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1

National Occupational Health Service policies and programs for workers in small-scale industries in China.  

PubMed

Over the 14 years since economic reform began, and the restructuring of the economy to encourage international trade, a large number of township enterprises have been developed and put into operation in the Peoples Republic of China. From 1978 to 1991, the number of enterprises has increased 11.5 times; the number of employees has increased 2.4 times; the fixed assets have increased 13.7 times; and the value of the total output has increased 22.5 times. In this article, a report is given on a sample survey in 30 counties in 1990, which showed that 82.69% of rural industrial enterprises had at least one type of occupational hazard in their work environments. Workers engaged in at least one type of hazardous working environment accounted for 33.91% of the blue-collar workers. Physical examinations were performed for seven types of occupational diseases: silicosis, coal worker's pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, chronic lead poisoning, benzene analogs poisoning, chronic chromium poisoning, and noise-induced hearing loss. The total detectable rate of the seven types of occupational diseases was 4.4% among those workers. In addition, 11% had illnesses suspected of being (though not proven to be) caused by occupational exposures. Most township enterprises do not provide basic occupational health services. The coverage of five routine occupational health service activities provided for township enterprises were very limited, from 1.4 to 36%. PMID:11192218

Zhi, S; Sheng, W; Levine, S P

2000-01-01

2

The Economics of Rural and Urban Small-Scale Industries in Sierra Leone. African Rural Economy Paper No. 14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Small-scale industry in Sierra Leone, Africa was examined in terms of: labor intensity; output generated per unit of capital; generation of positive economic profits by small-scale industry groups/processes; and seasonal and locational variations. Key analytical issues were the nature of small-scale industry supply and demand processes. Data were…

Liedholm, Carl; Chuta, Enyinna

3

Strategies for sustainable development of the small-scale gold and diamond mining industry of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small-scale gold and diamonds mining industry is of great importance to Ghana. Since its regularization in 1989 the sector has produced and sold over 1.5 million troy ounces of gold and 8.0 million carats of diamonds. During the same period the sector also provided direct employment to over 100,000 people and improved the socioeconomic life of many individuals and

R. K. Amankwah; C. Anim-Sackey

2003-01-01

4

Financing Small-Scale Industry and Agriculture in Developing Countries: The Merits and Limitations of 'Commercial' Policies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses how two factors lead to an unwillingness of financial institutions to finance small-scale industry and agriculture in developing countries: (a) controls on interest rates, and (b) the initially high risks and administrative costs invol...

D. Anderson F. Khambata

1982-01-01

5

Use of a moss biomonitoring method to compile emission inventories for small-scale industries.  

PubMed

We used a method of detecting small-scale pollution sources (DSSP) that involves measurement of the concentrations of elements in moss tissues, with the following aims: (i) to determine any common qualitative patterns of contaminant emissions for individual industrial sectors, (ii) to compare any such patterns with previously described patterns, and (iii) to compile an inventory of the metals and metalloids emitted by the industries considered. Cluster analysis revealed that there were no common patterns of emission associated with the industrial sectors, probably because of differences in production processes and in the types of fuel and raw materials. However, when these variables were shared by different factories, the concentrations of the elements in moss tissues enabled the factories to be grouped according to their emissions. We compiled a list of the metals and metalloids emitted by the factories under study and found that the DSSP method was satisfactory for this purpose in most cases (53 of 56). The method appears to be a useful tool for compiling contaminant inventories; it may also be useful for determining the efficacy of technical improvements aimed at reducing the industrial emission of contaminants and could be incorporated in environmental monitoring and control programmes. PMID:24853138

Varela, Z; Aboal, J R; Carballeira, A; Real, C; Fernández, J A

2014-06-30

6

Barriers to innovation in small-scale industries: case study from the briquetting industry in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the innovation process in small- and medium-scale industries in developing countries, raking the briquetting (densification of biomass) as a case study. The technical efficiency was found to vary significantly between firms, which can be attributed to the lack of technological capabilities within firms and weaknesses in the external environment. Management skills were found to be weak,

Joy Clancy

2001-01-01

7

Monitoring of cotton dust and health risk assessment in small-scale weaving industry.  

PubMed

The present study describes the estimation of particulate matter (cotton dust) with different sizes, i.e., PM(1.0), PM(2.5), PM(4.0), and PM(10.0 ?m) in small-scale weaving industry (power looms) situated in district Hafizabad, Punjab, Pakistan, and the assessment of health problems of workers associated with these pollutants. A significant difference was found in PM(1.0), PM(2.5), PM(4.0), and PM(10.0) with reference to nine different sampling stations with p values <0.05. Multiple comparisons of particulate matter with respect to size, i.e. PM(1.0), PM(2.5), PM(4.0), and PM(10.0), depict that PM(1.0) differs significantly from PM(2.5), PM(4.0), and PM(10.0), with p values <0.05 and that PM(2.5) differs significantly from PM(1.0) and PM(10.0), with p values <0.05, whereas PM(2.5) differs non-significantly from PM(4.0), with a p value >0.05 in defined sampling stations on an average basis. Majority of the workers were facing several diseases due to interaction with particulate matter (cotton dust) during working hours. Flue, cough, eye, and skin infections were the most common diseases among workers caused by particulate matter (cotton dust). PMID:21947877

Tahir, Muhammad Wajid; Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Tauseef, Shanza; Sajjad, Muqadas; Nazeer, Awais; Farheen, Nazish; Iqbal, Muddsar

2012-08-01

8

Modelling of urban ambient N, N-dimethylformamide concentrations in a small-scale synthetic leather industrial zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to model small-scale ambient concentrations of N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) in a synthetic leather industrial zone\\u000a was developed. Longwan, a district of Wenzhou City in Southeast China, was selected as the study area. DMF emissions at the\\u000a synthetic leather industrial zone were inventoried, during 2007, and an AMS\\/EPA regulatory model (AERMOD) was used to simulate\\u000a DMF concentrations using 10

Yu-mei Wei; Wei-li Tian; Ying-yue Zheng; Qing-yu Zhang; Lei Jiang; Zu-cheng Wu

2011-01-01

9

Summary of Large-and Small-Scale Unreinforced Masonry Test Program  

SciTech Connect

A five-year, large- and small-scale, static and dynamic experimental research program, in which more than 700 tests were conducted, has demonstrated that unreinforced masonry infills are more ductile and resist lateral loads more effectively than anticipated by conventional code procedures. The tests were conducted both in the laboratory and on existing structures at the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex. The experimental data indicate that the combination of a steel frame and infill material efficiently resists lateral loads--the infilling provides significant lateral stiffness while the surrounding frame adds ductility and confinement to the overall system. The results from approximately 25 moderate- and full-scale tests on infills showed that with simulated seismic loads, the frames confined the masonry, and the load-carrying capacity of the infill was considerably above the load that caused initial cracking. This finding was a significant departure from classical code approaches that assumed first cracking to be failure of an unreinforced masonry wall. The experimental program, performed for the US Department of Energy, consisted of the following large-scale tests on infills: in situ airbag pressure testing, shake-table tests, and the application of quasi-static in-plane and out-of-plane drift loads. This paper provides a summary of the overall experimental methodology and results.

Fricke, K.E.

2002-06-28

10

Role of the INTERBALL small scale investigations in the GGS program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strategy of satellites and subsatellites separation in the INTERBALL project, which will study the majority of regions responsible for dynamics of the entire magnetosphere-ionosphere system, is discussed. The distribution of the satellites involved, that is the TAIL and AURORAL probes and their subsatellites, is based on both the scientific goals and the minimum fuel consumption request. Their distribution within the frame of the Global Geospace Science program, which will study the Earth's magnetosphere with a multisatellite system, is discussed. Small scale phenomena, with a length of 1 to 1000 km, providing plasma mass and energy transports, are outlined, particularly for the magnetopause, auroral zone, plasma sheet boundary layer, and bow shock. The capabilities of the TAIL probe provide the unique opportunity to investigate phenomena with spatial scales less than 10 km. The separation of TAIL probe subsystem should be of the order of a few thousand km to allow the global correlative studies of the Earth's magnetosphere. The distance of the AURORAL probe subsystem should be altered from a few km to a few hundred km in order to provide correlative studies of the processes in the auroral region and in the outer magnetosphere.

Klimov, S.; Savin, S.; Nozdrachev, M.; Nikolaeva, N.; Mogilevsky, M.; Petrukovich, A.; Romanov, S.; Skalsky, A.; Blecki, J.; Juchniewicz, J.

1992-09-01

11

Laghu V Kutir Udyog (Small Scale Industries)in Hindi Langauge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Author: NIIR Board Format: Paperback ISBN: 8186623566 Code: NI90 Pages: 626 Price: Rs. 650.00 US$ 100.00 Publisher: National Institute of Industrial Research Usually ships within 3 days The identification of a suitable project within the investment limit of a new entrepreneur is very difficult. The present book strives to meet this specific entrepreneurial need. The book contains processes formulae, brief

Kamla Nagar

12

SpICE: A program to study small-scale disturbances in the ionosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionospheric disturbances observed by bottom-side soundings of the ionosphere appear at many temporal and spatial scales. Australia has many simultaneous observations from vertically orientated ionospheric sounders with spatial separations on the scale of 1000 km. However, with this spatial sampling only large scale ionospheric disturbances can be mapped and subsequently modeled. DSTO has an experimental program in progress to investigate the smaller spatial scale disturbances. These are often seen on vertical incidence soundings and are uncorrelated with soundings from greater than 500 km away. They can also be uncorrelated with soundings from the same site only 15 min later. The DSTO program to investigate these ionospheric disturbances is called SpICE, for Spatial Ionospheric Correlation Experiment. SpICE uses a small set of transmitters and receivers with varying separations to achieve a geographically spread set of near-vertical incidence ionospheric “reflection” points separated by 50-150 km, allowing us to probe disturbances at this spatial scale. Using the latest digital receiver technology we can collect amplitude and phase information from the ionospheric returns of the continuous wave transmissions of a nearby transmitter that is rapidly sweeping through the HF band. The returned signal is processed at a very high resolution to achieve good signal-to-noise complex ionograms at better than one-minute time updates. To date there have been three SpICE campaigns. This paper will discuss the SpICE program goals and highlight some of the unusual features observed in the first campaign. Following papers will look more closely at this data set and the subsequent campaigns.

Harris, T. J.; Cervera, M. A.; Meehan, D. H.

2012-06-01

13

Small-scale Interstellar Structure Toward the Open Cluster Chi Persei; Program ID: BO29 (Cycle 2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of this program was to obtain FUSE observations of the interstellar H2 absorption toward six early-type stars in the core of the open star cluster Chi Persei. High resolution optical observations of the interstellar Na I absorption toward these stars and others in the core of Chi Per have revealed a rich variety of small-scale diffuse ISM structure in both the distant Perseus and more local Orion spiral arms. At the 1 arc minute angular scales typically probed by the separations of these stars, this structure corresponds to respective physical length scales of 0.6 and 0.15 pc in the Perseus and Orion arm gas. The principal scientific goal of the FUSE observations was to determine if this small-scale Na I structure toward the core of Chi Per was reflected in the abundance and/or excitation of interstellar H2. In September 2001, we obtained FUSE observations of the Chi Per stars BD +56 563, BD +56 571, BD +56 573, BD +56 574, BD +56 575, and BD +56 578 for this program. The data reveal that the Perseus arm gas exhibits significant small-scale variations in the strength of its molecular hydrogen absorption while the Orion arm H2 absorption is relatively uniform. We presented these results at the January 2003 American Astronomical Society meeting in Seattle, WA (points, Meyer, Lauroesch, Nguyen, and Friedman 2002, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 34,1229). Since Na I is not a dominant ion in H I clouds, the variations detected in the Perseus arm Na I line profiles could be due to spatial differences in either the physical structure or the physical conditions in the gas. Although many of the H2 absorption profiles are too saturated or too weak to be definitive in this regard, it is clear that small-scale variations are present in H2 gas with excitation as high as the J=4 rotational level. In contrast, lower spatial resolution H I 21 cm studies of the Perseus arm gas across the face of the h and Chi Per double cluster have shown smoother, continuous variations on the larger scale. In order to investigate if the global velocity structure of H2 toward h and Chi Per more closely follows the chaotic structure seen in interstellar Na I absorption or the smoother, continuous H I structure, we have expanded our FUSE study with a Cycle 4 program (D902, PI: Points) to survey the H2 absorption toward a number of other stars across the face of the double cluster. We have obtained FUSE spectra of 14 additional h and Chi Per stars through this program and are now combining all of the data into a comprehensive study that will be submitted for publication next year.

Meyer, David M.

2004-01-01

14

Effect of Fuel Gas Composition and Excess Air on VOC Emissions from a Small-Scale, Industrial-Style Burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Furnace-out emissions of benzene, toluene, cthylbenzene, and the xylenes have been measured for a research-grade, industrial-style diffusion flame burner operating under well-controlled conditions representative of refinery process heaters. Flame structure was also evaluated by means of visible emission imaging. Excess air was varied from 50% to sub-stoichiometric, The fuels were methane and blends of methane, hydrogen, and propane used to

C. F. Edwards; P. J. Goix

1996-01-01

15

DOE small-scale hydroelectric demonstration program. F. W. E. Stapenhorst, Inc., Goodyear Lake hydroelectric-generating-station redevelopment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monthly and year long data on the performance, maintenance, power generation, flow conditions, and operating costs during the period from August 11, 1981 to August 10, 1982 at the Goodyear Lake (New York) small-scale hydroelectric power plant are presented. During this period the plant generated 5,806,500 kWh of power for a total income of $194.401, which represents approximately 79% of predicted values. The shortfall in output resulted from the failure of Generator Unit No. 1 which was out of operation for two months.

1982-07-01

16

A general technoeconomic and environmental procedure for assessment of small-scale cogeneration scheme installations: Application to a local industry operating in Thrace, Greece, using microturbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper describes a proposed general systematic procedure for small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) exploitation (where “small-scale CHP” refers to CHP installations with electric capacities up to 1MW). The mentioned systematic procedure is implemented through a developed computer code and may be applied to any such small-scale project in order to assess its suitability based on technoeconomic and

P. A. Katsigiannis; D. P. Papadopoulos

2005-01-01

17

Small scale windmill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this letter the authors report experimental results on an optimized small scale piezoelectric windmill, which can solve the problems associated with autonomous sensor networks in outdoor, remote or inaccessible locations. The whole structure of the windmill is made of plastic, and it utilizes 18 piezoelectric bimorphs which makes this design extremely cost effective. The windmill was tested at average wind speed of 10 miles/h and it provided 5 mW continuous power. The threshold wind speed for the windmill was found to be of the order of 5.4 miles/h. Further, the authors present analysis on two other windmill structures which illustrate the design parameters required for small scale windmill.

Myers, Robert; Vickers, Mike; Kim, Hyeoungwoo; Priya, Shashank

2007-01-01

18

Small-Scale Propulsion for Jump Augmentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program was an examination of the feasibility of providing small-scale propulsion systems to provide power and propulsion assistance for soldiers, especially to offer a capability for extended vertical leap with heavy combat weights. The concept unde...

M. J. Lewis D. Beksinski P. White

2001-01-01

19

Small Scale Irrigation Systems: A Training Manual. Planning--Construction--Operation and Maintenance of Small Scale Irrigation Systems. A Two-Week In-Service Training Program for Peace Corps Volunteers. Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-13.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides materials for a two-week inservice training program for Peace Corps volunteers on the planning, construction, and operation and maintenance of small-scale irrigation systems. The workshop is designed to be given by two experienced professionals: one with practical knowledge of irrigation system design, operation, and…

Development Planning and Research Associates, Inc., Manhattan, KS.

20

Small-scale test program to develop a more efficient swivel nozzle thrust deflector for V/STOL lift/cruise engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The installed performance degradation of a swivel nozzle thrust deflector system obtained during increased vectoring angles of a large-scale test program was investigated and improved. Small-scale models were used to generate performance data for analyzing selected swivel nozzle configurations. A single-swivel nozzle design model with five different nozzle configurations and a twin-swivel nozzle design model, scaled to 0.15 size of the large-scale test hardware, were statically tested at low exhaust pressure ratios of 1.4, 1.3, 1.2, and 1.1 and vectored at four nozzle positions from 0 deg cruise through 90 deg vertical used for the VTOL mode.

Schlundt, D. W.

1976-01-01

21

Goodyear Lake Hydroelectric Generating Station redevelopment final construction and cost report. DOE small-scale hydroelectric demonstration program  

SciTech Connect

This project is one of the US Department of Energy's original seven low-head hydroelectric demonstration projects. The demonstration project was initiated by the release of a Program Opportunity Notice (PON) ET-78-N-07-1711 dated November 1, 1978. The purpose for the demonstration is to show the feasibility of small hydroelectric power development projects at a number of existing dam sites across the country. The Goodyear Lake Power Station provided an excellent example of the redevelopment of a discontinued low-head hydroelectric facility. The dam and power station were previously owned by the New York State Electric and Gas Corporation. Prior to F.W.E. Stapenhorst's involvement, it was the Utility's intention to breach the dam and dewater the lake. In order to rehabilitate the power station, title was transferred to F.W.E. Stapenhorst Inc., upon finalization of a Power Agreement (whereby F.W.E. Stapenhorst Inc. would sell the power generated to New York State Electric and Gas Corporation) and issuance of the FERC license. The station, as renovated, is fully automatic and utilizes two Ossberger Cross-Flow type turbines - turbines which, due to their flat efficiency curve, are well suited for small rivers and streams where the flow varies over a wide range. Both technical and financial feasibility of the project were carefully analyzed prior to the commencement of the project. The US Department of Energy awarded a cooperative agreement whereby DOE would share $245,000 of the project costs. The Goodyear Lake Station was the first demonstration project under the auspices of the Department of Energy to achieve power-on-line and to be officially dedicated.

Not Available

1982-01-01

22

Small scale sanitation technologies.  

PubMed

Small scale systems can improve the sustainability of sanitation systems as they more easily close the water and nutrient loops. They also provide alternate solutions to centrally managed large scale infrastructures. Appropriate sanitation provision can improve the lives of people with inadequate sanitation through health benefits, reuse products as well as reduce ecological impacts. In the literature there seems to be no compilation of a wide range of available onsite sanitation systems around the world that encompasses black and greywater treatment plus stand-alone dry and urine separation toilet systems. Seventy technologies have been identified and classified according to the different waste source streams. Sub-classification based on major treatment methods included aerobic digestion, composting and vermicomposting, anaerobic digestion, sand/soil/peat filtration and constructed wetlands. Potential users or suppliers of sanitation systems can choose from wide range of technologies available and examine the different treatment principles used in the technologies. Sanitation systems need to be selected according to the local social, economic and environmental conditions and should aim to be sustainable. PMID:16104403

Green, W; Ho, G

2005-01-01

23

INDUSTRIAL ASSESSMENT CENTER PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect

Since its establishment in 1990, San Diego State University’s Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) has served close to 400 small and medium-sized manufacturing plants in Southern California. SDSU/IAC’s efforts to transfer state-of-the-art technologies to industry have increased revenues, cultivated creativity, improved efficiencies, and benefited the environment. A substantial benefit from the program has been the ongoing training of engineering faculty and students. During this funding cycle, SDSU/IAC has trained 31 students, 7 of the graduate. A total of 92 assessments and 108 assessment days were completed, resulting in 638 assessment recommendations.

ASFAW BEYENE

2008-09-29

24

General patterns of niche construction and the management of 'wild' plant and animal resources by small-scale pre-industrial societies  

PubMed Central

Niche construction efforts by small-scale human societies that involve ‘wild’ species of plants and animals are organized into a set of six general categories based on the shared characteristics of the target species and similar patterns of human management and manipulation: (i) general modification of vegetation communities, (ii) broadcast sowing of wild annuals, (iii) transplantation of perennial fruit-bearing species, (iv) in-place encouragement of economically important perennials, (v) transplantation and in-place encouragement of perennial root crops, and (vi) landscape modification to increase prey abundance in specific locations. Case study examples, mostly drawn from North America, are presented for each of the six general categories of human niche construction. These empirically documented categories of ecosystem engineering form the basis for a predictive model that outlines potential general principles and commonalities in how small-scale human societies worldwide have modified and manipulated their ‘natural’ landscapes throughout the Holocene.

Smith, Bruce D.

2011-01-01

25

Industrial cogeneration optimization program  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this program was to identify up to 10 good near-term opportunities for cogeneration in 5 major energy-consuming industries which produce food, textiles, paper, chemicals, and refined petroleum; select, characterize, and optimize cogeneration systems for these identified opportunities to achieve maximum energy savings for minimum investment using currently available components of cogenerating systems; and to identify technical, institutional, and regulatory obstacles hindering the use of industrial cogeneration systems. The analysis methods used and results obtained are described. Plants with fuel demands from 100,000 Btu/h to 3 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h were considered. It was concluded that the major impediments to industrial cogeneration are financial, e.g., high capital investment and high charges by electric utilities during short-term cogeneration facility outages. In the plants considered an average energy savings from cogeneration of 15 to 18% compared to separate generation of process steam and electric power was calculated. On a national basis for the 5 industries considered, this extrapolates to saving 1.3 to 1.6 quads per yr or between 630,000 to 750,000 bbl/d of oil. Properly applied, federal activity can do much to realize a substantial fraction of this potential by lowering the barriers to cogeneration and by stimulating wider implementation of this technology. (LCL)

Not Available

1980-01-01

26

SMALL SCALE ETHANOL DRYING - PHASE II  

EPA Science Inventory

This program exceeded all key milestones. Using cellulose Waste, CMS demonstrated novel ethanol drying membranes via small scale dephlegmation process that yields fuel grade ethanol (FGE) at a lower cost than large switch grass ethanol plants. This success yields positive valu...

27

Small-Scale Fisheries Bycatch Jeopardizes Endangered Pacific Loggerhead Turtles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Although bycatch of industrial-scale fisheries can cause declines in migratory megafauna including seabirds, marine mammals, and sea turtles, the impacts of small-scale fisheries have been largely overlooked. Small-scale fisheries occur in coastal waters worldwide, employing over 99% of the world's 51 million fishers. New telemetry data reveal that migratory megafauna frequent coastal habitats well within the range of small-scale

S. Hoyt Peckham; David Maldonado Diaz; Andreas Walli; Georgita Ruiz; Larry B. Crowder; Wallace J. Nichols

2007-01-01

28

Small-Scale Hydropower Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers several aspects of small-scale hydropower systems. The topics covered are: head and flow; waterwheels; impulse and reaction turbines; feasibility and practicality; environmental impact; and economics. 24 refs., 5 figs. (ERA citation 14:...

1988-01-01

29

Balancing stocks, flexible recipe costs and high service level requirements in a batch process industry: A study of a small scale model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process industries often obtain their raw materials from mining or agricultural industries. These raw materials usually have variations in quality which often lead to variations in the recipes used for manufacturing a product. Another reason for varying the recipe is to minimize production costs by using the cheapest materials that still lead to a satisfactory quality in the product. A

W. G. M. M. Rutten; J. W. M. Bertrand

1998-01-01

30

Industrial Development Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Target industry groups identified and pursued include electronics, mobile home manufacture, aerospace, and basalt fiber production. In addition, inquiries from other types of industry were answered and followed-up and basic research data was developed. A ...

1979-01-01

31

Accreditation of Industrial Engineering Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guidelines used in the accreditation of industrial engineering programs are discussed. Changes that have taken place in engineering curriculum are described, along with the philosophy of educators in formulating industrial engineering program requirements in the areas of faculty, facilities, curriculum, administration, and scholastic work.…

Brooks, George H.

32

AVLIS industrial access program  

SciTech Connect

This document deals with the procurements planned for the construction of an Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) production plant. Several large-scale AVLIS facilities have already been built and tested; a full-scale engineering demonstration facility is currently under construction. The experience gained from these projects provides the procurement basis for the production plant construction and operation. In this document, the status of the AVLIS process procurement is presented from two viewpoints. The AVLIS Production Plant Work Breakdown Structure is referenced at the level of the items to be procured. The availability of suppliers for the items at this level is discussed. In addition, the work that will result from the AVLIS enrichment plant project is broken down by general procurement categories (construction, mechanical equipment, etc.) and the current AVLIS suppliers are listed according to these categories. A large number of companies in all categories are currently providing AVLIS equipment for the Full-Scale Demonstration Facility in Livermore, California. These companies form an existing and expanding supplier network for the AVLIS program. Finally, this document examines the relationship between the AVLIS construction project/operational facility and established commercial suppliers. The goal is to utilize existing industrial capability to meet the needs of the project in a competitive procurement situation. As a result, costs and procurement risks are both reduced because the products provided come from within the AVLIS suppliers' experience base. At the same time, suppliers can benefit by the potential to participate in AVLIS technology spin-off markets. 35 figures.

Not Available

1984-11-15

33

Goodyear Lake Hydroelectric Generating Station redevelopment. First annual report: operating year 1, August 11, 1980-August 10, 1981. DOE Small-Scale Hydroelectric Demonstration Program  

SciTech Connect

The first year of operation of the Goodyear Lake small-scale hydro plant near Oneonta, NY is reported with monthly data for August 1980 through July 1981 on power generated, operating costs, income generated, and maintenance requirements. Due to the dryest year in living memory in the area with an average flow of 60% of the mean flow for the past 20 years, the plant produced on 3,886,050 kWh versus an estimated 7,500,000 kWh. Actual operating costs were $89,011 as compared with an estimate of $99,840. (LCL)

Not Available

1981-01-01

34

Industry Studies Program: Clipping Service.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Industry Studies Program at Boston University has compiled a collection of news clippings relating to industrial organization. The clippings, obtained from public news sources such as the New York Times and CNN, cover topics such as antitrust, health, telecommunications and finance.

Yi, Rong.

1998-01-01

35

Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

Gleeson, L.

1991-12-01

36

Accrediting industrial safety training programs  

SciTech Connect

There are job-specific training requirements established by regulations that Impose stringent training requirements on a contractor, for example, the Occupational Safety Health Act (OSHA). Failure to comply with OSHA training requirements can result in severe penalties being levied against a company. Although an accredited training program is expensive, it is a possible solution for minimizing risks associated with job-specific training requirements for employees. Operating DOE contractors direct approximately 10 percent of the operating funds toward training activities. Training needs for contractors span a broad range, from requirements awareness training for managers, to general training required on a one-time basis for all employees, to highly specialized training programs for employees involved In clean-up operations at hazardous waste sites. With this kind of an investment in training, it is logical to maximize the most return on an investment of training funds and to limit exposure to liability suits whenever possible. This presentation will provide an overview of accredited industrial safety programs. The criteria for accredited industrial safety programs will be defined. The question of whether accredited training programs are necessary will be examined. Finally, advantages and disadvantages will be identified for accrediting industrial safety training programs.

Beitel, L.

1992-01-01

37

Accrediting industrial safety training programs  

SciTech Connect

There are job-specific training requirements established by regulations that Impose stringent training requirements on a contractor, for example, the Occupational Safety & Health Act (OSHA). Failure to comply with OSHA training requirements can result in severe penalties being levied against a company. Although an accredited training program is expensive, it is a possible solution for minimizing risks associated with job-specific training requirements for employees. Operating DOE contractors direct approximately 10 percent of the operating funds toward training activities. Training needs for contractors span a broad range, from requirements awareness training for managers, to general training required on a one-time basis for all employees, to highly specialized training programs for employees involved In clean-up operations at hazardous waste sites. With this kind of an investment in training, it is logical to maximize the most return on an investment of training funds and to limit exposure to liability suits whenever possible. This presentation will provide an overview of accredited industrial safety programs. The criteria for accredited industrial safety programs will be defined. The question of whether accredited training programs are necessary will be examined. Finally, advantages and disadvantages will be identified for accrediting industrial safety training programs.

Beitel, L.

1992-12-31

38

ACS Proposes Industrial Internship Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Chemical Society has proposed a federal program which would enable 1500 unemployed chemists and chemical engineers possessing master's or higher degrees to serve from one to two years as interns in industrial research and development installations. (Author/TS)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

1972-01-01

39

The Effectiveness of Videotape Programs as a Communication Tool in the Small-Scale Livestock for Rural Farming Women Project, Honduras.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines economic development in Third World countries and the use of portable video systems in development projects. The study, conducted in 1985, attempts to measure the level of effectiveness of videotape programs as a communication tool for training rural subsistence women in Honduras in technical aspects of pig-keeping. Classical…

Johnson-Dean, Lynn

40

Small-Scale Fisheries Bycatch Jeopardizes Endangered Pacific Loggerhead Turtles  

PubMed Central

Background Although bycatch of industrial-scale fisheries can cause declines in migratory megafauna including seabirds, marine mammals, and sea turtles, the impacts of small-scale fisheries have been largely overlooked. Small-scale fisheries occur in coastal waters worldwide, employing over 99% of the world's 51 million fishers. New telemetry data reveal that migratory megafauna frequent coastal habitats well within the range of small-scale fisheries, potentially producing high bycatch. These fisheries occur primarily in developing nations, and their documentation and management are limited or non-existent, precluding evaluation of their impacts on non-target megafauna. Principal Findings/Methodology 30 North Pacific loggerhead turtles that we satellite-tracked from 1996–2005 ranged oceanwide, but juveniles spent 70% of their time at a high use area coincident with small-scale fisheries in Baja California Sur, Mexico (BCS). We assessed loggerhead bycatch mortality in this area by partnering with local fishers to 1) observe two small-scale fleets that operated closest to the high use area and 2) through shoreline surveys for discarded carcasses. Minimum annual bycatch mortality in just these two fleets at the high use area exceeded 1000 loggerheads year?1, rivaling that of oceanwide industrial-scale fisheries, and threatening the persistence of this critically endangered population. As a result of fisher participation in this study and a bycatch awareness campaign, a consortium of local fishers and other citizens are working to eliminate their bycatch and to establish a national loggerhead refuge. Conclusions/Significance Because of the overlap of ubiquitous small-scale fisheries with newly documented high-use areas in coastal waters worldwide, our case study suggests that small-scale fisheries may be among the greatest current threats to non-target megafauna. Future research is urgently needed to quantify small-scale fisheries bycatch worldwide. Localizing coastal high use areas and mitigating bycatch in partnership with small-scale fishers may provide a crucial solution toward ensuring the persistence of vulnerable megafauna.

Peckham, S. Hoyt; Diaz, David Maldonado; Walli, Andreas; Ruiz, Georgita; Crowder, Larry B.; Nichols, Wallace J.

2007-01-01

41

Small Scale Variants of the AES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we deflne small scale variants of the AES. These variants inherit the design features of the AES and provide a suitable framework for comparing difierent cryptanalytic methods. In particular, we provide some preliminary results and insights when using ofi-the- shelf computational algebra techniques to solve the systems of equations arising from these small scale variants.

Carlos Cid; Sean Murphy; Matthew J. B. Robshaw

2005-01-01

42

Small scale structure on cosmic strings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current understanding of cosmic string evolution is discussed, and the focus placed on the question of small scale structure on strings, where most of the disagreements lie. A physical picture designed to put the role of the small scale structure into more intuitive terms is presented. In this picture it can be seen how the small scale structure can feed back in a major way on the overall scaling solution. It is also argued that it is easy for small scale numerical errors to feed back in just such a way. The intuitive discussion presented here may form the basis for an analytic treatment of the small scale structure, which argued in any case would be extremely valuable in filling the gaps in the present understanding of cosmic string evolution.

Albrecht, Andreas

1989-01-01

43

Small Scale Beekeeping. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to assist Peace Corps volunteers in the development and implementation of small-scale beekeeping programs as a tool for development. Addressed in the individual chapters are bees and humans; project planning; the types and habits of bees; the essence of beekeeping; bee space and beehives; intermediate technology beekeeping;…

Gentry, Curtis

44

Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Water Projects. Guidelines for Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is the second volume in a series of publications on community development programs. Guidelines are suggested for small-scale water projects that would benefit segments of the world's urban or rural poor. Strategies in project planning, implementation and evaluation are presented that emphasize environmental conservation and promote…

Tillman, Gus

45

Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Energy Projects. Guidelines for Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is the fourth volume in a series of publications that provide information for the planning of environmentally sound small-scale projects. Programs that aim to protect the renewable natural resources that supply most of the energy used in developing nations are suggested. Considerations are made for physical environmental factors as…

Bassan, Elizabeth Ann; Wood, Timothy S., Ed.

46

Small scale bipolar nickel-hydrogen testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, ranging in capacity from 6 to 40 A-hr, have been tested at the NASA Lewis Research Center over the past six years. Small scale tests of 1 A-hr nickel-hydrogen stacks have been initiated as a means of screening design and component variations for bipolar nickel-hydrogen cells and batteries. Four small-scale batteries have been built and tested. Characterization and limited cycle testing were performed to establish the validity of test results in the scaled down hardware. The results show characterization test results to be valid. LEO test results in the small scale hardware have limited value.

Manzo, Michelle A.

1988-01-01

47

Method and system for small scale pumping  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates generally to the field of small scale pumping and, more specifically, to a method and system for very small scale pumping media through microtubes. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for small scale pumping, comprising the following steps: providing one or more media; providing one or more microtubes, the one or more tubes having a first end and a second end, wherein said first end of one or more tubes is in contact with the media; and creating surface waves on the tubes, wherein at least a portion of the media is pumped through the tube.

Insepov, Zeke (Darien, IL); Hassanein, Ahmed (Bolingbrook, IL)

2010-01-26

48

Industrial Technology Programs: The Influence of Industry on Program Revision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents data collected concerning concepts and skills which should be emphasized in the general academic curriculum and in the industrial technology curriculum, recommended minor fields of study for industrial technology majors, characteristics of successful employees, and present and future professional industrial employment needs in the…

Kozak, Michael R.; Richards, John V.

1981-01-01

49

Small-Scale Processing of Fish.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This technical memorandum covers, in detail, technologies that are suitable for the small-scale processing of fish: that is, drying, salting, smoking, boiling and fermenting. Enough information is given about the technologies to meet most of the needs of ...

1982-01-01

50

Small-scale explosive welding of aluminum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Welding technique uses very small quantities of explosive ribbon to accomplish small-scale lap-welding of aluminum plates. Technique can perform small controlled welding with no length limitations and requires minimal protective shielding.

Bement, L. J.

1972-01-01

51

Small scale structure on cosmic strings  

SciTech Connect

I discuss our current understanding of cosmic string evolution, and focus on the question of small scale structure on strings, where most of the disagreements lie. I present a physical picture designed to put the role of the small scale structure into more intuitive terms. In this picture one can see how the small scale structure can feed back in a major way on the overall scaling solution. I also argue that it is easy for small scale numerical errors to feed back in just such a way. The intuitive discussion presented here may form the basis for an analytic treatment of the small structure, which I argue in any case would be extremely valuable in filling the gaps in our resent understanding of cosmic string evolution. 24 refs., 8 figs.

Albrecht, A.

1989-10-30

52

Small-scale irradiated fuel electrorefining  

SciTech Connect

In support of the metallic fuel cycle development for the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), a small scale electrorefiner was built and operated in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at Argonne National Laboratory-West. The initial purpose of this apparatus was to test the single segment dissolution of irradiated metallic fuel via either direct dissolution in cadmium or anodic dissolution. These tests showed that 99.95% of the uranium and 99.99% of the plutonium was dissolved and separated from the fuel cladding material. The fate of various fission products was also measured. After the dissolution experiments, the apparatus was upgraded to stady fission product behavior during uranium electrotransport. Preliminary decontamination factors were estimated for different fission products under different processing conditions. Later modifications have added the following capabilities: Dissolution of multiple fuel segments simultaneously, electrotransport to a solid cathode or liquid cathode and actinide recovery with a chemical reduction crucible. These capabilities have been tested with unirradiated uranium-zirconium fuel and will support the Fuel Cycle Demonstration program.

Benedict, R.W.; Krsul, J.R.; Mariani, R.D.; Park, K.; Teske, G.M.

1993-09-01

53

Coordinated Textile Industry Noise Reduction Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The progress between April 1974 and October 1977 of a noise reduction program for the textile industry was reviewed. The goals of the program included: collecting noise control information and data on effective noise control measures; conducting noise con...

1978-01-01

54

The Phenomenology of Small-Scale Turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I have sometimes thought that what makes a man's work classic is often just this multiplicity [of interpretations], which invites and at the same time resists our craving for a clear understanding. Wright (1982, p. 34), on Wittgenstein's philosophy Small-scale turbulence has been an area of especially active research in the recent past, and several useful research directions have been pursued. Here, we selectively review this work. The emphasis is on scaling phenomenology and kinematics of small-scale structure. After providing a brief introduction to the classical notions of universality due to Kolmogorov and others, we survey the existing work on intermittency, refined similarity hypotheses, anomalous scaling exponents, derivative statistics, intermittency models, and the structure and kinematics of small-scale structure - the latter aspect coming largely from the direct numerical simulation of homogeneous turbulence in a periodic box.

Sreenivasan, K. R.; Antonia, R. A.

55

Industrial engine integrated program plan -- Task 7  

SciTech Connect

This is the integrated program plan for the task to define and develop an engine program that will develop and demonstrate the overall objectives of the Advance Turbine Program as outlined for Task 3. For the engine configuration of Task 6, General Electric has identified a program which would lead to the demonstration of an ATS Industrial system which could possibly achieve the program goals for efficiency, emissions and costs.

NONE

1997-05-01

56

Geologic utility of small-scale airphotos  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geologic value of small scale airphotos is emphasized by describing the application of high altitude oblique and 1:120,000 to 1:145,000 scale vertical airphotos to several geologic problems in California. These examples show that small-scale airphotos can be of use to geologists in the following ways: (1) high altitude, high oblique airphotos show vast areas in one view; and (2) vertical airphotos offer the most efficient method of discovering the major topographic features and structural and lithologic characteristics of terrain.

Clark, M. M.

1969-01-01

57

Industrial Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains vocational education program course standards for exploratory courses, practical arts courses, and job preparatory programs offered at the secondary and postsecondary level as part of the industrial education component in Florida. Curriculum frameworks are provided for 144 programs/clusters; representative topics are as…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Applied Tech., Adult, and Community Education.

58

SMALL SCALE BIOMASS FUELED GAS TURBINE ENGINE  

EPA Science Inventory

A new generation of small scale (less than 20 MWe) biomass fueled, power plants are being developed based on a gas turbine (Brayton cycle) prime mover. These power plants are expected to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of generating power from fuels such as wood. The n...

59

IAPSA 2 small-scale system specification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The details of a hardware implementation of a representative small scale flight critical system is described using Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) building block components and simulated sensor/actuator interfaces. The system was used to study application performance and reliability issues during both normal and faulted operation.

Cohen, Gerald C.; Torkelson, Thomas C.

1990-01-01

60

Small-Scale Distributions of Oceanic Diatoms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A sampling study was designed to investigate small-scale abundance fluctuations of diatoms over a distance of 10 miles. It was carried out at three depths in each of two oceanic environments of the North Pacific. Significant nonrandom distributions were o...

E. L. Venrick

1971-01-01

61

Small-scale coronal structure, part 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent observations and models pertaining specifically to solar coronal bright points (BPs) and generally to small-scale coronal structure are reviewed. Two questions were addressed: What is the degree of correspondence among various alleged signatures of BPs at different levels of atmosphere and what can PBs tell about the emerging flux spectrum of the sun?

Webb, David F.

1986-01-01

62

The Genetic Programming of Industrial Microorganisms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the development of the field of industrial microbial genetics, describing a range of techniques for genetic programing. Includes a discussion of site-directed mutagenesis, protoplast fusion, and recombinant DNA manipulations. (CS)

Hopwood, David A.

1981-01-01

63

Industrial Recruitment Program for American Samoa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project was undertaken to strengthen American Samoa's industrial recruitment program in response to rising world economic competition; to raise American Samoa's profile in the competition; to permit American Samoa's fully participate in future U.S.-Pa...

1987-01-01

64

Small-Scale Solar Magnetic Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

As we resolve ever smaller structures in the solar atmosphere, it has become clear that magnetism is an important component\\u000a of those small structures. Small-scale magnetism holds the key to many poorly understood facets of solar magnetism on all\\u000a scales, such as the existence of a local dynamo, chromospheric heating, and flux emergence, to name a few. Here, we review

A. G. de Wijn; J. O. Stenflo; S. K. Solanki; S. Tsuneta

2009-01-01

65

Creating Tech Programs Industry Wants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community colleges serve on the front line of workforce development. With their focus on applied science associate degrees and technical certificate programs, they provide students with a high-quality, low-cost education that prepares them for careers in one to two years. And for students who can't take time away from their family or work to…

Demski, Jennifer

2012-01-01

66

Energy Industry Powers CTE Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Michael Fields is a recent graduate of Buckeye Union High School in Buckeye, Arizona. Fields is enrolled in the Estrella Mountain Community College (EMCC) Get Into Energy program, which means he is well on his way to a promising career. Specializing in power plant technology, in two years he will earn a certificate that will all but guarantee a…

Khokhar, Amy

2012-01-01

67

Classification of wetlands vegetation using small scale color infrared imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A classification system for Chesapeake Bay wetlands was derived from the correlation of film density classes and actual vegetation classes. The data processing programs used were developed by the Laboratory for the Applications of Remote Sensing. These programs were tested for their value in classifying natural vegetation, using digitized data from small scale aerial photography. Existing imagery and the vegetation map of Farm Creek Marsh were used to determine the optimal number of classes, and to aid in determining if the computer maps were a believable product.

Williamson, F. S. L.

1975-01-01

68

Industrial energy-efficiency-improvement program  

SciTech Connect

Progress made by industry toward attaining the voluntary 1980 energy efficiency improvement targets is reported. The mandatory reporting population has been expanded from ten original industries to include ten additional non-targeted industries and all corporations using over one trillion Btu's annually in any manufacturing industry. The ten most energy intensive industries have been involved in the reporting program since the signing of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act and as industrial energy efficiency improvement overview, based primarily on information from these industries (chemicals and allied products; primary metal industry; petroleum and coal products; stone, clay, and glass products; paper and allied products; food and kindred products; fabricated metal products; transportation equipment; machinery, except electrical; and textile mill products), is presented. Reports from industries, now required to report, are included for rubber and miscellaneous plastics; electrical and electronic equipment; lumber and wood; and tobacco products. Additional data from voluntary submissions are included for American Gas Association; American Hotel and Motel Association; General Telephone and Electronics Corporation; and American Telephone and Telegraph Company. (MCW)

Not Available

1980-12-01

69

Small-Scale High-Performance Optics  

SciTech Connect

Historically, high resolution, high slew rate optics have been heavy, bulky, and expensive. Recent advances in MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) technology and micro-machining may change this. Specifically, the advent of steerable sub-millimeter sized mirror arrays could provide the breakthrough technology for producing very small-scale high-performance optical systems. For example, an array of steerable MEMS mirrors could be the building blocks for a Fresnel mirror of controllable focal length and direction of view. When coupled with a convex parabolic mirror the steerable array could realize a micro-scale pan, tilt and zoom system that provides full CCD sensor resolution over the desired field of view with no moving parts (other than MEMS elements). This LDRD provided the first steps towards the goal of a new class of small-scale high-performance optics based on MEMS technology. A large-scale, proof of concept system was built to demonstrate the effectiveness of an optical configuration applicable to producing a small-scale (< 1cm) pan and tilt imaging system. This configuration consists of a color CCD imager with a narrow field of view lens, a steerable flat mirror, and a convex parabolic mirror. The steerable flat mirror directs the camera's narrow field of view to small areas of the convex mirror providing much higher pixel density in the region of interest than is possible with a full 360 deg. imaging system. Improved image correction (dewarping) software based on texture mapping images to geometric solids was developed. This approach takes advantage of modern graphics hardware and provides a great deal of flexibility for correcting images from various mirror shapes. An analytical evaluation of blur spot size and axi-symmetric reflector optimization were performed to address depth of focus issues that occurred in the proof of concept system. The resulting equations will provide the tools for developing future system designs.

WILSON, CHRISTOPHER W.; LEGER, CHRIS L.; SPLETZER, BARRY L.

2002-06-01

70

GAS INDUSTRY GROUNDWATER RESEARCH PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the research described in this report was to provide data and insights that will enable the natural gas industry to (1) significantly improve the assessment of subsurface glycol-related contamination at sites where it is known or suspected to have occurred and (2) make scientifically valid decisions concerning the management and/or remediation of that contamination. The described research was focused on subsurface transport and fate issues related to triethylene glycol (TEG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and ethylene glycol (EG). TEG and DEG were selected for examination because they are used in a vast majority of gas dehydration units, and EG was chosen because it is currently under regulatory scrutiny as a drinking water pollutant. Because benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (collectively referred to as BTEX) compounds are often very closely associated with glycols used in dehydration processes, the research necessarily included assessing cocontaminant effects on waste mobility and biodegradation. BTEX hydrocarbons are relatively water-soluble and, because of their toxicity, are of regulatory concern. Although numerous studies have investigated the fate of BTEX, and significant evidence exists to indicate the potential biodegradability of BTEX in both aerobic and anaerobic environments (Kazumi and others, 1997; Krumholz and others, 1996; Lovely and others, 1995; Gibson and Subramanian, 1984), relatively few investigations have convincingly demonstrated in situ biodegradation of these hydrocarbons (Gieg and others, 1999), and less work has been done on investigating the fate of BTEX species in combination with miscible glycols. To achieve the research objectives, laboratory studies were conducted to (1) characterize glycol related dehydration wastes, with emphasis on identification and quantitation of coconstituent organics associated with TEG and EG wastes obtained from dehydration units located in the United States and Canada, (2) evaluate the biodegradability of TEG and DEG under conditions relevant to subsurface environments and representative of natural attenuation processes, and (3) examine the possibility that high concentrations of glycol may act as a cosolvent for BTEX compounds, thereby enhancing their subsurface mobility. To encompass a wide variety of potential wastes representative of different natural gas streams and dehydration processes, raw, rich, and lean glycol solutions were collected from 12 dehydration units at eight different gas-processing facilities located at sites in Texas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Alberta. To generate widely applicable environmental fate data, biodegradation and mobility experiments were performed using four distinctly different soils: three obtained from three gas-producing areas of North America (New Mexico, Louisiana, and Alberta), and one obtained from a North Dakota wetland to represent a soil with high organic matter content.

James A. Sorensen; John R. Gallagher; Steven B. Hawthorne; Ted R. Aulich

2000-10-01

71

Small-scale physics of the ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations and theoretical models of small-scale phenomena in the oceans are reviewed, with a focus on progress during the period 1983-1986. Topics examined include surface layers, equatorial turbulence, off-equator mixed layers, the scaling of mixing, turbulence concepts, laboratory results, internal waves and mixing, rings, the nature of the bottom layer, double diffusion and intrusions, salt fingers, and biological interactions. Also discussed are developments in instrumentation (fast sampling profilers with upward-profiling capability, deep profilers, ship-motion correction, horizontal samplers, small submersibles, submarines, towed packages, conductivity sensors, dissolved-oxygen sensors, and acoustic Doppler current profilers) and goals for future research.

Caldwell, Douglas R.

1987-01-01

72

DOE small-scale hydroelectric demonstration program. F. W. E. Stapenhorst Inc. , Goodyear Lake hydroelectric-generating-station redevelopment. Second annual report, operating year 2, August 11, 1981-August 10, 1982  

SciTech Connect

Monthly and year-long data are presented on the performance, maintenance, power generation, flow conditions, and operating costs during the period from August 11, 1981 to August 10, 1982 at the Goodyear Lake (New York) small-scale hydroelectric power plant. During this period the plant generated 5,806,500 kWh of power for a total income of $194,401, which represents approximately 79% of predicted values. The shortfall in output resulted from the failure of Generator Unit No. 1 which was out of operation for two months. (LCL)

Not Available

1982-01-01

73

METHODS FOR ASSESSING THE RESOURCES AVAILABLE TO SMALL-SCALE FISHERIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of the resources available to small-scale fisheries is necessary to provide information for those taking-decisions that can affect the fishery. Because of the diffuse nature and complexity of species compo- sition of many small-scale fisheries, traditional methods of gathering and interpreting data, which were developed for industrial-scale fisheries, are difficult to apply. Special methods are described for collection of

R. L. Welcomme; J. A. Gulland

74

Expanded Small-Scale Shock Reactivity Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosives react from a strong shock, even in quantities too small for detonation. The potential for a new material to be an explosive can be evaluated from this shock reactivity. The recently developed small-scale shock reactivity test (SSRT)ootnotetextH. W. Sandusky, R. H. Granholm, D. G. Bohl, ``Small-Scale Shock Reactivity Test,'' NSWC Technical Report (in publication), Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head, MD 20640 uses very high confinement to allow prompt reactions to occur in less than half-gram samples well below critical diameter, with the reactions quantified by a dent in a soft aluminum witness block. This test has been expanded to simultaneously measure both early and late-time reactions from a single sample subjected to the output from an RP-80 detonator. The sample apparatus is further confined within a small chamber instrumented with a pressure gage for internal air blast. This provides a measure of late-time reactions, such as from fuel/air combustion. Results are shown from several simultaneous early- and late-reaction measurements.

Granholm, Richard

2005-07-01

75

Small-scale universality in fluid turbulence.  

PubMed

Turbulent flows in nature and technology possess a range of scales. The largest scales carry the memory of the physical system in which a flow is embedded. One challenge is to unravel the universal statistical properties that all turbulent flows share despite their different large-scale driving mechanisms or their particular flow geometries. In the present work, we study three turbulent flows of systematically increasing complexity. These are homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in a periodic box, turbulent shear flow between two parallel walls, and thermal convection in a closed cylindrical container. They are computed by highly resolved direct numerical simulations of the governing dynamical equations. We use these simulation data to establish two fundamental results: (i) at Reynolds numbers Re ? 10(2) the fluctuations of the velocity derivatives pass through a transition from nearly Gaussian (or slightly sub-Gaussian) to intermittent behavior that is characteristic of fully developed high Reynolds number turbulence, and (ii) beyond the transition point, the statistics of the rate of energy dissipation in all three flows obey the same Reynolds number power laws derived for homogeneous turbulence. These results allow us to claim universality of small scales even at low Reynolds numbers. Our results shed new light on the notion of when the turbulence is fully developed at the small scales without relying on the existence of an extended inertial range. PMID:25024175

Schumacher, Jörg; Scheel, Janet D; Krasnov, Dmitry; Donzis, Diego A; Yakhot, Victor; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R

2014-07-29

76

Small Scale Distribution in Molecular Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of small scale fluctuations of density (or of optical properties) in the spatial distribution of the dust would have important consequences for the modelling of molecular clouds because the UV light penetration and therefore the physical and chemical processes depend strongly on their structure (cf Boisse (1990),Hobson et al. (1993)). CO emission maps obtained in recent years show a very fragmented distribution of the dense gas at all scales observed (Falgarone et al. (1991)). If the dust- to-gas ratio were uniform at all scales, as generally accepted, then the distribution of the dust should itself be as inhomogeneous as that of the gas. But, we have no direct information about it at scales smaller than those reached by IRAS (a few arcmin). We have developed methods to study in a direct way the amplitude of small scale variations of the extinction throughout translucent clouds (Lambda_V ~= 2 - 5 mag). First, we have extended the classical ``star count'' method by using the full stellar magnitude distributions as determined from CCD observations. We thus estimate the amplitude of extinction variations and investigate the possible presence of optically thick clumps (as suggested by CO observations). We also consider extended background sources, like galaxies or HII regions, located behind clouds which can be used to get some information on the amplitude of the density fluctuations. We present here some preliminary results from the BVRI photometric study of a stellar field and galaxies seen through translucent clouds (Lambda_V ~= 2 mag).

Thoraval, Sophie; Boisse, Patrick

1995-03-01

77

Industrial energy-efficiency improvement program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The industrial energy efficiency improvement program to accelerate market penetration of new and emerging industrial technologies is described. Practices which will improve energy efficiency, encourage substitution of more plentiful domestic fuels, and enhance recovery of energy and materials from industrial waste streams are enumerated. Specific reports from the chemicals and allied products; primary metals; petroleum and coal products; stone, clay, and glass, paper and allied products; food and kindred products; fabricated metals; transportation equipment; machinery (except electrical); textile mill products; rubber and miscellaneous plastics; electrical and electronic equipment; lumber and wood; and tobacco products are discussed. A summary on progress in the utilization of recovered materials, and an analysis of industrial fuel mix is presented.

1980-12-01

78

Small-scale hydroelectric power in the southeast: new impetus for an old energy source  

SciTech Connect

The Southeastern conference, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power: New Impetus for an Old Energy Source, was convened to provide a forum for state legislators and other interested persons to discuss the problems facing small-scale hydro developers, and to recommend appropriate solutions to resolve those problems. During the two-day meeting state legislators and their staffs, along with dam developers, utility and industry representatives, environmentalists and federal/state officials examined and discussed the problems impeding small-scale hydro development at the state level. Based upon the problem-oriented discussions, alternative policy options were recommended for consideration by the US Department of Energy, state legislatures and the staff of the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). Emphasis was placed on the legal, institutional, environmental and economic barriers at the state level, as well as the federal delays associated with licensing small-scale hydro projects. Whereas other previously held conferences have emphasized the identification and technology of small-scale hydro as an alternative energy source, this conference stressed legislative resolution of the problems and delays in small-scale hydro licensing and development. Panel discussions and workshops are summarized. Papers on the environmental, economic, and legal aspects of small-scale hydropower development are presented. (LCL)

Not Available

1980-06-01

79

Does gravitational clustering stabilize on small scales?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stable clustering hypothesis is a key analytical anchor for the non-linear dynamics of gravitational clustering in cosmology. It states that on sufficiently small scales, the mean pair velocity approaches zero, or equivalently that the mean number of neighbours of a particle remains constant in time at a given physical separation. N-body simulations have only recently achieved sufficient resolution to probe the regime of correlation function amplitudes xi~100-10^4 in which stable clustering might be valid. In this paper we use N-body simulations of scale-free spectra P(k)~k^n with -2<=n<=0 and of the CDM spectrum to apply two tests for stable clustering: the time evolution and shape of xi(x, t), and the mean pair velocity on small scales. We solve the pair conservation equation to measure the mean pair velocity, as it provides a more accurate estimate from the simulation data. For all spectra the results are consistent with the stable clustering predictions on the smallest scales probed, x<0.07 x_nl(t), where x_nl(t) is the correlation length. The measured stable clustering regime corresponds to a typical range of 200<~xi<~2000, although spectra with more small-scale power (n~=0) approach the stable clustering asymptote at larger values of xi. We test the amplitude of xi predicted by the analytical model of Sheth & Jain, and find agreement to within 20 per cent in the stable clustering regime for nearly all spectra. For the CDM spectrum the non-linear xi is accurately approximated by this model with n~=-2 on physical scales <~100-300 h^-1 kpc for sigma_8=0.5-1, and on smaller scales at earlier times. The growth of xi for CDM-like models is discussed in the context of a power-law parametrization often used to describe galaxy clustering at high redshifts. The growth parameter epsilon is computed as a function of time and length-scale, and is found to be larger than 1 in the moderately non-linear regime - thus the growth of xi is much faster on scales of interest than is commonly assumed.

Jain, Bhuvnesh

1997-05-01

80

A small-scale turbulence model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model for the small-scale structure of turbulence is reformulated in such a way that it may be conveniently computed. The model is an ensemble of randomly oriented structured two dimensional vortices stretched by an axially symmetric strain flow. The energy spectrum of the resulting flow may be expressed as a time integral involving only the enstrophy spectrum of the time evolving two-dimensional cross section flow, which may be obtained numerically. Examples are given in which a k(exp -5/3) spectrum is obtained by this method without using large wave number asymptotic analysis. The k(exp -5/3) inertial range spectrum is shown to be related to the existence of a self-similar enstrophy preserving range in the two-dimensional enstrophy spectrum. The results are insensitive to time dependence of the strain-rate, including even intermittent on-or-off strains.

Lundgren, T. S.

1992-01-01

81

Small-Scale Features in Pulsating Aurora  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A field study was conducted from March 12-16, 2002 using a narrow-field intensified CCD camera installed at Churchill, Manitoba. The camera was oriented along the local magnetic zenith where small-scale black auroral forms are often visible. This analysis focuses on such forms occurring within a region of pulsating aurora. The observations show black forms with irregular shape and nonuniform drift with respect to the relatively stationary pulsating patches. The pulsating patches occur within a diffuse auroral background as a modulation of the auroral brightness in a localized region. The images analyzed show a decrease in the brightness of the diffuse background in the region of the pulsating patch at the beginning of the offphase of the modulation. Throughout the off phase the brightness of the diffuse aurora gradually increases back to the average intensity. The time constant for this increase is measured as the first step toward determining the physical process.

Jones, Sarah; Jaynes, Allison N.; Knudsen, David J.; Trondsen, Trond; Lessard, Marc

2011-01-01

82

Small-scale Features in Pulsating Aurora  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A field study was conducted from March 12-16, 2002 using a narrow-field intensified CCD camera installed at Churchill, Manitoba. The camera was oriented along the local magnetic zenith where small-scale black auroral forms are often visible. This analysis focuses on such forms occurring within a region of pulsating aurora. The observations show black forms with irregular shape and nonuniform drift with respect to the relatively stationary pulsating patches. The pulsating patches occur within a diffuse auroral background as a modulation of the auroral brightness in a localized region. The images analyzed show a decrease in the brightness of the diffuse background in the region of the pulsating patch at the beginning of the 'off' phase of the modulation. Throughout the off phase the brightness of the diffuse aurora gradually increases back to the average intensity. The time constant for this increase is measured as the first step toward determining the physical process.

Jones, S.; Jaynes, A. N.; Knudsen, D. J.; Trondsen, T.; Lessard, M.

2011-12-01

83

Practical small-scale explosive seam welding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A small-scale explosive seam welding process has been developed that can significantly contribute to remote metal joining operations under hazardous or inaccessible conditions, such as nuclear reactor repair and assembly of structure in space. This paper describes this explosive seam welding process in terms of joining principles, variables, types of joints created, capabilities, and applications. Very small quantities of explosive in a ribbon configuration are used to create narrow (less than 0.5 inch), long-length, uniform, hermetically sealed joints that exhibit parent metal properties in a wide variety of metals, alloys, and combinations. The practicality of this process has been demonstrated by its current acceptance, as well as its capabilities that are superior in many applications to the universally accepted joining processes, such as mechanical fasteners, fusion and resistance welding, and adhesives.

Bement, L. J.

1983-01-01

84

Practical small-scale explosive seam welding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A small-scale explosive seam welding process has been developed that can significantly contribute to remote metal joining operations under hazardous or inaccessible conditions, such as nuclear reactor repair and assembly of structure in space. This paper describes this explosive seam welding process in terms of joining principles, variables, types of joints created, capabilities, and applications. Very small quantities of explosive in a ribbon configuration are used to create narrow (less than 0.5 inch), long-length, uniform, hermetically sealed joints that exhibit parent metal properties in a wide variety of metals, alloys, and combinations. The practicality of this process has been demonstrated by its current acceptance, as well as its capabilities that are superior in many applications to the universally accepted joining processes, such as mechanical fasteners, fusion and resistance welding, and adhesives. Previously announced in STAR as N83-24896

Bement, L. J.

1983-01-01

85

Nucleation in small scale multicrystalline silicon ingots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small scale solidification experiments were performed in order to study nucleation mechanisms of solar cell silicon. Ingots were grown in a Bridgman furnace; with a high rate (5 cm/min), inducing dendrite-like grains; and at a slow rate (0.2 mm/min), simulating the common slow crystal growth process. Two types of silicon were used, polysilicon and compensated material. The results showed that for the early stages of silicon solidification, the compensated material behaves similar to the polysilicon. A high undercooling of 11±3 K was obtained for one of the fast cooled experiments. This suggests that Si3N4-coating is not the important factor for nucleation, but Si3N4-precipitates in the melt could contribute as inoculants. Grains with similar orientation were observed for both the solidification rates, which indicates that the most important issue for grain growth selection in PV silicon is control of the vertical growth, rather than nucleation substrates.

Brynjulfsen, I.; Arnberg, L.; Autruffe, A.

2012-12-01

86

Small-scale waste-to-energy systems: A state-of-the-art report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For industry and local government, small scale waste to energy systems represent an increasingly attractive option to enhance energy security, control energy costs, generate revenues and alleviate landfill constraints. Projects are characterized by: a mix of modular and waterwall systems; small and medium size industrial steam customers; a nascent interest in cogeneration; the utilization of a variety of public financing instruments; and growing vendor involvement in facility operations. Experience also points to the pivotal role of one or a few persistent individuals during the project implementation process. Recent operating history is likely to provide the foundation for steady growth in the number of small scale systems during the next decade.

White, A. L.

1982-02-01

87

Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program. Annual progress report, FY 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Advanced Industrial Materials Program is a part of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in the Department of Energy. The mission of the AIM Program is to conduct applied research, development, and applica...

C. A. Sorrell

1995-01-01

88

Health and Safety Management for Small-scale Methane Fermentation Facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we considered health and safety management for small-scale methane fermentation facilities that treat 2-5 ton of biomass daily based on several years operation experience with an approximate capacity of 5 t·d-1. We also took account of existing knowledge, related laws and regulations. There are no qualifications or licenses required for management and operation of small-scale methane fermentation facilities, even though rural sewerage facilities with a relative similar function are required to obtain a legitimate license. Therefore, there are wide variations in health and safety consciousness of the operators of small-scale methane fermentation facilities. The industrial safety and health laws are not applied to the operation of small-scale methane fermentation facilities. However, in order to safely operate a small-scale methane fermentation facility, the occupational safety and health management system that the law recommends should be applied. The aims of this paper are to clarify the risk factors in small-scale methane fermentation facilities and encourage planning, design and operation of facilities based on health and safety management.

Yamaoka, Masaru; Yuyama, Yoshito; Nakamura, Masato; Oritate, Fumiko

89

Tobacco Industry Youth Smoking Prevention Programs: Protecting the Industry and Hurting Tobacco Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This report describes the history, true goals, and effects of tobacco industry-sponsored youth smoking prevention programs. Methods. We analyzed previously-secret tobacco industry documents. Results. The industry started these programs in the 1980s to forestall legislation that would restrict industry activities. Industry programs portray smoking as an adult choice and fail to discuss how tobacco advertising promotes smoking or the

Anne Landman; Pamela M. Ling; Stanton A. Glantz

90

Space industrialization. Volume 2: Opportunities, markets and programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nature of space industrialization and the reasons for its promotion are examined. Increases in space industry activities to be anticipated from 1980 to 2010 are assessed. A variety of future scenarios against which space industrialization could evolve were developed and the various industrial opportunities that might constitute that evolution were defined. The needs and markets of industry activities were quantitatively and qualitatively assessed and messed. The various hardware requirements vs. time (space industry programs) as space industrialization evolves are derived and analyzed.

1978-01-01

91

NASA/industry advanced turboprop technology program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental and analytical effort shows that use of advanced turboprop (propfan) propulsion instead of conventional turbofans in the older narrow-body airline fleet could reduce fuel consumption for this type of aircraft by up to 50 percent. The NASA Advanced Turboprop (ATP) program was formulated to address the key technologies required for these thin, swept-blade propeller concepts. A NASA, industry, and university team was assembled to develop and validate applicable design codes and prove by ground and flight test the viability of these propeller concepts. Some of the history of the ATP project, an overview of some of the issues, and a summary of the technology developed to make advanced propellers viable in the high-subsonic cruise speed application are presented. The ATP program was awarded the prestigious Robert J. Collier Trophy for the greatest achievement in aeronautics and astronautics in America in 1987.

Ziemianski, Joseph A.; Whitlow, John B., Jr.

1988-01-01

92

The Key to Unlocking the Power of Small Scale Renewable Energy: Local Land Use Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myriad federal and state programs have been promoted to incentivize the research and development of renewable energy as a means of achieving sustainability and producing more affordable alternative energy systems, and these programs could potentially have a profound impact on the way that electricity is produced and consumed in the United States. Small-scale renewable energy generation from sources such as

Patricia E. Salkin

2012-01-01

93

Tobacco Industry Youth Smoking Prevention Programs: Protecting the Industry and Hurting Tobacco Control  

PubMed Central

Objectives. This report describes the history, true goals, and effects of tobacco industry–sponsored youth smoking prevention programs. Methods. We analyzed previously-secret tobacco industry documents. Results. The industry started these programs in the 1980s to forestall legislation that would restrict industry activities. Industry programs portray smoking as an adult choice and fail to discuss how tobacco advertising promotes smoking or the health dangers of smoking. The industry has used these programs to fight taxes, clean-indoor-air laws, and marketing restrictions worldwide. There is no evidence that these programs decrease smoking among youths. Conclusions. Tobacco industry youth programs do more harm than good for tobacco control. The tobacco industry should not be allowed to run or directly fund youth smoking prevention programs.

Landman, Anne; Ling, Pamela M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

2002-01-01

94

The Environmental protection agency industrial technology transfer program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Today TAC consists of a full service information center and five programs, which are: (1) our industrial program; (2) the energy information center; (3) the business and industry extension program; (4) the remote sensing program; and (5) the center for environmental research and development.

Suter, K. H.

1974-01-01

95

Program of Studies: Trade and Industrial: Grades 9-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part 1 of the trade and industrial education curriculum guide for grades 9-12 contains a brief program overview and Vocational Industrial Clubs of America (VICA) description, more detailed descriptions of in-school and out-of-school programs and program classification methods, a list of references, and charts of various programs and training…

Fairfax County Schools, VA.

96

Technical Solution Alternatives and Profitability of Small Scale Peat or Wood Fired Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this study was to develope a competitive configuration for small scale power plants based on the conventional steam process and on the utilization of domestic fuels. District heating power plants and industrial back pressure power plants are di...

1983-01-01

97

Small scale adaptive optics experiment systems engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assessment of the current technology relating to the laser power beaming system which in full scale is called the Beam Transmission Optical System (BTOS). Evaluation of system integration efforts are being conducted by the various government agencies and industry. Concepts are being developed for prototypes of adaptive optics for a BTOS.

Boykin, William H.

1993-01-01

98

Programming advanced control functions for enhanced intelligence of industrial robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial robots are important elements in automated production systems. Programming industrial robots requires the knowledge of robot motion controls. In this paper, some of the advanced control functions of industrial robots are discussed with the examples of FANUC robot program instructions. This includes applying the functions of robot payload estimation, robot stiffness control, and robot collision detection for enhanced robot

Frank S. Cheng; Mount Pleasant

2010-01-01

99

Big Ideas at a Very Small Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to share a learning-cycle sequence of lessons designed to convey the particulate nature of matter through use of physical models and analogical thinking. This activity was adapted from Conceptual Chemistry, a long-running professional development program for teachers of grades 4-9. Conceptual Chemistry's approach is…

Khourey-Bowers, Claudia

2009-01-01

100

Radiation Protection Program of Petrobras in Industrial Radiography Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Industrial hygiene; main purpose is the preservation of employee physical well being when exposed to certain aggressive agents. PETROBRAS Industrial hygiene program forecasts preventive policies in several specific fields. For the ionizing radiations area...

M. Signorini

1988-01-01

101

Development of Micro-Resolution PIV and Analysis of Microthrusters for Small-Scale Aircraft and Spacecraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research program consisted of two primary research objectives that were aimed at advancing the current understanding of microfluidic processes related to the development of small-scale aircraft and spacecraft. (1) Develop ultra-high resolution PIV in...

C. D. Meinhart

2000-01-01

102

US conductor R&D and small scale experiments for the ITER magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Engineering Design Activity (EDA) of the ITER program a major effort is being devoted to conductor R&D for the ITER magnets systems. This program includes all aspects of cable-in-conduit-conductor (CICC) manufacturing development such as superconducting strand, large multistage cables, and fabrication of thick-wall and thin-wall conduits. It also includes an extensive program of small scale laboratory measurements and

J. V. Minervini; M. M. Steeves; D. B. Montgomery; R. Randall; M. K. Takayasu; C. Y. Gung; S. Jeong; R. G. Ballinger; I. S. Hwang; M. Morra; C. H. Jang; L. Toma; T. M. Hrycaj; W. C. Guss; M. A. Ferri; M. K. Ahmed; A. E. Long; C. A. Hall; D. Reisner; S. Johnson

1993-01-01

103

Big Ideas at a Very Small Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this article is to share a learning-cycle sequence of lessons designed to convey the particulate nature of matter through use of physical models and analogical thinking. This activity was adapted from Conceptual Chemistry, a long-running professional development program for teachers of grades 4â9. Conceptual Chemistryâs approach is to emphasize broad conceptual understanding, studentsâ ideas about science, and content-focused literacy skills. As a result of engaging in this series of lessons, students will observe macroscopic properties of matter and begin to develop scientific models to explain the particulate nature of matter.

Khourey-Bowers, Claudia

2009-12-01

104

A Three-Axis Acoustic Current Meter for Small Scale Turbulence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Design on the current meter described in this paper began early in 1975 in an attempt to develop an instrument having characteristics suitable for horizontal profiling of small scale turbulence in the ocean. The result of this program was a three-axis ins...

K. D. Lawson N. L. Brown D. H. Johnson R. A. Mattey

1975-01-01

105

Niche market assessment for a small-scale western oil shale project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of an overall program to study the economic feasibility of a small-scale western oil shale project, Western Research Institute requested J. E. Sinor Consultants Inc. to carry out a marketing analysis for the potential products. In undertaking such...

J. E. Sinor

1989-01-01

106

Advanced Industrial Materials Program. Annual progress report, FY 1993  

SciTech Connect

Mission of the AIM program is to commercialize new/improved materials and materials processing methods that will improve energy efficiency, productivity, and competitiveness. Program investigators in the DOE national laboratories are working with about 100 companies, including 15 partners in CRDAs. Work is being done on intermetallic alloys, ceramic composites, metal composites, polymers, engineered porous materials, and surface modification. The program supports other efforts in the Office of Industrial Technologies to assist the energy-consuming process industries. The aim of the AIM program is to bring materials from basic research to industrial application to strengthen the competitive position of US industry and save energy.

Stooksbury, F. [comp.

1994-06-01

107

Industrial Hygiene Technician Program, Western Wisconsin Technical Institute.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the fall of 1978, 12 students enrolled in the Industrial Hygiene Program at the Western Wisconsin Technical Institute program; 74 enrolled in the fall of 1981. Course requirements include studies in technical mathematics, general chemistry, technical p...

G. W. Skewes W. G. Welch C. G. Richardson

1982-01-01

108

Industry Test Program for Interlayer Equivalency.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After the announcement in 1980 that Monsanto will have to discontinue production of their interlayer 'Saflex PT' due to the non availability of 3 GH plasticizer, an Industry team, under the auspices of the Aerospace Industries Association (AIA), was forme...

P. H. Bain

1983-01-01

109

Program Guides Students on Industry Careers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes efforts by the Younger Chemists Committee of the American Chemical Society to bridge the gap between university and industry so that college students are familiarized with expectations of business and industry. (CP)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1975

1975-01-01

110

Small Scale Hydroelectric Generation Potential in the UK. V. 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study, commissioned by the Energy Technology Support Unit for the Department of Energy, undertakes the first comprehensive assessment of the economic potential for small-scale hydro-electric generation throughout the UK. Whilst small hydro technology...

1989-01-01

111

Small-Scale Engagement Model with Arrivals: Analytical Solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents an analytical model of small-scale battles. The specific impetus for this effort was provided by a need to characterize hypothetical battles between guards at a nuclear facility and their potential adversaries. The solution procedure ...

D. Engi

1977-01-01

112

A Small-Scale Low-Cost Gas Chromatograph  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The design and application of a small-scale portable gas chromatograph for learning of the basic concepts of chromatography is described. The apparatus consists of two basic separable units, which includes a chromatographic unit and an electronic unit.

Gros, Natasa; Vrtacnik, Margareta

2005-01-01

113

LLNL Small-Scale Friction sensitivity (BAM) Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Small-scale safety testing of explosives, propellants and other energetic materials, is done to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli including friction, static spark, and impact. Testing is done to discover potential handling problems for either...

L. R. Simpson M. F. Foltz

1996-01-01

114

Review of Large Scale and Small Scale Underwater Thermal Explosions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains a review of large scale propagating thermal explosions and small scale single drop explosions. The review of large scale propagating thermal explosions identifies potential thermal explosive systems, as well as the experimental condit...

M. Rizk

1990-01-01

115

Small Scale Hydropower Development in Illinois: An Implementation Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This manual has been prepared to assist potential developers of existing dam sites in the implementation of small-scale hydropower projects. It is designed to guide developers in preparing preliminary estimates of site potential for hydropower generation ...

G. Lindsey

1980-01-01

116

Innovative Equipment for Small-Scale Hydro Developments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Manufacturers of mechanical and electrical equipment for small-scale hydro developments have placed much emphasis in recent years on cost reductions obtainable through standardization and package units. More recently, the concept of using off-the-shelf de...

J. D. Lawrence L. Pereira

1981-01-01

117

Prospects for Small-Scale Irrigation Development in the Sahel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water is the limiting constraint affecting all forms of land use in the Sahel. The report presents an overview of Sahelian irrigation, with special attention to small-scale development prospects, and advocates combining the respective desirable features o...

J. Moris D. J. Thom R. Norman

1984-01-01

118

Small-scale clad-effects study. [PWR; BWR  

SciTech Connect

The Small-Scale Clad Effects Study of the HSST Program was initiated to study the interaction of stainless cladding with flaws initiated in and propagating in base metal. From the designer's viewpoint stainless cladding is primarily viewed as a corrosion- and crud-prevention measure in light-water reactor vessel design, and except for its effect upon fatigue in thermal transients, its effect upon structural integrity has heretofore been largely disregarded. With the more recent focus of safety studies upon LOCA scenarios that emphasize the behavior of small flaws, it has become evident that stainless cladding may have a key role in the propagation and/or arrest of propagating flaws. A complicating factor in understanding the role of stainless cladding in this setting is its fracture toughness as a function of radiation dose and as a function of fabrication process for which meager data exist. The initial phase of this study has attempted to address this question by testing stainless-clad specimens that had been subjected to heat treatments to simulate beginning-of-life and end-of-life toughness conditions to fast-running cracks.

Robinson, G.C.

1982-01-01

119

LLNL Small-Scale Friction sensitivity (BAM) Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-scale safety testing of explosives, propellants and other energetic materials, is done to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli including friction, static spark, and impact. Testing is done to discover potential handling problems for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior, or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing {open_quotes}BAM{close_quotes} Small-Scale Friction

L. R. Simpson; M. F. Foltz

1996-01-01

120

Small-scale dynamo in solar surface simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A magneto-convection simulation incorporating essential physical processes governing solar surface convection exhibits turbulent small-scale dynamo action. By presenting a derivation of the energy balance equation and transfer functions for compressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), we quantify the source of magnetic energy on a scale-by-scale basis. We rule out the two alternative mechanisms for the generation of small-scale magnetic field in the simulations: tangling of magnetic field lines associated with the turbulent cascade and Alfvenization of small-scale velocity fluctuations ("turbulent induction"). Instead, we find the dominant source of small-scale magnetic energy is stretching by inertial-range fluid motions of small-scale magnetic field lines against the magnetic tension force to produce (against Ohmic dissipation) more small-scale magnetic field. The scales involved become smaller with increasing Reynolds number, which identifies the dynamo as a small-scale turbulent dynamo. Comparisons are made between the details of the dynamo mechanism in compressible magneto-convection, Boussinesq convection, and randomly-forced incompressible turbulence. Net energy transfers (kinematic phase): work against magnetic tension (stretching) is 95% of magnetic energy generated; work against magnetic pressure (compression) is 5%. The latter is involved in the breaking down larger-scale field (25%) into smaller-scale field (30%) as part of the cascade. The dominant producer of magnetic energy is the stretching of magnetic field lines against the magnetic tension force (turbulent dynamo action). Fluid motions at a scale of ~140km create magnetic energy predominately at a scale of ~65km. As the three wave-vectors must form a triad, the scale of the magnetic field being stretched must is 80+/-40km. All 3 scales are in the inertial range: this is turbulent small-scale dynamo.

Graham, J. P.; Moll, R.; Cameron, R.; Schüssler, M.

2010-12-01

121

Introduction of Car Alternators for Small Scale Wind Power Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally Permanent Magnet Generators (PMGs) are widely used for small-scale wind power generation. But in Sri Lanka, it is difficult to find a competitive market for such generators and permanent magnets, since the price of a PMG is very high and is very rare.Due to such conditions, expansion of small-scale wind power applications among rural communities are significantly limited. The

Nanayakkara D. P. N

122

Automated Test Program Generation for an Industrial Optimizing Compiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents joint research and practice on automated test program generation for an industrial compiler, UniPhier, by Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. (MEI) and Institute of Software, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ISCAS) since Sept. 2002. To meet the test requirements of MEI's engineers, we proposed an automated approach to produce test programs for UniPhier, and as a result we

Chen Zhao; Yunzhi Xue; Qiuming Tao; Liang Guo; Zhaohui Wang

2009-01-01

123

A proposed university/industry/government cooperative aero educational program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program is proposed to provide mutual aid between the beleaguered Aero Engineering degree-granting departments in the United States and United States industry/government. It is proposed that any accrued cost differentials be supported by the latter groups, although all programs proposed will provide true mutual assistance. The program suggested is designed to provide assured industrial experience for Aero faculty members, combat engineering obsolescence for industry engineers, provide assured summer work for Aero undergraduates, encourage industry/government input in curriculum and course planning, and funnel significant laboratory devices into the university system.

Brodsky, R. F.

1975-01-01

124

The Industry Coupled Case Study Program final report  

SciTech Connect

The Industry Coupled Case Study Program was conceived as a short-term cooperative program between the Federal government and private industry. Federal funds were committed to stimulate geothermal exploration and development between 1977 and 1979, although some work under the program continues into 1982. Federal funding has been phased out and the remaining information developed during the program is being disseminated and reported. This report presents an overview of the program and documents the technical results and open-file data base resulting from the program.

Stringfellow, J. [ed.

1982-10-01

125

Energy efficient industrialized housing research program  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the research work completed in five areas in fiscal year 1989. (1) The analysis of the US industrialized housing industry includes statistics, definitions, a case study, and a code analysis. (2) The assessment of foreign technology reviews the current status of design, manufacturing, marketing, and installation of industrialized housing primarily in Sweden and Japan. (3) Assessment of industrialization applications reviews housing production by climate zone, has a cost and energy comparison of Swedish and US housing, and discusses future manufacturing processes and emerging components. (4) The state of computer use in the industry is described and a prototype design tool is discussed. (5) Side by side testing of industrialized housing systems is discussed.

Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; McDonald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, Tomoko (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (USA). Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Mazwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. (Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (USA))

1989-12-01

126

Energy efficient industrialized housing research program  

SciTech Connect

This is the second volume of a two volume report on energy efficient industrialized housing. Volume II contains support documentation for Volume I. The following items are included: individual trip reports; software bibliography; industry contacts in the US, Denmark, and Japan; Cost comparison of industrialized housing in the US and Denmark; draft of the final report on the systems analysis for Fleetwood Mobile Home Manufacturers. (SM)

Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; Mc Donald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, T. (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (USA). Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Maxwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. (Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (USA))

1989-01-01

127

The "We Card" program: tobacco industry "youth smoking prevention" as industry self-preservation.  

PubMed

The "We Card" program is the most ubiquitous tobacco industry "youth smoking prevention" program in the United States, and its retailer materials have been copied in other countries. The program's effectiveness has been questioned, but no previous studies have examined its development, goals, and uses from the tobacco industry's perspective. On the basis of our analysis of tobacco industry documents released under the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, we concluded that the We Card program was undertaken for 2 primary purposes: to improve the tobacco industry's image and to reduce regulation and the enforcement of existing laws. Policymakers should be cautious about accepting industry self-regulation at face value, both because it redounds to the industry's benefit and because it is ineffective. PMID:20466965

Apollonio, Dorie E; Malone, Ruth E

2010-07-01

128

Energy efficient industrialized housing research program  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes three documents: Multiyear Research Plan, Volume I FY 1989 Task Reports, and Volume II Appendices. These documents describe tasks that were undertaken from November 1988 to December 1989, the first year of the project. Those tasks were: (1) the formation of a steering committee, (2) the development of a multiyear research plan, (3) analysis of the US industrialized housing industry, (4) assessment of foreign technology, (5) assessment of industrial applications, (6) analysis of computerized design and evaluation tools, and (7) assessment of energy performance of baseline and advanced industrialized housing concepts. While this document summarizes information developed in each task area, it doesn't review task by task, as Volume I FY 1989 Task Reports does, but rather treats the subject of energy efficient industrialized housing as a whole to give the reader a more coherent view. 7 figs., 9 refs.

Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; McDonald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, Tomoko (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (USA). Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Maxwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. (Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (USA))

1990-02-01

129

Cartographic research in EREP program for small scale mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab photography is suitable for producing planimetric maps with graphical representation of landform at scales up to 1:100,000. It cannot supply all the detail necessary for maps at this scale, but it may be used to produce a sound framework which can be completed by detail from other sources. Its principal cartographic use is for original mapping of undeveloped areas of the world, but it would also be useful for the revision of existing maps and for monitoring extensive urban changes.

Mott, P. G.; Fullard, H.; Bartholomew, J. C.; Leatherdale, J. D.; Chismon, H. J.; Hall, H. M. (principal investigators)

1975-01-01

130

Industrial Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains vocational education program courses standards (curriculum frameworks and student performance standards) for exploratory courses, practical arts courses, and job preparatory programs offered at the secondary or postsecondary level in Florida. Each program courses standard is composed of two parts: a curriculum framework and…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

131

Innovative Programs To Meet Industry Workforce Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past decade, the Travelers Insurance companies have dramatically expanded their involvement in educational programs for students at all grade levels, from prekindergarden through college. Throughout the 1970s, the Travelers educational programs focused exclusively on providing speakers for career awareness programs for high school…

Osborne, Ernest L.

132

Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program annual progress report, FY 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is a part of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of AIM is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. OIT has embarked on a fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrating on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans, some of which have been completed. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support.

NONE

1998-05-01

133

Industrial Machinery Maintenance and Repair. Florida Vocational Program Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This vocational program guide is intended to assist in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a program in industrial machinery maintenance and repair in school districts, area vocational centers, and community colleges. The following topics are covered: job duties of millwrights, maintenance mechanics, and machinery erectors; program…

University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

134

Canada's Voluntary ARET Program: Limited Success Despite Industry Cosponsorship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxins (ARET) Challenge was a voluntary program initiated in 1994 by the Government of Canada. Unlike the U.S. 33/50 Program, ARET involved industry partners in negotiation and cosponsorship of the program, with the intention that early involvement would yield stronger commitment to voluntary reductions. We…

Antweiler, Werner; Harrison, Kathryn

2007-01-01

135

Arizona State University Industrial Assessment Center Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project consisted primarily of conducting energy efficiency, productivity improvement, and waste reduction assessments of small- and medium-sized industrial facilities. These assessments were carried out by groups of engineering students, mostly from...

P. Phelan

2007-01-01

136

Model Facilities for New Industrial Arts Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The classroom models were developed and illustrated by the Secondary Exploration of Technology Project (SET) for new ninth grade courses in industrial arts. (Communication lab, materials lab, power lab, and the total facility layout). (Author)

Dean, Harvey; Thuma, Ron

1975-01-01

137

When does small-scale convection begin beneath oceanic lithosphere?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical model of small-scale convection in a fluid of variable viscosity is described. The results indicate that recently observed gravity anomalies showing a pattern of highs and lows aligned in the direction of oceanic plate motion may be the result of small-scale mantle flow. The convective flow must begin in the first six Myr of lithospheric cooling to produce the observed signals, which is not inconsistent with constraints on the viscosity of the mantle. The calculated trend for the subsidence of the ocean floor is found to be almost linear with the square root of time even when small-scale convection has significantly changed the rate of subsidence. For average shallow asthenospheric viscosities of about 10 to the 18th Pa/s, the model subsidence can match data for the oceans and reproduce the magnitude and wavelength of the observed gravity anomalies.

Buck, W. R.

1985-01-01

138

Fundamental economic issues in the development of small scale hydro  

SciTech Connect

Some basic economic issues involved in the development of small-scale hydroelectric power are addressed. The discussion represents an economist's view of the investment process in this resource. Very little investment has been made in small-scale hydro development and an attempt is made to show that the reason for this may not be that the expected present worth of the returns of the project do not exceed the construction cost by a sufficient amount. Rather, a set of factors in combination impose costs on the project not normally incurred in small businesses. The discussion covers costs, supply, demand, and profitability.

Not Available

1980-05-01

139

Technology Roadmap Research Program for the Steel Industry  

SciTech Connect

The steel industry's Technology Roadmap Program (TRP) is a collaborative R&D effort jointly sponsored by the steel industry and the United States Department of Energy. The TRP program was designed to develop new technologies to save energy , increase competitiveness, and improve the environment. TRP ran from July, 1997 to December, 2008, with a total program budget of $38 million dollars. During that period 47 R&D projects were performed by 28 unique research organizations; co-funding was provided by DOE and 60 industry partners. The projects benefited all areas of steelmaking and much know-how was developed and transferred to industry. The American Iron and Steel Institute is the owner of all intellectual property developed under TRP and licenses it at commercial rates to all steelmakers. TRP technologies are in widespread use in the steel industry as participants received royalty-free use of intellectual property in return for taking the risk of funding this research.

Joseph R. Vehec

2010-12-30

140

Recruitment Strategies for Industrial Technology Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's competitive marketplace requires many colleges and universities to search for ways to maintain or increase their program enrollment numbers. One method is to focus on an enrollment management program with an emphasis placed on retention efforts for existing students. Although this is one important issue facing many colleges and…

O'Meara, Ron; Carmichael, Mindy

2004-01-01

141

Program on purification of industrial waste water. Country paper: Ethiopia  

SciTech Connect

The paper as a preliminary country paper for the UNIDO's programe on Industrial waste water purification, which embraces eight countries from Africa, is prepared in such a way that it could serve as source materi al for the programs implementation in the country. The program's main objective being developing the most appropriate and effective means to deal with long term problems associated with generation and treatment of industrial waste water influence, every effort is made to present what ever relevant informations pertaining to the program's objective and goal. To this end, the first chapter delivers general background information about the countries natural resource and the prevailing industrial feature, while the second chapter deliberates on the results of the investigation and evaluation of the selected subsectors and factories from the industrial sector. Finally, an overview of other side factors which could possibly have effects on the project's activity is presented in the third chapter.

Mebratu, D.

1990-09-10

142

Directory of Training Programs for the Woodworking Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The directory of training programs for the woodworking industry includes a comprehensive listing of schools, colleges, suppliers, and trade associations. The database contains descriptions of woodworking courses, types of equipment, and degree or certific...

D. L. Sonderman R. L. Brisbin

1993-01-01

143

Children's Programming: An Industry Peace Offering to the New Frontier.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Appointed chairman of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) by President Kennedy in 1960, Newton Minow disturbed the traditionally comfortable relationship between the commission and the broadcast industry. In his first major speech, he outraged industry officials by attacking television programming as "a vast wasteland" and indicated that…

Watson, Mary Ann

144

Report on Community College Industrial Production Technology Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides an in-depth analysis of the Industrial Production Technology Programs in Illinois, which, according to Illinois Community College Board policy, must be reviewed at least once every five years. The disciplines included in this report are: industrial manufacturing technology, corrosion technology, plastics technology, and…

Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

145

China's Support Programs for Selected Industries: Agriculture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For decades, China had been following the policy of taxing agriculture to support its urban industrialization efforts. The success of its recent economic reform not only gives the central government the fiscal means but also creates an urgent need to chan...

T. P. Stewart

2007-01-01

146

Industrial irradiator radiation safety program assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considerable attention is typically given to radiation safety in the design of irradiators and initially establishing the program. However, one component that may not receive enough attention is applying the continuous improvement philosophy to the radiation safety program. Periodic total program assessments of radiation safety can ensure that the design and implementation of the program continues to be applicable to the operations. The first step in the process must be to determine what is to be covered in the program assessment. While regulatory compliance audits are a component, the most useful evaluation will extend beyond looking only at compliance and determine whether the radiation safety program is the most appropriate for the particular operation. Several aspects of the irradiator operation, not all of which may routinely be considered "radiation safety", per se, should be included: Design aspects of the irradiator and operating system, system controls, and maintenance procedures, as well as the more traditional radiation safety program components such as surveys, measurements and training.

Smith, Mark A.

2000-03-01

147

Material Management Program Can Attract Local Industry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the material management certificate and the associate in applied science degree programs at William Rainey Harper College, Palatine, Illinois. Material management functions include purchasing, production control, inventory control, material handling, warehousing, packaging, computer applications, and transportation. (MF)

Magad, Eugene L.

1978-01-01

148

Small-Scale Structures in Three-Dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate using direct numerical simulations with grids up to 15363 points the rate at which small scales develop in a decaying three-dimensional MHD flow both for deterministic and random initial conditions at a unit magnetic Prandtl number. Parallel current and vorticity sheets form at the same spatial locations, and further destabilize and fold or roll-up after an initial exponential

P. D. Mininni; A. G. Pouquet; D. C. Montgomery

2006-01-01

149

LLNL small-scale drop-hammer impact sensitivity test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-scale safety testing of explosives and other energetic materials is done to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli including friction, static spark, and impact. This testing is typically done to discover potential handling problems for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing ``ERL Type

L. R. Simpson; M. F. Foltz

1995-01-01

150

On the Dynamics of Small-Scale Solar Magnetic Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the dynamics of the small-scale solar magnetic field, based on analysis of very high resolution images of the solar photosphere obtained at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope. The data sets are movies from 1 to 4 hr in length, taken in several wavelength bands with a typical time between frames of 20 s. The primary method of

T. E. Berger

1996-01-01

151

On the Dynamics of Small-Scale Solar Magnetic Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the dynamics of the small-scale solar magnetic field, based on analysis of very high resolution images of the solar photosphere obtained at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope. The data sets are movies from 1 to 4 hr in length, taken in several wavelength bands with a typical time between frames of 20 5. The primary method of

T. E. Berger

1996-01-01

152

A SMALL-SCALE TILTROTOR MODEL OPERATING IN DESCENDING FLIGHT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small-scale tiltrotor model was tested in the 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center with the goal of further investigating the aerodynamic environment of a tiltrotor operating in the Vortex Ring State (VRS). Test objectives were to obtain performance data of a 3-bladed tiltrotor model over a range of descent and sideslip conditions and to compare

Anita I. Abrego; Mark D. Betzina; Kurtis R. Long

2002-01-01

153

DESIGN OF A SMALL ? SCALE SOLAR CHIMNEY FOR SUSTAINABLE POWER  

EPA Science Inventory

After several months of design and testing it has been determined that a small scale solar chimney can be built using nearly any local materials and simple hand tools without needing superior construction knowledge. The biggest obstacle to over come was the weather conditions....

154

Spatial Nonlocality of the Small-scale Solar Dynamo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the nature of the small-scale solar dynamo by tracking magnetic features. We investigate two previously explored categories of the small-scale solar dynamo: shallow and deep. Recent modeling work on the shallow dynamo has produced a number of scenarios for how a strong network concentration can influence the formation and polarity of nearby small-scale magnetic features. These scenarios have measurable signatures, for which we test using magnetograms from the Narrowband Filter Imager (NFI) on board Hinode. We find no statistical tendency for newly formed magnetic features to cluster around or away from network concentrations, nor do we find any statistical relationship between their polarities. We conclude that there is no shallow or "surface" dynamo on the spatial scales observable by Hinode/NFI. In light of these results, we offer a scenario in which the subsurface field in a deep solar dynamo is stretched and distorted via turbulence, allowing the small-scale field to emerge at random locations on the photosphere.

Lamb, D. A.; Howard, T. A.; DeForest, C. E.

2014-06-01

155

Wind tunnel modeling of small-scale meteorological processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

After introductory remarks on similarity laws to be satisfied in wind tunnel experiments simulating small-scale meteorological processes, mean and turbulence characteristics of wind tunnel boundary layers are presented and compared with the characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer. The results are used to evaluate the possibilities and limitations of physical modeling of pollutant dispersion in general. In the second part

M. Schatzmann; G. König; O. A. Lohmeyer

1987-01-01

156

A Permanent Magnet Generator for Small Scale Wind Turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a permanent magnet generator for small scale wind turbines. The generator has been designed for ease of manufacture so that it can be made by small mechanical engineering companies with limited electrical engineering knowledge. The generator has also been designed to have no cogging torque so that it can be used with all horizontal

J. R. Bumby; N. Stannard; R. Martin

2007-01-01

157

USA Small-Scale Cookoff Bomb (SCB) Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the use of a Small-Scale Cookoff Bomb (SCB) for the UN Classification of explosives with regard to their thermal response. The SCB test simulates transport and storage situations involving external heating of substances. (A similar r...

J. M. Pakulak

1984-01-01

158

Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Forestry Projects. Guidelines for Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual, the third in a series of publications that address community development possibilities in developing nations, provides guidelines for small-scale forestry projects that are integrative and conservation-oriented. Chapters focus on: (1) users and uses (specifying targeted audience and general objectives); (2) planning process (including…

Ffolliott, Peter F.; Thames, John L.

159

Geckobot and Waalbot: Small-Scale Wall Climbing Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes two small-scale agile wall climbing robots able to navigate on smooth vertical surfaces which use adhesive materials for attachment. Geckobot is a lizard-inspired climbing robot with similar kinematics to a gecko climbing gait. Waalbot uses two actuated legs with rotary motion and two passive revolute joints at each foot. Due to their compact design, a high degree

Ozgur Unver; Michael P. Murphy

160

Future Directions for Mechanical, Manufacturing, and Industrial Engineering Technology Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Future Directions for Mechanical, Manufacturing, and Industrial Engineering Technology Programs presents viewpoints on the fields of Mechanical Engineering Technology (MET), Manufacturing Engineering Technology (MfgET), and Industrial Engineering Technology (IET). The authors are highly knowledgeable in their own right. In addition, each sought input from colleagues to gain a broad perspective. Each part begins with an overview of innovations in the field, covering both technical and educational issues. Then the future directions for the educational programs are explored, considering industry needs, curriculum design, laboratory experiences, pedagogy, accreditation, and interfaces with other fields.

Mott, Robert L.; Neff, Gregory; Stratton, Mark J.; Summers, Donna

2009-10-29

161

Jet Collimation by Small-Scale Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A popular model for jet collimation is associated with the presence of a large-scale and predominantly toroidal magnetic field originating from the central engine (a star, a black hole, or an accretion disk). Besides the problem of how such a large-scale magnetic field is generated, in this model the jet suffers from the fatal long-wave mode kink magnetohydrodynamic instability. In this paper we explore an alternative model: jet collimation by small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields are assumed to be local, chaotic, and tangled, but are dominated by toroidal components. Just as in the case of a large-scale toroidal magnetic field, we show that the ``hoop stress'' of the tangled toroidal magnetic fields exerts an inward force which confines and collimates the jet. The magnetic ``hoop stress'' is balanced either by the gas pressure of the jet or by centrifugal force if the jet is spinning. Since the length scale of the magnetic field is small (< the cross-sectional radius of the jet << the length of the jet), in this model the jet does not suffer from the long-wave mode kink instability. Many other problems associated with the large-scale magnetic field are also eliminated or alleviated for small-scale magnetic fields. Though it remains an open question how to generate and maintain the required small-scale magnetic fields in a jet, the scenario of jet collimation by small-scale magnetic fields is favored by the current study on disk dynamo which indicates that small-scale magnetic fields are much easier to generate than large-scale magnetic fields.

Li, Li-Xin

2002-01-01

162

A continuing program for technology transfer to the apparel industry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A six month program has been carried out to investigate various mechanisms for transferring technology to industry. This program has focused on transfer to the apparel industry through the Apparel Research Foundation. The procedure was to analyze the problem, obtain potentially relevant aerospace technology, and then transfer this technology to the industry organization. This was done in a specific case. Technology was identified relevant to stitchless joining, and this technology was transferred to the Apparel Research Foundation. The feasibility and ground rules for carrying out such activities on a broader scale were established. A specific objective was to transfer new technology from the industry organization to the industry itself. This required the establishment of an application engineering program. Another transfer mechanism tested was publication of solutions to industry problems in a format familiar to the industry. This is to be distinguished from circulating descriptions of new technology. Focus is on the industry problem and the manager is given a formula for solving it that he can follow. It was concluded that this mechanism can complement the problem statement approach to technology transfer. It is useful in achieving transfer when a large amount of application engineering is not necessary. A wide audience is immediately exposed to the technology. On the other hand, the major manufacturing problems which require a sophisticated technical solution integrating many innovations are less likely to be helped.

Clingman, W. H.

1971-01-01

163

An Industry Program for Managing PWSCC of Closure Head Penetrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alloy 600 Issues Task Group of the EPRI managed Materials Reliability Program initiated an industry program to address the generic aspects of the Alloy 182 weld cracking in the A hot leg nozzle weld at V. C. Summer in December 2000. The generic affects of the recent cracks in the Alloy 600 Control Rod Drive Module (CRDM) and thermocouple

Larry K

2002-01-01

164

WORK INSTRUCTION PROGRAMS FOR THE FOOD SERVICE INDUSTRY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A PROJECT WAS INITIATED TO DEVELOP EFFICIENT WORK METHODS FOR 100 COMMON TASKS IN THE FOOD SERVICE INDUSTRY AND THEN TO PREPARE PROGRAMED LEARNING "PACKAGES" FOR EACH OF THESE TASKS FOR TRAINING POTENTIAL EMPLOYEES AND EMPLOYEES WITH LOWER LEVELS OF EDUCATION TO HOLD USEFUL JOBS. THE CONCEPT OF PROGRAMED LEARNING PACKAGES FOR FOOD SERVICING WAS…

KONZ, STEPHAN A.; MIDDLETON, RAYMONA

165

Program of Studies: Industrial Arts: Grades 7-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first part of the industrial arts curriculum guide provides brief descriptions of the program and course goals for grades K-12 and a one-page chart of program courses. Part 2 contains unit plans for grades 7-12 which provide unit descriptions, credit values, minimum class times, maximum students per class, prerequisites, and various unit…

Fairfax County Schools, VA.

166

Industry/University Cooperative Research Centers Program (I/UCRC)  

NSF Publications Database

- research and graduate program requirements; - letter of intent; planning grant; and full center proposal requirements; - cost participation, memberships, and cost sharing requirements. A letter of intent describing a proposed Industry/University Cooperative Research Center (I/UCRC) must be submitted to the I/UCRC Program for internal review and approval by an I/UCRC Program Director before a proposal for a planning grant will be accepted. There are no specific target dates for Center ...

167

Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC) process. Health programs: industrial hygiene, clinical and toxicological programs. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This final report summarizes the Health Program under the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Process Contract from January 1, 1976 through December 31, 1981 with particular emphasis on the period January 1, 1980 through December 31, 1981. The major areas of activity within the Health program were: an industrial hygiene monitoring program, a clinical medical examination program, a personal hygiene and

Hubis

1982-01-01

168

Evolution of an on-site industrial physical therapy program.  

PubMed

This article describes the growth and cost benefits of an on-site industrial physical therapy program. The program was initiated in 1982 at one of five plants managed by a major corporation to help reduce the costs of musculoskeletal injury. A significant reduction in the occupational absence rate was noted at the plant with the physical therapy program. Now in its tenth year, the program has produced calculated savings of $8.3 million, a benefit-to-cost ratio of greater than 9 to 1. The physical therapy program now serves approximately 50% of the company's employees and provides technical assistance in solving other work-related problems. PMID:8271072

Hochanadel, C D; Conrad, D E

1993-10-01

169

DOE EM industry programs robotics development  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD&D, as well as testing and evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. OST has organized technology management activities along focus teams for each major problem area. There are currently five focus areas: decontamination and decommissioning, tanks, subsurface contaminants, mixed waste, and plutonium. In addition, OST is pursuing research and development (R&D) that cuts across these focus areas by having applications in two or more focus areas. Currently, there are three cross-cutting programs: the robotics technology development; characterization, monitoring, and sensor technologies; and efficient separations and processing.

Staubly, R.; Kothari, V. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

1997-12-01

170

Industrial burner and process efficiency program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an acute need for a burner that does not use excess air to provide the required thermal turndown and internal recirculation of furnace gases in direct fired batch type furnaces. Such a burner would improve fuel efficiency and product temperature uniformity. A high velocity burner has been developed which is capable of multi-fuel, preheated air, staged combustion. This burner is operated by a microprocessor to fire in a discrete pulse mode using Frequency Modulation (FM) for furnace temperature control by regulating the pulse duration. A flame safety system has been designed to monitor the pulse firing burners using Factory Mutual approved components. The FM combustion system has been applied to an industrial batch hardening furnace (1800 F maximum temperature, 2500 lbs load capacity).

Huebner, S. R.; Prakash, S. N.; Hersh, D. B.

1982-10-01

171

Automated disposable small scale reactor for high throughput bioprocess development: a proof of concept study.  

PubMed

The acceleration of bioprocess development for biologics and vaccines can be enabled by automated high throughput technologies. This will alleviate the significant resource burden from the multi-factorial statistical experimentation required for controlling product quality attributes of complex biologics. Recent technology advances have improved clone evaluation and screening, but have struggled to combine the scale down criteria required for both high cell density cell culture and microbial processes, with sufficient automation and disposable technologies to accelerate process development. This article describes the proof of concept evaluations of an automated disposable small scale reactor for high throughput upstream process development. Characterization studies established the small scale stirred tank disposable 250 mL reactor as similar to those of lab and pilot scale. The reactor generated equivalent process performance for industrial biologics processes for therapeutic protein and monoclonal antibody production using CHO cell culture, Pichia pastoris and E. coli. This included similar growth, cell viability, product titer, and product quality. The technology was shown to be robust across multiple runs and met the requirements for the ability to run high cell density processes (>400 g/L wet cell weight) with exponential feeds and sophisticated event triggered processes. Combining this reactor into an automated array of reactors will ultimately be part of a high throughput process development strategy. This will combine upstream, small scale purification with rapid analytics that will dramatically shorten timelines and costs of developing biological processes. PMID:23775295

Bareither, Rachel; Bargh, Neil; Oakeshott, Robert; Watts, Kathryn; Pollard, David

2013-12-01

172

Development of a small scale orange juice extractor.  

PubMed

A small scale motorized orange juice extractor was designed and fabricated, using locally-available construction materials. The essential components of the machine include feeding hopper, top cover, worm shaft, juice sieve, juice collector, waste outlet, transmission belt, main frame, pulleys and bearings. In operation, the worm shaft conveys, crushes, presses and squeezes the fruit to extract the juice. The juice extracted is filtered through the juice sieve into juice collector while the residual waste is discharged through waste outlet. Result showed that the average juice yield and juice extraction efficiency were 41.6 and 57.4%, respectively. Powered by a 2 hp electric motor, the machine has a capacity of 14 kg/h. With a machine cost of about $100, it is affordable for small-scale citrus farmers in the rural communities. PMID:23572610

Olaniyan, A M

2010-01-01

173

LLNL Small-Scale Friction sensitivity (BAM) Test  

SciTech Connect

Small-scale safety testing of explosives, propellants and other energetic materials, is done to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli including friction, static spark, and impact. Testing is done to discover potential handling problems for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior, or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing {open_quotes}BAM{close_quotes} Small-Scale Friction Test, and the methods used to determine the friction sensitivity pertinent to handling energetic materials. The accumulated data for the materials tested is not listed here - that information is in a database. Included is, however, a short list of (1) materials that had an unusual response, and (2), a few {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} materials representing the range of typical responses usually seen.

Simpson, L.R.; Foltz, M.F.

1996-06-01

174

Brightness of the Sun's small scale magnetic field: proximity effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The net effect of the small scale magnetic field on the Sun's (bolometric) brightness is studied with realistic 3D MHD simulations. The direct effect of brightening within the magnetic field itself is consistent with measurements in high-resolution observations. The high "photometric accuracy" of the simulations, however, reveal compensating brightness effects that are hard to detect observationally. The influence of magnetic concentrations on the surrounding nonmagnetic convective flows (a "proximity effect") reduces the brightness by an amount exceeding the brightening by the magnetic concentrations themselves. The net photospheric effect of the small scale field (?-0.34% at a mean flux density of 50 G) is thus negative. We conclude that the main contribution to the observed positive correlation between the magnetic field and total solar irradiance must be magnetic dissipation in layers around the temperature minimum and above (not included in the simulations). This agrees with existing inferences from observations.

Thaler, I.; Spruit, H. C.

2014-06-01

175

Interaction of dynamic rupture with small-scale heterogeneities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broadband ground motion simulations, with frequencies up to 10Hz, are important for engineering purposes, in particular for seismic hazard assessment for critical facilities. One problem in such simulations is the generation of high frequency radiation emitted during the dynamic rupture process. Ad-hoc kinematic rupture characterizations can be tweaked through empirical models to radiate over the desired frequency range, but their physical consistency remains questionable. In contrast, for physically self-consistent dynamic rupture modeling, controlled by friction, material parameters and the adopted physical laws, the mechanism that may lead to appropriate high-frequency radiation require heterogeneity in friction, stress, or fault geometry (or even all three quantities) at unknown but small length scales. Dunham at al. (2011) studied dynamic rupture propagation on rough faults in 2D, and described how fault roughness excites high-frequency radiation. In our study, we focus on the interaction of the dynamic rupture with small-scale heterogeneities on planar faults in 3D. We study effects of the interaction of dynamic rupture with 1) small-scale heterogeneities in the medium (that is, randomized 3D wave speed and density variations), and 2) small-scale heterogeneities in the frictional parameters. Our numerical results show significant variations in rupture velocity or peak slip velocity if small-scale heterogeneities are present. This indicates that the dynamic rupture is sensitive to both types of spatial inhomogeneity. At the same time we observe that the resulting near-source seismic wave fields are not very sensitive to these rupture variations, indicating that wavefront healing effects may "simplify" the complex seismic radiation once the waves propagated several wave-lengths away from the fault.

Galis, Martin; Mai, P. Martin

2014-05-01

176

ATTITUDE CONTROL OPTIMIZATION FOR A SMALL-SCALE UNMANNED HELICOPTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results from the attitude control optimization for a small-scale helicopter by using an identified model of the vehicle dynamics that explicitly accounts for the coupled rotor\\/stabilizer\\/fuselage (r\\/s\\/f) dynamics. The accuracy of the model is verified by showing that it successfully predicts the performance of the control system currently used for Carnegie Mellon's autonomous helicopter (baseline controller). Elementary

Bernard Mettler; Takeo Kanade; Mark B. Tischler; William Messner

177

On the small-scale structure of solar magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small-scale structure of solar magnetic fields has been studied using simultaneous recordings in the spectral lines Fe i 5250 Å and Fe i 5233 Å, obtained with the Kitt Peak multi-channel magnetograph. We find that more than 90% of the magnetic flux in active regions (excluding the sunspots), observed with a 2.4 by 2.4? aperture, is channelled through narrow

E. N. Frazier; J. O. Stenflo

1972-01-01

178

CONSERVATION AND SUBSISTENCE IN SMALL-SCALE SOCIETIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Some scholars have championed,the view that small-scale societies are conservers or even creators of biodiversity. Others have argued,that human,popula- tions have always modified their environments, often in ways that enhance short-term gains at the expense,of environmental,stability and biodiversity conservation. Recent ethnographic,studies as well as theory from several disciplines allow a less polarized assessment. We review this body,of data

Eric Alden Smith; Mark Wishnie

2000-01-01

179

On the Dynamics of Small-Scale Solar Magnetic Elements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on the dynamics of the small-scale solar magnetic field, based on analysis of very high resolution images of the solar photosphere obtained at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope. The data sets are movies from 1 to 4 hr in length, taken in several wavelength bands with a typical time between frames of 20 s. The primary method of tracking small-scale magnetic elements is with very high contrast images of photospheric bright points, taken through a 12 A bandpass filter centered at 4305 A in the Fraunhofer 'G band.' Previous studies have established that such bright points are unambiguously associated with sites of small-scale magnetic flux in the photosphere, although the details of the mechanism responsible for the brightening of the flux elements remain uncertain. The G band bright points move in the intergranular lanes at speeds from 0.5 to 5 km/s. The motions appear to be constrained to the intergranular lanes and are primarily driven by the evolution of the local granular convection flow field. Continual fragmentation and merging of flux is the fundamental evolutionary mode of small-scale magnetic structures in the solar photosphere. Rotation and folding of chains or groups of bright points are also observed. The timescale for magnetic flux evolution in active region plage is on the order of the correlation time of granulation (typically 6-8 minutes), but significant morphological changes can occur on timescales as short as 100 S. Smaller fragments are occasionally seen to fade beyond observable contrast. The concept of a stable, isolated subarcsecond magnetic 'flux tube' in the solar photosphere is inconsistent with the observations presented here.

Berger, T. E.; Title, A. M.

1996-01-01

180

Simulation of micro-sources in a small scale microgrid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, four different micro-sources for a small scale microgrid are simulated using PSCAD. The micro-sources include photovoltaic (PV) array, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, wind turbine and synchronous generators. As an energy storage device, lead-acid battery is also simulated. To obtain practical models for the above micro-sources, the effective parameters on each of the micro-sources' outputs are

H. Hosseinzadeh; X. Huang; J. Jiang

2009-01-01

181

The WEB Structures at Small Scale Related to ?0 Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper, using a variety of N-body and gas codes, we study the large scale structures (LSS) and the small scale structures (LSS) (nonlinear regime in different cosmological scenarious). Furthermore, we identify coherent objects at various threshold levels and calculate their planarity and filamentarity. The WEB theory is used to constrain the cosmological parameters of the inflation-based ?0 CDM models.

Doru Suran, Marian; Popescu, Nedelia Antonia

182

Small-scale structure of the Taylor-Green vortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enhancement of vorticity and the subsequent formation of small-scale eddies are investigated using the model of the 3D inviscid and viscid Taylor-Green vortex. The early-time behavior of the inviscid flow is discussed, and the inviscid flow is analyzed quantitatively by time-stepping direct integration of the Navier-Stokes equations and power-series techniques. Viscous flows are characterized, intermittency and dissipative structures in

M. E. Brachet; D. I. Meiron; S. A. Orszag; B. G. Nickel; R. H. Morf; U. Frisch

1983-01-01

183

Predicting GAC Performance With Rapid Small-Scale Column Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid small-scale column test (RSSCT) is a scaled-down version of a pilot-or full-scale granular activated carbon (GAC) column. Simple equations for selecting the design and operating parameters of RSSCTs from the full-scale process design variables are presented, and their limitations are discussed. Carbon usage rates and breakthrough profiles for RSSCTs are compared with pilot-column results. Case studies representing high

John C. Crittenden; Parimi Sanjay Reddy; Harish Arora; John Trynoski; David W. Hand; David L. Perram; R. Scott Summers

1991-01-01

184

Moving bed biofilm reactors: a small-scale treatment solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and operational suitability of the moving bed process for small-scale sewage treatment systems were evaluated. A prototype plant was installed at a new housing development near Winchester, UK, and operated under different conditions over an eight-month period. During normal operation, the MBBR plant produced a good quality effluent with average values for BOD5, COD, SS and NH4-N of

D. Daude; T. Stephenson

2003-01-01

185

A study of large scale gust generation in a small scale atmospheric wind tunnel with applications to Micro Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern technology operating in the atmospheric boundary layer can always benefit from more accurate wind tunnel testing. While scaled atmospheric boundary layer tunnels have been well developed, tunnels replicating portions of the atmospheric boundary layer turbulence at full scale are a comparatively new concept. Testing at full-scale Reynolds numbers with full-scale turbulence in an "atmospheric wind tunnel" is sought. Many programs could utilize such a tool including Micro Aerial Vehicle(MAV) development, the wind energy industry, fuel efficient vehicle design, and the study of bird and insect flight, to name just a few. The small scale of MAVs provide the somewhat unique capability of full scale Reynolds number testing in a wind tunnel. However, that same small scale creates interactions under real world flight conditions, atmospheric gusts for example, that lead to a need for testing under more complex flows than the standard uniform flow found in most wind tunnels. It is for these reasons that MAVs are used as the initial testing application for the atmospheric gust tunnel. An analytical model for both discrete gusts and a continuous spectrum of gusts is examined. Then, methods for generating gusts in agreement with that model are investigated. Previously used methods are reviewed and a gust generation apparatus is designed. Expected turbulence and gust characteristics of this apparatus are compared with atmospheric data. The construction of an active "gust generator" for a new atmospheric tunnel is reviewed and the turbulence it generates is measured utilizing single and cross hot wires. Results from this grid are compared to atmospheric turbulence and it is shown that various gust strengths can be produced corresponding to weather ranging from calm to quite gusty. An initial test is performed in the atmospheric wind tunnel whereby the effects of various turbulence conditions on transition and separation on the upper surface of a MAV wing is investigated using the surface oil flow visualization technique.

Roadman, Jason Markos

186

Empirical spatial econometric modelling of small scale neighbourhood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the paper is to model small scale neighbourhood in a house price model by implementing the newest methodology in spatial econometrics. A common problem when modelling house prices is that in practice it is seldom possible to obtain all the desired variables. Especially variables capturing the small scale neighbourhood conditions are hard to find. If there are important explanatory variables missing from the model, the omitted variables are spatially autocorrelated and they are correlated with the explanatory variables included in the model, it can be shown that a spatial Durbin model is motivated. In the empirical application on new house price data from Helsinki in Finland, we find the motivation for a spatial Durbin model, we estimate the model and interpret the estimates for the summary measures of impacts. By the analysis we show that the model structure makes it possible to model and find small scale neighbourhood effects, when we know that they exist, but we are lacking proper variables to measure them.

Gerkman, Linda

2012-07-01

187

Dislocation dynamics simulations of plasticity at small scales  

SciTech Connect

As metallic structures and devices are being created on a dimension comparable to the length scales of the underlying dislocation microstructures, the mechanical properties of them change drastically. Since such small structures are increasingly common in modern technologies, there is an emergent need to understand the critical roles of elasticity, plasticity, and fracture in small structures. Dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations, in which the dislocations are the simulated entities, offer a way to extend length scales beyond those of atomistic simulations and the results from DD simulations can be directly compared with the micromechanical tests. The primary objective of this research is to use 3-D DD simulations to study the plastic deformation of nano- and micro-scale materials and understand the correlation between dislocation motion, interactions and the mechanical response. Specifically, to identify what critical events (i.e., dislocation multiplication, cross-slip, storage, nucleation, junction and dipole formation, pinning etc.) determine the deformation response and how these change from bulk behavior as the system decreases in size and correlate and improve our current knowledge of bulk plasticity with the knowledge gained from the direct observations of small-scale plasticity. Our simulation results on single crystal micropillars and polycrystalline thin films can march the experiment results well and capture the essential features in small-scale plasticity. Furthermore, several simple and accurate models have been developed following our simulation results and can reasonably predict the plastic behavior of small scale materials.

Zhou, Caizhi

2010-12-15

188

Models for Direct Industry Support of US Civil Engineering Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Of the approximately 250 accredited civil engineering programs in the US, the proportion that have direct and formal advisement from local industry is unknown. Where present, external, corporate-style advisory boards made up of practicing engineers and executives from local engineering and construction firms provide formal support in the form of curricular development advice, scholarships and operational funding, as well as co-op and internship programs. The presence and involvement of advisory bodies focused on the departmental rather than the college or university level is perceived as a distinct program advantage and has been recognized by ABET program evaluators. Still, the relative benefits of direct industry support and advisement have not previously been measured. This paper will describe the various forms of informal and formal CE program support and present a survey methodology for evaluating whether these arrangements have a quantifiable effect on program success. A database of advisory boards from surveyed programs is presented and analyzed. The objectives of this work are to correlate the relative performance of CE programs' enrollment, research expenditures, and other factors with direct advisement and support by external boards; and to enumerate the co-incentives that advisory boards and CEprograms share. A case study is presented based on the Civil Engineering Institute (CEI), a nonprofit Virginia corporation and formal advisory board established in 1989 whose purpose is to assist with the Civil and Infrastructure Engineering program of GMU. The paper will finally present guidance and suggestions for implementing formal program support.

Casey, Michael; O'Donnel, Ellen

2009-09-30

189

Technical assessment of the Office of Industrial Programs' Advanced Heat Exchanger Program  

SciTech Connect

The DOE's AHX Program is an integral part of the OIP's Waste Heat Recovery Program whose goals are to increase the end-use energy efficiency of industry and agricultural operations, and to expand the energy options for manufacturing processes by providing technologies which use various fuels including coal, renewables, oil, and natural gas. The OIP and PNL convened a panel of industry experts to conduct a technical assessment of OIP's AHX program. This report documents the results of the panel's assessment.

Rinker, F.G.; Bergles, A.E.; Marciniak, T.J.; Batman, J.

1987-02-01

190

Formation and evolution of small-scale solar magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis I investigate the formation and evolution of small-scale magnetic fields on the surface of the Sun. I observe the magnetic field in quiet sun regions in an effort to further understand the baseline magnetic field that exists throughout the photosphere at all phases of the solar cycle. An automated feature tracking algorithm that I helped develop allows me to systematically analyze datasets containing over 10 5 evolving magnetic features. In 1.2"-resolution Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) magnetograms, I find that 30% of features identified by our algorithm originate without other detectable flux within 2.2 Mm. These features having an apparent unipolar origin account for 94% of the flux newly detected by the algorithm. I infer from their ensemble average that these features are actually previously existing flux, coalesced by surface flows into concentrations large and strong enough to detect. Flux coalescence is at least as important as bipolar ephemeral region emergence for introducing detectable flux into the photosphere, underscoring the importance of small-scale fields to the overall photospheric flux budget. Using 0.3"-resolution magnetograms from the Narrowband Filter Imager (NFI) on the recently-launched Hinode spacecraft, I confirm that apparent unipolar emergence seen with MDI is indeed flux coalescence. I then demonstrate that apparent unipolar emergence seen in NFI magnetograms also corresponds to coalescence of previously existing weak field. The uncoalesced flux, detectable only in the ensemble average of hundreds of these events, accounts for 30-50% of the total flux within 3 Mm of the detected features. Finally, I study small-scale fields around intermediate-scale supergranular network concentrations. This is motivated by simulations and observations showing suppression of flux production by background magnetic fields at small and large scales. Within 12 Mm of the network concentrations, I find no evidence that the concentrations systematically affect the local production of weak fields. Rather, the small-scale field usually traces the evolution of the much larger network concentrations, which evolve under the influence of the supergranular flow. These studies show the degree to which the formation and evolution of small-scale magnetic fields is intertwined with surface flows and magnetic fields on both smaller and larger scales.

Lamb, D. A.

2008-06-01

191

Tobacco industry sociological programs to influence public beliefs about smoking  

PubMed Central

The multinational tobacco companies responded to arguments about the social costs of smoking and hazards of secondhand smoke by quietly implementing the Social Costs/Social Values project (1979–1989), which relied upon the knowledge and authoritative power of social scientists to construct an alternate cultural repertoire of smoking. Social scientists created and disseminated non-health based, pro-tobacco arguments without fully acknowledging their relationship with the industry. After the U.S. Surgeon General concluded that nicotine was addictive in 1988, the industry responded by forming “Associates for Research in the Science of Enjoyment” (c.1988–1999), whose members toured the world promoting the health benefits of the use of legal substances, including tobacco, for stress relief and relaxation, without acknowledging the industry’s role. In this paper we draw on previously secret tobacco industry documents, now available on the internet to show how both of these programs utilized academic sociologists, political scientists, anthropologists, psychologists, philosophers and economists, and allowed the industry to develop and widely disseminate friendly research through credible channels. Strategies included creating favorable surveys and opinions, infusing them into the lay press and media through press releases, articles and conferences, publishing, promoting and disseminating books, commissioning and placing favorable book reviews, providing media training for book authors and organizing media tours. These programs allowed the tobacco industry to affect public and academic discourse on the social acceptability of smoking.

Glantz, Stanton; Landman, Anne; Cortese, Daniel K

2008-01-01

192

DOE EM industry programs robotics development  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD and D, as well as testing and evaluation for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. Robotic systems reduce worker exposure to the absolute minimum, while providing proven, cost-effective, and, for some applications, the only acceptable technique for addressing challenging problems. Development of robotic systems for remote operations occurs in three main categories: tank waste characterization and retrieval; decontamination and dismantlement; and characterization, mapping, and inspection systems. In addition, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has some other projects which fall under the heading of supporting R and D. The central objective of all FETC robotic projects is to make robotic systems more attractive by reducing costs and health risks associated with the deployment of robotic technologies in the cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. This will be accomplished through development of robots that are cheaper, faster, safer, and more reliable, as well as more straightforward to modify/adapt and more intuitive to operate with autonomous capabilities and intelligent controls that prevent accidents and optimize task execution.

Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.

1998-12-31

193

A Statistical Study on the Reconnection in Boundary Layers of Small-scale Magnetic Flux Tubes in Solar Winds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the data from WIND satellite in 1995—2005, the small-scale magnetic ?ux tubes determined with two methods, i.e., the arti?cial recognition and program selection respectively, are compared. It is found that there are magnetic reconnections in the boundary layers of 41% small-scale magnetic ?ux tubes determined with the program selection method, which is similar to the re- sult of small-scale magnetic ?ux tubes determined with the method of arti?cial recognition. The features of magnetic reconnections, such as the magnetic shear angle, magnetic ?eld strength, and duration of the dissipation region of recon- nection at the small-scale ?ux tubes' boundaries determined from both methods have the same statistical tendency. This shows that there is no essential differ- ence in the properties of reconnections in the boundary layers of the small-scale magnetic ?ux tubes determined with the two methods. Hence the data yielded by both methods can be used as the samples for statistically studying the events of reconnection in the front and back boundary layers of small-scale ?ux ropes. There are totally 71 magnetic reconnection events selected in this paper. Our statistical result shows that in 50 events (70%) the decrease of magnetic ?eld strength in the dissipation region of reconnection is larger than 20%, and in 47 events (66%) the magnetic shear angle is larger than 90 degrees. These indicate that the magnetic reconnections in boundaries of the small-scale magnetic ?ux tubes are more likely to be anti-parallel. The statistics has been performed sep- arately in the reconnections of the front and back boundary layers of small-scale magnetic ?ux tubes. The results show that the features of reconnections in the front and back boundaries are similar to each other, which is different from the various properties in the front and back boundaries of the magnetic clouds, and this means that the expansion in the large-scale magnetic ?ux tubes, such as magnetic clouds, does not happen in the small-scale magnetic ?ux tubes.

Qi, Yu; Yao, Shuo; He, Jian-sen; Tian, Hui; Tu, Chuan-yi

2013-04-01

194

Program Improvement Project for Industrial Education. Annual Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to improve industrial education programs through the development of minimum uniform quality standards, a project developed a task list, educationally sequenced the identified tasks, and developed a recommended shop layout and equipment list for four occupational areas: diesel repair, appliance repair, office machine repair, and small…

Shaeffer, Bruce W.

195

Examples of backreaction of small-scale inhomogeneities in cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In previous work, we introduced a new framework to treat large-scale backreaction effects due to small-scale inhomogeneities in general relativity. We considered one-parameter families of spacetimes for which such backreaction effects can occur, and we proved that, provided the weak energy condition on matter is satisfied, the leading effect of small-scale inhomogeneities on large-scale dynamics is to produce a traceless effective stress-energy tensor that itself satisfies the weak energy condition. In this work, we illustrate the nature of our framework by providing two explicit examples of one-parameter families with backreaction. The first, based on previous work of Berger, is a family of polarized vacuum Gowdy spacetimes on a torus, which satisfies all of the assumptions of our framework. As the parameter approaches its limiting value, the metric uniformly approaches a smooth background metric, but spacetime derivatives of the deviation of the metric from the background metric do not converge uniformly to zero. The limiting metric has nontrivial backreaction from the small-scale inhomogeneities, with an effective stress energy that is traceless and satisfies the weak energy condition, in accord with our theorems. Our second one-parameter family consists of metrics which have a uniform Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker limit. This family satisfies all of our assumptions with the exception of the weak energy condition for matter. In this case, the limiting metric has an effective stress-energy tensor which is not traceless. We emphasize the importance of imposing energy conditions on matter in studies of backreaction.

Green, Stephen R.; Wald, Robert M.

2013-06-01

196

Small-Scale Spatial Variability of Soil Nutrients and Vegetation Properties in Semi-Arid Northern China 1 1 Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program (973 Program) of China (No. 2002CB111506), the Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. KZCX3SW418), and the National Programs for Science and Technology Development of China (No. 2005BA517A03)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted at Kezuohouqi County, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China, which was located on the southeastern edge of the Horqin Sandy Land, to study the spatial variability of soil nutrients for a small-scale, nutrient-poor, sandy site in a semi-arid region of northern China; to investigate whether or not there were “islands of fertility” at the experimental

Fu-Sheng CHEN; De-Hui ZENG; Xing-Yuan HE

2006-01-01

197

Small scale wind perturbation analysis for vertically rising launch vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the determination of small-scale vertical wind spectra used with space flight and ballistic technology. In particular, Jimsphere, a precision balloon wind sensor with high radar reflectivity is considered. Gross wind velocity data is analyzed to subtract the steady-state wind and wind change-shear effects. A residue of small wind perturbations is left in the horizontal (scalar) along the vertical direction. An analysis leading to formulation of the covariance function with altitude is presented. The function is decoupled to yield an almost periodic representation of the vertical wind perturbations. Forcing functions are determined when the representation is coupled with the vehicle velocity characteristics.

Chenoweth, H. B.

1980-01-01

198

Development of small scale soft x-ray lasers  

SciTech Connect

At present rapid progress is being made in the application of soft x-ray lasers to fields such as microscopy and microlithography. A critical factor in the range of suitable applications is the scale and hence cost of the soft x-ray lasers. At Princeton, gain at 183{angstrom} has been obtained with relatively low pump laser energies (as low as 6J) in a portable'' small-scale soft x-ray laser system. We will also discuss aspects of data interpretation and pitfalls to be avoided in measurements of gain in such systems. 14 refs., 7 figs.

Kim, D.; Suckewer, S. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab. Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering); Skinner, C.H.; Voorhees, D. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.)

1991-05-01

199

Overview of the Testing of a Small-Scale Proprotor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an overview of results from the wind tunnel test of a 1/4-scale V-22 proprotor in the Duits-Nederlandse Windtunnel (DNW) in The Netherlands. The small-scale proprotor was tested on the isolated rotor configuration of the Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM). The test was conducted by a joint team from NASA Ames, NASA Langley, U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate, and The Boeing Company. The objective of the test was to acquire a benchmark database for validating aeroacoustic analyses. Representative examples of airloads, acoustics, structural loads, and performance data are provided and discussed.

Young, Larry A.; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Booth, Earl R., Jr.; Botha, Gavin; Dawson, Seth

1999-01-01

200

A small scale biomass fueled gas turbine engine  

SciTech Connect

A new generation of small scale (less than 20 MWd) biomass fueled, power plants are being developed based on a gas turbine (Brayton cycle) prime mover. These power plants are expected to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of generating power from fuels such as wood. The new power plants are also expected to economically utilize annual plant growth materials (such as rice hulls, cotton gin trash, nut shells, and various straws, grasses, and animal manures) that are not normally considered as fuel for power plants. This paper summarizes the new power generation concept with emphasis on the engineering challenges presented by the gas turbine component.

Craig, J.D. [Cratech, Inc., Tahoka, TX (United States); Purvis, C.R. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Air Pollution Prevention and Control Div.

1999-01-01

201

Dimensional analysis of small-scale steam explosion experiments  

SciTech Connect

Dimensional analysis applied to Nelson's small-scale steam explosion experiments to determine the qualitative effect of each relevant parameter for triggering a steam explosion. According to experimental results, the liquid entrapment model seems to be a consistent explanation for the steam explosion triggering mechanism. The three-dimensional oscillatory wave motion of the vapor/liquid interface is analyzed to determine the necessary conditions for local condensation and production of a coolant microjet to be entrapped in fuel. It is proposed that different contact modes between fuel and coolant may involve different initiation mechanisms of steam explosions.

Huh, K.; Corradini, M.L.

1986-05-01

202

Handbook for Small-Scale Densified Biomass Fuel (Pellets) Manufacturing for Local Markets.  

SciTech Connect

Wood pellet manufacturing in the Intermountain West is a recently founded and rapidly expanding energy industry for small-scale producers. Within a three-year period, the total number of manufacturers in the region has increased from seven to twelve (Folk et al., 1988). Small-scale industry development is evolving because a supply of raw materials from small and some medium-sized primary and secondary wood processors that has been largely unused. For the residue producer considering pellet fuel manufacturing, the wastewood generated from primary products often carries a cost associated with residue disposal when methods at-e stockpiling, landfilling or incinerating. Regional processors use these methods for a variety of reasons, including the relatively small amounts of residue produced, residue form, mixed residue types, high transportation costs and lack of a local market, convenience and absence of regulation. Direct costs associated with residue disposal include the expenses required to own and operate residue handling equipment, costs for operating and maintaining a combustor and tipping fees charged to accept wood waste at public landfills. Economic and social costs related to environmental concerns may also be incurred to include local air and water quality degradation from open-air combustion and leachate movement into streams and drinking water.

Folk, Richard L.; Govett, Robert L.

1992-07-01

203

Investigation of the small-scale structure and dynamics of Uranus' atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document constitutes the final technical report of the Uranus Analysis Program. Papers and/or abstracts resulting from this research are presented. The following topics are covered: (1) past and future of radio occultation studies of planetary atmospheres; (2) equatorial waves in the stratosphere of Uranus; (3) the atmosphere of Uranus- results of radio occultation measurements with Voyager 2; (4) Uranus' atmospheric dynamics and circulation; (5) small-scale structure and dynamics in the atmosphere of Uranus; (6) evidence for inertia-gravity waves in the stratosphere of Uranus derived from Voyager 2 radio occultation data; and (7) planetary waves in the equatorial stratosphere of Uranus.

Eshleman, Von R.; Hinson, David P.

1991-01-01

204

A small-scale anatomical dosimetry model of the liver.  

PubMed

Radionuclide therapy is a growing and promising approach for treating and prolonging the lives of patients with cancer. For therapies where high activities are administered, the liver can become a dose-limiting organ; often with a complex, non-uniform activity distribution and resulting non-uniform absorbed-dose distribution. This paper therefore presents a small-scale dosimetry model for various source-target combinations within the human liver microarchitecture. Using Monte Carlo simulations, Medical Internal Radiation Dose formalism-compatible specific absorbed fractions were calculated for monoenergetic electrons; photons; alpha particles; and (125)I, (90)Y, (211)At, (99m)Tc, (111)In, (177)Lu, (131)I and (18)F. S values and the ratio of local absorbed dose to the whole-organ average absorbed dose was calculated, enabling a transformation of dosimetry calculations from macro- to microstructure level. For heterogeneous activity distributions, for example uptake in Kupffer cells of radionuclides emitting low-energy electrons ((125)I) or high-LET alpha particles ((211)At) the target absorbed dose for the part of the space of Disse, closest to the source, was more than eight- and five-fold the average absorbed dose to the liver, respectively. With the increasing interest in radionuclide therapy of the liver, the presented model is an applicable tool for small-scale liver dosimetry in order to study detailed dose-effect relationships in the liver. PMID:24874832

Stenvall, Anna; Larsson, Erik; Strand, Sven-Erik; Jönsson, Bo-Anders

2014-07-01

205

Small-Scale Spatial Structure of Shallow Snowcovers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a field study of the small-scale spatial structure of the depth of shallow seasonal snowcovers in prairie and arctic environments are presented. It is shown that the spatial distribution of snow depth is fractal at small scales, becoming random at scales beyond some limiting length. This is due to the autocorrelation of depth at small sampling distances. The transition of fractal to random behaviour is indexed by a cutoff length, which is defined by the intersection of the fractal slope and horizontal tangent of a logarithmic plot of the standard deviation of depth versus sampling distance. The magnitude of the cutoff length is related to the degree of macroscopic variability of the underlying topography. An increase in length due to the effects of macroscopic topographic variability on snowcover accumulation is confirmed by de-trending field measurements. The de-trended data shown a cutoff length for wheat stubble and fallow surfaces of approximately 30 m, which is consistent with the distance determined from measurements on flat fields.The implications of the transition of snow depth from fractal to random structure on the scales of snow sampling and modelling are presented. The cutoff length may provide a statistic for stratifying shallow snowcovers, by linking snowcover properties to the underlying topography.

Shook, Kevin; Gray, D. M.

1996-10-01

206

A small-scale anatomical dosimetry model of the liver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radionuclide therapy is a growing and promising approach for treating and prolonging the lives of patients with cancer. For therapies where high activities are administered, the liver can become a dose-limiting organ; often with a complex, non-uniform activity distribution and resulting non-uniform absorbed-dose distribution. This paper therefore presents a small-scale dosimetry model for various source–target combinations within the human liver microarchitecture. Using Monte Carlo simulations, Medical Internal Radiation Dose formalism-compatible specific absorbed fractions were calculated for monoenergetic electrons; photons; alpha particles; and 125I, 90Y, 211At, 99mTc, 111In, 177Lu, 131I and 18F. S values and the ratio of local absorbed dose to the whole-organ average absorbed dose was calculated, enabling a transformation of dosimetry calculations from macro- to microstructure level. For heterogeneous activity distributions, for example uptake in Kupffer cells of radionuclides emitting low-energy electrons (125I) or high-LET alpha particles (211At) the target absorbed dose for the part of the space of Disse, closest to the source, was more than eight- and five-fold the average absorbed dose to the liver, respectively. With the increasing interest in radionuclide therapy of the liver, the presented model is an applicable tool for small-scale liver dosimetry in order to study detailed dose–effect relationships in the liver.

Stenvall, Anna; Larsson, Erik; Strand, Sven-Erik; Jönsson, Bo-Anders

2014-07-01

207

Small scales and anisotropy in low Rm magnetohydrodynamic turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we derive estimates for size of the small scales and the attractor dimension in low Rm magnetohydrodynamic turbulence by deriving a rigorous upper bound of the dimension of the attractor representing this flow. To this end, we find an upper bound for the maximum growth rate of any n-dimensional volume of the phase space by the evolution operator associated to the Navier-Stokes equations. As explained in Constantin et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 150, 427 (1985)], the value of n for which this maximum is zero is an upper bound for the attractor dimension. In order to use this property in the more precise case of a three-dimensional periodical domain, we are led to calculate the distribution of n modes which minimizes the total (viscous and Joule) dissipation. This set of modes turns out to exhibit most of the well known properties of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, previously obtained by heuristic considerations such as the existence of the Joule cone under strong magnetic field. The sought estimates for the small scales and attractor dimension are then obtained under no physical assumption as functions of the Hartmann and the Reynolds numbers and match the Hartmann number dependency of heuristic results. A necessary condition for the flow to be tridimensional and anisotropic (as opposed to purely two-dimensional) is also built.

Pothérat, A.; Alboussière, T.

2003-10-01

208

Preliminary Scaling Estimate for Select Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Tests  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions’ Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems.

Wells, Beric E.; Fort, James A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.; Schonewill, Philip P.

2013-09-12

209

Work related injuries in small scale commercial fishing  

PubMed Central

Objective: To describe the epidemiology of work related injury in a group of small scale, independent commercial fishers. Design: Cross sectional survey (baseline instrument of a prospective cohort study). Setting and subjects: Commercial fishers in eastern North Carolina. Results: A cohort of 219 commercial fishers was established and 215 subjects completed an injury questionnaire. The main types of fishing conducted by the cohort were finfishing (159/215) and crabbing (154/215). Of the 215 fishers, 83 reported that they had suffered an injury event in the previous 12 months, a retrospective recall incidence proportion of 38.6 per 100 workers (95% confidence interval 32.1 to 45.1). The 83 injury events resulted in 94 injuries; 47% were penetrating wounds and 24% were strains/sprains. Half of injuries were to the hand/wrist/digits and 13% were to the back. Of the penetrating wounds, 87% were to the hand/wrist/digits, 32% became infected, and 80% were caused by contact with finfish, shellfish, or other marine animal. Of the strains/sprains, 48% were to the back and 26% were to the shoulder. Seventy percent of strains/sprains were caused by moving heavy objects, mainly either while hauling in nets, pots, or lines or loading/unloading the boat. Conclusion: In this group of small scale, independent fishers, the most common reported injuries were penetrating wounds to the hand/wrist/digits from marine animals and strains/sprains to the back while moving heavy objects.

Marshall, S; Kucera, K; Loomis, D; McDonald, M; Lipscomb, H

2004-01-01

210

Small-scale magnetic field measurements in a sunspot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We continue to study the fine peculiarities of the Zeeman effect in the sunspot of 25 March 1991 which was observed on horizontal solar telescope of Astronomical Observatory of Kyiv Shevchenko University. Zeeman splittings of I +V Stokes profiles of 20 spectral lines of FeI, VI, FeII, MoI, SiI, TiI and NiI were compared to diagnose the small-scale magnetic field structure in sunspot umbra. It was shown the observational evidences to the essential magnetic field inhomogeneity in both horizontal and vertical directions. First type of inhomogeneity follows from comparison of measured magnetic field values B versus Lande factors g of lines. Although the directly measured field strength B for the same place of sunspots was in range 150-650 mT, true range of field, as it follows from 'B-g' dependence, was likely wider, up to 1600 mT. Similar magnetic field strength was measured earlier by Lozitsky (1980, 1993, 1998) in solar flares and non-spot regions. In all cases such high magnetic field values should relate to the small-scale (spatiall unresolved) magnetic structures with small filling factor. Second type of inhomogeneity follows from magnetic field comparison for lines with the same or close Lande factors. This comparison shows that vertical magnetic field gradient at photospheric level of sunspot reaches about -0.8 mT/km.

Salimova, N.; Lozitsky, V.

2005-04-01

211

Small-scale tunnel test for blast performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The data reported here provide a validation of a small-scale tunnel test as a tool to guide the optimization of new explosives for blast performance in tunnels. The small-scale arrangement consisted of a 2-g booster and 10-g sample mounted at the closed end of a 127mm diameter by 4.6-m long steel tube with pressure transducers along its length. The three performance characteristics considered were peak pressure, initial energy release, and impulse. The relative performance from five explosives was compared to that from a 1.16-m diameter by 30-m long tunnel that used 2.27-kg samples. The peak pressure values didn't correlate between the tunnels. Partial impulse for the explosives did rank similarly. The initial energy release was determined from a one-dimensional point-source analysis, which nearly tracked with impulse suggesting additional energy released further down the tunnel for some explosives. This test is a viable tool for optimizing compositional variations for blast performance in target scenarios of similar geometry.

Felts, J. E.; Lee, R. J.

2014-05-01

212

Industrial pollution prevention programs in selected developing Asian countries  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the information on current activities to promote industrial pollution prevention (P2) in five selected Asian economies including Hong Kong, Republic of Korea, the Philippines, ROC in Taiwan, and Thailand. These activities, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into 6 categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technology development an demonstration, technical assistance, and financial incentives. Although participation is voluntary, these programs are all important at the early stages of P2 promotion and should be useful in informing industries of the benefit of P2 and helping them identify specific P2 measures as viable environmental management alternatives.

Chiu, Shen-yann [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1995-12-31

213

Technical Assessment of the Office of Industrial Programs' Advanced Heat Exchanger Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The DOE's AHX Program is an integral part of the OIP's Waste Heat Recovery Program whose goals are to increase the end-use energy efficiency of industry and agricultural operations, and to expand the energy options for manufacturing processes by providing...

F. G. Rinker A. E. Bergles T. J. Marciniak J. Batman

1987-01-01

214

Industry's voluntary program: Community Awareness and Emergency Response Program and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the chemical industry's Community Awareness and Emergency Response (CAER) Program, and voluntary and mandatory actions by the chemical industry to comply with the major environmental legislation. The chemical industry started the voluntary CAER Program soon after the Bhopal Disaster in 1984; it is coordinated through the Chemical Manufacturer's Association. This program, which began in March 1985, is

1990-01-01

215

Analysis of industrial pollution prevention programs in selected Asian countries  

SciTech Connect

Industrialization in developing countries is causing increasing environmental damage. Pollution prevention (P2) is an emerging environmental concept that could help developing countries achieve leapfrog goals, bypassing old and pollutive technologies and minimizing traditional control practices. The current P2 promotion activities in Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand are discussed. These programs, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into five categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technical assistance, and financial incentives. All important at the early stages of P2 promotion, these programs should inform industries of the benefits of P2 and help them identify applicable P2 measures. Participation in these programs is voluntary. The limited data indicate that adoption of P2 measures in these countries is not yet widespread. Recommendations for expanding P2 promotion activities include (1) strengthening the design and enforcement of environmental regulations; (2) providing P2 training and education to government workers, nongovernmental organizations and labor unions officials, university faculties, and news media; (3) tracking the progress of P2 programs; (4) implementing selected P2 mandatory measures; (5) identifying cleaner production technologies for use in new facilities; (6) implementing special programs for small and medium enterprises; and (7) expanding P2 promotion to other sectors, such as agriculture and transportation, and encouraging green design and green consumerism.

Chiu, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1995-05-01

216

First NASA/Industry High Speed Research Program Nozzle Symposium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The First High Speed Research (HSR) Nozzle Symposium was hosted by NASA Lewis Research Center on November 17-19, 1992 in Cleveland, Ohio, and was sponsored by the HSR Source Noise Working Group. The purpose of this symposium was to provide a national forum for the government, industry, and university participants in the program to present and discuss important low noise nozzle research results and technology issues related to the development of appropriate nozzles for a commercially viable, environmentally compatible, U.S. High-Speed Civil Transport. The HSR Phase I research program was initiated in FY90 and is approaching the first major milestone (end of FY92) relative to an initial FAR 36 Stage 3 nozzle noise assessment. Significant research results relative to that milestone were presented. The opening session provided a brief overview of the Program and status of the Phase H plan. The next five sessions were technically oriented and highlighted recent significant analytical and experimental accomplishments. The last Session included a panel discussion by the Session Chairs, summarizing the progress seen to date and discussing issues relative to further advances in technology necessary to achieve the Program Goals. Attendance at the Symposium was by invitation only and included only industry, academic, and government participants who are actively involved in the High-Speed Research Program. The technology presented in this meeting is considered commercially sensitive.

Long-Davis, Mary Jo

1999-01-01

217

Commercial national accounts program is a gas industry revenue builder  

SciTech Connect

The need for gas distributors to implement revenue-generating strategies is clearly evident in the commercial sector - their fastest growing market. One strategy is A.G.A.'s commercial national accounts marketing program, designed to establish working relationships with national and regional food, hotel, and retail chains and with the firms that design energy systems for them. The program supplies these chains with information on gas industry services and research aimed at increasing energy utilization efficiency. Regular communications and coordinated sales calls by gas utility executives on chain headquarters often produce increased gas sales, even of traditionally all-electric chains, as illustrated by several case histories.

Moskitis, T.L.

1984-04-01

218

Preliminary results of the NASA/industry hybrid propulsion program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA has been investigating the potential of hybrid propulsion, on and off, for the last thirty years. In 1989, a study to identify the required technologies for large boosters was funded and, in March of 1992, the NASA-Marshall formalized a coordinated program of research on hybrid propulsion. The cornerstone of this program is represented by a partnership between government and industry to test hybrid systems and technology in motors ranging up to 40,000 lbs thrust. New data indicate the presence of at least two different nonacoustic instability mechanisms.

Goldberg, B. E.; Cook, J. R.

1992-07-01

219

LLNL small-scale drop-hammer impact sensitivity test  

SciTech Connect

Small-scale safety testing of explosives and other energetic materials is done to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli including friction, static spark, and impact. This testing is typically done to discover potential handling problems for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing ``ERL Type 12 Drop Weight Impact Sensitivity Apparatus``, or ``Drop Hammer Machine``, and the methods used to determine the impact sensitivity of energetic materials, Also discussed are changes made to both the machine and methods since the inception of impact sensitivity testing at LLNL in 1956. The accumulated data for the materials tested in not listed here, the exception being the discussion of those specific materials (primary calibrants: PETN, RDX, Comp-B3,and TNT; secondary calibrants: K-6, RX-26-AF, and TATB) used to calibrate the machine.

Simpson, L.R.; Foltz, M.F.

1995-01-01

220

A small scale laboratory flammability test for electronic components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new flammability test apparatus has been designed to fill the need for a small scale test for electronic components, to evaluate smoke evolved and time to flaming ignition. A concept similar in many respects to the approach to flammability studies made by the Ohio State University Release Rate Apparatus has been taken in providing a variable, controlled, radiant heat flux furnace in an enclosed space. The system incorporates an optional spark-induced method of ignition of combustible gases, and measurements are carried out at controlled ambient temperatures. The test apparatus uses many standard and readily available components and has been found to be useful for testing specimen up to 100 mm square, including individual electronic components and small circuit boards complete with components.

Woollerton, G. R.; Culver, D.

1980-04-01

221

Small-scale fuel cells for residential applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The market and technical requirements for small-scale fuel cells in residential applications are investigated, focusing on the 1 to 10 kW range. In particular, the peculiar features of the New Zealand situation are explored, with its specific energy resources and demands. It is shown that various technologies could be applied, with PEM, SOFC, PAFC and AFC competing on almost equal terms, with cost targets of 500 to 700 EUR/kW. The attributes and disadvantages are discussed, with a number of technology gaps being identified, and some solutions proposed. Two new developments in the PEM and SOFC systems are compared in relation to their use in domestic applications. The obvious premium application of fuel cells in New Zealand exists where grid connection is expensive. Other priority markets are also studied.

Sammes, N. M.; Boersma, R.

222

New measurements on small scale intermittency in fully developed turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small scale intermittency in a turbulent system is studied with low temperature helium gas as the working fluid. The focus is on measurements of the skewness and flatness factors of the velocity derivatives. By measuring these quantities in a large domain of microscale Reynolds numbers R? (from 150 to 3200), we find a transitional behavior around R? = 700. The flatness first increases below this threshold, then decreases and finally saturates or increases again. We study the intense events that give rise to the tails of the probability density function of the velocity derivatives. Remarkable structures are observed and compared with those previously found in numerical studies (worms). We finally study the dynamical role of such structures.

Belin, F.; Maurer, J.; Tabeling, P.; Willaime, H.

1996-01-01

223

Exact example of backreaction of small scale inhomogeneities in cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct a one-parameter family of polarized vacuum Gowdy spacetimes on a torus. In the limit as the parameter N goes to infinity, the metric uniformly approaches a smooth ``background metric.'' However, spacetime derivatives of the metric do not approach a limit. As a result, we find that the background metric itself is not a solution of the vacuum Einstein equation. Rather, it is a solution of the Einstein equation with an ``effective stress-energy tensor,'' which is traceless and satisfies the weak energy condition. This is an explicit example of backreaction due to small scale inhomogeneities. We comment on the non-vacuum case, where we have proven in previous work that, provided the matter stress-energy tensor satisfies the weak energy condition, no additional backreaction is possible.

Green, Stephen; Wald, Robert

2013-04-01

224

Characteristics of small scale turbulence in homogeneous turbulent shear flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The small scale structure of homogeneous turbulent shear flow is studied using data generated by Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) and a Rapid Distortion Theory (RDT) analysis for both incompressible and compressible cases. For the incompressible case, the RDT solutions, supported by the DNS data, predict that the normalized odd order transverse derivative moments should approach a constant different than zero at long times. Moreover, for higher order moments, it is suggested that this tendency should persist at large Reynolds numbers, in agreement with experimental data. In addition, the RDT solutions, also supported by the DNS results, predict that the even order transverse derivative moments are anisotropic and the anisotropy increases with the order of the moment, thus likely to persist at large Reynolds numbers for higher order moments. Similar results are obtained for the solenoidal velocity derivatives for the compressible case, while the even order transverse derivative moments of the dilatational velocity are shown to be more anisotropic than their solenoidal counterparts.

Livescu, Daniel; Madnia, Cyrus

2004-11-01

225

Numerical Simulation and Optimazation of Small Scale LNG Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LNG20 is a small-scale natural gas liquefier. Its capacity is 20 cube meters LNG per day. This liquefier could be used for the pipeline gas, coalbed gas, oil field gas liquefaction and peakshaving plant for town gas gate station and natural gas power plant. Two processing cycles are applied to LNG20, nitrogen expander cycle and mixed refrigerant cycle. In this report, two feed gases are the target sources; one is the pipeline gas in ``West-to-east pipeline gas'' in a gate station in Zhejiang province and coalbed gas in Northeast China. The numerical simulation and optimization for the LNG20 were carried out to obtain the design parameters.

Li, H. Y.; Jia, L. X.; Fan, Q. H.; Yin, Q. S.

2006-04-01

226

Transition from Large-Scale to Small-Scale Dynamo  

SciTech Connect

The dynamo equations are solved numerically with a helical forcing corresponding to the Roberts flow. In the fully turbulent regime the flow behaves as a Roberts flow on long time scales, plus turbulent fluctuations at short time scales. The dynamo onset is controlled by the long time scales of the flow, in agreement with the former Karlsruhe experimental results. The is governed by a generalized {alpha} effect, which includes both the usual {alpha} effect and turbulent diffusion, plus all higher order effects. Beyond the onset we find that this generalized {alpha} effect scales as O(Rm{sup -1}), suggesting the takeover of small-scale dynamo action. This is confirmed by simulations in which dynamo occurs even if the large-scale field is artificially suppressed.

Ponty, Y. [Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, B.P. 4229, Nice cedex 04 (France); Plunian, F. [Institut des Sciences de la Terre, CNRS, Universite Joseph Fourier, B.P. 53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 09 (France)

2011-04-15

227

Small Scale Response and Modeling of Periodically Forced Turbulence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The response of the small scales of isotropic turbulence to periodic large scale forcing is studied using two-point closures. The frequency response of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate, and the phase shifts between production, energy and dissipation are determined as functions of Reynolds number. It is observed that the amplitude and phase of the dissipation exhibit nontrivial frequency and Reynolds number dependence that reveals a filtering effect of the energy cascade. Perturbation analysis is applied to understand this behavior which is shown to depend on distant interactions between widely separated scales of motion. Finally, the extent to which finite dimensional models (standard two-equation models and various generalizations) can reproduce the observed behavior is discussed.

Bos, Wouter; Clark, Timothy T.; Rubinstein, Robert

2007-01-01

228

Microbial inoculants for small scale composting of putrescible kitchen wastes.  

PubMed

This research looked at the need for ligno-cellulolytic inoculants (EM bacteria and Trichoderma sp.) in small to medium scale composting of household wastes. A mixture of household organic waste comprised of kitchen waste, paper, grass clippings and composted material was subjected to various durations of thermo composting followed by vermicomposting with and without microbial inoculants for a total of 28days. The results revealed that ligno-celluloytic inoculants are not essential to speed up the process of composting for onsite small scale household organic waste treatment as no significant difference was observed between the control and those inoculated with Trichoderma and EM in terms of C:N ratio of the final product. However, it was observed that EM inoculation enhanced reproductive rate of earthworms, and so probably created the best environment for vermicomposting, in all treatment groups. PMID:20207530

Nair, J; Okamitsu, K

2010-06-01

229

On the small scale structure of simple shear flow  

SciTech Connect

The structure of the small scale velocity field is studied in an approximately homogeneous shear flow (constant mean shear) over the Reynolds number range 156{le}R{sub {lambda}}{le}390. The shear was generated in a wind tunnel using screens of various solidity and a series of straightening channels in the manner of Tavoularis and Corrsin [J. Fluid Mech. {bold 104}, 311 (1981)]. We show there is significant skewness (of order 1) of the derivative of the longitudinal velocity in the direction of the mean gradient, and thus that for these Reynolds numbers the flow is anisotropic at the small scales. The skewness slowly decreases with R{sub {lambda}} and is described by the empirical fit: S{sub {partial_derivative}u/{partial_derivative}y}=15.4R{sub {lambda}}{sup {minus}0.6}. Thus, even if this downward trend continues, our results imply that anisotropy at the third moment continues to very high R{sub {lambda}}. We also show that, over the R{sub {lambda}} range investigated, the kurtosis of {partial_derivative}u/{partial_derivative}y decreases (due to the diminishing effect of the structures that cause the skewness), implying that there will be a transition in this quantity, since it must increase as intermittency becomes more pronounced at higher R{sub {lambda}}. Transverse (as well as longitudinal) structure functions of the longitudinal velocity are studied up to the fifth moment. It is shown that the third order transverse structure function has a scaling range. Thus, the anisotropy exists at inertial as well as dissipation scales. The results are compared and contrasted with those of a passive scalar (for which it is known that persistent anisotropy exists at the third moment and above). {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Garg, S.; Warhaft, Z. [Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)] [Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

1998-03-01

230

Water over the Dam: A Small Scale Hydro Workbook for Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This manual is for individuals interested in developing small scale hydropower sites in Colorado. Although small scale hydro is sometimes defined as power production up to 80 megawatts, most developers using this handbook will have projects ranging from 1...

1981-01-01

231

Risk management with substitution options: Valuing flexibility in small-scale energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several features of small-scale energy systems make them more easily adapted to a changing operating environment than large centralized designs. This flexibility is often manifested as the ability to substitute inputs. This research explores the value of this substitution flexibility and the marginal value of becoming a "little more flexible" in the context of real project investment in developing countries. The elasticity of substitution is proposed as a stylized measure of flexibility and a choice variable. A flexible alternative (elasticity > 0) can be thought of as holding a fixed-proportions "nflexible" asset plus a sequence of exchange options---the option to move to another feasible "recipe" each period. Substitutability derives value from following a contour of anticipated variations and from responding to new information. Substitutability value, a "cost savings option", increases with elasticity and price risk. However, the required premium to incrementally increase flexibility can in some cases decrease with an increase in risk. Variance is not always a measure of risk. Tools from stochastic dominance are newly applied to real options with convex payoffs to correct some misperceptions and clarify many common modeling situations that meet the criteria for increased variance to imply increased risk. The behavior of the cost savings option is explored subject to a stochastic input price process. At the point where costs are identical for all alternatives, the stochastic process for cost savings becomes deterministic, with savings directly proportional to elasticity of substitution and price variance. The option is also formulated as a derivative security via dynamic programming. The partial differential equation is solved for the special case of Cobb-Douglas (elasticity = 1) (also shown are linear (infinite elasticity), Leontief (elasticity = 0)). Risk aversion is insufficient to prefer a more flexible alternative with the same expected value. Intertemporal links convert the sequence of independent options to a single compound option and require an expansion of the flexibility concept. Additional options increase the value of the project but generally decrease flexibility value. The framework is applied to case study in India: an urban industry electricity strategy decision with reliability risk.

Knapp, Karl Eric

232

77 FR 68104 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Socio-Economic Profile of Small-Scale...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Socio-Economic Profile of Small-Scale Commercial Fisheries in the...socio-economic data about small scale fishermen and seafood dealers...socio-economic performance of small- scale fleets, and evaluate the socio-economic...Respondents: 2,000. Estimated Time per Response: 1 hr....

2012-11-15

233

Investigation of the feasibility of a small scale transmutation device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation presents the design and feasibility of a small-scale, fusion-based transmutation device incorporating a commercially available neutron generator. It also presents the design features necessary to optimize the device and render it practical for the transmutation of selected long-lived fission products and actinides. Four conceptual designs of a transmutation device were used to study the transformation of seven radionuclides: long-lived fission products (Tc-99 and I-129), short-lived fission products (Cs-137 and Sr-90), and selective actinides (Am-241, Pu-238, and Pu-239). These radionuclides were chosen because they are major components of spent nuclear fuel and also because they exist as legacy sources that are being stored pending a decision regarding their ultimate disposition. The four designs include the use of two different devices; a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) neutron generator (for one design) and a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) neutron generator (for three designs) in configurations which provide different neutron energy spectra for targeting the radionuclide for transmutation. Key parameters analyzed include total fluence and flux requirements; transmutation effectiveness measured as irradiation effective half-life; and activation products generated along with their characteristics: activity, dose rate, decay, and ingestion and inhalation radiotoxicity. From this investigation, conclusions were drawn about the feasibility of the device, the design and technology enhancements that would be required to make transmutation practical, the most beneficial design for each radionuclide, the consequence of the transmutation, and radiation protection issues that are important for the conceptual design of the transmutation device. Key conclusions from this investigation include: (1) the transmutation of long-lived fission products and select actinides can be practical using a small-scale, fusion driven transmutation device; (2) the transmutation of long-lived fission products could result in an irradiation effective half-life of a few years with a three order magnitude increase in the on-target neutron flux accomplishable through a combination of technological enhancements to the source and system design optimization; (3) the transmutation of long-lived fission products requires a thermal-slow energy spectrum to prevent the generation of activation products with half-lives even longer than the original radionuclide; (4) there is no benefit in trying to transmute short-lived fission products due to the ineffectiveness of the transmutation process and the generation of a multiplicity of counterproductive activation products; (5) for actinides, irradiation effective half-lives of < 1 year can be achieved with a four orders magnitude increase in the on-target flux; (6) the ideal neutron energy spectra for transmuting actinides is highly dependent on the particular radionuclide and its fission-to-capture ratio as they determine the generationrate of other actinides; and (7) the methodology developed in this dissertation provides a mechanism that can be used for studying the feasibility of transmuting other radionuclides, and its application can be extended to studying the production of radionuclides of interest in a transmutation process. Although large-scale transmutation technology is presently being researched world-wide for spent fuel management applications, such technology will not be viable for a couple of decades. This dissertation investigated the concept of a small-scale transmutation device using present technology. The results of this research show that with reasonable enhancements, transmutation of specific radionuclides can be practical in the near term.

Sit, Roger Carson

234

Robust, small-scale cultivation platform for Streptomyces coelicolor  

PubMed Central

Background For fermentation process and strain improvement, where one wants to screen a large number of conditions and strains, robust and scalable high-throughput cultivation systems are crucial. Often, the time lag between bench-scale cultivations to production largely depends on approximate estimation of scalable physiological traits. Microtiter plate (MTP) based screening platforms have lately become an attractive alternative to shake flasks mainly because of the ease of automation. However, there are very few reports on applications for filamentous organisms; as well as efforts towards systematic validation of physiological behavior compared to larger scale are sparse. Moreover, available small-scale screening approaches are typically constrained by evaluating only an end point snapshot of phenotypes. Results To address these issues, we devised a robust, small-scale cultivation platform in the form of MTPs (24-square deepwell) for the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor and compared its performance to that of shake flasks and bench-scale reactors. We observed that re-designing of medium and inoculum preparation recipes resulted in improved reproducibility. Process turnaround time was significantly reduced due to the reduction in number of unit operations from inoculum to cultivation. The incorporation of glass beads (ø 3 mm) in MTPs not only improved the process performance in terms of improved oxygen transfer improving secondary metabolite production, but also helped to transform morphology from pellet to disperse, resulting in enhanced reproducibility. Addition of MOPS into the medium resulted in pH maintenance above 6.50, a crucial parameter towards reproducibility. Moreover, the entire trajectory of the process was analyzed for compatibility with bench-scale reactors. The MTP cultivations were found to behave similar to bench-scale in terms of growth rate, productivity and substrate uptake rate and so was the onset of antibiotic synthesis. Shake flask cultivations however, showed discrepancy with respect to morphology and had considerably reduced volumetric production rates of antibiotics. Conclusion We observed good agreement of the physiological data obtained in the developed MTP platform with bench-scale. Hence, the described MTP-based screening platform has a high potential for investigation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Streptomycetes and other filamentous bacteria and the use may significantly reduce the workload and costs.

2012-01-01

235

Office of Industrial Technologies: Summary of program results  

SciTech Connect

Working in partnership with industry, the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) is helping reduce industrial energy use, emissions, and waste while boosting productivity. Operating within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE), OIT conducts research, development, demonstration, and technology transfer efforts that are producing substantial, measurable benefits to industry. This document summarizes some of the impacts of OIT`s programs through 1997. OIT tracks energy savings as well as other benefits associated with the successfully commercialized technologies resulting from OIT-supported research partnerships. Specifically, a chart shows current and cumulative energy savings as well as cumulative reductions of various air pollutants including particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}), and the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The bulk of the document consists of four appendices. Appendix 1 describes the technologies currently available commercially, along with their applications and benefits; Appendix 2 describes the OIT-supported emerging technologies that are likely to be commercialized within the next year or two; Appendix 3 describes OIT-sponsored technologies used in commercial applications in the past that are no longer tracked; and Appendix 4 describes the methodology used to assess and track OIT-supported technologies.

NONE

1999-01-01

236

Solar synthesis of advanced materials: A solar industrial program initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an initiative for accelerating the use of solar energy in the advanced materials manufacturing industry in the United States. The initiative will be based on government-industry collaborations that will develop the technology and help US industry compete in the rapidly expanding global advanced materials marketplace. Breakthroughs in solar technology over the last 5 years have created exceptional new tools for developing advanced materials. Concentrated sunlight from solar furnaces can produce intensities that approach those on the surface of the sun and can generate temperatures well over 2000 C. Very thin layers of illuminated surfaces can be driven to remarkably high temperatures in a fraction of a second. Concentrated solar energy can be delivered over large areas, allowing for rapid processing and high production rates. By using this technology, researchers are transforming low-cost raw materials into high-performance products. Solar synthesis of advanced materials uses bulk materials and energy more efficiently, lowers processing costs, and reduces the need for strategic materials -- all with a technology that does not harm the environment. The Solar Industrial Program has built a unique, world class solar furnace at NREL to help meet the growing need for applied research in advanced materials. Many new advanced materials processes have been successfully demonstrated in this facility, including metalorganic deposition, ceramic powders, diamond-like carbon materials, rapid heat treating, and cladding (hard coating).

Lewandowski, A.

1992-06-01

237

Solar synthesis of advanced materials: A solar industrial program initiative  

SciTech Connect

This is an initiative for accelerating the use of solar energy in the advanced materials manufacturing industry in the United States. The initiative will be based on government-industry collaborations that will develop the technology and help US industry compete in the rapidly expanding global advanced materials marketplace. Breakthroughs in solar technology over the last 5 years have created exceptional new tools for developing advanced materials. Concentrated sunlight from solar furnaces can produce intensities that approach those on the surface of the sun and can generate temperatures well over 2000{degrees}C. Very thin layers of illuminated surfaces can be driven to remarkably high temperatures in a fraction of a second. Concentrated solar energy can be delivered over large areas, allowing for rapid processing and high production rates. By using this technology, researchers are transforming low-cost raw materials into high-performance products. Solar synthesis of advanced materials uses bulk materials and energy more efficiently, lowers processing costs, and reduces the need for strategic materials -- all with a technology that does not harm the environment. The Solar Industrial Program has built a unique, world class solar furnace at NREL to help meet the growing need for applied research in advanced materials. Many new advanced materials processes have been successfully demonstrated in this facility, including the following: Metalorganic deposition, ceramic powders, diamond-like carbon materials, rapid heat treating, and cladding (hard coating).

Lewandowski, A.

1992-06-01

238

Application of aerial photography to the study of small scale upper ocean phenomena  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The industrial waste dumped 180 n. miles south of Galveston was monitored in July 1977 by water sampling, hydrographic measurements, acoustic tracking on board two vessels, and by aerial photography. The plume of the waste diffused vertically and horizontally. Photodensitometry of aerial photos of the plume showed lateral dispersion of the plume in agreement with two other methods: acoustic tracking of the waste suspensoid and transmissometer sampling. In addition, the method showed small scale features like the lateral and longitudinal variations in the photodensity, indicating the waste concentration. This waste concentration showed periodic changes in its axial distance, with the spectral peak at about 160 m wave length. It shows a sharp increase at the windward edge of the plume as do the acoustic records. This phenomenon is explained in terms of the shearing current near the surface together with vertical diffusion. The periodic change along the axis is explained in terms of the Langmuir circulation and in terms of internal ship waves.

Ichiye, T.; Carnes, M.

1981-01-01

239

Small-scale electric generators for arctic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires that have endangered remote US Air Force sites equipped with radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) has prompted the assessment of power generating systems as substitutes for RTGs in small scale (10-120 watt) applications. A team of scientists and engineers of the US Air Forces' Wright Laboratory conductd an assessment of electrical power technologies for use by the Air Force in remote, harsh environments. The surprisingly high logistics costs of operating fossil fuel generators resulted in the extension of the assessment to non-RTG sites. The candidate power sources must operate unattended for long periods at a high level of operational reliability. Selection of the optimum power generation technology is complicated and heavily driven by the severe operating environment and compounded by the remoteness of the location. It is these site-related characteristics, more than any other, that drive the selection of a safe and economical power source for Arctic applications. A number of proven power generation technologies were evaluated. The assessment concluded that RGTs are clearly the safest, most reliable, and most economical approach to supplying electrical power for remote, difficult to assess locations. The assessment also indicated that the logistics costs associated with combustion driven generator systems could be substantially reduced through the use of conversion technologies which have been previously developed for space power applications.

Lamp, Thomas R.

1995-01-01

240

The small-scale structure of electrostatic shocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is noted that small-scale regions of large electric fields have been observed above the auroral zone by the S3-3 satellite. The data from five such electrostatic shocks are examined in great detail. The three higher altitude shocks (all above 5,700 km) are found to be associated with upward-going ion beams, indicating that the potential associated with the shock closed below the satellite to give rise to the parallel electric field required for the acceleration of the ion beam. In all these cases, electrostatic ion cyclotron waves are found to be adjacent to the shock and to extend throughout the upward-going ion beam region. The lack of noticeable Doppler shift in the electrostatic ion cyclotron waves in association with large convective drift velocities is seen as indicating that the wavelength of the electrostatic ion cyclotron wave can be several kilometers and that the potential difference within the wave can be on the order of 100 V.

Temerin, M.; Cattell, C.; Lysak, R.; Hudson, M.; Torbert, R. B.; Mozer, F. S.; Sharp, R. D.; Kintner, P. M.

1981-01-01

241

Social and Ecological Dynamics of Small-Scale Fisheries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Globalization's reach is rapidly extending to touch some of the most remote communities of the world, but we have yet to understand its scale and impact. On Nicaragua's previously remote Miskitu Coast, the introduction of new markets and global demand for seafood has resulted in changes in fishermen's harvest behavior manifested within the local fishery. Small-scale fisheries are a significant component in sustaining global fish trade, ensuring food security, and alleviating poverty, but because the fishermen are disperse, numerous and located in remote areas, the social and ecological dynamics of the system are poorly understood. Previous work has indicated a decline in fish abundance as a result of connection to markets, yet fishermen's response to this decline and the resulting shift in harvest strategy requires further examination. I identify the ecological and social factors that explain changes in fishermen behavior and use an innovative application of social network analysis to understand these changes. I also use interviews with fishermen and fishery-dependent surveys to measure catch and release behavior and seasonal gear use. Results demonstrate multiple cliques within a community that mitigate the response of fishermen to changes in the fishery. This research applies techniques in social science to address challenges in sustainable management of fisheries. As fisheries managers consider implementing new regulations, such as seasonal restrictions on gear, it is essential to understand not just how this might impact fish abundance, but how and why human systems respond as they do.

Stevens, K.; Kramer, D.; Frank, K.

2012-12-01

242

Structures and dynamics of small scales in decaying magnetohydrodynamic turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topological and dynamical features of small scales are studied in the context of decaying magnetohydrodynamic turbulent flows using direct numerical simulations. Joint probability density functions (PDFs) of the invariants of gradient quantities related to the velocity and the magnetic fields demonstrate that structures and dynamics at the time of maximum dissipation depend on the large scale initial conditions at the examined Reynolds numbers. This is evident in particular from the fact that each flow has a different shape for the joint PDF of the invariants of the velocity gradient in contrast to the universal teardrop shape of hydrodynamic turbulence. The general picture that emerges from the analysis of the invariants is that regions of high vorticity are correlated with regions of high strain rate S also in contrast to hydrodynamic turbulent flows. Magnetic strain dominated regions are also well correlated with region of high current density j. Viscous dissipation (~S2) as well as Ohmic dissipation (~j2) resides in regions where strain and rotation are locally almost in balance. The structures related to the velocity gradient possess different characteristics than those associated with the magnetic field gradient with the latter being locally more quasi-two dimensional.

Dallas, V.; Alexakis, A.

2013-10-01

243

Development of Small-Scale Submersible PIV System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low-cost, small-scale submersible Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) device has been developed to characterize unsteady flow in natural environments. PIV systems provide high accuracy, non intrusive, planar flow measurements of velocity and vorticity. Since this device is intended for the field, it is designed to be portable. This is accomplished using a powerful handheld laser, beam chopper, microprocessor, and the proper lenses, in conjunction with a one mega pixel CCD video camera. The system consists of two connected waterproof cases; one housing the camera and the other the laser/chopper system. The apparatus is fully self-contained and can be operated using a laptop computer on shore or on a floating platform. The system is also unique in that it was developed for under 8000 USD. The PIV device was tested in a small creek in Michigan. Eddy diameter, circulation, orientation, and convective velocity were characterized. The design of a submersible PIV system like this one will lead to a better characterization of naturally occurring flows and a greater understanding of what conditions aquatic life find acceptable. This knowledge will prove most useful in river and shoreline restoration, as well as in the design of new coastal management plans to alleviate human impact on coastal regions.

Clarke, Jenna; Cotel, Aline; Tritico, Hans

2006-11-01

244

Development of the Small Scale Violence Thermal Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When developing new explosive formulations, one of the most important safety goals is to characterise the formulations' scale of response to thermal insults. Established tests provide indications of violence of response from thermal stimuli through dent/fragment analysis of heater anvils and visual observations. Utilising recent advances in diagnostic technologies, a test is under development to obtain a numerical value for the violence of response to thermal stimuli on a small explosive sample. Furthermore, the test has been designed so that it can accept pressed explosive pellets. This enables the test to be conducted at the small-scale development stage and thus is anticipated to be if use in the screening of new materials. In continuation of previously published work describing the test development, twenty-seven new cook-off experiments have been conducted. Eleven explosive compositions were subjected to the same slow heat input profile. As a sample rapidly decomposed, part of the steel confinement was designed to produce a pellet whose velocity was measured using a Heterodyne Velocimeter (Het-V). Temperatures of the confinement unit were also recorded. A development aim is to interpret this data to provide useful information on the violence of decomposition. This is discussed in the paper and leads to the data from these experiments being presented in order of increasing violence of response.

Sorber, Susan

2011-06-01

245

Multifractal models of small-scale solar magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We generate, both analytically and numerically, artifical, two-dimensional images composed of a known self-similar, and thus multifractal measured with added Gaussian white noise. These are used to interpret observed, line-of-sight, solar magnetic field distributions noisy multifractals. The range of self-similar scaling of observed, distributions is extended beyond that of previous work. Our interpretation of the data is then used to confront theoretical models for the generation of small-scale solar magnetic fields. We investigate the multifractial structure of the field generated by two-dimensional, random cell dynamos and find that self-similarity is relatively enhanced for more intermittent distributions and strong correlations between cells. An optimum value of the intercellular diffusion coefficient maximizes the degree of intermittency. The simulated field from a linear, kinematic, fast dynamo with two-dimensional, chaotic, 'ABC' flow displays scaling properties resembling those of observed solar fields. We suggest that the chaotic element of this model is the crucial ingredient for the long-range correlations that lead to multifractal scaling.

Cadavid, A. C.; Lawrence, J. K.; Ruzmaikin, A. A.; Kayleng-Knight, A.

1994-07-01

246

Small Scale Evaporation Kinetics of a Binary Fluid Mixture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporation induces a concentrating effect in liquid mixtures. The transient process has significant influence on the dynamic behaviors of a complex fluid. To simultaneously investigate the fluid properties and small-scale evaporation kinetics during the transient process, the quartz crystal microbalance is applied to a binary mixture droplet of light alcohols including both a single volatile component (a fast evaporation followed by a slow evaporation) and a mixture of two volatile components with comparable evaporation rates. The density and viscosity stratification are evaluated by the shear wave, and the evaporation kinetics is measured by the resonant signature of the acoustic p-wave. The evaporation flux can be precisely determined by the resonant frequency spikes and the complex impedance. To predict the concentration field, the moving interface, and the precision evaporation kinetics of the mixture, a multiphase model is developed to interpret the complex impedance signals based on the underlying mass and momentum transport phenomena. The experimental method and theoretical model are developed for better characterizing and understanding of the drying process involving liquid mixtures of protein pharmaceuticals.

Basdeo, Carl; Ye, Dezhuang; Kalonia, Devendra; Fan, Tai-Hsi

2013-03-01

247

Small Scale Turbopump Manufacturing Technology and Material Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of an internal research and development project, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been developing a high specific impulse 9,000-lbf LOX/LH2 pump-fed engine testbed with the capability to throttle 10:1. A Fuel Turbopump (FTP) with the ability to operate across a speed range of 30,000-rpm to 100,000-rpm was developed and analyzed. This small size and flight-like Fuel Turbopump has completed the design and analysis phase and is currently in the manufacturing phase. This paper highlights the manufacturing and processes efforts to fabricate an approximately 20-lb turbopump with small flow passages, intricately bladed components and approximately 3-in diameter impellers. As a result of the small scale and tight tolerances of the hardware on this turbopump, several unique manufacturing and material challenges were encountered. Some of the technologies highlighted in this paper include the use of powder metallurgy technology to manufacture small impellers, electron beam welding of a turbine blisk shroud, and casting challenges. The use of risk reduction efforts such as non-destructive testing (NDT) and evaluation (NDE), fractography, material testing, and component spin testing are also discussed in this paper.

Alvarez, Erika; Morgan, Kristin; Wells, Doug; Zimmerman, Frank

2011-01-01

248

A Small-Scale Safety Test for Initiation Components  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a small-scale safety test for initiation train components. A low-cost test was needed to assess the response of initiation components to an abnormal shock environment and to detect changes in the sensitivity of initiation components as they age. The test uses a disk of Detasheet to transmit a shock through a PMMA barrier into a the test article. A schematic drawing of the fixture is shown. The 10-cm-diameter disk of 3-mm-thick Detasheet, initiated at its center by a RISI, RP detonator, produces a shock wave that is attenuated by a variable-thickness PMMA spacer (gap). Layers of metal and plastic above the test article and the material surrounding the test article may be chosen to mock up the environment of the test article at its location in a warhead. A metal plate at the bottom serves as a witness plate to record whether or not the test article detonated. For articles containing a small amount of explosive, it can be difficult to determine whether or not a detonation has occurred. In such cases, one can use a pressure transducer or laser velocimeter to detect the shock wave from the detonation of the article. The assembly is contained in a 10-cm-ID section of PVC pipe and fired in a containment vessel rated at 100 g. Test results are given for a hemispherical, exploding-bridgewire (EBW) detonator.

Cutting, J; Chow, C; Chau, H; Hodgin, R; Lee, R

2002-04-22

249

Shaping mobile belts by small-scale convection.  

PubMed

Mobile belts are long-lived deformation zones composed of an ensemble of crustal fragments, distributed over hundreds of kilometres inside continental convergent margins. The Mediterranean represents a remarkable example of this tectonic setting: the region hosts a diffuse boundary between the Nubia and Eurasia plates comprised of a mosaic of microplates that move and deform independently from the overall plate convergence. Surface expressions of Mediterranean tectonics include deep, subsiding backarc basins, intraplate plateaux and uplifting orogenic belts. Although the kinematics of the area are now fairly well defined, the dynamical origins of many of these active features are controversial and usually attributed to crustal and lithospheric interactions. However, the effects of mantle convection, well established for continental interiors, should be particularly relevant in a mobile belt, and modelling may constrain important parameters such as slab coherence and lithospheric strength. Here we compute global mantle flow on the basis of recent, high-resolution seismic tomography to investigate the role of buoyancy-driven and plate-motion-induced mantle circulation for the Mediterranean. We show that mantle flow provides an explanation for much of the observed dynamic topography and microplate motion in the region. More generally, vigorous small-scale convection in the uppermost mantle may also underpin other complex mobile belts such as the North American Cordillera or the Himalayan-Tibetan collision zone. PMID:20520711

Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W

2010-06-01

250

MeV Dark Matter and Small Scale Structure  

SciTech Connect

WIMPs with electroweak scale masses (neutralinos, etc.) remain in kinetic equilibrium with other particle species until temperatures approximately in the range of 10 MeV to 1 GeV, leading to the formation of dark matter substructure with masses as small as 10{sup -4} M{sub {circle_dot}} to 10{sup -12} M{sub {circle_dot}}. However, if dark matter consists of particles with MeV scale masses, as motivated by the observation of 511 keV emission from the Galactic Bulge, such particles are naturally expected to remain in kinetic equilibrium with the cosmic neutrino background until considerably later times. This would lead to a strong suppression of small scale structure with masses below about 10{sup 7}M{sub {circle_dot}} to 10{sup 4} M{sub {circle_dot}}. This cutoff scale has important implications for present and future searches for faint Local Group satellite galaxies and for the missing satellites problem.

Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Strigari, Louis E.; /UC, Irvine; Zurek, Kathryn M.; /Wisconsin U., Madison

2007-04-01

251

Development of a small scale BIGGT power plant. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

Cratech, Inc. is progressing on a 3-phase plan to develop a one ton per hour (tph) biomass-fueled integrated-gasifier gas turbine (BIGGT) power plant. The goal is to develop economical, small scale (1--20 MWe) power plants for entities worldwide that desire to use a variety of biomass resources for fuel including those with high ash content and prone to slagging. Phase 1 included design, fabrication and operation of a 0.5 tph air-blown pressurized fluidized bed gasification unit complete with a hot gas cleanup system. The unit was fueled with cotton gin trash (CGT), a biomass resource that is high in ash and very prone to slagging. The system demonstrated production of a gas from CGT that can be maintained at a minimum chemical heating value of 130 Btu/SCF, at an outlet temperature of 1265 {+-} 15 F with a maximum particle content of 6.4 ppmw of 2.8 microns maximum particle size.

Craig, J.D.

1994-10-02

252

Numerical Simulation of a Small-Scale Mild Combustor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reports numerical simulations of a small-scale cylindrical combustor operating in the mild combustion regime. Preheated air is supplied by a central nozzle, while the fuel (methane) is injected through 16 holes placed equidistantly in a circumference concentric with the air nozzle. The calculations were carried out using the commercial code Ansys-Fluent. Turbulence was modelled using the realizable k-epsilon model. Two different combustion models were employed, namely the eddy dissipation concept and the joint composition pdf transport model. In both cases, a chemical mechanism comprising 13 transported species and 73 chemical reactions was used, as well as a global single-step reaction. A thorough comparison of the predictions obtained using the pdf transport model and the eddy dissipation concept with detailed experimental data is presented. Both models are able to accurately predict the temperature and the O2 and CO2 molar fractions over most of the combustor, but the temperature field is overestimated in the vicinity of the burner. Discrepancies are found in the prediction of the CO molar fraction, particularly when the eddy dissipation concept is used.

Veríssimo, A.; Oliveira, R.; Coelho, P. J.; Costa, M.

2012-11-01

253

Development program to support industrial coal gasification. Quarterly report 1  

SciTech Connect

The Development Program to Support Industrial Coal Gasification is on schedule. The efforts have centered on collecting background information and data, planning, and getting the experimental program underway. The three principal objectives in Task I-A were accomplished. The technical literature was reviewed, the coals and binders to be employed were selected, and tests and testing equipment to be used in evaluating agglomerates were developed. The entire Erie Mining facility design was reviewed and a large portion of the fluidized-bed coal gasification plant design was completed. Much of the work in Task I will be experimental. Wafer-briquette and roll-briquette screening tests will be performed. In Task II, work on the fluidized-bed gasification plant design will be completed and work on a plant design involving entrained-flow gasifiers will be initiated.

None

1982-01-15

254

A review of advanced small-scale parallel bioreactor technology for accelerated process development: current state and future need.  

PubMed

The pharmaceutical and biotech industries face continued pressure to reduce development costs and accelerate process development. This challenge occurs alongside the need for increased upstream experimentation to support quality by design initiatives and the pursuit of predictive models from systems biology. A small scale system enabling multiple reactions in parallel (n ? 20), with automated sampling and integrated to purification, would provide significant improvement (four to fivefold) to development timelines. State of the art attempts to pursue high throughput process development include shake flasks, microfluidic reactors, microtiter plates and small-scale stirred reactors. The limitations of these systems are compared to desired criteria to mimic large scale commercial processes. The comparison shows that significant technological improvement is still required to provide automated solutions that can speed upstream process development. PMID:21312350

Bareither, Rachel; Pollard, David

2011-01-01

255

Challenges with minimising mercury pollution in the small-scale gold mining sector: experiences from the Guianas.  

PubMed

This paper examines the barriers to mitigating mercury pollution at small-scale gold mines in the Guianas (Guyana, French Guiana and Suriname), and prescribes recommendations for overcoming these obstacles. Whilst considerable attention has been paid to analysing the environmental impacts of operations in the region, minimal research has been undertaken to identify appropriate policy and educational initiatives for addressing the mounting mercury problem. Findings from recent fieldwork and selected interviews with operators from Guyanese and Surinamese gold mining regions reveal that legislative incapacity, the region's varied industry policy stances, various technological problems, and low environmental awareness on the part of communities are impeding efforts to facilitate improved mercury management at small-scale gold mines in the Guianas. Marked improvements can be achieved, however, if legislation, particularly that pertaining to mercury, is harmonised in the region; educational seminars continue to be held in important mining districts; and additional outlets for disseminating environmental equipment and mercury-free technologies are provided. PMID:18027196

Hilson, Gavin; Vieira, Rickford

2007-12-01

256

Small-Scale Spray Releases: Orifice Plugging Test Results  

SciTech Connect

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities, is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations published in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials present in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty introduced by extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches in which the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are largely absent. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine the aerosol release fractions and aerosol generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents (AFA) was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. The purpose of the study described in this report is to provide experimental data for the first key technical area, potential plugging of small breaches, by performing small-scale tests with a range of orifice sizes and orientations representative of the WTP conditions. The simulants used were chosen to represent the range of process stream properties in the WTP. Testing conducted after the plugging tests in the small- and large-scale test stands addresses the second key technical area, aerosol generation. The results of the small-scale aerosol generation tests are included in Mahoney et al. 2012. The area of spray generation from large breaches is covered by large-scale testing in Schonewill et al. 2012.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Kimura, Marcia L.; Kurath, Dean E.

2012-09-01

257

Propulsion engineering study for small-scale Mars missions  

SciTech Connect

Rocket propulsion options for small-scale Mars missions are presented and compared, particularly for the terminal landing maneuver and for sample return. Mars landing has a low propulsive {Delta}v requirement on a {approximately}1-minute time scale, but at a high acceleration. High thrust/weight liquid rocket technologies, or advanced pulse-capable solids, developed during the past decade for missile defense, are therefore more appropriate for small Mars landers than are conventional space propulsion technologies. The advanced liquid systems are characterize by compact lightweight thrusters having high chamber pressures and short lifetimes. Blowdown or regulated pressure-fed operation can satisfy the Mars landing requirement, but hardware mass can be reduced by using pumps. Aggressive terminal landing propulsion designs can enable post-landing hop maneuvers for some surface mobility. The Mars sample return mission requires a small high performance launcher having either solid motors or miniature pump-fed engines. Terminal propulsion for 100 kg Mars landers is within the realm of flight-proven thruster designs, but custom tankage is desirable. Landers on a 10 kg scale also are feasible, using technology that has been demonstrated but not previously flown in space. The number of sources and the selection of components are extremely limited on this smallest scale, so some customized hardware is required. A key characteristic of kilogram-scale propulsion is that gas jets are much lighter than liquid thrusters for reaction control. The mass and volume of tanks for inert gas can be eliminated by systems which generate gas as needed from a liquid or a solid, but these have virtually no space flight history. Mars return propulsion is a major engineering challenge; earth launch is the only previously-solved propulsion problem requiring similar or greater performance.

Whitehead, J.

1995-09-12

258

A Small-Scale Tiltrotor Model Operating in Descending Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a rotor s descent velocity in low speed flight approaches the induced wake velocity, a vortex ring is formed around the circumference of the rotor disk causing the flow to become very unsteady. This condition is known as Vortex Ring State (VRS). The aerodynamic Characteristics of edgewise operating rotors in this VRS induced environment have been studied for many years. In the 1960 s, two propellers were tested in vertical or near vertical descent, indicating a loss in thrust in the region of VRS. Thrust fluctuations of both single and tandem rotor configurations while operating in VRS were reported. More recently, the effects of descending flight on a single rotor operating in close proximity to a physical image plane, simulating the effects of a twin rotor tiltrotor system were investigated. Mean rotor thrust reductions and thrust fluctuations were shown in VRS. Results indicated the need to acquire additional data with a two-rotor model and the need to investigate the use of a single rotor/image plane apparatus to identify the characteristics of a two-rotor flowfield. As a result a small-scale tiltrotor model with 2-b1adedy untwisted, teetering rotors was tested at various states of descent and sideslip. Dual-rotor, single-rotor with image plane, and isolated-rotor results were reported, suggesting the single-rotor with image plane configuration may not properly capture the aerodynamic nature of a dual-rotor vehicle. Recommendations included additional testing of a model that better represents the physical characteristics of a tiltrotor aircraft. Specific recommendations for model improvements included using three-bladed rotors, twisted blades, a tiltrotor fuselage and wings.

Abrego, Anita I.; Betzina, Mark D.; Long, Kurtis R.

2002-01-01

259

ARCADE small-scale docking mechanism for micro-satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of on-orbit autonomous rendezvous and docking (ARD) capabilities represents a key point for a number of appealing mission scenarios that include activities of on-orbit servicing, automated assembly of modular structures and active debris removal. As of today, especially in the field of micro-satellites ARD, many fundamental technologies are still missing or require further developments and micro-gravity testing. In this framework, the University of Padova, Centre of Studies and Activities for Space (CISAS), developed the Autonomous Rendezvous Control and Docking Experiment (ARCADE), a technology demonstrator intended to fly aboard a BEXUS stratospheric balloon. The goal was to design, build and test, in critical environment conditions, a proximity relative navigation system, a custom-made reaction wheel and a small-size docking mechanism. The ARCADE docking mechanism was designed against a comprehensive set of requirements and it can be classified as small-scale, central, gender mating and unpressurized. The large use of commercial components makes it low-cost and simple to be manufactured. Last, it features a good tolerance to off-nominal docking conditions and a by-design soft docking capability. The final design was extensively verified to be compliant with its requirements by means of numerical simulations and physical testing. In detail, the dynamic behaviour of the mechanism in both nominal and off-nominal conditions was assessed with the multibody dynamics analysis software MD ADAMS 2010 and functional tests were carried out within the fully integrated ARCADE experiment to ensure the docking system efficacy and to highlight possible issues. The most relevant results of the study will be presented and discussed in conclusion to this paper.

Boesso, A.; Francesconi, A.

2013-05-01

260

Potential small-scale development of western oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Several studies have been undertaken in an effort to determine ways to enhance development of western oil shale under current market conditions for energy resources. This study includes a review of the commercial potential of western oil shale products and byproducts, a review of retorting processes, an economic evaluation of a small-scale commercial operation, and a description of the environmental requirements of such an operation. Shale oil used as a blend in conventional asphalt appears to have the most potential for entering today's market. Based on present prices for conventional petroleum, other products from oil shale do not appear competitive at this time or will require considerable marketing to establish a position in the marketplace. Other uses for oil shale and spent shale, such as for sulfur sorbtion, power generation, cement, aggregate, and soil stabilization, are limited economically by transportation costs. The three-state area area consisting of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming seems reasonable for the entry of shale oil-blended asphalt into the commercial market. From a review of retorting technologies and the product characteristics from various retorting processes it was determined that the direct heating Paraho and inclined fluidized-bed processes produce a high proportion of heavy material with a high nitrogen content. The two processes are complementary in that they are each best suited to processing different size ranges of materials. An economic evaluation of a 2000-b/d shale oil facility shows that the operation is potentially viable, if the price obtained for the shale oil residue is in the top range of prices projected for this product. Environmental requirements for building and operating an oil shale processing facility are concerned with permitting, control of emissions and discharges, and monitoring. 62 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

Smith, V.; Renk, R.; Nordin, J.; Chatwin, T.; Harnsberger, M.; Fahy, L.J.; Cha, C.Y.; Smith, E.; Robertson, R.

1989-10-01

261

Universality of the Small-Scale Dynamo Mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We quantify possible differences between turbulent dynamo action in the Sun and the dynamo action studied in idealized simulation. For this purpose we compare Fourier-space shell-to-shell energy transfer rates of three incrementally more complex dynamo simulations: an incompressible, periodic simulation driven by random flow, a simulation of Boussinesq convection, and a simulation of fully compressible convection that includes physics relevant to the near-surface layers of the Sun. For each of the simulations studied, we find that energy is transferred from the turbulent flow to the magnetic field from length-scales in the inertial range of the energy spectrum. The addition of physical effects relevant to the solar near-surface layers, including stratification, compressibility, partial ionization, and radiative energy transport, does not appear to affect the nature of the dynamo mechanism. The role of inertial-range shear stresses in magnetic field amplification is independent from outer-scale circumstances, including forcing and stratification. Although shell-to-shell energy transfer functions have similar properties in each simulation studied, the saturated states of these simulations are not universal; the flow at the driving scales is a significant source of energy for the magnetic field. The mechanism of energy-transfer in kinematic small-scale dynamo simulations exhibits universal properties. This work has been supported by the Max-Planck Society in the framework of the Interinstitutional Research Initiative Turbulent transport and ion heating, reconnection and electron acceleration in solar and fusion plasmas of the MPI for Solar System Research, Katlenburg-Lindau, and the Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (project MIF-IF-A-AERO8047).

Pietarila Graham, Jonathan; Moll, R.; Pratt, J.; Cameron, R.; Mueller, W.; Schuessler, M.

2011-05-01

262

Determining Small Scale Albedos Using High Resolution Multiangle Satellite Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current satellite short-wave (SW) albedo measurements, such as CERES's, have only a broad spatial resolution and cannot by themselves accurately measure reflectance (roughly solar "forcing") on small space and time scales. The major difficulty is that earth's surface reflectivity, including the atmosphere and clouds, is substantially anisotropic. However, accurate regional and time-dependent albedos are needed for studying causes of climate variability and change, and improving models from global to at least cloud resolving scales. A first step to obtain these albedos, for which we show results, is to accurately relate (and verify) the high resolution spatial and angular surface narrow-band MISR (Multi-Angle Imaging Spectroradiometer) radiance measurements aboard the Terra satellite to coincident total shortwave broadband (SWB) low resolution measurements from the onboard CERES instrument. Because MISR measures radiance of the same points along an orbital swath, it becomes possible to check and improve Angular (reflection) Distribution Models (ADMs) at small scales (< 1 km). The ADMs can later be used to invert a measured angular radiance to a local albedo. The difficulty lies in obtaining accurate ADMs for earth's highly varied surface and lighting conditions. We show prediction accuracy examples of CERES SWB vs. single and multiple band MISR data regressions. We include view angle dependence (9 angles: nadir plus 26, 46, 60, and 70 degrees fore and aft) and show improved accuracy when surface data, e.g., solar zenith and scattering angle, and surface type are included. In many cases, we predict angular (bidirectional) reflectance to ~ 0.01, or about 10 watts/sq m in irradiance. We also show examples of "difficult" scene types, such as varying levels of broken clouds, where accuracy degrades by a factor of ~2.

Markowski, G. R.; Davies, R.

2005-05-01

263

Plowshare Program - American Atomic Bomb Tests For Industrial Applications  

SciTech Connect

The United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) established the Plowshare Program as a research and development activity to explore the technical and economic feasibility of using nuclear explosives for industrial applications. The reasoning was that the relatively inexpensive energy available from nuclear explosions could prove useful for a wide variety of peaceful purposes. The Plowshare Program began in 1958 and continued through 1975. Between December 1961 and May 1973, the United States conducted 27 Plowshare nuclear explosive tests comprising 35 individual detonations. Conceptually, industrial applications resulting from the use of nuclear explosives could be divided into two broad categories: 1) large-scale excavation and quarrying, where the energy from the explosion was used to break up and/or move rock; and 2) underground engineering, where the energy released from deeply buried nuclear explosives increased the permeability and porosity of the rock by massive breaking and fracturing. Possible excavation applications included: canals, harbors, highway and railroad cuts through mountains, open pit mining, construction of dams, and other quarry and construction-related projects. Underground nuclear explosion applications included: stimulation of natural gas production, preparation of leachable ore bodies for in situ leaching, creation of underground zones of fractured oil shale for in situ retorting, and formation of underground natural gas and petroleum storage reservoirs.

None

2012-04-22

264

Integrated bioenergy conversion concepts for small scale gasification power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal and biological gasification are promising technologies for addressing the emerging concerns in biomass-based renewable energy, environmental protection and waste management. However, technical barriers such as feedstock quality limitations, tars, and high NOx emissions from biogas fueled engines impact their full utilization and make them suffer at the small scale from the need to purify the raw gas for most downstream processes, including power generation other than direct boiler use. The two separate gasification technologies may be integrated to better address the issues of power generation and waste management and to complement some of each technologies' limitations. This research project investigated the technical feasibility of an integrated thermal and biological gasification concept for parameters critical to appropriately matching an anaerobic digester with a biomass gasifier. Specific studies investigated the thermal gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks in four fixed-bed gasification experiments: (1) updraft gasification of rice hull, (2) indirect-heated gasification of rice hull, (3) updraft gasification of Athel wood, and (4) downdraft gasification of Athel and Eucalyptus woods. The effects of tars and other components of producer gas on anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperature of 36°C and the biodegradation potentials and soil carbon mineralization of gasification tars during short-term aerobic incubation at 27.5°C were also examined. Experiments brought out the ranges in performance and quality and quantity of gasification products under different operating conditions and showed that within the conditions considered in the study, these gasification products did not adversely impact the overall digester performance. Short-term aerobic incubation demonstrated variable impacts on carbon mineralization depending on tar and soil conditions. Although tars exhibited low biodegradation indices, degradation may be improved if the microorganisms used to deal with tars are selected and pre-conditioned to the tar environment. Overall, the results provided a basis for operational and design strategy for a combined gasification system but further study is recommended such as determination of the impacts in terms of emissions, power, efficiency and costs associated with the use of producer gas-enriched biogas taking advantage of hydrogen enrichment to reduce NOx and other pollutants in reciprocating engines and other energy conversion systems.

Aldas, Rizaldo Elauria

265

Experiments for comparison of small scale rainfall simulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small scale portable rainfall simulators are an essential tool in research of recent process dynamics of soil erosion. Such rainfall simulators differ in design, rainfall intensities, rain spectra etc., impeding comparison of the results. Due to different research questions a standardisation of rainfall simulation is not in sight. Nevertheless, the data become progressively important for soil erosion modelling and therefore the basis for decision-makers in application-oriented erosion protection. The project aims at providing a criteria catalogue for estimation of the different simulators as well as the comparability of the results and a uniform calibration procedure for generated rainfall. Within the project "Comparability of simulation results of different rainfall simulators as input data for soil erosion modelling (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - DFG, Project No. Ri 835/6-1)" many rainfall simulators used by European research groups were compared. The artificially generated rainfall of the rainfall simulators at the Universities Basel, La Rioja, Malaga, Trier, Tübingen, Valencia, Wageningen, Zaragoza and at different Spanish CSIC-institutes (Almeria, Cordoba, Granada, Murcia, Zaragoza) were measured with the same methods (Laser Precipitation Monitor for drop spectra and rain collectors for spatial distribution). The data are very beneficial for improvements of simulators and comparison of simulators and results. Furthermore, they can be used for comparative studies with natural rainfall spectra. A broad range of rainfall data was measured (e.g. intensity: 30 - 149 mmh-1, Christiansen Coefficient for spatial rainfall distribution 61 - 98 %, mean drop diameter 0.375 - 5.0 mm, mean kinetic energy expenditure 25 - 1322 J m-2 h-1, mean kinetic energy per unit area and unit depth of rainfall 4 - 14 J m-2 mm-1). Similarities among the simulators could be found e.g. concerning drop size distributions (maximum drop numbers are reached within the two smallest drop classes < 1 mm) and low fall velocities of bigger drops due to a general physical restriction. The comparison provides a good data base for improvements and a consistent picture of the parameters of the simulators. To assess the influence of rainfall simulator type and plot dimensions on runoff and erosion, rainfall simulators from Freiberg, Tübingen, Trier, Valencia, Zaragoza, Basel and Wageningen were compared on a prepared bare fallow field during the Rainfall Simulator Workshop in Trier (Germany). The results show a clear and consistent relationship in runoff, erosion and infiltration behaviour of the different used rainfall simulators. With all the devices total soil loss was measurable, but different plot sizes, intensities and kinetic energies of the simulated rainfall caused differences in soil loss and runoff quantities per unit of area. Regarding course characteristics over runs, similarities could be observed especially in runoff behaviour.

Iserloh, T.; Ries, J. B.

2012-04-01

266

Small-scale Geothermal Power Plants Using Hot Spring Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The installed capacity of the geothermal power plants has been summed up to be about 515MW in Japan. However, the electricity generated by the geothermal resources only contributes to 0.2% of the whole electricity supply. After the catastrophic earthquake and tsunami devastated the Pacific coast of north-eastern Japan on Friday, March 11, 2011, the Japanese government is encouraging the increase of the renewable energy supply including the geothermal. It needs, however, more than 10 years to construct the geothermal power plant with more than 10MW capacity since the commencement of the development. Adding the problem of the long lead time, high temperature fluid is mainly observed in the national parks and the high quality of the geothermal resources is limited. On the other hand hot springs are often found. The utilisation of the low temperature hot water becomes worthy of notice. The low temperature hot water is traditionally used for bathing and there are many hot springs in Japan. Some of the springs have enough temperature and enthalpy to turn the geothermal turbine but a new technology of the binary power generation makes the lower temp fluid to generate electricity. Large power generators with the binary technology are already installed in many geothermal fields in the world. In the recent days small-scale geothermal binary generators with several tens to hundreds kW capacity are developed, which are originally used by the waste heat energy in an iron factory and so on. The newly developed binary unit is compact suitable for the installation in a Japanese inn but there are the restrictions for the temperature of the hot water and the working fluid. The binary power unit using alternatives for chlorofluorocarbon as the working fluid is relatively free from the restriction. KOBELCO, a company of the Kobe Steel Group, designed and developed the binary power unit with an alternative for chlorofluorocarbon. The unit has a 70 MW class electric generator. Three units have been installed in Obama Hot Spring area, Nagasaki Prefecture, where about 15,000 tonnes of hot water are produced in a day and more than 35% of the hot water flow directly to the sea. Another demonstration experiments are also conducted in several hot spring areas. In this study we will review several examples to utilise low temperature hot springs in Japan. Binary Power Unit at Obama (Fujino, 2013)

Tosha, T.; Osato, K.; Kiuchi, T.; Miida, H.; Okumura, T.; Nakashima, H.

2013-12-01

267

Small-scale variability in Saturn's lower ionosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform and present a wavelet analysis on all 31 Cassini electron density profiles published to date (Nagy, A.F. et al. [2006]. J. Geophys. Res. 111 (A6), CiteID A06310; Kliore, A.J. et al. [2009]. J. Geophys. Res. 114 (A4), CiteID A04315). We detect several discrete scales of variability present in the observations. Small-scale variability (S < 700 km) is observed in almost all data sets at different latitudes, both at dawn and dusk conditions. The most typical scale of variability is 300 km with scales between 200 km and 450 km being commonly present in the vast majority of the profiles. A low latitude dawn/dusk asymmetry is noted in the prevalent scales with the spectrum peaking sharply at the 300 km scale at dusk conditions and being broader at dawn conditions. Compared to dawn conditions the dusk ionosphere also shows more significant variability at the 100 km scale. The 300 km vertical scale is also present in the few available profiles from the northern hemisphere. Early observations from 2005 show a dominant scale at 350 km whereas later in 2007-2008 the spectrum shifts to the shorter scales with the most prominent scale being 300 km. The performed wavelet analysis and the obtained results are independent of assumptions about the nature of the layers and do not require a definition for a "background" electron density profile. In the second part of the paper we present a gravity wave propagation/dissipation model for Saturn's upper atmosphere and compare the wave properties to the characteristics of the observed electron density variability at different scales. The general features observed in the data are consistent with gravity waves being present in the lower ionosphere and causing layering of the ions and the electrons. The wave-driving mechanism provides a simultaneous explanation for several of the properties of the observed variability: (i) lack of variability in the electron density above the predicted region of wave dissipation; (ii) in most cases the peak amplitude of variability occurs within the altitude range for dissipation of gravity waves or below; (iii) shorter scales have smaller amplitudes than the longer scales; (iv) shorter scales are present at lower altitudes whereas longer scales persist to higher altitudes; and (v) several layers often form a system of equally spaced maxima and minima that can be traced over a large altitude range.

Matcheva, Katia I.; Barrow, Daniel J.

2012-11-01

268

Imaging upper mantle discontinuities and Earth's small-scale heterogeneities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep earthquakes (depth > 400km) occurring in subducted slabs are used to image mantle discontinuities. Any reflector at depth 'x' kilometers, above the deep earthquake, can generate underside P- and S-wave reflections, e.g. pXP, sXP, and sXSH. Motivated by these observations, we developed a three-dimensional imaging method in the local dip angle domain to image reflectors in mantle wedges using readily observable underside reflections from multiple earthquakes. An illumination normalization scheme is developed to achieve balanced image amplitudes. Application of this imaging technique to the Tonga subduction zone yields fruitful results as many localized mantle discontinuities are imaged at depths between 90-450 kilometers, which cannot be explained by standard Earth models. Pervasive mantle metasomatism, is invoked to explain these spatially extensive reflectors, which are likely caused by phase transitions due to silica enrichment. Through performing joint waveform modeling of the surface reflection phase and its precursor, the underside reflection off the Moho, we put constraints on the crustal thickness, the Moho compressional and shear impedance contrasts and the Vp/Vs ratio of the crust and the uppermost mantle in the Sea of Okhotsk region. Crustal thicknesses vary from ˜15 km north of the Kurile basin to 19-25 km in the central Sea of Okhotsk and west to the Kamchatka Peninsula. Low Vp/V s ratios (1.6--1.7) were inferred for the uppermost mantle. The presence of fluids and extensive enrichment of SiO2 with possibly low-temperature veining are viable explanations for these anomalous ratios. This may represent an important process for continentalization taking place landward from the volcanic arc in subduction zones. Small-scale heterogeneities within Earth's mantle bear important information on the dynamics of convection and mixing. The amplitude and phase fluctuations of waves traveling through random media are used to form coherence functions, which depend on the spatial lag between stations and the lag of incident angle between different plane waves. These coherence functions are used to invert for the depth-dependent heterogeneity spectra. First, a correct phase measurement technique with phase unwrapping is proposed. Second, previous theory based on homogeneous background is extended to depth variable background velocity using the WKBJ Green's function. Theoretical predictions for coherence functions agree well with results from numerical modeling. In this thesis, other work is also reported; this includes prestack Gaussian beam migration, fast three-dimensional offset plane wave modeling and migration, imaging resolution issues in global seismology.

Zheng, Yingcai

269

Small-scale chromospheric jets above a sunspot light bridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The chromosphere above sunspot umbrae and penumbrae shows several different types of fast dynamic events such as running penumbral waves, umbral flashes, and penumbral microjets. Aims: The aim of this paper is to identify the physical driver responsible for the dynamic and small-scale chromospheric jets above a sunspot light bridge. Methods: High-resolution broadband filtergrams of active region NOAA 11271 in Ca ii H and G band were obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode. We identified the jets in the Ca ii H images using a semi-automatic routine and determined their length and orientation. We applied local correlation tracking (LCT) to the G-band images to obtain the photospheric horizontal velocity field. The magnetic field topology was derived from a Milne-Eddington inversion of a simultaneous scan with the Spectropolarimeter. Results: The chromospheric jets consist of a bright, triangular-shaped blob that lies on the light bridge, while the apex of this blob extends into a spike-like structure that is bright against the dark umbral background. Most of the jets have apparent lengths of less than 1000 km and about 30% of the jets have lengths between 1000-1600 km. The jets are oriented within ±35° to the normal of the spine of the light bridge. Most of them are clustered near the central part of the light bridge within a 2'' area. The jets are seen to move rapidly along the light bridge and many of them cannot be identified in successive images taken with a 2 min cadence. The jets are primarily located on one side of the light bridge and are directed into the umbral core. The Stokes profiles at or close to the location of the blobs on the LB exhibit both a significant net circular polarization and multiple components, including opposite-polarity lobes. The magnetic field diverges from the light bridge towards the umbral cores that it separates. The LCT reveals that in the photosphere there is a predominantly uni-directional flow with speeds of 100-150 m s-1 along the light bridge. This unidirectional flow is interrupted by a patch of weak or very small motions on the light bridge which also moves along the light bridge. Conclusions: The dynamic short-lived chromospheric jets above the LB seem to be guided by the magnetic field lines. Reconnection events are a likely trigger for such phenomenon since they occur at locations where the magnetic field changes orientation sharply and where we also observe isolated patches of opposite-polarity magnetic components. We find no clear relation between the jets and the photospheric flow pattern.

Louis, Rohan E.; Beck, Christian; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi

2014-07-01

270

Normalization of Face Illumination Based on Large-and Small-Scale Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

A face image can be represented by a combination of large-and small-scale features. It is well-known that the variations ofilluminationmainlyaffectthelarge-scalefeatures(low-frequency components), and not so much the small-scale features. Therefore, in relevant existing methods only the small-scale features are ex- tracted as illumination-invariant features for face recognition, while the large-scale intrinsic features are always ignored. In this paper, we argue that

Xiaohua Xie; Wei-Shi Zheng; Jianhuang Lai; Pong C. Yuen; Ching Y. Suen

2011-01-01

271

Small-scale event sport tourism: A case study in sustainable tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scholars have suggested that small-scale sports events may be a sustainable form of tourism development for communities (e.g., Higham, 1999). The purpose of this study was to examine six small-scale sports events and the work of a local sports commission in the context of the three pillars of sustainability: economic, social, and environmental. Small-scale sports events are largely competitor or

Heather J. Gibson; Kyriaki Kaplanidou; Sung Jin Kang

2012-01-01

272

SUMMER PROGRAM FOR UPDATING THE TECHNICAL COMPETENCY OF TEACHERS OF INDUSTRIAL SUBJECTS. FINAL REPORT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

STUDENTS OF THE INSERVICE PROGRAM WERE 96 INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION TEACHERS FROM THE AREAS OF AUTO AND POWER, DRAFTING, ELECTRONICS, AND METALS WHO WERE SELECTED FROM 576 APPLICANTS. OBJECTIVES WERE TO (1) DEVELOP MODELS FOR INDUSTRY-SCHOOL COOPERATIVE PROGRAMS, (2) INTEGRATE INSTRUCTION ON INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS, CYBERNETICS, AND AUTOMATION INTO THE…

BOHN, RALPH C.

273

Safety. A Guide for Industrial Cooperative Training Programs. Learning Activity Package. LAP 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning activity package, one of six intended for use in Industrial Cooperative Training Programs, is designed to provide students with information on several general safety topics which would apply in most employment situations. (The industrial cooperative training program provides industrial occupational training experience for high school…

Duenk, Lester G.; Lear, George

274

Industrial Program of Waste Management - Cigeo Project - 13033  

SciTech Connect

The French Planning Act of 28 June 2006 prescribed that a reversible repository in a deep geological formation be chosen as the reference solution for the long-term management of high-level and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste. It also entrusted the responsibility of further studies and design of the repository (named Cigeo) upon the French Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), in order for the review of the creation-license application to start in 2015 and, subject to its approval, the commissioning of the repository to take place in 2025. Andra is responsible for siting, designing, implementing, operating the future geological repository, including operational and long term safety and waste acceptance. Nuclear operators (Electricite de France (EDF), AREVA NC, and the French Commission in charge of Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies (CEA) are technically and financially responsible for the waste they generate, with no limit in time. They provide Andra, on one hand, with waste packages related input data, and on the other hand with their long term industrial experiences of high and intermediate-level long-lived radwaste management and nuclear operation. Andra, EDF, AREVA and CEA established a cooperation agreement for strengthening their collaborations in these fields. Within this agreement Andra and the nuclear operators have defined an industrial program for waste management. This program includes the waste inventory to be taken into account for the design of the Cigeo project and the structural hypothesis underlying its phased development. It schedules the delivery of the different categories of waste and defines associated flows. (authors)

Butez, Marc [Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs - Andra, 1-7, rue Jean Monnet 92298 Chatenay-Malabry (France)] [Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs - Andra, 1-7, rue Jean Monnet 92298 Chatenay-Malabry (France); Bartagnon, Olivier; Gagner, Laurent [AREVA NC Tour AREVA 1 place de la Coupole 92084 Paris La Defense (France)] [AREVA NC Tour AREVA 1 place de la Coupole 92084 Paris La Defense (France); Advocat, Thierry; Sacristan, Pablo [Commissariat a l'energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, CEA-SACLAY 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)] [Commissariat a l'energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, CEA-SACLAY 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Beguin, Stephane [Electricite de France - EDF, Division Combustible Nucleaire, 1, Place Pleyel Site Cap Ampere93282 Saint Denis (France)] [Electricite de France - EDF, Division Combustible Nucleaire, 1, Place Pleyel Site Cap Ampere93282 Saint Denis (France)

2013-07-01

275

Solar synthesis of advanced materials: A solar industrial program initiative.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is an initiative for accelerating the use of solar energy in the advanced materials manufacturing industry in the United States. The initiative will be based on government-industry collaborations that will develop the technology and help US industry ...

A. Lewandowski

1992-01-01

276

Small-Scale Costs of Hydrogen Derived from Ammonia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A systems study was made to assess the economic prospects for using purchased industrial ammonia as a hydrogen distribution and storage medium for users requiring 33 to 330 million std ft exp 3 per year (MSCFY) of hydrogen (or 0.1 to 1.0 MSCFD) at a plant...

G. Strickland

1981-01-01

277

An Industry Program for Managing PWSCC of Closure Head Penetrations  

SciTech Connect

The Alloy 600 Issues Task Group of the EPRI managed Materials Reliability Program initiated an industry program to address the generic aspects of the Alloy 182 weld cracking in the A hot leg nozzle weld at V. C. Summer in December 2000. The generic affects of the recent cracks in the Alloy 600 Control Rod Drive Module (CRDM) and thermocouple (T/C) nozzles at Oconee 1 in November 2000 would also be included. This need for a concerted industry effort for head penetrations was further emphasized by the discovery of similar cracking at Arkansas Nuclear One (ANO) Unit 1 and the other two Oconee units during early 2001. Prior to the experiences at Oconee and ANO, there had been only one reported case of a through wall crack in a penetration at Bugey 3 in France in 1991. The predominant form of PWSCC cracking discovered in the Alloy 600 nozzles between 1991 and the recent events had been axial cracks initiated on the inner surface of the penetration tubes. This type of cracking had been addressed through an industry program in response to Generic Letter 97-01, and included a series of lead plant inspections which were being carried out over several years. Most of the cracks at Oconee and ANO 1, however, appeared to originate on the outside surface of the stub of the penetration tube extending below the J-groove weld, or in the weld itself. Circumferential cracking above the nozzle attachment weld was discovered on four nozzles at two of the Oconee units. During inspections in the Fall 2001 outages, additional leaking or cracked nozzles were discovered at several other plants. The models that had been used to rank the susceptibility of the plants to ID initiated flaws needed revision to account for the new phenomena. Additionally, the presence of circumferential cracks above the attachment weld presented the potential safety concerns of rod ejection and small break LOCA. Also, the NDE techniques that had been developed and qualified for the ID initiated flaws would be unable to detect the OD initiated flaws, so new NDE techniques and delivery capabilities were needed. Finally the repairs required for the Oconee and ANO flaws were extremely costly and dose intensive. Therefore, new repair and/or mitigation methods and delivery techniques were needed. The MRP program was established to address these areas and has evolved significantly as more information has become available. It includes activities in assessment and management of the issue, inspection capability, and repair and mitigation. Because of the safety implications of the circumferential cracking, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued NRC Bulletin 2001-01 on August 3, 2001. The MRP program also included a generic submittal to assist utilities in responding to the bulletin. Long term activities to provide utilities with appropriate tools for managing the PWSCC of reactor head penetrations are planned. (author)

Mathews, Larry K. [Southern Nuclear Operating Company (United States)

2002-07-01

278

Small-scale expression of proteins in E. coli.  

PubMed

Proteins participate in virtually every cellular activity, and a knowledge of protein function is essential for an understanding of biological systems. However, protein diversity necessitates the application of an array of in vivo and in vitro approaches for characterization of the functional and biochemical properties of proteins. Methods that enable production of proteins for in vitro studies are critical for determination of the molecular, kinetic, and thermodynamic properties of these molecules. Ideally, proteins could be purified from the original source; however, the native host is often unsuitable for a number of reasons. Consequently, systems for heterologous protein production are commonly used to produce large amounts of protein. Heterologous expression hosts are chosen using a number of criteria, including genetic tractability, advantageous production or processing characteristics (secretion or posttranslational modifications), or economy of time and growth requirements. The subcloning process also provides an opportunity to introduce purification tags, epitope tags, fusions, truncations, and mutations into the coding sequence that may be useful in downstream purification or characterization applications. Bacterial systems for heterologous protein expression have advantages in ease of use, cost, short generation times, and scalability. These expression systems have been widely used by high-throughput protein production projects and often represent an initial experiment for any expression target. Escherichia coli has been studied for many years as a model bacterial organism and is one of the most popular hosts for heterologous protein expression (Terpe, 2006). Its protein production capabilities have been intensively studied, and the ease of genetic manipulation in this organism has led to the development of strains engineered exclusively for use in protein expression. These resources are widely available from commercial sources and public repositories. Despite these advantages, many targets are unsuitable for expression in E. coli, and attempts will not yield protein that can be utilized in downstream applications. A thorough understanding of the protein target, the requirements of the final application, and available tools are all essential for planning a successful expression experiment. This protocol is designed to optimize expression and solubility using an E. coli host and expression vector with an IPTG-inducible T7 promoter. The general features of the method are easily extended to other organisms and expression systems. Small-scale expression cultures are used to identify the optimum expression parameters for a given target. Thorough analysis of the total cell content and soluble fraction is used to screen out failed targets and those unlikely to succeed in large-scale purification cultures. The protocol listed here can be used in individual tubes for a small number of targets or adapted for use in 48-well plates for high throughput applications (Abdullah et al., 2009). Using the same culture for initial expression analysis and solubility analysis reduces variability between expression trials and saves the time required to produce separate cultures. PMID:24423272

Zerbs, Sarah; Giuliani, Sarah; Collart, Frank

2014-01-01

279

Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results  

SciTech Connect

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

2012-11-01

280

Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results  

SciTech Connect

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and net generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of antifoam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. For the combination of both test stands, the round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the much larger flow rates and equipment that would be required. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

2013-05-29

281

Alabama Industrial Technician Education Cooperative Demonstration Program (I-TEC). Final Performance Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cooperative demonstration program between industry (General Electric) and education (John Patterson State Technical College, Alabama) designed and conducted a training program and competency assessment for individuals entering high technology positions related to industrial production in Alabama. The program was designed to develop employees as…

John M. Patterson State Technical Coll., Montgomery, AL.

282

Classification of Wetlands Vegetation Using Small Scale Color Infrared Imagery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A classification system for Chesapeake Bay wetlands was derived from the correlation of film density classes and actual vegetation classes. The data processing programs used were developed by the Laboratory for the Applications of Remote Sensing. These pr...

F. S. L. Williamson

1975-01-01

283

Outcomes and Impacts of the State/Industry Cooperative Research Centers (S/IUCRC) Program  

NSF Publications Database

In addition to promoting university-based, industrially-relevant research (a goal common to other NSF centers programs), the S/IUCRC Program was to "facilitate diffusion of center research results and technology innovation with a view to impacting economic development. S/IUCRC Program I/UCRC Program GOAL Advance state economic development Strengthen cooperative research relationships between universities and industry ACTIVITIES Provide support for a "core" research program of ...

284

Innovative Industrial Technology R and D Promotion Program: A New Initiative of MITI/NEDO.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In June 1995, the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), a quasi-governmental organization under Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), launched a new program called the 'Proposal-Based Advanced Industr...

1996-01-01

285

Plant Wide Energy Efficiency Assessment Pilgrims Pride Corporation, Mt. Pleasant Facility. DOE/Industrial Technologies Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Industrial Technologies Program (ITP), through Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is supporting plant wide energy efficiency assessments that will lead to substantial improvements in industrial efficiency, waste reductio...

B. Dooley R. Paper

2007-01-01

286

32 CFR 2004.20 - National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (NISPOM)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

[Title 32 CFR 2004.20] [Code of Federal Regulations...OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND] [Part 2004 - NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL SECURITY PROGRAM...1] [Subpart B - Operations] [Sec. 2004.20 - National Industrial Security...

2009-07-01

287

Broadening the Base of a Technical Communication Program: An Industrial/Academic Alliance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the creation of an Advisory Board for forging an alliance between technical communication education and industry. Discusses the influence the board had on program development and the insights both industry and academia gained from the alliance. (PRA)

Bosley, Deborah S.

1992-01-01

288

Matching the outcome of small-scale density manipulation experiments with larger scale patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generalising or scaling up from small-scale experiments to larger areas is an important challenge for both ecology and conservation biology. This study describes a technique that attempts to meet this challenge by combining spatial mapping with small-scale process experiments. Specifically, we evaluate the density effects of large individuals (>15 mm shell length) of a tellinid bivalve (Macomona liliana Iredale) on

S. F Thrush; V. J Cummings; P. K Dayton; R Ford; J Grant; J. E Hewitt; A. H Hines; S. M Lawrie; R. D Pridmore; P Legendre; B. H McArdle; D. C Schneider; S. J Turner; R. B Whitlatch; M. R Wilkinson

1997-01-01

289

Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Livestock Projects. Guidelines for Planning Series Number 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document was developed in response to the need for simplified technical information for planning environmentally sound small-scale projects in third world countries. It is aimed specifically at those who are planning or managing small-scale livestock projects in less-developed areas of the tropics and sub-tropics. The guidelines included in…

Jacobs, Linda

290

Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power in the Southeast: New Impetus for an Old Energy Source.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Southeastern conference, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power: New Impetus for an Old Energy Source, was convened to provide a forum for state legislators and other interested persons to discuss the problems facing small-scale hydro developers, and to reco...

1980-01-01

291

77 FR 27798 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance--Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION:...

2012-05-11

292

77 FR 22612 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2012-04-16

293

75 FR 54655 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2010-09-08

294

75 FR 454 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2010-01-05

295

76 FR 32989 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2011-06-07

296

78 FR 37583 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2013-06-21

297

75 FR 79418 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2010-12-20

298

76 FR 51435 - Request for Certification of Compliance; Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2011-08-18

299

75 FR 453 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2010-01-05

300

77 FR 27797 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2012-05-11

301

75 FR 43207 - Request for Certification of Compliance -Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2010-07-23

302

75 FR 50006 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2010-08-16

303

78 FR 37584 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2013-06-21

304

75 FR 13784 - Request for Certification of Compliance Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2010-03-23

305

75 FR 50007 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2010-08-16

306

Large- and small-scale constraints on power spectra in Omega = 1 universes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CDM model of structure formation, normalized on large scales, leads to excessive pairwise velocity dispersions on small scales. In an attempt to circumvent this problem, we study three scenarios (all with Omega = 1) with more large-scale and less small-scale power than the standard CDM model: (1) cold dark matter with significantly reduced small-scale power (inspired by models with an admixture of cold and hot dark matter); (2) cold dark matter with a non-scale-invariant power spectrum; and (3) cold dark matter with coupling of dark matter to a long-range vector field. When normalized to COBE on large scales, such models do lead to reduced velocities on small scales and they produce fewer halos compared with CDM. However, models with sufficiently low small-scale velocities apparently fail to produce an adequate number of halos.

Gelb, James M.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami; Frieman, Joshua A.

1993-01-01

307

Manual for Trainers of Small Scale Beekeeping Development Workers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The manual provides a guide for those who are helping future Peace Corps Volunteers to acquire basic beekeeping skills. The program is designed to help Trainees develop the skills they will need to work and live in another culture as beekeeping extensioni...

C. Gentry C. Sommer M. E. Wilburn R. C. Rice

1983-01-01

308

University-Industry Cooperative Research Programs in the Mathematical Sciences  

NSF Publications Database

The Division of Mathematical Sciences (DMS) supports this relationship through the university-industry postdoctoral research fellowships, university-industry senior research fellowships, industry-based graduate research assistantships, and industry-based graduate cooperative fellowships described in this solicitation. More comprehensive information on NSF Award Conditions is contained in the NSF Grant Policy Manual (GPM) Chapter II, available electronically on the NSF Website at http://www....

309

Michigan reconsiders subsidy programs for the film industry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hollywood on the dole: Draw the curtain on filmmaker subsidieshttp://www.economist.com/blogs/democracyinamerica/2011/03/hollywood_doleSenate approves $50M cap on NM film subsidieshttp://www.businessweek.com/ap/financialnews/D9M0DCRO2.htmLights. Camera. Stop the film subsidies action.http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/editorial_opinion/oped/articles/2011/02/19/lights_camera_stop_the_film_subsidies_action/Hollywood's disc problem: Video nastyhttp://www.economist.com/node/18388998Michigan Movie Magazinehttp://www.michiganmoviemagazine.biz/Amidst many programs designed to deal with the fiscal realities of tightening state budgets, some policymakers and legislators are reconsidering the practice of offering subsidies to film production companies. Recently, the state of Michigan has been contemplating abolishing their 42% tax credit for film production; effectively rolling back what are unlimited industry rebates to an annual cap of $25 million. Michigan's new governor, Rick Snyder, proposed the cut in his most recent budget proposal, and some have responded quite negatively to this proposal. A number of prominent local personages have spoken out against the cut, including best-selling author Mitch Albom, who pointed out in a committee hearing last week that the film and television business in the state grew from $2 million in $225 million in two years. Currently there are 43 studios with pending applications to film in Michigan, and the Michigan Film Office cannot approve them until a final decision is reached by the legislature, which may not come until late May. Nationwide, there is significant debate about the true long term benefits of such subsidies, and other states (such as New Mexico) are also considering gradually reducing or eliminating these tax benefits entirely.The first link will take interested parties to a piece from Fortune, which describes the proposed program to scale back subsidies for film production companies in the Wolverine State. The second link leads to a recent piece from The Economist which argues against providing subsidies to such endeavors. The third link will take visitors to an article from last week's Bloomberg Businessweek which reports on New Mexico's recent decision to cap film production studies. Moving on, the fourth link will take users to a Boston Globe editorial by Professor Peter Enrich in which he argues for an end to film production subsidies in Massachusetts. The fifth link leads to a piece from The Economist which talks about how the movie industry itself should focus more on digital distribution, rather than to continue to rely on their work renting film to cinema chains and shipping DVDs and such to retailers and the remaining rental outlets. The final link will take visitors to the online home of the Michigan Movie Magazine, which provides industry news about film productions and related matters in the state.

Grinnell, Max

2011-03-26

310

Solar synthesis of advanced materials: A solar industrial program initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an initiative for accelerating the use of solar energy in the advanced materials manufacturing industry in the United States. The initiative will be based on government-industry collaborations that will develop the technology and help US industry compete in the rapidly expanding global advanced materials marketplace. Breakthroughs in solar technology over the last 5 years have created exceptional new

A. Lewandowski

1992-01-01

311

La Apaicultura de Pequena Escala (Small Scale Beekeeping). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Manual Series No. M-25.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Spanish-language manual is designed to assist Peace Corps volunteers in Spanish-speaking countries in the implementation of small-scale beekeeping programs as a tool for development. Addressed in the individual chapters are bees and humans; project planning; the types and habits of bees; the essence of beekeeping; bee space and beehives;…

Gentry, Curtis

312

Apiculture de Petite Eschelle (Small Scale Beekeeping). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Manual Series No. M-26.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This French-language manual is designed to assist Peace Corps volunteers in French-speaking countries in the implementation of small-scale beekeeping programs as a tool for development. Addressed in the individual chapters are bees and humans; project planning; the types and habits of bees; the essence of beekeeping; bee space and beehives;…

Gentry, Curtis

313

Autonomous Guidance of Agile Small-scale Rotorcraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes a guidance system for agile vehicles based on a hybrid closed-loop model of the vehicle dynamics. The hybrid model represents the vehicle dynamics through a combination of linear-time-invariant control modes and pre-programmed, finite-duration maneuvers. This particular hybrid structure can be realized through a control system that combines trim controllers and a maneuvering control logic. The former enable precise trajectory tracking, and the latter enables trajectories at the edge of the vehicle capabilities. The closed-loop model is much simpler than the full vehicle equations of motion, yet it can capture a broad range of dynamic behaviors. It also supports a consistent link between the physical layer and the decision-making layer. The trajectory generation was formulated as an optimization problem using mixed-integer-linear-programming. The optimization is solved in a receding horizon fashion. Several techniques to improve the computational tractability were investigate. Simulation experiments using NASA Ames 'R-50 model show that this approach fully exploits the vehicle's agility.

Mettler, Bernard; Feron, Eric

2004-01-01

314

Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion for small scale market sectors. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to demonstrate and promote the commercialization of coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) systems, with limestone addition for SO{sub 2} emissions control and a baghouse for particulate emissions control. This AFBC system was targeted for small scale industrial-commercial-institutional space and process heat applications. A cost effective and environmentally acceptable AFBC technology in this size range would displace a considerable amount of gas/oil with coal while resulting in significant total cost savings to the owner/operators. In the Proof-of-Concept Phase, a 2.2 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr unit was installed and successfully operated at Cedar Lane Farms (CLF), a commercial nursery in Ohio. The heat from the fluidized bed was used to heat hot water which was recirculated through greenhouses for cool weather heating. The system was designed to be fully automated with minimal operator attention required. The AFBC system installed at CLF was an improved design that incorporated flyash/sorbent reinjection and an underbed feed system to improve limestone utilization. With these additions it was possible to lower the Ca/S ratio from {approximately} 3.0 to 2.0, and still maintain an SO{sub 2} emissions level of 1.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu when burning the same high sulfur Ohio coal tested at OARDC.

Ashworth, R.A.; Plessinger, D.A.; Sommer, T.M. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Orville, OH (United States); Keener, H.M. [Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, OH (United States); Webner, R.L. [Will-Burt Co., Orrville, OH (United States)

1997-03-31

315

Assessment of options for small-scale lignite fueled cogeneration plants  

SciTech Connect

Plant designs, performance data, cost estimates and bus-bar power costs were developed for four configurations of small-scale cogeneration plants using lignite as fuel. The configurations evaluated consisted of lignite gasification combined with phosphoric acid fuel cells, lignite gasification with a combustion turbine generator, a direct-fired atmospheric fluidized bed boiler plant, and a direct-fired conventional boiler plant. The plants were sized on the basis of the same lignite feed of 740 TPD and production of 100,000 lbs per hr of process steam for industrial use. Results in terms of net electrical power output and bus-bar power costs in constant 1983 dollars were: for the gasification/fuel cell plant, 32.5MW and $0.068 kWh; for the gasification/combustion turbine plant, 20.1MW and $0.081 per kWh; for the fluidized bed boiler plant, 20.6MW and $0.074 per kWh; and for the convential direct-fired boiler plant, 21.2MW and $0.066 per kWh.

Grisso, J.R.

1984-08-01

316

Class at the Plant: A Program of University/Industry Cooperation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Industrial education courses at a manufacturer's specially built education and training facility are taught by Northwestern State University professors in Shreveport, Louisiana, with adjunct professors from local industries. This cooperative program provides individual courses and degree programs to plant employees, employees of other companies,…

Dennis, William H.

1978-01-01

317

THE PARTNERSHIP VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROJECT, A NEW PROGRAM IN INDUSTRIAL-TECHNICAL EDUCATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PROPOSED PROGRAM TO IMPROVE INDUSTRIAL-TECHNICAL EDUCATION WILL FUNCTION ON THREE LEVELS--UNIVERSITY, COMMUNITY COLLEGE, AND HIGH SCHOOL. IN GRADES 9 AND 10, THE PROGRAM WILL CONSIST OF A STUDY OF AMERICAN INDUSTRY. IN GRADES 11 AND 12, THERE WILL BE A 2-YEAR SEQUENCE OF FOUR MAJOR COURSES IN ENGLISH, SCIENCE, MATHEMATICS, AND…

MINELLI, ERNEST L.

318

Emergence of the Kennicutt-Schmidt Relation from the Small-scale SFR-Density Relation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use simulations of isolated galaxies with a few parsec resolution to explore the connection between the small-scale star formation rate (SFR)-gas density relation and the induced large-scale correlation between the SFR surface density and the surface density of the molecular gas (the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation). We find that, in the simulations, a power-law small-scale "star formation law" directly translates into an identical power-law Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. If this conclusion holds in the reality as well, it implies that the observed approximately linear Kennicutt-Schmidt relation must reflect the approximately linear small-scale "star formation law."

Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Tasker, Elizabeth J.; Fujimoto, Yusuke

2014-05-01

319

Small scale wind tunnel model investigation of hybrid high lift systems combining upper surface blowing with the internally blown flap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A small-scale wind tunnel test of a two engine hybrid model with upper surface blowing on a simulated expandable duct internally blown flap was accomplished in a two phase program. The low wing Phase I model utilized 0.126c radius Jacobs/Hurkamp flaps and 0.337c radius Coanda flaps. The high wing Phase II model was utilized for continued studies on the Jacobs/Hurkamp flap. Principal study areas included: basic data both engines operative and with an engine out, control flap utilization, horizontal tail effectiveness, spoiler effectiveness, USB nacelle deflector study and USB/IBF pressure ratio effects.

Waites, W. L.; Chin, Y. T.

1974-01-01

320

Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project. Pennsylvania Hydroelectric Development Corporation Flat Rock Dam: Project summary report  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

Gleeson, L.

1991-12-01

321

Survey of utility industrial demand-side management programs. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Utilities are increasingly focusing their attention on load shaping opportunities in the industrial sector. Unfortunately, there is little documented information on the industrial demand-side management (DSM) experience of utilities. In this project, EPRI conducted a survey of utilities to identify the load shape objectives, technologies, end uses, and market implementation methods specified by utilities in their industrial DSM activities. More detailed case studies and phone surveys were also conducted to identify and document specific programs, as well as the program development and implementation process, specific market implementation methods used, and DMS program planning and design. The project also documented the major problems and issues faced by utilities in effectively planning, analyzing and implementing industrial DSM programs, and identified areas in which future EPRI research could assist utilities in developing improved industrial DSM programs.

Limaye, D.R.

1986-09-01

322

Industrial demand-side management programs: What`s happened, what works, what`s needed  

SciTech Connect

In order to analyze experience to date with industrial demand-side management (DSM), a survey of utilities was conducted and a database of industrial DSM programs was prepared. More than eighty utilities and third-party organizations were interviewed. Data were collected via phone, fax, and/or mail from the utilities and entered into a database. In order to limit the scope of this study, the database contains incentive-based, energy-saving programs and not load management or information-only programs (including technical assistance programs). Programs in the database were divided into four categories: two ``prescriptive rebate`` categories and two ``custom rebate`` categories. The database contains 31 incentive-based, energy-saving industrial DSM programs offered by 17 utilities. The appendix to this report summarizes the results approximately 60 industrial DSM programs. Most of the programs included in the appendix, but not in the database, are either C&I programs for which commercial and industrial data were not disaggregated or new industrial DSM programs for which data are not yet available.

Jordan, J.A.; Nadel, S.M. [American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-03-01

323

Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package. Appendix B.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This appendix provides the data for Alternate HTM Flowsheet 2 (Glycolic Acid) melter feed preparation activities in both the laboratory- and small-scale testing. The first section provides an outline of this appendix. The melter feed preparation data are ...

1996-01-01

324

Small-scale dynamo action in multi-scale magnetohydrodynamic and micro-turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear interplay between resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) magnetic island and drift wave micro-turbulence is investigated using direct Landau-fluid simulations. A twisting oscillation of magnetic island associated with the driving force of micro-turbulence is observed, which is referred to as magnetic island seesaw. In the initiating phase of the seesaw oscillation, small-scale current and magnetic field fluctuations increase dramatically while the magnetic induction grows exponentially at small-scales corresponding to the spatial scale of micro-turbulence, showing a small-scale dynamo action. A minimal model consisting of reduced MHD turbulence and a micro-instability is proposed to elucidate the underlying mechanism. It is identified that the island seesaw is driven by a net oscillatory electromagnetic torque, which results from small-scale dynamo-generated current and magnetic field. The dynamo mechanism may offer an important energy exchange channel between MHD and micro-turbulence in magnetic fusion plasmas.

Li, Jiquan; Kishimoto, Y.

2012-03-01

325

Nonlinear Generation of shear flows and large scale magnetic fields by small scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EGU2009-233 Nonlinear Generation of shear flows and large scale magnetic fields by small scale turbulence in the ionosphere by G. Aburjania Contact: George Aburjania, g.aburjania@gmail.com,aburj@mymail.ge

Aburjania, G.

2009-04-01

326

Small-scale hydroelectric power in the Pacific Northwest: new impetus for an old energy source  

SciTech Connect

Energy supply is one of the most important issues facing Northwestern legislators today. To meet the challenge, state legislatures must address the development of alternative energy sources. The Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Policy Project of the National Conference of State Legislators (NCSL) was designed to assist state legislators in looking at the benefits of one alternative, small-scale hydro. Because of the need for state legislative support in the development of small-scale hydroelectric, NCSL, as part of its contract with the Department of Energy, conducted the following conference on small-scale hydro in the Pacific Northwest. The conference was designed to identify state obstacles to development and to explore options for change available to policymakers. A summary of the conference proceedings is presented.

Not Available

1980-07-01

327

Small scale hydroelectric power potential in Nevada: a preliminary reconnaissance survey  

SciTech Connect

This preliminary reconnaissance survey is intended to: develop a first estimate as to the potential number, location and characteristics of small-scale (50 kW to 15 MW) hydroelectric sites in Nevada; provide a compilation of various Federal and state laws and regulations, including tax and financing regulations, that affect small-scale hydroelectric development and provide information on sources of small-scale hydroelectric generation hardware and consultants/ contractors who do small scale hydroelectric work. The entire survey has been conducted in the office working with various available data bases. The site survey and site evaluation methods used are described, and data are tabulated on the flow, power potential, predicted capital expenditures required, etc. for 61 potential sites with measured flows and for 77 sites with derived flows. A map showing potential site locations is included. (LCL)

Cochran, G.F.; Fordham, J.W.; Richard, K.; Loux, R.

1981-04-01

328

Direction, Inducement, and Schemes: Investment Strategies for Small-Scale Irrigation Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Existing and potential investment strategies for small-scale irrigation development are sorted along a continuum based on directness of investment. Appropriate uses of four investment strategies are discussed: (1) revenue sharing; (2) agency funding to im...

J. E. Nickum

1986-01-01

329

Preliminary Tests on Cellular Concrete for Small-Scale Cratering Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Small-scale cratering experiments are being conducted by the Civil Engineering Research Facility with systematic variation in the parameters of the experiments, especially in the charge configurations and media employed in the test beds. Before cellular (...

D. E. Stephenson H. Engle

1972-01-01

330

The Power Guide: A Catalogue of Small-Scale Power Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guide is intended to help those seeking to buy small-scale power equipment, particularly for use in remote and underdeveloped parts of the world, by indicating a selection of appropriate commercially available power sources. It gives basic informatio...

P. Fraenkel

1979-01-01

331

Nonlinear Generation of shear flows and large scale magnetic fields by small scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

EGU2009-233 Nonlinear Generation of shear flows and large scale magnetic fields by small scale turbulence in the ionosphere by G. Aburjania Contact: George Aburjania, g.aburjania@gmail.com,aburj@mymail.ge

G. Aburjania

2009-01-01

332

Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Maryland  

SciTech Connect

The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level in Maryland are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The dual regulatory system is examined with the aim of creating a more orderly understanding of the vagaries of the system, focusing on the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. In Maryland, by common law rule, title to all navigable waters and to the soil below the high-water mark of those waters is vested in the state as successor to the Lord Proprietary who had received it by grant from the Crown. Rights to non-navigable water, public trust doctrine, and eminent domain are also discussed. Direct and indirect regulations, continuing obligations, loan programs, and regional organizations are described in additional sections.

None,

1980-05-01

333

Ground and Flight Evaluation of a Small-Scale Inflatable-Winged Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A small-scale, instrumented research aircraft was flown to investigate the night characteristics of innersole wings. Ground tests measured the static structural characteristics of the wing at different inflation pressures, and these results compared favorably with analytical predictions. A research-quality instrumentation system was assembled, largely from commercial off-the-shelf components, and installed in the aircraft. Initial flight operations were conducted with a conventional rigid wing having the same dimensions as the inflatable wing. Subsequent flights were conducted with the inflatable wing. Research maneuvers were executed to identify the trim, aerodynamic performance, and longitudinal stability and control characteristics of the vehicle in its different wing configurations. For the angle-of-attack range spanned in this flight program, measured flight data demonstrated that the rigid wing was an effective simulator of the lift-generating capability of the inflatable wing. In-flight inflation of the wing was demonstrated in three flight operations, and measured flight data illustrated the dynamic characteristics during wing inflation and transition to controlled lifting flight. Wing inflation was rapid and the vehicle dynamics during inflation and transition were benign. The resulting angles of attack and of sideslip ere small, and the dynamic response was limited to roll and heave motions.

Murray, James E.; Pahle, Joseph W.; Thornton, Stephen V.; Vogus, Shannon; Frackowiak, Tony; Mello, Joe; Norton, Brook; Bauer, Jeff (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

334

Small Scale Experiment Design to study CO2 Leakage through a shallow Subsurface System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CO2 leakage to the ground surface is one of the main concerns associated with geological carbon storage. A solid understanding of how CO2 which has leaked from a storage reservoir behaves in the shallow subsurface is critical for developing effective leakage-monitoring programs. CO2 may reach the unsaturated zone by different leakage mechanisms such as exsolution from CO2-supersaturated water, continuous bubbling or gas flow along a leakage path. In the unsaturated zone, the CO2 is heavier than air and may accumulate below the ground surface and move laterally. In this study, a small scale experimental setup is designed and applied for measuring CO2 distribution in time and space through a near-surface soil. The CO2 concentrations are measured using sensitive gas sensors at several locations in the soil. To interpret the experimental results and develop better understanding of the near-surface CO2 migration processes, the experiments are modeled with the TOUGH2/EOS7CA numerical simulator, including multiphase flow of CO2, water and air. The combination of experiments and modeling is used to investigate the influence of the leakage rates on CO2 concentrations in unsaturated zone and emissions to the atmosphere. The effects of soil water content and depth of the water table on the migration of the leaked CO2 are also investigated.

Sharma, P.; Basirat, F.; Fagerlund, F.; Niemi, A. P.

2012-12-01

335

Velocity Measurements Near the Empennage of a SmallScale Helicopter Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A test program was conducted in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel to measure the flow near the empennage of a small-scale powered helicopter model with an operating tail fan. Three-component velocity profiles were measured with Laser Velocimetry (LV) one chord forward of the horizontal tail for four advance ratios to evaluate the effect of the rotor wake impingement on the horizontal tail angle of attack. These velocity data indicate the horizontal tail can experience unsteady downwash angle variations of over 30 degrees due to the rotor wake influence. The horizontal tail is most affected by the rotor wake above advance ratios of 0.10. Velocity measurements of the flow on the inlet side of the fan were made for a low-speed flight condition using both conventional LV techniques and a promising, non-intrusive, global, three-component velocity measurement technique called Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV). The velocity data show an accelerated flow near the fan duct, and vorticity calculations track the passage of main rotor wake vortices through the measurement plane. DGV shows promise as an evolving tool for rotor flowfield diagnostics.

Gorton, Susan Althoff; Meyers, James F.; Berry, John D.

1996-01-01

336

Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Bio-Based and Fossil Fuels  

SciTech Connect

Technology Management, Inc. (TMI) of Cleveland, Ohio, has completed the project entitled â??Small Scale SOFC Demonstration using Bio-based and Fossil Fuels.â? Under this program, two 1-kW systems were engineered as technology demonstrators of an advanced technology that can operate on either traditional hydrocarbon fuels or renewable biofuels. The systems were demonstrated at Patterson's Fruit Farm of Chesterland, OH and were open to the public during the first quarter of 2012. As a result of the demonstration, TMI received quantitative feedback on operation of the systems as well as qualitative assessments from customers. Based on the test results, TMI believes that > 30% net electrical efficiency at 1 kW on both traditional and renewable fuels with a reasonable entry price is obtainable. The demonstration and analysis provide the confidence that a 1 kW entry-level system offers a viable value proposition, but additional modifications are warranted to reduce sound and increase reliability before full commercial acceptance.

Michael Petrik; Robert Ruhl

2012-03-31

337

Industrial ecology study and research program at Norwegian University of Science and Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a brief presentation of the industrial ecology study and research programs at the Norwegian University of\\u000a Science and Technology (NTNU). These programs have been running for a few years, and they have recently been evaluated. The\\u000a revised program will be presented. A central topic within the framework of industrial ecology is eco-efficiency. Eco-efficiency\\u000a should be a tool

Annik Magerholm Fet; Ottar Michelsen

2003-01-01

338

Wet-milling of wheat flour: industrial processes and small-scale test methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial manufacture of wheat starch and vital wheat gluten involves physical separation of starch granules and gluten particles formed in a neutral aqueous system. The wet-separation of gluten proteins and starch from wheat flour is based on their water insolubility, density, and particle size. Upon wetting, gluten proteins in wheat endosperm aggregate and form particles that are larger in size

Abdulvahit Sayaslan

2004-01-01

339

Small-Scale Bioenergy Alternatives for Industry, Farm, and Institutions : A User`s Perspective.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents research on biomass as an energy source. Topics include: bioenergy development and application; bioenergy combustion technology; and bioenergy from agricultural, forest, and urban resources. There are a total of 57 individual reports included. Individual reports are processed separately for the databases.

Folk, Richard [ed.] [Idaho Univ., Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Forest Products

1991-12-31

340

The velocity and acceleration signatures of small-scale vortices in turbulent channel flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-resolved particle-image velocimetry measurements are made in the streamwise-wall-normal plane of turbulent channel flow at Ret?=?550 and 1747. Temporal and convective derivatives of velocity are computed from this data in order to evaluate the small-scale behaviour of these quantities as well as of the velocity itself. Instantaneous velocity fields indicate that the flow is dominated by small-scale vortex cores believed

Kenneth T. Christensen; Ronald J. Adrian

2002-01-01

341

The velocity and acceleration signatures of small-scale vortices in turbulent channel flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-resolved particle-image velocimetry measurements are made in the streamwise-wall-normal plane of turbulent channel flow at Re??=?550 and 1747. Temporal and convective derivatives of velocity are computed from this data in order to evaluate the small-scale behaviour of these quantities as well as of the velocity itself. Instantaneous velocity fields indicate that the flow is dominated by small-scale vortex cores believed

Kenneth T Christensen; Ronald J Adrian

2002-01-01

342

The use of small scale aerial photography in a regional agricultural survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of performing inventories of agricultural resources using very small scale aerial or space photography has been investigated. Results to date are encouraging on two counts: (1) the questions posed initially are being answered, and (2) it would seem that a fully operational agricultural inventory using very small scale photography is not beyond the scope of present technology. The biggest problems to be faced in establishing a functional inventory system are those concerning logistics and data handling.

Draeger, W. C.

1971-01-01

343

Forest Certification as an Instrument for Improved Forest Management within Small-scale Forestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since early 1990 ties, Swedish forest land is increasingly becoming certified. Today all major forest owners have joined the\\u000a Swedish FSC-standard (Forest Stewardship Council), while small-scale forest owners preferably are joining the PEFC scheme\\u000a (Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification). With the overall aim of gaining a better insight into which small-scale\\u000a forest owners that have decided to take

Gun Lidestav; Solveig Berg Lejon

344

Quantifying and cataloguing small-scale motions along lineaments on Europa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-scale normal and shear motions (approaching the limits of resolution; < a few 100 m) along lineaments on Europa are not well constrained. Previous work has not differentiated, quantified, and catalogued the small-scale motions along the lengths of lineaments of varying morphologies. In their characterizations, such work principally utilized rigid-block reconstructions which do not address any variations in motion along

J. Vetter; S. A. Kattenhorn

2004-01-01

345

Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) program. Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments FY 1996  

SciTech Connect

In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven {open_quotes}Vision Industries{close_quotes} that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. These are: (1) Aluminum; (2) Chemical; (3) Forest Products; (4) Glass; (5) Metal Casting; (6) Refineries; and (7) Steel. This report is a compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments on materials.

NONE

1997-04-01

346

Industrial Fitness, Adult Fitness, and Cardiac Rehabilitation. Graduate Programs Specific to Training Exercise Specialists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the increase in industrial and adult fitness and rehabilitation programs, more individuals qualified as exercise program professionals are needed. This article discusses universities and colleges that offer specialized graduate programs. Entrance criteria, prerequisites and deficiencies, degree requirements, and field experience training for…

Wilson, Philip K.; Hall, Linda K.

1984-01-01

347

Evaluation of the Industrial Maintenance Program at Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1982-83, a study was conducted at Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute to determine whether the objectives of the Industrial Maintenance Program were being met, to measure program success, and to identify aspects needing improvement. Surveys were sent to 30 students who graduated from the program before 1978, yielding a 57%…

Pipes, V. David

348

English for Special Purposes in Business and Industry: Suggestions for Program Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the growing demand for English as a Second Language (ESL) programs in business and industry. Presents study findings on the characteristics of six ESL programs offered in Fortune 500 companies, identifying factors that commonly facilitate or impede ESL program design. (DMM)

La Perla, Joann

1988-01-01

349

Career Preparation Program Curriculum Guide for: Hospitality/Tourism Industry (Food Services).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum outline provides secondary and postsecondary instructors with detailed information on student learning outcomes for completion of the food services program requirements in the hospitality/tourism industry. A program overview discusses the aims of education; secondary school philosophy; and career preparation programs and their…

British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria. Curriculum Development Branch.

350

Unit-Credit Titles under Program Headings, Directory. Technology Education: Vocational Industrial, Industrial Arts, Home Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory lists the unit-credit titles of the technology education courses offered in Manitoba, along with their corresponding department codes and course numbers. Sections A through C list the unit-credit titles of the following vocational-industrial clusters: heavy industrial (agriculture, auto body repair, building construction, building…

Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg. Curriculum Services Branch.

351

Cyber Security Testing and Training Programs for Industrial Control Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Service providers rely on industrial control systems (ICS) to manage the flow of water at dams, open breakers on power grids, control ventilation and cooling in nuclear power plants, and more. In today's interconnected environment, this can present a seri...

D. Noyes

2012-01-01

352

Planning of Investment Programs in the Fertilizer Industry. Volume 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The volume describes the planning tools that are designed to analyze the implications of alternative investment, production, trade, and distribution patterns for the fertilizer industry over time and in a given geographical context. Moreover, it provides ...

A. M. Choksi A. Meeraus A. J. Stoutjesdijk

1980-01-01

353

Program on purification of industrial waste water. Country paper: Botswana  

SciTech Connect

Botswana is a landlocked country which straddles the Tropic of Capricorn in the center of the Southern African plateau. The total land area of the country is 582,000 sq km and the population is about 1.3 million inhabitants. The climate is mainly arid or semi-arid. Most rivers are ephemeral and the water supply comes mainly from several thousand boreholes. A few dams have also been constructed to satisfy the ever increasing need for water in the urban areas, industrial as well as irrigation uses. Water is a very scarce commodity in Botswana and it has to be very well protected from any kind of pollution. This need is emphasized by the fact that a lot of wastewater is being generated due to rapid rate of industrialization because of favorable economic situation for the past few years. The main industries are at present mining and livestock industries. Besides tanning, metal plating, dairy and chemical industries, breweries are also causing pollution problems as well as oils and chemicals used in industries, garages and agriculture.

Magibisela, F.

1990-09-11

354

A Government/Industry Summary of the Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Langley Research Center in 1984 initiated a rotorcraft structural dynamics program, designated DAMVIBS (Design Analysis Methods for VIBrationS), with the objective of establishing the technology base needed by the rotorcraft industry for developing an advanced finite-element-based dynamics design analysis capability for vibrations. An assessment of the program showed that the DAMVIBS Program has resulted in notable technical achievements and major changes in industrial design practice, all of which have significantly advanced the industry's capability to use and rely on finite-element-based dynamics analyses during the design process.

Kvaternik, Raymond G. (compiler)

1993-01-01

355

Industry's voluntary program: Community Awareness and Emergency Response Program and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the chemical industry's Community Awareness and Emergency Response (CAER) Program, and voluntary and mandatory actions by the chemical industry to comply with the major environmental legislation. The chemical industry started the voluntary CAER Program soon after the Bhopal Disaster in 1984; it is coordinated through the Chemical Manufacturer's Association. This program, which began in March 1985, is a long-term industry commitment to develop a community outreach program and to improve local emergency response planning. The Congress of the United States began, in 1985, to consider proposals for mandatory programs. This led to enactment of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, known as SARA. A portion of this Act, entitled Title III is also known as the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act. Although this legislation has many mandatory requirements, it should be emphasized that a significant degree of voluntary industrial participation is needed if the purposes of the statute are to be achieved. Title III has created an intricate and still evolving system that ties together the EPA, industrial plant managers, state emergency response commissions, local emergency planning committees and fire departments with jurisdiction over the facility. Each of these groups has a different role and responsibilities but must work cooperatively with other participants. Because of the intricate network of participants, the magnitude of the information flow, and the continuing evolution of the system, unique public relations problems exist in order to comply with Title III.

Cooper, J.S. (Hill and Knowlton Public Affairs Worldwide, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-10-01

356

Peculiarities of the optimisation of optical resonators with regular small-scale inhomogeneities of an active medium  

SciTech Connect

The peculiarities of parametric optimisation of resonators containing small-scale inhomogeneities are considered. The two most important practical cases are studied in detail: an unstable resonator with small-scale phase inhomogeneities in the active medium and a stable resonator with small-scale amplitude modulations caused by the use of a perforated output mirror. (resonators)

Lobachev, V V; Strakhov, S Yu [D.F. Ustinov 'VOENMEKh' Baltic State Technical University, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2005-10-31

357

The use of dried bakery products in a free-choice feeding method for small-scale broiler production.  

PubMed

Waste material from bakeries is an unconventional energy feed source which is available in sufficient quantities for use in small-scale broiler production in South Africa. Small-scale broiler producers do not have access to the computer programs required to balance home-mixed rations. This investigation confirms that the use of dried bakery products (DBP) in a 2-stage, free-choice method can be used to compensate for this lack. A total of 570 day-old male broiler chickens was assigned to 3 feeding treatments: the control group was fed a 2-stage feeding programme using standard commercial starter and grower rations. The 2nd group received a commercial starter ration up to Day 7 and was thereafter given a choice of a commercial starter ration with normal salt content (0.35%) and DBP. The 3rd group was fed a commercial starter ration up to Day 7, then offered a choice of commercial starter ration with a lower salt content (0.1%) and DBP. The low salt alternative was used to test whether the higher salt percentage in DBP influenced the choice of feed by the birds. It was found that the control group consumed significantly more feed (P < 0.05) and was significantly heavier (P < 0.05) than the experimental groups. However, there was no significant difference between the 2 experimental groups, which indicated that salt content did not play a role in the choice of ration. Feed consumption by both experimental groups was about one-third less than the control group, but the profit margin, as calculated using gross margin analysis, was approximately 15 % higher. It was therefore concluded that dried bakery products can be profitably incorporated as an energy feed source, using the free-choice feeding method, in small-scale broiler enterprises. PMID:15038423

Madiya, A T; McCrindle, C M E; Veary, C M; Bisschop, S P R

2003-12-01

358

NASA Propagation Program Status and Propagation Needs of Satcom Industry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The program objective is to enable the development of new commercial satellite systems and services and to support NASA's programs by providing timely data and models about propagation of satellite radio signals though the intervening environment. Provisions include new services, higher frequencies, higher data rates, different environments (mobile, indoors, fixed), and different orbits (geostationary, low earth orbit).

Golshan, Nassar

1996-01-01

359

Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Annual Progress Report, January-December 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program is to demonstrate the feasibility of converting agglomerating and high sulfur coal to clean fuel gas and utilizing this gas in a commercial application. Specific objectives are to conduc...

1980-01-01

360

An Analysis of the Commercial and Industrial Type Activities Program within the United States Army.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis explores the application of the Commercial and Industrial Type Activities (CITA) program to Department of the Army (DA) installations with particular emphasis on the problems associated with the attempt to implement the revised Office of Manag...

J. S. Everette

1980-01-01

361

78 FR 64024 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. app 2) and implementing regulation 41 CFR part 101-6, announcement is made for the following committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy...

2013-10-25

362

International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-SettingPrograms  

SciTech Connect

Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.

Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

2008-02-02

363

Modelling the influence of small-scale effects upon the larger scale: an oceanographic challenge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of resolving or parameterising small-scale processes in oceanographic models and the extent to which small-scale effects influence the large scale are briefly discussed and illustrated for a number of cases. For tides and surges in near-shore regions, the advantages of using a graded mesh to resolve coastal and estuarine small-scale features are demonstrated in terms of a west coast of Britain unstructured mesh model. The effect of mesh resolution upon the accuracy of the overall solution is illustrated in terms of a finite element model of the Irish Sea and Mersey estuary. For baroclinic motion at high Froude number, the effect of resolving small-scale topography within a non-hydrostatic model is illustrated in terms of tidally induced mixing at a single sill, or two closely spaced sills. The question of how to parameterise small-scale non-linear interaction processes that lead to significant mixing, in a form suitable for coarser grid hydrostatic models, is briefly considered. In addition, the importance of topographically induced mixing that occurs in the oceanic lateral boundary layer, namely, the shelf edge upon the large-scale ocean circulation is discussed together with the implications for coarse grid oceanic climate models. The use of unstructured grids in these models to enhance resolution in shelf-edge regions in a similar manner to that used in storm surge models to enhance near coastal resolution is suggested as a suitable “way forward” in large-scale ocean circulation modelling.

Davies, Alan M.; Jones, John Eric; Xing, Jiuxing

2010-08-01

364

FINS: A Guide to the LaConner School District's Program In Fishing Industry Specialization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fishing Industry Specialization, or FINS, is a 2-year alternative education program designed in 1979 by the LaConner (Washington) School District to encourage high school completion by students wanting to enter the fishing industry. With encouragement from the Swinomish Indian Tribe and help from an active citizens advisory board, school officials…

Avery, Paul J.; And Others

365

Program for the Re-Industrialization of Saltville, Virginia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses the work done and progress made toward the objectives of the re-industrialization of the town of Saltville. Three factors sustained this community and gave hope of survival, but also of a long range recovery to the previous position ...

F. McPherson

1977-01-01

366

Federal legal obstacles and incentives to the development of the small-scale hydroelectric potential of the nineteen Northeastern states. Executive summary  

SciTech Connect

The main report for which this report is the executive summary, DOE/RA--23-216.00.0-01 (see EAPA 5:3929), was published in revised form in March 1979. Also, since that time, Energy Law Institute has produced detailed legal memoranda on obstacles and incentives for each of the 19 states. This executive summary summarizes the findings and observations of the original report. Specific summaries included are: Federal Jurisdiction Over Small-Scale Hydroelectric Facilities; The FERC; The Regulation of Construction in and the Discharge of Dredged, Fill, and Other Materials into the Waters of the US; The Protection of Fish, Wildlife, and Endangered Species; The Preservation of Historic Places, Archaeological Sites, and Natural Areas; Regulation of the Use of Federal Lands; Federal Dam Construction and Power-Distribution Agencies; Additional Federal Agencies Concerned with Small-Scale Hydroelectric Dams; Federal Tax Devices and Business Structures Affecting Small-Scale Hydroelectric Development; and an Outline of Federal-Assistance programs Available for Small-Scale Hydroelectric Development.

None,

1980-05-01

367

Travel Reimbursements for Industry/University Cooperative Centers Program  

NSF Publications Database

... that EEC program officers gave preferential treatment to IUCRCs in return for travel reimbursements ... be viewed as biased or giving preferential treatment to IUCRCs in response to providing travel funds ...

368

Small-scale field-aligned currents observed by the AKEBONO (EXOS-D) satellite  

SciTech Connect

The EXOS-D fluxgate magnetometer data obtained at 3,000-10,000 km altitude have shown that small-scale field-aligned currents always exist in large-scale region 1, region 2, cusp and polar cap current systems. Assuming that these small-scale field-aligned currents have current sheet structure, the width of current sheet is estimated to be 5-20 km at ionospheric altitude. By comparing the magnetometer data with charged particle and high frequency plasma wave data simultaneously obtained from EXOS-D, it is found that small-scale currents have one-to-one correspondence with localized electron precipitation events characterized by flux enhancement over a wide energy range from 10 eV to several keV and broadband electrostatic bursts occasionally extending above local plasma frequencies or electron cyclotron frequencies.

Fukunishi, H.; Oya, H. (Tohoku Univ. (Japan)); Kokubun, S. (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)); Tohyama, F. (Tokai Univ. (Japan)); Mukai, T.; Fujii, R.

1991-02-01

369

Comparison of SLAR images and small-scale, low-sun aerial photographs.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison of side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) images and black and white aerial photos of similar scale and illumination of an area in the Mojave Desert of California shows that aerial photos yield far more information about geology than do SLAR images because of greater resolution, tonal range, and geometric fidelity, and easier use in stereo. Nevertheless, radar can differentiate some materials or surfaces that aerial photos cannot; thus, they should be considered as complementary, rather than competing tools in geologic investigations. The most significant advantage of SLAR, however, is its freedom from the stringent conditions of weather, date, and time that are required by small-scale aerial photos taken with a specified direction and angle of illumination. Indeed, in low latitudes, SLAR is the only way to obtain small-scale images with low illumination from certain directions; moreover, in areas of nearly continuous cloudiness, radar may be the only practical source of small-scale images.

Clark, M. M.

1971-01-01

370

African hot spot volcanism: small-scale convection in the upper mantle beneath cratons.  

PubMed

Numerical models demonstrate that small-scale convection develops in the upper mantle beneath the transition of thick cratonic lithosphere and thin oceanic lithosphere. These models explain the location and geochemical characteristics of intraplate volcanos on the African and South American plates. They also explain the presence of relatively high seismic shear wave velocities (cold downwellings) in the mantle transition zone beneath the western margin of African cratons and the eastern margin of South American cratons. Small-scale, edge-driven convection is an alternative to plumes for explaining intraplate African and South American hot spot volcanism, and small-scale convection is consistent with mantle downwellings beneath the African and South American lithosphere. PMID:11073447

King, S D; Ritsema, J

2000-11-10

371

Mixing transition and the cascade to small scales in a plane mixing layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct numerical simulations of time-developing plane mixing layers have been performed using a variety of initial conditions. Up to two pairings of the dominant spanwise rollers have been simulated. When the flow is sufficiently three-dimensional, a pairing can cause the mixing layer to undergo a transition to small-scale turbulence. This small-scale transition is accompanied by increased mixing of a passive scalar, similar to observations of the mixing transition in experiments. As part of the transition process, thin vortex sheets are generated by vortex stretching and roll up in a two-dimensional mixing layer. This higher-order rollup is part of the cascade to small-scale turbulence. Estimates are obtained for the degree of three-dimensionality required for the pairing to initiate the transition.

Moser, R. D.; Rogers, M. M.

1991-01-01

372

Environmental Monitoring and the Gas Industry: Program Manager Handbook  

SciTech Connect

This document has been developed for the nontechnical gas industry manager who has the responsibility for the development of waste or potentially contaminated soil and groundwater data or must make decisions based on such data for the management or remediation of these materials. It explores the pse of common analytical chemistry instrumentation and associated techniques for identification of environmentally hazardous materials. Sufficient detail is given to familiarize the nontechnical reader with the principles behind the operation of each technique. The scope and realm of the techniques and their constituent variations are portrayed through a discussion of crucial details and, where appropriate, the depiction of real-life data. It is the author's intention to provide an easily understood handbook for gas industry management. Techniques which determine the presence, composition, and quantification of gas industry wastes are discussed. Greater focus is given to traditional techniques which have been the mainstay of modem analytical benchwork. However, with the continual advancement of instrumental principles and design, several techniques have been included which are likely to receive greater attention in fiture considerations for waste-related detection. Definitions and concepts inherent to a thorough understanding of the principles common to analytical chemistry are discussed. It is also crucial that gas industry managers understand the effects of the various actions which take place before, during, and after the actual sampling step. When a series of sample collection, storage, and transport activities occur, new or inexperienced project managers may overlook or misunderstand the importance of the sequence. Each step has an impact on the final results of the measurement process; errors in judgment or decision making can be costly. Specific techniques and methodologies for the collection, storage, and transport of environmental media samples are not described or discussed in detail in thk handbook. However, the underlying philosophy regarding the importance of proper collection, storage, and transport practices, as well as pertinent references, are presented.

Gregory D. Gillispie

1997-12-01

373

Experimental investigation of spatiotemporal evolution of femtosecond laser pulses during small-scale self-focusing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small-scale self-focusing (SF) causes rapid increase in the partial spatial intensity, breaking up the spatial profile of the beam into an intensity increasing zone (IZ) and a non-increasing zone (NIZ). We measure the evolutions of the pulse width at the IZ and NIZ with small-scale SF, and our results show that the pulse width at the IZ becomes narrower with increasing partial spatial intensity. The pulse width at the NIZ is almost unchanged with increasing laser power. We find that our experimental results are in good agreement with an approximate theoretical analysis.

Deng, Y. B.; Fu, X. Q.; Tan, C.; Yang, H.; Deng, S. G.; Xiong, C. X.; Zhang, G. F.

2014-03-01

374

Collective backscattering of gyrotron radiation by small-scale plasma density fluctuations in large helical device.  

PubMed

A version of the collective backscattering diagnostic using gyrotron radiation for small-scale turbulence is described. The diagnostic is used to measure small-scale (k(s) approximately 34 cm(-1)) plasma density fluctuations in large helical device experiments on the electron cyclotron heating of plasma with the use of 200 kW 82.7 GHz heating gyrotron. A good signal to noise ratio during plasma production phase was obtained, while contamination of stray light increased during plasma build-up phase. The effect of the stray radiation was investigated. The available quasioptical system of the heating system was utilized for this purpose. PMID:19044538

Kharchev, Nikolay; Tanaka, Kenji; Kubo, Shin; Igami, Hiroe; Batanov, German; Petrov, Alexandr; Sarksyan, Karen; Skvortsova, Nina; Azuma, Yoshifumi; Tsuji-Iio, Shunji

2008-10-01

375

(Technical and engineering support for the Office of Industrial Programs)  

SciTech Connect

As of April 19, 1991, technical, operational and analytic support and assistance to the offices and divisions of the Office of Renewable Energy, under contract DE-AC01-86CE30844 was completed. The overall work effort, initiated February 20, 1986, was characterized by timely, comprehensive, high quality, professional responsiveness to a broad range of renewable energy program operational support requirements. These are no instances of failure to respond, nor unacceptable response, during the five-year period. The technology program areas covered are Solar Buildings Technology, Wind Energy Technology, Photovoltaic Energy Technology, Geothermal Energy Technology, Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology, Solar Thermal Technology, Hydropower Energy Technology, Ocean Energy Technology, and Electric Energy Systems and Energy Storage. The analytical and managerial support provided to the office and staff of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Renewable Energy enabled a comprehensive evaluation of program and policy alternatives, and the selection and execution of appropriate courses of action from amongst those alternatives. Largely through these means the Office has been able to maintain continuity and a meaningful program thrust through the vacillations of policies and budgets that it has experienced over that it has experienced over the past five years. Appended are summaries of support activities within each of the individual technology program areas, as well as a complete listing of all project deliverables and due-dates for each submittal under the contract.

Not Available

1991-01-01

376

Industrial Safety. MAS-123. Waste Isolation Division (WID). Management and Supervisor Training (MAST) Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning module, which is part of a management and supervisor training program for managers and supervisors employed at the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Division, is designed to prepare trainees to promote and monitor the industrial safety program at their plant. The following topics are covered in the module's individual sections:…

Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM.

377

New Roles to Meet Industry Needs: A Look at the Advanced Technological Education Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program, sponsored by the National Science Foundation, is presented as a model for business and education collaboration to develop technical degree programs for producing more and better technicians. The new roles of industry and college leaders are discussed through a synthesis of literature on skill…

Zinser, Richard; Lawrenz, Frances

2004-01-01

378

Programming the American Aerospace Industry, 1954-1964: The Business Structures of Technical Transactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Program management swept through American industry in the 1950s and 1960s. The movement was championed by a new breed of program managers dedicated to the science of creating new technological systems. Their work was multidisciplinary but uni-motivational; they borrowed and experimented with any technique that served a technological system and its time economy. That in itself was not new. Thomas

Glenn E. Bugos

379

Career Preparation Program Curriculum Guide for: Hospitality/Tourism Industry (Tourist Services).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This career preparation curriculum outline for the hospitality/tourism industry is intended to provide secondary and postsecondary learning outcomes for completion of program requirements. The guide is organized into four sections. Section one presents an overview of the program, of the philosophy of career education, and of the organization and…

British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria. Curriculum Development Branch.

380

Evaluating Industry-Based Doctoral Research Programs: Perspectives and Outcomes of Australian Cooperative Research Centre Graduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers of the future will need to be able to work across the increasingly porous boundaries between university, industry, government and community sectors. Concerns have been raised internationally for several decades about the content and approaches adopted in doctoral programs. Innovative doctoral programs that facilitate students'…

Manathunga, Catherine; Pitt, Rachael; Cox, Laura; Boreham, Paul; Mellick, George; Lant, Paul

2012-01-01

381

Formal specification and verification of components for industrial logic control programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Component based approaches to develop industrial logic control programs promise to shorten development and modification times, and to lessen programming errors. However, to get these benefits it is important that components verified to work properly are reused. This work proposes using reusable automation components (RACs), which contain not only the implementation but also a formal specification defining the correct use

Oscar Ljungkrantz; Knut Åkesson; Martin Fabian

2008-01-01

382

General Safety Manual for Vocational-Technical Education and Industrial Arts Programs. Bulletin No. 1674.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to offer suggestions for teaching safety in Louisiana industrial arts and vocational education programs. The suggestions and information presented are intended for use in an ongoing safety program, not a short unit presented at the beginning of the school year. Following an introduction in unit 1, the material has been…

Dennis, Bill; Poston, David

383

Broadening the base of a technical communication program: An industrial\\/academic alliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing alliances with industry may be one of the primary factors in creating a technical communication program that blends sound rhetorical theory and pedagogy with the discourse knowledge of technical communication practitioners. Creating an Advisory Board is one way to forge this alliance. This article describes how such a board was created, the influence it had upon program development, and

Deborah S. Bosley

1992-01-01

384

Industrial Arts Education Guide for Curriculum and Program Planning, Secondary Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guidelines for the development of courses and programs of industrial arts for local school districts in New York State are provided in this guide designed for administrators, curriculum personnel, supervisors, and teachers. Following a discussion of student program options, a basic series of suggested courses (titles and course topics) are…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

385

Participation in Quality Assurance Programs in the Apple Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several quality assurance (QA) programs operating in Australia for horticulturalists. The documentation of orchard activities and decision making are key features of any QA system. Activities of interest are management of pest and diseases, irrigation, fertiliser management, and fruit production and packing. This documentation provides a means of tracing product flow and is evidence that growers are acting

Denise Bewsell; Geoff Kaine

2006-01-01

386

AICD: Advanced Industrial Concepts Division Biological and Chemical Technologies Research Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1993 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1993 (ASR 93) contains the following: A program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives), program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1993, detailed descriptions of individual projects, and a listing of program output including a bibliography of published work, patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

Petersen, G.; Bair, K.; Ross, J.

1994-03-01

387

U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Industrial Programs and Their Impacts  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) has been working with industry since 1976 to encourage the development and adoption of new, energy-efficient technologies. ITP has helped industry not only use energy and materials more efficiently but also improve environmental performance, product quality, and productivity. To help ITP determine the impacts of its programs, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) periodically reviews and analyzes ITP program benefits. PNNL contacts vendors and users of ITP-sponsored technologies that have been commercialized, estimates the number of units that have penetrated the market, conducts engineering analyses to estimate energy savings from the new technologies, and estimates air pollution and carbon emission reductions. This paper discusses the results of the most recent PNNL review (conducted in 2003). From 1976-2002, the commercialized technologies from ITP's R&D programs and other activities have cumulatively saved 3.7 quadrillion Btu, with a net cost savings of $14.6 billion.

Weakley, Steven A.; Roop, Joseph M.

2004-04-20

388

Characterization of the NOL small scale gap test as performed at Pantex Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NOL Small Scale Gap Test as performed at Pantex was characterized by determining transit times of the RP-2 detonator, the RDX donor, the plexiglas attenuator (six thicknesses were tested) and HNS acceptors of varying type and density. Pressures in the plexiglas attenuators at the output surface were also obtained. The planarity of the emerging shock wave at the RDX

G. T. West; E. L. Demerson

1980-01-01

389

Characterization of the NOL small scale gap test as performed at Pantex Plant. [HNS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NOL Small Scale Gap Test as performed at Pantex was characterized by determining transit times of the RP-2 detonator, the RDX donor, the plexiglas attenuator (six thicknesses were tested) and HNS acceptors of varying type and density. Pressures in the plexiglas attenuators at the output surface were also obtained. The planarity of the emerging shock wave at the RDX

G. T. West; E. L. Demerson

1980-01-01

390

Development of Biogas Processing for Small Scale Cattle Farm in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small scale cattle farm in Indonesia in average has 2 - 5 heads that spread on wide area. Such conditions made difficult to handle the waste wisely by integration to the farming system in order to minimize negative effects on environment. Generally, farmer manage the waste in simple way, such as by composting or spread directly into farming field. To

Teguh Wikan Widodo; Agung Hendriadi

391

Small scale structure in circumstellar envelopes and the origin of globules in planetary nebulae  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the small scale structure in the circumstellar envelopes of NGC 7027 and IRC+10216, using high resolution optical images in dust scattered light. We use the observations to test the proposal that globules in planetary nebulae, typified by globules in the Helix nebula, originate in high density contrast proto-globules in the atmosphere of the progenitor AGB star and are

P. J. Huggins; N. Mauron

2002-01-01

392

A Small-Scale Distributed Microprocessor System Using Shared Memory Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple technique for arranging interprocessor communication through a shared random access memory (RAM) in a small-scale distributed microprocessor system is presented. An arbiter which employs a simple hardware and requires no external clock is proposed. The arbiter consists of a controller and a scanner. The controller receives a shared memory request from a microprocessor and sends a GRANT or

Borworn Papasratorn; Prasit Prapinmongkolkarn

1985-01-01

393

Small scale application and assessment of a Index of Biotic Integrity for a large boreal river  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modifications and use of Karr’s Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) for assessing the effects of anthropogenic impacts to aquatic ecosystems have typically occurred using data collected at the macro scale. However, some non-point sources of habitat degradation occur at small scales. One possible source of perturbation to fish habitat in boreal rivers is the application of rip rap shoreline armouring

Jeffrey M. Long; David J. Walker

2005-01-01

394

Modeling, Identification and Robust Control of Yaw Dynamics of Small-Scale Unmanned Helicopters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A yaw dynamic model of a small-scale unmanned helicopter with yaw rate feedback system is constructed according to its dynamic characteristics. With the data from flight experiment, a complete yaw dynamic state-space model is identified using prediction error method (PEM). Moreover, an analysis is made about the data from experimental flight, and thereby a dynamic model with higher fidelity is

Xiaodong Wang; Xiaoguang Zhao; Min Tan

2009-01-01

395

State space identification and implementation of H? control design for small-scale helicopter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to design a model-based robust controller for autonomous hovering of a small-scale helicopter. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The model is developed using prediction error minimization (PEM) system identification method implemented to flight data. Based on the extracted linear model, an H? controller is synthesized for robustness against parametric uncertainties and disturbances. Findings – The

Hardian Reza Dharmayanda; Agus Budiyono; Taesam Kang

2010-01-01

396

Electricity Production from a Small-scale Trigeneration Plant: a Planning Tool based on Economic Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent development of efficient technologies for small-scale energy production has increased the possibilities of adopting local generation sources and exploiting them in the energy market. Trigeneration is emerging as a viable and powerful solution for various applications requiring the simultaneous production of electricity, heat and cooling. This paper proposes a new planning tool based on economic assessment for comparing

GIANFRANCO CHICCO; PIERLUIGI MANCARELLA

2005-01-01

397

Detecting Answer Copying Using Alternate Test Forms and Seat Locations in Small-Scale Examinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two types of answer-copying statistics for detecting copiers in small-scale examinations are proposed. One statistic identifies the "copier-source" pair, and the other in addition suggests who is copier and who is source. Both types of statistics can be used when the examination has alternate test forms. A simulation study shows that the…

van der Ark, L. Andries; Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas

2008-01-01

398

Investment Timing and Capacity Choice for Small-Scale Wind PowerUnder Uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for evaluation of investments in small-scale wind power under uncertainty. It is assumed that the price of electricity is uncertain and that an owner of a property with wind resources has a deferrable opportunity to invest in one wind power turbine within a capacity range. The model evaluates investment in a set of projects with

Stein-Erik Fleten; Karl Magnus Maribu

2004-01-01

399

Small-scale tests on control methods for some liquefied natural gas hazards. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A report of results of small scale (100 square ft) tests of some liquefied natural gas (LNG) hazard control methods and concepts. Tests were run to estimate dry chemical flow rate requirements for the extinguishment of fires from LNG pools with obstructions in the pool area and fires from LNG pools on water in a containment. Objectives were to obtain

L. E. Brown; W. E. Martinsen; S. P. Muhlenkamp; G. L. Puckett

1976-01-01

400

Large-Eddy Simulations of Radiatively Driven Convection: Sensitivities to the Representation of Small Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-eddy simulations of a smoke cloud are examined with respect to their sensitivity to small scales as manifest in either the grid spacing or the subgrid-scale (SGS) model. Calculations based on a Smagorinsky SGS model are found to be more sensitive to the effective resolution of the simulation than are calculations based on the prognostic turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) SGS

Bjorn Stevens; Chin-Hoh Moeng; Peter P. Sullivan

1999-01-01

401

A Wind Tunnel Investigation of a Small-Scale Tiltrotor Model in Descending Flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small-scale tiltrotor model was tested in the 7- by 10-foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center, with the goal of better understanding Vortex Ring State (VRS) effects on tiltrotor aircraft. Test objectives were to obtain performance data of a tiltrotor model over a wide range of descent conditions, to explore the effects of sideslip at these descent conditions,

Anita I. Abrego

402

Net energy balance of small-scale on-farm biodiesel production from canola and soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

One necessary criterion for a biofuel to be a sustainable alternative to the petroleum fuels it displaces is a positive net energy balance. This study estimated the net energy ratio (NER), net energy balance (NEB), and net energy yield (NEY) of small-scale on-farm production of canola [Brassica napus (L.)] and soybean [Glycine max (L.)] biodiesel in the upper Midwest. Direct

Seth R. Fore; Paul Porter; William Lazarus

2011-01-01

403

Efficiency of an unstable resonator with an active medium containing small-scale phase inhomogeneities  

SciTech Connect

Properties of an unstable resonator with small-scale periodic inhomogeneities of the refractive index in an active medium are considered. It is shown that the parameters of output radiation depend on the structure of a phase inhomogeneity. The methods for increasing the resonator efficiency are analysed. (resonators. interferometers)

Lobachev, V V; Strakhov, S Yu [Institute of Laser Instruments and Technologies, D F Ustinov 'VOENMEKh' Baltic State Technical University, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2004-01-31

404

Vorticity Confinement: An Efficient Numerical Representation of Small Scale Vortical Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eulerian computational methods for high Reynolds number fluid flow typically involve discretizing the Navier Stokes pde's with model terms included to represent effects of small scales. When solved on a regular computational lattice, small scale vortical structures typically decay due to numerical effects unless they are represented by 5-10 grid cells across the smallest dimension. Even high order discretizations are not effective for long distance propagation of thin vortex filaments if they have a diameter less than this, because order of accuracy determination requires a significant number of grid cells. Hence, a typical computation has a smallest scale of 5-10 grid cells below which numerical errors become significant. This represents a large amount of "unusable" spectral space. Vorticity Confinement (VC) is a radically different approach to the treatment of these small scales. It involves nonlinear difference equations which model small scale vortical regions directly on the grid lattice. Convecting thin vortices are represented, effectively, as solitary waves with diameter of about 2 grid cells and never decay due to numerical effects. This behavior is inherent and no Lagrangian markers or associated logic are required, and vortices can change topology (merge, etc.), automatically(J. Steinhoff, D. Underhill, Physics of Fluid, Vol.6, 2738, 1994 & AIAA-2002-0135).

Steinhoff, John; Fan, Meng

2002-03-01

405

An improved MPPT converter with current compensation method for small scaled PV-applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved MPPT converter with current compensation method for small-scaled PV-applications is presented in this paper. The proposed method implements maximum power point tracking (MPPT) by variable reference current which is continuously changed during one sampling period. Therefore, the proposed MPPT converter with current compensation method increases the power transferred to the load above 9%. As a result, the utilization

Hyeong-Ju Noh; Dong-Yun Lee; Dong-Seok Hyun

2002-01-01

406

An improved MPPT converter using current compensation method for small scaled PV-applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved MPPT converter with current compensation method for small-scaled PV-applications is presented in this paper. The proposed method implements maximum power point tracking (MPPT) by variable reference current which is continuously changed during one sampling period. Therefore, the proposed MPPT converter with current compensation method increases the power transferred to the load above 9%. As a result, the utilization

Dong-Yun Lee; Hyeong-Ju Noh; Dong-Seok Hyun; Ick Choy

2003-01-01

407

Boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion in CO 2 small scale experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon capture and storage systems require handling large volumes of high pressure CO2. Having thorough knowledge of the related hazards is essential, as is knowing how to prevent, detect, control and mitigate accidents. This paper gives a short description of CO2 Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosions (BLEVEs) and presents results from preliminary, small scale experiments with CO2 BLEVEs. The mechanism

D. Bjerketvedt; K. Egeberg; W. Ke; A. Gaathaug; K. Vaagsaether; S. H. Nilsen

2011-01-01

408

LLNL small-scale static spark machine: static spark sensitivity test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-scale safety testing of explosives and other energetic materials is done in order to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli, such as friction, static spark, and impact. Typically this testing is done to discover potential handling problems that may exist for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior, or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This

M F Foltz; L R Simpson

1999-01-01

409

Dust Exposure During Small-scale Mining in Tanzania: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-scale mining in developing countries is generally labour-intensive and carried out with low levels of mechanization. In the Mererani area in the northern part of Tanzania, there are about 15000 underground miners who are constantly subjected to a poor working environ- ment. Gemstones are found at depths down to 500 m. The objectives of this pilot study were to monitor

M. BRATVEIT; BENTE E. MOEN; YOHANA J. S. MASHALLA; HATUA MAALIM

2003-01-01

410

Emergy analysis of biogas production and electricity generation from small-scale agricultural digesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

An emergy analysis was performed to assess the relative sustainability and environmental impact of small-scale energy production using Taiwanese model plug-flow anaerobic digesters to treat livestock manure in Costa Rica. Emergy analysis quantifies all inputs to a system by converting them to solar energy equivalents, thus allowing for direct comparison of the diverse inputs of renewable energies, human labor and

Richard J. Ciotola; Stephanie Lansing; Jay F. Martin

2011-01-01

411

Effect of Blade Planform Variation on the Forward-Flight Performance of Small-Scale Rotors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation was conducted in the Glenn L. Martin Wind Tunnel to determine the effect of blade planform variation on the forward-flight performance of four small-scale rotors. The rotors were 5.417 ft in diameter and differed only in blade planform ge...

K. W. Noonan S. L. Althoff D. K. Samak M. D. Green

1992-01-01

412

Calibration of Chemical Kinetic Models Using Simulations of Small-Scale Cookoff Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishing safe handling limits for explosives in elevated temperature environments is a difficult problem that often requires extensive simulation. The largest influence on predicting thermal cookoff safety lies in the chemical kinetic model used in these simulations, and these kinetic model reaction sequences often contain multiple steps. Several small-scale cookoff experiments, notably Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), One-Dimensional

A P Wemhoff; R C Becker; A K Burnham

2008-01-01

413

Nanoflares, Spicules, and Other Small-Scale Dynamic Phenomena on the Sun  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is abundant evidence of highly dynamic phenomena occurring on very small scales in the solar atmosphere. For example, the observed pr operties of many coronal loops can only be explained if the loops are bundles of unresolved strands that are heated impulsively by nanoflares. Type II spicules recently discovered by Hinode are an example of small-scale impulsive events occurring in the chromosphere. The exist ence of these and other small-scale phenomena is not surprising given the highly structured nature of the magnetic field that is revealed by photospheric observations. Dynamic phenomena also occur on much lar ger scales, including coronal jets, flares, and CMEs. It is tempting to suggest that these different phenomena are all closely related and represent a continuous distribution of sizes and energies. However, this is a dangerous over simplification in my opinion. While it is tru e that the phenomena all involve "magnetic reconnection" (the changin g of field line connectivity) in some form, how this occurs depends s trongly on the magnetic geometry. A nanoflare resulting from the interaction of tangled magnetic strands within a confined coronal loop is much different from a major flare occurring at the current sheet form ed when a CME rips open an active region. I will review the evidence for ubiquitous small-scale dynamic phenomena on the Sun and discuss wh y different phenomena are not all fundamentally the same.

Klimchuk, James

2010-01-01

414

The nature of small-scale flooding, muddy floods and retention pond sedimentation in central Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the spatial variation of small-scale flooding and muddy floods in rural areas in a medium sized study area (5516 km2) and the linkage with controlling factors. A questionnaire set up in central Belgium indicates that 43% of the municipalities have to deal from time to time with muddy floods generated from direct runoff from arable land and

Gert Verstraeten; Jean Poesen

1999-01-01

415

Small-scale solar PV generating systems—The household electricity supply used in remote areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of our research in China is to develop a small-scale solar PV system with the features of higher conversion efficiency, higher reliability, reasonable price and ease of operation, which is composed of a PV panel, battery, controller, inverter, etc. The main research work includes the design of the system, the rational selection and deployment of components used in

Buping Jin; Ming Liu; Zhegen Chen

1995-01-01

416

Influence of Global Shapes on Children's Coding of Local Geometric Information in Small-Scale Spaces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research uses enclosed whole shapes, rather than visual form fragments, to demonstrate that children's use of local geometric information is influenced by global shapes in small-scale spaces. Three- to six-year-old children and adults participated in two experiments with a table-top task. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with a…

Chiang, Noelle C.

2013-01-01

417

Performance-based Fire Safety Design for Existing Small-scale Hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new era of National Health Insurance in 2000 has had a significant impacted on the management and operation of smallscale hospitals. In response to social needs, and in order to survive under the new insurance system, some small-scale hospitals have transformed or established new Respiratory Care Wards by using existing hospital space. According to the 2009 statistics released by

Tseng Wei-Wen; Pan Kuo-Hsiung; Hsu Che-Ming

2011-01-01

418

Vascular plants and small-scale spatial heterogeneity in semi-natural grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abiotic factors such as variation in micro topography, soil properties, light and microsite composition can create small-scale heterogeneity and influence plant assemblages. Apart from abiotic factors many biotic sources can increase heterogeneity. Factors such as grazing, ant mounds, spiny and unpalatable plants, trees and shrubs have strong influences on plant communities. Grazing animals can significantly influence grassland heterogeneity by

Aina Pihlgren

2005-01-01

419

Changes in application techniques used by the small scale cotton farmer in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yields of cotton on small?scale farms in Africa are low if farmers are unable to control the different insect pests. Conditions on their farms present special problems in relation to adoption of chemical control, and this has led to the evolution of several different pesticide application techniques. While aerial spraying is used in some areas, ground equipment ranges from the

G. A. Matthews

1990-01-01

420

Assessing Arsenic Removal by Metal (Hydr)Oxide Adsorptive Media Using Rapid Small Scale Column Tests  

EPA Science Inventory

The rapid small scale column test (RSSCT) was use to evaluate the the performance of eight commercially available adsorptive media for the removal of arsenic. Side-by-side tests were conducted using RSSCTs and pilot/full-scale systems either in the field or in the laboratory. ...

421

Experimental Study of Flame Spread on Conveyor Belts in a Small-Scale Tunnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents experimental results for conveyor belt flame spread from tests conducted in a small-scale tunnel. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of belt type, ventilation velocity, belt surface-to-roof distance and ignition so...

C. D. Litton L. Yuan

2008-01-01

422

Internet access in UK public libraries: notes and queries from a small scale study : EDITORIAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this editorial is to discuss the findings of a small scale study of internet access in UK public libraries. It aims to examine all aspects of access, from the moment the service is requested, to the acceptable use policy (AUP) for each library, to specific Internet sites that are banned. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The methodology involved

David McMenemy

2008-01-01

423

CELL CYCLE AND CELL MORTALITY OF ALEXANDRIUM MINUTUM (DINOPHYCEAE) UNDER SMALL-SCALE TURBULENCE CONDITIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decreased net population growth rates and cellular abundances have been observed in dinoflagellate species exposed to small-scale turbulence. Here, we investigated whether these effects were caused by alterations in the cell cycle and?or by cell mortality and, in turn, whether these two mechanisms depended on the duration of exposure to turbu- lence. The study was conducted on the toxic dino-

Gisela Llaveria; Rosa Isabel Figueroa; Esther Garcés; Elisa Berdalet

2009-01-01

424

Small-scale medical waste incinerators – experiences and trials in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formal waste management services are not accessible for the majority of primary healthcare clinics on the African continent, and affordable and practicable technology solutions are required in the developing country context. In response, a protocol was established for the first quantitative and qualitative evaluation of relatively low cost small-scale incinerators for use at rural primary healthcare clinics. The protocol comprised

David E. C.. Rogers; Alan C. Brent

2006-01-01

425

Validity of small scale tests for turret\\/fairing loads and cavity effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from several wind tunnel experiments along with available flight test data are used to discuss the validity of small scale tests and their inherent limitations. Tests were performed at transonic speeds to measure the turbulence levels in a cavity with and without a forward porous fence, turret drag with and without an aerodynamic fairing, and turret\\/fairing unsteady pressures. Bibtex

D. J. McDermott; J. T. Vankuren

1980-01-01

426

Validity of small scale tests for turret/fairing loads and cavity effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from several wind tunnel experiments along with available flight test data are used to discuss the validity of small scale tests and their inherent limitations. Tests were performed at transonic speeds to measure the turbulence levels in a cavity with and without a forward porous fence, turret drag with and without an aerodynamic fairing, and turret/fairing unsteady pressures.

McDermott, D. J.; Vankuren, J. T.

1980-04-01

427

Validity of small scale tests for turret/fairing loads and cavity effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from several wind tunnel experiments along with available flight test data are used to discuss the validity of small scale tests and their inherent limitations. Tests were performed at transonic speeds to measure the turbulence levels in a cavity with and without a forward porous fence, turret drag with and without an aerodynamic fairing, and turret/fairing unsteady pressures.

Mcdermott, D. J.; Vankuren, J. T.

1980-01-01

428

Thermoelectric materials 1998 -- The next generation materials for small-scale refrigeration and power generation applications  

SciTech Connect

Thermoelectric materials are used in a wide variety of applications related to small-scale solid-state refrigeration or power generation. Over the past 30 years, alloys based on the Bi-Te compounds (refrigeration) [(Bi[sub 1[minus]x]Sb[sub x])[sub 2] (Te[sub 1[minus]x]Se[sub x])[sub 3

Tritt, T.M. (ed.) (Clemson Univ., SC (United States)); Kanatzidis, M.G. (ed.) (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)); Mahan, G.D. (ed.) (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)); Lyon, H.B. Jr. (ed.) (Marlow Industries, Dallas, TX (United States))

1999-01-01

429

Small-Scale Bullying Prevention Discussion Video for Classrooms: A Preliminary Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bullying has been shown to be negatively related to both academic performance and attendance among students. The present study examined a small-scale bullying intervention using a video-discussion model. Eighty-one students in grades 4 through 6 completed pre- and posttests examining gains in knowledge of bullying and responses to it. Results…

Migliaccio, Todd; Raskauskas, Juliana

2013-01-01

430

Development of a Small-Scale Natural Gas Liquefier. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gas Technology Institute (GTI), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Brookhaven National Lab, developed and tested a pre-commercial small-scale natural gas liquefaction system. This cryogenic technology has potential use in a variety ...

K. Kountz, K. Kriha, W. Liss, M. Perry, M. Richards

2003-01-01

431

Use of Small-Scale Artificial Archaeological Sites in the Teaching of Archaeology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By using small-scale artificially created archaeologic sites, a teacher can provide students with a time-efficient approach in which to master some basic archaeological techniques. In an artificially created setting, the students can become familiar with conditions they might meet in the field. In a short period of time, students may be exposed to…

Deutsch, Warren N.

432

Technology Demonstration for Reducing Mercury Emissions from Small-Scale Gold Refining Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gold that is brought from artisanal and small-scale gold mining areas to gold shops for processing and sale typically contains 5-40% mercury. The uncontrolled removal of the residual mercury in gold shops by using high-temperature evaporation can be a sig...

D. P. Peterson J. L. Bailey L. E. Fernandez L. J. Habegger M. Engle M. M. MacDonnell

2008-01-01

433

Suppression of small-scale self-focusing of high-intensity femtosecond radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An original method for suppressing small-scale self-focusing in laser beams with the intensity of several TW/cm2 has been proposed, justified theoretically and verified in experiment. The idea underlying the method is to filter spatial perturbations during beam propagation in free space.

Mironov, Sergey; Lozhkarev, Vladimir; Luchinin, Grigory; Shaykin, Andrey; Khazanov, Efim

2013-10-01

434

Optical fibre pressure sensors for small scale studies of groundwater flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The underground movement of water through soil and rock is an important phenomenon in Civil Engineering. Its study is made more appealing to students if small scale prototypes are used, where several layouts of soil and water in steady state\\/transient conditions can be studied in detail. A water tank prototype was built with a reflective optical fibre pressure sensor based

L. Coelho; N. Freitas; J. M. Baptista; O. Frazão; J. L. Santos; T. Restivo; J. Marques

2011-01-01

435

The treatment of domestic wastewater using small-scale vermicompost filter beds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to quantify the effect of filter bed depth and solid waste inputs on the performance of small-scale vermicompost filter beds that treat the soluble contaminants within domestic wastewater. The study also aims to identify environmental conditions within the filters by quantifying the oxygen content and pH of wastewater held within it. Vermicompost is being

M Taylor; W. P Clarke; P. F Greenfield

2003-01-01

436

Waalbot: An Agile Small-Scale Wall-Climbing Robot Utilizing Dry Elastomer Adhesives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a small-scale agile wall-climbing robot, which is able to climb on smooth vertical surfaces using flat adhesive elastomer materials for attachment. Using two actuated legs with rotary motion and two passive revolute joints at each foot, this robot can climb and steer in any orientation. Due to its compact design, a high degree of miniaturization is possible.

Michael P. Murphy; Metin Sitti

2007-01-01

437

DESIGN OF RAPID SMALL-SCALE ADSORPTION TESTS FOR A CONSTANT DIFFUSIVITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The rapid small-scale column test (RSSCT), a physical model of a fixed bed, was developed and evaluated experimentally to simulate full-scale adsorber performance. The RSSCT can simulate months of full-scale adsorber operation in several days; however, some isotherms and kinetic ...

438

Advanced sensor development program for the pulp and paper industry  

SciTech Connect

This report describes experimental and theoretical studies toward development of a remote sensing technique for non-intrusive temperature measurement based on optical spectroscopic analysis of recovery boiler. The overall objectives were (a) construction of a fiber-optic system for measurement of spectroscopic emission intensities at several wavelengths and (b) development of a computer program relating these intensities to temperatures of the emitting species. The emitting species for temperature measurements in flames can be either naturally occurring free radicals (OH, CH, C{sub 2}) or atoms which, in turn, can be either naturally occurring or seeded into flames. Sodium atoms, the obvious emitters in recovery boilers, are not promising as thermometric species because of their high concentration. At high concentrations, strong self-absorption results cause optical depths to be much smaller than the sampling depths desired for recovery boilers. An experimental program was, therefore, undertaken with the objective of identification and spectroscopic detection and measurement of other naturally occurring thermometric species. The program consisted of several laboratory studies and four field trips to different recovery boilers. 19 refs., 43 figs., 8 tabs.

Allen, J.D.; Charagundla, S.R.; Macek, A.; Semerjian, H.G.; Whetstone, J.R.

1990-10-01

439

International Experience with Key Program Elements of Industrial Energy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-Setting Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary or negotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as a mechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. A recent survey of such target-setting agreement programs i...

C. Galitsky K. J. Kramer L. Price

2008-01-01

440

A health promotion program evaluation in a minority industry.  

PubMed

Wellness or health promotion programs (HPP) in the worksite are beneficial to both employer and employee. Companies report reduced absenteeism and improved job performance and productivity (O'Donnell & Ainsworth, 1984; Glantz & Orr, 1986). These programs are vital for Black Americans who experience distressing disparity in the leading causes of mortality and morbidity when compared to White Americans. Black Americans also experience poorer health as a result of racism, prejudice, discrimination, economic issues, and social ills such as poverty and lack of access to health care. The major purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a nurse-delivered six-month pilot HPP on the health awareness and reported health behaviors of Black Americans in the workplace. Approximately 50 employees participated in the HPP. The overall health screening and evaluation survey results indicated that the HPP was effective in increasing health awareness and in changing health behaviors. Nurses can play an important leadership role in improving the health of Black Americans in the workplace. PMID:7696639

Fowler, B A; Risner, P B

1994-01-01

441

Industry programs of the Geochemical and Environmental Research Group (GERG) of Texas A&M University  

SciTech Connect

The Geochemical and Environmental Research Group (GERG) formally established by the Texas A&M University System Board of Regents in 1987, is a cross-disciplinary R&D center for conducting research in the areas of petroleum geochemistry, ecology, environmental chemistry and oceanography. GERG is a self-supporting research center with >$10 million annual funding derived from the private sector ({approximately}35% of revenues) and federal agencies. GERG`s main offices are located in College Station, Texas. For its global projects, GERG has region offices in Houston, Washington, D.C., Malaysia and Moscow. GERG conducts both private and consortium programs for private industry (mainly major oil companies) in the areas of surface geochemical exploration (SGE); oil/source rock regional and well-specific studies; site surveys, environmental assessment; oil spill fate and effects; and physical oceanography studies. An example of a large industry program that GERG is currently conducting is a west African expedition using its research vessel the R/V POWELL. Programs being undertaken for industry include a number of consortium surface geochemical exploration coring programs. These SGE programs are designed to correlate geochemical anomalies with subsurface features identified by geophysical surveys in the survey areas. GERG is a world-leader in offshore SGE programs having conducted many programs for most major oil companies. In addition to the SGE programs, sedimentology/geotechnical, paleontological, physical oceanographic and engineering site surveys will also be conducted in west Africa.

Brooks, J.M.; Sassen, R.; Kennicutt, M.C. II [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others

1995-08-01

442

The NASA/industry design analysis methods for vibrations (DAMVIBS) program: Accomplishments and contributions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA Langley-sponsored rotorcraft structural dynamics program, known as Design Analysis Methods for VIBrationS (DAMVIBS), has been under development since 1984. The objective of this program was to establish the technology base needed by the industry to develop an advanced finite-element-based dynamics design analysis capability for vibrations. Under the program, teams from the four major helicopter manufacturers have formed finite-element models, conducted ground vibration tests, made test/analysis comparisons of both metal and composite airframes, performed 'difficult components' studies on airframes to identify components which need more complete finite-element representation for improved correlation, and evaluated industry codes for computing coupled rotor-airframe vibrations. Studies aimed at establishing the role that structural optimization can play in airframe vibrations design work have also been initiated. Five government/industry meetings were held in connection with these activities during the course of the program. Because the DAMVIBS Program is coming to an end, the fifth meeting included a brief assessment of the program and its benefits to the industry.

Kvaternik, Raymond G.

1991-01-01

443

Preparing Videotapes for an Industry Services Program. Self-Paced Instructional Module. Module Number VIII-F.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of 33 self-paced instructional modules for training industry services leaders, this module contains three sequential learning activities on preparing videotapes for an industry services program. (Industry services are manpower services provided by public agencies to new or expanding private industries.) The first learning activity is designed…

Simmons, Kenneth L.

444

Educational practice in China originated from German Bauhaus—Exploration on German model of industrial design program  

Microsoft Academic Search

German Bauhaus had a significant influence on the modern design education, meanwhile, it established the foundation of the leading position in the world for German industrial design. Through analyzing on current industrial design conditions from different countries, art design is considered as the main part of industrial design. This paper reviewed the last 10 years' development of industrial design program

Xun Xu

2009-01-01

445

Industrial Energy-Efficiency Improvement Program. Annual report to the Congress and the President 1979  

SciTech Connect

The industrial energy efficiency improvement program to accelerate market penetration of new and emerging industrial technologies and practices which will improve energy efficiency; encourage substitution of more plentiful domestic fuels; and enhance recovery of energy and materials from industrial waste streams is described. The role of research, development, and demonstration; technology implementation; the reporting program; and progress are covered. Specific reports from the chemicals and allied products; primary metals; petroleum and coal products; stone, clay, and glass, paper and allied products; food and kindred products; fabricated metals; transportation equipment; machinery (except electrical); textile mill products; rubber and miscellaneous plastics; electrical and electronic equipment; lumber and wood; and tobacco products are discussed. Additional data from voluntary submissions, a summary on progress in the utilization of recovered materials, and an analysis of industrial fuel mix are briefly presented. (MCW)

Not Available

1980-12-01

446

Research and development separation technology: The DOE Industrial Energy Conservation Program  

SciTech Connect

This brochure summarizes the Office of Industrial Programs' RandD efforts in the advancement of separation technology. The purpose of this brochure is to provide interested parties with information on federal industrial energy conservation activities in separation technology. The brochure is comprised of the following sections: Separation Technology, summarizes the current state of separation technology and its uses. Potential Energy Savings, discusses the potential for industrial energy conservation through the implementation of advanced separation processes. Office of Industrial Programs' RandD Efforts in Separation Technology Development, describes the separation RandD projects conducted by IP. RandD Data Base, lists contractor, principal investigator, and location of each separation-related RandD effort sponsored by IP.

Not Available

1987-07-01

447

Determinants of small scale farmers' participation in restructured food markets in South Africa: The case of the Tomato sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the effects of markets restructuring on small-scale farmers in South Africa by analysing the determinants of small-scale farmers’ market choices in the tomato sector in two Provinces. South Africa has a very dualistic agricultural sector with a highly performing large-scale capital intensive agriculture on one hand and a traditional, semi subsistence small-scale communal sector on the other.

Davison Chikazunga; Estelle Bienabe; Andre Louw

2008-01-01

448

A goal geometric programming problem ( G 2 P 2) with logarithmic deviational variables and its applications on two industrial problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A very useful multi-objective technique is goal programming. There are many methodologies of goal programming such as weighted goal programming, min-max goal programming, and lexicographic goal programming. In this paper, weighted goal programming is reformulated as goal programming with logarithmic deviation variables. Here, a comparison of the proposed method and goal programming with weighted sum method is presented. A numerical example and applications on two industrial problems have also enriched this paper.

Ghosh, Payel; Roy, Tapan Kumar

2013-04-01

449

Regulatory enforcement and compliance: Industrial waste water pretreatment programs  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study is to identify the role that enforcement efforts play in accomplishing the pretreatment program goals, and to develop alternative ways to measure enforcement effectiveness in achieving a higher rate of compliance. Specifically, the study identifies which enforcement actions are most effective in bringing about compliance. The ideal way of measuring enforcement effectiveness is to estimate the extent to which a firm's violating discharge rate is reduced by enforcement actions. The statistical relationship between the firm's noncompliance and enforcement actions is estimated, and the hypotheses of enforcement derived from theoretical models are tested. The results of the statistical relationship between the firm's violating discharge rate and the control authority's enforcement actions indicate that regulatory enforcement is effective in reducing the firm's violating discharge rate, with support for most of the enforcement hypotheses derived from theoretical models. Regulatory enforcement is negatively related to the firm's noncompliance.

Lee Sanggo.

1991-01-01

450

Do small-scale exclosure\\/enclosure experiments predict the effects of large-scale extirpation of freshwater migratory fauna?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of theoretical and empirical studies indicate that the abilities of small-scale experiments to predict responses\\u000a to large-scale perturbations vary. Small-scale experiments often do not predict the directions of large-scale responses, and\\u000a relatively few empirical studies have examined whether small-scale experiments predict the magnitudes of large-scale responses.\\u000a Here we present an empirical example of small-scale manipulations predicting not only

Effie A. Greathouse; Catherine M. Pringle; William H. McDowell

2006-01-01

451

Evaporative Precooler Retrofit for Air Cooled Condensers. Small Scale Appropriate Technology Grant Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three methods of evaporative cooling were evaluated; direct evaporative cooling of the condenser coil (spray directly on condenser coil), wetted media acting as evaporator and eliminator, and a spray type with eliminator. The direct spray achieved the low...

J. R. Campbell

1984-01-01

452

Summary of Projects, Small Scale Appropriate Energy Technology. Region IX Program, 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Summaries of the appropriate energy technology projects in Region IX are presented. The projects (over 100) are categorized into the following: house and building design; greenhouse systems; integrated systems; aquaculture; performance controls; hydroelec...

1979-01-01

453

Design for energy efficiency: Energy efficient industrialized housing research program. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Since 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy has sponsored the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing research program (EEIH) to improve the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers share responsibility for this program: The Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. Additional funding is provided through the participation of private industry, state governments and utilities. The program is guided by a steering committee comprised of industry and government representatives. This report summarizes Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 activities and progress, and proposed activities for FY 1991 in Task 2.1 Design for Energy Efficiency. This task establishes a vision of energy conservation opportunities in critical regions, market segments, climate zones and manufacturing strategies significant to industrialized housing in the 21st Century. In early FY 1990, four problem statements were developed to define future housing demand scenarios inclusive of issues of energy efficiency, housing design and manufacturing. Literature surveys were completed to assess seven areas of influence for industrialized housing and energy conservation in the future. Fifty-five future trends were identified in computing and design process; manufacturing process; construction materials, components and systems; energy and environment; demographic context; economic context; and planning policy and regulatory context.

Kellett, R.; Berg, R.; Paz, A.; Brown, G.Z.

1991-03-01

454

Use of Polyacrylamide to Reduce Seepage From Unlined Irrigation Canals: Initial Results From Small Scale Test Troughs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyacrylamide (PAM) is a class of long-chain synthetic polymers that are used extensively in food packaging, paper manufacturing, wastewater treatment, and as a soil amendment to reduce erosion. Recent empirical evidence has shown that applying linear, anionic PAM seepage can also reduce seepage from unlined irrigation canals. A diverse set of experiments has been initiated to understand the efficacy of PAM usage in ditch environments. The experiments span multiple scales, from small-scale bench top and artificial furrow experiments, to larger engineered furrows and irrigation ditches. Our objective was to assess the effectiveness of different PAM application methods and concentrations on seepage reductions in small scale, artificial Test Troughs (TT). The TT consists of two 24 m long, 10 cm deep furrows formed from native ASTM C-33 sand. During water application, inflows, outflows, and seepage from under the furrows were continuously measured. PAM in either granular or partially hydrated form was applied at various rates. The results presented here cover one facet of the research program. The application of granular PAM to the TT reduced seepage from 49 L/min to less than 22 L/min, depending on treatment. A PAM application rate of 44 kg/(canal ha) reduced seepage by 69+/-9 percent, and was more effective than an application rate of 11 kg/(canal ha) that reduced seepage by 56+/-22 percent. Seepage reduction was calculated using flow rates between 400 and 600 elapsed minutes. Inclusion of later data (up to 1440 min) into seepage calculations was complicated by a reduction in seepage at the control trough caused either by a reduction in head or deposition of suspended sediment. We hypothesize that the PAM-sediment layer present in the treated trough exerted a greater control on seepage than sediment deposition alone. However, heavy suspended sediment loads associated with hydrologic events reduced seepage rates within both the control and treated troughs, somewhat masking the effects of the PAM. The application of linear, anionic PAM to the artificial Test Troughs did significantly reduce seepage rates. Additional work will be necessary to scale these results up to larger ditches, and to assess if the seepage reduction occurring by suspended sediment deposition is an artifact of this small scale experiment.

Susfalk, R. B.; Young, M. H.; Schmidt, M.; Epstein, B. J.; Goreham, J.; Swhihart, J.; Smith, D.

2005-12-01

455

Study on small scale model tests for reinforced concrete structures- small scale model tests by using 3mm diameter deformed re-bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scaled reinforcing materials of 3 mm in diameter (D3) having the same configuration and equal mechanical properties with commercial deformed re-bars were prepared fo use in small scale model tests for reinforced concrete structures. Three types of bond tests-pull out, eccentricity pull out and both bar ends tension-were performed to ensure the bond properties of the scaled reinforcing materials. In parallel, the bond tests for the commercial deformed re-bars of D25, D13 and D6 and the commercial steel materials of 3mm in diameter such as 03 round steel wires, 03 indented steel wires and M3 threaded steel rods were also performed in order to compare their properties.

Murayama, Y.; Noda, S.

1983-02-01

456

Magnetic Field Tunable Small-scale Mechanical Properties of Nickel Single Crystals Measured by Nanoindentation Technique  

PubMed Central

Nano- and micromagnetic materials have been extensively employed in micro-functional devices. However, measuring small-scale mechanical and magnetomechanical properties is challenging, which restricts the design of new products and the performance of smart devices. A new magnetomechanical nanoindentation technique is developed and tested on a nickel single crystal in the absence and presence of a saturated magnetic field. Small-scale parameters such as Young's modulus, indentation hardness, and plastic index are dependent on the applied magnetic field, which differ greatly from their macroscale counterparts. Possible mechanisms that induced 31% increase in modulus and 7% reduction in hardness (i.e., the flexomagnetic effect and the interaction between dislocations and magnetic field, respectively) are analyzed and discussed. Results could be useful in the microminiaturization of applications, such as tunable mechanical resonators and magnetic field sensors.

Zhou, Hao; Pei, Yongmao; Fang, Daining

2014-01-01

457

Water over the dam: a small scale hydro workbook for Colorado  

SciTech Connect

This manual is for individuals interested in developing small scale hydropower sites in Colorado. Although small scale hydro is sometimes defined as power production up to 80 megawatts, most developers using this handbook will have projects ranging from 10 kilowatts to 20 megawatts. No information is provided in this handbook about constructing new storage or diversion structures on the assumption that the sites to be developed involve existing dams or minor diversion projects. Topics covered include: who should develop the site, feasibility, water law, permits and licenses, environmental effects, sale and purchase of power, financing, taxation, and equipment selection and consumer protection. Included in appendices are: municipal options for public/private development of hydropower, engineering and manufacturing firms, hydropower, engineering and manufacturing firms, state permitting details, federal permitting details, examples of managed areas requiring consultation, agency contacts, Colorado utility jurisdictions, and recommended avoided cost rates for small power production and cogeneration sale of power to Colorado regulated utilities. (MHR)

Not Available

1981-07-01

458

SScAC: Towards a Framework for Small-Scale Software Architectures Comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a framework for small-scale software architecture comparison (SScAC). Although a considerable chunk of software architectures are developed in small teams, not much related work exists on this topic. The proposed framework introduces a method to formalize these comparisons and aims to be simple enough to be used in small-scale projects at the same time. Still we believe it is of sufficient complexity to support comparisons that take into account different aspects of solved problem. The main purpose of the framework is to ease certain architectural choices by giving the designer a reasoned recommendation based on previously specified requirements on system's qualities. It can also help validate the suitability of chosen design patterns. We show the practical use of the framework on case study solving architectural decision for Key Word In Context.

Praus, Petr; Jarom??ská, Slávka; ?erný, Tomáš

459

An investigation of rotor harmonic noise by the use of small scale wind tunnel models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Noise measurements of small scale helicopter rotor models were compared with noise measurements of full scale helicopters to determine what information about the full scale helicopters could be derived from noise measurements of small scale helicopter models. Comparisons were made of the discrete frequency (rotational) noise for 4 pairs of tests. Areas covered were tip speed effects, isolated rotor, tandem rotor, and main rotor/tail rotor interaction. Results show good comparison of noise trends with configuration and test condition changes, and good comparison of absolute noise measurements with the corrections used except for the isolated rotor case. Noise measurements of the isolated rotor show a great deal of scatter reflecting the fact that the rotor in hover is basically unstable.

Sternfeld, H., Jr.; Schaffer, E. G.

1982-01-01

460

Several small-scale vector array performance analysis and simulation of DOA estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To research the application and estimate performance in some small-scale vector sensor array by traditional direction of arrival estimate , we derivate the time delay expression of four small-scale non-uniform vector sensor array, the array direction vector is given, and the MUSIC algorithm is applied successfully to non-uniform vector array for direction of arrival(DOA) estimate, select the better performance of each array element setting method, and compare of beam forming, the probability of success and the mean square error, this shows that the performance of line array is best, followed by L-array and circular array, the performance of cross-array is worst.

Mei, Yinzhen

2011-10-01

461

Implementation of automation in a small-scale DNA sequencing core facility.  

PubMed

New England Biolabs (NEB) sequencing core facility provides automated sequencing services to support various company-wide projects in house, but on a very small scale of about 1000 to 1500 reactions per month. A procedure has been implemented at the NEB core sequencing facility to integrate simplified methods and robotics to provide a more efficient small-scale process. This has been done using a Beckman Biomek 2000 robot combined with an MJ DNA Engine, 96-well plate cycler (PTC-200), AB 373 and 377 sequencers, BMA Singel gels, and several other materials that help reduce the time required for otherwise lengthy procedures in a cost-efficient manner. Protocols have also been developed for efficient sequencing of a variety of templates submitted to the NEB core facility. PMID:19499053

Ware, J L; Moran, L; Lin, C L; Slatko, B

2000-12-01

462

Bose condensation and small-scale structure generation in a random force driven 2D turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider two-dimensional flow stirred by a small-scale, white-in-time random noise in the zero viscosity limit. Numerical simulations show that, after a transient state, an inertial-range energy spectrum E(k) proportional to k exp -x, with x = 5/3 +/- 0.05, is established by the inverse cascade process. This range grows in time until a Bose condensate is formed at the largest scales in the system (k about 1). Prior to condensate formation, the statistics of velocity differences are extremely close to Gaussian, and only after Bose condensation, strong deviations from Gaussian statistics are detected at small scales. The structures responsible for this effect are identified.

Smith, Leslie M.; Yakhot, Victor

1993-07-01

463

Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are examined. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. Additional sections cover acquisition; liability; Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection; energy utilities; local regulations; incidental impacts; financial considerations; and sources of information. In Kentucky, many of the impacts have not been implemented with regard to small-scale hydroelectric energy, since in Kentucky most electricity is coal-generated and any hydroelectric power that does exist, is derived from TVA or the Army Corp of Engineer projects.

None,

1980-05-01

464

The impact of industry/university consortia programs on space education  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes the industry/university consortia programs established by the United States and Australia and examines these programs from the viewpoint of their impact on space education in their respective countries. Particular attention is given to the aim and the nature of the three programs involved: the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDSs) (funded by NASA), which are currently involving about 250 companies and 88 universities as participants; the Space Industry Development Centers (SIDCs) (funded by the Australian Space Office): and the Cooperative Research Centers (CRCs) (funded by the Federal Government), which are not limited to the space area but are open to activities ranging from medical research to waste-water treatment. It is emphasized that, while the main aim of the CCDS, SIDC, and CRC programs is to develop space expertise, space education is a very significant byproduct of the activity of these agencies.

Page, John R.; Stone, Barbara A.

1993-01-01

465

Small-scale convection in the mantle wedge around the Japanese islands (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arc-volcanism is one of the most notable features in the Earth Science. Despite this, however, we still do not have its common understanding. In this presentation, we present a model of small-scale convection in the mantle wedge to understand the temporal and spatial distribution of volcanos around Japanese islands, that is, NE Hoshu and Izu-Bonin subduction zones. For this purpose, we have performed the numerical simulations with cases; (1) the direction of subduction is normal to the plate boundary, (2) the direction of subduction is oblique to the plate boundary and (3) the dip angles are different. The results show that; (1) the pattern of small-scale convection in the mantle wedge is a finger-like, (2) it flips sometimes and the pattern change starts from the back-arc side, (3) the finger is perpendicular to the plate boundary even in oblique case, and (3) if the subduction dip becomes deep, the small-scale convection disappears. These results suggest that (1) the temporal and spatial pattern of volcano distribution in NE Honshu and the alignment of inactive seamount chain in Izu-Bonin may be explained by the occurrence of small-scale convection in the mantle wedge, (2) the presently oblique alignment of seamount chains in Izu-Bonin may be produced by the left-lateral movement after their formation and (3) the cessation of volcanic activity of the seamount chains may be caused by the deepening of dip angle of subducting Pacific plate beneath the Philippine Sea plate there.

Honda, S.

2013-12-01

466

A study of dynamic resistance during small scale resistance spot welding of thin Ni sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic resistance has been investigated during small scale resistance spot welding (SSRSW) of Ni sheets. Electrical measurements have been correlated with scanning electron microscope images of joint development. The results show that the dynamic resistance curve can be divided into the following stages based on physical change in the workpieces: asperity heating, surface breakdown, asperity softening, partial surface melting, nugget growth and expulsion. These results are also compared and contrasted with dynamic resistance behaviour in large scale RSW.

Tan, W.; Zhou, Y.; Kerr, H. W.; Lawson, S.

2004-07-01

467

Laser altimetry of small-scale features on 433 Eros from NEAR-Shoemaker.  

PubMed

During the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR)-Shoemaker's low-altitude flyover of asteroid 433 Eros, observations by the NEAR Laser Rangefinder (NLR) have helped to characterize small-scale surface features. On scales from meters to hundreds of meters, the surface has a fractal structure with roughness dominated by blocks, structural features, and walls of small craters. This fractal structure suggests that a single process, possibly impacts, dominates surface morphology on these scales. PMID:11313491

Cheng, A F; Barnouin-Jha, O; Zuber, M T; Veverka, J; Smith, D E; Neumann, G A; Robinson, M; Thomas, P; Garvin, J B; Murchie, S; Chapman, C; Prockter, L

2001-04-20

468

Measurements of small-scale fading and path loss for long range RF tags  

Microsoft Academic Search

RF modulated backscatter (RFMB), also known as modulated radar cross section or sigma modulation, is a RF transmission technique useful for short-range, low-data-rate applications, such as nonstop toll collection, electronic shelf tags, freight container identification and chassis identification in automobile manufacturing, that are constrained to have extremely low power requirements. The small-scale fading observed on the backscattered signal has deeper

Daeyoung Kim; Mary Ann Ingram