associated techniques for identification of environmentally hazardous materials. Sufficient detail is given to familiarize the nontechnical reader with the principles behind the operation of each technique. The scope and realm of the techniques and their constituent variations are portrayed through a discussion of crucial details and, where appropriate, the depiction of real-life data. It is the author's intention to provide an easily understood handbook for gas industry management. Techniques which determine the presence, composition, and quantification of gas industry wastes are discussed. Greater focus is given to traditional techniques which have been the mainstay of modem analytical benchwork. However, with the continual advancement of instrumental principles and design, several techniques have been included which are likely to receive greater attention in fiture considerations for waste-related detection. Definitions and concepts inherent to a thorough understanding of the principles common to analytical chemistry are discussed. It is also crucial that gas industry managers understand the effects of the various actions which take place before, during, and after the actual sampling step. When a series of sample collection, storage, and transport activities occur, new or inexperienced project managers may overlook or misunderstand the importance of the sequence. Each step has an impact on the final results of the measurement process; errors in judgment or decision making can be costly. Specific techniques and methodologies for the collection, storage, and transport of environmental media samples are not described or discussed in detail in thk handbook. However, the underlying philosophy regarding the importance of proper collection, storage, and transport practices, as well as pertinent references, are presented.

  1. Assessment of the US industrial program for AMTEC development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sievers, R. K.; Hunt, T. K.; Williams, R. M.; Underwood, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    The Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) is a static energy conversion technology that is expected to provide low mass thermal to electric conversion with efficiencies between 20 and 35 percent. The U.S. program to develop this technology for space power applications has grown substantially over the past 3 years. This expanding program has brought together several laboratories and technical consultants, in separately sponsored projects, to develop the key elements of the technology. An assessment of this multiparty program indicates that, in general, the effort has focused on the high priority technical elements with only moderate overlap between individual projects. There are, however, several areas where additional coordination is needed between major participants in the existing projects, and other areas where new projects should be started, in order to provide reliable space power systems without unnecessary delays.

  2. Assessment of the US industrial program for AMTEC development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sievers, R. K.; Hunt, T. K.; Williams, R. M.; Underwood, M. L.

    The Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) is a static energy conversion technology that is expected to provide low mass thermal to electric conversion with efficiencies between 20 and 35 percent. The U.S. program to develop this technology for space power applications has grown substantially over the past 3 years. This expanding program has brought together several laboratories and technical consultants, in separately sponsored projects, to develop the key elements of the technology. An assessment of this multiparty program indicates that, in general, the effort has focused on the high priority technical elements with only moderate overlap between individual projects. There are, however, several areas where additional coordination is needed between major participants in the existing projects, and other areas where new projects should be started, in order to provide reliable space power systems without unnecessary delays.

  3. Several small-scale vector array performance analysis and simulation of DOA estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Yinzhen

    2011-10-01

    To research the application and estimate performance in some small-scale vector sensor array by traditional direction of arrival estimate , we derivate the time delay expression of four small-scale non-uniform vector sensor array, the array direction vector is given, and the MUSIC algorithm is applied successfully to non-uniform vector array for direction of arrival(DOA) estimate, select the better performance of each array element setting method, and compare of beam forming, the probability of success and the mean square error, this shows that the performance of line array is best, followed by L-array and circular array, the performance of cross-array is worst.

  4. Prevalence of small-scale jets from the networks of the solar transition region and chromosphere.

    PubMed

    Tian, H; DeLuca, E E; Cranmer, S R; De Pontieu, B; Peter, H; Martínez-Sykora, J; Golub, L; McKillop, S; Reeves, K K; Miralles, M P; McCauley, P; Saar, S; Testa, P; Weber, M; Murphy, N; Lemen, J; Title, A; Boerner, P; Hurlburt, N; Tarbell, T D; Wuelser, J P; Kleint, L; Kankelborg, C; Jaeggli, S; Carlsson, M; Hansteen, V; McIntosh, S W

    2014-10-17

    As the interface between the Sun's photosphere and corona, the chromosphere and transition region play a key role in the formation and acceleration of the solar wind. Observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph reveal the prevalence of intermittent small-scale jets with speeds of 80 to 250 kilometers per second from the narrow bright network lanes of this interface region. These jets have lifetimes of 20 to 80 seconds and widths of ?300 kilometers. They originate from small-scale bright regions, often preceded by footpoint brightenings and accompanied by transverse waves with amplitudes of ~20 kilometers per second. Many jets reach temperatures of at least ~10(5) kelvin and constitute an important element of the transition region structures. They are likely an intermittent but persistent source of mass and energy for the solar wind. PMID:25324395

  5. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are examined. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. Additional sections cover acquisition; liability; Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection; energy utilities; local regulations; incidental impacts; financial considerations; and sources of information. In Kentucky, many of the impacts have not been implemented with regard to small-scale hydroelectric energy, since in Kentucky most electricity is coal-generated and any hydroelectric power that does exist, is derived from TVA or the Army Corp of Engineer projects.

  6. Fractal Properties and Small-scale Structure of Cosmic String Networks

    E-print Network

    C. J. A. P. Martins; E. P. S. Shellard

    2005-11-29

    We present results from a detailed numerical study of the small-scale and loop production properties of cosmic string networks, based on the largest and highest resolution string simulations to date. We investigate the non-trivial fractal properties of cosmic strings, in particular, the fractal dimension and renormalised string mass per unit length, and we also study velocity correlations. We demonstrate important differences between string networks in flat (Minkowski) spacetime and the two very similar expanding cases. For high resolution matter era network simulations, we provide strong evidence that small-scale structure has converged to `scaling' on all dynamical lengthscales, without the need for other radiative damping mechanisms. We also discuss preliminary evidence that the dominant loop production size is also approaching scaling.

  7. Magnetic Field Tunable Small-scale Mechanical Properties of Nickel Single Crystals Measured by Nanoindentation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hao; Pei, Yongmao; Fang, Daining

    2014-04-01

    Nano- and micromagnetic materials have been extensively employed in micro-functional devices. However, measuring small-scale mechanical and magnetomechanical properties is challenging, which restricts the design of new products and the performance of smart devices. A new magnetomechanical nanoindentation technique is developed and tested on a nickel single crystal in the absence and presence of a saturated magnetic field. Small-scale parameters such as Young's modulus, indentation hardness, and plastic index are dependent on the applied magnetic field, which differ greatly from their macroscale counterparts. Possible mechanisms that induced 31% increase in modulus and 7% reduction in hardness (i.e., the flexomagnetic effect and the interaction between dislocations and magnetic field, respectively) are analyzed and discussed. Results could be useful in the microminiaturization of applications, such as tunable mechanical resonators and magnetic field sensors.

  8. Field investigation of preferential fissure flow paths with hydrochemical analysis of small-scale sprinkling experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzeminska, D. M.; Bogaard, T. A.; Debieche, T.-H.; Cervi, F.; Marc, V.; Malet, J.-P.

    2013-10-01

    The unsaturated zone largely controls groundwater recharge by buffering precipitation but at the same time providing preferential flow paths for infiltration. The importance of preferential flow on landslide hydrology is recognized in literature, but its monitoring and quantification remains difficult. This paper presents a combined hydrological and hydrochemical analysis of small-scale sprinkling experiments with the aim to show the potential of such experiments for studying the spatial differences in dominant hydrological processes within a landslide. This methodology was tested in the highly heterogeneous black marls of the Super-Sauze landslide. The tests were performed in three areas characterised by different displacement rates, surface morphology and local hydrological conditions. Special attention was given to test the potential of small-scale sprinkling experiments to identify and characterise preferential flow patterns and dominating hydrological processes.

  9. Field investigation of preferential fissure flow paths with hydrochemical analysis of small-scale sprinkling experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzeminska, D. M.; Bogaard, T. A.; Debieche, T.-H.; Cervi, F.; Marc, V.; Malet, J.-P.

    2014-03-01

    The unsaturated zone largely controls groundwater recharge by buffering precipitation while at the same time providing preferential flow paths for infiltration. The importance of preferential flow on landslide hydrology is recognised in the literature; however, its monitoring and quantification remain difficult. This paper presents a combined hydrological and hydrochemical analysis of small-scale sprinkling experiments. It aims at showing the potential of such experiments for studying the spatial differences in dominant hydrological processes within a landslide. This methodology was tested in the highly heterogeneous black marls of the Super-Sauze landslide. The tests were performed in three areas characterised by different displacement rates, surface morphology and local hydrological conditions. Special attention was paid to testing the potential of small-scale sprinkling experiments for identifying and characterising preferential flow patterns and dominant hydrological processes.

  10. [Uranium Concentration in Drinking Water from Small-scale Water Supplies in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany].

    PubMed

    Ostendorp, G

    2015-04-01

    In this study the drinking water of 212 small-scale water supplies, mainly situated in areas with intensive agriculture or fruit-growing, was analysed for uranium. The median uranium concentration amounted to 0.04?µg/lL, the 95(th) percentile was 2.5?µg/L. The maximum level was 14?µg/L. This sample exceeded the guideline value for uranium in drinking water. The uranium concentration in small-scale water supplies was found to be slightly higher than that in central water works in Schleswig-Holstein. Water containing more than 10?mg/L nitrate showed significantly higher uranium contents. The results indicate that the uranium burden in drinking water from small wells is mainly determined by geological factors. An additional anthropogenic effect of soil management cannot be excluded. Overall uranium concentrations were low and not causing health concerns. However, in specific cases higher concentrations may occur. PMID:25356561

  11. Arc characteristics in small-scale DC plasma arc furnaces using graphite cathodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Knight; M. J. Murawa; N. M. Girgis; K. J. Reide

    1990-01-01

    The characteristics of electric arcs using graphite cathodes operating in small-scale DC transferred-arc furnaces and an in-flight plasma reactor have heen investigated. The variation oh arc voltage with arc length at currents up to 1.5 kA has been studied. These characteristics are relevant to the engineering design and evaluation of DC plasma furnaces and reactors for the development of chemical

  12. SRP radioactive glass studies: small-scale process development and product performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Plodinec; P. D. Soper; N. E. Bibler; J. L. Kessler

    1982-01-01

    A small-scale joule-heated ceramic melter contained in the Shielded Cells Facility has demonstrated the vitrification process for actual Savannah River Plant radioactive waste. Losses of radionuclides due to volatility are low and easily treated, and the glass produced is of comparable quality to laboratory-prepared simulated glass. Future work will include studies with wastes from other tanks, using new frit compositions.

  13. Small scale biomass fueled gas turbine power plant. Report for February 1992October 1997

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Purvis; J. D. Craig

    1998-01-01

    The paper discusses a new-generation, small-scale (<20 MWe) biomass-fueled power plant that is being developed based on a gas turbine (Brayton cycle) prime mover. Such power plants are expected to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of generating power from fuels such as wood. The new power plants are also expected to economically utilize annual plant growth material (e.g.,

  14. The small-scale yielding of shape memory alloys under mode III fracture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Desindes; S. Daly

    2010-01-01

    A model for stress-induced phase transformation surrounding the crack tip during mode III fracture of shape memory alloys (SMAs) is introduced. Considering a state of small-scale yielding and J2 plasticity (loading only), the shape and size of the martensite (M), the austenite (A) and the transformation zone (A?M) are fully determined. For a fixed crack length, the zones of constant

  15. Septic Tank Treatment of the Effluent from a Small-Scale Commercial Recycle Aquaculture System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Summerfelt; Christopher R. Penne

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency of a conventional domestic septic tank for primary treatment of the wastewater effluent from a small-scale commercial recycle aquaculture system (RAS) was evaluated. The aquaculture facility had five 39.2-m dual-drain culture tanks and a total system volume of 249.9 m. The mean standing stock of fish during the study was 4,837 kg (25.6 kg\\/m) consisting of 9.6% largemouth

  16. An estimate of the relative magnitude of small-scale tracer fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacmeister, Julio T.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Loewenstein, Max; Podolske, Jim R.; Strahan, Susan E.; Chan, K. R.

    1992-01-01

    The wind and constituent measurements from the polar aircraft data are used to compute the flux spectra. Although there is variation from flight to flight, the flux spectra generally fit a -2 to -1.5 power law as expected theoretically. This result suggests that tracer fluxes from small scale features do not substantially contribute to the overall tracer budget relative to the fluxes from the larger scales.

  17. Small-scale structure of the circumstellar gas of HL Tauri and R Monocerotis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Beckwith; A. I. Sargent; N. Z. Scoville; C. R. Masson; B. Zuckerman; T. G. Phillips

    1986-01-01

    Interferometric observations of CO (J = 1-0) emission in HL Tau and R Mon reveal small-scale concentrations of molecular gas coincident with both stars. The line widths are small, less than 3 km\\/s, and centered close to the stellar velocities, indicating that these condensations are bound to the stars. Lower limits to the circumstellar masses are derived from the CO

  18. Small-scale plasma irregularities produced during electron attachment chemical releases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scales, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Ganguli, G.; Siefring, C. L.; Rodriguez, P.

    1994-01-01

    In situ measurements of small-scale plasma density irregularities made during sounding rocket experiments that released electron attachment materials into the ionosphere are presented. A 2D electrostatic simulation model that includes attachment chemistry is used to study the source and evolution of these irregularities. The simulation shows (1) that large electron flow velocity shears develop on the boundary of the electron depletion and (2) these shears drive a plasma instability that is the likely source of the irregularities.

  19. Role of small-scale magnetic elements in magnetic flux transportation on the solar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Masahito

    2012-07-01

    The magnetic fields emerge into the solar surface from the convection zone. Recent observations at high spatial resolution reveal ubiquitous flux emergence at granular scale on the solar surface in the quiet Sun. The emerged small-scale magnetic elements dynamically evolve with granular convective flows, and form a network magnetic field along the boundaries of supergranular cells. Such a magneto-convection in the photosphere is an energy source for heating and dynamics in the upper atmospheres. The small-scale magnetic elements are also important for the flux transportation in active regions. We quantify the evolution of sunspot magnetic flux by using continuous vector magnetic field measurements under seeing free condition. The magnetic flux budget of the decaying sunspot reveals that small-scale magnetic elements called moving magnetic features carry away enough magnetic flux from the sunspot through the moat region. The transported magnetic flux is mostly removed from the photosphere by ``magnetic flux cancellation'' that is the mutual loss of magnetic flux due to the apparent collision of opposite-polarity magnetic elements. The granular-scale flux cancellation can be seen everywhere on the solar surface, and the flux cancellation is essential to understand the dissipation of magnetic flux from the solar surface. We find unresolved, small-scale flux cancellations along the polarity inversion line that is formed between granular-scale opposite polarity magnetic elements. Highly asymmetric Stokes-V profiles are observed along the polarity inversion line. Such asymmetric profiles can be made by the sum of the Stokes-V profiles at the opposite-polarity magnetic elements next to the polarity inversion line. This means that the approaching bipolar magnetic elements still keep their nature within the pixel where they come in contact with each other. It is suggested that the unresolved flux removal process in the photosphere or in the lower chromosphere.

  20. Turbulent small-scale neutral and ion density fluctuations as measured during MAC/Epsilon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebken, F.-J.; Hillert, W.; Vonzahn, U.; Blix, T. A.; Thrane, E. V.

    1989-01-01

    During the MAC/Epsilon campaign (Fall 1987, from Andoya, Northern Norway, 69 N, 16 E) a total of four altitude profiles of neutral gas number densities and six profiles of ion number densities were measured with high spatial resolution in the height range from 60 to 120 km. First results of these rocket-borne experiments are presented with emphasis on small scale turbulent density variations and related turbulent parameter as structure function constants and energy dissipation rates.

  1. Small-scale self-focusing of laser radiation in amplifier systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolai N. Rosanov; V. A. Smirnov

    1980-01-01

    A matrix method is developed for the calculation of the evolution of small-scale self-focusing as applied to laser amplifier systems, i.e., active elements with a nonlinear refractive index, separated by air gaps or lens systems. Calculations made for collimated and diverging laser beams indicate that in amplifier systems it is preferable to use spatial filters with beam expansion. These calculations

  2. Manufacturing of small scale W monoblock mockups by hot radial pressing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eliseo Visca; C. Testani; S. Libera; M. Sacchetti

    2003-01-01

    In the frame of the European Technology R&D programme for International thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) and in the area of high heat flux plasma facing components (HHFC), representative small-scale mock-ups were manufactured and tested to compare different concepts and joining technologies (i.e. active brazing, hot isostatic pressing (HIPping), diffusion bonding, etc.). On the basis of the results obtained by thermal

  3. Overview of the EU small scale mock-up tests for ITER high heat flux components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Vieider; V Barabash; A Cardella; P Chappuis; R Duwe; H Falter; M Febvre; L Giancarli; C Ibbott; D. M Jacobson; R Jakeman; G LeMarois; A Lind; M Merola; H. D Pacher; A Peacock; A Pizzuto; L Plöchl; B Riccardi; M Rödig; S. P. S Sangha; Y Severi; E Visca

    1998-01-01

    This task within the EU R&D for ITER was aimed at the development of basic manufacturing solutions for the high heat flux plasma facing components such as the divertor targets, the baffles and limiters. More than 50 representative small-scale mock-ups have been manufactured with beryllium, carbon and tungsten armour using various joining technologies. High heat flux testing of 20 of

  4. Solar wind energy and momentum from the emergence of new small-scale flux

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Schwadron

    2007-01-01

    Recent Hinode observations have shown the remarkably rapid reconfiguration of the Sun’s small-scale magnetic flux. On the size-scale of granules, solar magnetic flux is reconfigured over only 10 minutes. On the larger scales of supergranules, magnetic flux is continually and rapidly reconfigured over about a day. We discuss how the reconfiguration processes observed by Hinode, TRACE, and SOHO, may be

  5. Proceedings of a Topical Meeting On Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1986-02-12

    These proceedings describe the workshop of the Topical Meeting on Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects. The projects covered include binary power plants, rotary separator, screw expander power plants, modular wellhead power plants, inflow turbines, and the EPRI hybrid power system. Active projects versus geothermal power projects were described. In addition, a simple approach to estimating effects of fluid deliverability on geothermal power cost is described starting on page 119. (DJE-2005)

  6. Design consideration for an economical small-scale process control system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Starling; S. I. Adams

    1983-01-01

    A new small-scale process control system, FORTH Operations and Resource Control Executive (FORCE), has been developed using PDP-11 computers and intelligent, distributed, process-control hardware. FORCE allows rapid and straight-forward implementation of control systems in small installations such as pilot plants and laboratory reactors which cannot be serviced cost-effectively by larger process control systems. The basic hardware\\/software system has the following

  7. Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package. Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.L.

    1996-03-01

    This appendix provides the data for Alternate HTM Flowsheet 1 (No Reductant Addition, Nitric Acid) melter feed preparation activities in both the laboratory and small-scale testing. The first section provides an outline of this appendix. The melter feed preparation data are presented in the next two main sections, laboratory welter feed preparation data and small-scale melter feed preparation data. Section 3.0 provides the laboratory data which is discussed in the main body of the Small-Scale High Temperature-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package, milestone C95-02.02Y. Section 3.1 gives the flowsheet in outline form as used in the laboratory-scale tests. This section also includes the ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` which gives a chronological account of the test in terms of time, temperature, slurry pH, and specific observations about slurry appearance, acid addition rates, and samples taken. The ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` provides a road map to the reader by which all the activity and data from the laboratory can be easily accessed. A summary of analytical data is presented next, section 3.2, which covers starting materials and progresses to the analysis of the melter feed. The next section, 3.3, characterizes the off-gas generation that occurs during the slurry processing. The following section, 3.4, provides the rheology data gathered including gram waste oxide loading information for the various slurries tested. The final section, 3.5. includes data from standard crucible redox testing. Section 4.0 provides the small-scale data tn parallel form to section 3.0. Section 5.0 concludes with the references for this appendix.

  8. Small-scale AFBC-hot air gas turbine power cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Ashworth; H. M. Keener; A. W. Hall

    1995-01-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC), the Will-Burt Company (W-B) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have successfully developed and completed pilot plant tests on a small scale atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) system. This system can be used to generate electricity, and\\/or hot water, steam. Following successful pilot plant

  9. Small-scale, hydrogen-oxidizing-denitrifying bioreactor for treatment of nitrate-contaminated drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Smith; Seanne P. Buckwalter; Deborah A. Repert; Daniel N. Miller

    2005-01-01

    Nitrate removal by hydrogen-coupled denitrification was examined using flow-through, packed-bed bioreactors to develop a small-scale, cost effective system for treating nitrate-contaminated drinking-water supplies. Nitrate removal was accomplished using a Rhodocyclus sp., strain HOD 5, isolated from a sole-source drinking-water aquifer. The autotrophic capacity of the purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacterium made it particularly adept for this purpose. Initial tests used a

  10. Twelve Years of Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Characteristics, 1989-2000: Small Scale Results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. L. Ely; S. M. Steiger; S. E. Phillips; R. E. Orville; G. R. Huffines

    2001-01-01

    The National Lightning Detection Network recorded over 250 million cloud-to-ground lightning flashes from 1989 to 2000. Analysis of lightning flash density and polarity reveal significant small-scale geographical variations. These variations can occur as broad trends over several hundred kilometers, or as sharp contrasts over as little as a few kilometers. This study focuses on four regions of the United States:

  11. Design and development of an automatic small-scale house for teaching domotics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felipe Mateos; Víctor M. González; Reyes Poo; Marta García; Rosana Olaiz

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the design and development characteristics of an automatic small-scale house (1:12). Several installations are controlled: seven light points, five plugs, heating in one room, technical alarms, intruder alarms, two garden irrigation areas, one blind and communications. The architecture of the centralised domotics system is based on a programmable logic controller Simatic S7-200, and on a tactile operator

  12. Credit constraints, credit unions, and small-scale producers in Guatemala

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradford L. Barham; Stephen Boucher; Michael R. Carter

    1996-01-01

    Efficient and equitable development outcomes may depend, in part, on whether formal financial institutions leave low-wealth producers tightly constrained in their access to credit. If so, can cooperative institutions efficiently relax these constraints? These issues are explored using survey data gathered from 950 small-scale producer households in areas of Guatemala with market-oriented credit unions that mobilize savings and make unsubsidized

  13. Small-scale structure formation properties of chilled sterile neutrinos as dark matter

    E-print Network

    Kalliopi Petraki

    2008-05-06

    We calculate the free-streaming length and the phase space density of dark-matter sterile neutrinos produced from decays, at the electroweak scale, of a gauge singlet in the Higgs sector. These quantities, which depend on the dark-matter production mechanism, are relevant to the study of small-scale structure formation and may be used to constrain or rule out dark-matter candidates.

  14. The Large scale instability in rotating fluid with small scale force

    E-print Network

    Kopp, M I; Yanovsky, V V

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we find a new large scale instability displayed by a rotating flow in forced turbulence. The turbulence is generated by a small scale external force at low Reynolds number. The theory is built on the rigorous asymptotic method of multi-scale development. The nonlinear equations for the instability are obtained at the third order of the perturbation theory. In this article, we explain a detailed study of the nonlinear stage of the instability and generation vortex kinks.

  15. Small-scale primordial magnetic fields and anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedamzik, Karsten; Abel, Tom

    2013-10-01

    It is shown that small-scale magnetic fields present before recombination induce baryonic density inhomogeneities of appreciable magnitude. The presence of such inhomogeneities changes the ionization history of the Universe, which in turn decreases the angular scale of the Doppler peaks and increases Silk damping by photon diffusion. This unique signature could be used to (dis)prove the existence of primordial magnetic fields of strength as small as B simeq 10-11 Gauss by cosmic microwave background observations.

  16. Small-scale solar pumping systems—present status and future prospects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Aylward; B. McNelis

    1984-01-01

    Consultants Sir William Halcrow & Partners in association with Intermediate Technology Power Ltd have recently completed the latest stage of a United Nations Development Programme\\/World Bank project to demonstrate and evaluate small-scale solar-powered pumping systems suitable for use in developing countries. This paper presents some of the results of the project.Based on an assessment of selected examples of photovoltaic systems,

  17. Small-scale field test of the genetically engineered lacZY marker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Hattemer-Frey; E. J. Brandt; C. C. Travis

    1990-01-01

    Commercial genetic engineering is advancing into areas that require the small-scale introduction of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) to better quantify variables that affect microorganism distribution and survival and to document potential long-term consequences. A recombinant DNA marker system, the lacZY marker, developed by the Monsanto Agricultural Co., enables the distribution and fate of marked fluorescent pseudomonad organisms to be monitored

  18. A model for estimating efforts required for developing small-scale business applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abbas Heiat; Nafisseh Heiat

    1997-01-01

    Estimating the amount of effort required for developing an information system is an important project management concern. The author has developed a model that estimates small-scale software development effort in 4GL and end-user computing environments. In addition to presenting and evaluating the proposed model, this paper evaluates two of the most popular models currently used to estimate software development effort

  19. Small-scale thermal seawater desalination simulation and optimization of system design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Müller-Holst; M. Engelhardt; W. Schölkopf

    1999-01-01

    The Bavarian Center of Applied Energy Research (ZAE Bayern) and T.A.S. GmbH & Co. KG, Munich, have optimized a distillation method which was originally developed at the at the University of Munich and which is protected by patent. The method — developed for small-scale production (0.5–2 m3\\/d) — is ideally suited for the use at decentralized stand-alone operation because it

  20. Small-scale spatial patterns of meiobenthos in the Arctic deep sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabiane Gallucci; Tom Moens; Gustavo Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    A variety of analytical techniques were used to quantify and describe small-scale (centimetre to decimetre) spatial patterns\\u000a of meiofauna taxa, with emphasis on nematode species, at a bathyal site in the Arctic deep sea. Three cores (10-cm diameter)\\u000a taken from the same multicorer were each subsampled as 12 contiguous subcores (1.2-cm diameter) for meiofauna and 16 contiguous\\u000a subcores (0.9-cm diameter)