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1

Small Scale Industries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Innovative programs for the promotion of small-scale enterprise are being conducted by a variety of organizations, including universities, government agencies, international research institutes, and voluntary assistance agencies. Their activities encompass basic extension services, management of cooperatives, community action programs, and…

Rural Development Detwork Bulletin, 1977

1977-01-01

2

Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program: Small-Scale Industrial Project. Final Report, Phase I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the Erie internal alternate fuel review in 1976, the ERDA RFP for small scale demonstration plants was released and Erie responded. The basis of the contract proposal included design, construction and operation of a Demonstration Plant, which could...

1979-01-01

3

Information Services for Small-Scale Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents highlights of several papers which reviewed experiences of large-scale and specialized information systems and services from the viewpoint of their value to small-scale, science-based industries, particularly those in developing region...

R. W. Swanson

1968-01-01

4

Energy Efficiency in Small Scale Industries - An Indian Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small-scale sector occupies a position of prominence in the Indian economy, contributing to more than 50% of the industrial production in value addition terms. The sector accounts for one third of the export revenue and employs the largest manpower next to agriculture. In India's present liberalized economy, the survival and growth of small-scale industry (SSI) largely depends on its

Girish Sethi; Prosanto Pal

5

DOE Small-Scale Hydropower Program. Annual report 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Small-Scale Hydropower Program for fiscal year 1985, and provides an annotated bibliography of research, engineering, operations, regulations, and costs of projects pertinent to hydropower development. The Small-Scale Hydropower Program is reported in five sections: Technology Development, Engineering Research and Development, Technology Transfer,

B. N. Rinehart; J. R. Chappell; G. L. Sommers

1985-01-01

6

DOE Small-Scale Hydropower Program annual status report 1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the research and development activities of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Small-Scale Hydropower Program for fiscal year 1984, and provides an annotated bibliography of research, engineering, operations, regulations, and costs of projects pertinent to hydropower development. The Small-Scale Hydropower Program is reported in five sections: Engineering Development Projects, Technology Development Projects, Technology Transfer Projects, Environmental Research, and

B. N. Rinehart; J. R. Chappell; G. L. Sommers

1984-01-01

7

DOE Small-Scale Hydropower Program Annual Status Report 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the research and development activities of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Small-Scale Hydropower Program for fiscal year 1984, and provides an annotated bibliography of research, engineering, operations, regulations, and costs o...

B. N. Rinehart J. R. Chappell G. L. Sommers

1984-01-01

8

DOE Small-Scale Hydropower Program. Annual Report 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Small-Scale Hydropower Program for fiscal year 1985, and provides an annotated bibliography of research, engineering, operation...

B. N. Rinehart J. R. Chappell G. L. Sommers

1985-01-01

9

DOE Small-Scale Hydropower Program: Annual Report 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Small-Scale Hydropower Program for fiscal year 1986 and 1987, and provides an annotated bibliography of research, engineering, ...

B. N. Rinehart J. R. Chappell G. L. Sommers

1987-01-01

10

DOE Small-Scale Hydropower Program: Annual report 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Small-Scale Hydropower Program for fiscal year 1986 and 1987, and provides an annotated bibliography of research, engineering, operations, regulations, and costs of projects pertinent to hydropower development. The bibliography discusses reports written by both private and non-Federal Government sectors. The Small-Scale Hydropower

B. N. Rinehart; J. R. Chappell; G. L. Sommers

1987-01-01

11

New Vistas for Small Scale Copper Base Industries. Seminar Held at Bangalore, May 1973.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the following papers: Procedures for Starting a New Industry and PERT Technique Applications; Role of Banks and Small Industries Corporation in the Development of Small Scale Industries; Production and Application of Copper and Copper...

G. N. Murthy K. K. Pai K. N. Sapru S. N. Iyengar V. S. Bhandary

1973-01-01

12

Membranes play growing role in small-scale industrial processing  

SciTech Connect

With industrial demands growing for better separation and/or purification in chemical, petroleum, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and other areas, membrane technology has been attracting more and more attention. This article examines many of the smaller scale operations that are now using membrane technology or are seen as potential application areas. An earlier C and EN article, focused on efforts to develop and expand applications for some of the more conventional operations employing membranes in high-volume industrial separations.

Haggin, J.

1988-07-11

13

Strategies for sustainable development of the small-scale gold and diamond mining industry of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small-scale gold and diamonds mining industry is of great importance to Ghana. Since its regularization in 1989 the sector has produced and sold over 1.5 million troy ounces of gold and 8.0 million carats of diamonds. During the same period the sector also provided direct employment to over 100,000 people and improved the socioeconomic life of many individuals and

R. K. Amankwah; C. Anim-Sackey

2003-01-01

14

Department of Energy Small-Scale Hydropower Program: Feasibility assessment and technology development summary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes two subprograms under the US Department of Energy's Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program. These subprograms were part of the financial assistance activities and included the Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) feasibility assessments and the technology development projects. The other major subprograms included engineering research and development, legal and institutional aspects, and technology transfer. These other subprograms are

1991-01-01

15

Small scale hydropower program legal and institutional aspects. Project Monitor Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the second in a series of reports addressing the regulatory and institutional factors affecting the small scale hydropower industry. The period of time covered by this report is from October 1, 1985 through December 31, 1985. The information contained in this report is intended to supplement information contained in the first Project Monitor Report prepared by ELI Corporation,

P. Brown; M. A. Walker; R. A. Olson; W. H. Wilson

1985-01-01

16

Small scale hydropower program: legal and institutional aspects. Project monitor reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first in a series of bimonthly reports on the regulatory and institutional factors affecting the small scale hydropower industry prepared by the Energy Law Institute (ELI) of the Franklin Pierce Law Center pursuant to the above noted contract with the US Department of Energy. The period of time covered by this initial report is from July, 1983

R. A. Olson; P. W. Brown; W. H. Wilson; V. Youmatz

1985-01-01

17

Financing Small-Scale Industry and Agriculture in Developing Countries: The Merits and Limitations of 'Commercial' Policies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses how two factors lead to an unwillingness of financial institutions to finance small-scale industry and agriculture in developing countries: (a) controls on interest rates, and (b) the initially high risks and administrative costs invol...

D. Anderson F. Khambata

1982-01-01

18

Summary Report on FY12 Small-Scale Test Activities High Temperature Electrolysis Program  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a description of the apparatus and the single cell testing results performed at Idaho National Laboratory during January–August 2012. It is an addendum to the Small-Scale Test Report issued in January 2012. The primary program objectives during this time period were associated with design, assembly, and operation of two large experiments: a pressurized test, and a 4 kW test. Consequently, the activities described in this report represent a much smaller effort.

James O'Brien

2012-09-01

19

Computers in the Small Scale Construction Trades. Industry Applications and Education. Vocational Education Special Project, Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This project introduced microcomputers to small-scale construction trades programs through selected California community colleges. The computers were used for applications and computer-aided instruction in construction management and carpentry classes within the departments of vocational education. The project aimed to (1) define the uses for…

Charns, Harold; Porter, Dennis

20

Department of Energy Small-Scale Hydropower Program: Feasibility assessment and technology development summary report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes two subprograms under the US Department of Energy's Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program. These subprograms were part of the financial assistance activities and included the Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) feasibility assessments and the technology development projects. The other major subprograms included engineering research and development, legal and institutional aspects, and technology transfer. These other subprograms are covered in their respective summary reports. The problems of energy availability and increasing costs of energy led to a national effort to develop economical and environmental attractive alternative energy resources. One such alternative involved the utilization of existing dams with hydraulic heads of <65 ft and the capacity to generate hydroelectric power of 15 MW or less. Thus, the PRDA program was initiated along with the Technology Development program. The purpose of the PRDA feasibility studies was to encourage development of renewable hydroelectric resources by providing engineering, economic, environmental, safety, and institutional information. Fifty-five feasibility studies were completed under the PRDA. This report briefly summarizes each of those projects. Many of the PRDA projects went on to become technology development projects. 56 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Rinehart, B.N.

1991-06-01

21

Small-Scale Industrial Village in Benin City, Nigeria: Establishment, Failure and Phytotoxicity Assessment of Soils from the Abandoned Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1986, the then Nigerian Military Governmentpromulgated a decree stipulating that all small-scaleindustries be moved out of the city centres to designatedlocations in the more remote areas or villages. In linewith that decree, the then Edo State Government decidedto create the Small-scale Industrial village at Ogbesan,near Benin City, Nigeria. This article summarises thesituation leading to the establishment of a typicalsmall-scale

G. O. Anoliefo; O. S. Isikhuemhen; S. O. Agbuna

2001-01-01

22

??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? THE POWER GENERATION BY BIOMASS GAS ENGINE FOR APPLICATION IN PRODUCTION PROCESS OF SMALL-SCALE COMMUNITY INDUSTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 m cc kWe Abstract: The aim of this research is to study the biomass gas engine system for power generation which is applied in the production process of small-scale community industry. Results showed that the system should be composed of Imbert-type gasifier of 1 with screw pressed for fuel feeding, cyclone, ash hopper, wet scrubber, volatile matter bank, gas

J. Waewsak; M. Mani; P. Buaphet; P. Panichayunon

23

Summary of Large-and Small-Scale Unreinforced Masonry Test Program  

SciTech Connect

A five-year, large- and small-scale, static and dynamic experimental research program, in which more than 700 tests were conducted, has demonstrated that unreinforced masonry infills are more ductile and resist lateral loads more effectively than anticipated by conventional code procedures. The tests were conducted both in the laboratory and on existing structures at the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex. The experimental data indicate that the combination of a steel frame and infill material efficiently resists lateral loads--the infilling provides significant lateral stiffness while the surrounding frame adds ductility and confinement to the overall system. The results from approximately 25 moderate- and full-scale tests on infills showed that with simulated seismic loads, the frames confined the masonry, and the load-carrying capacity of the infill was considerably above the load that caused initial cracking. This finding was a significant departure from classical code approaches that assumed first cracking to be failure of an unreinforced masonry wall. The experimental program, performed for the US Department of Energy, consisted of the following large-scale tests on infills: in situ airbag pressure testing, shake-table tests, and the application of quasi-static in-plane and out-of-plane drift loads. This paper provides a summary of the overall experimental methodology and results.

Fricke, K.E.

2002-06-28

24

Occupational noise exposure in small scale hand tools manufacturing (forging) industry (SSI) in Northern India.  

PubMed

Occupational noise has been recognized as hazardous for the human beings. A high noise level in forging shops is considered to lower the labour productivity and cause illness however occupational noise is being accepted as an integral part of the job. The present study has been carried out in 5 small scale hand tool forging units (SSI) of different sizes in Northern India in Punjab. Noise levels at various sections were measured. OSHA norms for hearing conservation has been incorporated which includes an exchange rate of 5 dB (A), criterion level at 90 dB (A), criterion time of 8 h, threshold level=80 dB (A), upper limit=140 dB (A) and with F/S response rate. Equivalent sound pressure level (L(eq)) has been measured in various sections of these plants. Noise at various sections like hammer section, cutting presses, punching, grinding and barrelling process was found to be >90 dB (A), which is greater than OSHA norms. A cross-sectional study on the basis of questionnaire has been carried out. The results of which revealed that 68% of the workers are not wearing ear protective equipments out of these 50% were not provided with PPE by the company. About 95% of the workers were suffering speech interference though high noise annoyance was reported by only 20%. It has been established that the maximum noise exposure is being taken by the workers as they are working more than 8h a day for six days per week. More than 90% workers are working 12 to 24 h over time per week which lead to very high noise exposure i.e. 50 to 80% per week higher than exposure time/week in USA or European countries(15, 16)). PMID:19672017

Singh, Lakhwinder Pal; Bhardwaj, Arvind; Deepak, K K; Bedi, Raman

2009-08-01

25

Use of a Small Scale Wind Tunnel and Model Shop at Aeronautica Macchi as an Industrial Tool.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes some facilities and capabilities which are currently available at the Aerodynamic Test Department of Aeronautica Macchi. Special wind tunnel testing techniques allow the use of a small scale wind tunnel to obtain useful data for the de...

R. Marazzi D. Malara M. Lucchesini S. Comoretto F. Pacori

1984-01-01

26

Small-Scale Industries in Kenya: A Case Study of Economic Development. Toward a Better World Series, Learning Kit No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This World Bank (Washington, D.C.) kit is a case study designed to introduce secondary school social studies students to a project in Kenya established to strengthen small-scale industries. The kit contains a pamphlet, a booklet, a sound filmstrip, and a teacher's guide. The pamphlet, "Economic Summary: Kenya," points out the severe problems…

Baldwin, Harriet; Ross-Larson, Bruce, Ed.

27

SpICE: A program to study small-scale disturbances in the ionosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionospheric disturbances observed by bottom-side soundings of the ionosphere appear at many temporal and spatial scales. Australia has many simultaneous observations from vertically orientated ionospheric sounders with spatial separations on the scale of 1000 km. However, with this spatial sampling only large scale ionospheric disturbances can be mapped and subsequently modeled. DSTO has an experimental program in progress to investigate the smaller spatial scale disturbances. These are often seen on vertical incidence soundings and are uncorrelated with soundings from greater than 500 km away. They can also be uncorrelated with soundings from the same site only 15 min later. The DSTO program to investigate these ionospheric disturbances is called SpICE, for Spatial Ionospheric Correlation Experiment. SpICE uses a small set of transmitters and receivers with varying separations to achieve a geographically spread set of near-vertical incidence ionospheric “reflection” points separated by 50-150 km, allowing us to probe disturbances at this spatial scale. Using the latest digital receiver technology we can collect amplitude and phase information from the ionospheric returns of the continuous wave transmissions of a nearby transmitter that is rapidly sweeping through the HF band. The returned signal is processed at a very high resolution to achieve good signal-to-noise complex ionograms at better than one-minute time updates. To date there have been three SpICE campaigns. This paper will discuss the SpICE program goals and highlight some of the unusual features observed in the first campaign. Following papers will look more closely at this data set and the subsequent campaigns.

Harris, T. J.; Cervera, M. A.; Meehan, D. H.

2012-06-01

28

Guidelines for Management Consulting Programs for Small-Scale Enterprise. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual is designed to assist management consultants in working with small-scale entrepreneurs in developing countries. Addressed in an overview of the small-scale enterprise (SSE) are: the role of the SSE in third world development, problems of SSEs, and target firms. The second chapter deals with various forms of management assistance to…

Vaughan, Gary L.

29

Involvement of small-scale dairy farms in an industrial supply chain: when production standards meet farm diversity.  

PubMed

In certain contexts, dairy firms are supplied by small-scale family farms. Firms provide a set of technical and economic recommendations meant to help farmers meet their requirements in terms of the quantity and quality of milk collected. This study analyzes how such recommendations may be adopted by studying six farms in Brazil. All farms are beneficiaries of the country's agrarian reforms, but they differ in terms of how they developed their activities, their resources and their milk collection objectives. First, we built a technical and economic benchmark farm based on recommendations from a dairy firm and farmer advisory institutions. Our analysis of the farms' practices and technical and economic results show that none of the farms in the sample apply all of the benchmark recommendations; however, all farms specialized in dairy production observe the main underlying principles with regard to feeding systems and breeding. The decisive factors in whether the benchmark is adopted and successfully implemented are (i) access to the supply chain when a farmer establishes his activity, (ii) a grasp of reproduction and forage production techniques and (iii) an understanding of dairy cattle feed dietary rationing principles. The technical problems observed in some cases impact the farms' dairy performance and cash position; this can lead to a process of disinvestment. This dynamic of farms facing production standards suggests that the diversity of specialized livestock farmers should be taken into account more effectively through advisory approaches that combine basic zootechnical training with assistance in planning farm activities over the short and medium term. PMID:22440036

Bernard, J; Le Gal, P Y; Triomphe, B; Hostiou, N; Moulin, C H

2011-05-01

30

Small-Scale Industry Grant: Baseline Data-Areas of Brazil Served by Educational Foundation of South Santa Catarina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report consists of a series of tabular displays of data on the area to be served by the Education Foundation of South Santa Catarina (FESSC.) The data include an identification of existing industry by classification, size, number of firms, number of ...

1975-01-01

31

Legislator's Guide to Small-Scale Hydroelectric Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In accordance with this renewed interest in small-scale hydro, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has established a national small-scale hydro program, including the funding of feasibility studies, demonstration projects and research carried out by federal...

W. R. Ferguson K. A. Wonstolen R. H. Counihan

1980-01-01

32

Small scale sanitation technologies.  

PubMed

Small scale systems can improve the sustainability of sanitation systems as they more easily close the water and nutrient loops. They also provide alternate solutions to centrally managed large scale infrastructures. Appropriate sanitation provision can improve the lives of people with inadequate sanitation through health benefits, reuse products as well as reduce ecological impacts. In the literature there seems to be no compilation of a wide range of available onsite sanitation systems around the world that encompasses black and greywater treatment plus stand-alone dry and urine separation toilet systems. Seventy technologies have been identified and classified according to the different waste source streams. Sub-classification based on major treatment methods included aerobic digestion, composting and vermicomposting, anaerobic digestion, sand/soil/peat filtration and constructed wetlands. Potential users or suppliers of sanitation systems can choose from wide range of technologies available and examine the different treatment principles used in the technologies. Sanitation systems need to be selected according to the local social, economic and environmental conditions and should aim to be sustainable. PMID:16104403

Green, W; Ho, G

2005-01-01

33

General patterns of niche construction and the management of 'wild' plant and animal resources by small-scale pre-industrial societies  

PubMed Central

Niche construction efforts by small-scale human societies that involve ‘wild’ species of plants and animals are organized into a set of six general categories based on the shared characteristics of the target species and similar patterns of human management and manipulation: (i) general modification of vegetation communities, (ii) broadcast sowing of wild annuals, (iii) transplantation of perennial fruit-bearing species, (iv) in-place encouragement of economically important perennials, (v) transplantation and in-place encouragement of perennial root crops, and (vi) landscape modification to increase prey abundance in specific locations. Case study examples, mostly drawn from North America, are presented for each of the six general categories of human niche construction. These empirically documented categories of ecosystem engineering form the basis for a predictive model that outlines potential general principles and commonalities in how small-scale human societies worldwide have modified and manipulated their ‘natural’ landscapes throughout the Holocene.

Smith, Bruce D.

2011-01-01

34

Dynamics of nitrate and nitrite content during storage of home-made and small-scale industrially produced raw vegetable juices and their dietary intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of storage conditions on nitrate and nitrite contents, pH, and total viable bacterial count of raw vegetable juices was studied. Three different types of juices from an Estonian small-scale producer and five different types of home-made juices were analysed. Analyses were performed immediately after opening the commercial juice packages and immediately after preparation of a home-made juice. Additionally,

T. Tamme; M. Reinik; T. Püssa; M. Roasto; K. Meremäe; A. Kiis

2010-01-01

35

Obtaining financial support from industry for a state-supported geoscience/mining library: a case study of Mines Librarys' small-scale fund raising efforts  

SciTech Connect

In addition to the faculty and students of the Mackay School of Mines, the University of Nevada Reno's Mines Library serves a large constituency of off-campus users from local mining and geological exploration firms. Many of these firms point to Mines Library's research facilities as one of their primary reasons for locating offices in the Reno area. In fiscal year 1983-1984 off-campus users accounted for 38% of Mines Library's circulation. Until the mid-1970's the library did not formally solicit cash contributions from the mining and exploration industries. As demands for service from the mineral industry grew, the librarian established an annual fund raising drive specifically aimed at that sector. It took a long time for the campaign to gain momentum. Initially, fund raising accounted for as little as $1000 - $2000 additional revenue per annum. Recently, however, the proceeds have grown to a more respectable $10,000 - $15,000 a year, enabling this library to purchase many publications and some items of equipment beyond that funded by the state. The paper outlines both successful and unsuccessful fund raising techniques and strategies employed over the years, such as letters, brochures, personal and group contacts, endowments, book plates, donor plaques, and various forms of publicity. Maintenance of mailing lists, donor files, and other records is briefly covered. Various problems and pitfalls associated with the program are examined. The presentation concludes with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of undertaking such an alternate funding program.

Ansari, M.B.

1985-01-01

36

Industrial Assessment Center Program  

SciTech Connect

The work described in this report was performed under the direction of the Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) at University of Texas at Arlington. The IAC at The University of Texas at Arlington is managed by Rutgers University under agreement with the United States Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technology, which financially supports the program. The objective of the IAC is to identify, evaluate, and recommend, through analysis of an industrial plant’s operations, opportunities to conserve energy and prevent pollution, thereby reducing the associated costs. IAC team members visit and survey the plant. Based upon observations made in the plant, preventive/corrective actions are recommended. At all times we try to offer specific and quantitative recommendations of cost savings, energy conservation, and pollution prevention to the plants we serve.

Dr. Dereje Agonafer

2007-11-30

37

Industrial cogeneration optimization program  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this program was to identify up to 10 good near-term opportunities for cogeneration in 5 major energy-consuming industries which produce food, textiles, paper, chemicals, and refined petroleum; select, characterize, and optimize cogeneration systems for these identified opportunities to achieve maximum energy savings for minimum investment using currently available components of cogenerating systems; and to identify technical, institutional, and regulatory obstacles hindering the use of industrial cogeneration systems. The analysis methods used and results obtained are described. Plants with fuel demands from 100,000 Btu/h to 3 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h were considered. It was concluded that the major impediments to industrial cogeneration are financial, e.g., high capital investment and high charges by electric utilities during short-term cogeneration facility outages. In the plants considered an average energy savings from cogeneration of 15 to 18% compared to separate generation of process steam and electric power was calculated. On a national basis for the 5 industries considered, this extrapolates to saving 1.3 to 1.6 quads per yr or between 630,000 to 750,000 bbl/d of oil. Properly applied, federal activity can do much to realize a substantial fraction of this potential by lowering the barriers to cogeneration and by stimulating wider implementation of this technology. (LCL)

Not Available

1980-01-01

38

Worker Education Level is a Factor in Self-compliance with Dust-preventive Methods among Small-scale Agate Industrial Workers.  

PubMed

Objectives: High incidences of silicosis are continuing to be reported among the agate workers of small-scale household agate processing units in the Khambhat region of Gujarat (India). The objective of this study was to investigate reasons behind the high prevalence of silicosis, and factors affecting the noncompliance with preventive methods among agate workers. Methods: The study was conducted using a questionnaire-based structured interview method among 82 agate workers in Khambhat to assess their awareness level about silicosis and preventive methods, existing morbidity, worker's attitude toward health, and the prevalence of actual use of preventive methods to avoid silica exposure. Results: The majority of the workers (55%) were aware of silicosis and the harmful effects of silica dust exposure (72%) and knew about simple preventive methods to avoid silica dust exposure (80%), but only a minority of the workers (22%) were actually using the simple and available dust-preventive methods. Only 9% of the uneducated workers were using the preventive methods, while usage was higher among educated workers (28%), who had five or more years of schooling, and these workers had fewer health conditions or less morbidity. Gender and job duration had no effect on the usage of dust-preventive methods. Conclusions: The data suggest that noncompliance with use of dust-preventive methods could be the reason behind the higher prevalence of silicosis and health morbidity in agate workers, and that years of schooling plays a significant role in the increased usage and self-compliance with dust-preventive methods among agate workers. PMID:23748205

Aggarwal, Bhagwan D

2013-06-07

39

Small Scale Thermosyphon Heat Exchanger.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A small circular heat transfer cell was used to study the cooling of a disc heat source by a thin evaporating liquid film. This small scale thermosyphon is a thermal spreader and a passive heat sink in that the interfacially induced liquid flow rates are ...

M. Sujanani E. W. Kiewra P. C. Wayner

1986-01-01

40

International Forum on Appropriate Industrial Technology, Held at New Delhi/Anand, India on November 20-30, 1978. Appropriate Technologies for Small-Scale Production of Cement and Cementitious Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses small scale cement production, and the characteristics and problems in existing cement-production technology. The report covers small-scale Portland plants; lime-based cementing materials; other cementing materials such as hydraulic l...

R. J. S. Spence

1978-01-01

41

AVLIS industrial access program  

SciTech Connect

This document deals with the procurements planned for the construction of an Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) production plant. Several large-scale AVLIS facilities have already been built and tested; a full-scale engineering demonstration facility is currently under construction. The experience gained from these projects provides the procurement basis for the production plant construction and operation. In this document, the status of the AVLIS process procurement is presented from two viewpoints. The AVLIS Production Plant Work Breakdown Structure is referenced at the level of the items to be procured. The availability of suppliers for the items at this level is discussed. In addition, the work that will result from the AVLIS enrichment plant project is broken down by general procurement categories (construction, mechanical equipment, etc.) and the current AVLIS suppliers are listed according to these categories. A large number of companies in all categories are currently providing AVLIS equipment for the Full-Scale Demonstration Facility in Livermore, California. These companies form an existing and expanding supplier network for the AVLIS program. Finally, this document examines the relationship between the AVLIS construction project/operational facility and established commercial suppliers. The goal is to utilize existing industrial capability to meet the needs of the project in a competitive procurement situation. As a result, costs and procurement risks are both reduced because the products provided come from within the AVLIS suppliers' experience base. At the same time, suppliers can benefit by the potential to participate in AVLIS technology spin-off markets. 35 figures.

Not Available

1984-11-15

42

Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program: Small-Scale Industrial Project. Preliminary Briquetting Review. Technical Report No. 8.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Erie/DOE Contract EW-78-C-02-5066 scope of work defines a design basis for the Demonstration and Commercial Plants using a western coal as well as an eastern coal for the design. During the period of initial plant design, it became apparent that many ...

1979-01-01

43

Industry Studies Program: Clipping Service.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Industry Studies Program at Boston University has compiled a collection of news clippings relating to industrial organization. The clippings, obtained from public news sources such as the New York Times and CNN, cover topics such as antitrust, health, telecommunications and finance.

Yi, Rong.

1998-01-01

44

Industrial Assessment Center Program  

SciTech Connect

Over the five-year period (2002-2006) the Oklahoma State University Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) performed energy assessments for 106 different clients, writing 835 recommendations, for a total of $23,937,099 in potential estimated annual savings. IAC clients served consisted of small and medium-sized manufacturers ranging from food manufactures to foundries. The OSU IAC served clients in Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri, Arkansas, and Texas. In addition to client service, student training and instruction was a major accomplishment. The OSU IAC employed (and trained) 12 baccalaureate-level students, 17 masters-level graduate students, and 7 doctoral-level graduate students. Most are practicing in the energy management area. Training was focused on both energy assessment and safety. Safety training was both center-based training as well as on-site training. Energy management related training was focused on classroom (for academic credit) work at both the undergraduate and graduate level. IEM 4923 (Energy and Water Management) was developed to serve both the IAC as well as non-IAC students. It was delivered once per year, with enrollments of typically 10 to 20 students. This course was required for IAC student employees, both undergraduate and graduate. This course was patterned after the AEE CEM (five-day) course for practicing professionals. IEM 4923 required each student to attend at least one on-site assessment and write at least one recommendation for their client’s report. Hence, a hands-on approach was practiced. Advance level courses were used to train graduate students. Two courses played major roles here: IEM 5923 (Advanced Energy and Water Management) and IEM 5943 (Hazardous Material and Waste). Graduate student participation in these courses helped the IAC to gain additional perspectives in on-site assessment and resulting recommendations. Numerous hands-on demonstration/training was conducted by directors and graduate students in order to gain proficiency in using the combustion analyzer, IR camera, logging equipment, light metering equipment, and other equipment. Instruction included usage and basic maintenance. While undergraduate students worked with the coursework and on-the-job training, graduate students were expected to do more. A typical MS student was required to complete a 3-hour independent study in some interesting facet of energy management under the supervision of a director. PhD students were expected to complete from three to six hours of independent study work in the energy management field, as well as center their dissertation research in the general area of energy/productivity/quality management. During the project period, two PhDs were completed, with several more near completion.

Kolarik, William J.

2007-02-26

45

Accrediting industrial safety training programs  

SciTech Connect

There are job-specific training requirements established by regulations that Impose stringent training requirements on a contractor, for example, the Occupational Safety & Health Act (OSHA). Failure to comply with OSHA training requirements can result in severe penalties being levied against a company. Although an accredited training program is expensive, it is a possible solution for minimizing risks associated with job-specific training requirements for employees. Operating DOE contractors direct approximately 10 percent of the operating funds toward training activities. Training needs for contractors span a broad range, from requirements awareness training for managers, to general training required on a one-time basis for all employees, to highly specialized training programs for employees involved In clean-up operations at hazardous waste sites. With this kind of an investment in training, it is logical to maximize the most return on an investment of training funds and to limit exposure to liability suits whenever possible. This presentation will provide an overview of accredited industrial safety programs. The criteria for accredited industrial safety programs will be defined. The question of whether accredited training programs are necessary will be examined. Finally, advantages and disadvantages will be identified for accrediting industrial safety training programs.

Beitel, L.

1992-12-31

46

Accrediting industrial safety training programs  

SciTech Connect

There are job-specific training requirements established by regulations that Impose stringent training requirements on a contractor, for example, the Occupational Safety Health Act (OSHA). Failure to comply with OSHA training requirements can result in severe penalties being levied against a company. Although an accredited training program is expensive, it is a possible solution for minimizing risks associated with job-specific training requirements for employees. Operating DOE contractors direct approximately 10 percent of the operating funds toward training activities. Training needs for contractors span a broad range, from requirements awareness training for managers, to general training required on a one-time basis for all employees, to highly specialized training programs for employees involved In clean-up operations at hazardous waste sites. With this kind of an investment in training, it is logical to maximize the most return on an investment of training funds and to limit exposure to liability suits whenever possible. This presentation will provide an overview of accredited industrial safety programs. The criteria for accredited industrial safety programs will be defined. The question of whether accredited training programs are necessary will be examined. Finally, advantages and disadvantages will be identified for accrediting industrial safety training programs.

Beitel, L.

1992-01-01

47

The Effectiveness of Videotape Programs as a Communication Tool in the Small-Scale Livestock for Rural Farming Women Project, Honduras.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines economic development in Third World countries and the use of portable video systems in development projects. The study, conducted in 1985, attempts to measure the level of effectiveness of videotape programs as a communication tool for training rural subsistence women in Honduras in technical aspects of pig-keeping. Classical…

Johnson-Dean, Lynn

48

Simplified small-scale backlight unit tester  

SciTech Connect

A novel design is the concept of using charge coupled device camera embedded with calibrated image processing algorithm as a two-dimensional luminance meter to measure the luminance and uniformity of small-scale backlight of unit. A small-scale backlight unit tester was successfully realized and performed to verify this concept.

Tsai, R.-H.; Su, F.-H.; Chen, J.-P.; Tsay, H.-L.; Wen, J.-Y.; Wei, T.-H.; Huang, T.-M.; Liao, T.-S. [Instrument Technology Research Center, National Applied Research Laboratories, Taiwan 300 (China)

2007-11-15

49

Small-Scale Production of Cementitious Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report begins with a discussion of the place of cement in development and existing cement-production technology. The second part on small scale Portland cement plants covers Indian development work on small scale vertical shaft kilns, medium scale ve...

R. J. S. Spence

1980-01-01

50

Directives Relatives a l'Elaboration de Programmes de Conseil en Gestion pour Petites Entreprises (Guidelines for Management Consulting Programs for Small-Scale Enterprise). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Manual Series No. M-29.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Written in French, this manual is designed to assist management consultants in working with small-scale entrepreneurs in developing countries. Addressed in an overview of the small-scale enterprise (SSE) are the role of the SSE in Third World development, problems of SSEs, and target firms. The second chapter deals with various forms of…

Vaughan, Gary L.

51

Collaborating To Create a Portfolio Assessment in a Small-Scale Evaluation Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|During the 1994-95 program year, the staff of Even Start, a family literacy program in Lincoln (Nebraska), and an evaluator collaborated to create a low-stakes, small-scale portfolio assessment to collect information on program impact. The small scale of the evaluation offered opportunities to involve the staff in each step of the portfolio…

Johnson, Robert L.; Bergman, Teresa

52

Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Energy Projects. Guidelines for Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual is the fourth volume in a series of publications that provide information for the planning of environmentally sound small-scale projects. Programs that aim to protect the renewable natural resources that supply most of the energy used in developing nations are suggested. Considerations are made for physical environmental factors as…

Bassan, Elizabeth Ann; Wood, Timothy S., Ed.

53

Small Scale Beekeeping. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to assist Peace Corps volunteers in the development and implementation of small-scale beekeeping programs as a tool for development. Addressed in the individual chapters are bees and humans; project planning; the types and habits of bees; the essence of beekeeping; bee space and beehives; intermediate technology beekeeping;…

Gentry, Curtis

54

Method and system for small scale pumping  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates generally to the field of small scale pumping and, more specifically, to a method and system for very small scale pumping media through microtubes. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for small scale pumping, comprising the following steps: providing one or more media; providing one or more microtubes, the one or more tubes having a first end and a second end, wherein said first end of one or more tubes is in contact with the media; and creating surface waves on the tubes, wherein at least a portion of the media is pumped through the tube.

Insepov, Zeke (Darien, IL); Hassanein, Ahmed (Bolingbrook, IL)

2010-01-26

55

Office of Industrial Programs Research in Progress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US Department of Energy Office of Industrial Programs conducts industrial energy conservation research and development activities. These activities are focused on achieving the objectives of improving energy use efficiency and providing for fuel flexi...

1988-01-01

56

Small-Scale Alcohol Fuel Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the final report of a project to demonstrate the feasibility of small-scale alcohol fuel production. A list of equipment and costs incurred in contracting the still are included. No experimental results are presented. (ERA citation 09:011691)

J. Evans J. McQueary

1983-01-01

57

Erosional development of small scale drainage networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drainage networks are usually determined for large scale river systems. Small scale drainage networks for upland eroding areas have rarely been studied. In this scale, drainage networks of surface runoff substantially affect soil erosion. The objective of this study was i) to explore the similarities between drainage networks of runoff on eroding surfaces and those of river systems and ii)

K. Helming; M. Römkens; S. Prasad; H. Sommer

58

Programmed Learning in Integrated Industrial Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beginning with the system of industrial training boards and other background considerations, this British work gives detailed, practical guidance on applying programed instruction (PI) principles in various job functions and industries. Potential advantages of PI in industrial training are summarized, along with uses of audiovisual aids and…

Shirley-Smith, Katalin

59

Graduate Programs in Industrial Education: Monograph 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of the monograph is the identification of unsolved problems in providing programs of graduate education in the field of industrial education. In part one there are reports of a literature review on graduate education and a study of the status of industrial education graduate programs. Parts two, three and four are addressed to current…

American Council on Industrial Arts Teacher Education, Washington, DC.

60

Results of Small-scale Solid Rocket Combustion Simulator testing at Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Small-scale Solid Rocket Combustion Simulator (SSRCS) program was established at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and used a government/industry team consisting of Hercules Aerospace Corporation, Aerotherm Corporation, United Technology Chemical Systems Division, Thiokol Corporation and MSFC personnel to study the feasibility of simulating the combustion species, temperatures and flow fields of a conventional solid rocket motor (SRM) with a versatile simulator system. The SSRCS design is based on hybrid rocket motor principles. The simulator uses a solid fuel and a gaseous oxidizer. Verification of the feasibility of a SSRCS system as a test bed was completed using flow field and system analyses, as well as empirical test data. A total of 27 hot firings of a subscale SSRCS motor were conducted at MSFC. Testing of the Small-scale SSRCS program was completed in October 1992. This paper, a compilation of reports from the above team members and additional analysis of the instrumentation results, will discuss the final results of the analyses and test programs.

Goldberg, Benjamin E.; Cook, Jerry

1993-06-01

61

Industrial Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains vocational education program course standards for exploratory courses, practical arts courses, and job preparatory programs offered at the secondary and postsecondary level as part of the industrial education component in Florida. Curriculum frameworks are provided for 144 programs/clusters; representative topics are as…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Applied Tech., Adult, and Community Education.

62

Controls on sublithospheric small-scale convection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pacific upper mantle structures revealed from recent seismic studies prompt us to study the dynamics of sublithospheric small-scale convection (SSC) derived from thermal boundary layer instabilities of cooling lithosphere. As oceanic lithosphere cools and thickens, its sublayer may go unstable, thus producing SSC in the asthenosphere. By formulating two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) numerical models with realistic mantle rheology,

Jinshui Huang; Shijie Zhong; Jeroen van Hunen

2003-01-01

63

Small-Scale HCCI Engine Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion in a small-scale engine (25 cc) was experimentally examined. Historically, HCCI combustion has been studied in engines sized for passenger vehicles and trucks (approximately 500 cc and larger). HCCI combustion in large-scale engines is characterized by higher efficiency than SI and CI combustion. High rates of heat flux, due to large surface area to volume

Peter Therkelsen; Derek Dunn-Rankin

2011-01-01

64

Candidate industrial preparedness program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Research in the area of industrial preparedness was most active in the 1960s when numerous studies were completed on subjects directly related to the survival of industry during a nuclear war. However, during this period no national policy evolved on the role industry should play nor were the requirements for a comprehensive industrial preparedness program developed. Industrial preparedness can be implemented either during peaceful times, or during a period of crisis at which time a nuclear attack appears to be imminent. The selected program should consist of those components necessary for survival of the population during the early post-attack period and for augmentation during the period of national recovery. In order to establish the requirements of industry in the post-attack environment it was necessary to estimate the condition of the country after a large-scale nuclear exchange, especially the relationship between the surviving population and the capacity of the residual industry to produce goods. Thus those industries essential to national survival and eventual recovery were evaluated with respect to their capability to provide products. Where the capability was insufficient to support the post-attack population, those industries became prime candidates for assistance through an industrial preparedness program.

Cannell, R.; Schuert, E.

1980-12-01

65

The Genetic Programming of Industrial Microorganisms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Traces the development of the field of industrial microbial genetics, describing a range of techniques for genetic programing. Includes a discussion of site-directed mutagenesis, protoplast fusion, and recombinant DNA manipulations. (CS)|

Hopwood, David A.

1981-01-01

66

Internal Audit Criteria for Industrial Hygiene Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An effective industrial hygiene program must comply with a variety of guidelines, regulations, and good practice procedures. New and changing regulations in the areas of toxic substances control, noise and hearing conservation, hazardous waste management,...

1989-01-01

67

Industrial Recruitment Program for American Samoa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project was undertaken to strengthen American Samoa's industrial recruitment program in response to rising world economic competition; to raise American Samoa's profile in the competition; to permit American Samoa's fully participate in future U.S.-Pa...

1987-01-01

68

Small Scale Solar PV Overview and Curriculum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this presentation and model curriculum for high school and community college energy technology instructors. The material focuses on the career path for small scale solar PV technicians. It includes information on career outlook, occupational competencies, sample syllabi and curriculum, high school applications and a sample lesson. The document may be downloaded in PDF file format. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2012-10-03

69

Small-scale dynamic gap test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe a new small-scale test, requiring small quantities of energetic material, designed using our CHARM ignition and growth routine in the DYNA2D hydrocode. The new test is a modified gap test and uses detonating nitromethane to provide dynamic confinement (instead of a thick metal case) whilst exposing the sample to a long duration shock wave. This arrangement allows less reactive materials that are below their critical diameter, more time to react. We present details of the modelling of the test together with some preliminary experiments to demonstrate the potential of the new test method.

Cook, Malcolm David

2012-03-01

70

A Small Scale Digital Device Forensics ontology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Small Scale Digital Device Forensics (SSDDF) is a relatively new,and rapidly changing,field of study which is in dire need of direction. Specifically, the devices and their corresponding forensic processes and,procedures,are vague,and in a perpetual state of uncertainty. The purpose,of this paper,was,to develop an ontological to provide,law enforcement,with the appropriate knowledge,regarding,the devices found,in the SSDD domain. Additionally, this ontology can be

David Christopher Harrill; Richard P. Mislan

2007-01-01

71

Industrial Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains industrial education courses standards for 183 exploratory courses, practical arts courses, and job preparatory programs offered at the secondary or postsecondary level in Florida. Each program courses standard is composed of two parts. The first part, the curriculum framework, includes four major sections: major…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

72

Expanded Small-Scale Shock Reactivity Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosives react from a strong shock, even in quantities too small for detonation. The potential for a new material to be an explosive can be evaluated from this shock reactivity. The recently developed small-scale shock reactivity test (SSRT)ootnotetextH. W. Sandusky, R. H. Granholm, D. G. Bohl, ``Small-Scale Shock Reactivity Test,'' NSWC Technical Report (in publication), Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head, MD 20640 uses very high confinement to allow prompt reactions to occur in less than half-gram samples well below critical diameter, with the reactions quantified by a dent in a soft aluminum witness block. This test has been expanded to simultaneously measure both early and late-time reactions from a single sample subjected to the output from an RP-80 detonator. The sample apparatus is further confined within a small chamber instrumented with a pressure gage for internal air blast. This provides a measure of late-time reactions, such as from fuel/air combustion. Results are shown from several simultaneous early- and late-reaction measurements.

Granholm, Richard

2005-07-01

73

Small Scale Distribution in Molecular Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of small scale fluctuations of density (or of optical properties) in the spatial distribution of the dust would have important consequences for the modelling of molecular clouds because the UV light penetration and therefore the physical and chemical processes depend strongly on their structure (cf Boisse (1990),Hobson et al. (1993)). CO emission maps obtained in recent years show a very fragmented distribution of the dense gas at all scales observed (Falgarone et al. (1991)). If the dust- to-gas ratio were uniform at all scales, as generally accepted, then the distribution of the dust should itself be as inhomogeneous as that of the gas. But, we have no direct information about it at scales smaller than those reached by IRAS (a few arcmin). We have developed methods to study in a direct way the amplitude of small scale variations of the extinction throughout translucent clouds (Lambda_V ~= 2 - 5 mag). First, we have extended the classical ``star count'' method by using the full stellar magnitude distributions as determined from CCD observations. We thus estimate the amplitude of extinction variations and investigate the possible presence of optically thick clumps (as suggested by CO observations). We also consider extended background sources, like galaxies or HII regions, located behind clouds which can be used to get some information on the amplitude of the density fluctuations. We present here some preliminary results from the BVRI photometric study of a stellar field and galaxies seen through translucent clouds (Lambda_V ~= 2 mag).

Thoraval, Sophie; Boisse, Patrick

1995-03-01

74

Test plan: Small scale seal performance tests  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this appendix to Test Plan: Small Scale Seal Performance Tests (SSSPT)'' is to provide details regarding the installation and testing of Test Series B. The original test plan provides the technical motivation and test design in general terms for Test Series A through E and the details of the installation and testing of Test Series A. As specified in the test plans operations plans for the remaining test series are to be prepared when the details become available. This is now the case for Test Series B. It is emphasized that the original test plan remains valid and is the general reference for the conduct of all of the test series of the SSSPT. Test Series B will evaluate the performance of horizontally emplaced concrete seals and as such will be a small scale evaluation of the concrete component of the planned panel seal. The objectives of Test Series B are: (1) To develop and evaluate a technique for the horizontal emplacement of a concrete seal; (2) To obtain data on the fluid flow performance of horizontally emplace concrete seal systems; (3) To obtain data on the structural performance of horizontally emplaced concrete seal systems; and (4) To provide data for the development and validation of predictive numerical codes and models.

Stormont, J.C.

1985-11-18

75

Creating Tech Programs Industry Wants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Community colleges serve on the front line of workforce development. With their focus on applied science associate degrees and technical certificate programs, they provide students with a high-quality, low-cost education that prepares them for careers in one to two years. And for students who can't take time away from their family or work to…

Demski, Jennifer

2012-01-01

76

Energy Industry Powers CTE Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Michael Fields is a recent graduate of Buckeye Union High School in Buckeye, Arizona. Fields is enrolled in the Estrella Mountain Community College (EMCC) Get Into Energy program, which means he is well on his way to a promising career. Specializing in power plant technology, in two years he will earn a certificate that will all but guarantee a…

Khokhar, Amy

2012-01-01

77

Energy Industry Powers CTE Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Michael Fields is a recent graduate of Buckeye Union High School in Buckeye, Arizona. Fields is enrolled in the Estrella Mountain Community College (EMCC) Get Into Energy program, which means he is well on his way to a promising career. Specializing in power plant technology, in two years he will earn a certificate that will all but guarantee a…

Khokhar, Amy

2012-01-01

78

Forging strategic partnerships with industry: The Industrial Fellows Program  

SciTech Connect

Science, technology, and industrial policy are at an important nexus due to long developing trends in the national and international economy and recent events in national security affairs. The research and development assets built by the American taxpayer in response to the Cold War face a quest for relevance in the new era. National competitiveness in international markets has emerged as an important new priority. To better understand the perspective of US industry the management of the Los Alamos National Laboratory has initiated an Industrial Fellows Program which has placed six individuals at US corporations. Their goal is to create strategic partnerships through increased understanding of technical needs of industry and the technical capabilities of the Laboratory.

Adams, K.; Castain, R.; Hynes, M.V.; Sanders, V.; Siemon, R.; Tellier, A.; Tiedman, A.; Umbarger, J.; Wilson, M.

1995-04-01

79

Development of Gas-Fired Small-Scale Small-Scale Glass Melting Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are about 70 small-scale glass melting furnaces, so-called multipot furnaces, within our operating area, with a potential demand of 3 x 10 sup 6 m sup 3 /year. Recently, in order to increase gas sales in this area, we have developed glass melting fu...

I. Nakamachi K. Yasuzawa T. Nakamura

1986-01-01

80

The case for small-scale domestic cannabis cultivation.  

PubMed

The shift to (inter)regional production, trade and domestic cultivation has become an irreversible international trend. Until now, the focus of most empirical work has been on large-scale, commercially oriented and professionally organized segments of the cannabis industry, often based on police data and on the perspective of law enforcement agencies. This paper offers a review of recent Dutch-language research that focuses on cannabis cultivation. Empirical studies were identified through literature searches using relevant search terms and Web of Science, Elin, Social Science Research Network and Elsevier ScienceDirect. The paper presents the main findings of Dutch and Belgian empirical work on the factors that stimulated the import substitution process on the cannabis market, aspects related to quality and potency issues, typologies of cannabis growers, and (unintended) effects of pursued policies. In the light of this (selective) review the author offers some commentary and analysis concerning the claims made by different stakeholders, and concludes with some reflections on future research and on policy implications. The author outlines the importance of small-scale, independent or ideologically oriented cannabis cultivation as an under-researched market segment. The author also makes a case for greater toleration of small-scale cannabis cultivation, to secure the least worst of cannabis markets. PMID:20176465

Decorte, Tom

2010-02-21

81

Industrial R&D Program Evaluation Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. industry's interest in and implementation of research and development (R&D) program evaluation techniques has been evolving throughout the twentieth century. Due in large part to the amount of funds corporations are now investing in R&D programs, evaluation techniques continue to become increasingly important. In this article, the history of R&D and its evaluation within the 3M Company will be

David P. Sorensen; Kerry S. Nelson; John P. Tomsyck

1994-01-01

82

Small Scale Abundance Variations in TMC-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preprotostellar core TMC-1 is carbon-rich and exhibits large chemical abundance gradients. Various scenarios have been invoked to explain the gradients, such as differences in density, C/O ratio, or chemical evolutionary state. We present results of our study of complex hydrocarbons and prebiotic molecules in TMC-1, including new abundances and evidence for small scale abundance variations, using NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) 70-meter antenna. We use TMC-1's low temperature environment (? 10 K) to observe species via their lowest energy rotational transitions, which occur at centimeter wavelengths for heavy molecules. But without a mechanism for replenishment, gas phase species would be quickly frozen onto grains. Recently, Markwick et al. (2000) constructed a dynamical-chemical model, involving grain mantle removal induced by Alfven wave propagation, which reproduces the large scale abundance gradients along the TMC-1 ridge. Mechanisms for grain mantle removal and production of rich organic species make TMC-1 an ideal target for complex molecule searches. We report abundances for carbon chains, such as C7H (upper limit) versus C8H, and upper limits for the linear chain H2C5, its related cyclic species c-C5H2, and the important prebiotic molecules pyrrole (c-C4H5N) and glycine (NH2CH2COOH). We also present evidence for small scale variations within TMC-1 from the spatial and velocity structure of dense gas tracers. We determined that emission from multiple CCS clumps (Peng et al. 1998) are present within our 50 arcsec beam. The CCS and HC7N spectra show evidence for at least 3 velocity components. Assuming the velocity components represent emission from distinct clumps, we calculate large abundance variations ([HC7N]/[CCS]=0.5--6.3) at 3 velocities within our beam. This research was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The work was performed while J.E.D. held a National Research Council-JPL Research Associateship.

Dickens, J. E.; Langer, W. D.; Velusamy, T.

2000-12-01

83

Object level programming of industrial robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a system designed for object level programming of industrial robots. It contains essentially four modules : - a C.A.D. module to build geometric models of objects and manipulators and define the implantation of the robotic cell. - a pre-processing module which uses the cell model to compute a representation of the free-space in the joint space of the

Bernard FAVERJON

1986-01-01

84

Career Education: Suggested School-Industry Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document, produced to aid Ohio communities in linking their schools' kindergarten through secondary career education (CE) programs with the needs and interests of local General Motors (GM) plants, defines some central concepts of career education and discusses successful, cooperative interaction between industry and career education. The focus…

Mumford, Donald, Ed.

85

Small-scale waste-to-energy systems: A state-of-the-art report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For industry and local government, small scale waste to energy systems represent an increasingly attractive option to enhance energy security, control energy costs, generate revenues and alleviate landfill constraints. Projects are characterized by: a mix of modular and waterwall systems; small and medium size industrial steam customers; a nascent interest in cogeneration; the utilization of a variety of public financing instruments; and growing vendor involvement in facility operations. Experience also points to the pivotal role of one or a few persistent individuals during the project implementation process. Recent operating history is likely to provide the foundation for steady growth in the number of small scale systems during the next decade.

White, A. L.

1982-02-01

86

Industrial energy-efficiency improvement program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The industrial energy efficiency improvement program to accelerate market penetration of new and emerging industrial technologies is described. Practices which will improve energy efficiency, encourage substitution of more plentiful domestic fuels, and enhance recovery of energy and materials from industrial waste streams are enumerated. Specific reports from the chemicals and allied products; primary metals; petroleum and coal products; stone, clay, and glass, paper and allied products; food and kindred products; fabricated metals; transportation equipment; machinery (except electrical); textile mill products; rubber and miscellaneous plastics; electrical and electronic equipment; lumber and wood; and tobacco products are discussed. A summary on progress in the utilization of recovered materials, and an analysis of industrial fuel mix is presented.

1980-12-01

87

Options for small-scale sulfur recovery  

SciTech Connect

With the issuance by the Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board and Alberta Environment of their report entitled Sulphur Recovery Guidelines for Sour Gas Plants in Alberta in August of 1988, the requirement in Alberta to recover sulfur was broadened to a sulfur content of 1 ton/D or greater in the inlet gas to a new sour-gas treating plant. This paper reviews the processes in use for recovering sulfur from sour-natural-gas streams that have a total sulfur content of 5 ton/D or less. These processes are the modified Claus process, the recycle Selectox process, and the reduction/oxidation processes LO-CAT and SulFerox. While the modified Claus process is used in large sulfur-recovery plants, the other processes may be more economical for sulfur recovery on a small scale. A description of the sour-gas treating and sulfur-recovery processes is given, and a comparison of estimated capital and operating costs for typical sour-gas streams is provided. All of the above processes are in operation in North America. Operating experiences with these processes in Alberta are discussed. The quality of the end-product sulfur varies among these processes, and the options for sulfur disposal are reviewed.

Royan, T. [Tartan Engineering Corp. Ltd. (Canada); Wichert, E. [Gascan Resources Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1997-11-01

88

Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project  

SciTech Connect

This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

Curtis Miller

2009-03-22

89

Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program  

SciTech Connect

Six area reported progress in the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program during FY 1991. As part of Industry Guidance, meetings were held with steering and technical committees in computers, housing design and manufacturing. This task area enables the program to benefit from the expertise of industry representatives and communicate research results directly to them. As part of the Design Process performance specifications were being developed for the future housing system designed last year. These house designs coordinate and optimize predicted and desirable advances in computerized design processes, materials, components, and manufacturing automation to achieve energy efficiency at reduced first cost. Energy design software were being developed for CAD systems, stressed skin insulating core panel manufacturers; and a prototype energy sales tool. A prototype design was to be developed to integrate one or more subsystems with the building skin. As part of the Manufacturing Process we are developing a manufacturing process simulation and data base to help current and new entrants to the industrialized housing industry in assessing the impact of implementing new manufacturing techniques. For Evaluation we are developing testing plans for six units of housing on the UO campus and the stressed skin insulating core house to be constructed in Oregon. The DOW Chemical test structure will be retrofitted with a tile roof and retested to compare to the dome and conventional construction structures. Calibration of the wind tunnel will be completed so that laboratory tests can be conducted to simulate the ventilation cooling efficiency of houses in design. Research utilization and program management were either aspects of this program.

Not Available

1992-03-01

90

Small-scale characteristics of transpolar arcs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transpolar arcs (TPAs) are often observed during northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF); of these, theta aurora are seen when transpolar arcs move in the dawn or dusk direction across the entire polar region in response to IMF By changes. For northward IMF and a By sign change theta aurora are almost always formed in the Northern Hemisphere, regardless of Bx and dipole tilt. This implies that theta aurora form simultaneously in both hemispheres. IMF By does not appear to influence the intensity and duration of the arc. Strongest UV emissions occur in the summer hemisphere and depend strongly on northward IMF Bz, IMF magnitude and solar wind speed. In the present study we identify arcs above 85 degrees magnetic latitude without regard to IMF, utilizing DMSP F13 SSJ4 particle data. The occurrence and characteristics of these aurora are examined in order to determine the influence of IMF strength and orientation, the solar wind, and Earth dipole tilt. They generally occur as isolated arcs, which are separated from the auroral oval by voids in particle precipitation. They vary in spatial width and are often made up of multiple thin arcs. We also consider the dependence of the small-scale structures associated with TPAs on interplanetary conditions, where a high AE index is associated with more structured, brighter arcs within the TPA. Some of the arcs can be identified as transpolar arcs (Theta aurora) from measurements made by the Polar UV imager. We examine the luminosity of the transpolar arcs. While previous studies of arcs during steady northward IMF show that the transpolar arc luminosity is mainly controlled by the magnetic energy flux of the solar wind, we expand this to TPAs which occur during a variety of IMF orientations.

Cumnock, Judy; Kullen, Anita; Karlsson, Tomas; Sundberg, Torbjorn; Blomberg, Lars

91

Small-Scale Magnetic Reconnection at Equatorial Coronal Hole Boundaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronal holes have long been known to be the source of the fast solar wind at both high and low latitudes. The equatorial extensions of polar coronal holes have long been assumed to have substantial magnetic reconnection at their boundaries, because they rotate more rigidly than the underlying photosphere. However, evidence for this reconnection has been sparse until very recently. We present some evidence that reconnection due to the evolution of small-scale magnetic fields may be sufficient to drive coronal hole boundary evolution. We hypothesize that a bias in the direction of that reconnection is sufficient to give equatorial coronal holes their rigid rotation. We discuss the prospects for investigating this using FLUX, a reconnection-controlled coronal MHD simulation framework. This work was funded by the NASA SHP-GI program.

Lamb, Derek; DeForest, C. E.

2011-05-01

92

Graduate Training Program in Industrial Hygiene. Final Performance Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The University of Arizona graduate training program in Industrial Hygiene for the period July 1, 1990 through June 30, 1995 was described. During this reporting period a total of 26 Industrial Hygiene students were graduated from the program. Fourteen of ...

C. D. Crutchfield

1995-01-01

93

Industrial Program, Grants and Awards 1973-1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Abstracts for grants and awards provided for the period 1973-1979 under the aegis of the Industrial Program of the National Science Foundation are compiled in this report. The Industrial Program fosters inquiry and experimentation into those processes and...

1980-01-01

94

Tobacco Industry Youth Smoking Prevention Programs: Protecting the Industry and Hurting Tobacco Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This report describes the history, true goals, and effects of tobacco industry-sponsored youth smoking prevention programs. Methods. We analyzed previously-secret tobacco industry documents. Results. The industry started these programs in the 1980s to forestall legislation that would restrict industry activities. Industry programs portray smoking as an adult choice and fail to discuss how tobacco advertising promotes smoking or the

Anne Landman; Pamela M. Ling; Stanton A. Glantz

95

Design and modeling of small scale multiple fracturing experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to design small scale gas fracture experiments, the available data from previous HEGF experiments were carefully reviewed, analytical elastic wave modeling was initiated, and semiempirical modeling was conducted which combined predictions for statically pressurized boreholes with experimental data. The results of these efforts include: (1) the definition of what constitutes small scale experiments for emplacement in a tunnel

J. F. Cuderman

1981-01-01

96

When does small-scale convection begin beneath oceanic lithosphere?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical model of small-scale convection in a fluid of variable viscosity is described. The results indicate that recently observed gravity anomalies showing a pattern of highs and lows aligned in the direction of oceanic plate motion may be the result of small-scale mantle flow. The convective flow must begin in the first six Myr of lithospheric cooling to produce

W. R. Buck

1985-01-01

97

Big Ideas at a Very Small Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this article is to share a learning-cycle sequence of lessons designed to convey the particulate nature of matter through use of physical models and analogical thinking. This activity was adapted from Conceptual Chemistry, a long-running professional development program for teachers of grades 4-9. Conceptual Chemistry's approach is…

Khourey-Bowers, Claudia

2009-01-01

98

Program of Studies: Trade and Industrial: Grades 9-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part 1 of the trade and industrial education curriculum guide for grades 9-12 contains a brief program overview and Vocational Industrial Clubs of America (VICA) description, more detailed descriptions of in-school and out-of-school programs and program classification methods, a list of references, and charts of various programs and training…

Fairfax County Schools, VA.

99

Tobacco Industry Youth Smoking Prevention Programs: Protecting the Industry and Hurting Tobacco Control  

PubMed Central

Objectives. This report describes the history, true goals, and effects of tobacco industry–sponsored youth smoking prevention programs. Methods. We analyzed previously-secret tobacco industry documents. Results. The industry started these programs in the 1980s to forestall legislation that would restrict industry activities. Industry programs portray smoking as an adult choice and fail to discuss how tobacco advertising promotes smoking or the health dangers of smoking. The industry has used these programs to fight taxes, clean-indoor-air laws, and marketing restrictions worldwide. There is no evidence that these programs decrease smoking among youths. Conclusions. Tobacco industry youth programs do more harm than good for tobacco control. The tobacco industry should not be allowed to run or directly fund youth smoking prevention programs.

Landman, Anne; Ling, Pamela M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

2002-01-01

100

Development of a locally designed and manufactured small-scale reverse osmosis desalination system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A development program of a small-scale desalination unit, formerly designed and manufactured, was adopted to reduce the production cost of water and minimize the deviation in the water characteristics. Process design and full engineering were performed; the system was manufactured locally. It was operated continuously for 1 year. Monitoring of feed and product water characteristics, quality and quantity and recording

Elham El-Zanati; Sherif Eissa

2004-01-01

101

Selection and Characterization of Carbon Black and Surfactants for Development of Small Scale Uranium Oxicarbide Kernels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report supports the effort for development of small scale fabrication of UCO (a mixture of UO and UC) fuel kernels for the generation IV high temperature gas reactor program. In particular, it is focused on optimization of dispersion conditions of carbon black in the broths from which carbon-containing (UO · HO + C) gel spheres are prepared by internal

Contescu; Cristian I

2006-01-01

102

Life-cycle Characteristics of Customer-sited Small-scale Residential Photovoltaic Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1998, the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) implemented a spearhead research program for the purpose of determining the real world, in-situ, life-cycle performance of small scale photovoltaic (PV) systems. These systems were to be owned and operated by the municipal utility, installed on residential structures, and would introduce the use of photovoltaics into the LADWP's electric

Thomas D. Honles

2005-01-01

103

LLNL Small-Scale Friction sensitivity (BAM) Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Small-scale safety testing of explosives, propellants and other energetic materials, is done to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli including friction, static spark, and impact. Testing is done to discover potential handling problems for either...

L. R. Simpson M. F. Foltz

1996-01-01

104

Simulation of Environment for Fire Detection Using Small Scale Models,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Small scale modelling of the environment for fire detection is possible when certain conditions are fulfilled. Different approaches to find the required conditions are reviewed, including theoretical approaches through dimensional analysis, and through ve...

R. Wighus

1988-01-01

105

A Small-Scale Low-Cost Gas Chromatograph  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The design and application of a small-scale portable gas chromatograph for learning of the basic concepts of chromatography is described. The apparatus consists of two basic separable units, which includes a chromatographic unit and an electronic unit.|

Gros, Natasa; Vrtacnik, Margareta

2005-01-01

106

Deschutes County Small-Scale Hydroproject Study and Recommendations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the last couple of years, various pieces of state and federal legislation have encouraged prospective energy developers to further explore the region's potential for small-scale hydroelectric generating projects. In Deschutes County, this resulted in t...

B. Shay M. McKeever

1982-01-01

107

Small-scale dynamo in solar surface simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A magneto-convection simulation incorporating essential physical processes governing solar surface convection exhibits turbulent small-scale dynamo action. By presenting a derivation of the energy balance equation and transfer functions for compressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), we quantify the source of magnetic energy on a scale-by-scale basis. We rule out the two alternative mechanisms for the generation of small-scale magnetic field in the simulations: tangling of magnetic field lines associated with the turbulent cascade and Alfvenization of small-scale velocity fluctuations ("turbulent induction"). Instead, we find the dominant source of small-scale magnetic energy is stretching by inertial-range fluid motions of small-scale magnetic field lines against the magnetic tension force to produce (against Ohmic dissipation) more small-scale magnetic field. The scales involved become smaller with increasing Reynolds number, which identifies the dynamo as a small-scale turbulent dynamo. Comparisons are made between the details of the dynamo mechanism in compressible magneto-convection, Boussinesq convection, and randomly-forced incompressible turbulence. Net energy transfers (kinematic phase): work against magnetic tension (stretching) is 95% of magnetic energy generated; work against magnetic pressure (compression) is 5%. The latter is involved in the breaking down larger-scale field (25%) into smaller-scale field (30%) as part of the cascade. The dominant producer of magnetic energy is the stretching of magnetic field lines against the magnetic tension force (turbulent dynamo action). Fluid motions at a scale of ~140km create magnetic energy predominately at a scale of ~65km. As the three wave-vectors must form a triad, the scale of the magnetic field being stretched must is 80+/-40km. All 3 scales are in the inertial range: this is turbulent small-scale dynamo.

Graham, J. P.; Moll, R.; Cameron, R.; Schüssler, M.

2010-12-01

108

Natural Gas Liquefaction Process for Small-scale LNG Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of natural gas liquefaction, the small-scale natural gas liquefier has been attracting more and more attentions home and abroad, thanks to its small volume, mobile transportation, easy start-up and shut-down, as well as skid-mounted package. A study was made to choose the optimum liquefaction process to improve the economy of small-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant. The

Cao Wensheng

2012-01-01

109

DEVELOPMENT OF THE SMALL-SCALE SHOCK SENSITIVITY TEST (SSST)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small-scale test to measure shock sensitivity with less than a half gram of sample per test and six tests at most was developed. The goal is to screen new energetic compositions before the need for costly scale-up. The concept merged aspects of the Small-Scale Shock Reactivity Test (SSRT) developed at IHDIV, NSWC with those of standard gap tests. The

J. E. Felts; H. W. Sandusky; R. H. Granholm

2009-01-01

110

Development of the Small-Scale Shock Sensitivity Test (ssst)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small-scale test to measure shock sensitivity with less than a half gram of sample per test and six tests at most was developed. The goal is to screen new energetic compositions before the need for costly scale-up. The concept merged aspects of the Small-Scale Shock Reactivity Test (SSRT) developed at IHDIV, NSWC with those of standard gap tests. The

J. E. Felts; H. W. Sandusky; R. H. Granholm

2009-01-01

111

Shake-table simulation study of small scale layered models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the correlation between the dynamic behavior of a full-scale steel prototype and a small-scale plastic model fabricated using fused deposition modeling (FDM). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Based on the use of a known input excitation, the small-scale model is tested on a shake-table. Experimental results are compared with results of a full

Constance Ziemian; Ronald Ziemian; Eric Barker

2010-01-01

112

Design of a small-scale hot forging test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small scale material testing offers many advantages compared to large or full scale testing. Small scale tests are usually\\u000a simpler and quicker to perform than full scale tests, and as a consequence they are cost-effective - the concomitant speed\\u000a of screening has implications for product commercialization (notably the time to market and the time in market). However,\\u000a in order to

S. M. Ganesan; P. T. Moe; B. Salberg; J. I. Audestad; H. Valberg; W. Rudd; J. S. Burnell-Gray

2009-01-01

113

Introduction of Car Alternators for Small Scale Wind Power Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally Permanent Magnet Generators (PMGs) are widely used for small-scale wind power generation. But in Sri Lanka, it is difficult to find a competitive market for such generators and permanent magnets, since the price of a PMG is very high and is very rare.Due to such conditions, expansion of small-scale wind power applications among rural communities are significantly limited. The

Nanayakkara D. P. N

114

Small scale mining in Ghana - Techniques and environmental considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1989 when small scale mining in Ghana was legalised, a lot of interest has been generated in the sector because of it's socio-economic benefits However, owing to lack of the necessary training and inadequate financial base on the part of small scale operators, most operations are poorly managed environmentally. The paper describes the state-of-the-art in Ghana, makes a critical

Newton A. Amegbey; J. B. K. Dankwa; S. Al-Hassan

1997-01-01

115

Decision model for planning of regional industrial programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a significant worldwide trend for countries to participate in economic integration schemes on a regional basis for the planning of industrial development programs. These regional industrial programs are characterized by plant allocation decisions coupled with cost\\/benefit distribution decisions. The research work described in this paper addresses these issues by combining the traditional mathematical programming approach for determining plant

Uday M. Apte

1999-01-01

116

Closing the loop: industry site visits for program outcomes assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Electrical & Electronic Engineering department at California State University, Sacramento, USA, formed an Industry Liaison Council in 1998 to assist in evaluating program educational objectives, and their outcomes assessment process. With the help of the Council, they have successfully used site visits to industry to validate program outcomes and improve their program. A team of department faculty visits a

S. K. Ramesh; Cici Mattiuzzi

2001-01-01

117

Administrative Handbook for Cooperative Industrial Education Programs in Missouri.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook is a complete guide for developing and administering cooperative industrial education programs in Missouri. The 11 sections of the handbook provide information in the following areas: (1) overview of the cooperative industrial education program; (2) role of the teacher-coordinator; (3) program development; (4) the instructional…

Smith, Clifton L.

118

Rethinking the Risk Management Process for Genetically Engineered Crop Varieties in Small-scale, Traditionally Based Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proponents of genetically engineered (GE) crops often assume that the risk management used in the industrial world is appropriate for small-scale, traditionally based agriculture in the Third World. Opponents of GE crops often assume that risk management is inappropriate for the Third World, because it is inherently biased in favor of the industrial world. We examine both of these assumptions,

David A. Cleveland; Daniela Soleri

2005-01-01

119

Advanced Industrial Materials Program. Annual progress report, FY 1993  

SciTech Connect

Mission of the AIM program is to commercialize new/improved materials and materials processing methods that will improve energy efficiency, productivity, and competitiveness. Program investigators in the DOE national laboratories are working with about 100 companies, including 15 partners in CRDAs. Work is being done on intermetallic alloys, ceramic composites, metal composites, polymers, engineered porous materials, and surface modification. The program supports other efforts in the Office of Industrial Technologies to assist the energy-consuming process industries. The aim of the AIM program is to bring materials from basic research to industrial application to strengthen the competitive position of US industry and save energy.

Stooksbury, F. [comp.

1994-06-01

120

78 FR 11996 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Commercial and Industrial Pumps  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EERE-2011-BT-STD-0031] RIN 1904-AC54 Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial...Industrial Pumps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department...Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,...

2013-02-21

121

A Perspective of Health Intervention Programs in Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A perspective on health intervention programs and their relation to the industrial environment is presented. Four key issues must be addressed in health intervention programs: whether employees constitute a captive group of participants; whether there is ...

M. D. Whorton M. E. Davis

1978-01-01

122

Cartographic Research in EREP Program for Small Scale Mapping.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab photography is suitable for producing planimetric maps with graphical representation of landform at scales up to 1:100,000. It cannot supply all the detail necessary for maps at this scal...

P. G. Mott H. Fullard J. C. Bartholomew J. D. Leatherdale H. J. Chismon

1975-01-01

123

Small scale hydropower program: legal and institutional aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the period July through September of 1985, a number of significant legislative and administrative developments have occurred with respect to the federal hydroelectric regulatory process, as well as in state implementation of Section 210 of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act. At the federal level, legislative and administrative developments demonstrate an increasing awareness and concern over the environmental consequences

P. Brown; M. A. Walker; R. A. Olson; W. H. Wilson

1985-01-01

124

The industrial internship program at UCSD bioengineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the important elements of undergraduate education is a practical experience in a bioengineering industry. This experience serves as a two way street, to expand the students experience and to educate industrial traditional fields about a modern bioengineering curriculum. In general, recent experience at UCSD has served to confirm the hypothesis, that placement of undergraduate students into industrial internship

G. W. Schmid-Schonbein

1999-01-01

125

What can Indonesia learn from China's industrial energy saving programs?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though Indonesia's CO2 emissions are dominated by deforestation while China's are dominated by industry, Indonesia has much to learn from China's industrial energy saving programs. To begin with, it is only a matter of time before Indonesia's emissions from fossil fuels overtake those from deforestation. Given the long technological lock-in effects of energy systems and industries, Indonesia needs to

Michael T. Rock

2012-01-01

126

Training Engineers of Joint Programs for the European Aerospace Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines topics and issues related to training engineers of joint programs for the European aerospace industry. Forms of cooperation, European educational systems, and skills needed to successfully work as an engineer in a joint program for the European aircraft industry are the major areas addressed. (JN)

Thomas, Jurgen

1985-01-01

127

National Survey of Computer Aided Manufacturing in Industrial Technology Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current status of computer-aided manufacturing in the 4-year industrial technology programs in the United States was studied. All industrial technology department chairs were mailed a questionnaire divided into program information, equipment information, and general comments sections. The questionnaire was designed to determine the subjects…

Heidari, Farzin

128

Small-scale dynamo at low magnetic Prandtl numbers.  

PubMed

The present-day Universe is highly magnetized, even though the first magnetic seed fields were most probably extremely weak. To explain the growth of the magnetic field strength over many orders of magnitude, fast amplification processes need to operate. The most efficient mechanism known today is the small-scale dynamo, which converts turbulent kinetic energy into magnetic energy leading to an exponential growth of the magnetic field. The efficiency of the dynamo depends on the type of turbulence indicated by the slope of the turbulence spectrum v(?)??^{?}, where v(?) is the eddy velocity at a scale ?. We explore turbulent spectra ranging from incompressible Kolmogorov turbulence with ?=1/3 to highly compressible Burgers turbulence with ?=1/2. In this work, we analyze the properties of the small-scale dynamo for low magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm, which denotes the ratio of the magnetic Reynolds number, Rm, to the hydrodynamical one, Re. We solve the Kazantsev equation, which describes the evolution of the small-scale magnetic field, using the WKB approximation. In the limit of low magnetic Prandtl numbers, the growth rate is proportional to Rm^{(1-?)/(1+?)}. We furthermore discuss the critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm_{crit}, which is required for small-scale dynamo action. The value of Rm_{crit} is roughly 100 for Kolmogorov turbulence and 2700 for Burgers. Furthermore, we discuss that Rm_{crit} provides a stronger constraint in the limit of low Pm than it does for large Pm. We conclude that the small-scale dynamo can operate in the regime of low magnetic Prandtl numbers if the magnetic Reynolds number is large enough. Thus, the magnetic field amplification on small scales can take place in a broad range of physical environments and amplify week magnetic seed fields on short time scales. PMID:23368064

Schober, Jennifer; Schleicher, Dominik; Bovino, Stefano; Klessen, Ralf S

2012-12-26

129

The Industry Coupled Case Study Program final report  

SciTech Connect

The Industry Coupled Case Study Program was conceived as a short-term cooperative program between the Federal government and private industry. Federal funds were committed to stimulate geothermal exploration and development between 1977 and 1979, although some work under the program continues into 1982. Federal funding has been phased out and the remaining information developed during the program is being disseminated and reported. This report presents an overview of the program and documents the technical results and open-file data base resulting from the program.

Stringfellow, J. [ed.

1982-10-01

130

Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Annual progress report FY 1995  

SciTech Connect

In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This Annual Report for FY 1995 contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Areas covered here are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

NONE

1996-04-01

131

Energy efficient industrialized housing research program  

SciTech Connect

This is the second volume of a two volume report on energy efficient industrialized housing. Volume II contains support documentation for Volume I. The following items are included: individual trip reports; software bibliography; industry contacts in the US, Denmark, and Japan; Cost comparison of industrialized housing in the US and Denmark; draft of the final report on the systems analysis for Fleetwood Mobile Home Manufacturers. (SM)

Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; Mc Donald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, T. (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (USA). Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Maxwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. (Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (USA))

1989-01-01

132

NCSL Small-Scale Hydro Project. Final Report, September 1978-January 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principal objective of the National Conference of State Legislatures' (NCSL) Small Scale Hydro Project was to stimulate small-scale hydropower. The project had the following work tasks: to initiate state small-scale hydro policy reviews; provide techn...

1983-01-01

133

The "We Card" Program: Tobacco Industry "Youth Smoking Prevention" as Industry Self-Preservation  

PubMed Central

The “We Card” program is the most ubiquitous tobacco industry “youth smoking prevention” program in the United States, and its retailer materials have been copied in other countries. The program's effectiveness has been questioned, but no previous studies have examined its development, goals, and uses from the tobacco industry's perspective. On the basis of our analysis of tobacco industry documents released under the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, we concluded that the We Card program was undertaken for 2 primary purposes: to improve the tobacco industry's image and to reduce regulation and the enforcement of existing laws. Policymakers should be cautious about accepting industry self-regulation at face value, both because it redounds to the industry's benefit and because it is ineffective.

Malone, Ruth E.

2010-01-01

134

Images of rural destinations hosting small-scale sport events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse quantitative and qualitative image aspects of destinations hosting a small-scale sport event, as perceived by spectators and participants. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey was conducted at different sport events hosted by destinations in a rural setting. The data are analysed using confirmatory factor analyses and correspondence analyses. Findings – The results

Kirstin Hallmann; Christoph Breuer

2011-01-01

135

Dynamics of Small-Scale Solar Magnetic Elements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We report on the dynamics of the small-scale solar magnetic field, based on analysis of very high resolution images of the solar photosphere obtained at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope. The data sets are movies from 1 to 4 hr in length, taken in severa...

T. E. Berger A. M. Title

1996-01-01

136

Small-scale dynamo action in primordial halos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first galaxies form due to gravitational collapse of primordial halos. During this collapse, weak magnetic seed fields get amplified exponentially by the small-scale dynamo - a process converting kinetic energy from turbulence into magnetic energy. We use the Kazantsev theory, which describes the small-scale dynamo analytically, to study magnetic field amplification for different turbulent velocity correlation functions. For incompressible turbulence (Kolmogorov turbulence), we find that the growth rate is proportional to the square root of the hydrodynamic Reynolds number, Re1/2. In the case of highly compressible turbulence (Burgers turbulence) the growth rate increases proportional to Re1/3. With a detailed chemical network we are able to follow the chemical evolution and determine the kinetic and magnetic viscosities (due to Ohmic and ambipolar diffusion) during the collapse of the halo. This way, we can calculate the growth rate of the small-scale dynamo quantitatively and predict the evolution of the small-scale magnetic field. As the magnetic energy is transported to larger scales on the local eddy-timescale, we obtain an estimate for the magnetic field on the Jeans scale. Even there, we find that equipartition with the kinetic energy is reached on small timescales. Dynamically relevant field structures can thus be expected already during the formation of the first objects in the Universe.

Schober, Jennifer; Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Federrath, Christoph; Bovino, Stefano; Glover, Simon; Banerjee, Robi

2013-07-01

137

Small-Scale Geothermal Power Plant Field Verification Projects: Preprint.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the spring of 2000, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory issued a Request for Proposal for the construction of small-scale (300 kilowatt (kW) to 1 megawatt (MW)) geothermal power plants in the western United States. Five projects were selected for ...

C. Kutscher

2001-01-01

138

Small-Scale Tuna Longlining in the Water Around Guam.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project was designed to test the feasibility of small-scale longlining as a method of commercial fishing on Guam. Thirty-eight longline trials were made in the waters around Guam from March 1982 to November 1983. A twenty-eight foot boat (typical to G...

S. S. Amesbury F. A. Cushing

1983-01-01

139

DISPOSAL OF SMALL-SCALE FISH PROCESSING WASTE THROUGH COMPOSTING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Large catfish processors in the U.S. typically recycle fish waste into fish meal. For small-scale processors or aquaculture research facilities, fish waste disposal can be problematic. We adapted a design developed for composting wastes from Minnesota fishing lodges and tested it for suitability fo...

140

Study of small-scale cavity growth mechanisms for UCG  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study has been conducted to evaluate previously proposed small-scale cavity growth mechanisms in Underground Coal Gasification (UCG). Quarried blocks of lignite from Rockdale, Texas, and subbituminous coal from Hanna, Wyoming, were exposed to high-temperature gases in a refractory chamber in order to access their behavior under UCG conditions. Effects of gas temperature, gas composition, and gas flow rate

D. L. Yeary; J. B. Riggs

1987-01-01

141

Identifying T Tauri Stars using Small Scale Optical Telescopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spuck-Butchart Optical Survey Method (SBOS) is a simplified method of identifying T Tauri stars using small scale optical telescopes. However, to date the method has only been used in an attempt to distinguish T Tauri stars from standard stars. AGN and active M dwarf stars emit excess in both infrared and H-alpha, similar to T Tauri stars, making it

Timothy Spuck; I. Saathoff; L. Rebull

2010-01-01

142

A small-scale research platform for intelligent transportation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose and develop a small-scale research platform for intelligent transportation systems. Our platform has four main parts: an arena; an indoor localization system; automated radio controlled (RC) cars; and roadside monitoring facilities. First, to mimic the traffic environments we build an arena with a wooden floor, mock buildings and streets. Second, for the indoor localization system,

Hung Manh La; Ronny Salim Lim; Jianhao Du; Weihua Sheng; Gang Li; Sijian Zhang; Heping Chen

2011-01-01

143

Small-Scale Chp Potential in Latvia and Estonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the research the small-scale CHP potential of Latvia and Estonia has been defined. Factors, which influence the CHP development, were analyzed in this paper, including political, geographic, climatological, legislative and technological factors. For the small-scale CHP potential assessment the three alternatives were chosen. The first alternative is the case, when only the hot water is taken into account. In this case the CHP can work with full load during the whole year because the heat load will not change (k=0,13). For the second alternative the results of the previous research were used. In this case an optimal relative heat load has been found for a small-scale CHP. This optimum value is 0,3. According to this optimum value the CHP can produce more electricity working with full load than in the first case. However, the CHP does not work whole year round. The third alternative shows the situation for the small-scale CHP when a half of the maximum heat load will be covered by the CHP. The formulas and the results for each case were provided.

Volkova, A.; Latõšv, E.; Siirde, A.

2009-01-01

144

On the Small-Scale Morphology of Asthenospheric Flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the interaction of small-scale cold instabilities dripping from a cooling lithosphere with a shear flow confined in the asthenosphere, using analog experiments. Rayleigh numbers ranged between 104 and 108. The fluids were either polymer solutions (constant viscosity), sugar or corn syrups (viscosity depending on temperature), or wax (phase transition). When cooling away from the ridge, the thickening lithosphere becomes thermally unstable and develops small-scale convective instabilities at its bottom. For sufficiently fast asthenospheric flow, these instabilities are sheared and remain trapped in the asthenosphere, following a helicoidal path aligned with the direction of plate motion. A phase diagram and scaling laws for the flow characteristics were determined. The observed helicoidal pattern could explain some geophysical observables such as small wavelength lineations in the terrestrial gravity field, or seismic anisotropy anomalies under the Pacific plate. Moreover, the distance from the ridge at which the small-scale instabilities form depends on the underlying mantle temperature: for a hotter mantle, they are generated closer to the ridge. Therefore, in the case of a ridge-centered plume, the hot temperature anomaly due to the plume triggers small-scale instabilities almost at the ridge. The heat transfer out of the mantle is accelerated, and the thickening of the lithosphere away from the ridge is delayed. Therefore, a groove at the bottom of the lithosphere may be expected along the track of a ridge-centred hotspot.

Vidal, V.; Davaille, A.; Crambes, C.

2003-12-01

145

MODELING OF CHARACTERISTICS OF SMALL SCALE WIND UNITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the article are observed characteristics of relatively small scale (some kilowatts) wind units being in serial production, possibilities of mathematical modeling of characteristics on base of curves or experimental data given in the informative materials. A reference is given to possibility for practical use of approximate determination of annual quantity of potential electrical energy by obtained formulas, if wind

Tõnis Peets; Andres Annuk; Veli Palge; Jaan Lepa

2002-01-01

146

Analysis of small scale magnetic perturbations observed by Oersted  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete year of Oersted data, from April 1999 to March 2000 has been processed to study small scale variations of the magnetic field with periods of a few seconds. We have used a technique of frequent use in internal geophysics to separate in a signal short term variations from a more regular trend, namely calculating the second derivative of

J. L. Le Mouël; E. Blanter; P. Shebalin; J. J. Berthelier; M. Shnirman

2003-01-01

147

Scaling and small-scale structure in cosmic string networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the scaling properties of an evolving network of strings in Minkowski spacetime and study the evolution of length scales in terms of a three-scale model proposed by Austin, Copeland, and Kibble (ACK). We find good qualitative and some quantitative agreement between the model and our simulations. We also investigate small-scale structure by altering the minimum allowed size for

Graham R. Vincent; Mark Hindmarsh; Mairi Sakellariadou

1997-01-01

148

A Permanent Magnet Generator for Small Scale Wind Turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a permanent magnet generator for small scale wind turbines. The generator has been designed for ease of manufacture so that it can be made by small mechanical engineering companies with limited electrical engineering knowledge. The generator has also been designed to have no cogging torque so that it can be used with all horizontal

J. R. Bumby; N. Stannard; R. Martin

2007-01-01

149

Mark III small scale chugging tests: Test Series 5013. [BWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of flow visualization tests was performed in order to qualitatively investigate chugging phenomena for the Mark III pressure suppression containment system. The tests were conducted in a small scale test apparatus consisting of a steam generator, steam conditioning valve, vent system, and condensation tank serving as a suppression pool. The two vent systems used represented ¹\\/ââ linear scale

Varzaly

1977-01-01

150

Innovative equipment for small-scale hydro developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using off the shelf pumps as turbines, with induction motors as generators, and combinations of available equipment such as speed increasers, inlet valves, and gates for typical small scale hydro installations are discussed. A computer simulation model was developed in the study which provides a basis to estimate the performance of pumps in the turbine mode of

J. D. Lawrence; L. Pereira

1981-01-01

151

Understanding of shape and size on small scale atlas maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teachers regularly use small scale maps with their classes in their geography and social studies work to locate places or to conduct more detailed studies. Many of these maps are derived from school atlases. It is assumed that the different sizes and shapes of the continents, regional areas and other areas are understood by the children as they are presented

Rod Gerber

1991-01-01

152

Community applications of small-scale solar thermal energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid technological development of small scale solar thermal energy systems (STES) may bring them on line before communities are adequately prepared for them. Information for analyzing and siting STES is presented along with discussions of community applications, regulations, impacts and incentives. By providing this information to community planners, it is hoped that barriers to STES utilization can be anticipated and mitigated.

Baldwin, J. H.; Steinberg, C.; Stea, D.

1981-02-01

153

Visible light scattering to measure small scale turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laser scattering optical bench using ionized argon laser was set up to study the small scales of turbulence. Scales between 200 and 10 mum are resolved. The signal being proportional to the Fourier transform of the density fluctuations, heterodyne detection is used to recover its real and imaginary parts. The optical and electronic facilities are described in detail. The

G. Antar

2000-01-01

154

Design and operation of a small-scale ethanol still  

SciTech Connect

A description is presented of a small-scale alcohol still utilizing beer derived from both corn and potato mash. Use was made of the ethanol in alcohol vehicles imported from Brazil. By-products (stillage) were successfully used as cattle feed. (DMC)

Floyd, J.E.

1980-01-01

155

Energy efficient industrialized housing research program  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes three documents: Multiyear Research Plan, Volume I FY 1989 Task Reports, and Volume II Appendices. These documents describe tasks that were undertaken from November 1988 to December 1989, the first year of the project. Those tasks were: (1) the formation of a steering committee, (2) the development of a multiyear research plan, (3) analysis of the US industrialized housing industry, (4) assessment of foreign technology, (5) assessment of industrial applications, (6) analysis of computerized design and evaluation tools, and (7) assessment of energy performance of baseline and advanced industrialized housing concepts. While this document summarizes information developed in each task area, it doesn't review task by task, as Volume I FY 1989 Task Reports does, but rather treats the subject of energy efficient industrialized housing as a whole to give the reader a more coherent view. 7 figs., 9 refs.

Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; McDonald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, Tomoko (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (USA). Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Maxwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. (Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (USA))

1990-02-01

156

Industrial Maintenance. Program CIP: 47.0303 - Industrial Maintenance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

Research and Curriculum Unit, 2009

2009-01-01

157

Construction Management Program Curriculum Content Derived from Industrial Workflow Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction Management Program (CMP) curriculum content is typically derived from institutional and program mission, historical evolution, accreditation criteria, and student, faculty, and industrial advisory inputs. Accreditation bodies assure that critical thinking and communication skills are delivered and\\/or content is delivered in broad topical areas. Accreditation emphasis is upon Program Educational Objectives (PEO) and their measurement. This paper challenges that practice.

John Jeffrey Hannon

2006-01-01

158

Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program annual progress report, FY 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is a part of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of AIM is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. OIT has embarked on a fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrating on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans, some of which have been completed. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support.

NONE

1998-05-01

159

Industrial Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains vocational education program courses standards (curriculum frameworks and student performance standards) for exploratory courses, practical arts courses, and job preparatory programs offered at the secondary or postsecondary level in Florida. Each program courses standard is composed of two parts: a curriculum framework and…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

160

Economic analysis of small-scale fuel alcohol plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

To plan Department of Energy support programs, it is essential to understand the fundamental economics of both the large industrial size plants and the small on-farm size alcohol plants. EG and G Idaho, Inc., has designed a 25 gallon per hour anhydrous ethanol plant for the Department of Energy's Alcohol Fuels Office. This is a state-of-the-art reference plant, which will

J. J. Jr

1980-01-01

161

Australian and New Zealand Dairy Industry Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Domestic subsidies on dairy products became an issue between Australia and New Zealand in the early eighties when these countries began discussing a new free-trade agreement. Subsidies alter the production and marketing efficiency in their dairy industrie...

P. V. Johnston

1985-01-01

162

Model Facilities for New Industrial Arts Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The classroom models were developed and illustrated by the Secondary Exploration of Technology Project (SET) for new ninth grade courses in industrial arts. (Communication lab, materials lab, power lab, and the total facility layout). (Author)|

Dean, Harvey; Thuma, Ron

1975-01-01

163

Model Facilities for New Industrial Arts Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The classroom models were developed and illustrated by the Secondary Exploration of Technology Project (SET) for new ninth grade courses in industrial arts. (Communication lab, materials lab, power lab, and the total facility layout). (Author)

Dean, Harvey; Thuma, Ron

1975-01-01

164

Technology Roadmap Research Program for the Steel Industry  

SciTech Connect

The steel industry's Technology Roadmap Program (TRP) is a collaborative R&D effort jointly sponsored by the steel industry and the United States Department of Energy. The TRP program was designed to develop new technologies to save energy , increase competitiveness, and improve the environment. TRP ran from July, 1997 to December, 2008, with a total program budget of $38 million dollars. During that period 47 R&D projects were performed by 28 unique research organizations; co-funding was provided by DOE and 60 industry partners. The projects benefited all areas of steelmaking and much know-how was developed and transferred to industry. The American Iron and Steel Institute is the owner of all intellectual property developed under TRP and licenses it at commercial rates to all steelmakers. TRP technologies are in widespread use in the steel industry as participants received royalty-free use of intellectual property in return for taking the risk of funding this research.

Joseph R. Vehec

2010-12-30

165

Automated disposable small scale reactor for high throughput bioprocess development: A proof of concept study.  

PubMed

The acceleration of bioprocess development for biologics and vaccines can be enabled by automated high throughput technologies. This will alleviate the significant resource burden from the multi-factorial statistical experimentation required for controlling product quality attributes of complex biologics. Recent technology advances have improved clone evaluation and screening, but have struggled to combine the scale down criteria required for both high cell density cell culture and microbial processes, with sufficient automation and disposable technologies to accelerate process development. This article describes the proof of concept evaluations of an automated disposable small scale reactor for high throughput upstream process development. Characterization studies established the small scale stirred tank disposable 250?mL reactor as similar to those of lab and pilot scale. The reactor generated equivalent process performance for industrial biologics processes for therapeutic protein and monoclonal antibody production using CHO cell culture, Pichia pastoris and E. coli. This included similar growth, cell viability, product titer, and product quality. The technology was shown to be robust across multiple runs and met the requirements for the ability to run high cell density processes (>400?g/L wet cell weight) with exponential feeds and sophisticated event triggered processes. Combining this reactor into an automated array of reactors will ultimately be part of a high throughput process development strategy. This will combine upstream, small scale purification with rapid analytics that will dramatically shorten timelines and costs of developing biological processes. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013;110: 3126-3138. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23775295

Bareither, Rachel; Bargh, Neil; Oakeshott, Robert; Watts, Kathryn; Pollard, David

2013-07-01

166

Oil industry unveils program to combat major spills  

SciTech Connect

Seeking to prevent another spill like the disastrous Alaska oil spill a task force of eight major oil companies, unveiled a comprehensive industry oil-spill program late last month. The plan deals with prevention, containment, and cleanup of major spills, and research on spill control and mitigation. This article presents an outline of the program. The author discusses how the program does not seem to be restoring credibility to the industry, nor to be heading off controls moving through Congress. The program has been greeted skeptically by environmentalists and some members of Congress, who seek legal mandates rather than voluntary actions.

Seltzer, R.J. (Cand EN Washington (US))

1989-07-01

167

Review of Federal Prison Industries' Electronic-Waste Recycling Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Executive Summary describes the results of an investigation by the Office of the Inspector General (OIG) into the health, safety, and environmental compliance practices of Federal Prison Industries (FPI) electronic waste (ewaste) recycling program. F...

2010-01-01

168

Program on purification of industrial waste water. Country paper: Ethiopia  

SciTech Connect

The paper as a preliminary country paper for the UNIDO's programe on Industrial waste water purification, which embraces eight countries from Africa, is prepared in such a way that it could serve as source materi al for the programs implementation in the country. The program's main objective being developing the most appropriate and effective means to deal with long term problems associated with generation and treatment of industrial waste water influence, every effort is made to present what ever relevant informations pertaining to the program's objective and goal. To this end, the first chapter delivers general background information about the countries natural resource and the prevailing industrial feature, while the second chapter deliberates on the results of the investigation and evaluation of the selected subsectors and factories from the industrial sector. Finally, an overview of other side factors which could possibly have effects on the project's activity is presented in the third chapter.

Mebratu, D.

1990-09-10

169

Guidance for Industry: Referral Program from the Food and ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Guidance for Industry: Referral Program from the Food and Drug Administration to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Seafood ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation

170

An Industrial View of Undergraduate Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several areas that are lacking in undergraduate nuclear engineering programs are discussed. Although most programs provide adequate theoretical knowledge in nuclear science, the nuclear engineer must have a working knowledge with the complete nuclear power plant, and be acquainted with the functions and responsibilities of the various segments of…

Elliott, David M.

171

Report on Community College Industrial Production Technology Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report provides an in-depth analysis of the Industrial Production Technology Programs in Illinois, which, according to Illinois Community College Board policy, must be reviewed at least once every five years. The disciplines included in this report are: industrial manufacturing technology, corrosion technology, plastics technology, and…

Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

172

Report on Community College Industrial Production Technology Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides an in-depth analysis of the Industrial Production Technology Programs in Illinois, which, according to Illinois Community College Board policy, must be reviewed at least once every five years. The disciplines included in this report are: industrial manufacturing technology, corrosion technology, plastics technology, and…

Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

173

Children's Programming: An Industry Peace Offering to the New Frontier.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Appointed chairman of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) by President Kennedy in 1960, Newton Minow disturbed the traditionally comfortable relationship between the commission and the broadcast industry. In his first major speech, he outraged industry officials by attacking television programming as "a vast wasteland" and indicated that…

Watson, Mary Ann

174

Multipoint study of small-scale structures at the magnetopause  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary results from a study conducted on the basis of ISEE (International Sun Earth Explorers) 1 and 2 data are presented. Different methods are proposed for studying small structures with a set of four spacecraft. In order to illustrate these methods the ideal case of a uniformly moving current tube is considered. It is emphasized that a small interspacecraft distance (150 km) is needed to characterize the strong fluctuations of interest. It is also pointed out that the interpretation of small scale structures implies the knowledge of larger ones, for example: are there Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities that may develop small scale structures. This question is proposed as one of the main goals of a joint Regatta Cluster mission.

Rezeau, L.; Roux, A.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.

1990-05-01

175

LLNL Small-Scale Friction sensitivity (BAM) Test  

SciTech Connect

Small-scale safety testing of explosives, propellants and other energetic materials, is done to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli including friction, static spark, and impact. Testing is done to discover potential handling problems for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior, or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing {open_quotes}BAM{close_quotes} Small-Scale Friction Test, and the methods used to determine the friction sensitivity pertinent to handling energetic materials. The accumulated data for the materials tested is not listed here - that information is in a database. Included is, however, a short list of (1) materials that had an unusual response, and (2), a few {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} materials representing the range of typical responses usually seen.

Simpson, L.R.; Foltz, M.F.

1996-06-01

176

Legal factors affecting the financing of small scale hydroelectric projects  

SciTech Connect

An introduction to the major business organizational options open to small-scale hydroelectric (SSH) projects is given. The major federal income tax treatments of these options are compared. Significant general federal income tax factors affecting SSH projects are reintroduced and explained. Some of the special federal income tax problem areas in SSH development are isolated. Tax benefit flow through or transfer mechanisms are discussed. Tax exempt financing opportunities for private SSH projects are reviewed. (MHR)

Wilson, W.H.; Ringo, M.J.; Forgione, N.

1983-09-01

177

Overview of the Testing of a Small-Scale Proprotor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper presents an overview of results from the wind tunnel test of a 1\\/4-scale V-22 proprotor in the Duits-Nederlandse Windtunnel (DNW) in The Netherlands. The small-scale proprotor was tested on the isolated rotor configuration of the Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM). The test was conducted by a joint team from NASA Ames, NASA Langley, U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate,

Larry A. Young; Earl R. Booth; Gloria K. Yamauchi; Gavin Botha; Seth Dawson

1999-01-01

178

Moving bed biofilm reactors: a small-scale treatment solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and operational suitability of the moving bed process for small-scale sewage treatment systems were evaluated. A prototype plant was installed at a new housing development near Winchester, UK, and operated under different conditions over an eight-month period. During normal operation, the MBBR plant produced a good quality effluent with average values for BOD5, COD, SS and NH4-N of

D. Daude; T. Stephenson

2003-01-01

179

Investigation of the feasibility of a small scale transmutation device  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation presents the design and feasibility of a small-scale, fusion-based transmutation device incorporating a commercially available neutron generator. It also presents the design features necessary to optimize the device and render it practical for the transmutation of selected long-lived fission products and actinides. Four conceptual designs of a transmutation device were used to study the transformation of seven radionuclides:

Roger Carson Sit

2009-01-01

180

Small-scale pattern of a California current zooplankton assemblage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small-scale vertical (10's of meters) and horizontal (100's to 1000's of meters) distribution of zooplankton in the California Current near Guadalupe Island, Baja California, Mexico was studied. Vertical distributions were sampled using a vertically-towed Longhurst-Hardy Plankton Recorder (LHPR) which gave a sequence of samples, each integrated over about 5 m, from 250 m to the surface. Because of the

L. R. Haury; Woods Hole

1976-01-01

181

Financing of private small scale hydroelectric projects: a summary guide  

SciTech Connect

Small-scale hydroelectric (SSH) projects are increasingly being supported financially by private developers. Increases in fossil fuel prices, difficulties in the siting of large power plants, streamlining of the federal licensing process, changes in the marketing of power, and the extension of tax credits-all contribute to expectations of profitability in SSH projects. This document provides an overview of private financing for SSH projects.

Not Available

1981-05-01

182

Small-scale Aeroelastic Rotor Simulation, Design and Fabrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecient, small-scale fixed-pitch rotor blades are essential for miniature rotorcraft. Ex- tremely thin blade sections are required for highly ecient rotor performance that leads to acceptable mission endurance. Such rotor blades are dicult to manufacture from su- ciently rigid material to avoid significant tor- sional deformation in operating conditions. In practice, it is necessary to trade-o manufac- turing simplicity and

Paul Pounds; Robert Mahony

183

Flammable Liquids in Plastic Containers Small Scale Burn Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of small-scale test-burn experiments were conducted at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in order to study variables which might affect the fire performance of plastic packages containing flammable liquids. The study demonstrated that manipulation of packaging variables could de crease the rate of fire growth as well as the peak rate of heat release by up to 70%. Critical

Donald Goodman; William F. Carroll; Jesse J. Beitel

1989-01-01

184

The TV industry : advertising and programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key to an understanding of the TV industry is the market for TV advertising. We present a model of this market that also encompasses the product markets and the viewer market. Because viewers dislike commercials, there is congestion in advertising, and TV channels offer complementary goods to advertisers. A move from a TV monopoly to a TV duopoly, we

Tore Nilssen; L. Sorgard

2001-01-01

185

Abelian Higgs cosmic strings: Small-scale structure and loops  

SciTech Connect

Classical lattice simulations of the Abelian Higgs model are used to investigate small-scale structure and loop distributions in cosmic string networks. Use of the field theory ensures that the small-scale physics is captured correctly. The results confirm analytic predictions of Polchinski and Rocha 29 for the two-point correlation function of the string tangent vector, with a power law from length scales of order the string core width up to horizon scale. An analysis of the size distribution of string loops gives a very low number density, of order 1 per horizon volume, in contrast with Nambu-Goto simulations. Further, our loop distribution function does not support the detailed analytic predictions for loop production derived by Dubath et al. 30. Better agreement to our data is found with a model based on loop fragmentation 32, coupled with a constant rate of energy loss into massive radiation. Our results show a strong energy-loss mechanism, which allows the string network to scale without gravitational radiation, but which is not due to the production of string width loops. From evidence of small-scale structure we argue a partial explanation for the scale separation problem of how energy in the very low frequency modes of the string network is transformed into the very high frequency modes of gauge and Higgs radiation. We propose a picture of string network evolution, which reconciles the apparent differences between Nambu-Goto and field theory simulations.

Hindmarsh, Mark; Stuckey, Stephanie [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Bevis, Neil [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

2009-06-15

186

Empirical spatial econometric modelling of small scale neighbourhood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the paper is to model small scale neighbourhood in a house price model by implementing the newest methodology in spatial econometrics. A common problem when modelling house prices is that in practice it is seldom possible to obtain all the desired variables. Especially variables capturing the small scale neighbourhood conditions are hard to find. If there are important explanatory variables missing from the model, the omitted variables are spatially autocorrelated and they are correlated with the explanatory variables included in the model, it can be shown that a spatial Durbin model is motivated. In the empirical application on new house price data from Helsinki in Finland, we find the motivation for a spatial Durbin model, we estimate the model and interpret the estimates for the summary measures of impacts. By the analysis we show that the model structure makes it possible to model and find small scale neighbourhood effects, when we know that they exist, but we are lacking proper variables to measure them.

Gerkman, Linda

2012-07-01

187

Small-scale clumps in the Galactic halo  

SciTech Connect

A mass function of small-scale dark matter clumps is calculated. We take into account the tidal destruction of clumps at early stages of structure formation starting from a time of clump detachment from the Universe expansion. Only a small fraction of these clumps, {approx}0.1%, in each logarithmic mass interval {Delta} log M {approx} 1 survives the stage of hierarchical clustering. We calculate the probability of surviving of the remnants of dark matter clumps in the Galaxy by modelling the tidal destruction of the small-scale clumps by disk and stars. It is demonstrated that a substantial fraction of clump remnants may survive through the tidal destruction during the lifetime of the Galaxy if a radius of core is rather small. The resulting mass spectrum of survived clumps is extended down to the mass of the core of the cosmologically produced clumps with a minimal mass. The survived dense remnants of tidally destructed clumps provides a large contribution to the annihilation signal in the Galaxy. We describe the anisotropy of dark matter clump distribution caused by tidal destruction of clumps in the Galactic disk. A corresponding annihilation of dark matter particles in small-scale clumps produces the anisotropic gamma-ray signal with respect to the Galactic disk.

Berezinsky, V. S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, INFN (Italy); Dokuchaev, V. I., E-mail: dokuchaev@lngs.infn.it; Eroshenko, Yu. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

2010-01-15

188

Small-scale lipid-membrane structure: simulation versus experiment.  

PubMed

Recently, it has become obvious that the conventional picture of the fluid lipid-bilayer component of biological membranes being a fairly structureless 'fluid mosaic' solvent is far from correct. The lipid bilayer displays distinct static and dynamic structural organization on a small scale, for example in terms of differentiated lipid domains, and evidence is accumulating that these structures are of importance for the functioning of biological membranes, including the activity of membrane-bound enzymes and receptors and morphological changes at the cell surface. Insight into the relationship between this small-scale structure and biological functioning holds promise for a more rational approach to modulate function via manipulation of the lipid microenvironment and the lipid/protein interface in particular. Computer simulation has proved to be a useful tool in investigating membrane structure on a small scale-specifically the nanometer scale (1-100 nm), which is in between the molecular scale accessible by various spectroscopic techniques and molecular dynamics calculations, and the micrometer scale accessible by scattering and microscopy techniques. PMID:9266173

Mouritsen, O G; Jørgensen, K

1997-08-01

189

Material Management Program Can Attract Local Industry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the material management certificate and the associate in applied science degree programs at William Rainey Harper College, Palatine, Illinois. Material management functions include purchasing, production control, inventory control, material handling, warehousing, packaging, computer applications, and transportation. (MF)|

Magad, Eugene L.

1978-01-01

190

Formation and evolution of small-scale solar magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis I investigate the formation and evolution of small-scale magnetic fields on the surface of the Sun. I observe the magnetic field in quiet sun regions in an effort to further understand the baseline magnetic field that exists throughout the photosphere at all phases of the solar cycle. An automated feature tracking algorithm that I helped develop allows me to systematically analyze datasets containing over 10 5 evolving magnetic features. In 1.2"-resolution Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) magnetograms, I find that 30% of features identified by our algorithm originate without other detectable flux within 2.2 Mm. These features having an apparent unipolar origin account for 94% of the flux newly detected by the algorithm. I infer from their ensemble average that these features are actually previously existing flux, coalesced by surface flows into concentrations large and strong enough to detect. Flux coalescence is at least as important as bipolar ephemeral region emergence for introducing detectable flux into the photosphere, underscoring the importance of small-scale fields to the overall photospheric flux budget. Using 0.3"-resolution magnetograms from the Narrowband Filter Imager (NFI) on the recently-launched Hinode spacecraft, I confirm that apparent unipolar emergence seen with MDI is indeed flux coalescence. I then demonstrate that apparent unipolar emergence seen in NFI magnetograms also corresponds to coalescence of previously existing weak field. The uncoalesced flux, detectable only in the ensemble average of hundreds of these events, accounts for 30-50% of the total flux within 3 Mm of the detected features. Finally, I study small-scale fields around intermediate-scale supergranular network concentrations. This is motivated by simulations and observations showing suppression of flux production by background magnetic fields at small and large scales. Within 12 Mm of the network concentrations, I find no evidence that the concentrations systematically affect the local production of weak fields. Rather, the small-scale field usually traces the evolution of the much larger network concentrations, which evolve under the influence of the supergranular flow. These studies show the degree to which the formation and evolution of small-scale magnetic fields is intertwined with surface flows and magnetic fields on both smaller and larger scales.

Lamb, D. A.

2008-06-01

191

WORK INSTRUCTION PROGRAMS FOR THE FOOD SERVICE INDUSTRY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A PROJECT WAS INITIATED TO DEVELOP EFFICIENT WORK METHODS FOR 100 COMMON TASKS IN THE FOOD SERVICE INDUSTRY AND THEN TO PREPARE PROGRAMED LEARNING "PACKAGES" FOR EACH OF THESE TASKS FOR TRAINING POTENTIAL EMPLOYEES AND EMPLOYEES WITH LOWER LEVELS OF EDUCATION TO HOLD USEFUL JOBS. THE CONCEPT OF PROGRAMED LEARNING PACKAGES FOR FOOD SERVICING WAS…

KONZ, STEPHAN A.; MIDDLETON, RAYMONA

192

Cost?effective programs of rural community industrialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advisability of developing programs to attract manufacturing industry involves several considerations. Included are: (1) the chances of success of the programs as affected by locational factors and existing community characteristics; and (2) ability to select relatively cost?effective strategies. Information from a two?state statistical study provides a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of community actions including development of high quality

Eldon D. Smith; Brady Deaton; David Kelch

1980-01-01

193

WORK INSTRUCTION PROGRAMS FOR THE FOOD SERVICE INDUSTRY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A PROJECT WAS INITIATED TO DEVELOP EFFICIENT WORK METHODS FOR 100 COMMON TASKS IN THE FOOD SERVICE INDUSTRY AND THEN TO PREPARE PROGRAMED LEARNING "PACKAGES" FOR EACH OF THESE TASKS FOR TRAINING POTENTIAL EMPLOYEES AND EMPLOYEES WITH LOWER LEVELS OF EDUCATION TO HOLD USEFUL JOBS. THE CONCEPT OF PROGRAMED LEARNING PACKAGES FOR FOOD SERVICING WAS…

KONZ, STEPHAN A.; MIDDLETON, RAYMONA

194

Program of Studies: Industrial Arts: Grades 7-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first part of the industrial arts curriculum guide provides brief descriptions of the program and course goals for grades K-12 and a one-page chart of program courses. Part 2 contains unit plans for grades 7-12 which provide unit descriptions, credit values, minimum class times, maximum students per class, prerequisites, and various unit…

Fairfax County Schools, VA.

195

DOE's Geothermal Program: New emphasis on industrial participation  

SciTech Connect

In line with industry's traditional strong role in targeting research priorities for the Department of Energy's geothermal program, the new policy thrust toward industry-driven R&D will complement our existing planning processes. Cost-sharing and leveraging of DOE's limited research resources remain critical elements, especially at The Geysers where DOE-funded research must have a very strong potential for yielding early industrial application. Upcoming geothermal reservoir engineering program initiatives respond to industry's expressed need for new exploration technologies to find undiscovered geothermal resources where there are little or no surface manifestations and for drilling innovations to reduce the costs of exploration for such resources. In accord with the Department's policy of focusing on research supported by industry, long-term research on geopressured and hot dry rock resources has been reduced in scope or deferred.

Mock, John, E.; Beeland, Gene

1991-01-01

196

Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC) process. Health programs: industrial hygiene, clinical and toxicological programs. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This final report summarizes the Health Program under the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Process Contract from January 1, 1976 through December 31, 1981 with particular emphasis on the period January 1, 1980 through December 31, 1981. The major areas of activity within the Health program were: an industrial hygiene monitoring program, a clinical medical examination program, a personal hygiene and

Hubis

1982-01-01

197

European semiconductor industry: Markets, government programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The marketing of the semiconductor industry in Europe and especially microelectronics which is situated between the millstones of USA and Japan is discussed. The concerned enterprises and governments appear to lack the motivation for close cooperation using European resources, corresponding to the ideas of the contracts on which the common market is based. It is felt that microelectronics is promoted in individual countries under more national perspectives, and the enterprises are pursuing strictly their own interests in cooperating with predominantly American and Japanese partners. An insight into the European semiconductor scene, its markets, as well as assistance for promotion and establishment available in the individual countries is discussed.

Scharf, A.

1983-01-01

198

Industrial Waste Reduction Program annual report, FY 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s Industrial Waste Reduction Program (IWRP) sponsors the development, demonstration, and deployment of technologies that offer a significant opportunity to reduce waste generation, improve productivity, and enhance environmental performance in US industry. The program emphasizes technology-driven solutions that are economically beneficial and environmentally sound. Its goal is to improve the energy efficiency and competitiveness of private industry by cost-effectively reducing waste. Industry, universities, national laboratories and other government agencies are working cooperatively to meet this goal. The IWRP emphasizes the timely commercialization of new technologies that can produce measurable energy, environmental, and economic benefits. All projects are substantially cost-shared with private companies to foster the commercialization process. The program is proud to claim four successfully commercialized technologies that have begun generating benefits. The current IWRP portfolio boasts 32 projects in progress. Funding for the IWRP has grown from $1.7 million in 1990 to $13 million in 1994. New companies join the program each year, reaping the benefits of working cooperatively with government. New technologies are expected to reach commercial success in fiscal year (FY) 1994, further increasing the benefits already accrued. Future Annual Reports will also include projects from the Waste Utilization and Conversion Program. Descriptions of the program`s 32 active projects are organized in this report according these elements. Each project description provides a brief background and the major accomplishments during FY 1993.

Not Available

1994-01-01

199

Investigation of Air Emission Reduction Methods for Aircraft Rescue and Firefighter Training Fires: Small-Scale Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Small-scale experiments were conducted to examine pollutant reduction techniques for JP-5 spray fires. These tests were part of a program to relocate the fire training facility at Naval Air Training Center (NATTC) Millington to NATTC Pensacola. The use of...

M. J. Peatross R. J. Ouellette D. P. Verdonik F. W. Williams

1997-01-01

200

Review of Donor-Funded Projects in Support of Micro- and Small-Scale Enterprises in West Africa: Case Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains case studies of nine donor-funded credit projects designed primarily to provide credit to micro- and small-scale enterprises (MSEs). These case studies were compiled as part of a general review of donor-funded programs in support of...

W. Grant

1993-01-01

201

DOE EM industry programs robotics development  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD&D, as well as testing and evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. OST has organized technology management activities along focus teams for each major problem area. There are currently five focus areas: decontamination and decommissioning, tanks, subsurface contaminants, mixed waste, and plutonium. In addition, OST is pursuing research and development (R&D) that cuts across these focus areas by having applications in two or more focus areas. Currently, there are three cross-cutting programs: the robotics technology development; characterization, monitoring, and sensor technologies; and efficient separations and processing.

Staubly, R.; Kothari, V. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

1997-12-01

202

Examples of backreaction of small-scale inhomogeneities in cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In previous work, we introduced a new framework to treat large-scale backreaction effects due to small-scale inhomogeneities in general relativity. We considered one-parameter families of spacetimes for which such backreaction effects can occur, and we proved that, provided the weak energy condition on matter is satisfied, the leading effect of small-scale inhomogeneities on large-scale dynamics is to produce a traceless effective stress-energy tensor that itself satisfies the weak energy condition. In this work, we illustrate the nature of our framework by providing two explicit examples of one-parameter families with backreaction. The first, based on previous work of Berger, is a family of polarized vacuum Gowdy spacetimes on a torus, which satisfies all of the assumptions of our framework. As the parameter approaches its limiting value, the metric uniformly approaches a smooth background metric, but spacetime derivatives of the deviation of the metric from the background metric do not converge uniformly to zero. The limiting metric has nontrivial backreaction from the small-scale inhomogeneities, with an effective stress energy that is traceless and satisfies the weak energy condition, in accord with our theorems. Our second one-parameter family consists of metrics which have a uniform Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker limit. This family satisfies all of our assumptions with the exception of the weak energy condition for matter. In this case, the limiting metric has an effective stress-energy tensor which is not traceless. We emphasize the importance of imposing energy conditions on matter in studies of backreaction.

Green, Stephen R.; Wald, Robert M.

2013-06-01

203

Cyclic Behavior of the Sun's Small-scale Magnetic Elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the unique database from the Michelson Doppler Imager on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory in an interval embodying solar cycle 23, the cyclic behavior of solar small-scale magnetic elements is studied. More than 13 million small-scale magnetic elements are selected, and their cyclic behavior is analyzed in comparison with the changes of sunspot numbers and active region magnetic flux. From the small to large end of the flux spectrum, the variations of numbers and total flux of the network elements show no correlation, anti-correlation, and correlation with sunspots, respectively. The anti-correlated elements, covering the flux of (2.9-32.0)×1018 Mx, occupy 77.2% of the total element number and 37.4% of the quiet-Sun flux. Unlike the correlated elements, which follow the sunspot butterfly diagram, the anti-correlated elements cover very broad range of latitude and do not show clear latitude migration during the cycle. These results provide insight for understanding the anti-correlations of small-scale magnetic activity during the solar cycle. The quiet regions dominate the Sun's magnetic flux for about 8 years in the 12.25 year duration of cycle 23, their monthly average magnetic flux is 1.12 times that of the active regions in the cycle. For the 28 continuous months from July 2007 to October 2009, the six-month running average ratio of quiet region flux to that of the total Sun is larger than 90.0%, which characterizes the gram minima in cycles 23 and 24 very well.

Wang, Jingxiu; Jin, C.

2011-05-01

204

Development of small scale soft x-ray lasers  

SciTech Connect

At present rapid progress is being made in the application of soft x-ray lasers to fields such as microscopy and microlithography. A critical factor in the range of suitable applications is the scale and hence cost of the soft x-ray lasers. At Princeton, gain at 183{angstrom} has been obtained with relatively low pump laser energies (as low as 6J) in a portable'' small-scale soft x-ray laser system. We will also discuss aspects of data interpretation and pitfalls to be avoided in measurements of gain in such systems. 14 refs., 7 figs.

Kim, D.; Suckewer, S. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab. Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering); Skinner, C.H.; Voorhees, D. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.)

1991-05-01

205

Small-Scale Fruit Production: A Comprehensive Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by Penn State University Agricultural Services, this guide is a resource for "people who wish to produce fruit on a small scale (on one acre or less) and who are not legally licensed to use pesticides." The guide discusses topics such as getting started, pruning and training fruit trees, pests and pesticides, and controlling wildlife damage. It also includes individual chapters for each fruit type (pome, stone, grapes, berries, kiwi, etc.). Each of these includes fruit-specific information on planting, nutrition, harvest, and pest management, among other topics. All in all, this is a well-organized and very handy resource for anyone planning or maintaining a fruit garden.

2001-01-01

206

Technical assessment of the Office of Industrial Programs' Advanced Heat Exchanger Program  

SciTech Connect

The DOE's AHX Program is an integral part of the OIP's Waste Heat Recovery Program whose goals are to increase the end-use energy efficiency of industry and agricultural operations, and to expand the energy options for manufacturing processes by providing technologies which use various fuels including coal, renewables, oil, and natural gas. The OIP and PNL convened a panel of industry experts to conduct a technical assessment of OIP's AHX program. This report documents the results of the panel's assessment.

Rinker, F.G.; Bergles, A.E.; Marciniak, T.J.; Batman, J.

1987-02-01

207

Handbook for Small-Scale Densified Biomass Fuel (Pellets) Manufacturing for Local Markets.  

SciTech Connect

Wood pellet manufacturing in the Intermountain West is a recently founded and rapidly expanding energy industry for small-scale producers. Within a three-year period, the total number of manufacturers in the region has increased from seven to twelve (Folk et al., 1988). Small-scale industry development is evolving because a supply of raw materials from small and some medium-sized primary and secondary wood processors that has been largely unused. For the residue producer considering pellet fuel manufacturing, the wastewood generated from primary products often carries a cost associated with residue disposal when methods at-e stockpiling, landfilling or incinerating. Regional processors use these methods for a variety of reasons, including the relatively small amounts of residue produced, residue form, mixed residue types, high transportation costs and lack of a local market, convenience and absence of regulation. Direct costs associated with residue disposal include the expenses required to own and operate residue handling equipment, costs for operating and maintaining a combustor and tipping fees charged to accept wood waste at public landfills. Economic and social costs related to environmental concerns may also be incurred to include local air and water quality degradation from open-air combustion and leachate movement into streams and drinking water.

Folk, Richard L.; Govett, Robert L.

1992-07-01

208

Intergenerational wealth transmission and the dynamics of inequality in small-scale societies.  

PubMed

Small-scale human societies range from foraging bands with a strong egalitarian ethos to more economically stratified agrarian and pastoral societies. We explain this variation in inequality using a dynamic model in which a population's long-run steady-state level of inequality depends on the extent to which its most important forms of wealth are transmitted within families across generations. We estimate the degree of intergenerational transmission of three different types of wealth (material, embodied, and relational), as well as the extent of wealth inequality in 21 historical and contemporary populations. We show that intergenerational transmission of wealth and wealth inequality are substantial among pastoral and small-scale agricultural societies (on a par with or even exceeding the most unequal modern industrial economies) but are limited among horticultural and foraging peoples (equivalent to the most egalitarian of modern industrial populations). Differences in the technology by which a people derive their livelihood and in the institutions and norms making up the economic system jointly contribute to this pattern. PMID:19900925

Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Bowles, Samuel; Hertz, Tom; Bell, Adrian; Beise, Jan; Clark, Greg; Fazzio, Ila; Gurven, Michael; Hill, Kim; Hooper, Paul L; Irons, William; Kaplan, Hillard; Leonetti, Donna; Low, Bobbi; Marlowe, Frank; McElreath, Richard; Naidu, Suresh; Nolin, David; Piraino, Patrizio; Quinlan, Rob; Schniter, Eric; Sear, Rebecca; Shenk, Mary; Smith, Eric Alden; von Rueden, Christopher; Wiessner, Polly

2009-10-30

209

Small-scale magnetic field measurements in a sunspot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We continue to study the fine peculiarities of the Zeeman effect in the sunspot of 25 March 1991 which was observed on horizontal solar telescope of Astronomical Observatory of Kyiv Shevchenko University. Zeeman splittings of I +V Stokes profiles of 20 spectral lines of FeI, VI, FeII, MoI, SiI, TiI and NiI were compared to diagnose the small-scale magnetic field structure in sunspot umbra. It was shown the observational evidences to the essential magnetic field inhomogeneity in both horizontal and vertical directions. First type of inhomogeneity follows from comparison of measured magnetic field values B versus Lande factors g of lines. Although the directly measured field strength B for the same place of sunspots was in range 150-650 mT, true range of field, as it follows from 'B-g' dependence, was likely wider, up to 1600 mT. Similar magnetic field strength was measured earlier by Lozitsky (1980, 1993, 1998) in solar flares and non-spot regions. In all cases such high magnetic field values should relate to the small-scale (spatiall unresolved) magnetic structures with small filling factor. Second type of inhomogeneity follows from magnetic field comparison for lines with the same or close Lande factors. This comparison shows that vertical magnetic field gradient at photospheric level of sunspot reaches about -0.8 mT/km.

Salimova, N.; Lozitsky, V.

2005-04-01

210

Development of the Small-Scale Shock Sensitivity Test (ssst)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small-scale test to measure shock sensitivity with less than a half gram of sample per test and six tests at most was developed. The goal is to screen new energetic compositions before the need for costly scale-up. The concept merged aspects of the Small-Scale Shock Reactivity Test (SSRT) developed at IHDIV, NSWC with those of standard gap tests. The SSRT measures the shock reactivity (explosiveness) of potentially energetic materials, often well-below critical diameter, without requiring a transition to detonation. Gap tests are used to gage shock sensitivity of explosives, but require a sample size large enough for steady detonation. The new test arrangement combined the shock-attenuating gap before the sample and the air gap after the sample found in gap tests with the small sample size and high confinement of the SSRT. The results for a plastic-bonded explosive formulated with either a regular or insensitive RDX confirmed the difference in sensitivities observed in traditional gap tests. Also, the results gave further confirmation to a two-part reaction mechanism for the insensitive RDX formulation.

Felts, J. E.; Sandusky, H. W.; Granholm, R. H.

2009-12-01

211

Development of the Small-Scale Shock Sensitivity Test (SSST)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This effort is to develop a small-scale test to measure shock sensitivity that only needs a half gram sample at most. The test will screen new energetic compositions before the need for costly scale-up. The concept is to merge aspects of the Small-Scale Shock Reactivity Test (SSRT) developed at IHDIV, NSWC with that of gap tests. The SSRT measures the shock reactivity (explosiveness) of samples well-below critical diameter without requiring a transition to detonation. Gap tests are used to gage shock sensitivity of explosives, but require a sample size large enough for steady or near-steady detonation. The new test arrangement will combine the shock-attenuating gap before the sample and the air gap after the sample found in gap tests with the small sample size and high confinement of the SSRT. Our results for two plastic-bonded explosives formulated with either a regular or insensitive RDX confirm the difference in sensitivities observed in gap tests. More samples need to be tested to fully characterize the new test and to develop relations with shock sensitivity data from gap tests.

Felts, Joshua; Sandusky, Harold; Granholm, Richard

2009-06-01

212

Small-Scale Cosmological Perturbations: an Analytic Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through analytic techniques verified by numerical calculations, we establish general relations between the matter and cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectra and their dependence on parameters on small scales. Fluctuations in the CMB, baryons, cold dark matter (CDM), and neutrinos receive a boost at horizon crossing. Baryon drag on the photons causes alternating acoustic peak heights in the CMB and is uncovered in its bare form under the photon diffusion scale. Decoupling of the photons at last scattering and of the baryons at the end of the Compton drag epoch freezes the diffusion-damped acoustic oscillations into the CMB and matter power spectra at different scales. We determine the dependence of the respective acoustic amplitudes and damping lengths on fundamental cosmological parameters. The baryonic oscillations, enhanced by the velocity overshoot effect, compete with CDM fluctuations in the present matter power spectrum. We present new exact analytic solutions for the cold dark matter fluctuations in the presence of a growth-inhibiting radiation and baryon background. Combined with the acoustic contributions and baryonic infall into CDM potential wells, this provides a highly accurate analytic form of the small-scale transfer function in the general case.

Hu, Wayne; Sugiyama, Naoshi

1996-11-01

213

Small-scale morphology across the surf zone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Small-scale (< 5 m horizontal length) nearshore morphologic height variations were measured by combining CRAB surveys with bed elevations acquired with a 1 MHz sonic altimeter mounted on the CRAB during the October Phase of the DUCK94 experiment. Bedform plan views were recorded simultaneously using a 500 kHz side-scan sonar mounted on the CRAB. Waves and currents were measured at the same time. Significant temporal and spatial variations in the small-scale morphology were measured in response to changing waves and currents during the 2 weeks examined. Three cases are examined in detail: (1) mild waves and weak longshore currents resulting in wave ripples throughout the study area; (2) storm waves with strong longshore currents resulting in lunate and straight-crested mega-ripples in the trough of the barred beach; and (3) narrow-band, normally incident waves with a strong rip current resulting in a planar bed except in the throat of the rip where mega-ripples were measured. Wavenumber spectra of the bed were generally broad, indicating newly formed ripples coexisted with residual ripples from the past to form complex, multi-scaled ripple patterns.

Thornton, E. B.; Swayne, J. L.; Dingler, J. R.

1998-01-01

214

Nonlinear Small-scale Dynamos at Low Magnetic Prandtl Numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saturated small-scale dynamo solutions driven by isotropic non-helical turbulence are presented at low magnetic Prandtl numbers Pr M down to 0.01. For Pr M < 0.1, most of the energy is dissipated via Joule heat and, in agreement with earlier results for helical large-scale dynamos, kinetic energy dissipation is shown to diminish proportional to Pr1/2 M down to values of 0.1. In agreement with earlier work, there is, in addition to a short Golitsyn k -11/3 spectrum near the resistive scale, also some evidence for a short k -1 spectrum on larger scales. The rms magnetic field strength of the small-scale dynamo is found to depend only weakly on the value of Pr M and decreases by about a factor of two as Pr M is decreased from 1 to 0.01. The possibility of dynamo action at Pr M = 0.1 in the nonlinear regime is argued to be a consequence of a suppression of the bottleneck seen in the kinetic energy spectrum in the absence of a dynamo and, more generally, a suppression of kinetic energy near the dissipation wavenumber.

Brandenburg, Axel

2011-11-01

215

Cold Dark Matter's Small-Scale Crisis Grows Up  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cold dark matter (CDM) theory predicts a wealth of substructure within dark halos. These predictions match observations of galaxy clusters like the nearby Virgo Cluster. However, CDM has a ``small-scale crisis'': galaxies dominate the halo with little substructure, even though the model predicts that galaxies should be scaled versions of galaxy clusters, with abundant substructure. Compared to CDM predictions, the Milky Way and Andromeda are ``missing'' objects with velocity dispersions of ?>=10 km s-1. The energy scale of these missing satellites is low enough that stellar winds and supernovae might remove gas and suppress the formation of their luminous stellar components. Here we show that the small-scale crisis persists in fossil groups that have masses of up to 40% of the nearby Virgo Cluster of galaxies. Fossil groups are missing satellites with luminosities that occur at the predicted frequency in the Virgo Cluster. Moreover, the ``missing galaxies'' in fossil groups are nearly as luminous as the Milky Way, with a velocity dispersion of ?<=150 km s-1.

D'Onghia, Elena; Lake, George

2004-09-01

216

Work related injuries in small scale commercial fishing  

PubMed Central

Objective: To describe the epidemiology of work related injury in a group of small scale, independent commercial fishers. Design: Cross sectional survey (baseline instrument of a prospective cohort study). Setting and subjects: Commercial fishers in eastern North Carolina. Results: A cohort of 219 commercial fishers was established and 215 subjects completed an injury questionnaire. The main types of fishing conducted by the cohort were finfishing (159/215) and crabbing (154/215). Of the 215 fishers, 83 reported that they had suffered an injury event in the previous 12 months, a retrospective recall incidence proportion of 38.6 per 100 workers (95% confidence interval 32.1 to 45.1). The 83 injury events resulted in 94 injuries; 47% were penetrating wounds and 24% were strains/sprains. Half of injuries were to the hand/wrist/digits and 13% were to the back. Of the penetrating wounds, 87% were to the hand/wrist/digits, 32% became infected, and 80% were caused by contact with finfish, shellfish, or other marine animal. Of the strains/sprains, 48% were to the back and 26% were to the shoulder. Seventy percent of strains/sprains were caused by moving heavy objects, mainly either while hauling in nets, pots, or lines or loading/unloading the boat. Conclusion: In this group of small scale, independent fishers, the most common reported injuries were penetrating wounds to the hand/wrist/digits from marine animals and strains/sprains to the back while moving heavy objects.

Marshall, S; Kucera, K; Loomis, D; McDonald, M; Lipscomb, H

2004-01-01

217

Test plan: Small scale seal performance tests. Test Series B  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this appendix to ``Test Plan: Small Scale Seal Performance Tests (SSSPT)`` is to provide details regarding the installation and testing of Test Series B. The original test plan provides the technical motivation and test design in general terms for Test Series A through E and the details of the installation and testing of Test Series A. As specified in the test plans operations plans for the remaining test series are to be prepared when the details become available. This is now the case for Test Series B. It is emphasized that the original test plan remains valid and is the general reference for the conduct of all of the test series of the SSSPT. Test Series B will evaluate the performance of horizontally emplaced concrete seals and as such will be a small scale evaluation of the concrete component of the planned panel seal. The objectives of Test Series B are: (1) To develop and evaluate a technique for the horizontal emplacement of a concrete seal; (2) To obtain data on the fluid flow performance of horizontally emplace concrete seal systems; (3) To obtain data on the structural performance of horizontally emplaced concrete seal systems; and (4) To provide data for the development and validation of predictive numerical codes and models.

Stormont, J.C.

1985-11-18

218

Experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies of small scale combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the demand increased for the development of microdevices such as microsatellites, microaerial vehicles, micro reactors, and micro power generators. To meet those demands the biggest challenge is obtaining stable and complete combustion at relatively small scale. To gain a fundamental understanding of small scale combustion in this thesis, thermal and kinetic coupling between the gas phase and the structure at meso and micro scales were theoretically, experimentally, and numerically studied; new stabilization and instability phenomena were identified; and new theories for the dynamic mechanisms of small scale combustion were developed. The reduction of thermal inertia at small scale significantly reduces the response time of the wall and leads to a strong flame-wall coupling and extension of burning limits. Mesoscale flame propagation and extinction in small quartz tubes were theoretically, experimentally and numerically studied. It was found that wall-flame interaction in mesoscale combustion led to two different flame regimes, a heat-loss dominant fast flame regime and a wall-flame coupling slow flame regime. The nonlinear transition between the two flame regimes was strongly dependent on the channel width and flow velocity. It is concluded that the existence of multiple flame regimes is an inherent phenomenon in mesoscale combustion. In addition, all practical combustors have variable channel width in the direction of flame propagation. Quasi-steady and unsteady propagations of methane and propane-air premixed flames in a mesoscale divergent channel were investigated experimentally and theoretically. The emphasis was the impact of variable cross-section area and the flame-wall coupling on the flame transition between different regimes and the onset of flame instability. For the first time, spinning flames were experimentally observed for both lean and rich methane and propane-air mixtures in a broad range of equivalence ratios. An effective Lewis number to describe the competition between the mass transport in gas phase and the heat conduction in gas and solid phases was defined. Experimental observation and theoretical analysis suggested that the flame-wall coupling significantly increased the effective Lewis number and led to a new mechanism to promote the thermal diffusion instability. Due to the short flow residence time in small scale combustion, reactants, and oxidizers may not be able to be fully premixed before combustion. As such, non-premixed combustion plays an important role. Non-premixed mixing layer combustion within a constrained mesoscale channel was studied. Depending on the flow rate, it was found that there were two different flame regimes, an unsteady bimodal flame regime and a flame street regime with multiple stable triple flamelets. This multiple triple flame structure was identified experimentally for the first time. A scaling analytical model was developed to qualitatively explain the mechanism of flame streets. The effects of flow velocity, wall temperature, and Lewis number on the distance between flamelets and the diffusion flame length were also investigated. The results showed that the occurrence of flame street regimes was a combined effect of heat loss, curvature, diffusion, and dilution. To complete this thesis, experiments were conducted to measure the OH concentration using Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) in a confined mesoscale combustor. Some preliminary results have been obtained for the OH concentration of flamelets in a flame street. When the scale of the micro reactor is further reduced, the rarefied gas effect may become significant. In this thesis, a new concentration slip model to describe the rarefied gas effect on the species transport in microscale chemical reactors was obtained. The present model is general and recovers the existing models in the limiting cases. The analytical results showed the concentration slip was dominated by two different mechanisms, the surface reaction induced concentration slip (RIC) and the temperature slip induced concentrati

Xu, Bo

219

Defense programs industrial partnerships at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy`s Defense Programs face unprecedented challenges of stewardship for an aging nuclear stockpile, cessation of nuclear testing, reduced federal budgets, and a smaller manufacturing complex. Partnerships with industry are essential in developing technology, modernizing the manufacturing complex, and maintaining the safety and reliability of the nation`s nuclear capability. The past decade of federal support for industrial partnerships has promoted benefits to US industrial competitiveness. Recent shifts in government policy have re-emphasized the importance of industrial partnerships in accomplishing agency missions. Nevertheless, abundant opportunities exist for dual-benefit, mission-driven partnerships between the national laboratories and industry. Experience at Los Alamos National Laboratory with this transition is presented.

Freese, K.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Industrial Partnership Office

1996-10-01

220

Tobacco industry sociological programs to influence public beliefs about smoking  

PubMed Central

The multinational tobacco companies responded to arguments about the social costs of smoking and hazards of secondhand smoke by quietly implementing the Social Costs/Social Values project (1979–1989), which relied upon the knowledge and authoritative power of social scientists to construct an alternate cultural repertoire of smoking. Social scientists created and disseminated non-health based, pro-tobacco arguments without fully acknowledging their relationship with the industry. After the U.S. Surgeon General concluded that nicotine was addictive in 1988, the industry responded by forming “Associates for Research in the Science of Enjoyment” (c.1988–1999), whose members toured the world promoting the health benefits of the use of legal substances, including tobacco, for stress relief and relaxation, without acknowledging the industry’s role. In this paper we draw on previously secret tobacco industry documents, now available on the internet to show how both of these programs utilized academic sociologists, political scientists, anthropologists, psychologists, philosophers and economists, and allowed the industry to develop and widely disseminate friendly research through credible channels. Strategies included creating favorable surveys and opinions, infusing them into the lay press and media through press releases, articles and conferences, publishing, promoting and disseminating books, commissioning and placing favorable book reviews, providing media training for book authors and organizing media tours. These programs allowed the tobacco industry to affect public and academic discourse on the social acceptability of smoking.

Glantz, Stanton; Landman, Anne; Cortese, Daniel K

2008-01-01

221

78 FR 54197 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment,'' a program covering certain commercial and industrial equipment (hereafter referred...many types of commercial and industrial equipment, including packaged...ASHRAE)/Illuminating Engineering Society (IES)...

2013-09-03

222

DOE EM industry programs robotics development  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD and D, as well as testing and evaluation for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. Robotic systems reduce worker exposure to the absolute minimum, while providing proven, cost-effective, and, for some applications, the only acceptable technique for addressing challenging problems. Development of robotic systems for remote operations occurs in three main categories: tank waste characterization and retrieval; decontamination and dismantlement; and characterization, mapping, and inspection systems. In addition, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has some other projects which fall under the heading of supporting R and D. The central objective of all FETC robotic projects is to make robotic systems more attractive by reducing costs and health risks associated with the deployment of robotic technologies in the cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. This will be accomplished through development of robots that are cheaper, faster, safer, and more reliable, as well as more straightforward to modify/adapt and more intuitive to operate with autonomous capabilities and intelligent controls that prevent accidents and optimize task execution.

Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.

1998-12-31

223

SMALL SCALE FUEL CELL AND REFORMER SYSTEMS FOR REMOTE POWER  

SciTech Connect

New developments in fuel cell technologies offer the promise of clean, reliable affordable power, resulting in reduced environmental impacts and reduced dependence on foreign oil. These developments are of particular interest to the people of Alaska, where many residents live in remote villages, with no roads or electrical grids and a very high cost of energy, where small residential power systems could replace diesel generators. Fuel cells require hydrogen for efficient electrical production, however. Hydrogen purchased through conventional compressed gas suppliers is very expensive and not a viable option for use in remote villages, so hydrogen production is a critical piece of making fuel cells work in these areas. While some have proposed generating hydrogen from renewable resources such as wind, this does not appear to be an economically viable alternative at this time. Hydrogen can also be produced from hydrocarbon feed stocks, in a process known as reforming. This program is interested in testing and evaluating currently available reformers using transportable fuels: methanol, propane, gasoline, and diesel fuels. Of these, diesel fuels are of most interest, since the existing energy infrastructure of rural Alaska is based primarily on diesel fuels, but this is also the most difficult fuel to reform, due to the propensity for coke formation, due to both the high vaporization temperature and to the high sulfur content in these fuels. There are several competing fuel cell technologies being developed in industry today. Prior work at UAF focused on the use of PEM fuel cells and diesel reformers, with significant barriers identified to their use for power in remote areas, including stack lifetime, system efficiency, and cost. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells have demonstrated better stack lifetime and efficiency in demonstrations elsewhere (though cost still remains an issue), and procuring a system for testing was pursued. The primary function of UAF in the fuel cell industry is in the role of third party independent testing. In order for tests to be conducted, hardware must be purchased and delivered. The fuel cell industry is still in a pre-commercial state, however. Commercial products are defined as having a fixed set of specifications, fixed price, fixed delivery date, and a warrantee. Negotiations with fuel cell companies over these issues are often complex, and the results of these discussions often reveal much about the state of development of the technology. This work includes some of the results of these procurement experiments. Fuel cells may one day replace heat engines as the source of electrical power in remote areas. However, the results of this program to date indicate that currently available hardware is not developed sufficiently for these environments, and that significant time and resources will need to be committed for this to occur.

Dennis Witmer

2003-12-01

224

Small-Scale Shock Reactivity and Internal Blast Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosives react from a strong shock, even in quantities too small for detonation. The potential for a new material to be an explosive can be evaluated from this shock reactivity. The recently developed small-scale shock reactivity test (SSRT) uses very high confinement to allow prompt reactions to occur in less than half-gram samples well below critical diameter. Early and late-time reactions are simultaneously measured from a single sample subjected to the output from an RP-80 detonator. Prompt reactions are quantified by a dent in a soft aluminum witness block, while later reactions, such as from fuel/air combustion, are measured by recording blast pressure. Internal blast quasi-static pressure is obtained by confining the sample apparatus within a three-liter chamber. Late-time reaction effects of plastics, and results from HMX, HMX/Aluminum, and a plastic-bonded explosive (PBX) are reported.

Granholm, R. H.; Sandusky, H. W.

2006-07-01

225

Microbial inoculants for small scale composting of putrescible kitchen wastes.  

PubMed

This research looked at the need for ligno-cellulolytic inoculants (EM bacteria and Trichoderma sp.) in small to medium scale composting of household wastes. A mixture of household organic waste comprised of kitchen waste, paper, grass clippings and composted material was subjected to various durations of thermo composting followed by vermicomposting with and without microbial inoculants for a total of 28days. The results revealed that ligno-celluloytic inoculants are not essential to speed up the process of composting for onsite small scale household organic waste treatment as no significant difference was observed between the control and those inoculated with Trichoderma and EM in terms of C:N ratio of the final product. However, it was observed that EM inoculation enhanced reproductive rate of earthworms, and so probably created the best environment for vermicomposting, in all treatment groups. PMID:20207530

Nair, J; Okamitsu, K

2010-03-06

226

Small-Scale Geothermal Power Plant Field Verification Projects: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

In the spring of 2000, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory issued a Request for Proposal for the construction of small-scale (300 kilowatt [kW] to 1 megawatt [MW]) geothermal power plants in the western United States. Five projects were selected for funding. Of these five, subcontracts have been completed for three, and preliminary design work is being conducted. The three projects currently under contract represent a variety of concepts and locations: a 1-MW evaporatively enhanced, air-cooled binary-cycle plant in Nevada; a 1-MW water-cooled Kalina-cycle plant in New Mexico; and a 750-kW low-temperature flash plant in Utah. All three also incorporate direct heating: onion dehydration, heating for a fish hatchery, and greenhouse heating, respectively. These projects are expected to begin operation between April 2002 and September 2003. In each case, detailed data on performance and costs will be taken over a 3-year period.

Kutscher, C.

2001-07-03

227

Small-scale self-excited-rotor electrostatic generator  

SciTech Connect

Electrostatic generators, as sources of high direct-current voltage, are being used more and more extensively in science and technology. Rotor electrostatic generators with conductor-carriers occupy a significant place among these generators; rotor electrostatic generators develop a voltage in the hundreds of kV and have the advantage that they can be made self-exciting. This considerably simplifies servicing and operation of the generators and is especially important in a small-scale design. Theoretical and experimental works on electrostatic generators with conductor-carriers in the last 20 years have led to the development of various types of such generators. Soviet scientists have made a great contribution to these works. However, the procedure for engineering calculation of certain types of generators still has not been adequately developed. In particular, the Zan calculation does not take into account the effect of parasitic capacitances in generators of disc and cylinder types.

Kalganov, A.F.

1985-04-15

228

Numerical Simulation and Optimazation of Small Scale LNG Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LNG20 is a small-scale natural gas liquefier. Its capacity is 20 cube meters LNG per day. This liquefier could be used for the pipeline gas, coalbed gas, oil field gas liquefaction and peakshaving plant for town gas gate station and natural gas power plant. Two processing cycles are applied to LNG20, nitrogen expander cycle and mixed refrigerant cycle. In this report, two feed gases are the target sources; one is the pipeline gas in ``West-to-east pipeline gas'' in a gate station in Zhejiang province and coalbed gas in Northeast China. The numerical simulation and optimization for the LNG20 were carried out to obtain the design parameters.

Li, H. Y.; Jia, L. X.; Fan, Q. H.; Yin, Q. S.

2006-04-01

229

A small scale laboratory flammability test for electronic components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new flammability test apparatus has been designed to fill the need for a small scale test for electronic components, to evaluate smoke evolved and time to flaming ignition. A concept similar in many respects to the approach to flammability studies made by the Ohio State University Release Rate Apparatus has been taken in providing a variable, controlled, radiant heat flux furnace in an enclosed space. The system incorporates an optional spark-induced method of ignition of combustible gases, and measurements are carried out at controlled ambient temperatures. The test apparatus uses many standard and readily available components and has been found to be useful for testing specimen up to 100 mm square, including individual electronic components and small circuit boards complete with components.

Woollerton, G. R.; Culver, D.

1980-04-01

230

Small-Scale Performance Testing for Studying New Explosives  

SciTech Connect

The development of new high-explosive (HE) formulations involves characterizing their safety and performance. Small-scale experiments requiring only a small amount of explosives are of interest because they can facilitate development while minimizing hazards and reducing cost. A detonation-spreading, dent test, called the Floret test, was designed to obtain performance data for new explosives. It utilizes the detonation of about a 1.0 g sample of HE, initiated by an accelerated aluminum flyer. Upon impact, the HE sample detonates and a copper witness plate absorbs the ensuing shock wave. The dent of the plate is then measured and correlated to the energetic output of the HE. Additionally, the dent measurement can be used to compare the performance of different explosives. The Floret test is beneficial because it quickly returns important performance information, while requiring only a small explosive sample. This work will explain the Floret test and discuss some exemplary results.

Gagliardi, F J; Chambers, R D; Tran, T D

2005-04-29

231

Design for a small-scale fuel alcohol plant  

SciTech Connect

This article describes how operating costs were lowered by integrating all the alcohol-producing processes in a facility designed for the US DOE as a chemical processing plant. Typical minimum DOE requirements for a fuel alcohol plant operated by a single owner or small cooperative include: the plant must continuously produce 100 L (26.4 gal) of ethanol per hour; plant products must be 190 proof ethanol and wet stillage for animal feed; and required operator time shall be limited to 4 hours per 24-hour day including both normal operation and routine preventive maintenance. Presents diagram of small-scale fuel alcohol plant and table with design requirements and test results. Topics covered include fermentation and saccharification; distillation; by-product dewatering; and plant costs and start-up schedule.

Berglund, G.R.; Richardson, J.G.

1982-08-01

232

LLNL small-scale drop-hammer impact sensitivity test  

SciTech Connect

Small-scale safety testing of explosives and other energetic materials is done to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli including friction, static spark, and impact. This testing is typically done to discover potential handling problems for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing ``ERL Type 12 Drop Weight Impact Sensitivity Apparatus``, or ``Drop Hammer Machine``, and the methods used to determine the impact sensitivity of energetic materials, Also discussed are changes made to both the machine and methods since the inception of impact sensitivity testing at LLNL in 1956. The accumulated data for the materials tested in not listed here, the exception being the discussion of those specific materials (primary calibrants: PETN, RDX, Comp-B3,and TNT; secondary calibrants: K-6, RX-26-AF, and TATB) used to calibrate the machine.

Simpson, L.R.; Foltz, M.F.

1995-01-01

233

Remote plunger removal device for small-scale incremental pressing  

SciTech Connect

Small-scale pressing of high explosives (HE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and elsewhere is routinely performed using pneumatic presses. Blast shields provide protection to the operator during the pressing procedure, but safety of the operator is a concern during removal of the plunger, which is currently performed manually. To minimize this risk, very high tolerances between the plunger and the die are required. These tolerances are often very costly, especially in the case of long, relatively narrow dies. The safety issue is an even greater concern with incremental pressing in which cleaning the die between increments is difficult or impossible. To better protect press operators, a device has been designed and constructed to allow remote plunger removal in a standard HE press. In this report the authors describe this modified press that allows remote removal of the plunger.

Burnside, N.J.; Son, S.F.; Asay, B.W.

1997-09-01

234

The evolution of an university\\/industry internship program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arizona State University (ASU) Bioengineering Industrial Internship Program (BIIP) with OrthoLogic (OLGC) has evolved as the needs of the company have changed. The types of projects have changed from a design to research focus. The associated management techniques have had to adapt to accommodate the type of projects and the caliber of interns

M. Sheller; J. Ryaby; C. Triplett; V. Pizziconi; E. Guilbeau

1999-01-01

235

Program Improvement Project for Industrial Education. Annual Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed to improve industrial education programs through the development of minimum uniform quality standards, a project developed a task list, educationally sequenced the identified tasks, and developed a recommended shop layout and equipment list for four occupational areas: diesel repair, appliance repair, office machine repair, and small…

Shaeffer, Bruce W.

236

Design and modeling of small scale multiple fracturing experiments  

SciTech Connect

Recent experiments at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have demonstrated the existence of three distinct fracture regimes. Depending on the pressure rise time in a borehole, one can obtain hydraulic, multiple, or explosive fracturing behavior. The use of propellants rather than explosives in tamped boreholes permits tailoring of the pressure risetime over a wide range since propellants having a wide range of burn rates are available. This technique of using the combustion gases from a full bore propellant charge to produce controlled borehole pressurization is termed High Energy Gas Fracturing (HEGF). Several series of HEGF, in 0.15 m and 0.2 m diameter boreholes at 12 m depths, have been completed in a tunnel complex at NTS where mineback permitted direct observation of fracturing obtained. Because such large experiments are costly and time consuming, smaller scale experiments are desirable, provided results from small experiments can be used to predict fracture behavior in larger boreholes. In order to design small scale gas fracture experiments, the available data from previous HEGF experiments were carefully reviewed, analytical elastic wave modeling was initiated, and semi-empirical modeling was conducted which combined predictions for statically pressurized boreholes with experimental data. The results of these efforts include (1) the definition of what constitutes small scale experiments for emplacement in a tunnel complex at the Nevada Test Site, (2) prediction of average crack radius, in ash fall tuff, as a function of borehole size and energy input per unit length, (3) definition of multiple-hydraulic and multiple-explosive fracture boundaries as a function of boreholes size and surface wave velocity, (4) semi-empirical criteria for estimating stress and acceleration, and (5) a proposal that multiple fracture orientations may be governed by in situ stresses.

Cuderman, J.F.

1981-12-01

237

Coronal hole boundaries at small scales. IV. SOT view. Magnetic field properties of small-scale transient brightenings in coronal holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. We study the magnetic properties of small-scale transients in coronal holes and a few in the quiet Sun identified in X-ray observations and spectroscopic data in two previous papers. Aims: We aim to investigate the role of small-scale transients in the evolution of the magnetic field in an equatorial coronal hole. Methods: Two sets of observations of an equatorial coronal hole and another two in quiet-Sun regions were analysed using longitudinal magnetograms taken by the Solar Optical Telescope. An automatic feature tracking program, SWAMIS, was used to identify and track the magnetic features. Each event was then visually analysed in detail. Results: In both coronal holes and quiet-Sun regions, all brightening events are associated with bipolar regions and are caused by magnetic flux emergence followed by cancellation with the pre-existing and/or newly emerging magnetic flux. In the coronal hole, 19 of 22 events have a single stable polarity which does not change its position in time. In eleven cases this is the dominant polarity. In the coronal hole, the magnetic features with the largest flux are those of the dominant polarity, while the opposite polarity is distributed in weaker features. The number of magnetic features of the dominant polarity is four times grater than the opposite polarity. The supergranulation configuration appears to preserve its general shape during approximately nine hours of observations although the large concentrations (the dominant polarity) in the network did evolve and/or were slightly displaced, and their strength either increased or decreased. The emission fluctuations/radiance oscillations seen in the X-ray bright points are associated with recurring magnetic cancellation in the footpoints. Unique observations of an X-ray jet reveal similar magnetic behaviour in the footpoints, i.e. cancellation of the opposite polarity magnetic flux. We find that the magnetic flux cancellation rate during the jet is much higher than in bright points. Not all magnetic cancellations result in an X-ray enhancement, suggesting that there is a threshold of the amount of magnetic flux involved in a cancellation above which brightening would occur at X-ray temperatures. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that the magnetic flux in coronal holes is continuously processed through magnetic reconnection which is responsible for the formation of numerous small-scale transient events. The open magnetic flux forming the coronal-hole phenomenon is largely involved in these transient features. The question of whether this open flux is transported as a result of the formation and evolution of these transient events, however, still remains open. Three movies and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Huang, Z.; Madjarska, M. S.; Doyle, J. G.; Lamb, D. A.

2012-12-01

238

Risk management with substitution options: Valuing flexibility in small-scale energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several features of small-scale energy systems make them more easily adapted to a changing operating environment than large centralized designs. This flexibility is often manifested as the ability to substitute inputs. This research explores the value of this substitution flexibility and the marginal value of becoming a "little more flexible" in the context of real project investment in developing countries. The elasticity of substitution is proposed as a stylized measure of flexibility and a choice variable. A flexible alternative (elasticity > 0) can be thought of as holding a fixed-proportions "nflexible" asset plus a sequence of exchange options---the option to move to another feasible "recipe" each period. Substitutability derives value from following a contour of anticipated variations and from responding to new information. Substitutability value, a "cost savings option", increases with elasticity and price risk. However, the required premium to incrementally increase flexibility can in some cases decrease with an increase in risk. Variance is not always a measure of risk. Tools from stochastic dominance are newly applied to real options with convex payoffs to correct some misperceptions and clarify many common modeling situations that meet the criteria for increased variance to imply increased risk. The behavior of the cost savings option is explored subject to a stochastic input price process. At the point where costs are identical for all alternatives, the stochastic process for cost savings becomes deterministic, with savings directly proportional to elasticity of substitution and price variance. The option is also formulated as a derivative security via dynamic programming. The partial differential equation is solved for the special case of Cobb-Douglas (elasticity = 1) (also shown are linear (infinite elasticity), Leontief (elasticity = 0)). Risk aversion is insufficient to prefer a more flexible alternative with the same expected value. Intertemporal links convert the sequence of independent options to a single compound option and require an expansion of the flexibility concept. Additional options increase the value of the project but generally decrease flexibility value. The framework is applied to case study in India: an urban industry electricity strategy decision with reliability risk.

Knapp, Karl Eric

239

A limited LCA comparing large- and small-scale production of ethanol for heavy engines under Swedish conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be produced in small farm-scale plants as well as in medium- and large-scale industrial plants for use in e.g. heavy diesel engines. The purpose of this study was to analyse whether the use of a small-scale production system reduced the environmental load in comparison to a medium- and a large-scale system. Therefore, a

Sven Bernesson; Daniel Nilsson; Per-Anders Hansson

2006-01-01

240

Use of stakeholder analysis to inform risk communication and extension strategies for improved biosecurity amongst small-scale pig producers.  

PubMed

Extension and communication needs amongst small-scale pig producers, described as pig producers with less than 100 sows, have been previously identified. These producers, who are believed to pose a biosecurity risk to commercial livestock industries, are characterized by a lack of formal networks, mistrust of authorities, poor disease reporting behaviour and motivational diversity, and reliance on other producers, veterinarians and family for pig health and production advice. This paper applies stakeholder identification and analysis tools to determine stakeholders' influence and interest on pig producers' practices. Findings can inform a risk communication process and the development of an extension framework to increase producers' engagement with industry and their compliance with biosecurity standards and legislation in Australia. The process included identification of stakeholders, their issues of concerns regarding small-scale pig producers and biosecurity and their influence and interest in each of these issues. This exercise identified the capacity of different stakeholders to influence the outcomes for each issue and assessed their success or failure to do so. The disconnection identified between the level of interest and influence suggests that government and industry need to work with the small-scale pig producers and with those who have the capacity to influence them. Successful biosecurity risk management will depend on shared responsibility and building trust amongst stakeholders. Flow-on effects may include legitimating the importance of reporting and compliance systems and the co-management of risk. Compliance of small-scale pig producers with biosecurity industry standards and legislation will reduce the risks of entry and spread of exotic diseases in Australia. PMID:22227304

Hernández-Jover, M; Gilmour, J; Schembri, N; Sysak, T; Holyoake, P K; Beilin, R; Toribio, J-A L M L

2012-01-09

241

Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC) process. Health programs: industrial hygiene, clinical and toxicological programs. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This final report summarizes the Health Program under the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Process Contract from January 1, 1976 through December 31, 1981 with particular emphasis on the period January 1, 1980 through December 31, 1981. The major areas of activity within the Health program were: an industrial hygiene monitoring program, a clinical medical examination program, a personal hygiene and educational program, an epidemiology program, and a toxicological program. The industrial hygiene monitoring program during the past two years continued evaluation of occupational exposures to various air contaminants. The major emphasis was directed to the development, refinement and implementation of the skin contamination evaluation project. The medical examination program continued to indicate the absence of discernible occupationally related changes in employee medical profiles. In addition, appreciable effort was expended on efforts to develop a single layered garment which would prevent the appearance of black specks on the anterior thighs of plant operators working in areas of high particulate concentrations. The employee personal hygiene and educational program was extended to include both temporary and contract personnel. An epidemiology program was initiated during the period and efforts were concentrated primarily on program design and data collection. In the toxicological program, acute and genetic studies were completed on most of the SRC-II materials but no studies were initiated in the SRC-I portion of the program because of unavailability of test materials.

Hubis, W.

1982-03-01

242

Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program. Annual report, FY 1991  

SciTech Connect

Six area reported progress in the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program during FY 1991. As part of Industry Guidance, meetings were held with steering and technical committees in computers, housing design and manufacturing. This task area enables the program to benefit from the expertise of industry representatives and communicate research results directly to them. As part of the Design Process performance specifications were being developed for the future housing system designed last year. These house designs coordinate and optimize predicted and desirable advances in computerized design processes, materials, components, and manufacturing automation to achieve energy efficiency at reduced first cost. Energy design software were being developed for CAD systems, stressed skin insulating core panel manufacturers; and a prototype energy sales tool. A prototype design was to be developed to integrate one or more subsystems with the building skin. As part of the Manufacturing Process we are developing a manufacturing process simulation and data base to help current and new entrants to the industrialized housing industry in assessing the impact of implementing new manufacturing techniques. For Evaluation we are developing testing plans for six units of housing on the UO campus and the stressed skin insulating core house to be constructed in Oregon. The DOW Chemical test structure will be retrofitted with a tile roof and retested to compare to the dome and conventional construction structures. Calibration of the wind tunnel will be completed so that laboratory tests can be conducted to simulate the ventilation cooling efficiency of houses in design. Research utilization and program management were either aspects of this program.

Not Available

1992-03-01

243

MTU MICUP Program and Industrial Technology Recruitment Efforts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation reviews an ongoing community college outreach/recruiting initiative, MICUP delivered at MTU, Houghton Michigan, outlines a BS degree in Industrial Technology program designed for community college transfer students with an AS in approved technical disciplines, and reviews future recruitment and retention initiatives. MICUP is the Michigan College/University Partnership Program, MTU's Unlock Your Future Program, which is funded by the Michigan Department of Labor and Economic Growth, King-Chavez-Parks Initiative. This is a partnership program among MTU, Delta College, Grand Rapids Community College, and Northwestern Michigan College. Candidates who qualify for this program receive a competitive stipend to cover the cost of travel. Participants take a 3-credit MTU summer course at no cost to get a glimpse into what it is like to attend MTU as a full time student before making a huge commitment of time and money. (Cost of textbooks is not included.) Participants live on our campus for six weeks with room and meal plans included. The student participates in an Undergraduate Research Internship in their area of study. MTU's vision is that the Industrial Technology program attractiveness to community college transfer students will add to the overall enrollment and create a more diverse population in the School of Technology while educating a business savvy technical generalist necessary in a competitive global manufacturing market.

Irwin, John

2009-07-15

244

AFBC-HAGT, an efficient small scale power plant  

SciTech Connect

A team comprised of the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), the Will-Burt Company, and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC) designed installed and tested a pilot scale atmospheric fluidized (bubbling) bed combustion (AFBC) system to heat hot water. Following testing, a commercial prototype unit was installed at Cedar Lane Farms (CLF), near Wooster, Ohio. The unit was started up in January, 1995, and is currently in operation. It provides hot water for greenhouse heating, requiring about two hours per day of operator attention. The development was funded by the Ohio Coal Development Office, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the team members. Based on the success of the prototype operation a commercial size unit was recently designed for hot water heating use. This small scale AFBC system can be designed not only to produce hot water or steam but also to efficiently generate electricity (60 kWe to 3.5 MWe size range). Most small scale fluidized bed systems use in-bed heat transfer tubes to generate saturated steam which can then be superheated and fed to a steam turbine for electrical power generation. This AFBC has no internal heat transfer surfaces. It can be combined with an air heater that is integrated with a recuperated Hot Air Gas Turbine (HAGT), to yield a more efficient power plant than that possible with small steam plants of comparable size that have optimal gross efficiencies of about 12% (29,060 Btu/kWhr). Depending on ambient air temperature, this AFBC-HAGT power cycle can reach efficiencies of 28% without auxiliary diesel fuel oil firing. The system is ideally suited for rural communities that are not tied into an electric power grid. It is low tech, easy to operate, provides approximately double the efficiency of small steam cycle power plants, and can be used in areas where water is scarce. When firing local coal and/or bio-mass it can be very cost effective compared to diesel power generation.

Ashworth, R.A. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Orrville, OH (United States); Webner, R.L. [Will-Burt Company, Orrville, OH (United States); Keener, H.M. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center

1997-12-31

245

Robust, small-scale cultivation platform for Streptomyces coelicolor  

PubMed Central

Background For fermentation process and strain improvement, where one wants to screen a large number of conditions and strains, robust and scalable high-throughput cultivation systems are crucial. Often, the time lag between bench-scale cultivations to production largely depends on approximate estimation of scalable physiological traits. Microtiter plate (MTP) based screening platforms have lately become an attractive alternative to shake flasks mainly because of the ease of automation. However, there are very few reports on applications for filamentous organisms; as well as efforts towards systematic validation of physiological behavior compared to larger scale are sparse. Moreover, available small-scale screening approaches are typically constrained by evaluating only an end point snapshot of phenotypes. Results To address these issues, we devised a robust, small-scale cultivation platform in the form of MTPs (24-square deepwell) for the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor and compared its performance to that of shake flasks and bench-scale reactors. We observed that re-designing of medium and inoculum preparation recipes resulted in improved reproducibility. Process turnaround time was significantly reduced due to the reduction in number of unit operations from inoculum to cultivation. The incorporation of glass beads (ø 3 mm) in MTPs not only improved the process performance in terms of improved oxygen transfer improving secondary metabolite production, but also helped to transform morphology from pellet to disperse, resulting in enhanced reproducibility. Addition of MOPS into the medium resulted in pH maintenance above 6.50, a crucial parameter towards reproducibility. Moreover, the entire trajectory of the process was analyzed for compatibility with bench-scale reactors. The MTP cultivations were found to behave similar to bench-scale in terms of growth rate, productivity and substrate uptake rate and so was the onset of antibiotic synthesis. Shake flask cultivations however, showed discrepancy with respect to morphology and had considerably reduced volumetric production rates of antibiotics. Conclusion We observed good agreement of the physiological data obtained in the developed MTP platform with bench-scale. Hence, the described MTP-based screening platform has a high potential for investigation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Streptomycetes and other filamentous bacteria and the use may significantly reduce the workload and costs.

2012-01-01

246

Numerical Simulation of a Small-Scale Mild Combustor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reports numerical simulations of a small-scale cylindrical combustor operating in the mild combustion regime. Preheated air is supplied by a central nozzle, while the fuel (methane) is injected through 16 holes placed equidistantly in a circumference concentric with the air nozzle. The calculations were carried out using the commercial code Ansys-Fluent. Turbulence was modelled using the realizable k-epsilon model. Two different combustion models were employed, namely the eddy dissipation concept and the joint composition pdf transport model. In both cases, a chemical mechanism comprising 13 transported species and 73 chemical reactions was used, as well as a global single-step reaction. A thorough comparison of the predictions obtained using the pdf transport model and the eddy dissipation concept with detailed experimental data is presented. Both models are able to accurately predict the temperature and the O2 and CO2 molar fractions over most of the combustor, but the temperature field is overestimated in the vicinity of the burner. Discrepancies are found in the prediction of the CO molar fraction, particularly when the eddy dissipation concept is used.

Veríssimo, A.; Oliveira, R.; Coelho, P. J.; Costa, M.

2012-11-01

247

Study of small-scale cavity growth mechanisms for UCG  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study has been conducted to evaluate previously proposed small-scale cavity growth mechanisms in Underground Coal Gasification (UCG). Quarried blocks of lignite from Rockdale, Texas, and subbituminous coal from Hanna, Wyoming, were exposed to high-temperature gases in a refractory chamber in order to access their behavior under UCG conditions. Effects of gas temperature, gas composition, and gas flow rate on the surface recession rates were studied for coal samples using the bedding plan orientation of the side wall of the cavity. The effect of gas temperature on the surface recession rate with cavity roof bedding plane orientation was also studied. For the side wall tests, structural failure of the char or ash was not observed. In addition, the surface recession rate was round to increase significantly with gas temperature and gas flow rate. These results indicate that the surface recession process was heat transfer controlled gasification. For the tests conducted using the bedding plane orientation of the cavity roof, it was found that significant structural failure of the lignite resulted while no structural failure of the subbituminous coal was observed. As a result, the surface recession rate for lignite was three times that for subbituminous coal at 1300/sup 0/K. It is theorized that the structural failure of the lignite is caused by clay stringers present in the lignite.

Yeary, D.L.; Riggs, J.B.

1987-01-01

248

Emergence of undulatory magnetic flux tubes by small scale reconnections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With Flare Genesis Experiment (FGE), a balloon borne observatory launched in Antarctica on January 2000, series of high spatial resolution vector magnetograms, Dopplergrams, and H? filtergrams have been obtained in an emerging active region (AR 8844). Previous analyses of this data revealed the occurence of many short-lived and small-scale H ? brightenings called 'Ellerman bombs' (EBs) within the AR. We performed an extrapolation of the field above the photosphere using the linear force-free field approximation. The analysis of the magnetic topology reveals a close connexion between the loci of EBs and the existence of "Bald patches" (BP) regions (BPs are regions where the vector magnetic field is tangential to the photosphere). Some of these EBs/BPs are magnetically connected by low-lying field lines, presenting a serpentine shape. This results leads us to conjecture that arch filament systems and active regions coronal loops do not result from the smooth emergence of large scale ?-loops, but rather from the rise of flat undulatory flux tubes which get released from their photospheric anchorage by reconnection at BPs, which observational signature is Ellerman bombs.

Pariat, E.; Aulanier, G.; Schmieder, B.; Georgoulis, M. K.; Rust, D. M.; Bernasconi, P. N.

2006-01-01

249

Emergence of undulatory magnetic flux tubes by small scale reconnections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With Flare Genesis Experiment (FGE), a balloon borne observatory launched in Antarctica on January 2000, series of high spatial resolution vector magnetograms, Dopplergrams, and H? filtergrams have been obtained in an emerging active region (AR 8844). Previous analyses of this data revealed the occurence of many short-lived and small-scale H? brightenings called 'Ellerman bombs' (EBs) within the AR. We performed an extrapolation of the field above the photosphere using the linear force-free field approximation. The analysis of the magnetic topology reveals a close connexion between the loci of EBs and the existence of ``Bald patches'' regions (BPs are regions where the vector magnetic field is tangential to the photosphere). Among 47 identified EBs, we found that 23 are co-spatial with a BP, while 19 are located at the footpoint of very flat separatrix field lines passing throught a distant BP. We reveal for the first time that some of these EBs/BPs are magneticaly connected by low-lying lines, presenting a 'sea-serpent' shape. This results leads us to conjecture that arch filament systems and active regions coronal loops do not result from the smooth emergence of large scale ? loops, but rather from the rise of flat undulatory flux tubes which get released from their photospheric anchorage by reconnection at BPs, whose observational signature is Ellerman bombs.

Pariat, E.; Aulanier, G.; Schmieder, B.; Georgoulis, M. K.; Rust, D. M.; Bernasconi, P. N.

250

MeV Dark Matter and Small Scale Structure  

SciTech Connect

WIMPs with electroweak scale masses (neutralinos, etc.) remain in kinetic equilibrium with other particle species until temperatures approximately in the range of 10 MeV to 1 GeV, leading to the formation of dark matter substructure with masses as small as 10{sup -4} M{sub {circle_dot}} to 10{sup -12} M{sub {circle_dot}}. However, if dark matter consists of particles with MeV scale masses, as motivated by the observation of 511 keV emission from the Galactic Bulge, such particles are naturally expected to remain in kinetic equilibrium with the cosmic neutrino background until considerably later times. This would lead to a strong suppression of small scale structure with masses below about 10{sup 7}M{sub {circle_dot}} to 10{sup 4} M{sub {circle_dot}}. This cutoff scale has important implications for present and future searches for faint Local Group satellite galaxies and for the missing satellites problem.

Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Strigari, Louis E.; /UC, Irvine; Zurek, Kathryn M.; /Wisconsin U., Madison

2007-04-01

251

Developments in a small scale test of violence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilising recent advances in diagnostic technologies, a test is under development to obtain a numerical value for the violence of response to thermal stimuli on a small explosive sample. The assembly is designed to accept pressed explosive pellets which enables the test to be conducted at the small-scale development stage and thus is anticipated to be of use in the screening of new materials. Building on previously published work describing the test development, twenty-three new cook-off experiments have been conducted. Eleven explosive compositions were subjected to the same slow heat input profile. As a sample rapidly decomposed, part of the steel confinement was designed to rupture, producing a pellet whose velocity was measured using a Heterodyne Velocimeter (Het-V). Temperatures of the confinement unit were also recorded. A development aim is to interpret this data to provide useful information on the violence of decomposition. This is discussed in the paper and leads to the data from these experiments being presented in order of increasing violence of response.

Sorber, Susan; Stennett, Chris; Goldsmith, Matt

2012-03-01

252

Development of the Small Scale Violence Thermal Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When developing new explosive formulations, one of the most important safety goals is to characterise the formulations' scale of response to thermal insults. Established tests provide indications of violence of response from thermal stimuli through dent/fragment analysis of heater anvils and visual observations. Utilising recent advances in diagnostic technologies, a test is under development to obtain a numerical value for the violence of response to thermal stimuli on a small explosive sample. Furthermore, the test has been designed so that it can accept pressed explosive pellets. This enables the test to be conducted at the small-scale development stage and thus is anticipated to be if use in the screening of new materials. In continuation of previously published work describing the test development, twenty-seven new cook-off experiments have been conducted. Eleven explosive compositions were subjected to the same slow heat input profile. As a sample rapidly decomposed, part of the steel confinement was designed to produce a pellet whose velocity was measured using a Heterodyne Velocimeter (Het-V). Temperatures of the confinement unit were also recorded. A development aim is to interpret this data to provide useful information on the violence of decomposition. This is discussed in the paper and leads to the data from these experiments being presented in order of increasing violence of response.

Sorber, Susan

2011-06-01

253

Multifractal models of small-scale solar magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We generate, both analytically and numerically, artifical, two-dimensional images composed of a known self-similar, and thus multifractal measured with added Gaussian white noise. These are used to interpret observed, line-of-sight, solar magnetic field distributions noisy multifractals. The range of self-similar scaling of observed, distributions is extended beyond that of previous work. Our interpretation of the data is then used to confront theoretical models for the generation of small-scale solar magnetic fields. We investigate the multifractial structure of the field generated by two-dimensional, random cell dynamos and find that self-similarity is relatively enhanced for more intermittent distributions and strong correlations between cells. An optimum value of the intercellular diffusion coefficient maximizes the degree of intermittency. The simulated field from a linear, kinematic, fast dynamo with two-dimensional, chaotic, 'ABC' flow displays scaling properties resembling those of observed solar fields. We suggest that the chaotic element of this model is the crucial ingredient for the long-range correlations that lead to multifractal scaling.

Cadavid, A. C.; Lawrence, J. K.; Ruzmaikin, A. A.; Kayleng-Knight, A.

1994-07-01

254

Shaping mobile belts by small-scale convection.  

PubMed

Mobile belts are long-lived deformation zones composed of an ensemble of crustal fragments, distributed over hundreds of kilometres inside continental convergent margins. The Mediterranean represents a remarkable example of this tectonic setting: the region hosts a diffuse boundary between the Nubia and Eurasia plates comprised of a mosaic of microplates that move and deform independently from the overall plate convergence. Surface expressions of Mediterranean tectonics include deep, subsiding backarc basins, intraplate plateaux and uplifting orogenic belts. Although the kinematics of the area are now fairly well defined, the dynamical origins of many of these active features are controversial and usually attributed to crustal and lithospheric interactions. However, the effects of mantle convection, well established for continental interiors, should be particularly relevant in a mobile belt, and modelling may constrain important parameters such as slab coherence and lithospheric strength. Here we compute global mantle flow on the basis of recent, high-resolution seismic tomography to investigate the role of buoyancy-driven and plate-motion-induced mantle circulation for the Mediterranean. We show that mantle flow provides an explanation for much of the observed dynamic topography and microplate motion in the region. More generally, vigorous small-scale convection in the uppermost mantle may also underpin other complex mobile belts such as the North American Cordillera or the Himalayan-Tibetan collision zone. PMID:20520711

Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W

2010-06-01

255

Analytic study of small scale structure on cosmic strings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of string networks at scales well below the horizon are poorly understood, but they enter critically into many observables. We argue that in some regimes, stretching will be the only relevant process governing the evolution. In this case, the string two-point function is determined up to normalization: the fractal dimension approaches one at short distance, but the rate of approach is characterized by an exponent that plays an essential role in network properties. The smoothness at short distance implies, for example, that cosmic string lensing images are almost undistorted. We then add in loop production as a perturbation and find that it diverges at small scales. This need not invalidate the stretching model, since the loop production occurs in localized regions, but it implies a complicated fragmentation process. Our ability to model this process is limited, but we argue that loop production peaks a few orders of magnitude below the horizon scale, without the inclusion of gravitational radiation. We find agreement with some features of simulations, and interesting discrepancies that must be resolved by future work.

Polchinski, Joseph; Rocha, Jorge V.

2006-10-01

256

Shaping the Mediterranean mobile belt by small scale convection (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobile belts are long-lived deformation zones composed of an ensemble of crustal fragments, distributed over hundreds of kilometers inside continental convergent margins. The Mediterranean represents a remarkable example of this tectonic setting: the region hosts a diffuse boundary between the Nubia and Eurasia plates comprised of a mosaic of microplates that move and deform independently from the overall plate convergence. Surface expressions of Mediterranean tectonics include deep, subsiding backarc basins, intraplate plateaux and uplifting orogenic belts. Although the kinematics of the area are now fairly well defined, the dynamical origins of many of these active features are controversial and usually attributed to crustal and lithospheric interactions. However, the effects of mantle convection, well established for continental interiors, are expected to be particularly relevant in a mobile belt, and modeling may constrain important parameters such as slab coherence and lithospheric strength. Here, we compute global mantle flow based on recent, high-resolution seismic tomography, to investigate the role of buoyancy-driven and plate-motion induced mantle circulation for the Mediterranean. We show that mantle flow provides an explanation for much of the observed dynamic topography and microplate motion in the region. More generally, vigorous small-scale convection in the uppermost mantle may also hold the key for understanding other complex mobile belts such as the North American Cordillera or the Himalayan-Tibetan collision zone

Faccenna, C.; Becker, T. W.

2010-12-01

257

Analysis of industrial pollution prevention programs in selected Asian countries  

SciTech Connect

Industrialization in developing countries is causing increasing environmental damage. Pollution prevention (P2) is an emerging environmental concept that could help developing countries achieve leapfrog goals, bypassing old and pollutive technologies and minimizing traditional control practices. The current P2 promotion activities in Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand are discussed. These programs, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into five categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technical assistance, and financial incentives. All important at the early stages of P2 promotion, these programs should inform industries of the benefits of P2 and help them identify applicable P2 measures. Participation in these programs is voluntary. The limited data indicate that adoption of P2 measures in these countries is not yet widespread. Recommendations for expanding P2 promotion activities include (1) strengthening the design and enforcement of environmental regulations; (2) providing P2 training and education to government workers, nongovernmental organizations and labor unions officials, university faculties, and news media; (3) tracking the progress of P2 programs; (4) implementing selected P2 mandatory measures; (5) identifying cleaner production technologies for use in new facilities; (6) implementing special programs for small and medium enterprises; and (7) expanding P2 promotion to other sectors, such as agriculture and transportation, and encouraging green design and green consumerism.

Chiu, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1995-05-01

258

Model industry initiated energy conservation program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

During 1980 and the first months of 1981, the Greater Washington Board of Trade operated a pilot program which successfully promoted energy conservation in five local industries: hotels, retail stores, schools, restaurants and apartments/office buildings. Through a variety of workshops, seminars, newsletters, call-in centers, detailed publications and other methods, the Board of Trade spread the work about energy conservation. This final report summarizes the program's efforts and proposes a model for use by business organizations in other parts of the country which may be interested in energy conservation.

Not Available

1981-03-01

259

BPA Industrial Test Program: SIC 26 report on the Northwest pulp and paper industry  

SciTech Connect

The Industrial Test Program identified forty energy conservation measures in the five participant mills. Most of the measures involved variable frequency drives or high efficiency motor retrofits. Others included lighting improvements, belt conveyors, regenerative unwind drives and oversized pump applications. All, except for seven lighting improvement evaluations, keyed on the major electricity consumer in pulp and paper operations, motors. The five mills were: Crown Zellerbach - Wauna Division, Longview Fibre Company, Port Townsend Paper Company, Publishers Paper - Newberg Division, and Willamette Industries - Albany Mill Division.

Not Available

1985-08-02

260

Small-Scale Spray Releases: Orifice Plugging Test Results  

SciTech Connect

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities, is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations published in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials present in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty introduced by extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches in which the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are largely absent. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine the aerosol release fractions and aerosol generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents (AFA) was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. The purpose of the study described in this report is to provide experimental data for the first key technical area, potential plugging of small breaches, by performing small-scale tests with a range of orifice sizes and orientations representative of the WTP conditions. The simulants used were chosen to represent the range of process stream properties in the WTP. Testing conducted after the plugging tests in the small- and large-scale test stands addresses the second key technical area, aerosol generation. The results of the small-scale aerosol generation tests are included in Mahoney et al. 2012. The area of spray generation from large breaches is covered by large-scale testing in Schonewill et al. 2012.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Kimura, Marcia L.; Kurath, Dean E.

2012-09-01

261

The Department of Energy's solar industrial program: New ideas for American industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As society becomes more and more sensitive to the environment, and energy supplies become scarcer, the application of solar energy is expanding into new areas. The industrial sector is one of the most difficult for solar energy to impact because of its technical diversity and economic requirements. However, the opportunities are still abundant. The Department of Energy's Solar Industrial Program is dedicated to advancing the applications of solar energy in this sector. Research and technology development activities are currently focused in three areas: solar process heat, advanced materials manufacturing, and destruction of chemical wastes. The Solar Energy Research Institute manages these activities for DOE with close interactions with other Federal agencies, private industry, and universities.

Anderson, J. V.; Hauser, S. G.; Clyne, R. J.

1991-07-01

262

Small Scale Waves on Venus at High Latitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On many occasions, the Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC) on Venus Express has observed several small scale waves or wave trains in high northern latitudes ( 70 to 75°) of Venus for the first time. Such waves were not detected earlier due to a combination of spatial resolution, observed region and duration. Wave trains with different characteristics have been seen at all four wavelengths used by the VMC (centered at 365, 513. 935 and 1010nm with 40, 50, 70 and 20 nm) in and are consistently in the same area on multiple consecutive orbits. Many are similar in appearance to ripples with wavelengths 5 to10 km with extents of some tens of km while others appear as thin straight lines, similar to the Circum Equatorial Belts (CEB) seen previously from Mariner 10 and Pioneer Venus missions at low latitudes. These are distinct from the fine scale transverse waves on the spiral bands on Venus which have been observed by both the VMC and the Visible Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS). In appearance and perhaps origins, these wave trains appear to be similar to gravity waves observed on Earth, particularly in the airglow images. Their detection on Venus confirms the existence of an atmospheric layer with a very stable lapse rate seen in the thermal structure data at an altitude of 65 to 67 km. The triggering mechanism for these waves could be horizontal or vertical wind shear. The contribution of these waves to momentum transport is not known, but likely is insignificant. However, this could be an observational limitation due to the combination of the eccentric orbit of Venus Express and the camera capabilities. This work has been made possible from a NASA Participating Scientist Grant NNG06GC68G and with the support provided by the VMC Team.

Limaye, Sanjay; Markiewicz, W. J.; Moissl, R.; Titov, D.

2008-09-01

263

Potential small-scale development of western oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Several studies have been undertaken in an effort to determine ways to enhance development of western oil shale under current market conditions for energy resources. This study includes a review of the commercial potential of western oil shale products and byproducts, a review of retorting processes, an economic evaluation of a small-scale commercial operation, and a description of the environmental requirements of such an operation. Shale oil used as a blend in conventional asphalt appears to have the most potential for entering today's market. Based on present prices for conventional petroleum, other products from oil shale do not appear competitive at this time or will require considerable marketing to establish a position in the marketplace. Other uses for oil shale and spent shale, such as for sulfur sorbtion, power generation, cement, aggregate, and soil stabilization, are limited economically by transportation costs. The three-state area area consisting of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming seems reasonable for the entry of shale oil-blended asphalt into the commercial market. From a review of retorting technologies and the product characteristics from various retorting processes it was determined that the direct heating Paraho and inclined fluidized-bed processes produce a high proportion of heavy material with a high nitrogen content. The two processes are complementary in that they are each best suited to processing different size ranges of materials. An economic evaluation of a 2000-b/d shale oil facility shows that the operation is potentially viable, if the price obtained for the shale oil residue is in the top range of prices projected for this product. Environmental requirements for building and operating an oil shale processing facility are concerned with permitting, control of emissions and discharges, and monitoring. 62 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

Smith, V.; Renk, R.; Nordin, J.; Chatwin, T.; Harnsberger, M.; Fahy, L.J.; Cha, C.Y.; Smith, E.; Robertson, R.

1989-10-01

264

ARCADE small-scale docking mechanism for micro-satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of on-orbit autonomous rendezvous and docking (ARD) capabilities represents a key point for a number of appealing mission scenarios that include activities of on-orbit servicing, automated assembly of modular structures and active debris removal. As of today, especially in the field of micro-satellites ARD, many fundamental technologies are still missing or require further developments and micro-gravity testing. In this framework, the University of Padova, Centre of Studies and Activities for Space (CISAS), developed the Autonomous Rendezvous Control and Docking Experiment (ARCADE), a technology demonstrator intended to fly aboard a BEXUS stratospheric balloon. The goal was to design, build and test, in critical environment conditions, a proximity relative navigation system, a custom-made reaction wheel and a small-size docking mechanism. The ARCADE docking mechanism was designed against a comprehensive set of requirements and it can be classified as small-scale, central, gender mating and unpressurized. The large use of commercial components makes it low-cost and simple to be manufactured. Last, it features a good tolerance to off-nominal docking conditions and a by-design soft docking capability. The final design was extensively verified to be compliant with its requirements by means of numerical simulations and physical testing. In detail, the dynamic behaviour of the mechanism in both nominal and off-nominal conditions was assessed with the multibody dynamics analysis software MD ADAMS 2010 and functional tests were carried out within the fully integrated ARCADE experiment to ensure the docking system efficacy and to highlight possible issues. The most relevant results of the study will be presented and discussed in conclusion to this paper.

Boesso, A.; Francesconi, A.

2013-05-01

265

The Extreme Small Scales: Do Satellite Galaxies Trace Dark Matter?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the radial distribution of galaxies within their host dark matter halos as measured in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey by modeling their small-scale clustering. Specifically, we model the Jiang et al. measurements of the galaxy two-point correlation function down to very small projected separations (10 h -1 kpc <= r <= 400 h -1 kpc), in a wide range of luminosity threshold samples (absolute r-band magnitudes of -18 up to -23). We use a halo occupation distribution framework with free parameters that specify both the number and spatial distribution of galaxies within their host dark matter halos. We assume one galaxy resides in the halo center and additional galaxies are considered satellites that follow a radial density profile similar to the dark matter Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile, except that the concentration and inner slope are allowed to vary. We find that in low luminosity samples (Mr < -19.5 and lower), satellite galaxies have radial profiles that are consistent with NFW. Mr < -20 and brighter satellite galaxies have radial profiles with significantly steeper inner slopes than NFW (we find inner logarithmic slopes ranging from -1.6 to -2.1, as opposed to -1 for NFW). We define a useful metric of concentration, M 1/10, which is the fraction of satellite galaxies (or mass) that are enclosed within one-tenth of the virial radius of a halo. We find that M 1/10 for low-luminosity satellite galaxies agrees with NFW, whereas for luminous galaxies it is 2.5-4 times higher, demonstrating that these galaxies are substantially more centrally concentrated within their dark matter halos than the dark matter itself. Our results therefore suggest that the processes that govern the spatial distribution of galaxies, once they have merged into larger halos, must be luminosity dependent, such that luminous galaxies become poor tracers of the underlying dark matter.

Watson, Douglas F.; Berlind, Andreas A.; McBride, Cameron K.; Hogg, David W.; Jiang, Tao

2012-04-01

266

Small-scale power spectrum of cold dark matter  

SciTech Connect

One of the best motivated hypotheses in cosmology states that most of the matter in the universe is in the form of weakly-interacting massive particles that decoupled early in the history of the universe and cooled adiabatically to an extremely low temperature. Nevertheless, the finite temperature and horizon scales at which these particles decoupled imprint generic signatures on their small-scale density fluctuations. We show that the previously recognized cut-off in the fluctuation power-spectrum due to free-streaming of particles at the thermal speed of decoupling, is supplemented by acoustic oscillations owing to the initial coupling between the cold dark matter (CDM) and the radiation field. The power-spectrum oscillations appear on the scale of the horizon at kinematic decoupling which corresponds to a mass scale of {approx}10{sup -4}(T{sub d}/10 MeV){sup -3}M{sub {center_dot}} for a CDM decoupling temperature T{sub d}. The suppression of the power-spectrum on smaller scales by the acoustic oscillations is physically independent from the free-streaming effect, although the two cut-off scales are coincidentally comparable for T{sub d}{approx}10 MeV and a particle mass of M{approx}100 GeV. The initial conditions for recent numerical simulations of the earliest and smallest objects to have formed in the universe, need to be modified accordingly. The smallest dark-matter clumps may be detectable through {gamma}-ray production from particle annihilation, through fluctuations in the event rate of direct detection experiments, or through their tidal gravitational effect on wide orbits of objects near the outer edge of the solar system.

Loeb, Abraham [Astronomy Department, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Zaldarriaga, Matias [Astronomy Department, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Physics Department, Harvard University, 17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

2005-05-15

267

Propulsion engineering study for small-scale Mars missions  

SciTech Connect

Rocket propulsion options for small-scale Mars missions are presented and compared, particularly for the terminal landing maneuver and for sample return. Mars landing has a low propulsive {Delta}v requirement on a {approximately}1-minute time scale, but at a high acceleration. High thrust/weight liquid rocket technologies, or advanced pulse-capable solids, developed during the past decade for missile defense, are therefore more appropriate for small Mars landers than are conventional space propulsion technologies. The advanced liquid systems are characterize by compact lightweight thrusters having high chamber pressures and short lifetimes. Blowdown or regulated pressure-fed operation can satisfy the Mars landing requirement, but hardware mass can be reduced by using pumps. Aggressive terminal landing propulsion designs can enable post-landing hop maneuvers for some surface mobility. The Mars sample return mission requires a small high performance launcher having either solid motors or miniature pump-fed engines. Terminal propulsion for 100 kg Mars landers is within the realm of flight-proven thruster designs, but custom tankage is desirable. Landers on a 10 kg scale also are feasible, using technology that has been demonstrated but not previously flown in space. The number of sources and the selection of components are extremely limited on this smallest scale, so some customized hardware is required. A key characteristic of kilogram-scale propulsion is that gas jets are much lighter than liquid thrusters for reaction control. The mass and volume of tanks for inert gas can be eliminated by systems which generate gas as needed from a liquid or a solid, but these have virtually no space flight history. Mars return propulsion is a major engineering challenge; earth launch is the only previously-solved propulsion problem requiring similar or greater performance.

Whitehead, J.

1995-09-12

268

Small Scale Cold Traps on Airless Planetary Bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lacking an atmosphere to transport heat, temperatures on airless bodies are primarily controlled by latitude and local time. However, local topography strongly affects temperatures at the surface and in the subsurface by changing the intensity and timing of insolation. In the case of low-obliquity bodies such as Mercury and the Earth’s moon, topography near the poles casts perennial shadows where volatiles such as water ice may be cold-trapped for billions of years. Prior studies have focused primarily on large contiguous cold traps > 1 km resolvable by instruments in lunar orbit. In this investigation, we used infrared measurements of the Moon, thermal models, and a statistical rough surface model to show that such cold traps may exist on a vast range of scales, from the largest impact craters, down to the skin depth of the diurnal temperature oscillation. The extremely insulating nature of planetary regolith leads to extreme temperature gradients and shallow diurnal skin depths. For example, the lunar 29-day diurnal temperature oscillation is damped to ~1% at a depth of 0.5 m. Therefore, at latitudes > 60° where perennial shadow exists, cold traps as small as a few tens of centimeters could exist. As two test cases, we calculated the fractional surface areas on the Moon (obliquity = 1.6°) and Ceres (3-5°) where temperatures remain < 110 K all year round, such that water ice is thermally stable at the surface for billions of years. We also calculated fractional areas where subsurface temperatures are < 145 K, such that subsurface ice deposits are stable on similar timescales. Finally, we will discuss the implications of these proposed small-scale cold traps for other airless bodies, including asteroids and giant planet satellites.

Hayne, Paul O.; Aharonson, O.; Williams, J.; Siegler, M. A.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Bandfield, J.; Vasavada, A. R.; Paige, D. A.; Diviner Lunar Radiometer Science Team

2013-10-01

269

Small-scale spatial structure in plankton distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observed filamental nature of plankton populations suggests that stirring plays an important role in determining their spatial structure. If diffusive mixing is neglected, the various interacting biological species within a fluid parcel are determined by the parcel time history. The induced spatial structure has been shown to be a result of competition between the time evolution of the biological processes involved and the stirring induced by the flow as measured, for example, by the rate of divergence of the distance of neighbouring fluid parcels. In the work presented here we examine a simple biological model based on delay-differential equations, previously seen in Abraham (1998) including nutrients, phytoplankton and zooplankton, coupled to a strain flow. Previous theoretical investigations made on a differential equation model (Hernández-Garcia et al., 2002) imply that the latter two should share the same small-scale structure. The generalization from differential equations to delay-differential equations, associated with the addition of a maturation time to the zooplankton growth, should not make a difference, provided sufficiently small spatial scales are considered. However, this theoretical prediction is in contradiction with the results of Abraham (1998) where the phytoplankton and zooplankton structures remain uncorrelated at all length scales. A new set of numerical experiments is performed here which show that these two regimes coexist. On larger scales , there is a decoupling of the spatial structure of the zooplankton distribution on the one hand, and the phytoplankton and nutrient on the other. On the other hand, at small enough length scales, the phytoplankton and zooplankton share the same spatial structure as expected by the theory involving no maturation time.

Tzella, A.; Haynes, P. H.

2006-12-01

270

Small-scale spatial structure in plankton distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observed filamental nature of plankton populations suggests that stirring plays an important role in determining their spatial structure. If diffusive mixing is neglected, the various interacting biological species within a fluid parcel are determined by the parcel time history. The induced spatial structure has been shown to be a result of competition between the time evolution of the biological processes involved and the stirring induced by the flow as measured, for example, by the rate of divergence of the distance of neighbouring fluid parcels. In the work presented here we examine a simple biological model based on delay-differential equations, previously seen in Abraham (1998), including nutrients, phytoplankton and zooplankton, coupled to a strain flow. Previous theoretical investigations made on a differential equation model (Hernández-Garcia et al., 2002) imply that the latter two should share the same small-scale structure. The generalisation from differential equations to delay-differential equations, associated with the addition of a maturation time to the zooplankton growth, should not make a difference, provided sufficiently small spatial scales are considered. However, this theoretical prediction is in contradiction with the results of Abraham (1998), where the phytoplankton and zooplankton structures remain uncorrelated at all length scales. A new set of numerical experiments is performed here which show that these two regimes coexist. On larger scales, there is a decoupling of the spatial structure of the zooplankton distribution on the one hand, and the phytoplankton and nutrient on the other. On the other hand, at small enough length scales, the phytoplankton and zooplankton share the same spatial structure as expected by the theory involving no maturation time.

Tzella, A.; Haynes, P. H.

2007-03-01

271

75 FR 454 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment...Industries, Inc./Coolidge, Texas. Principal Product/Purpose: The loan, guarantee, or grant application is to refinance...to make or guarantee loans or grants to finance industrial and...

2010-01-05

272

Solar synthesis of advanced materials: A solar industrial program initiative  

SciTech Connect

This is an initiative for accelerating the use of solar energy in the advanced materials manufacturing industry in the United States. The initiative will be based on government-industry collaborations that will develop the technology and help US industry compete in the rapidly expanding global advanced materials marketplace. Breakthroughs in solar technology over the last 5 years have created exceptional new tools for developing advanced materials. Concentrated sunlight from solar furnaces can produce intensities that approach those on the surface of the sun and can generate temperatures well over 2000{degrees}C. Very thin layers of illuminated surfaces can be driven to remarkably high temperatures in a fraction of a second. Concentrated solar energy can be delivered over large areas, allowing for rapid processing and high production rates. By using this technology, researchers are transforming low-cost raw materials into high-performance products. Solar synthesis of advanced materials uses bulk materials and energy more efficiently, lowers processing costs, and reduces the need for strategic materials -- all with a technology that does not harm the environment. The Solar Industrial Program has built a unique, world class solar furnace at NREL to help meet the growing need for applied research in advanced materials. Many new advanced materials processes have been successfully demonstrated in this facility, including the following: Metalorganic deposition, ceramic powders, diamond-like carbon materials, rapid heat treating, and cladding (hard coating).

Lewandowski, A.

1992-06-01

273

Small Scale Variations in Seismic Anisotropy Near Kimberley, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have exploited a new data set of broadband seismic waveforms near the region of Kimberley, South Africa, to place new constraints on seismic anisotropy in an area of extensive kimberlitic volcanism. The Kimberley region is significant in that it represents Archean cratonic mantle that has been extensively studied via petrologic, geochemical, and seismic means, and provides a unique opportunity to meld the results of a wide range of datasets. One of the key questions is the extent to which the mantle and crustal sections of the cratonic lithosphere correspond in their record of continental lithospheric evolution. Data for this study was recorded at the Kimberley Telemetered Array (KTA), one component of the larger Southern Africa Seismic Experiment. The KTA was installed near the large population of kimberlite pipes near Kimberley, South Africa, and is comprised of 31 stations that were deployed from January to May of 1999. Station spacing for the array ranges from 2 to 5 km with a total aperture of approximately 60 km by 40 km. For most stations, we determined well constrained shear wave splitting parameters from individual events. One event yielded a particularly striking example of the distinct variations in splitting observed across the array. This event exhibited clear, coherent radial energy for all stations across the array, while energy on the transverse component grades smoothly from strong to none over the full array length of only 60 km. Given the limited data set for the KTA, we applied the Wolfe and Silver [1998] stacking technique to place constraints on variations across the network. Shear wave splitting observations for the Kimberley array exhibit an average fast direction of roughly NE-SW, and splitting times that range from 0.15 s in the SE portion of the array to nearly 0.75 s in the NW portion of the array. The differences in seismic anisotropy beneath Kimberley are the first documented results in the world of such extreme small scale variations in shear wave splitting. Our results are most consistent with a model in which the anisotropy is limited to depths well within the mantle lithosphere interior, and is controlled by ancient (i.e., Archean) deformation events also evident at the surface. This model is also supported by a broad range of geochemical and petrologic evidence, which suggests that a significant change in lithospheric properties exists in the region.

Fouch, M. J.; Silver, P. G.; Bell, D. R.; Lee, J. N.; Kaapvaal Seismic Group,.

2002-12-01

274

THE EXTREME SMALL SCALES: DO SATELLITE GALAXIES TRACE DARK MATTER?  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the radial distribution of galaxies within their host dark matter halos as measured in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey by modeling their small-scale clustering. Specifically, we model the Jiang et al. measurements of the galaxy two-point correlation function down to very small projected separations (10 h{sup -1} kpc {<=} r {<=} 400 h{sup -1} kpc), in a wide range of luminosity threshold samples (absolute r-band magnitudes of -18 up to -23). We use a halo occupation distribution framework with free parameters that specify both the number and spatial distribution of galaxies within their host dark matter halos. We assume one galaxy resides in the halo center and additional galaxies are considered satellites that follow a radial density profile similar to the dark matter Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile, except that the concentration and inner slope are allowed to vary. We find that in low luminosity samples (M{sub r} < -19.5 and lower), satellite galaxies have radial profiles that are consistent with NFW. M{sub r} < -20 and brighter satellite galaxies have radial profiles with significantly steeper inner slopes than NFW (we find inner logarithmic slopes ranging from -1.6 to -2.1, as opposed to -1 for NFW). We define a useful metric of concentration, M{sub 1/10}, which is the fraction of satellite galaxies (or mass) that are enclosed within one-tenth of the virial radius of a halo. We find that M{sub 1/10} for low-luminosity satellite galaxies agrees with NFW, whereas for luminous galaxies it is 2.5-4 times higher, demonstrating that these galaxies are substantially more centrally concentrated within their dark matter halos than the dark matter itself. Our results therefore suggest that the processes that govern the spatial distribution of galaxies, once they have merged into larger halos, must be luminosity dependent, such that luminous galaxies become poor tracers of the underlying dark matter.

Watson, Douglas F.; Berlind, Andreas A.; McBride, Cameron K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 1807 Station B, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Hogg, David W.; Jiang Tao [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

2012-04-10

275

Small-scale variability in Saturn's lower ionosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform and present a wavelet analysis on all 31 Cassini electron density profiles published to date (Nagy, A.F. et al. [2006]. J. Geophys. Res. 111 (A6), CiteID A06310; Kliore, A.J. et al. [2009]. J. Geophys. Res. 114 (A4), CiteID A04315). We detect several discrete scales of variability present in the observations. Small-scale variability (S < 700 km) is observed in almost all data sets at different latitudes, both at dawn and dusk conditions. The most typical scale of variability is 300 km with scales between 200 km and 450 km being commonly present in the vast majority of the profiles. A low latitude dawn/dusk asymmetry is noted in the prevalent scales with the spectrum peaking sharply at the 300 km scale at dusk conditions and being broader at dawn conditions. Compared to dawn conditions the dusk ionosphere also shows more significant variability at the 100 km scale. The 300 km vertical scale is also present in the few available profiles from the northern hemisphere. Early observations from 2005 show a dominant scale at 350 km whereas later in 2007-2008 the spectrum shifts to the shorter scales with the most prominent scale being 300 km. The performed wavelet analysis and the obtained results are independent of assumptions about the nature of the layers and do not require a definition for a "background" electron density profile. In the second part of the paper we present a gravity wave propagation/dissipation model for Saturn's upper atmosphere and compare the wave properties to the characteristics of the observed electron density variability at different scales. The general features observed in the data are consistent with gravity waves being present in the lower ionosphere and causing layering of the ions and the electrons. The wave-driving mechanism provides a simultaneous explanation for several of the properties of the observed variability: (i) lack of variability in the electron density above the predicted region of wave dissipation; (ii) in most cases the peak amplitude of variability occurs within the altitude range for dissipation of gravity waves or below; (iii) shorter scales have smaller amplitudes than the longer scales; (iv) shorter scales are present at lower altitudes whereas longer scales persist to higher altitudes; and (v) several layers often form a system of equally spaced maxima and minima that can be traced over a large altitude range.

Matcheva, Katia I.; Barrow, Daniel J.

2012-11-01

276

Integrated bioenergy conversion concepts for small scale gasification power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal and biological gasification are promising technologies for addressing the emerging concerns in biomass-based renewable energy, environmental protection and waste management. However, technical barriers such as feedstock quality limitations, tars, and high NOx emissions from biogas fueled engines impact their full utilization and make them suffer at the small scale from the need to purify the raw gas for most downstream processes, including power generation other than direct boiler use. The two separate gasification technologies may be integrated to better address the issues of power generation and waste management and to complement some of each technologies' limitations. This research project investigated the technical feasibility of an integrated thermal and biological gasification concept for parameters critical to appropriately matching an anaerobic digester with a biomass gasifier. Specific studies investigated the thermal gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks in four fixed-bed gasification experiments: (1) updraft gasification of rice hull, (2) indirect-heated gasification of rice hull, (3) updraft gasification of Athel wood, and (4) downdraft gasification of Athel and Eucalyptus woods. The effects of tars and other components of producer gas on anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperature of 36°C and the biodegradation potentials and soil carbon mineralization of gasification tars during short-term aerobic incubation at 27.5°C were also examined. Experiments brought out the ranges in performance and quality and quantity of gasification products under different operating conditions and showed that within the conditions considered in the study, these gasification products did not adversely impact the overall digester performance. Short-term aerobic incubation demonstrated variable impacts on carbon mineralization depending on tar and soil conditions. Although tars exhibited low biodegradation indices, degradation may be improved if the microorganisms used to deal with tars are selected and pre-conditioned to the tar environment. Overall, the results provided a basis for operational and design strategy for a combined gasification system but further study is recommended such as determination of the impacts in terms of emissions, power, efficiency and costs associated with the use of producer gas-enriched biogas taking advantage of hydrogen enrichment to reduce NOx and other pollutants in reciprocating engines and other energy conversion systems.

Aldas, Rizaldo Elauria

277

Experiments for comparison of small scale rainfall simulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small scale portable rainfall simulators are an essential tool in research of recent process dynamics of soil erosion. Such rainfall simulators differ in design, rainfall intensities, rain spectra etc., impeding comparison of the results. Due to different research questions a standardisation of rainfall simulation is not in sight. Nevertheless, the data become progressively important for soil erosion modelling and therefore the basis for decision-makers in application-oriented erosion protection. The project aims at providing a criteria catalogue for estimation of the different simulators as well as the comparability of the results and a uniform calibration procedure for generated rainfall. Within the project "Comparability of simulation results of different rainfall simulators as input data for soil erosion modelling (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - DFG, Project No. Ri 835/6-1)" many rainfall simulators used by European research groups were compared. The artificially generated rainfall of the rainfall simulators at the Universities Basel, La Rioja, Malaga, Trier, Tübingen, Valencia, Wageningen, Zaragoza and at different Spanish CSIC-institutes (Almeria, Cordoba, Granada, Murcia, Zaragoza) were measured with the same methods (Laser Precipitation Monitor for drop spectra and rain collectors for spatial distribution). The data are very beneficial for improvements of simulators and comparison of simulators and results. Furthermore, they can be used for comparative studies with natural rainfall spectra. A broad range of rainfall data was measured (e.g. intensity: 30 - 149 mmh-1, Christiansen Coefficient for spatial rainfall distribution 61 - 98 %, mean drop diameter 0.375 - 5.0 mm, mean kinetic energy expenditure 25 - 1322 J m-2 h-1, mean kinetic energy per unit area and unit depth of rainfall 4 - 14 J m-2 mm-1). Similarities among the simulators could be found e.g. concerning drop size distributions (maximum drop numbers are reached within the two smallest drop classes < 1 mm) and low fall velocities of bigger drops due to a general physical restriction. The comparison provides a good data base for improvements and a consistent picture of the parameters of the simulators. To assess the influence of rainfall simulator type and plot dimensions on runoff and erosion, rainfall simulators from Freiberg, Tübingen, Trier, Valencia, Zaragoza, Basel and Wageningen were compared on a prepared bare fallow field during the Rainfall Simulator Workshop in Trier (Germany). The results show a clear and consistent relationship in runoff, erosion and infiltration behaviour of the different used rainfall simulators. With all the devices total soil loss was measurable, but different plot sizes, intensities and kinetic energies of the simulated rainfall caused differences in soil loss and runoff quantities per unit of area. Regarding course characteristics over runs, similarities could be observed especially in runoff behaviour.

Iserloh, T.; Ries, J. B.

2012-04-01

278

Development program to support industrial coal gasification. Quarterly report 1  

SciTech Connect

The Development Program to Support Industrial Coal Gasification is on schedule. The efforts have centered on collecting background information and data, planning, and getting the experimental program underway. The three principal objectives in Task I-A were accomplished. The technical literature was reviewed, the coals and binders to be employed were selected, and tests and testing equipment to be used in evaluating agglomerates were developed. The entire Erie Mining facility design was reviewed and a large portion of the fluidized-bed coal gasification plant design was completed. Much of the work in Task I will be experimental. Wafer-briquette and roll-briquette screening tests will be performed. In Task II, work on the fluidized-bed gasification plant design will be completed and work on a plant design involving entrained-flow gasifiers will be initiated.

None

1982-01-15

279

Advanced Turbine Systems Program industrial system concept development  

SciTech Connect

Solar approached Phase II of ATS program with the goal of 50% thermal efficiency. An intercolled and recuperated gas turbine was identified as the ultimate system to meet this goal in a commercial gas turbine environment. With commercial input from detailed market studies and DOE`s ATS program, Solar redefined the company`s proposed ATS to fit both market and sponsor (DOE) requirements. Resulting optimized recuperated gas turbine will be developed in two sizes, 5 and 15 MWe. It will show a thermal efficiency of about 43%, a 23% improvement over current industrial gas turbines. Other ATS goals--emissions, RAMD (reliability, availability, maintainability, durability), cost of power--will be met or exceeded. During FY95, advanced development of key materials, combustion and component technologies proceeded to the point of acceptance for inclusion in ATS Phase III.

Gates, S.

1995-12-31

280

The NIST radioactivity measurement assurance program for the radiopharmaceutical industry.  

PubMed

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) maintains a program for the establishment and dissemination of activity measurement standards in nuclear medicine. These standards are disseminated through Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), Calibration Services, radionuclide calibrator settings, and the NIST Radioactivity Measurement Assurance Program (NRMAP, formerly the NEI/NIST MAP). The MAP for the radiopharmaceutical industry is described here. Consolidated results show that, for over 3600 comparisons, 96% of the participants' results differed from that of NIST by less than 10%, with 98% being less than 20%. Individual radionuclide results are presented from 214 to 439 comparisons, per radionuclide, for (67)Ga, (90)Y, (99m)Tc, (99)Mo, (111)In, (125)I, (131)I, and (201)Tl. The percentage of participants results within 10% of NIST ranges from 88% to 98%. PMID:22578995

Cessna, Jeffrey T; Golas, Daniel B

2012-03-09

281

Relating Computer Science programs to the needs of industry through internships and cooperative programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to discuss some approaches for achieving more meaningful relationships between degree programs at the college level in Computer Science and the needs of industry. Nothing is more encouraging to most students than to know that their academic preparation will enhance their future life styles and future employment opportunities. Also, probably nothing is more depressing

Alton R. Goddard

1974-01-01

282

Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results  

SciTech Connect

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

2012-11-01

283

Why industry demand-side management programs should be self-directed  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. industry believes in DSM. But it does not believe in the way DSM is being implemented, with its emphasis on mandatory utility surcharge\\/rebate programs. Self-directed industrial DSM programs would be better for industry - and for utilities as well. Industrial demand-side management, as it is currently practiced, relies heavily on command-and-control-style programs. The authors believe that all parties would

Terry Pritchett; LoVeen Moody; Maurice Brubaker

1993-01-01

284

Cyber Security Testing and Training Programs for Industrial Control Systems  

SciTech Connect

Service providers rely on industrial control systems (ICS) to manage the flow of water at dams, open breakers on power grids, control ventilation and cooling in nuclear power plants, and more. In today's interconnected environment, this can present a serious cyber security challenge. To combat this growing challenge, government, private industry, and academia are working together to reduce cyber risks. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a key contributor to the Department of Energy National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program (CSSP), both of which focus on improving the overall security posture of ICS in the national critical infrastructure. In support of the NSTB, INL hosts a dedicated SCADA testing facility which consists of multiple control systems supplied by leading national and international manufacturers. Within the test bed, INL researchers systematically examine control system components and work to identify vulnerabilities. In support of the CSSP, INL develops and conducts training courses which are designed to increase awareness and defensive capabilities for IT/Control System professionals. These trainings vary from web-based cyber security trainings for control systems engineers to more advanced hands-on training that culminates with a Red Team/ Blue Team exercise that is conducted within an actual control systems environment. INL also provides staffing and operational support to the DHS Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) Security Operations Center which responds to and analyzes control systems cyber incidents across the 18 US critical infrastructure sectors.

Daniel Noyes

2012-03-01

285

Semi-automating small-scale source code reuse via structural correspondence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developers perform small-scale reuse tasks to save time and to in- crease the quality of their code, but due to their small scale, the costs of such tasks can quickly outweigh their benefits. Existing approaches focus on locating source code for reuse but do not sup- port the integration of the located code within the developer's sys- tem, thereby leaving

Rylan Cottrell; Robert J. Walker; Jörg Denzinger

2008-01-01

286

A Comparison of Small Scale Farming in Barbados, Dominica, and Trinidad and Tobago  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors compare current small scale farming systems among three Caribbean nations - Barbados, Dominica, and Trinidad and Tobago. They then address the Extension education challenge in the future. Small scale farming is an established concept among food production systems throughout the developing world in which the production system is a mix of food crops and sometimes

David Dolly

287

Origin and consumption of mercury in small-scale gold mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury (Hg) is used by small-scale gold miners in more than 50 developing countries, where the accompanied releases affect human health and the environment. The objectives of this paper are to summarize present use of Hg in artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) worldwide, reveal the origin of part of the Hg used by the gold miners, and propose appropriate actions

Marcello M. Veiga; Peter A. Maxson; Lars D. Hylander

2006-01-01

288

A Discussion on the Crisis Management of Small Scale Thermal Power Plant Basing on Sustainable Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strategy of sustainable development is one of the two important strategies for Chinese economic development. The present small scale thermal power plants cause much pollution, and consume too much energy, so they are being confronted with the crises of existence and management. Accordingly, it is urgent for small scale thermal power plants to carry out study on the crisis

Shijun Yang; Dongxiao Niu; Yongli Wang

289

Small-Scale Enterprise Livelihoods and Social Capital in Eastern Indonesia: Ethnic Embeddedness and Exclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the importance of specific forms of social capital for small-scale enterprises while highlighting that such analyses must incorporate local sociocultural complexities. In Eastern Indonesia, small-scale entrepreneurs in Makassar city rely heavily on informal networks, linkages, and trust relationships for their livelihoods. This dependence reflects different social capital forms, embedded in local ethnic and social relations that are

Sarah Turner

2007-01-01

290

Spatial Econometric Modelling of Small Scale Neighbourhood in House Price Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Location and small scale neighbourhood have a substantial eect on house prices. Variables describing small scale neighbourhood are usually missing or hard to measure. If spatially correlated explanatory variables are missing from a hedonic price model the errors will be spa- tially correlated. The paper searches for a solution by combining spa- tial econometric models and variables that measure the

Linda Gerkman

291

Construction and capability analysis of a small scale cluster system for CFD  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this context, a small scale cluster system for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) platform OpenFOAM is constructed, then a turbulent combustion case is simulated on the small scale cluster system. After the simulation is done, we can draw a conclusion with data that the effect of three-dimensional flow field is achieved. At last, the performance of the cluster system and

Zhao Dong-Mei; Lin Tao-Tao; Liu Tao; Sun Zhao-Guo

2012-01-01

292

Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Livestock Projects. Guidelines for Planning Series Number 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document was developed in response to the need for simplified technical information for planning environmentally sound small-scale projects in third world countries. It is aimed specifically at those who are planning or managing small-scale livestock projects in less-developed areas of the tropics and sub-tropics. The guidelines included in…

Jacobs, Linda

293

Performance of Rotational Speed Controlled Small-Scale Head-Dependent Hydroelectric Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract— Small scale or micro scale hydroelectric power production is characterized by high investment costs compared to operation costs. In addition, the repayment time is often long, more than ten years (if not subsidized heavily) which requires that a small-scale hydropower plants can be profitable only if both the investment costs and the running costs are low. The performance and

Tuomo Lindh; Risto Tiainen; Jero Ahola; Markku Niemelä; Ville Särkimäki

294

Linking Small Scale Farmers in China with the International Markets: A Case of Apple Export Chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes how governance mechanisms were formed that link small-scale apple farmers in China with export markets. These institutional innovations have improved the efficiency of price transmission and generated higher profit margins for various actors in the supply chain, in particular for small-scale farmers. Chinese apple exports are highly coordinated through ongoing long term loyal network relationships and vertical

Xiaoyong Zhang; Huanguang Qiu; Zhurong Huang

2009-01-01

295

Consequences of Persistent Small-Scale Biological Structure on Upper Ocean Trophic Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our long-term goal is to quantify the interactions between small- scale biological and physical processes in the upper ocean. This project addresses that goal by examining the coherence in the distribution and variability of small-scale bio-optical proper...

T. J. Cowles

1998-01-01

296

Velocity and heading tracking control for small-scale unmanned helicopters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a linear tracking control design technique for small-scale unmanned helicopters. The design objective is for the helicopter to track predefined velocity and heading reference trajectories. The controller design is based on a generic linear model which successfully describes the dynamic behavior of most small-scale helicopters. The flight controller is composed of two distinct output feedback loops of

Ioannis A. Raptis; Kimon P. Valavanis

2011-01-01

297

An overview of small-scale food fermentation technologies in developing countries with special reference to Thailand: scope for their improvement.  

PubMed

Small-scale food fermentation technologies in developing countries have evolved through years of experience rather than through scientific breakthroughs. Many small-scale manufacturers are, therefore, reluctant to accept change and modify fermentation processes. Upgrading the quality and safety of fermented foods, while reducing their production cost and maintaining their authenticity and uniqueness, is of utmost importance. One strategic approach, which has been successfully implemented for the improvement of small-scale soy sauce fermentation in Thailand, is the consortium approach. This approach has allowed industry to work closely in sharing knowledge and common problems, which in turn has provided scientists with the research direction that would best benefit the industry. This consortium approach has brought about changes in the methodologies used in the production of soy sauce, by shortening processing times, introducing fiberglass tanks as bioreactors instead of the traditionally used small earthenware containers and introducing cost-effective waste management systems. One barrier to the application of starter cultures in the small-scale fermentation industry is the loss of uniqueness of fermented products. However, the advent of molecular biology techniques has allowed science to tailor starter cultures to the specific requirements of the manufacturer. Using the techniques of molecular biology, it has been shown that microflora of a specific product vary according to origin and sensory quality. A cell bank is being developed to serve as a resource base for Thai fermented pork sausage in order to facilitate the application of starter cultures in the manufacture of that product. PMID:12036145

Valyasevi, Ruud; Rolle, Rosa S

2002-05-25

298

Safety. A Guide for Industrial Cooperative Training Programs. Learning Activity Package. LAP 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning activity package, one of six intended for use in Industrial Cooperative Training Programs, is designed to provide students with information on several general safety topics which would apply in most employment situations. (The industrial cooperative training program provides industrial occupational training experience for high school…

Duenk, Lester G.; Lear, George

299

Safety. A Guide for Industrial Cooperative Training Programs. Learning Activity Package. LAP 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This learning activity package, one of six intended for use in Industrial Cooperative Training Programs, is designed to provide students with information on several general safety topics which would apply in most employment situations. (The industrial cooperative training program provides industrial occupational training experience for high…

Duenk, Lester G.; Lear, George

300

Industrial demand-side management programs: What's happened, what works, what's needed  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to answer the title questions, the paper first discusses energy use and savings opportunities in the industrial sector. Next the steps to help advance industrial DSM are explained. These steps are: improve utility program design; improve utility data tracking methods and program evaluation; improved information exchange and coordination among utilities; develop better links with industrial customers; increase education

S. M. Nadal; J. A. Jordan

2009-01-01

301

Profile of the chemicals industry in California: Californiaindustries of the future program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) established the Industries of the Future (IOF) program to increase energy efficiency, reduce waste production and to improve competitiveness, currently focusing on nine sectors. The IOF is a partnership strategy involving industry, the research community and the government, working together to identify technology needs, promote industrial partnerships and implement

Christina Galitsky; Ernst Worrell

2004-01-01

302

La Apaicultura de Pequena Escala (Small Scale Beekeeping). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Manual Series No. M-25.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Spanish-language manual is designed to assist Peace Corps volunteers in Spanish-speaking countries in the implementation of small-scale beekeeping programs as a tool for development. Addressed in the individual chapters are bees and humans; project planning; the types and habits of bees; the essence of beekeeping; bee space and beehives;…

Gentry, Curtis

303

Apiculture de Petite Eschelle (Small Scale Beekeeping). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Manual Series No. M-26.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This French-language manual is designed to assist Peace Corps volunteers in French-speaking countries in the implementation of small-scale beekeeping programs as a tool for development. Addressed in the individual chapters are bees and humans; project planning; the types and habits of bees; the essence of beekeeping; bee space and beehives;…

Gentry, Curtis

304

(Small-scale ethanol production by Farmer's Co-op). Final report  

SciTech Connect

The results of a program to build and operate a small fuel alcohol plant and to formally organize and incorporate a Farmer's Co-op which would own and be benefitted by the plant are presented. Production of by-products was incorporated into the design (DDS, acetone, butanol). The organization of the co-operative has been very successful, with fifteen voting members already, and many more indicating that they are ready to join as soon as the plant becomes operational. The various delays have hurt the program somewhat; we were unable to meet our projected production dates, and have lost the confidence of some, but we believe this will be overcome when we fire up. These same delays have also enabled us to stay abreast of, and digest the latest information and data from other small scale plants similar to ours, enabling us to incorporate this into our actual plant. Using ground corn as the feedstock, the first batch was run off on September 7, 1981.

Staengl, L.

1981-08-28

305

Solar synthesis of advanced materials: A solar industrial program initiative.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is an initiative for accelerating the use of solar energy in the advanced materials manufacturing industry in the United States. The initiative will be based on government-industry collaborations that will develop the technology and help US industry ...

A. Lewandowski

1992-01-01

306

Performing impact evaluations in industrial retrofit: The Energy Savings Plan Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Energy Savings Plan (ESP) is Bonneville Power Administration's retrofit program for the industrial sector. The program pays incentives for energy conservation measures involving electrical energy efficiency improvements in manufacturing, processing, and refining industries. This paper will describe the ESP program, recount the techniques selected to evaluate the retrofits, and report the findings from five ESP project impact evaluations completed

S. Riewer; G. E. Spanner

1991-01-01

307

Performing impact evaluations in industrial retrofit: The Energy Savings Plan Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Energy Savings Plan (ESP) is Bonneville Power Administration`s retrofit program for the industrial sector. The program pays incentives for energy conservation measures involving electrical energy efficiency improvements in manufacturing, processing, and refining industries. This paper will describe the ESP program, recount the techniques selected to evaluate the retrofits, and report the findings from five ESP project impact evaluations completed

S. Riewer; G. E. Spanner

1991-01-01

308

76 FR 32989 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment...New Braunfels, Comal County, Texas. Principal Product/Purpose: The loan, guarantee, or grant application is to provide funds...New Braunfels, Comal County, Texas. The NAICS industry code...

2011-06-07

309

Broadening the Base of a Technical Communication Program: An Industrial/Academic Alliance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the creation of an Advisory Board for forging an alliance between technical communication education and industry. Discusses the influence the board had on program development and the insights both industry and academia gained from the alliance. (PRA)|

Bosley, Deborah S.

1992-01-01

310

Leveraging Benefits Attributable to Centers within the Industrial Assessment Center Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) Program provides financial support to many universities to establish IACs to train students in conducting free energy, waste, and productivity assessments for industrial firms. Cur...

M. Martin B. Tonn S. Schexnayder

2002-01-01

311

Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion for small scale market sectors. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to demonstrate and promote the commercialization of coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) systems, with limestone addition for SO{sub 2} emissions control and a baghouse for particulate emissions control. This AFBC system was targeted for small scale industrial-commercial-institutional space and process heat applications. A cost effective and environmentally acceptable AFBC technology in this size range would displace a considerable amount of gas/oil with coal while resulting in significant total cost savings to the owner/operators. In the Proof-of-Concept Phase, a 2.2 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr unit was installed and successfully operated at Cedar Lane Farms (CLF), a commercial nursery in Ohio. The heat from the fluidized bed was used to heat hot water which was recirculated through greenhouses for cool weather heating. The system was designed to be fully automated with minimal operator attention required. The AFBC system installed at CLF was an improved design that incorporated flyash/sorbent reinjection and an underbed feed system to improve limestone utilization. With these additions it was possible to lower the Ca/S ratio from {approximately} 3.0 to 2.0, and still maintain an SO{sub 2} emissions level of 1.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu when burning the same high sulfur Ohio coal tested at OARDC.

Ashworth, R.A.; Plessinger, D.A.; Sommer, T.M. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Orville, OH (United States); Keener, H.M. [Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, OH (United States); Webner, R.L. [Will-Burt Co., Orrville, OH (United States)

1997-03-31

312

Commercial and industrial energy-conservation programs: Illinois experience and alternative options  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Energy Conservation Program Staff, Energy Programs Division, has been assessing some generic issues arising from the evaluation of the experimental energy conservation programs implemented under the Illinois Commerce Commission's Dockets 83-0034 through 83-0043. These issues may be related to residential sector programs, commercial and industrial sector programs, estimation and methodological aspects, as well as related policy considerations. The objective

S. L. Tuma; J. M. Fang

1991-01-01

313

AFBC - operation of small scale demonstration for greenhouse heating  

SciTech Connect

A 2.2 million Btu/hr unit prototype AFBC system was installed in 1995 at Cedar Lane Farms, a commercial nursery in Ohio. The AFBC is in operation and is heating hot water for greenhouse temperature control. A team consisting of the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation, the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center of Ohio State University and the Will-Burt Company developed this technology with funding support from the Ohio Coal Development Office and the U.S. Department of Energy. The system is fully automated with little operator attention being required. Operating experience at Cedar Lane Farms has shown that only 2 hours per day of operation attention is required for the system. The system includes flyash/sorbent reinjection and underbed coal/limestone feed. These features provide for good limestone utilization; a Ca/S (in coal) ratio of 2.5 will maintain an SO{sub 2} emissions level of 1.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu when burning high sulfur (3.2%) Ohio coal. A baghouse is used to control particulate emissions. Based on the success of the prototype unit, a design has been recently completed for a commercial size 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr capacity range. Multiple AFBC units can be used to provide larger heat outputs. Potential coal-fired AFBC users include institutions (schools, hospitals, prisons, government), light industry (agricultural, food processing), commercial users (shopping centers), and large residential users (apartment complexes). 6 figs., 1 tab.

Ashworth, R.A.; Plessinger, D.A.; Webner, R.L.; Machamer, T.

1996-12-31

314

Comparison of the Aeroacoustics of Two Small-Scale Supersonic Inlets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An aerodynamic and acoustic investigation was performed on two small-scale supersonic inlets to determine which inlet would be more suitable for a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft during approach and takeoff flight conditions. The comparison was...

W. Ng

1996-01-01

315

Small scale hydroelectric power potential in Nevada: a preliminary reconnaissance survey  

SciTech Connect

This preliminary reconnaissance survey is intended to: develop a first estimate as to the potential number, location and characteristics of small-scale (50 kW to 15 MW) hydroelectric sites in Nevada; provide a compilation of various Federal and state laws and regulations, including tax and financing regulations, that affect small-scale hydroelectric development and provide information on sources of small-scale hydroelectric generation hardware and consultants/ contractors who do small scale hydroelectric work. The entire survey has been conducted in the office working with various available data bases. The site survey and site evaluation methods used are described, and data are tabulated on the flow, power potential, predicted capital expenditures required, etc. for 61 potential sites with measured flows and for 77 sites with derived flows. A map showing potential site locations is included. (LCL)

Cochran, G.F.; Fordham, J.W.; Richard, K.; Loux, R.

1981-04-01

316

Design, Fabrication, and Test of Small-Scale Storable-Propellant Vessels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the work performed in designing, fabricating, and testing small-scale storable-propellant tanks. The design incorporates full-scale missile tank features and typical weld stresses. Fabrication and test procedures are based on simula...

L. D. Berman

1965-01-01

317

Investment Orientations Among Small-Scale Fishermen in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper reports study of 125 small-scale fishermen's investment orientations and their sociocultural correlates in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica. The interview schedule contained items on investment orientation using a hypothetical situation; self eval...

R. B. Pollnac

1977-01-01

318

Small Scale Purification of Human Pituitary Lutropin (hLH) for Use in Radioligand Assays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Human lutropin (hLH) is a relatively unstable protein, which even in lyophilised form tends to dissociate into subunits during long storage periods. Considering the limited disposibilty of human pituitaries, a small-scale extraction method is proposed for...

I. Schwarz L. Morgante P. Bartolini

1988-01-01

319

Mathematical Model of the Structure and Evolution of Small Scale Discrete Auroral Arcs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A three dimensional fluid model which includes the dispersive effect of electron inertia is used to study the nonlinear macroscopic plasma dynamics of small scale discrete auroral arcs within the auroral acceleration zone and ionosphere. The motion of the...

C. E. Seyler

1990-01-01

320

Small-scale hydroelectric power in the Pacific Northwest: new impetus for an old energy source  

SciTech Connect

Energy supply is one of the most important issues facing Northwestern legislators today. To meet the challenge, state legislatures must address the development of alternative energy sources. The Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Policy Project of the National Conference of State Legislators (NCSL) was designed to assist state legislators in looking at the benefits of one alternative, small-scale hydro. Because of the need for state legislative support in the development of small-scale hydroelectric, NCSL, as part of its contract with the Department of Energy, conducted the following conference on small-scale hydro in the Pacific Northwest. The conference was designed to identify state obstacles to development and to explore options for change available to policymakers. A summary of the conference proceedings is presented.

Not Available

1980-07-01

321

Nonlinear Generation of shear flows and large scale magnetic fields by small scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EGU2009-233 Nonlinear Generation of shear flows and large scale magnetic fields by small scale turbulence in the ionosphere by G. Aburjania Contact: George Aburjania, g.aburjania@gmail.com,aburj@mymail.ge

Aburjania, G.

2009-04-01

322

Performing impact evaluations in industrial retrofit: The Energy Savings Plan Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Energy Savings Plan (ESP) is Bonneville Power Administration's retrofit program for the industrial sector. The program pays incentives for energy conservation measures involving electrical energy efficiency improvements in manufacturing, processing, a...

S. Riewer G. E. Spanner

1991-01-01

323

A case report of anti-smoking measures at a Japanese small-scale worksite.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to introduce spatial separation of smoking areas and to perform and evaluate smoking cessation support and anti-smoking education at a small scale business site (Worksite "A"), where sweeping anti-smoking measures have not been enforced. The smoking environments at Worksite "A" and at other companies were examined, health education was introduced, and through the cooperation of the Health and Safety Committee, a program for the separation of smoking areas was proposed. The Health and Safety Committee at Worksite "A" played a central role in changing of the women's toilets into a designated smoking area. Through smoking cessation support and anti-smoking education as a part of general health education, and the creation of a designated smoking area, the workplace environment was improved. Through spatial separation of smoking areas and the execution of anti-smoking education, the workplace environment improved and the importance of anti-smoking was better understood by workers, which led to the creation of a comfortable workplace environment based on the ideology of health promotion. PMID:19533857

Ariyoshi, Hiromi

2008-10-01

324

Small-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Cesium and Technetium from Hanford Tank 241-AN-103  

SciTech Connect

The pretreatment process for BNFL, Inc.'s Hanford River Protection Project is to provide decontaminated low activity waste and concentrated eluate streams for vitrification into low activity and high level waste glass, respectively. The pretreatment includes sludge washing, filtration, precipitation, and ion exchange processes to remove entrained solids, cesium, transuranics, technetium, and strontium. The ion exchange removal of cesium (Cs) and technetium (Tc) ions is accomplished by using SuperLig 644, and 639 resins from IBC Advanced Technologies, American Fork, Utah. The resins were shown to selectively remove cesium and technetium (as pertechnetate), from alkaline salt solutions. The efficiency of ion exchange column loading and elution is a complex function involving feed compositions, equilibrium and kinetic behavior of ion exchange resins, diffusion, and the ionic strength and pH of the aqueous solution. A previous experimental program completed at the Savannah River Technology Center demonstrated the conceptualized flow sheet parameters with a similar Hanford tank sample (241-AW-101). Those experiments included determination of Cs and Tc batch distribution coefficients by SuperLig 644 and 639 resins and demonstration of small-scale column breakthrough and elution. The experimental findings were used in support of preliminary design bases and pretreatment flow sheet development by BNFL, Inc.

Hassan, N.M.

2000-07-27

325

Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Bio-Based and Fossil Fuels  

SciTech Connect

Technology Management, Inc. (TMI) of Cleveland, Ohio, has completed the project entitled â??Small Scale SOFC Demonstration using Bio-based and Fossil Fuels.â? Under this program, two 1-kW systems were engineered as technology demonstrators of an advanced technology that can operate on either traditional hydrocarbon fuels or renewable biofuels. The systems were demonstrated at Patterson's Fruit Farm of Chesterland, OH and were open to the public during the first quarter of 2012. As a result of the demonstration, TMI received quantitative feedback on operation of the systems as well as qualitative assessments from customers. Based on the test results, TMI believes that > 30% net electrical efficiency at 1 kW on both traditional and renewable fuels with a reasonable entry price is obtainable. The demonstration and analysis provide the confidence that a 1 kW entry-level system offers a viable value proposition, but additional modifications are warranted to reduce sound and increase reliability before full commercial acceptance.

Michael Petrik; Robert Ruhl

2012-03-31

326

Small-scale farms in the western Brazilian Amazon: can they benefit from carbon trade?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently scientists have started to examine how land-uses and land-use technologies can help mitigate carbon emissions. The half million small-scale farmers inhabiting the Amazon frontier sequester large stocks of carbon in their forests and other land uses that they might be persuaded to maintain or even increase through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol. On average, small-scale

Chantal Line Carpentier; Steve Vosti; Julie Witcover

2000-01-01

327

Public choice in water resource management: two case studies of the small-scale hydroelectric controversy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroelectric issues have a long history in the Pacific Northwest, and more recently have come to focus on developing environmentally less-obtrusive means of hydroelectric generation. Small-scale hydroelectric represents perhaps the most important of these means of developing new sources of renewable resources to lessen the nation's dependence on foreign sources of energy. Each potential small-scale hydroelectric project, however, manifests a

Soden

1985-01-01

328

Surgical-site infection surveillance at a small-scale community hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveillance of surgical-site infection (SSI) is becoming more important given the current situation of increasing antibiotic resistance by microorganisms. It may be difficult to carry out SSI surveillance at small-scale community hospitals because of small staff numbers. We examined whether SSI surveillance could be carried out with a system we devised. Furthermore, we investigated the SSI rateat our small-scale community

Takashi Saito; Yoji Aoki; Kazuo Ebara; Shunichi Hirai; Yasuhiro Kitamura; Yosinobu Kasaoka; Yoshihiro Mori; Yoshitsugu Iinuma; Satoshi Ichiyama; Fumikazu Kohi

2005-01-01

329

Women's occupational health working in small-scale agriculture in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In developing economies women’s contributions are in agriculture. Trends indicate that women’s participation in small-scale agriculture is increasing. On the Makhatini Flats in northern KwaZulu-Natal intensive small-scale farming takes place with > 4 000 women involved. A cross-sectional study on the Irrigation Scheme and Drylands areas of the Makhatini Flats described and compared occupational activities, crop production, pesticide use and

S. Naidoo

2011-01-01

330

Extreme sensitivity of the YORP effect to small-scale topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation recoil (YORP) torques are shown to be extremely sensitive to small-scale surface topography, using numerical simulations. Starting from a set of ``base objects'' representative of the near-Earth object population, random realizations of three types of small-scale topography are added: Gaussian surface fluctuations, craters, and boulders. For each, the expected relative errors in the spin and obliquity components of the

Thomas S. Statler

2009-01-01

331

Extreme sensitivity of the YORP effect to small-scale topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation recoil (YORP) torques are shown to be extremely sensitive to small-scale surface topography, using numerical simulations. Starting from a set of “base objects” representative of the near-Earth object population, random realizations of three types of small-scale topography are added: Gaussian surface fluctuations, craters, and boulders. For each, the expected relative errors in the spin and obliquity components of the

Thomas S. Statler

2009-01-01

332

Vision-Based Hovering Control of a Small-Scale Unmanned Helicopter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a basic examination of vision-based hovering control of a small-scale unmanned helicopter. In previous research, helicopters are usually controlled by sensors such as GPS and gyro. However, it is difficult to mount those sensors on small-scale helicopters that have little payload. Accordingly, we use small and lightweight cameras to control the helicopter. The applications of the cameras

Ryosuke Mori; Takafumi Kubo; T. Kinoshita

2006-01-01

333

Ethnographic Approaches to Understanding Social Sustainability in Small-scale Water Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social sustainability is an important, but often neglected, aspect of determining the success of small-scale water systems. This paper reviews ethnographic approaches for understanding how indigenous knowledge enhances social sustainability of small-scale water systems, particularly in small-scale water systems threatened by water scarcity. After reviewing the literature on common-pool and traditional resource management strategies, the paper will focus on the case of a community-managed small-scale water system in Cochabamba, Bolivia. This study uses ethnographic evidence to demonstrate how indigenous institutions can be used to manage a small-scale urban water system sustainably. Several factors were crucial to the institution's success. First, indigenous residents had previous experience with common management of rural irrigation systems which they were able to adapt for use in an urban environment. Second, institutional rules were designed to prioritize the conservation of the water source. Third, indigenous Andean social values of uniformity, regularity, and transparency ensured that community members perceived the system as legitimate and complied with community rules. Fourth, self-governance enabled community members to quickly adapt to changing environmental conditions, such as seasonal scarcity and groundwater overdraft. The paper concludes with a discussion of the promise and limitations of ethnographic approaches and indigenous knowledge for understanding social sustainability in small-scale water systems.

Wutich, A.

2011-12-01

334

China's Information Industry: Government Programs, Plans and Initiatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The situation and development prospect of information industry in China are firstly described in this presentation. The development strategies, plans and R&D projects on information industry are then introduced. Finally, the technique innovations are remarked.

Wu Hequan

2007-01-01

335

Wet-milling of wheat flour: industrial processes and small-scale test methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial manufacture of wheat starch and vital wheat gluten involves physical separation of starch granules and gluten particles formed in a neutral aqueous system. The wet-separation of gluten proteins and starch from wheat flour is based on their water insolubility, density, and particle size. Upon wetting, gluten proteins in wheat endosperm aggregate and form particles that are larger in size

Abdulvahit Sayaslan

2004-01-01

336

Sub-Project 7 of Wisconsin 553, Part F, EPDA--Industry/Exchange Program: Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The final report describes a study to develop a statewide teacher/industry exchange program in Wisconsin that would provide vocational-technical instructors with occupational experience opportunities. Three plans for implementing the program were developed: (A) swapping the positions of a business or industrial person with that of a vocational…

Wisconsin Univ. - Stout, Menomonie. Center for Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

337

AICD: Advanced Industrial Concepts Division Biological and Chemical Technologies Research Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1993 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary

G. Petersen; K. Bair; J. Ross

1994-01-01

338

AICD -- Advanced Industrial Concepts Division Biological and Chemical Technologies Research Program. 1993 Annual summary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1993 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary

G. Petersen; K. Bair; J. Ross

1994-01-01

339

Tools for Schools. Defense Industrial Reserve Loan Program. Public Law 93-155, 93rd Congress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This brochure describes the "Tools for Schools" Loan Program and includes guidelines for preparation of an application for a loan of industrial manufacturing equipment from the Defense Industrial Reserve (DIR). The first section is in question-and-answer form and describes the program through which equipment from DIR may be loaned to any…

Defense Logistics Agency (DOD), Memphis, TN.

340

Small scale density variations of electrons and charged particles in the vicinity of polar mesosphere summer echoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present small scale variations of electron num- ber densities and particle charge number densities measured in situ in the presence of polar mesosphere summer echoes. It turns out that the small scale fluctuations of electrons and negatively charged particles show a strong anticorrelation down to the smallest scales observed. Comparing these small scale structures with the simultaneously measured radar

M. Rapp; T. A. Blix

2003-01-01

341

Exploring the voluntary approach in China : The case of the Top1,000 Industrial Energy Conservation Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to examine the emergence, shape and functioning of China's Top-1,000 Industrial Energy Conservation Program. The program, implemented since 2006, is generated from a pilot voluntary program and modeled on international industrial efficiency target-setting programs. The research studies why the program was deviated from the voluntary approach and how the program outcomes have been influenced by

Liguang Liu

2010-01-01

342

Incidence of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria spp. in a small-scale mushroom production facility.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen of significant concern to the agricultural and food processing industry because of its ability to grow and persist in cool and moist environments and its association with listeriosis, a disease with a very high mortality rate. Although there have been no listeriosis outbreaks attributed to fresh mushrooms in the United States, retail surveys and recalls are evidence that L. monocytogenes contamination of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) can occur. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria spp., including L. monocytogenes, in a small-scale mushroom production facility on the campus of the Pennsylvania State University in the United States. Of 184 samples taken from five production zones within the facility, 29 (15.8%) samples were positive for Listeria spp. Among the Listeria spp. isolates, L. innocua was most prevalent (10.3%) followed by L. welshimeri (3.3%), L. monocytogenes (1.6%), and L. grayi (0.5%). L. monocytogenes was recovered only from the phase I raw material composting area. Isolates of L. monocytogenes were confirmed and serotyped by multiplex PCR. The epidemiological relatedness of the three L. monocytogenes isolates to those serotypes or lineages frequently encountered in listeriosis infections was determined by multi-virulence-locus sequence typing using six virulence genes, namely, prfA, inlB, inlC, dal, clpP, and lisR. The phylogenetic positions of the three isolates in the dendrogram prepared with data from other isolates of L. monocytogenes showed that all isolates were grouped with serotype 4a, lineage IIIA. To date, this serotype has rarely been reported in foodborne disease outbreaks. PMID:23575122

Viswanath, Prema; Murugesan, Latha; Knabel, Stephen J; Verghese, Bindhu; Chikthimmah, Naveen; Laborde, Luke F

2013-04-01

343

Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments, FY 1995  

SciTech Connect

In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This report contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Subject areas covered are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

NONE

1996-04-01

344

Combine Effects of Plate Motions and Small-Scale Convection on Mantle Stirring Efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Convection in Earth's mantle generates large scale, vigorous motions often thought to be the primary mechanism of mantle stirring. However additional thermal instabilities may progressively develop below lithospheric plates, leading to smaller scale convective motions. While there is growing evidence supporting the presence of small-scale convection in Earth's mantle, little is known of its contribution to the mixing of mantle heterogeneities. We have thus investigated the influence of small-scale convection on mantle stirring efficiency using 2D numerical modeling of infinite Prandtl number convection with imposed surface plate motion and temperature and pressure dependent rheology. We measure stirring efficiency using Finite Time Lyapunov Exponents (FTLE) and we vary systematically the Peclet number, Pe, defined as the ratio of the advection time scale based on surface plate velocity to a characteristic diffusion time. Our computational domain has an aspect ratio of 1:3. For moderate Pe, small-scale convection is well developed, leading to efficient stirring. However large Pe numbers do not allow the development of small-scale convection and result in significantly lower stirring efficiency, although plate motions are faster. This indicates that (i) small-scale convection contributes significantly to mantle stirring efficiency, (ii) mantle stirring efficiency many spatially vary significantly due to the local magnitude of plate velocity and (iii) the relationship between mantle stirring efficiency and large-scale convective motions may be more complex than previously thought.

King, S.; Samuel, H.

2012-04-01

345

Small scale effects on the mechanical behaviors of protein microtubules based on the nonlocal elasticity theory.  

PubMed

Based on the nonlocal elastic theory, small scale effects are considered in the investigation of the mechanical properties of protein microtubules. A new prediction formula for the persistence lengths of microtubules with the consideration of the small scale effect is presented. Subsequently, the buckling of microtubules is studied based on a nonlocal elastic beam model. The predicted results of our model indicate that the length-dependence of persistence length is related not only to the shear terms, but also to the small scale effect. The Eular beam model, which is always considered unable to explain the length-dependence of microtubules, can capture the length-dependence of the persistence length of microtubules with the consideration of the small scale effect. The elastic buckling behaviors of microtubules in viscoelastic surrounding cytoplasm are also considered using the nonlocal Timoshenko beam model in this paper, and the results indicate that the small scale effect of microtubules also plays an important role in the buckling of microtubules. PMID:19615341

Gao, Yuanwen; Lei, Fang-Ming

2009-07-15

346

Industrial ecology study and research program at Norwegian University of Science and Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a brief presentation of the industrial ecology study and research programs at the Norwegian University of\\u000a Science and Technology (NTNU). These programs have been running for a few years, and they have recently been evaluated. The\\u000a revised program will be presented. A central topic within the framework of industrial ecology is eco-efficiency. Eco-efficiency\\u000a should be a tool

Annik Magerholm Fet; Ottar Michelsen

2003-01-01

347

Evaluation of environmentally benign production program in the textile-dyeing industry (II): a multi-objective programming approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ways for improving a cost-effective industrial production program described in an earlier paper primarily focused on the quality assurance\\/quality control (QA\\/QC) schemes within the manufacturing stage. However, industry with high demand of resources input must evolve the essential production strategies to meet the goals in an environmentally benign production program. This paper describes the method and procedure for optimizing

Chia-Chin Wu; Ni-Bin Chang

2008-01-01

348

Training PhD Physicists for Industrial Careers: The Industrial Leadership in Physics Program at Georgetown University.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Physics department at Georgetown University has a unique PhD level graduate program designed to prepare PhD physicists for positions in high-tech business. Launched in 2001, the Industrial Leadership in Physics (ILP) graduate program combines training in technical subjects and business topics with a focus on group learning, communication skills, and practical work experience. Some highlights of the program include a modular curriculum in fundamental physics, centered on solid-state physics, instrumentation, problem solving and computer modeling; a year-long apprenticeship at the site of an industrial partner chosen to match the interests of the student and coursework in the McDonough School of Business at Georgetown. This presentation will give an overview of the program.

van Keuren, Edward

2009-03-01

349

The Department of Energy`s Solar Industrial Program: 1995 review  

SciTech Connect

During 1995, the Department of Energy`s Solar Industrial (SI) Program worked to bring the benefits of solar energy to America`s industrial sector. Scientists and engineers within the program continued the basic research, applied engineering, and economic analyses that have been at the heart of the Program`s success since its inception in 1989. In 1995, all three of the SI Program`s primary areas of research and development--solar detoxification, advanced solar processes, and solar process heat--succeeded in increasing the contribution made by renewable and energy-efficient technologies to American industry`s sustainable energy future. The Solar Detoxification Program develops solar-based pollution control technologies for destroying hazardous environmental contaminants. The Advanced Solar Processes Program investigates industrial uses of highly concentrated solar energy. The Solar Process Heat Program conducts the investigations and analyses that help energy planners determine when solar heating technologies--like those that produce industrial-scale quantities of hot water, hot air, and steam--can be applied cost effectively. The remainder of this report highlights the research and development conducted within in each of these subprograms during 1995.

NONE

1996-04-01

350

Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) program. Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments FY 1996  

SciTech Connect

In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven {open_quotes}Vision Industries{close_quotes} that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. These are: (1) Aluminum; (2) Chemical; (3) Forest Products; (4) Glass; (5) Metal Casting; (6) Refineries; and (7) Steel. This report is a compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments on materials.

NONE

1997-04-01

351

Small-scale field-aligned currents observed by the AKEBONO (EXOS-D) satellite  

SciTech Connect

The EXOS-D fluxgate magnetometer data obtained at 3,000-10,000 km altitude have shown that small-scale field-aligned currents always exist in large-scale region 1, region 2, cusp and polar cap current systems. Assuming that these small-scale field-aligned currents have current sheet structure, the width of current sheet is estimated to be 5-20 km at ionospheric altitude. By comparing the magnetometer data with charged particle and high frequency plasma wave data simultaneously obtained from EXOS-D, it is found that small-scale currents have one-to-one correspondence with localized electron precipitation events characterized by flux enhancement over a wide energy range from 10 eV to several keV and broadband electrostatic bursts occasionally extending above local plasma frequencies or electron cyclotron frequencies.

Fukunishi, H.; Oya, H. (Tohoku Univ. (Japan)); Kokubun, S. (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)); Tohyama, F. (Tokai Univ. (Japan)); Mukai, T.; Fujii, R.

1991-02-01

352

Risk of Resource Failure and Toolkit Variation in Small-Scale Farmers and Herders  

PubMed Central

Recent work suggests that global variation in toolkit structure among hunter-gatherers is driven by risk of resource failure such that as risk of resource failure increases, toolkits become more diverse and complex. Here we report a study in which we investigated whether the toolkits of small-scale farmers and herders are influenced by risk of resource failure in the same way. In the study, we applied simple linear and multiple regression analysis to data from 45 small-scale food-producing groups to test the risk hypothesis. Our results were not consistent with the hypothesis; none of the risk variables we examined had a significant impact on toolkit diversity or on toolkit complexity. It appears, therefore, that the drivers of toolkit structure differ between hunter-gatherers and small-scale food-producers.

Collard, Mark; Ruttle, April; Buchanan, Briggs; O'Brien, Michael J.

2012-01-01

353

Small-scale martian polygonal terrain: Implications for liquid surface water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Images from the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) through August 1999 were analyzed for the global distribution of small-scale polygonal terrain not clearly resolved in Viking Orbiter imagery. With very few exceptions, small-scale polygonal terrain occurs at middle to high latitudes of the northern and southern hemisphere in Hesperian-age geologic units. The largest concentration of this terrain occurs in the Utopia basin in close association with scalloped depressions (interpreted as thermokarst) and appears to represent an Amazonia event. The morphology and occurence of small polygonal terrain suggest they are either mud desiccation cracks or ice-wedge polygons. Because the small-scale polygons in Utopia and Argyre Planitiae are associated with other cold-climate permafrost or glacial features, an ice-wedge model is preferred for these areas. Both cracking mechanisms work most effectively in water- or ice-rich finegrained material and may imply the seasonal or episodic existence of liquid water at the surface.

Seibert, N. M.; Kargel, J. S.

2001-01-01

354

US-Japan Industry and Technology Management Training Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Japan Technology Management Program at the University of Michigan began in late September 1991. The Program operated under three separate grants from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the final one from September 1995-March 2000. The progra...

J. K. Liker

2000-01-01

355

Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments, FY 1997  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. A fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrates on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support. Assessments of materials needs and opportunities in the process industries are an on-going effort within the program. These assessments are being used for program planning and priority setting, followed by support of work to satisfy those needs. All the industries have identified materials as critical, particularly for high-temperature strength, corrosion resistance, and wear resistance. Also important from the energy efficiency viewpoint are membranes, catalytic membranes, and reactors for separations, both for processing and waste reduction. AIM focuses, therefore, on high-temperature materials, corrosion resistant materials, wear resistant materials, strong polymers, coatings, and membrane materials for industrial applications.

NONE

1998-05-01

356

Evaluation of the Industrial Maintenance Program at Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1982-83, a study was conducted at Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute to determine whether the objectives of the Industrial Maintenance Program were being met, to measure program success, and to identify aspects needing improvement. Surveys were sent to 30 students who graduated from the program before 1978, yielding a 57%…

Pipes, V. David

357

Following the Thread: Assessment and Meta-Assessment of the TFE Industry Student Mentoring Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an assessment of the four-year-old Textile and Fiber Engineering (TFE) Undergraduate Mentoring program at Georgia Institute of Technology. The TFE Undergraduate Mentoring Program is an industry mentor and undergraduate student mentee program that pairs undergraduate students (primarily freshmen) in the School of Textile and Fiber Engineering with alumni who have been working in the field for several

J. Joseph Hoey; Lynn Realff; Meredith Frazer; Denise Gardner

358

Evaluating the impact of a loyalty program: A case study in automobile industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there has been a rise in popularity of loyalty programs in various industries including airlines, retailers, and financial institutions. Loyalty programs typically provide customers with loyalty incentives such as points redeemable for discounts or prizes. However, there has been some debate on whether loyalty programs have significant impacts on increasing customer loyalty. In this talk, we present

Kwang-Jae Kim; Hyun-Jin Kim; Ryeok-Hwan Kwon

2010-01-01

359

Deciphering the V-Chip: An Examination of the Television Industry's Program Rating Judgments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the validity of the television industry's labeling of sensitive program content following the advent of the V-chip television ratings system. The analysis is based on a large program sample gathered from 10 of the most fre- quently viewed channels including broadcast network, independent broadcast, basic cable, and premium cable channels. Programs were examined for the na- ture

Dale Kunkel; Wendy Jo Maynard Farinola; Kirstie Farrar; Edward Donnerstein; Erica Biely; Lara Zwarun

2002-01-01

360

Options on Roles, Organization, and Programs of the Private Industry Council. Private Industry Council Training Series: 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook, developed by the National Alliance of Business, is designed as a tool for Private Industry Councils (PICs) in promoting permanent partnerships between public and private interests in training and employing the disadvantaged. Basic information on roles, organizational issues, and program activities of the PIC are considered in four…

National Alliance of Business, Inc., Washington, DC.

361

Collective backscattering of gyrotron radiation by small-scale plasma density fluctuations in large helical device  

SciTech Connect

A version of the collective backscattering diagnostic using gyrotron radiation for small-scale turbulence is described. The diagnostic is used to measure small-scale (k{sub s}{approx_equal}34 cm{sup -1}) plasma density fluctuations in large helical device experiments on the electron cyclotron heating of plasma with the use of 200 kW 82.7 GHz heating gyrotron. A good signal to noise ratio during plasma production phase was obtained, while contamination of stray light increased during plasma build-up phase. The effect of the stray radiation was investigated. The available quasioptical system of the heating system was utilized for this purpose.

Kharchev, Nikolay; Batanov, German; Petrov, Alexandr; Sarksyan, Karen; Skvortsova, Nina [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Vavilova 38, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Tanaka, Kenji; Kubo, Shin; Igami, Hiroe [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Azuma, Yoshifumi; Tsuji-Iio, Shunji [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-N1-11, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

2008-10-15

362

Small-scale self-focusing in a tapered optical beam.  

PubMed

The analysis of Bespalov and Talanov concerning small scale self-focusing or filamentation effects for plane waves is generalized to a tapered beam case in this paper. A model of nonlinear phase and amplitude perturbations different from Siegman's is suggested. The previous conclusion that self-focusing is very ineffectual for strongly tapered, both divergent and convergent, beams in optical Kerr media as compared to small-scale self-focusing in plane waves is found to be inappropriate. Moreover, the different conditions of phase matching in cases of cylindrical and spherical waves are explicated, which could throw some light on the issue. PMID:22945155

Jia, Huaiting; Xu, Bing; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Lidan

2012-09-01

363

Times of development and relaxation of artificial small-scale irregularities  

SciTech Connect

For the interpretation of results of studies of high-power shortwave action on the ionospheric F-layer plasma in the complex temporal regime of the pump wave radiation, it is necessary to know the characteristics of development and relaxation of the spectrum of the artificial ionospheric turbulence in the small-scale range. Results of the experimental studies are considered, and a comparison is made between the times of development and relaxation of artificial small-scale irregularities and their spectral charcteristics under the action of high-power radio waves at frequencies of 4.785 and 2.95 MHz on the ionospheric F-layer.

Belikovich, V.V.; Erukhimov, L.M.; Zyuzin, V.A.; Korobkov, Yu.S.; Maksimenko, O.M.; Nasyrov, A.M.; Sergeev, E.N.; Frolov, V.L.; Shavin, P.B.

1988-09-01

364

Perceived Value of Industrial Arts Teacher Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents the methodology and findings of a survey to determine the extent to which industrial arts teachers in Alberta, Canada, feel they are adequately prepared to teach in various technical areas at the junior and senior high levels. (Editor)|

Ross, Campbell J.; Young, Darius R.

1977-01-01

365

Fiscal year 1986 Department of Energy Authorization (uranium enrichment and electric energy systems, energy storage and small-scale hydropower programs). Volume VI. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Production of the Committee on Science and Technology, US House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session, February 28; March 5, 7, 1985  

SciTech Connect

Volume VI of the hearing record covers three days of testimony on the future of US uranium enrichment and on programs involving electric power and energy storage. There were four areas of concern about uranium enrichment: the choice between atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) and the advanced gas centrifuge (AGC) technologies, cost-effective operation of gaseous diffusion plants, plans for a gas centrifuge enrichment plant, and how the DOE will make its decision. The witnesses represented major government contractors, research laboratories, and energy suppliers. The discussion on the third day focused on the impact of reductions in funding for electric energy systems and energy storage and a small budget increase to encourage small hydropower technology transfer to the private sector. Two appendices with additional statements and correspondence follow the testimony of 17 witnesses.

Not Available

1985-01-01

366

Unit-Credit Titles under Program Headings, Directory. Technology Education: Vocational Industrial, Industrial Arts, Home Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This directory lists the unit-credit titles of the technology education courses offered in Manitoba, along with their corresponding department codes and course numbers. Sections A through C list the unit-credit titles of the following vocational-industrial clusters: heavy industrial (agriculture, auto body repair, building construction, building…

Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg. Curriculum Services Branch.

367

Program on purification of industrial waste water. Country paper: Botswana  

SciTech Connect

Botswana is a landlocked country which straddles the Tropic of Capricorn in the center of the Southern African plateau. The total land area of the country is 582,000 sq km and the population is about 1.3 million inhabitants. The climate is mainly arid or semi-arid. Most rivers are ephemeral and the water supply comes mainly from several thousand boreholes. A few dams have also been constructed to satisfy the ever increasing need for water in the urban areas, industrial as well as irrigation uses. Water is a very scarce commodity in Botswana and it has to be very well protected from any kind of pollution. This need is emphasized by the fact that a lot of wastewater is being generated due to rapid rate of industrialization because of favorable economic situation for the past few years. The main industries are at present mining and livestock industries. Besides tanning, metal plating, dairy and chemical industries, breweries are also causing pollution problems as well as oils and chemicals used in industries, garages and agriculture.

Magibisela, F.

1990-09-11

368

International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-SettingPrograms  

SciTech Connect

Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.

Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

2008-02-02

369

"It's Really Making a Difference": How Small-Scale Research Projects Can Enhance Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Following an internal evaluation exercise, using Action Research, this paper identifies the positive impact of small-scale research projects on teaching and learning at a single case study UK University. Clear evidence is given of how the projects benefited students and staff, and enhanced institutional culture. Barriers to better practice are…

Dexter, Barbara; Seden, Roy

2012-01-01

370

Limitations to the small scale yielding approximation for crack tip plasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Recent finite-element results by S. Cl. Larsson and A. J. Carlsson suggest a limited range of validity to the 'small scale yielding approximation', whereby small crack tip plastic zones are correlated in terms of the elastic stress intensity factor, It is shown with the help of a model for plane strain yielding that their results may be explained by

J. R. RICE

1974-01-01

371

Spectral line radiation from solar small-scale flux tubes. II  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine spectral line radiation from small-scale magnetic flux tubes in the solar atmosphere. This is a continuation of work by Kneer et al. (1996). The main difference with the previous investigation is in the choice of the external atmosphere. Earlier we adopted an atmosphere resembling the empirical quiet Sun model for the ambient medium. In the present study, we

S. S. Hasan; F. Kneer; W. Kalkofen

1998-01-01

372

Spectral line radiation from solar small-scale magnetic flux tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider spectral line radiation from small-scale magnetic model flux tubes in the solar atmosphere. The structure of the tube is determined from the magnetostatic equations in the thin flux tube approximation. We assume that the tube is in energy equilibrium and pressure balance with the ambient medium. For the latter, we construct a quiet sun model with an artificial

F. Kneer; S. S. Hasan; W. Kalkofen

1996-01-01

373

Parameter online identification of a small-scale unmanned aerial vehicle applying unscented kalman filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain the dynamic aerodynamic derivatives which are difficult to obtain through the wind tunnel experiments?» and to solve the issues of the strong nonlinear characteristics of small-scale unmanned aerial vehicle (SUAV), it is proposed that the parameter estimation method based on unscented kalman filter (UKF) utilizing the flight data. The augmented nonlinear state equations are established in terms of

Cunxiao Miao; Jiancheng Fang

2011-01-01

374

Estimating the impact of small-scale variability in satellite measurement validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The necessity of validating satellite measurements of atmospheric chemical constituents with supplementary in situ measurements leads to problems with interpretation of the inevitable differences that arise because of measurement resolution or imperfect collocation, especially for highly heterogeneous fields. In this paper the contribution of small-scale structure to measurement differences is estimated from high-resolution aircraft measurements of atmospheric trace gases. The

L. C. Sparling; J. C. Wei; L. M. Avallone

2006-01-01

375

Small Scale Plasma and Charged Aerosol Variations and Their Importance for Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1990 a number of campaigns have been conducted in order to study the small scale structure of charged as well as neutral species within Polar Mesosphere Summer Echo (PMSE) layers. Several VHF radars have been used to study this phenomenon from the ground (EISCAT, CUPRI, ALOMAR SOUSY) and sounding rockets have been launched through different types of PMSE layers.

T. A. Blix

1999-01-01

376

Small scale plasma and charged aerosol variations and their importance for polar mesosphere summer echoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1990 a number of campaigns have been conducted in order to study the small scale structure of charged as well as neutral species within Polar Mesosphere Summer Echo (PMSE) layers. Several VHF radars have been used to study this phenomenon from the ground (EISCAT, CUPRI, ALOMAR SOUSY) and sounding rockets have been launched through different types of PMSE layers.

T. A. Blix

1999-01-01

377

Optimization strategy for a small-scale reverse osmosis water desalination system based on solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimization strategy for the design and operation of a small-scale solar-powered reverse osmosis desalination system is presented. It has been analyzed and optimized with regard to power needs and energy consumption. Both quantities scale linearly with the concentration of the total dissolved salt (TDS) concentration in the feed solution. The desalination of brackish water at a TDS value of

H. M. Laborde; K. B. França; H. Neff; A. M. N. Lima

2001-01-01

378

A rapid, small-scale sedimentation method to predict breadmaking quality of hard winter wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Breeders and processors are always looking for rapid and accurate methods to evaluate wheat quality. A rapid small-scale hybrid sedimentation method was developed for predicting breadmaking quality of breeders samples by combining the sodium dodecyl-sulfate (SDS) sedimentation method (AACC 56-70) an...

379

A new type of small-scale downflow patches in sunspot penumbrae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context. Magnetic and flow structures in a sunspot penumbra are created by strong interplay between inclined magnetic fields and photospheric convection. They exhibit a complex nature that cannot always be explained by the well-known Evershed flow. Aims: A sunspot penumbra is observationally examined to reveal properties of small-scale flow structures and their relationship to the filamentary magnetic structures and the

Y. Katsukawa; J. Jurcák

2010-01-01

380

Estimates of Small-Scale Dissipation Rates and Eddy Viscosity From Satellite Altimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microstructure measurements of kinetic energy dissipation rate epsilon allow direct estimates of the eddy diffusivity due to small scale turbulence, but are expensive and of very limited coverage. Satellite altimeter data gives nearly global coverage, but only resolves geostrophically balanced, mesoscale and larger motions. Fortunately the multi-satellite data is sufficient to resolve the conversion from potential to kinetic energy at

R. B. Scott; B. K. Arbic; K. L. Polzin

2006-01-01

381

From large-scale to small-scale dynamos in a spherical shell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinematic dynamo action in a spherical shell is studied with a small-scale cellular prescribed velocity field. Three velocity fields are considered, all of which are axisymmetric and have a large-scale separation between the shell size and the dominant scale of the motion. The first flow is steady and strongly helical, so that a mean field dynamo might be expected. We find that indeed large-scale dynamo action is obtained at onset, but that the dynamo is of small-scale type at large magnetic Reynolds number Rm, where advection processes dominate and the magnetic field is generated on the scale of the cells in the flow. We study the transition between these two dynamo processes and find a gradual transition as Rm is increased, where the energy is slowly passed from the large scales to the small scales as the two dynamo processes morph into one another. The second flow, a time-dependent version of the first, produces almost identical results, but the transition appears to occur at smaller Rm than in the steady case and there is some evidence of fast dynamo action as Rm becomes large. The third flow, a nonhelical variant of the first flow, is also studied, and small-scale dynamo action was found at onset in this case, with a much larger critical value of Rm for growth of the magnetic field.

Richardson, K. J.; Hollerbach, R.; Proctor, M. R. E.

2012-10-01

382

Analysis of the load density of small-scale general selenographic maps of the moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative analysis of the load density of small-scale lunar maps is carried out. Crater counts were made over a normalized area. Analysis has shown that there exist only local differences in load density between the Lunar Astronautical Chart (U.S.) and the Soviet map of the equatorial zone of the visible hemisphere of the moon. The load density of the maps

K. B. Shingareva; V. P. Shashkina

1975-01-01

383

Incorporating indigenous knowledge of fodder trees into small-scale silvopastoral systems in Jamaica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to identify and explore indigenous knowledge relating to fodder trees and silvopastoral management systems of small-scale farmers in seasonally dry areas of Jamaica. The objectives of the study were to: 1) explore farmers indigenous knowledge relating to fodder trees and silvopastoral management systems in a subtropical dry climate; 2) examine pastoral land-use systems and technologies in

B. J. Morrison; M. A. Gold; D. O. Lantagne

1996-01-01

384

The treatment of domestic wastewater using small-scale vermicompost filter beds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to quantify the effect of filter bed depth and solid waste inputs on the performance of small-scale vermicompost filter beds that treat the soluble contaminants within domestic wastewater. The study also aims to identify environmental conditions within the filters by quantifying the oxygen content and pH of wastewater held within it. Vermicompost is being

M Taylor; W. P Clarke; P. F Greenfield

2003-01-01

385

Small-Scale Bullying Prevention Discussion Video for Classrooms: A Preliminary Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bullying has been shown to be negatively related to both academic performance and attendance among students. The present study examined a small-scale bullying intervention using a video-discussion model. Eighty-one students in grades 4 through 6 completed pre- and posttests examining gains in knowledge of bullying and responses to it. Results…

Migliaccio, Todd; Raskauskas, Juliana

2013-01-01

386

Assessing Arsenic Removal by Metal (Hydr)Oxide Adsorptive Media Using Rapid Small Scale Column Tests  

EPA Science Inventory

The rapid small scale column test (RSSCT) was use to evaluate the the performance of eight commercially available adsorptive media for the removal of arsenic. Side-by-side tests were conducted using RSSCTs and pilot/full-scale systems either in the field or in the laboratory. ...

387

Development of an optical system for high-speed, small-scale velocity measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical system was developed to allow the accurate focussing and alignment of small scale samples for velocity analysis with streak photography. Even at low magnifications, the small streak slits required meant that any vibration or instability in the system would greatly reduce the accuracy of the velocity measurements achieved. Therefore, the optical system was designed to reduce the effects

H. R. Davies; D. J. Chapman; T. A. Vine; W. G. Proud

2009-01-01

388

Heliospheric evolution of solar wind small-scale magnetic flux ropes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from the first comprehensive small-scale flux rope survey between 0.3 and 5.5 AU using the Helios 1, Helios 2, IMP 8, Wind, ACE, and Ulysses spacecrafts to examine their occurrence rate, properties, and evolution. Small-scale flux ropes are similar to magnetic clouds and can be modeled as a constant-alpha, force-free, cylindrically symmetric flux rope. They differ from magnetic clouds in that they have durations on the order of tens of minutes up to a few hours, they lack an expansion signature at 1 AU, and they do not have a depressed proton temperature compared to the surrounding solar wind plasma. The occurrence rate of small-scale flux ropes is slightly higher in the inner heliosphere than the outer heliosphere and has a weak dependence on the phase of the solar cycle. The duration of the events as a function of radial distance indicates there is a large, rapid expansion within 1 AU and it becomes constant in the outer heliosphere. This behavior implies small-scale flux ropes are created and nearly complete their evolution within 1 AU.

Cartwright, M. L.; Moldwin, M. B.

2010-08-01

389

Biomimetic Micro Air Vehicle Testing Development and Small Scale Flapping-Wing Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this research was to develop testing methods capable of analyzing the performance of a miniature flapping-wing mechanism that can later be adapted for the development a biomimetic flapping-wing micro air vehicle (MAV). Three small scale fla...

C. E. Svanberg

2008-01-01

390

Plant species richness and spatial organization at different small scales in western Mediterranean landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between plant species richness and the space organization of the community at different small scales was studied. The study was based on 51 sites distributed along a belt from Central Spain to Portugal. Each site was analyzed with a transect cutting across the boundary between two neighboring patches of shrubland and grassland. Local spatial organization of vegetation was

J. M. De. Miguel; L. Ramírez-Sanz; I. Castro; M. Costa-Tenorio; M. A. Casado; F. D. Pineda

2005-01-01

391

Development of Biogas Processing for Small Scale Cattle Farm in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small scale cattle farm in Indonesia in average has 2 - 5 heads that spread on wide area. Such conditions made difficult to handle the waste wisely by integration to the farming system in order to minimize negative effects on environment. Generally, farmer manage the waste in simple way, such as by composting or spread directly into farming field. To

Teguh Wikan Widodo; Agung Hendriadi

392

Guide for the Small-Scale Fishery Administrator: Information from the Harvest Sector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guide was prepared as a general resource document for individuals in developing countries who either require or are responsible for providing information which is used for making policy decisions which affect small-scale fisheries. Its purpose is a p...

D. Stevenson R. B. Pollnac P. Logan

1982-01-01

393

"It's Really Making a Difference": How Small-Scale Research Projects Can Enhance Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following an internal evaluation exercise, using Action Research, this paper identifies the positive impact of small-scale research projects on teaching and learning at a single case study UK University. Clear evidence is given of how the projects benefited students and staff, and enhanced institutional culture. Barriers to better practice are…

Dexter, Barbara; Seden, Roy

2012-01-01

394

Sustainable rural livelihoods? Evaluating the potential of small?scale aquaculture in the Western Cape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural unemployment is exacerbated by the decrease in demand for farm labour on commercial farms; therefore, alternative livelihood opportunities for rural dwellers require investigation. The production of fish inform dams offers such an opportunity. A research project was undertaken to evaluate the potential of small?scale aquaculture to create sustainable rural livelihoods. An existing aquaculture project in De Dooms in the

Najma Mohamed; Belinda Dodson

1998-01-01

395

Waalbot: An Agile Small-Scale Wall-Climbing Robot Utilizing Dry Elastomer Adhesives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a small-scale agile wall-climbing robot, which is able to climb on smooth vertical surfaces using flat adhesive elastomer materials for attachment. Using two actuated legs with rotary motion and two passive revolute joints at each foot, this robot can climb and steer in any orientation. Due to its compact design, a high degree of miniaturization is possible.

Michael P. Murphy; Metin Sitti

2007-01-01

396

Waalbot: An Agile Small-Scale Wall Climbing Robot Utilizing Pressure Sensitive Adhesives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a small-scale agile wall climb- ing robot able to navigate on smooth surfaces of any orientation, including vertical and inverted surfaces, which uses adhesive elastomer materials for attachment. Using two actuated legs with rotary motion and two passive revolute joints at each foot the robot can climb and steer in any orientation. Due to its compact design,

Michael P. Murphy; William Tso; Michael Tanzini; Metin Sitti

2006-01-01

397

Detecting Answer Copying Using Alternate Test Forms and Seat Locations in Small-Scale Examinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two types of answer-copying statistics for detecting copiers in small-scale examinations are proposed. One statistic identifies the "copier-source" pair, and the other in addition suggests who is copier and who is source. Both types of statistics can be used when the examination has alternate test forms. A simulation study shows that the…

van der Ark, L. Andries; Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas

2008-01-01

398

SMALL SCALE LIMIT THEOREMS FOR THE INTERSECTION LOCAL TIMES OF BROWNIAN MOTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we contribute to the investigation of the fractal nature of the intersection local time measure on the intersection of independent Brownian paths. We particularly point out the difference in the small scale behaviour of the intersection local times in three-dimensional space and in the plane by studying almost sure limit theorems motivated by the notion of average

Peter Morters; Narn-Rueih Shieh

1999-01-01

399

DESIGN OF RAPID SMALL-SCALE ADSORPTION TESTS FOR A CONSTANT DIFFUSIVITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The rapid small-scale column test (RSSCT), a physical model of a fixed bed, was developed and evaluated experimentally to simulate full-scale adsorber performance. The RSSCT can simulate months of full-scale adsorber operation in several days; however, some isotherms and kinetic ...

400

Measurement of Small-Scale CMB Anisotropy with the Viper Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viper is a 2-meter off-axis telescope designed to measure small-scale anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. The spatial sensitivity of this instrument (50 < l < 800) was chosen to provide maximum discrimination between competing cosmological models. We present data taken with a 40 GHz HEMT receiver at Amundsen-Scott Station, Antarctica, and discuss future applications of the instrument.

Griffin, G.; Peterson, J.; Newcomb, M.; Alvarez, D.; Cantalupo, C.; Morgan, D.; Vincent, M.; Miller, K.

1998-05-01

401

Modelling, simulation and testing of grid connected small scale wind systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will show the theory, simulation and application of maximum power point tracking for small scale wind turbines. The theoretical section of this paper will cover modelling of the wind turbine, the and the power electronic converters (the full-bridge DC\\/DC converter and the grid connected current controlled voltage source inverter (CCVSI)). It is shown that by controlling the duty

James Darbyshire; Chem V. Nayar

2007-01-01

402

Evaluation of Small Scale Biogas Digesters in Turiani, Nronga and Amani, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary • The study was carried out in rural areas of Tanzania, where we were looking at the function and adoption of low cost small scale biogas digesters made of plastic. Our work was accomplished with the help from a Tanzanian non governmental organization, SURUDE, who has been responsible for installing the digesters. In spite of a general satisfaction with

Lotte Cortsen; Malene Lassen; Helle K. Nielsen

403

The role of artisanal and small-scale mining in China's economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last decades have seen increased international attention paid to a number of features of artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM). The beneficial roles of ASM in society and the economy in many countries, however, are often overlooked, while its negative impacts dominate official press coverage and scholarly publications of the sector. Through a review of the available literature and statistics,

Lei Shen; Aaron James Gunson

2006-01-01

404

Possible Effects of Small-Scale Intermittency in Turbulent Reacting Flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now well established that quantities such as energy dissipation, scalar dissipation and enstrophy possess huge fluctuations in turbulent flows, and that the fluctuations become increasingly stronger with increasing Reynolds number of the flow. The effects of this small-scale “intermittenc” on various aspects of reacting flows have not been addressed fully. This paper draws brief attention to a few

K. R. Sreenivasan

2004-01-01

405

Evaluating Small-Scale Enterprise Promotion: State-of-the-Art, Methodologies and Future Alternatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of a project to develop a handbook to evaluate the impact of small-scale enterprise (SSE) projects, this state-of-the-art paper reviews methodologies currently used in evaluating SSE projects. After defining common terms of reference for SSE pract...

S. G. Goldmark J. Rosengard

1981-01-01

406

Development of a Small-Scale Natural Gas Liquefier. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gas Technology Institute (GTI), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Brookhaven National Lab, developed and tested a pre-commercial small-scale natural gas liquefaction system. This cryogenic technology has potential use in a variety ...

K. Kountz K. Kriha W. Liss M. Perry M. Richards

2003-01-01

407

36. ECONOMIC PROSPECTS OF SMALL-SCALE TREE FARMS IN BONTOC, SOUTHERN LEYTE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to investigate the economic returns of subsistence farmers from small- scale tree farms in Bontoc Municipality, Southern Leyte, and the reasons that influence attitudes of farmers towards tree domestication. Yemani (Gmelina arborea Roxb.) and big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla king.) are the most commonly planted timber species in Southern Leyte. They are frequently planted as intercrops in

Anatolio N. Polinar

408

A Small-Scale Concept-Based Laboratory Component: The Best of Both Worlds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we describe an exploratory study of a small-scale, concept-driven, voluntary laboratory component of Introductory Biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. We wished to investigate whether students' attitudes toward biology and their understanding of basic biological principles would improve through concept-based…

Halme, Dina Gould; Khodor, Julia; Mitchell, Rudolph; Walker, Graham C.

2006-01-01

409

Vascular plants and small-scale spatial heterogeneity in semi-natural grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abiotic factors such as variation in micro topography, soil properties, light and microsite composition can create small-scale heterogeneity and influence plant assemblages. Apart from abiotic factors many biotic sources can increase heterogeneity. Factors such as grazing, ant mounds, spiny and unpalatable plants, trees and shrubs have strong influences on plant communities. Grazing animals can significantly influence grassland heterogeneity by

Aina Pihlgren

2005-01-01

410

African Hot Spot Volcanism: Small-Scale Convection in the Upper Mantle Beneath Cratons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical models demonstrate that small-scale convection develops in the upper mantle beneath the transition of thick cratonic lithosphere and thin oceanic lithosphere. These models explain the location and geochemical characteristics of intraplate volcanos on the African and South American plates. They also explain the presence of relatively high seismic shear wave velocities (cold downwellings) in the mantle transition zone beneath

Scott D. King; Jeroen Ritsema

2000-01-01

411

SMALL-SCALE RECOVERY AND SEPARATION OF ACTINIDES USING TRI-n-BUTYL PHOSPHATE EXTRACTION CHROMATOGRAPHY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small-scale recovery and separation of the actinides U, Np, Pu and Am using the commercial product, Lewatit OC 1023. has been studied. Conditions under which these actinides may be extracted or eluted and methods for separation of any combination of these elements are presented. A separation scheme for all four actinides achieved complete separation of Np from U and

Neil V. Jarvis

1989-01-01

412

A Wind Tunnel Investigation of a Small-Scale Tiltrotor Model in Descending Flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small-scale tiltrotor model was tested in the 7- by 10-foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center, with the goal of better understanding Vortex Ring State (VRS) effects on tiltrotor aircraft. Test objectives were to obtain performance data of a tiltrotor model over a wide range of descent conditions, to explore the effects of sideslip at these descent conditions,

Anita I. Abrego

413

Model and Small-Scale Tests to Evaluate the Performance of Drag Anchors in Combination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Model and small-scale field tests of high efficiency anchors in tandem (piggy back) and in parallel have been performed to evaluate the feasibility of using anchors in combination to satisfy expanded Navy fleet mooring requirements. This report presents t...

G. R. Walker R. J. Taylor

1984-01-01

414

High throughput construction and small scale expression screening of multi-tag vectors in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suite of protein fusion vectors is presented that has been designed so that nine separate fusion vectors can be constructed from one PCR product using InFusion™ cloning. These vectors in combination with a small scale Escherichia coli expression screen can be used to assess in parallel the effect of fusion tags on solubility. The vectors were tested with 20

Louise E. Bird

2011-01-01

415

Large-Eddy Simulations of Radiatively Driven Convection: Sensitivities to the Representation of Small Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-eddy simulations of a smoke cloud are examined with respect to their sensitivity to small scales as manifest in either the grid spacing or the subgrid-scale (SGS) model. Calculations based on a Smagorinsky SGS model are found to be more sensitive to the effective resolution of the simulation than are calculations based on the prognostic turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) SGS

Bjorn Stevens; Chin-Hoh Moeng; Peter P. Sullivan

1999-01-01

416

Fuel From Farms: A Guide to Small-Scale Ethanol Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ethanol and blends of ethanol and gasoline (such as gasohol) offer a near-term fuel alternative to oil. The focus of this handbook is upon the small-scale production of ethanol using farm crops as the source of raw materials. Provided are chapters on ethanol production procedures, feedstocks, plant design, and financial planning. Also presented…

Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO.

417

A Detailed Procedure for the Use of Small-Scale Photography in Land Use Classification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A procedure developed to produce accurate land use maps from available high-altitude, small-scale photography in a cost-effective manner is presented. An alternative procedure, for use when the capability for updating the resultant land use map is not req...

P. L. Vegas

1974-01-01

418

Simple Assessment Techniques for Soil and Water. Environmental Factors in Small Scale Development Projects. Workshops.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet was produced in response to the growing need for reliable environmental assessment techniques that can be applied to small-scale development projects. The suggested techniques emphasize low-technology environmental analysis. Although these techniques may lack precision, they can be extremely valuable in helping to assure the success…

Coordination in Development, New York, NY.

419

Zero-current transition flyback inverter for small scale wind power generation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a zero-current transition (ZCT) flyback inverter for small scale wind power generation systems. Although the proposed system has such small output power as 500 W, a few sets of wind power generation systems can be easily connected in parallel for the higher output power requirements. When the wind power generation system is constructed by a lot of

Nobuyuki Kasa; Takahiko Iida

2006-01-01

420

Simple Assessment Techniques for Soil and Water. Environmental Factors in Small Scale Development Projects. Workshops.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet was produced in response to the growing need for reliable environmental assessment techniques that can be applied to small-scale development projects. The suggested techniques emphasize low-technology environmental analysis. Although these techniques may lack precision, they can be extremely valuable in helping to assure the success…

Coordination in Development, New York, NY.

421

small-scale Flame Tests on Fire-Retardant Conveyor Belting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two small-scale flame tests used for determining the suitability of conveyor belting intended for underground mines, the National Coal Board (NCB) and the modified Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) tests, were ap plied to two series of conveyor belting. The results indicate that the NCB test is on average more severe, but that it has more scatter. The two

J. Szymanski; K. J. Mintz

1986-01-01

422

Development of different spatial frames of reference for orientation in small-scale environments.  

PubMed

Background: Previous studies show that there is a developmental transition in the frames of reference children use to orientate from a body-centered to an allocentric strategy. However, there is no agreement concerning the age at which they begin to integrate and flexibly use both strategies in small-scale environments. Method: 6-10-year-old children and adults were trained to locate a hidden object in an arm-maze placed within a small-scale model, which maintained stable relationships with the frames of reference provided by the experimental room and by the subject (Experiment 1), and in a situation of inconsistency between the frame provided by the small-scale model and the other two (Experiment 2). Results: When the frames of reference provided by the room and by the subject conflict with that of the manipulative space, the performance deteriorates compared to the situation when multiple frames of reference can be used cooperatively to locate the goal. The flexible use of the information provided by the model (i.e., the cues surrounding the maze and the geometrical features) emerged at 10 years. Conclusions: Through development, children acquire new spatial abilities and increasing flexibility in the conjoint use of egocentric and allocentric frames of reference in small-scale environments. PMID:24124779

Moraleda, Enrique; Broglio, Cristina; Rodríguez, Fernando; Gómez, Antonia

2013-11-01

423

Small-scale hydro power study of non-technical barriers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of the study reported here were: (i) to identify all real and perceived non-technical barriers and their effects on the exploitation and commercial development of small scale hydro power projects in the UK; (ii) to determine ways in which s...

1990-01-01

424

Small-scale health-related indicator acquisition using secondary data spatial interpolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Due to the lack of small-scale neighbourhood-level health related indicators, the analysis of social and spatial determinants of health often encounter difficulties in assessing the interrelations of neighbourhood and health. Although secondary data sources are now becoming increasingly available, they usually cannot be directly utilized for analysis in other than the designed study due to sampling issues. This paper

Gang Meng; Jane Law; Mary E Thompson

2010-01-01

425

Small-scale, hydrogen-oxidizing-denitrifying bioreactor for treatment of nitrate-contaminated drinking water  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nitrate removal by hydrogen-coupled denitrification was examined using flow-through, packed-bed bioreactors to develop a small-scale, cost effective system for treating nitrate-contaminated drinking-water supplies. Nitrate removal was accomplished using a Rhodocyclus sp., strain HOD 5, isolated fro...

426

Thermoelectric materials 1998 -- The next generation materials for small-scale refrigeration and power generation applications  

SciTech Connect

Thermoelectric materials are used in a wide variety of applications related to small-scale solid-state refrigeration or power generation. Over the past 30 years, alloys based on the Bi-Te compounds (refrigeration) [(Bi[sub 1[minus]x]Sb[sub x])[sub 2] (Te[sub 1[minus]x]Se[sub x])[sub 3

Tritt, T.M. (ed.) (Clemson Univ., SC (United States)); Kanatzidis, M.G. (ed.) (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)); Mahan, G.D. (ed.) (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)); Lyon, H.B. Jr. (ed.) (Marlow Industries, Dallas, TX (United States))

1999-01-01

427

Small scale biomass heating systems: Standards, quality labelling and market driving factors – An EU outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study a comparative evaluation of several existing quality labels and standards for small scale biomass heating systems (BHS) and the biomass fuels they use was performed. With the introduction of pellet fuels, biomass heating technology achieved enough maturity to successfully compete with oil\\/gas heating devices in terms of ease of use, utilization of energy and pollutant emissions.From

V. K. Verma; S. Bram; J. De Ruyck

2009-01-01

428

A Lagrangian, small-scale investigation of turbulent entrainment in an axisymmetric jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) was applied to study turbulent entrainment in an axisymmetric jet at Re = 5000. Several single-point flow statistics are used to characterize the general flow field of our newly designed jet facility, proving that a self-preserving axisymmetric jet could be established. An analysis of the Lagrangian evolution of small scale quantities, such as vorticity and strain,

M Wolf; B Lüthi; M Holzner; A Liberzon; D Krug; A Tsinober

2011-01-01

429

A comparison of Miller and Otto cycle natural gas engines for small scale CHP applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an investigation into the feasibility and potential advantages of a small scale Miller cycle natural gas engine for applications such as domestic combined heat and power systems. The Miller cycle engine is compared to a standard Otto cycle engine using cycle analyses and multidimensional simulation, and basic engine design implications are discussed. It is found that the

R. Mikalsen; Y. D. Wang; A. P. Roskilly

2009-01-01

430

Applicability of two mobile analysers for mercury in urine in small-scale gold mining areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury is still used in developing countries to extract gold from the ore in small-scale gold mining areas. This is a major health hazard for people living in mining areas. The concentration of mercury in urine was analysed in different mining areas in Zimbabwe, Indonesia and Tanzania. First the urine samples were analysed by CV-AAS (cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry)

Jennifer Baeuml; Stephan Bose-O’Reilly; Beate Lettmeier; Alexandra Maydl; Katalin Messerer; Gabriele Roider; Gustav Drasch; Uwe Siebert

431

Joint multi-scale statistics of longitudinal and transversal increments in small-scale wake turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyse the relationship of longitudinal and transversal increment statistics measured in isotropic small-scale turbulence. This is done by means of the theory of Markov processes leading to a phenomenological Fokker Planck equation for the two increments from which a generalized Kármán equation is derived. We discuss in detail the analysis and show that the estimated equation can describe the

M. Siefert; J. Peinke

2006-01-01

432

Economic responses to the closure of small-scale coal mines in Chongqing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1998, China launched a programme to close tens of thousands of small-scale coal mines within just three years. Few measures were put in place to mitigate the negative impacts. This paper reports on a study in the Chongqing Municipality of south-west China, with the aims of identifying the economic impacts of the mine closure campaign and examining what factors

Philip Andrews-Speed; Guo Ma; Bingjia Shao; Chenglin Liao

2005-01-01

433

Potential for small-scale, decentralized energy sources and the Federal role in their development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea that the solution to our energy problems is to be found in an expanded role for small-scale, decentralized energy sources, particularly solar energy, has gained considerable attention and increasing respectability in recent years. One of the most articulate spokesmen for this point of view is Denis Hayes. Mr. Hayes explained his perspective on the energy problem to an

1978-01-01

434

Current Status of Industrial Hygiene Degree Programs in U.S. Colleges and Universities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this investigation was to assess the subject matter being taught to students in professional Industrial Hygiene degree programs and to determine the uniformity of the training received. A questionnaire was developed and mailed to 35 college...

D. R. Crotchett

1979-01-01

435

Prioritized schedule for review of industrial safety and occupational health programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document provides the rationale and criteria for developing a schedule for reviewing the Industrial Safety and Occupational Health programs for the Management and Operating Contractor (MOC) of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The reviews will evaluat...

1996-01-01

436

78 FR 12251 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Public Meeting and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EERE-2013-BT-STD-0006] RIN 1904-AC55 Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial...and Blowers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department...Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,...

2013-02-22

437

78 FR 64024 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. app 2) and implementing regulation 41 CFR part 101-6, announcement is made for the following committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy...

2013-10-25

438

U.S Department of Energy (DOE) Industrial Programs and Their Impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energys (DOEs) Industrial Technologies Program (ITP), within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, has been working with industry since 1976 to encourage the development and adoption of new, energy-efficient technologies. ITPs cost-shared research, development and demonstration (RD&D), technology transfer, and information-sharing efforts have helped industry not only use energy and materials more efficiently, but

Steven A. Weakley; Joseph M. Roop

2005-01-01

439

School Shops. Layouts, Justifications, Equipment for Trade and Industrial Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggestions for school shops are presented in three general areas--(1) planning, (2) layouts, and (3) tools and equipment. Within the planning area, two types of shop programs are discussed--(1) industrial arts education, and (2) trade and industrial education. Layouts and floor plans are provided for the following shops: auto mechanics, building…

Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson.

440

Input-output goal programming model for management planning of sericulture industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A resource allocation methodology, using a combined input-output analysis and goal programming approach, is presented to provide a solution to the problem of multiple-use management planning or sericulture industry. An application or the model using the data from the Indian sericulture industry is described. The model helps in analysing the implications of changes in the priorities in the achievement of

N. SINGH; D. N. PANDA

1989-01-01

441

School Shops. Layouts, Justifications, Equipment for Trade and Industrial Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggestions for school shops are presented in three general areas--(1) planning, (2) layouts, and (3) tools and equipment. Within the planning area, two types of shop programs are discussed--(1) industrial arts education, and (2) trade and industrial education. Layouts and floor plans are provided for the following shops: auto mechanics, building…

Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson.

442

FINS: A Guide to the LaConner School District's Program In Fishing Industry Specialization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fishing Industry Specialization, or FINS, is a 2-year alternative education program designed in 1979 by the LaConner (Washington) School District to encourage high school completion by students wanting to enter the fishing industry. With encouragement from the Swinomish Indian Tribe and help from an active citizens advisory board, school…

Avery, Paul J.; And Others

443

Industry involvement in the Women in Applied Science and Engineering (WISE) recruiting and retention programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industry has recognized that the employment of women and minorities is critical in maintaining a diverse and progressive engineering environment. It has played a significant role in the Women in Applied Science and Engineering (WISE) recruitment programs. For example, industry has offered financial support, sponsored company tours and initiated the participation of engineers to serve as educators and speakers for

Shawna Fletcher; Mary R. Anderson-Rowland; Stephanie Blaisdell

1998-01-01

444

Large grazers modify effects of aboveground-belowground interactions on small-scale plant community composition.  

PubMed

Aboveground and belowground organisms influence plant community composition by local interactions, and their scale of impact may vary from millimeters belowground to kilometers aboveground. However, it still poorly understood how large grazers that select their forage on large spatial scales interact with small-scale aboveground-belowground interactions on plant community heterogeneity. Here, we investigate how cattle (Bos taurus) modify the effects of interactions between yellow meadow ants (Lasius flavus) and European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) on the formation of small-scale heterogeneity in vegetation composition. In the absence of cattle, hares selectively foraged on ant mounds, while under combined grazing by hares and cattle, vertebrate grazing pressure was similar on and off mounds. Ant mounds that were grazed by only hares had a different plant community composition compared to their surroundings: the cover of the grazing-intolerant grass Elytrigia atherica was reduced on ant mounds, whereas the relative cover of the more grazing-tolerant and palatable grass Festuca rubra was enhanced. Combined grazing by hares and cattle, resulted in homogenization of plant community composition on and off ant mounds, with high overall cover of F. rubra. We conclude that hares can respond to local ant-soil-vegetation interactions, because they are small, selective herbivores that make their foraging decisions on a local scale. This results in small-scale plant patches on mounds of yellow meadow ants. In the presence of cattle, which are less selective aboveground herbivores, local plant community patterns triggered by small-scale aboveground-belowground interactions can disappear. Therefore, cattle modify the consequences of aboveground-belowground interactions for small-scale plant community composition. PMID:21863246

Veen, G F Ciska; Geuverink, Elzemiek; Olff, Han

2011-08-24

445

New framework for analyzing the effects of small scale inhomogeneities in cosmology  

SciTech Connect

We develop a new, mathematically precise framework for treating the effects of nonlinear phenomena occurring on small scales in general relativity. Our approach is an adaptation of Burnett's formulation of the shortwave approximation, which we generalize to analyze the effects of matter inhomogeneities as well as gravitational radiation. Our framework requires the metric to be close to a background metric, but allows arbitrarily large stress-energy fluctuations on small scales. We prove that, within our framework, if the matter stress-energy tensor satisfies the weak energy condition (i.e., positivity of energy density in all frames), then the only effect that small-scale inhomogeneities can have on the dynamics of the background metric is to provide an effective stress-energy tensor that is traceless and has positive energy density-corresponding to the presence of gravitational radiation. In particular, nonlinear effects produced by small-scale inhomogeneities cannot mimic the effects of dark energy. We also develop perturbation theory off of the background metric. We derive an equation for the long-wavelength part of the leading order deviation of the metric from the background metric, which contains the usual terms occurring in linearized perturbation theory plus additional contributions from the small-scale inhomogeneities. Under various assumptions concerning the absence of gravitational radiation and the nonrelativistic behavior of the matter, we argue that the short-wavelength deviations of the metric from the background metric near a point x should be accurately described by Newtonian gravity, taking into account only the matter lying within a homogeneity length scale of x. Finally, we argue that our framework should provide an accurate description of the actual universe.

Green, Stephen R.; Wald, Robert M. [Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2011-04-15

446

NASA-Industry Education Initiative: Education Programs Report 1991.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The NASA-Industry Education Initiative (NIEI) is the response of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and its private-sector contractors to the education crisis. Findings from the initial survey show that support for NIEI appears to be strong among the organizations surveyed and there is a significant level of cooperation…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

447

Teaching Resource Recovery in Industrial Arts. Resource Recovery Education Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide, one component of the Resource Recovery Education Kit (See SO 007 866 for a description), contains ideas and activities for teaching about solid waste disposal in secondary level industrial arts classes. Among the course objectives are the following: (1) to understand that litter represents a small but highly visible portion of our…

National Center for Resource Recovery, Inc., Washington, DC.

448

Integrated architecture for industrial robot programming and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

As robot control systems are traditionally closed, it is difficult to add supplementary intelligence. Accordingly, as based on a new notion of user views, a layered system architecture is proposed. Bearing in mind such industrial demands as computing efficiency and simple factory-floor operation, the control layers are parameterized by means of functional operators consisting of pieces of compiled code that

Klas Nilsson; Rolf Johansson

1999-01-01

449

Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Process: Health Programs. Research and Development Report No. 53: Interim Report No. 28, July 1, 1977--June 30, 1978. Volume III. Pilot Plant Development Work. Part 4. Industrial Hygiene, Clinical, and Toxicological Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major areas of activity within the Health Programs are: an industrial hygiene monitoring program, a clinical medical examination program, an educational and personal hygiene program, and a toxicological program. Continuing industrial hygiene monitorin...

1979-01-01

450

Process-oriented off-line programming of industrial robots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major problem when using off-line programming system is today's robot-based workcells still is that for more complex tasks like e.g. arc welding, general coating, grinding or laser-based applications, the support by these programming tools is poor. Particularly, together with intricate workpieces designed from free-form surfaces (e.g. NURBS) the programming of the desired robot motion still requires a lot of manual, teach-in like work by the programmer. This paper presents two approaches which now support the programmer in a comprehensive manner to solve this problem efficiently.

Freund, Eckhard; Rokossa, D.; Rossmann, Juergen

1998-10-01

451

Establishment of a Graduate Certificate Program in Biobased Industrial Products – Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

A certificate of graduate studies in Biobased Industrial Products is to be established at Kansas State University (KSU) along with the development of a similar program at Pittsburg State University, Pittsburg, KS. At KSU, the program of study will be coordinated through the steering committee of the Agricultural Products Utilization Forum (APUF); the certificate of graduate studies will be awarded through the Graduate School of Kansas State University. This certificate will establish an interdisciplinary program of study that will: (1) ensure participating students receive a broad education in several disciplines related to Biobased Industrial Products, (2) provide a documented course of study for students preferring a freestanding certificate program, and (3) provide a paradigm shift in student awareness away from petroleum-based feedstocks to the utilization of renewable resources for fuels and chemical feedstocks. The academic program described herein will accomplish this goal by: (1) providing exposure to several academic disciplines key to Biobased Industrial Products; (2) improving university/industry collaboration through an external advisory board, distance learning opportunities, and student internships; (3) expanding the disciplines represented on the students' supervisory committee; (4) establishing a seminar series on Biobased Industrial Products that draws upon expert speakers representing several disciplines; and (5) increasing collaboration between disciplines. Numerous research programs emphasizing Biobased Industrial Products currently exist at KSU and PSU. The certificate of graduate studies, the emphasis on interdisciplinary collaboration within the students? thesis research, the proposed seminar series, and formation of an industrial advisory board will: (1) provide an interdisciplinary academic experience that spans several departments, four colleges, four research centers, and two universities; (2) tangibly promote collaboration between KSU and PSU; (3) catalyze involvement of plant geneticists with researchers active in the development and utilization of biobased industrial products; and, (4) promote university/industry collaboration.

John R. Schlup

2005-11-04

452

Utility energy conservation programs for the pulp and paper industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy conservation has been alive and well in the pulp and paper industry for many years. In the early 70s and 80s, each paper mill or organization worked independently to reduce their total energy consumption. Now in the 1990s, federal and state legislation (i.e. State of Minnesota Omnibus Energy Bill) make it advantageous for pulp and paper mills to share

P. L. Jackson; W. L. Bundschuh; M. D. Weaver; J. R. Thompson

1994-01-01

453

Development of a technology orientated programming system for industrial robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disassembly of used goods is characterized by strongly varying quantities and a wide range of different kinds and states\\u000a of products. Furthermore, the requirements of a disassembly system are determined by the disassembly object, by the process\\u000a as well as by the disassembly system itself. As a result of the high labor costs in industrial countries and the huge

Eckart Uhlmann; Thomas Friedrich; Nayim Bayat

2008-01-01

454

Environmental Monitoring and the Gas Industry: Program Manager Handbook  

SciTech Connect

This document has been developed for the nontechnical gas industry manager who has the responsibility for the development of waste or potentially contaminated soil and groundwater data or must make decisions based on such data for the management or remediation of these materials. It explores the pse of common analytical chemistry instrumentation and associated techniques for identification of environmentally hazardous materials. Sufficient detail is given to familiarize the nontechnical reader with the principles behind the operation of each technique. The scope and realm of the techniques and their constituent variations are portrayed through a discussion of crucial details and, where appropriate, the depiction of real-life data. It is the author's intention to provide an easily understood handbook for gas industry management. Techniques which determine the presence, composition, and quantification of gas industry wastes are discussed. Greater focus is given to traditional techniques which have been the mainstay of modem analytical benchwork. However, with the continual advancement of instrumental principles and design, several techniques have been included which are likely to receive greater attention in fiture considerations for waste-related detection. Definitions and concepts inherent to a thorough understanding of the principles common to analytical chemistry are discussed. It is also crucial that gas industry managers understand the effects of the various actions which take place before, during, and after the actual sampling step. When a series of sample collection, storage, and transport activities occur, new or inexperienced project managers may overlook or misunderstand the importance of the sequence. Each step has an impact on the final results of the measurement process; errors in judgment or decision making can be costly. Specific techniques and methodologies for the collection, storage, and transport of environmental media samples are not described or discussed in detail in thk handbook. However, the underlying philosophy regarding the importance of proper collection, storage, and transport practices, as well as pertinent references, are presented.

Gregory D. Gillispie

1997-12-01

455

Developing an Industry-Education Community: The United Auto Workers/General Motors Quality Educator Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper we review the evolution of the Quality Educator Program (QEP), a program sponsored by the United Auto Workers (UAW)/General Motors (GM) that employs school teachers, administrators, and college and university faculty each summer in GM assembly plants. The QEP provides educators and those in industry the unique opportunity to…

Jacobson, Stephen; Walline, James

2010-01-01

456

Exemplary Program Criteria 1985-1986. Pennsylvania Industrial Arts Technology Education. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These criteria are designed for use by teachers and administrators to conduct a self-assessment of an industrial arts program for students and thus identify outstanding programs. General criteria are grouped under 12 standards: purpose, administration and supervision, learning resources, finances, instruction, equipment, facilities, instructional…

Stoudt, John; And Others

457

Programmed Instruction in Business and Industry, Current Information Sources, No. 28.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Covering the period since 1960, this annotated bibliography contains 97 items (most with abstracts) relevant to programed instruction in business and industry. The following appear: (1) 12 bibliographies, directories, and information sources, both foreign and domestic; (2) general considerations of programed instruction as a training technique…

Syracuse Univ., NY. ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Education.

458

General Safety Manual for Vocational-Technical Education and Industrial Arts Programs. Bulletin No. 1674.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual is designed to offer suggestions for teaching safety in Louisiana industrial arts and vocational education programs. The suggestions and information presented are intended for use in an ongoing safety program, not a short unit presented at the beginning of the school year. Following an introduction in unit 1, the material has been…

Dennis, Bill; Poston, David

459

Industrial Safety. MAS-123. Waste Isolation Division (WID). Management and Supervisor Training (MAST) Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This learning module, which is part of a management and supervisor training program for managers and supervisors employed at the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Division, is designed to prepare trainees to promote and monitor the industrial safety program at their plant. The following topics are covered in the module's individual sections:…

Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM.

460

Industrial Assessment Center Program. Project Period 10/1/2002 to 9/30/2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Georgia Institute of Technologys Industrial Assessment Center (GT IAC) has a long history working on the IAC program with over 30 years of experience in meeting the IAC programs goals in a very effective manner since beginning participation in the IAC...

2007-01-01

461

General Safety Manual for Vocational-Technical Education and Industrial Arts Programs. Bulletin No. 1674.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to offer suggestions for teaching safety in Louisiana industrial arts and vocational education programs. The suggestions and information presented are intended for use in an ongoing safety program, not a short unit presented at the beginning of the school year. Following an introduction in unit 1, the material has been…

Dennis, Bill; Poston, David

462

Career Preparation Program Curriculum Guide for: Hospitality/Tourism Industry (Tourist Services).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This career preparation curriculum outline for the hospitality/tourism industry is intended to provide secondary and postsecondary learning outcomes for completion of program requirements. The guide is organized into four sections. Section one presents an overview of the program, of the philosophy of career education, and of the organization and…

British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria. Curriculum Development Branch.

463

Deciphering the V-Chip: An Examination of the Television Industry's Program Rating Judgments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates the validity of the television industry's labeling of sensitive program content following the advent of the V-chip television ratings system. Examines programs for the nature and extent of portrayals of violence, sexual behavior and dialogue, and adult language. Suggests there are substantial limitations in the ability of the V-chip…

Kunkel, Dale; Farinola, Wendy Jo Maynard; Farrar, Kirstie; Donnerstein, Edward; Biely, Erica; Zwarun, Lara

2002-01-01

464

Market potential estimation for Commercial and Industrial energy conservation programs. C and I thermal storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of its commitment to energy conservation in the Commercial and Industrial (C and I) sector, the Tennessee Valley Authority is currently operating several programs designed to reduce capacity and energy requirements and smooth the system load profile. These programs are based on energy technologies including solar water heating, thermal storage, biomass applications, passive solar building design, and energy management

S. A. Davis; P. G. Cooper

1983-01-01

465

Market potential estimation for Commercial and Industrial Energy Conservation Programs. C and I biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of its commitment to energy conservation in the Commercial and Industrial (C and I) sector, the Tennessee Valley Authority is currently operating several programs designed to reduce capacity and energy requirements and smooth the system load profile. These programs are based on energy technologies including biomass applications. In order to forecast the impact of the total conservation effort on

S. A. Davis; P. G. Cooper

1983-01-01

466

Industrial Arts Education Guide for Curriculum and Program Planning, Secondary Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guidelines for the development of courses and programs of industrial arts for local school districts in New York State are provided in this guide designed for administrators, curriculum personnel, supervisors, and teachers. Following a discussion of student program options, a basic series of suggested courses (titles and course topics) are…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

467

Developing an Industry-Education Community: The United Auto Workers/General Motors Quality Educator Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we review the evolution of the Quality Educator Program (QEP), a program sponsored by the United Auto Workers (UAW)/General Motors (GM) that employs school teachers, administrators, and college and university faculty each summer in GM assembly plants. The QEP provides educators and those in industry the unique opportunity to interact…

Jacobson, Stephen; Walline, James

2010-01-01

468

Business Models and Programming Choice: Digital Video Recorders Shaping the TV Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the influence that Digital Video Recorders (DVRs) are expected to have on the business models and in particular the programming choice of TV stations and cable \\/ satellite TV service providers. After presenting the theoretical underpinnings with respect to programming choice modeling for the TV industry, this work examines DVRs in detail covering their main product

Claudia Loebbecke; Stefan Radtke

2005-01-01

469

Analysis of the Fulton Industrial Area: A Market for Parkway's Industrial Medicine Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The task of the research group is to take a specific look at how one hospital, Parkway Regional Hospital, might design a service that will cater to the needs for an additional patient flow facilitator. The research project shall survey the industrial and ...

C. R. Dwozan T. D. McKinney A. W. Tatnall R. T. Wise

1983-01-01

470

AICD: Advanced Industrial Concepts Division Biological and Chemical Technologies Research Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1993 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1993 (ASR 93) contains the following: A program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives), program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1993, detailed descriptions of individual projects, and a listing of program output including a bibliography of published work, patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

Petersen, G.; Bair, K.; Ross, J.

1994-03-01

471

Evaporative Precooler Retrofit for Air Cooled Condensers. Small Scale Appropriate Technology Grant Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three methods of evaporative cooling were evaluated; direct evaporative cooling of the condenser coil (spray directly on condenser coil), wetted media acting as evaporator and eliminator, and a spray type with eliminator. The direct spray achieved the low...

J. R. Campbell

1984-01-01

472

EPA`s SITE program: Sharing innovation risks with industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1980, when the Superfund program began, the technologies available to clean up hazardous waste sites involved either reburial or containment of the waste on-site or shipment of the waste off-site to an incinerator or landfill. The authors of the original Superfund law must have believed these technologies were adequate to do the job because they rejected proposals to include

A. Lindsey; M. Kelly

1994-01-01

473

Holistic Assessment of Students in Undergraduate Industrial Technology Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The nature and assessment of education is changing significantly, and the assessment trajectory is away from sole reliance on the traditional perspective of student grades. Technology faculty must respond to the changing requirements of student assessment and ensure that graduates of the program meet both the expectations and standards of the…

Field, Dennis W.; Freeman, Steven A.; Dyrenfurth, Michael J.

2004-01-01

474

Programming and Advertising Competition in the Broadcasting Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze competition between two private television channels that derive their profits from advertising receipts. These profits are shown to be proportional to total population advertising attendance. The channels play a sequential game in which they first select their profiles (program mixes) and then their advertising ratios. We show that these ratios play the same role as prices in usual

Jean J. Gabszewicz; Didier Laussel; Nathalie Sonnac

2004-01-01

475

U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Industrial Programs and Their Impacts  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) has been working with industry since 1976 to encourage the development and adoption of new, energy-efficient technologies. ITP has helped industry not only use energy and materials more efficiently but also improve environmental performance, product quality, and productivity. To help ITP determine the impacts of its programs, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) periodically reviews and analyzes ITP program benefits. PNNL contacts vendors and users of ITP-sponsored technologies that have been commercialized, estimates the number of units that have penetrated the market, conducts engineering analyses to estimate energy savings from the new technologies, and estimates air pollution and carbon emission reductions. This paper discusses the results of the most recent PNNL review (conducted in 2003). From 1976-2002, the commercialized technologies from ITP's R&D programs and other activities have cumulatively saved 3.7 quadrillion Btu, with a net cost savings of $14.6 billion.

Weakley, Steven A.; Roop, Joseph M.

2004-04-20

476

Small-scale convective instability and upper mantle viscosity under california.  

PubMed

Thermal calculations and convection analysis, constrained by seismic tomography results, suggest that a small-scale convective instability developed in the upper 200 kilometers of the mantle under California after the upwelling and cooling of asthenosphere into the slab window associated with the formation of the San Andreas transform boundary. The upper bound for the upper mantle viscosity in the slab window, 5 x 10(19) pascal seconds, is similar to independent estimates for the asthenosphere beneath young oceanic and tectonically active continental regions. These model calculations suggest that many tectonically active continental regions characterized by low upper mantle seismic velocities may be affected by time-dependent small-scale convection that can generate localized areas of uplift and subsidence. PMID:17770025

Zandt, G; Carrigan, C R

1993-07-23

477

An investigation of rotor harmonic noise by the use of small scale wind tunnel models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noise measurements of small scale helicopter rotor models were compared with noise measurements of full scale helicopters to determine what information about the full scale helicopters could be derived from noise measurements of small scale helicopter models. Comparisons were made of the discrete frequency (rotational) noise for 4 pairs of tests. Areas covered were tip speed effects, isolated rotor, tandem rotor, and main rotor/tail rotor interaction. Results show good comparison of noise trends with configuration and test condition changes, and good comparison of absolute noise measurements with the corrections used except for the isolated rotor case. Noise measurements of the isolated rotor show a great deal of scatter reflecting the fact that the rotor in hover is basically unstable.

Sternfeld, H., Jr.; Schaffer, E. G.

1982-04-01

478

Pesticide use patterns among small-scale farmers: a case study from Phitsanulok, Thailand.  

PubMed

In this study, 130 small-scale farmers were surveyed regarding pesticide use patterns in rural Phitsanulok, northern Thailand using a structured questionnaire administered via personal interviews and an observational checklist of farmer pesticide storage practices. The survey was conducted during December 2007-January 2008. The results indicate pesticides are readily available and widely used in crop production. This includes the use of endosulfan which has been banned by the Thai government since 2004. Overall, pesticide use was inappropriate. Farmers did not wear suitable personal protection, apply pesticides in an appropriate fashion, or discard the waste safely. They frequently relied on commercial advertisements for the best pesticide to use. Pesticide use patterns among small-scale farmers in Thailand need improvement. Educational interventions are essential for promoting safety during all phases of pesticide handling. Public policies should be developed to encourage farmers to change their pest management methods from chemical based to methods that are healthier and more environmentally friendly. PMID:19323025

Plianbangchang, Pinyupa; Jetiyanon, Kanchalee; Wittaya-Areekul, Sakchai

2009-03-01

479

The influence of fine water mist on characteristics of small-scale fire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water mist is used as an efficient extinguishing media instead of banned halogen-based fire extinguishing agent. Experiment was conducted to study the interaction of fine water mist and a small-scale fire. This fine water mist serves as candidate agent of fire protection system for electronic equipment fire. The characteristics of the fine water mist was obtained by three-dimensional laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) / adaptive phase velocimetry (APV). Two kinds of fine water mist with equal mean droplet size, different velocity and caliber of mist jet were used to suppress a small-scale fire. A temperature measurement system based on micro-thermocouples was used to record temperature variation of the fire during exertion of fine water mist. A laser Moire deflectometry system displayed the flame pattern. Serial photographs of fire suppression process were present in this paper. The result shows fine water mist offers an enhanced cooling performance on the surrounding of fire flame.

Xu, Qiang; Qin, Jun; Liao, Guangxuan

2003-04-01

480

Small-scale magnetic fields on the lunar surface inferred from plasma sheet electrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origins of the lunar crustal magnetic fields remain unclear although dozens of magnetic field measurements have been conducted on and above the lunar surface. A major obstacle to resolving this problem is the extreme difficulty of determining a surface distribution of small-scale magnetization. We present a new technique to map small-scale magnetic fields using nonadiabatic scattering of high-energy electrons in the terrestrial plasma sheet. Particle tracing, utilizing three-dimensional lunar magnetic field data synthesized from magnetometer measurements, enables us to separate the contributions to electron motion of small- and large-scale magnetic fields. We map significant kilometer-scale magnetic fields on the southwestern side of the South Pole-Aitken basin that are correlated with larger-scale magnetization. This implies that kilometer-scale magnetization may be ubiquitous over the lunar surface and related to the large-scale magnetization.

Harada, Yuki; Machida, Shinobu; Saito, Yoshifumi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Asamura, Kazushi; Nishino, Masaki N.; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Takahashi, Futoshi; Matsushima, Masaki; Shimizu, Hisayoshi

2013-07-01