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1

National Occupational Health Service policies and programs for workers in small-scale industries in China.  

PubMed

Over the 14 years since economic reform began, and the restructuring of the economy to encourage international trade, a large number of township enterprises have been developed and put into operation in the Peoples Republic of China. From 1978 to 1991, the number of enterprises has increased 11.5 times; the number of employees has increased 2.4 times; the fixed assets have increased 13.7 times; and the value of the total output has increased 22.5 times. In this article, a report is given on a sample survey in 30 counties in 1990, which showed that 82.69% of rural industrial enterprises had at least one type of occupational hazard in their work environments. Workers engaged in at least one type of hazardous working environment accounted for 33.91% of the blue-collar workers. Physical examinations were performed for seven types of occupational diseases: silicosis, coal worker's pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, chronic lead poisoning, benzene analogs poisoning, chronic chromium poisoning, and noise-induced hearing loss. The total detectable rate of the seven types of occupational diseases was 4.4% among those workers. In addition, 11% had illnesses suspected of being (though not proven to be) caused by occupational exposures. Most township enterprises do not provide basic occupational health services. The coverage of five routine occupational health service activities provided for township enterprises were very limited, from 1.4 to 36%. PMID:11192218

Zhi, S; Sheng, W; Levine, S P

2000-01-01

2

LOCAL MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES FROM SMALL-SCALE AND COTTAGE INDUSTRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews, documents and discusses the hazardous waste problems associated with small-scale and cottage industries (SSIs) in developing countries. It aims at achieving a better understanding of the characteristics of SSIs, helps to identify those industries that contribute significantly to environmental pollution and occupational exposure, and focuses attention on local management options. Four case studies confirm that the troublesome

Carl R. Bartone; Livia Benavides

1997-01-01

3

Contributions of Small-Scale Industrial (SSI) Sector in the Indian Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small-scale industry is a key to India's growth and alleviation of poverty and unemployment in the country Therefore, promotion of such enterprises in developing economies like India is of paramount importance since it brings about a great distribution of income and wealth, economic self-dependence, entrepreneurial development employment and a host of other positive, economic uplifting factors. Moreover, in a

Andrew Dutta; Manjeesh K Singh

2003-01-01

4

Developing a Small Scale Preventive Maintenance Program: Part 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first of two articles outlines how the director of the physical plant at Monroe County Community College (Michigan) developed a preventive maintenance program. The first step, assembling a set of up-to-date records, is detailed. (MLF)

Morris, John M.

1981-01-01

5

Strategies for sustainable development of the small-scale gold and diamond mining industry of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small-scale gold and diamonds mining industry is of great importance to Ghana. Since its regularization in 1989 the sector has produced and sold over 1.5 million troy ounces of gold and 8.0 million carats of diamonds. During the same period the sector also provided direct employment to over 100,000 people and improved the socioeconomic life of many individuals and

R. K. Amankwah; C. Anim-Sackey

2003-01-01

6

Small-Scale Non-industrial Private Forest Ownership in the United States: Rationale and Implications for Forest Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The paper explores rationales of the ,rise and expansion ,of small ,scale non-industrial private forestry. The historical aspects of the small scale of forests are also briefly reviewed. In particular, the paper seeks to explain the reason for the increasing number of nonindustrial private forest ownerships with smaller holding size or private forestland parcelization. The main arguments,are that small-scale

Yaoqi Zhang; Daowei Zhang; John Schelhas

2005-01-01

7

Monitoring of cotton dust and health risk assessment in small-scale weaving industry.  

PubMed

The present study describes the estimation of particulate matter (cotton dust) with different sizes, i.e., PM(1.0), PM(2.5), PM(4.0), and PM(10.0 ?m) in small-scale weaving industry (power looms) situated in district Hafizabad, Punjab, Pakistan, and the assessment of health problems of workers associated with these pollutants. A significant difference was found in PM(1.0), PM(2.5), PM(4.0), and PM(10.0) with reference to nine different sampling stations with p values <0.05. Multiple comparisons of particulate matter with respect to size, i.e. PM(1.0), PM(2.5), PM(4.0), and PM(10.0), depict that PM(1.0) differs significantly from PM(2.5), PM(4.0), and PM(10.0), with p values <0.05 and that PM(2.5) differs significantly from PM(1.0) and PM(10.0), with p values <0.05, whereas PM(2.5) differs non-significantly from PM(4.0), with a p value >0.05 in defined sampling stations on an average basis. Majority of the workers were facing several diseases due to interaction with particulate matter (cotton dust) during working hours. Flue, cough, eye, and skin infections were the most common diseases among workers caused by particulate matter (cotton dust). PMID:21947877

Tahir, Muhammad Wajid; Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Tauseef, Shanza; Sajjad, Muqadas; Nazeer, Awais; Farheen, Nazish; Iqbal, Muddsar

2012-08-01

8

Energy efficiency and environmental improvements in small-scale industries: present initiatives in India are not working  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India, most initiatives to increase energy efficiency in the small scale industry units have achieved little in terms of enhanced efficiency or environment improvements. This paper argues that (i) conceptually the perspective of these initiatives is narrow; and (ii) their top-down approach and the associated methodology are inappropriate. Combustion-related pollution is closely linked to inefficient resource use, absence of

N. Dasgupta

1999-01-01

9

Levels and Influencing Factors of Noise Pollution from Small-Scale Industries (SSIs) in a Developing Country  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to determine levels and factors that influence noise pollution from small-scale industries (SSIs) in Dar es Salaam City Tanzania. Two sites for wood- and metalworks industries were investigated. Both sites exhibited equivalent noise levels higher than 90.0 dBA, the permissible exposure level limit for occupational noise. At a woodworks SSI, noise levels were found to

Stephen E. Mbuligwe

2004-01-01

10

Computers in the Small Scale Construction Trades. Industry Applications and Education. Vocational Education Special Project, Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project introduced microcomputers to small-scale construction trades programs through selected California community colleges. The computers were used for applications and computer-aided instruction in construction management and carpentry classes within the departments of vocational education. The project aimed to (1) define the uses for…

Charns, Harold; Porter, Dennis

11

Department of Energy Small-Scale Hydropower Program: Feasibility assessment and technology development summary report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes two subprograms under the US Department of Energy's Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program. These subprograms were part of the financial assistance activities and included the Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) feasibility assessments and the technology development projects. The other major subprograms included engineering research and development, legal and institutional aspects, and technology transfer. These other subprograms are covered in their respective summary reports. The problems of energy availability and increasing costs of energy led to a national effort to develop economical and environmental attractive alternative energy resources. One such alternative involved the utilization of existing dams with hydraulic heads of <65 ft and the capacity to generate hydroelectric power of 15 MW or less. Thus, the PRDA program was initiated along with the Technology Development program. The purpose of the PRDA feasibility studies was to encourage development of renewable hydroelectric resources by providing engineering, economic, environmental, safety, and institutional information. Fifty-five feasibility studies were completed under the PRDA. This report briefly summarizes each of those projects. Many of the PRDA projects went on to become technology development projects. 56 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Rinehart, B.N.

1991-06-01

12

The development of educational programs for small-scale business women managers.  

PubMed

Results of a survey of demand for education among women managers of small-scale businesses in Korea are provided. Personal interviews were conducted by the Korean Women Development Institute in 1988 among 56 prospective women managers and 15 women managers and 32 experts. A pilot education program was held in 1988 and 1989; 69 women completed the course. Educational objectives are to give women an opportunity to learn the basic rudiments of running a business and develop the self-confidence to undertake this venture. The general objectives, management, evaluation, and postguidance of an educational program for women managers is given in addition to curriculum descriptions of several model programs in general and specifically directed to women. A profile of women surveyed is given; most had completed education beyond high school and were married. 66% planned to use their own money. In self-preparation for the establishment of a business, 26.9% of women used published market surveys and the advice of women already in business. 8 out of the 15 women managers had used their own start-up money. Net monthly earned income for women managers ranged from 500,000 won to 1.5 million won. Women worked 14-15 hour days. Some took holidays. Obstacles articulated by prospective managers were the lack of professional knowledge and experience and difficulties in human relationships due to lack of self-confidence and negative character. Difficulties expressed by women managers were lack of funding for expansion and maintenance of the business, of up-to-date technology, of information on the circulation of merchandise, credit dealings with customers, pricing, health, and laws. 78.5% of prospective women reported no confidence in management skills while most managers were satisfied. 54.2% reported feeling more confident after the pilot course and 39.0% had acquired skills. Content recommended included items on investment, site selection, and business planning for prospective managers, while managers preferred content on site selection, sale strategy and management of customers, and display of merchandise. Training periods suggested ranged from 4 to 7 days during the day. The focus should be on cases and experiences and personnel should be expert in the field. PMID:12285929

Ha, P Y

1991-01-01

13

CHANGING FERTILISER PRACTICES IN THE SMALL-SCALE SECTOR OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN SUGAR INDUSTRY: THE ROLE OF EXTENSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1980, sugarcane production by small-scale growers (SSGs) has increased significantly, and today comprises about 15% of the annual crop in South Africa. Opportunities exist for increasing sugarcane production in the SSG sector through both vertical and horizontal expansion. This paper focuses on current practices with respect to low fertiliser usage in the small-scale sector, the potential for vertical expansion

M J EWEG

2004-01-01

14

Abatement of mercury pollution in the small-scale gold mining industry: Restructuring the policy and research agendas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper critiques contemporary research and policy approaches taken toward the analysis and abatement of mercury pollution in the small-scale gold mining sector. Unmonitored releases of mercury from gold amalgamation have caused considerable environmental contamination and human health complications in rural reaches of sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and Asia. Whilst these problems have caught the attention of the scientific community

Gavin Hilson

2006-01-01

15

Small-scale Interstellar Structure Toward the Open Cluster Chi Persei; Program ID: BO29 (Cycle 2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of this program was to obtain FUSE observations of the interstellar H2 absorption toward six early-type stars in the core of the open star cluster Chi Persei. High resolution optical observations of the interstellar Na I absorption toward these stars and others in the core of Chi Per have revealed a rich variety of small-scale diffuse ISM structure in both the distant Perseus and more local Orion spiral arms. At the 1 arc minute angular scales typically probed by the separations of these stars, this structure corresponds to respective physical length scales of 0.6 and 0.15 pc in the Perseus and Orion arm gas. The principal scientific goal of the FUSE observations was to determine if this small-scale Na I structure toward the core of Chi Per was reflected in the abundance and/or excitation of interstellar H2. In September 2001, we obtained FUSE observations of the Chi Per stars BD +56 563, BD +56 571, BD +56 573, BD +56 574, BD +56 575, and BD +56 578 for this program. The data reveal that the Perseus arm gas exhibits significant small-scale variations in the strength of its molecular hydrogen absorption while the Orion arm H2 absorption is relatively uniform. We presented these results at the January 2003 American Astronomical Society meeting in Seattle, WA (points, Meyer, Lauroesch, Nguyen, and Friedman 2002, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 34,1229). Since Na I is not a dominant ion in H I clouds, the variations detected in the Perseus arm Na I line profiles could be due to spatial differences in either the physical structure or the physical conditions in the gas. Although many of the H2 absorption profiles are too saturated or too weak to be definitive in this regard, it is clear that small-scale variations are present in H2 gas with excitation as high as the J=4 rotational level. In contrast, lower spatial resolution H I 21 cm studies of the Perseus arm gas across the face of the h and Chi Per double cluster have shown smoother, continuous variations on the larger scale. In order to investigate if the global velocity structure of H2 toward h and Chi Per more closely follows the chaotic structure seen in interstellar Na I absorption or the smoother, continuous H I structure, we have expanded our FUSE study with a Cycle 4 program (D902, PI: Points) to survey the H2 absorption toward a number of other stars across the face of the double cluster. We have obtained FUSE spectra of 14 additional h and Chi Per stars through this program and are now combining all of the data into a comprehensive study that will be submitted for publication next year.

Meyer, David M.

2004-01-01

16

Small Scale Organic Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the advantages of using small scale experimentation in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. Describes small scale filtration techniques as an example of a semi-micro method applied to small quantities of material. (MLH)

Horak, V.; Crist, DeLanson R.

1975-01-01

17

Involvement of small-scale dairy farms in an industrial supply chain: when production standards meet farm diversity.  

PubMed

In certain contexts, dairy firms are supplied by small-scale family farms. Firms provide a set of technical and economic recommendations meant to help farmers meet their requirements in terms of the quantity and quality of milk collected. This study analyzes how such recommendations may be adopted by studying six farms in Brazil. All farms are beneficiaries of the country's agrarian reforms, but they differ in terms of how they developed their activities, their resources and their milk collection objectives. First, we built a technical and economic benchmark farm based on recommendations from a dairy firm and farmer advisory institutions. Our analysis of the farms' practices and technical and economic results show that none of the farms in the sample apply all of the benchmark recommendations; however, all farms specialized in dairy production observe the main underlying principles with regard to feeding systems and breeding. The decisive factors in whether the benchmark is adopted and successfully implemented are (i) access to the supply chain when a farmer establishes his activity, (ii) a grasp of reproduction and forage production techniques and (iii) an understanding of dairy cattle feed dietary rationing principles. The technical problems observed in some cases impact the farms' dairy performance and cash position; this can lead to a process of disinvestment. This dynamic of farms facing production standards suggests that the diversity of specialized livestock farmers should be taken into account more effectively through advisory approaches that combine basic zootechnical training with assistance in planning farm activities over the short and medium term. PMID:22440036

Bernard, J; Le Gal, P Y; Triomphe, B; Hostiou, N; Moulin, C H

2011-05-01

18

DOE small-scale hydroelectric demonstration program. F. W. E. Stapenhorst, Inc., Goodyear Lake hydroelectric-generating-station redevelopment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monthly and year long data on the performance, maintenance, power generation, flow conditions, and operating costs during the period from August 11, 1981 to August 10, 1982 at the Goodyear Lake (New York) small-scale hydroelectric power plant are presented. During this period the plant generated 5,806,500 kWh of power for a total income of $194.401, which represents approximately 79% of predicted values. The shortfall in output resulted from the failure of Generator Unit No. 1 which was out of operation for two months.

1982-07-01

19

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE PROGRAMS  

E-print Network

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE PROGRAMS The Master of Science in Industrial Engineering (M Systems and Engineering (M.S.M.S.E.), the Doctor of Philosophy in Industrial Engineering, and the Doctor of Philosophy in Systems and Engineering Management programs prepare competent industrial engineers

Gelfond, Michael

20

Small-Scale Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The concepts covered so far that pertain to the Earth's weather will finally be applied in this chapter. A number of basic mechanisms that govern small-scale things such as cloud formation, rain, fog, dew point, and humidity, will be addressed.

Robertson, William C.

2005-01-01

21

Advanced Industrial Materials Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mission of the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) program is to commercialize new/improved materials and materials processing methods that will improve energy efficiency, productivity, and competitiveness. Program investigators in the DOE national laboratories are working with about 100 companies, including 15 partners in CRDA's. Work is being done on intermetallic alloys, ceramic composites, metal composites, polymers, engineered porous materials, and surface modification. The program supports other efforts in the Office of Industrial Technologies to assist the energy-consuming process industries. The aim of the AIM program is to bring materials from basic research to industrial application to strengthen the competitive position of US industry and save energy.

Stooksbury, F.

1994-06-01

22

Small Scale Irrigation Systems: A Training Manual. Planning--Construction--Operation and Maintenance of Small Scale Irrigation Systems. A Two-Week In-Service Training Program for Peace Corps Volunteers. Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-13.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides materials for a two-week inservice training program for Peace Corps volunteers on the planning, construction, and operation and maintenance of small-scale irrigation systems. The workshop is designed to be given by two experienced professionals: one with practical knowledge of irrigation system design, operation, and…

Development Planning and Research Associates, Inc., Manhattan, KS.

23

Small scale sanitation technologies.  

PubMed

Small scale systems can improve the sustainability of sanitation systems as they more easily close the water and nutrient loops. They also provide alternate solutions to centrally managed large scale infrastructures. Appropriate sanitation provision can improve the lives of people with inadequate sanitation through health benefits, reuse products as well as reduce ecological impacts. In the literature there seems to be no compilation of a wide range of available onsite sanitation systems around the world that encompasses black and greywater treatment plus stand-alone dry and urine separation toilet systems. Seventy technologies have been identified and classified according to the different waste source streams. Sub-classification based on major treatment methods included aerobic digestion, composting and vermicomposting, anaerobic digestion, sand/soil/peat filtration and constructed wetlands. Potential users or suppliers of sanitation systems can choose from wide range of technologies available and examine the different treatment principles used in the technologies. Sanitation systems need to be selected according to the local social, economic and environmental conditions and should aim to be sustainable. PMID:16104403

Green, W; Ho, G

2005-01-01

24

General patterns of niche construction and the management of 'wild' plant and animal resources by small-scale pre-industrial societies  

PubMed Central

Niche construction efforts by small-scale human societies that involve ‘wild’ species of plants and animals are organized into a set of six general categories based on the shared characteristics of the target species and similar patterns of human management and manipulation: (i) general modification of vegetation communities, (ii) broadcast sowing of wild annuals, (iii) transplantation of perennial fruit-bearing species, (iv) in-place encouragement of economically important perennials, (v) transplantation and in-place encouragement of perennial root crops, and (vi) landscape modification to increase prey abundance in specific locations. Case study examples, mostly drawn from North America, are presented for each of the six general categories of human niche construction. These empirically documented categories of ecosystem engineering form the basis for a predictive model that outlines potential general principles and commonalities in how small-scale human societies worldwide have modified and manipulated their ‘natural’ landscapes throughout the Holocene. PMID:21320898

Smith, Bruce D.

2011-01-01

25

SMALL SCALE ETHANOL DRYING - PHASE II  

EPA Science Inventory

This program exceeded all key milestones. Using cellulose Waste, CMS demonstrated novel ethanol drying membranes via small scale dephlegmation process that yields fuel grade ethanol (FGE) at a lower cost than large switch grass ethanol plants. This success yields positive valu...

26

Turbulence Effects at Small Scales  

E-print Network

It is most natural to assume that mysterious Small Ionized and Neutral Structures (SINS) indiffuse ISM arise from turbulence. There are two obvious problem with such an explanation, however. First of all, it is generally believed that at the small scales turbulence should be damped. Second, turbulence with Kolmogorov spectrum cannot be the responsible for the SINS. We consider, however, effects, that provide spectral index flatter than the Kolmogorov one and allow action at very small scales. These are the shocks that arise in high Mach number turbulence and transfer of energy to small scales by instabilities in cosmic rays. Our examples indicate that the origin of SINS may be discovered through systematic studies of astrophysical turbulence.

A. Beresnyak; A. Lazarian

2006-10-26

27

Small-scale Forest Economics, Management and Policy, 3(3): 431-451, 2004 Visions and Realities for a Wik Forestry Industry on Cape York  

E-print Network

for a Wik Forestry Industry on Cape York Peninsula, Australia Tyron J. Venn Risk and Sustainable Management for timber production to contribute to Wik socio-economic objectives. Wik elders have a set of forestry and producing dried and dressed finished products including strip-flooring will best satisfy Wik forestry

Venn, Tyron

28

Philippines: Small-scale renewable energy update  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives an overview of the application of small scale renewable energy sources in the Philippines. Sources looked at include solar, biomass, micro-hydroelectric, mini-hydroelectric, wind, mini-geothermal, and hybrid. A small power utilities group is being spun off the major utility, to provide a structure for developing rural electrification programs. In some instances, private companies have stepped forward, avoiding what is perceived as overwhelming beaurocracy, and installed systems with private financing. The paper provides information on survey work which has been done on resources, and the status of cooperative programs to develop renewable systems in the nation.

NONE

1997-12-01

29

AVLIS industrial access program  

SciTech Connect

This document deals with the procurements planned for the construction of an Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) production plant. Several large-scale AVLIS facilities have already been built and tested; a full-scale engineering demonstration facility is currently under construction. The experience gained from these projects provides the procurement basis for the production plant construction and operation. In this document, the status of the AVLIS process procurement is presented from two viewpoints. The AVLIS Production Plant Work Breakdown Structure is referenced at the level of the items to be procured. The availability of suppliers for the items at this level is discussed. In addition, the work that will result from the AVLIS enrichment plant project is broken down by general procurement categories (construction, mechanical equipment, etc.) and the current AVLIS suppliers are listed according to these categories. A large number of companies in all categories are currently providing AVLIS equipment for the Full-Scale Demonstration Facility in Livermore, California. These companies form an existing and expanding supplier network for the AVLIS program. Finally, this document examines the relationship between the AVLIS construction project/operational facility and established commercial suppliers. The goal is to utilize existing industrial capability to meet the needs of the project in a competitive procurement situation. As a result, costs and procurement risks are both reduced because the products provided come from within the AVLIS suppliers' experience base. At the same time, suppliers can benefit by the potential to participate in AVLIS technology spin-off markets. 35 figures.

Not Available

1984-11-15

30

The Industrial Electrification Program  

E-print Network

Pumps ? Mechanical Vapor Recompression ? Electrochemical Synthesis ? Laser-based Synthesis ? Variable Speed Drives ? Plasma Processing of Chemicals ? Microwave Heating and Drying ? Infrared Heating and Drying To carry out... processes ? Adjustable speed drives for pumping ? Evaluation of mechanical vapor recompression in distillation ? Applications of plasma and electric beam processing ? Industrial applications of robots ? Industrial heat pump assessment...

Harry, I. L.

1982-01-01

31

World Small-Scale Fisheries Contemporary Visions  

E-print Network

that characterize small-scale fisheries around the world.The essays highlight the strengths, capacity, motivation Academic Publishers, P.O. Box 2867, 2601 CW Delft, The Netherlands On the cover: Small-scale marine `groupWorld Small-Scale Fisheries Contemporary Visions Edited by Ratana Chuenpagdee The importance

Pauly, Daniel

32

Industry Studies Program: Clipping Service.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Industry Studies Program at Boston University has compiled a collection of news clippings relating to industrial organization. The clippings, obtained from public news sources such as the New York Times and CNN, cover topics such as antitrust, health, telecommunications and finance.

Yi, Rong.

1998-01-01

33

Factors affecting the design of a partnership program to facilitate adoption of agricultural practices among small-scale farmers, Mpongwe, Zambia  

E-print Network

The purpose of the study conducted from December 2001 through February 2002 was to collect data needed to facilitate the design of a partnership program involving Mpongwe Development Company (MDC) that would enable the adoption of sustainable...

Musoma, Henry Kasonde

2012-06-07

34

Using Qualitative and Quantitative Methods to Evaluate Small-Scale Disease Management Pilot Programs. Population Health Management, vol. 12, no. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a multi-method approach for evaluating 10 small interventions that participated in the Medicaid Value Program, which sought to improve quality of care for Medicaid beneficiaries with multiple chronic conditions. The approach relied on quantitative and qualitative methods to develop a complete understanding of each intervention. The collective experiences suggest that well-conceived efforts to integrate care across the

Dominick Esposito; Erin Fries Taylor; Marsha Gold

2009-01-01

35

Industrial Assessment Center Program  

SciTech Connect

Over the five-year period (2002-2006) the Oklahoma State University Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) performed energy assessments for 106 different clients, writing 835 recommendations, for a total of $23,937,099 in potential estimated annual savings. IAC clients served consisted of small and medium-sized manufacturers ranging from food manufactures to foundries. The OSU IAC served clients in Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri, Arkansas, and Texas. In addition to client service, student training and instruction was a major accomplishment. The OSU IAC employed (and trained) 12 baccalaureate-level students, 17 masters-level graduate students, and 7 doctoral-level graduate students. Most are practicing in the energy management area. Training was focused on both energy assessment and safety. Safety training was both center-based training as well as on-site training. Energy management related training was focused on classroom (for academic credit) work at both the undergraduate and graduate level. IEM 4923 (Energy and Water Management) was developed to serve both the IAC as well as non-IAC students. It was delivered once per year, with enrollments of typically 10 to 20 students. This course was required for IAC student employees, both undergraduate and graduate. This course was patterned after the AEE CEM (five-day) course for practicing professionals. IEM 4923 required each student to attend at least one on-site assessment and write at least one recommendation for their client’s report. Hence, a hands-on approach was practiced. Advance level courses were used to train graduate students. Two courses played major roles here: IEM 5923 (Advanced Energy and Water Management) and IEM 5943 (Hazardous Material and Waste). Graduate student participation in these courses helped the IAC to gain additional perspectives in on-site assessment and resulting recommendations. Numerous hands-on demonstration/training was conducted by directors and graduate students in order to gain proficiency in using the combustion analyzer, IR camera, logging equipment, light metering equipment, and other equipment. Instruction included usage and basic maintenance. While undergraduate students worked with the coursework and on-the-job training, graduate students were expected to do more. A typical MS student was required to complete a 3-hour independent study in some interesting facet of energy management under the supervision of a director. PhD students were expected to complete from three to six hours of independent study work in the energy management field, as well as center their dissertation research in the general area of energy/productivity/quality management. During the project period, two PhDs were completed, with several more near completion.

Kolarik, William J.

2007-02-26

36

Small-Scale Fisheries Bycatch Jeopardizes Endangered Pacific Loggerhead Turtles  

PubMed Central

Background Although bycatch of industrial-scale fisheries can cause declines in migratory megafauna including seabirds, marine mammals, and sea turtles, the impacts of small-scale fisheries have been largely overlooked. Small-scale fisheries occur in coastal waters worldwide, employing over 99% of the world's 51 million fishers. New telemetry data reveal that migratory megafauna frequent coastal habitats well within the range of small-scale fisheries, potentially producing high bycatch. These fisheries occur primarily in developing nations, and their documentation and management are limited or non-existent, precluding evaluation of their impacts on non-target megafauna. Principal Findings/Methodology 30 North Pacific loggerhead turtles that we satellite-tracked from 1996–2005 ranged oceanwide, but juveniles spent 70% of their time at a high use area coincident with small-scale fisheries in Baja California Sur, Mexico (BCS). We assessed loggerhead bycatch mortality in this area by partnering with local fishers to 1) observe two small-scale fleets that operated closest to the high use area and 2) through shoreline surveys for discarded carcasses. Minimum annual bycatch mortality in just these two fleets at the high use area exceeded 1000 loggerheads year?1, rivaling that of oceanwide industrial-scale fisheries, and threatening the persistence of this critically endangered population. As a result of fisher participation in this study and a bycatch awareness campaign, a consortium of local fishers and other citizens are working to eliminate their bycatch and to establish a national loggerhead refuge. Conclusions/Significance Because of the overlap of ubiquitous small-scale fisheries with newly documented high-use areas in coastal waters worldwide, our case study suggests that small-scale fisheries may be among the greatest current threats to non-target megafauna. Future research is urgently needed to quantify small-scale fisheries bycatch worldwide. Localizing coastal high use areas and mitigating bycatch in partnership with small-scale fishers may provide a crucial solution toward ensuring the persistence of vulnerable megafauna. PMID:17940605

Peckham, S. Hoyt; Diaz, David Maldonado; Walli, Andreas; Ruiz, Georgita; Crowder, Larry B.; Nichols, Wallace J.

2007-01-01

37

Industrial Energy Efficiency Programs: Development and Trends  

E-print Network

primary and secondary research into industrial energy efficiency programs. The research focused on entities that are funded by "public benefit" or "system benefit" funds. This report refers to these programs as public benefit entities (PBE... of industrial PBE programs. Respondents? official titles included ?Industrial Program Manager,? ?Industrial Sector Manager,? and ?Energy Efficiency Program Manager,? among others. ACEEE also compiled secondary data via a review of individual program Web...

Chittum, A.; Kaufman, N.; Elliot, N.

2010-01-01

38

Small-scale ethanol-production demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Johnson Environmental and Energy Center with assistance from the Madison County Farm Bureau Association received a grant from the US Department of Energy to design, fabricate, and evaluate a small scale continuous ethanol plant. The scope of the study was to satisfy four specific objectives. The first objective was to design a small scale continuous distillation unit capable of

L. E. II Adcock; M. H. Eley; B. J. Schroer

1981-01-01

39

Small scale structure on cosmic strings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current understanding of cosmic string evolution is discussed, and the focus placed on the question of small scale structure on strings, where most of the disagreements lie. A physical picture designed to put the role of the small scale structure into more intuitive terms is presented. In this picture it can be seen how the small scale structure can feed back in a major way on the overall scaling solution. It is also argued that it is easy for small scale numerical errors to feed back in just such a way. The intuitive discussion presented here may form the basis for an analytic treatment of the small scale structure, which argued in any case would be extremely valuable in filling the gaps in the present understanding of cosmic string evolution.

Albrecht, Andreas

1989-01-01

40

Industrial screening programs for workers  

SciTech Connect

Industrial screening efforts to identify classes of workers who are more susceptible to workplace hazards, by virtue of their fertility, genetic, or lifestyle characteristics, represent a relatively new approach to reducing workplace risks. Screening has already raised some important economic, legal, social, medical, and moral questions. Employers, employees, administrative agencies, and the courts are offering different, often conflicting answers. Ultimately the acceptability of various screening schemes rests upon judgments about how a society justifies the distribution of risk. The questions that industrial screening programs raise are only partially answered by empirical evidence; the rest is a matter of values.

Lavine, M.P.

1982-06-01

41

UW Computer Science & Engineering Industry Affiliates Program  

E-print Network

UW Computer Science & Engineering Industry Affiliates Program 2013-14 Contributions for the CSE Industry Affiliates Program are to be used to further the Computer Science & Engineering program-Benton Industrial Affiliates Program University of Washington Computer Science & Engineering Box 352350 Seattle, WA

Borenstein, Elhanan

42

UW Computer Science & Engineering Industrial Affiliates Program  

E-print Network

UW Computer Science & Engineering Industrial Affiliates Program 2011-12 Contributions for the CSE Industrial Affiliates Program are to be used to further the Computer Science & Engineering program with this completed form to: Kay Beck-Benton Industrial Affiliates Program University of Washington Computer Science

Anderson, Richard

43

Small Scale Beekeeping. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to assist Peace Corps volunteers in the development and implementation of small-scale beekeeping programs as a tool for development. Addressed in the individual chapters are bees and humans; project planning; the types and habits of bees; the essence of beekeeping; bee space and beehives; intermediate technology beekeeping;…

Gentry, Curtis

44

Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Energy Projects. Guidelines for Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is the fourth volume in a series of publications that provide information for the planning of environmentally sound small-scale projects. Programs that aim to protect the renewable natural resources that supply most of the energy used in developing nations are suggested. Considerations are made for physical environmental factors as…

Bassan, Elizabeth Ann; Wood, Timothy S., Ed.

45

Method and system for small scale pumping  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates generally to the field of small scale pumping and, more specifically, to a method and system for very small scale pumping media through microtubes. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for small scale pumping, comprising the following steps: providing one or more media; providing one or more microtubes, the one or more tubes having a first end and a second end, wherein said first end of one or more tubes is in contact with the media; and creating surface waves on the tubes, wherein at least a portion of the media is pumped through the tube.

Insepov, Zeke (Darien, IL); Hassanein, Ahmed (Bolingbrook, IL)

2010-01-26

46

Small scale structure on cosmic strings  

SciTech Connect

I discuss our current understanding of cosmic string evolution, and focus on the question of small scale structure on strings, where most of the disagreements lie. I present a physical picture designed to put the role of the small scale structure into more intuitive terms. In this picture one can see how the small scale structure can feed back in a major way on the overall scaling solution. I also argue that it is easy for small scale numerical errors to feed back in just such a way. The intuitive discussion presented here may form the basis for an analytic treatment of the small structure, which I argue in any case would be extremely valuable in filling the gaps in our resent understanding of cosmic string evolution. 24 refs., 8 figs.

Albrecht, A.

1989-10-30

47

Industrial screening programs for workers  

SciTech Connect

Industrial screening efforts to identify classes of workers who are more susceptible to workplace hazards, by virtue of their fertility, genetic, or lifestyle characteristics, represent a relatively new approach to reducing workplace risks. Screening is attractive on cost and effectiveness grounds. It offers the firm an inexpensive alternative to reducing further workplace emissions. It may provide the only acceptable solution where no level of exposure is deemed acceptable for some workers. Screening has, however, already raised some important economic, legal, social, medical, and moral questions. Employers, employees, administrative agencies, and the courts are offering different, often conflicting answers. Ultimately, the acceptability of various screening schemes rests upon judgments about how a society justifies the distribution of risk. The questions that industrial screening programs raise are only partially answered by empirical evidence; the rest is a matter of values. 38 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

Lavine, M.P.

1982-06-01

48

SMALL SCALE BIOMASS FUELED GAS TURBINE ENGINE  

EPA Science Inventory

A new generation of small scale (less than 20 MWe) biomass fueled, power plants are being developed based on a gas turbine (Brayton cycle) prime mover. These power plants are expected to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of generating power from fuels such as wood. The n...

49

small-scale LARGE-SCALE  

E-print Network

BACTERIA: small-scale organism LARGE-SCALE CONSEQUENCES Water as a Resource Natural water systems are essential to the environment and to human activity. They supply us with drinking water, serve as a means accumulate in bodies of water and lead to eutrophication. Eutrohpication is the process of excess minerals

Wilhelm, Steven W.

50

Mantle geochemistry: Small-scale stirrings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid plate motions at fast-spreading ocean ridges mix the mantle, yet homogeneous lavas erupted at slow-spreading ocean ridges imply a well-mixed mantle there, too. Numerical modelling suggests that small-scale convection efficiently stirs the mantle beneath slow-moving plates.

Graham, David

2014-08-01

51

Emergent Properties in Small-Scale Societies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiagent simulation is used to explore the relationship between the micro and the macro levels in small-scale societies. The simulation demonstrates the way in which population stability may arise from culturally framed, micro level decision making by women about spacing of births in hunting and gathering societies. Ac- cording to the simulation, population stability as an emergent property has

Dwight W. Read

2003-01-01

52

COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY Small-Scale Spatial Pattern of Web-Building Spiders (Araneae)  

E-print Network

COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY Small-Scale Spatial Pattern of Web-Building Spiders (Araneae to incorporate them into biological control programs. We studied the small-scale spatial patterns of spider webs, we analyzed the impact of cutting and changes in spider abundance on web distribution. We analyzed

Illinois at Chicago, University of

53

Evaluating commercial and industrial DSM programs  

SciTech Connect

Boston Edison Company (BECo or the Company) is an investor-owned electric utility serving 650,000 customers in the greater Boston area, approximately 80,000 of which are commercial and industrial customers. The Company began implementing commercial and industrial DSM programs as early as 1986. Formal evaluation of these programs did not occur until 1991. This paper will focus upon the 1991/1992 evaluations of the eight commercial and industrial programs offered by the Company.

Forman, J.

1994-12-31

54

Industrial Arts Program Goals and Competencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first section of the manual on secondary level industrial arts goal and competencies concerns the ALIVE (Allied Learning Vocational Exploration) Program, a student-managed, individualized learning program involving art, home economics, and industrial arts in a team instruction approach. It provides goals, competencies, and performance…

1974

55

EPRI's Industrial Energy Management Program  

E-print Network

the Electric Power Research Institute has been establishing industry specific Centers and Offices nationwide to assist electric utilities and their customers in managing for a better use of energy. Hundreds of joint industry/utility projects... services thus supporting national objectives for a clean environment and a strong economic future. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) recognizes that the management of energy use and the environmental impacts of industrial activity...

Mergens, E.; Niday, L.

56

Oklahoma Industrial Energy Management Program  

E-print Network

, closed circuit television short courses on selected energy management topics, energy auditing, industrial energy audits (through the Oklahoma Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center) , energy and water management research, and two courses currently being...

Turner, W. C.; Estes, C. B.

1982-01-01

57

Designing industrial DSM programs that work  

SciTech Connect

This review of utility DSM programs for industrial customers discusses approaches that have achieved significant savings and participation and those that have not Detailed information is provided on 14 particularly successful programs. It also includes a section on promising but untried program approaches.

Nadel, S.; Jordan, J.

1994-12-31

58

Industrial Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains vocational education program course standards for exploratory courses, practical arts courses, and job preparatory programs offered at the secondary and postsecondary level as part of the industrial education component in Florida. Curriculum frameworks are provided for 144 programs/clusters; representative topics are as…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Applied Tech., Adult, and Community Education.

59

SymposiumandIndustrialAffiliatesProgramLightinAction Industrial Affiliates Program  

E-print Network

Session I Abstract: Recently Additive Manufacturing (AM) has been hailed as the "third industrial Platform for precision additive manufacturing largely depends on the speed and accuracy of in-situ optical Dean & Director, CREOL, UCF Symposium: Light in Action Session I. Manufacturing 9:15 Advances

Van Stryland, Eric

60

A Small Scale Digital Device Forensics ontology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Small Scale Digital Device Forensics (SSDDF) is a relatively new,and rapidly changing,field of study which is in dire need of direction. Specifically, the devices and their corresponding forensic processes and,procedures,are vague,and in a perpetual state of uncertainty. The purpose,of this paper,was,to develop an ontological to provide,law enforcement,with the appropriate knowledge,regarding,the devices found,in the SSDD domain. Additionally, this ontology can be

David Christopher Harrill; Richard P. Mislan

2007-01-01

61

Small-scale physics of the ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations and theoretical models of small-scale phenomena in the oceans are reviewed, with a focus on progress during the period 1983-1986. Topics examined include surface layers, equatorial turbulence, off-equator mixed layers, the scaling of mixing, turbulence concepts, laboratory results, internal waves and mixing, rings, the nature of the bottom layer, double diffusion and intrusions, salt fingers, and biological interactions. Also discussed are developments in instrumentation (fast sampling profilers with upward-profiling capability, deep profilers, ship-motion correction, horizontal samplers, small submersibles, submarines, towed packages, conductivity sensors, dissolved-oxygen sensors, and acoustic Doppler current profilers) and goals for future research.

Caldwell, Douglas R.

1987-01-01

62

Small-scale universality in fluid turbulence.  

PubMed

Turbulent flows in nature and technology possess a range of scales. The largest scales carry the memory of the physical system in which a flow is embedded. One challenge is to unravel the universal statistical properties that all turbulent flows share despite their different large-scale driving mechanisms or their particular flow geometries. In the present work, we study three turbulent flows of systematically increasing complexity. These are homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in a periodic box, turbulent shear flow between two parallel walls, and thermal convection in a closed cylindrical container. They are computed by highly resolved direct numerical simulations of the governing dynamical equations. We use these simulation data to establish two fundamental results: (i) at Reynolds numbers Re ? 10(2) the fluctuations of the velocity derivatives pass through a transition from nearly Gaussian (or slightly sub-Gaussian) to intermittent behavior that is characteristic of fully developed high Reynolds number turbulence, and (ii) beyond the transition point, the statistics of the rate of energy dissipation in all three flows obey the same Reynolds number power laws derived for homogeneous turbulence. These results allow us to claim universality of small scales even at low Reynolds numbers. Our results shed new light on the notion of when the turbulence is fully developed at the small scales without relying on the existence of an extended inertial range. PMID:25024175

Schumacher, Jörg; Scheel, Janet D; Krasnov, Dmitry; Donzis, Diego A; Yakhot, Victor; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R

2014-07-29

63

Evaluation of the Goodwill Industries Training Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goodwill Industries of Greater Detroit initiated a pilot program that targeted individuals with employability challenges including learned dependence on entitlements, inadequate environmental supports, and underdeveloped socialization skills. Referred to as \\

Eberts Randall W

2008-01-01

64

National Industry Security Program. Operating Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Manual is issued in accordance with the National Industrial Security Program (NISP). The Manual prescribes requirements, restrictions, and other safeguards that are necessary to prevent unauthorized disclosure of classified information and to control...

1995-01-01

65

Office of Industry Research and Technology Programs Greetings to Industry  

E-print Network

and Propulsion...2 New Addition to the Office of Industry Research and Technology Programs 3 Centers Facility for Fuels and Propulsion with the intent to support the advancement and utilization of new fuels oil as a heating fuel additive; and magnetic nanorings as electronically addressable memory elements

Ginzel, Matthew

66

Practical small-scale explosive seam welding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A small-scale explosive seam welding process has been developed that can significantly contribute to remote metal joining operations under hazardous or inaccessible conditions, such as nuclear reactor repair and assembly of structure in space. This paper describes this explosive seam welding process in terms of joining principles, variables, types of joints created, capabilities, and applications. Very small quantities of explosive in a ribbon configuration are used to create narrow (less than 0.5 inch), long-length, uniform, hermetically sealed joints that exhibit parent metal properties in a wide variety of metals, alloys, and combinations. The practicality of this process has been demonstrated by its current acceptance, as well as its capabilities that are superior in many applications to the universally accepted joining processes, such as mechanical fasteners, fusion and resistance welding, and adhesives.

Bement, L. J.

1983-01-01

67

Practical small-scale explosive seam welding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A small-scale explosive seam welding process has been developed that can significantly contribute to remote metal joining operations under hazardous or inaccessible conditions, such as nuclear reactor repair and assembly of structure in space. This paper describes this explosive seam welding process in terms of joining principles, variables, types of joints created, capabilities, and applications. Very small quantities of explosive in a ribbon configuration are used to create narrow (less than 0.5 inch), long-length, uniform, hermetically sealed joints that exhibit parent metal properties in a wide variety of metals, alloys, and combinations. The practicality of this process has been demonstrated by its current acceptance, as well as its capabilities that are superior in many applications to the universally accepted joining processes, such as mechanical fasteners, fusion and resistance welding, and adhesives. Previously announced in STAR as N83-24896

Bement, L. J.

1983-01-01

68

Aeronautics Leadership Program Canada's aerospace industry  

E-print Network

Aeronautics Leadership Program Canada's aerospace industry is one of the largest in the world looking for its new hires to hold university degrees. www.uwindsor.ca/aeronautics The UWindsor Aeronautics of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences #12;Aeronautics Leadership Program We look forward to meeting you

69

Can Microcredit Services Alleviate Hardship in African Small-scale Mining Communities?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper critically examines the challenges with implementing microcredit services for small-scale mine operators--individuals engaged in labor-intensive mineral extraction and\\/or processing using low-tech methods--in sub-Saharan Africa. The region's policymakers have shied away from launching microcredit programs for small-scale mining, frustrated by the disappointing results of the past and unsure about how to proceed with implementation. Recent efforts to provide

Abigail Ackah-Baidoo

2011-01-01

70

Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project  

SciTech Connect

This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

Curtis Miller

2009-03-22

71

Small-scale accelerated pavement testing  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a study conducted to explore the use of small-scale models of accelerated pavement testing (APT) devices to evaluate the performance of pavements in conjunction with full-scale tests. The motivation for the study was the availability of a model mobile load simulator (MMLS), which had been built originally to illustrate the operation of the full-scale mobile load simulator (MLS) under design at the time. The scaling requirements will be different depending on whether dynamic (inertia), viscous, or gravity effects are important. One must thus decide which one of these effects controls the behavior to try to reproduce it exactly. In the preliminary tests conducted with the MMLS, emphasis had been placed in reproducing accurately the viscoelastic behavior of the asphalt layer. The possibility of obtaining valid results, even if similitude is not maintained in relation to inertia forces, is explored in this paper. The effects of load frequency or velocity and the effects of layer thicknesses are studied. The total thickness of the model pavement, which must be finite, and its effects on displacements and strains are also considered. It is concluded that even when full similitude is not satisfied it is possible to obtain valid results that can be extrapolated to predict prototype performance if one were interested primarily in the behavior of the asphalt layer. Preliminary analyses should be conducted, however, to guide on the selection of the model dimensions.

Kim, S.M. [Korea Highway Corp., Kyunggi (Korea, Republic of). Highway Research Inst.; Hugo, F. [Univ. of Stellenbosch (South Africa). Inst. for Transport Technology; Roesset, J.M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1998-03-01

72

Industrial energy-efficiency-improvement program  

SciTech Connect

Progress made by industry toward attaining the voluntary 1980 energy efficiency improvement targets is reported. The mandatory reporting population has been expanded from ten original industries to include ten additional non-targeted industries and all corporations using over one trillion Btu's annually in any manufacturing industry. The ten most energy intensive industries have been involved in the reporting program since the signing of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act and as industrial energy efficiency improvement overview, based primarily on information from these industries (chemicals and allied products; primary metal industry; petroleum and coal products; stone, clay, and glass products; paper and allied products; food and kindred products; fabricated metal products; transportation equipment; machinery, except electrical; and textile mill products), is presented. Reports from industries, now required to report, are included for rubber and miscellaneous plastics; electrical and electronic equipment; lumber and wood; and tobacco products. Additional data from voluntary submissions are included for American Gas Association; American Hotel and Motel Association; General Telephone and Electronics Corporation; and American Telephone and Telegraph Company. (MCW)

Not Available

1980-12-01

73

Small-scale waste-to-energy systems: A state-of-the-art report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For industry and local government, small scale waste to energy systems represent an increasingly attractive option to enhance energy security, control energy costs, generate revenues and alleviate landfill constraints. Projects are characterized by: a mix of modular and waterwall systems; small and medium size industrial steam customers; a nascent interest in cogeneration; the utilization of a variety of public financing instruments; and growing vendor involvement in facility operations. Experience also points to the pivotal role of one or a few persistent individuals during the project implementation process. Recent operating history is likely to provide the foundation for steady growth in the number of small scale systems during the next decade.

White, A. L.

1982-02-01

74

Career Education: Suggested School-Industry Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document, produced to aid Ohio communities in linking their schools' kindergarten through secondary career education (CE) programs with the needs and interests of local General Motors (GM) plants, defines some central concepts of career education and discusses successful, cooperative interaction between industry and career education. The focus…

Mumford, Donald, Ed.

75

The Key to Unlocking the Power of Small Scale Renewable Energy: Local Land Use Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myriad federal and state programs have been promoted to incentivize the research and development of renewable energy as a means of achieving sustainability and producing more affordable alternative energy systems, and these programs could potentially have a profound impact on the way that electricity is produced and consumed in the United States. Small-scale renewable energy generation from sources such as

Patricia E. Salkin

2012-01-01

76

Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program  

SciTech Connect

Six area reported progress in the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program during FY 1991. As part of Industry Guidance, meetings were held with steering and technical committees in computers, housing design and manufacturing. This task area enables the program to benefit from the expertise of industry representatives and communicate research results directly to them. As part of the Design Process performance specifications were being developed for the future housing system designed last year. These house designs coordinate and optimize predicted and desirable advances in computerized design processes, materials, components, and manufacturing automation to achieve energy efficiency at reduced first cost. Energy design software were being developed for CAD systems, stressed skin insulating core panel manufacturers; and a prototype energy sales tool. A prototype design was to be developed to integrate one or more subsystems with the building skin. As part of the Manufacturing Process we are developing a manufacturing process simulation and data base to help current and new entrants to the industrialized housing industry in assessing the impact of implementing new manufacturing techniques. For Evaluation we are developing testing plans for six units of housing on the UO campus and the stressed skin insulating core house to be constructed in Oregon. The DOW Chemical test structure will be retrofitted with a tile roof and retested to compare to the dome and conventional construction structures. Calibration of the wind tunnel will be completed so that laboratory tests can be conducted to simulate the ventilation cooling efficiency of houses in design. Research utilization and program management were either aspects of this program.

Not Available

1992-03-01

77

Energy Technical Assistance: Industrial Processes Program  

E-print Network

try (e.g. D.O.E. technology transfer documents). o Presented 4 technical programs to more than 107 industry representatives. o Prepared and presented a two credit-hour gradu ate course on energy management to 18 personnel. o Presented three 2... the Second Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 13-16, 1980 I energy price increase represents $30,087,166 in Many small to medium sized manufacturers do not ha~e potential savings. These potential savings projec the information...

McClure, J. D.

1980-01-01

78

Small scale adaptive optics experiment systems engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assessment of the current technology relating to the laser power beaming system which in full scale is called the Beam Transmission Optical System (BTOS). Evaluation of system integration efforts are being conducted by the various government agencies and industry. Concepts are being developed for prototypes of adaptive optics for a BTOS.

Boykin, William H.

1993-01-01

79

Extractive Industries and Sustainable Development EXECUTIVE TRAINING PROGRAM  

E-print Network

; infrastructure design and regulation; supply chain development; vocational training Industries and Sustainable Development EXECUTIVE TRAINING PROGRAM Vale Columbia Center #12; Extractive Industries and Sustainable Development Executive Training

80

Small-Scale Cyber Security Competitions Mike O'Leary  

E-print Network

Small-Scale Cyber Security Competitions Mike O'Leary Towson University 16th Colloquium-Scale Cyber Security Competitions CISSE 2012 1 / 25 #12;Regional & National Competitions National Collegiate the Flag Competition M. O'Leary (Towson University) Small-Scale Cyber Security Competitions CISSE 2012 2

O'Leary, Michael

81

2010 Thin Film & Small Scale Mechanical Behavior Gordon Research Conference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decades, it has been well established that the mechanical behavior of materials changes when they are confined geometrically at least in one dimension to small scale. It is the aim of the 2010 Gordon Conference on 'Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior' to discuss cutting-edge research on elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation as well as degradation

Thomas Balk

2010-01-01

82

Big Ideas at a Very Small Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to share a learning-cycle sequence of lessons designed to convey the particulate nature of matter through use of physical models and analogical thinking. This activity was adapted from Conceptual Chemistry, a long-running professional development program for teachers of grades 4-9. Conceptual Chemistry's approach is…

Khourey-Bowers, Claudia

2009-01-01

83

Industrial Advanced Turbine Systems Program overview  

SciTech Connect

DOE`s ATS Program will lead to the development of an optimized, energy efficient, and environmentally friendly gas turbine power systems in the 3 to 20 MW class. Market studies were conducted for application of ATS to the dispersed/distributed electric power generation market. The technology studies have led to the design of a gas-fired, recuperated, industrial size gas turbine. The Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine program continues. In the High Performance Steam Systems program, a 100 hour development test to prove the advanced 1500 F, 1500 psig system has been successfully completed. A market transformation will take place: the customer will be offered a choice of energy conversion technologies to meet heat and power generation needs into the next century.

Esbeck, D.W.

1995-12-31

84

Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results  

SciTech Connect

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the relevant physical properties projected for actual WTP process streams.

Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

2013-08-01

85

S C I E N C E Industrial Internship Program  

E-print Network

S C I E N C E Faculty of Industrial Internship Program An Introduction for Students and Employers in the Industrial Internship program (IIP) to get a feel for life in industry. My previous experience was academia, Syncrude Research Department, Edmonton, AB #12;Prospective Students What is the Industrial Internship

Machel, Hans

86

Exposure assessment in SMES: a low-cost approach to bring OHS services to small-scale enterprises.  

PubMed

There is increased attention to improving occupational health and safety in small to medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). The Workers Health Centre, a not-for-profit OHS service in western Sydney, assessed workplace exposures in two SMEs following intervention by regulatory agencies. A low-cost monitoring program for noise, airbone dust, fibers and chemicals was conducted at these two metal working industry workplaces. Results showed that exposure to the hazards were above the statutory limits and there was generally an unhealthy access to OHS information by the predominantly immigrant or low literate worker population, were identified. The potential for using a program of low-cost exposure assessments, accompanied by a strategy to provide OHSs information for workers in small-scale enterprises, is discussed. PMID:16610529

Seneviratne, Mahinda; Phoon, Wai On

2006-01-01

87

ERHAN KUTANOGLU Graduate Program in Operations Research and Industrial Engineering  

E-print Network

ERHAN KUTANOGLU Graduate Program in Operations Research and Industrial Engineering Department · As a tenured faculty member in the Operations Research and Industrial Engineering Graduate Program, develop School of Engineering Co-Director, Industrial Affiliates Program January 2012 ­ Present Advanced

Kutanoglu, Erhan

88

Experimental study of small scale explosions in an aluminum-water system  

SciTech Connect

An experimental program to study small-scale aluminum water vapor explosions is described. A number of experimental techniques were used to force the contact of molten aluminum and water. These included high and low velocity water jets, sudden compression of a system of dispersed water and aluminum, and the use of an exploding wire to generate a shock wave within an aluminum water system. A triggering threshold required to generate a small scale vapor explosion was determined. Efficiencies of converting thermal to mechanical energy were measured and found to be relatively high. On a few occasions, a chemical contribution to the physical explosion was detected. 6 refs.

Anderson, R.P.; Armstrong, D.R.

1981-01-01

89

Effects of Immersed Surfaces on the Combustor Efficiency of Small Scale Fluidized Beds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, effects of the different types of heat exchanger surfaces on the second law efficiency of a small-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustor are analyzed and the results are compared with the bubbling fluidized bed coal combustor effectiveness values. Using a previously developed simulation program, combustor efficiency and entropy generation values are obtained at different operation velocities at

Afsin GUNGOR; Nurdil ESKIN

90

Space industrialization. Volume 2: Opportunities, markets and programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nature of space industrialization and the reasons for its promotion are examined. Increases in space industry activities to be anticipated from 1980 to 2010 are assessed. A variety of future scenarios against which space industrialization could evolve were developed and the various industrial opportunities that might constitute that evolution were defined. The needs and markets of industry activities were quantitatively and qualitatively assessed and messed. The various hardware requirements vs. time (space industry programs) as space industrialization evolves are derived and analyzed.

1978-01-01

91

Tobacco Industry Youth Smoking Prevention Programs: Protecting the Industry and Hurting Tobacco Control  

PubMed Central

Objectives. This report describes the history, true goals, and effects of tobacco industry–sponsored youth smoking prevention programs. Methods. We analyzed previously-secret tobacco industry documents. Results. The industry started these programs in the 1980s to forestall legislation that would restrict industry activities. Industry programs portray smoking as an adult choice and fail to discuss how tobacco advertising promotes smoking or the health dangers of smoking. The industry has used these programs to fight taxes, clean-indoor-air laws, and marketing restrictions worldwide. There is no evidence that these programs decrease smoking among youths. Conclusions. Tobacco industry youth programs do more harm than good for tobacco control. The tobacco industry should not be allowed to run or directly fund youth smoking prevention programs. PMID:12036777

Landman, Anne; Ling, Pamela M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

2002-01-01

92

NASA/industry advanced turboprop technology program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental and analytical effort shows that use of advanced turboprop (propfan) propulsion instead of conventional turbofans in the older narrow-body airline fleet could reduce fuel consumption for this type of aircraft by up to 50 percent. The NASA Advanced Turboprop (ATP) program was formulated to address the key technologies required for these thin, swept-blade propeller concepts. A NASA, industry, and university team was assembled to develop and validate applicable design codes and prove by ground and flight test the viability of these propeller concepts. Some of the history of the ATP project, an overview of some of the issues, and a summary of the technology developed to make advanced propellers viable in the high-subsonic cruise speed application are presented. The ATP program was awarded the prestigious Robert J. Collier Trophy for the greatest achievement in aeronautics and astronautics in America in 1987.

Ziemianski, Joseph A.; Whitlow, John B., Jr.

1988-01-01

93

A Small-Scale Low-Cost Gas Chromatograph  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The design and application of a small-scale portable gas chromatograph for learning of the basic concepts of chromatography is described. The apparatus consists of two basic separable units, which includes a chromatographic unit and an electronic unit.

Gros, Natasa; Vrtacnik, Margareta

2005-01-01

94

SMALL-SCALE MAGNETIC ACTIVITY C.J. Schrijver  

E-print Network

support the hy- pothesis that a small-scale, turbulent, dynamo operates in the Sun, which is statistically that requires further study. 1 1. INTRODUCTION "Quiet Sun" is the term used to describe the magnetic state contin- ua

Schrijver, Karel

95

Impact of small scale inhomogeneities on observations of standard candles  

E-print Network

We investigate the effect of small scale inhomogeneities on standard candle observations, such as type Ia supernovae (SNe) observations. Existence of the small scale inhomogeneities may cause a tension between SNe observations and other observations with larger diameter sources, such as the cosmic microwave background (CMB) observation. To clarify the impact of the small scale inhomogeneities, we use the Dyer-Roeder approach. We determined the smoothness parameter $\\alpha(z)$ as a function of the redshift $z$ so as to compensate the deviation of cosmological parameters for SNe from those for CMB. The range of the deviation which can be compensated by the smoothness parameter $\\alpha(z)$ satisfying $0\\leq\\alpha(z)\\leq1$ is reported. Our result suggests that the tension may give us the information of the small scale inhomogeneities through the smoothness parameter.

Kengo Iwata; Chul-Moon Yoo

2014-09-11

96

Impact of small scale inhomogeneities on observations of standard candles  

E-print Network

We investigate the effect of small scale inhomogeneities on standard candle observations, such as type Ia supernovae (SNe) observations. Existence of the small scale inhomogeneities may cause a tension between SNe observations and other observations with larger diameter sources, such as the cosmic microwave background (CMB) observation. To clarify the impact of the small scale inhomogeneities, we use the Dyer-Roeder approach. We determined the smoothness parameter $\\alpha(z)$ as a function of the redshift $z$ so as to compensate the deviation of cosmological parameters for SNe from those for CMB. The range of the deviation which can be compensated by the smoothness parameter $\\alpha(z)$ satisfying $0\\leq\\alpha(z)\\leq1$ is reported. Our result suggests that the tension may give us the information of the small scale inhomogeneities through the smoothness parameter.

Iwata, Kengo

2014-01-01

97

Program of Studies: Trade and Industrial: Grades 9-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part 1 of the trade and industrial education curriculum guide for grades 9-12 contains a brief program overview and Vocational Industrial Clubs of America (VICA) description, more detailed descriptions of in-school and out-of-school programs and program classification methods, a list of references, and charts of various programs and training…

Fairfax County Schools, VA.

98

Natural Gas Liquefaction Process for Small-scale LNG Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of natural gas liquefaction, the small-scale natural gas liquefier has been attracting more and more attentions home and abroad, thanks to its small volume, mobile transportation, easy start-up and shut-down, as well as skid-mounted package. A study was made to choose the optimum liquefaction process to improve the economy of small-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant. The

Cao Wensheng

2012-01-01

99

Shake-table simulation study of small scale layered models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the correlation between the dynamic behavior of a full-scale steel prototype and a small-scale plastic model fabricated using fused deposition modeling (FDM). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Based on the use of a known input excitation, the small-scale model is tested on a shake-table. Experimental results are compared with results of a full

Constance Ziemian; Ronald Ziemian; Eric Barker

2010-01-01

100

Introduction of Car Alternators for Small Scale Wind Power Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally Permanent Magnet Generators (PMGs) are widely used for small-scale wind power generation. But in Sri Lanka, it is difficult to find a competitive market for such generators and permanent magnets, since the price of a PMG is very high and is very rare.Due to such conditions, expansion of small-scale wind power applications among rural communities are significantly limited. The

Nanayakkara D. P. N

101

Small-scale dynamo in solar surface simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A magneto-convection simulation incorporating essential physical processes governing solar surface convection exhibits turbulent small-scale dynamo action. By presenting a derivation of the energy balance equation and transfer functions for compressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), we quantify the source of magnetic energy on a scale-by-scale basis. We rule out the two alternative mechanisms for the generation of small-scale magnetic field in the simulations: tangling of magnetic field lines associated with the turbulent cascade and Alfvenization of small-scale velocity fluctuations ("turbulent induction"). Instead, we find the dominant source of small-scale magnetic energy is stretching by inertial-range fluid motions of small-scale magnetic field lines against the magnetic tension force to produce (against Ohmic dissipation) more small-scale magnetic field. The scales involved become smaller with increasing Reynolds number, which identifies the dynamo as a small-scale turbulent dynamo. Comparisons are made between the details of the dynamo mechanism in compressible magneto-convection, Boussinesq convection, and randomly-forced incompressible turbulence. Net energy transfers (kinematic phase): work against magnetic tension (stretching) is 95% of magnetic energy generated; work against magnetic pressure (compression) is 5%. The latter is involved in the breaking down larger-scale field (25%) into smaller-scale field (30%) as part of the cascade. The dominant producer of magnetic energy is the stretching of magnetic field lines against the magnetic tension force (turbulent dynamo action). Fluid motions at a scale of ~140km create magnetic energy predominately at a scale of ~65km. As the three wave-vectors must form a triad, the scale of the magnetic field being stretched must is 80+/-40km. All 3 scales are in the inertial range: this is turbulent small-scale dynamo.

Graham, J. P.; Moll, R.; Cameron, R.; Schüssler, M.

2010-12-01

102

Small-Scale Cannabis Growers in Denmark and Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To compare domestic cannabis cultivation in Denmark and Finland to describe national characteristics in small-scale cannabis growing. Design: A Web survey conducted among small-scale cannabis growers in Denmark (June to November 2008) and Finland (May to June 2009). Participants: Current cannabis growers (Denmark, 401; Finland, 1,054). Measurements: Comparisons in regard to social background, growing history, practices, purposes and motives

Pekka Hakkarainen; Vibeke Asmussen Frank; Jussi Perälä; Helle Vibeke Dahl

2011-01-01

103

Linear Tracking Control for Small-Scale Unmanned Helicopters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model-based tracking control design for small-scale unmanned helicopters. The design objective is for the helicopter to track predefined inertial position (or velocity) and heading reference trajectories. The controller is based on a nominal linear state-space model that successfully captures the small-scale helicopter coupled multivariable dynamics. The flight controller is composed of two feedback loops that regulate

Ioannis A. Raptis; Kimon P. Valavanis; George J. Vachtsevanos

2012-01-01

104

The Andromeda Project: Mapping the Small-Scale ISM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on high resolution (15 km/s) integral field spectroscopy of the interstellar Na I D absorption lines in 6 fields sampling approximately 6000 square arcseconds towards the core of the Andromeda galaxy (M31) using DensePak on the WIYN 3.5-meter telescope. We have also observed single DensePak fields (27" x 43") covering the cores of both M32 and M110 (NGC 205). The 4" spatial resolution offered by these observations allows us to sample the intervening Galactic disk and halo on scales of order 1,000 AU in multiple gas clouds, and M31 gas on scales of 15 pc. The comparison of M31 to its satellites allows us to sample the Galactic ISM on 10 pc scales as well. We detect multiple interstellar absorption components arising in the Galaxy in all fields, with significant variations across the fields in the number of components as well as in the column densities, b-values and velocities of individual components. We also identify numerous components arising in the halo and (perhaps) bulge of M31 in our 6 fields toward the core of the Andromeda galaxy. We discuss the implications that these observations have for models of small-scale structure based upon interstellar turbulence. The authors would like to thank the KPNO and WIYN staff members as well as the University of Wisconsin Space Astronomy Laboratory for their support of remote observing for this program.

Lauroesch, J. T.; Meyer, D. M.; Andrews, S. M.; Roth, K. C.

2001-12-01

105

Small-scale eruptive filaments on the quiet sun  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of a little known class of eruptive events on the quiet sun was conducted. All of 61 small-scale eruptive filamentary structures were identified in a systematic survey of 32 days of H alpha time-lapse films of the quiet sun acquired at Big Bear Solar Observatory. When fully developed, these structures have an average length of 15 arc seconds before eruption. They appear to be the small-scale analog of large-scale eruptive filaments observed against the disk. At the observed rate of 1.9 small-scale eruptive features per field of view per average 7.0 hour day, the rate of occurence of these events on the sun were estimated to be greater than 600 per 24 hour day.. The average duration of the eruptive phase was 26 minutes while the average lifetime from formation through eruption was 70 minutes. A majority of the small-scale filamentary sturctures were spatially related to cancelling magnetic features in line-of-sight photospheric magnetograms. Similar to large-scale filaments, the small-scale filamentary structures sometimes divided opposite polarity cancelling fragments but often had one or both ends terminating at a cancellation site. Their high numbers appear to reflect the much greater flux on the quiet sun. From their characteristics, evolution, and relationship to photospheric magnetic flux, it was concluded that the structures described are small-scale eruptive filaments and are a subset of all filaments.

Hermans, Linda M.; Martin, Sara F.

1986-01-01

106

The Industries of the Future Program: What's in it for Texas Industries?  

E-print Network

The purpose of the TEXAS INDUSTRIES OF THE FUTURE program is to facilitate the development, demonstration and adoption of emerging technologies that reduce industrial energy usage, emissions, and associated costs, resulting in improved competitive...

Ferland, K. A.

107

Cartographic research in EREP program for small scale mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab photography is suitable for producing planimetric maps with graphical representation of landform at scales up to 1:100,000. It cannot supply all the detail necessary for maps at this scale, but it may be used to produce a sound framework which can be completed by detail from other sources. Its principal cartographic use is for original mapping of undeveloped areas of the world, but it would also be useful for the revision of existing maps and for monitoring extensive urban changes.

Mott, P. G.; Fullard, H.; Bartholomew, J. C.; Leatherdale, J. D.; Chismon, H. J.; Hall, H. M. (principal investigators)

1975-01-01

108

Computer Adaptive Testing for Small Scale Programs and Instructional Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates measurement decision theory (MDT) as an underlying model for computer adaptive testing when the goal is to classify examinees into one of a finite number of groups. The first analysis compares MDT with a popular item response theory model and finds little difference in terms of the percentage of correct classifications. The…

Rudner, Lawrence M.; Guo, Fanmin

2011-01-01

109

Engineering development for a small-scale recirculator experiment  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is evaluating the physics and technology of recirculating induction accelerators for heavy-ion inertial-fusion drivers. As part of this evaluation, the authors are building a small-scale recirculator to demonstrate the concept and to use as a test bed for the development of recirculator technologies. System designs have been completed and components are presently being designed and developed for the small-scale recirculator. This paper discusses results of the design and development activities that are presently being conducted to implement the small-scale recirculator experiments. An, overview of the system design is presented along with a discussion of the implications of this design on the mechanical and electrical hardware. The paper focuses primarily on discussions of the development and design of the half-lattice period hardware and the advanced solid-state modulator.

Newton, M.A.; Deadrick, F.J.; Hanks, R.L.; Hawkins, S.A.; Holm, K.A.; Kirbie, H.C.; Karpenko, V.P.; Nattrass, L.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Longinotti, D.B. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

1995-09-04

110

Fundamental economic issues in the development of small scale hydro  

SciTech Connect

Some basic economic issues involved in the development of small-scale hydroelectric power are addressed. The discussion represents an economist's view of the investment process in this resource. Very little investment has been made in small-scale hydro development and an attempt is made to show that the reason for this may not be that the expected present worth of the returns of the project do not exceed the construction cost by a sufficient amount. Rather, a set of factors in combination impose costs on the project not normally incurred in small businesses. The discussion covers costs, supply, demand, and profitability.

Not Available

1980-05-01

111

Automated small-scale fuel alcohol plant: A means to add value to food processing waste  

SciTech Connect

A small scale fuel grade alcohol plant was designed, constructed and operated a decade ago. This plant design incorporated several innovative processes and features that are still on the cutting edge for small scale alcohol production. The plant design could be scaled down or up to match the needs of food processing waste streams that contain sugars or starches as BOD. The novel features include automation requiring four hours of labor per 24 hour day and a plug flow low temperature cooking system which solubilizes and liquifies the starch in one step. This plant consistently produced high yield of alcohol. Yields of 2.6 gallons of absolute alcohol were produced from a bushel of corn. Potato waste grain dust and cheese whey were also processed in this plant as well as barley. Production energy for a 190 proof gallon was approximately 32,000 BTU. This paper discusses the design, results, and applicability of this plant to food processing industries.

Wolfram, J.H.; Keller, J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wernimont, L.P.

1993-12-31

112

A cost model for small scale automated digital preservation archives  

E-print Network

media for digital materials are vulnerable to dete- rioration and catastrophic loss. More challenging neglected. The rapid development of file formats and the strong dependency between digital objectsA cost model for small scale automated digital preservation archives Stephan Strodl Secure Business

113

Images of rural destinations hosting small-scale sport events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse quantitative and qualitative image aspects of destinations hosting a small-scale sport event, as perceived by spectators and participants. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey was conducted at different sport events hosted by destinations in a rural setting. The data are analysed using confirmatory factor analyses and correspondence analyses. Findings – The results

Kirstin Hallmann; Christoph Breuer

2011-01-01

114

Economic assessment of small-scale electricity generation from wind  

E-print Network

. The economic analysis of this system showed that the wind turbine under all situations was much less economical than purchasing electricity solely from the electric company. Small-scale wind energy produced under thesis assumptions was over $10,000 more...

McAllister, Kristen Dawn

2007-09-17

115

Small-scale magnetic fields in turbulence - Saffman's approximation revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

The approximation developed by Saffman (1963) to describe the small-scale structure of a magnetic field in a turbulent conducting medium and its evolution in time is examined with a view to placing sharper limits on the numerical parameters that appear in the approximate correlation functions. It is shown that if magnetic dissipation is ignored entirely, then results for a magnetic

Ralph Baierlein

1980-01-01

116

2010 Thin Film & Small Scale Mechanical Behavior Gordon Research Conference  

SciTech Connect

Over the past decades, it has been well established that the mechanical behavior of materials changes when they are confined geometrically at least in one dimension to small scale. It is the aim of the 2010 Gordon Conference on 'Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior' to discuss cutting-edge research on elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation as well as degradation mechanisms like fracture, fatigue and wear at small scales. As in the past, the conference will benefit from contributions from fundamental studies of physical mechanisms linked to material science and engineering reaching towards application in modern applications ranging from optical and microelectronic devices and nano- or micro-electrical mechanical systems to devices for energy production and storage. The conference will feature entirely new testing methodologies and in situ measurements as well as recent progress in atomistic and micromechanical modeling. Particularly, emerging topics in the area of energy conversion and storage, such as material for batteries will be highlighted. The study of small-scale mechanical phenomena in systems related to energy production, conversion or storage offer an enticing opportunity to materials scientists, who can provide new insight and investigate these phenomena with methods that have not previously been exploited.

Dr. Thomas Balk

2010-07-30

117

A small-scale research platform for intelligent transportation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose and develop a small-scale research platform for intelligent transportation systems. Our platform has four main parts: an arena; an indoor localization system; automated radio controlled (RC) cars; and roadside monitoring facilities. First, to mimic the traffic environments we build an arena with a wooden floor, mock buildings and streets. Second, for the indoor localization system,

Hung Manh La; Ronny Salim Lim; Jianhao Du; Weihua Sheng; Gang Li; Sijian Zhang; Heping Chen

2011-01-01

118

Spatial Nonlocality of the Small-scale Solar Dynamo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the nature of the small-scale solar dynamo by tracking magnetic features. We investigate two previously explored categories of the small-scale solar dynamo: shallow and deep. Recent modeling work on the shallow dynamo has produced a number of scenarios for how a strong network concentration can influence the formation and polarity of nearby small-scale magnetic features. These scenarios have measurable signatures, for which we test using magnetograms from the Narrowband Filter Imager (NFI) on board Hinode. We find no statistical tendency for newly formed magnetic features to cluster around or away from network concentrations, nor do we find any statistical relationship between their polarities. We conclude that there is no shallow or "surface" dynamo on the spatial scales observable by Hinode/NFI. In light of these results, we offer a scenario in which the subsurface field in a deep solar dynamo is stretched and distorted via turbulence, allowing the small-scale field to emerge at random locations on the photosphere.

Lamb, D. A.; Howard, T. A.; DeForest, C. E.

2014-06-01

119

Exploring the transitional forest gap dynamics of small-scale  

E-print Network

1 2 3 PercentCanopyClosure(%) Quadrat % Mountain Hemlock % Western Hemlock #12;Coarse Woody Debris Findings Productivity increases in newly formed gaps #12;Key Findings Coarse woody debris increases, Kim House, and Annie Markvoort #12;Introduction Large and Small-scale Disturbances in Glacier National

Smith, Dan

120

Understanding of shape and size on small scale atlas maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teachers regularly use small scale maps with their classes in their geography and social studies work to locate places or to conduct more detailed studies. Many of these maps are derived from school atlases. It is assumed that the different sizes and shapes of the continents, regional areas and other areas are understood by the children as they are presented

Rod Gerber

1991-01-01

121

MINLP optimisation model for increased power production in small-scale CHP plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we present a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model for increasing the power production in small-scale (1–20MWe) CHP plants based on a steam Rankine process and using biomass fuels. Changes that could increase the power production in these plants are, for instance, a steam reheater, a feed water preheater, a two-stage district heat exchanger, and a fuel

Tuula Savola; Carl-Johan Fogelholm

2007-01-01

122

A proposed university/industry/government cooperative aero educational program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program is proposed to provide mutual aid between the beleaguered Aero Engineering degree-granting departments in the United States and United States industry/government. It is proposed that any accrued cost differentials be supported by the latter groups, although all programs proposed will provide true mutual assistance. The program suggested is designed to provide assured industrial experience for Aero faculty members, combat engineering obsolescence for industry engineers, provide assured summer work for Aero undergraduates, encourage industry/government input in curriculum and course planning, and funnel significant laboratory devices into the university system.

Brodsky, R. F.

1975-01-01

123

Energy efficient industrialized housing research program  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the research work completed in five areas in fiscal year 1989. (1) The analysis of the US industrialized housing industry includes statistics, definitions, a case study, and a code analysis. (2) The assessment of foreign technology reviews the current status of design, manufacturing, marketing, and installation of industrialized housing primarily in Sweden and Japan. (3) Assessment of industrialization applications reviews housing production by climate zone, has a cost and energy comparison of Swedish and US housing, and discusses future manufacturing processes and emerging components. (4) The state of computer use in the industry is described and a prototype design tool is discussed. (5) Side by side testing of industrialized housing systems is discussed.

Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; McDonald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, Tomoko (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (USA). Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Mazwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. (Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (USA))

1989-12-01

124

The Industry Coupled Case Study Program final report  

SciTech Connect

The Industry Coupled Case Study Program was conceived as a short-term cooperative program between the Federal government and private industry. Federal funds were committed to stimulate geothermal exploration and development between 1977 and 1979, although some work under the program continues into 1982. Federal funding has been phased out and the remaining information developed during the program is being disseminated and reported. This report presents an overview of the program and documents the technical results and open-file data base resulting from the program.

Stringfellow, J. [ed.

1982-10-01

125

The “We Card” Program: Tobacco Industry “Youth Smoking Prevention” as Industry Self-Preservation  

PubMed Central

The “We Card” program is the most ubiquitous tobacco industry “youth smoking prevention” program in the United States, and its retailer materials have been copied in other countries. The program's effectiveness has been questioned, but no previous studies have examined its development, goals, and uses from the tobacco industry's perspective. On the basis of our analysis of tobacco industry documents released under the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, we concluded that the We Card program was undertaken for 2 primary purposes: to improve the tobacco industry's image and to reduce regulation and the enforcement of existing laws. Policymakers should be cautious about accepting industry self-regulation at face value, both because it redounds to the industry's benefit and because it is ineffective. PMID:20466965

Malone, Ruth E.

2010-01-01

126

A Small-Scale Randomized Efficacy Trial of Carescapes: Enhancing Children's Social Development in Child Care Homes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quality of the child care environment and caregiver practices can potentially have significant, lasting impact on children's social development. This study involves the development and a small-scale efficacy trial of the Carescapes program, a video-based training program that focuses on promoting positive social development in young children…

Rusby, Julie C.; Smolkowski, Keith; Marquez, Brion; Taylor, Ted K.

2008-01-01

127

The Carlson School Medical Industry Leadership Programs  

E-print Network

careers with today's top medical industry firms. With a holistic perspective on the entire medical in Minnesota, which maintains one of the nation's largest concentrations of health care and medical device challenges and business opportunities of this growing market. The Medical Industry Leadership Institute works

Minnesota, University of

128

Energy Programs of the Texas Industrial Commission  

E-print Network

at improving the overal I efficiency of energy use in the state. The Texas Industrial Commission has been designated lead agency of the industrial conservation effort, and as such, created the Energy Uti lization Department in the Fal I of 1977. The multi... Publ ic Uti lity Commission Pro!ect (Overv iew) i In November 1978, the Governor's Office of Energy Resources contracted with the Texas Public Utility I Commission to study the potential for industrial cogeneration in Texas. The project is designed...

Heare, J.; dePlante, L. E.

1979-01-01

129

Small Scale Structure in the Diffuse Interstellar Medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of subparsec structure in the cold diffuse interstellar medium has been the subject of some debate. After a review of the literature, we will present the first survey of Na I absorption lines seen toward binary stars, and so demonstrate that small scale structure is ubiquitous in the interstellar medium. We will explain details of the observations, reduction of the data and the various analyses which were applied to the data. We explore several models of the ISM and discuss them in the light of the data. Some thought is given to the possibility that some of the observed structure might be attributable to circumstellar gas, rather than interstellar gas. We conclude that the gas is most likely interstellar in nature. Finally, we outline several areas of study which could further the understanding of small scale structure in the interstellar medium and the physical processes which govern it.

Watson, John Kistler

1998-11-01

130

Superweakly interacting massive particle solutions to small scale structure problems.  

PubMed

Collisionless, cold dark matter in the form of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) is well motivated in particle physics, naturally yields the observed relic density, and successfully explains structure formation on large scales. On small scales, however, it predicts too much power, leading to cuspy halos, dense cores, and large numbers of subhalos, in apparent conflict with observations. We consider super-WIMP dark matter, produced with large velocity in late decays at times 10(5) - 10(8) s. As analyzed by Kaplinghat in a more general setting, we find that super-WIMPs have sufficiently large free-streaming lengths and low phase space densities to help resolve small scale structure problems while preserving all of the above-mentioned WIMP virtues. PMID:16383891

Cembranos, Jose A R; Feng, Jonathan L; Rajaraman, Arvind; Takayama, Fumihiro

2005-10-28

131

Small Scale Microwave Background Fluctuations from Cosmic Strings  

E-print Network

The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) fluctuations at very small angular scales (less than $10'$) induced by matter sources are computed in a simplified way. The result corrects a previous formula appearing in the literature. The small scale power spectrum from cosmic strings is then calculated by a new analytic method. The result compares extremely well with the spectrum computed by numerical techniques (when the old, incorrect, formula is used). The upper bound on the string parameters derived from OVRO data is re-examined, taking into account the non-Gaussian nature of stringy perturbations on small scales. Assuming a conventional ionization history, the bound is $\\gamma G\\mu < 11\\times 10^{-6}$, where $\\gamma^2$ is the number of horizon lengths of string per horizon volume. Current simulations give $\\gamma^2 = 31\\pm 7$.

Mark Hindmarsh

1993-07-30

132

Small-scale transition in a plane mixing layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental study was conducted to investigate the generation process of random small-scale turbulence in an originally laminar mixing layer. The evolutions of the two types of deterministic structures, the spanwise and streamwise vortices, were first clarified in order to determine their roles in the transition process. A scaling rule for the streamwise distance from the trailing edge of the splitter plate to the vortex merging position was found for various velocity ratios. After this stremwise lengthscale was determined, it became clear that the spanwise wavelength of the streamwise vortices doubled after the merging of the spanwise structures which nominally doubled streamwise wavelengths. The most interesting finding was that the random small-scale eddies were produced by the interactions between the merging spanwise structures and the streamwise vortices.

Huang, Lein-Saing; Ho, Chih-Ming

1990-01-01

133

LLNL Small-Scale Friction sensitivity (BAM) Test  

SciTech Connect

Small-scale safety testing of explosives, propellants and other energetic materials, is done to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli including friction, static spark, and impact. Testing is done to discover potential handling problems for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior, or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing {open_quotes}BAM{close_quotes} Small-Scale Friction Test, and the methods used to determine the friction sensitivity pertinent to handling energetic materials. The accumulated data for the materials tested is not listed here - that information is in a database. Included is, however, a short list of (1) materials that had an unusual response, and (2), a few {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} materials representing the range of typical responses usually seen.

Simpson, L.R.; Foltz, M.F.

1996-06-01

134

Optimization of a small scale reluctance linear solenoid accelerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small scale accelerator technologies provide opportunities in innovative and efficient transportation systems. Accelerator technologies are ever decreasing in size and complexity. The goal of the research was to develop more efficient small scale accelerators by optimizing high current flow through the accelerating solenoid. To do this; low temperature liquid nitrogen cooling systems and Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier power supply systems were examined closely to maximize the magnetic field inside the solenoid. Additionally,ferromagnetic fluids were examined in conjunction with these technologies to investigate the possibility of controlled braking of an accelerated object. The experimentation provides a high quality laboratory experiment for undergraduates interested in accelerator physics. Additionally, it provides a useful demonstration apparatus for undergraduate students studying lower division electricity and magnetism courses. A demonstration of the current development on these technologies will be offered at the time of the lecture.

Barrera, Thor; Beard, Robby

2011-04-01

135

Brightness of the Sun's small scale magnetic field: proximity effects  

E-print Network

The net effect of the small scale magnetic field on the Sun's (bolometric) brightness is studied with realistic 3D MHD simulations. The direct effect of brightening within the magnetic field itself is consistent with measurements in high-resolution observations. The high 'photometric accuracy' of the simulations, however, reveal compensating brightness effects that are hard to detect observationally. The influence of magnetic concentrations on the surrounding nonmagnetic convective flows (a 'proximity effect') reduces the brightness by an amount exceeding the brightening by the magnetic concentrations themselves. The net photospheric effect of the small scale field (~ -0.34% at a mean flux density of 50 G) is thus negative. We conclude that the main contribution to the observed positive correlation between the magnetic field and total solar irradiance must be magnetic dissipation in layers around the temperature minimum and above (not included in the simulations). This agrees with existing inferences from obs...

Thaler, I

2014-01-01

136

Small Scale Field Study of an Ocean CO 2 Plume  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have carried out a small-scale (?20 l) CO2 sequestration experiment off northern California (684 m depth, ?5°C, background ocean pH ?7.7) designed as an initial investigation\\u000a of the effects of physical forcing of the fluid, and the problem of sensing the formation of a low pH plume. The buoyant CO2 was contained in a square frame 1.2 m high,

Peter G. Brewer; Edward Peltzer; Izuo Aya; Peter Haugan; Richard Bellerby; Kenji Yamane; Ryuji Kojima; Peter Walz; Yasuharu Nakajima

2004-01-01

137

Interaction of dynamic rupture with small-scale heterogeneities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broadband ground motion simulations, with frequencies up to 10Hz, are important for engineering purposes, in particular for seismic hazard assessment for critical facilities. One problem in such simulations is the generation of high frequency radiation emitted during the dynamic rupture process. Ad-hoc kinematic rupture characterizations can be tweaked through empirical models to radiate over the desired frequency range, but their physical consistency remains questionable. In contrast, for physically self-consistent dynamic rupture modeling, controlled by friction, material parameters and the adopted physical laws, the mechanism that may lead to appropriate high-frequency radiation require heterogeneity in friction, stress, or fault geometry (or even all three quantities) at unknown but small length scales. Dunham at al. (2011) studied dynamic rupture propagation on rough faults in 2D, and described how fault roughness excites high-frequency radiation. In our study, we focus on the interaction of the dynamic rupture with small-scale heterogeneities on planar faults in 3D. We study effects of the interaction of dynamic rupture with 1) small-scale heterogeneities in the medium (that is, randomized 3D wave speed and density variations), and 2) small-scale heterogeneities in the frictional parameters. Our numerical results show significant variations in rupture velocity or peak slip velocity if small-scale heterogeneities are present. This indicates that the dynamic rupture is sensitive to both types of spatial inhomogeneity. At the same time we observe that the resulting near-source seismic wave fields are not very sensitive to these rupture variations, indicating that wavefront healing effects may "simplify" the complex seismic radiation once the waves propagated several wave-lengths away from the fault.

Galis, Martin; Mai, P. Martin

2014-05-01

138

CONSERVATION AND SUBSISTENCE IN SMALL-SCALE SOCIETIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Some scholars have championed,the view that small-scale societies are conservers or even creators of biodiversity. Others have argued,that human,popula- tions have always modified their environments, often in ways that enhance short-term gains at the expense,of environmental,stability and biodiversity conservation. Recent ethnographic,studies as well as theory from several disciplines allow a less polarized assessment. We review this body,of data

Eric Alden Smith; Mark Wishnie

2000-01-01

139

ATTITUDE CONTROL OPTIMIZATION FOR A SMALL-SCALE UNMANNED HELICOPTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results from the attitude control optimization for a small-scale helicopter by using an identified model of the vehicle dynamics that explicitly accounts for the coupled rotor\\/stabilizer\\/fuselage (r\\/s\\/f) dynamics. The accuracy of the model is verified by showing that it successfully predicts the performance of the control system currently used for Carnegie Mellon's autonomous helicopter (baseline controller). Elementary

Bernard Mettler; Takeo Kanade; Mark B. Tischler; William Messner

140

Small-scale spatial structure within patterns of seed dispersal.  

PubMed

A large proportion of dispersing propagules land near their maternal plant, even in species that have evolved structures which enhance dispersal. For these propagules, their post-dispersal spatial pattern is likely to reflect the overall shape and scale of the parental plant canopy and, especially in poorly dispersing species, aggregation of propagules on the plant prior to dispersal. Localised patterns within seed shadows are also likely to be affected by secondary movement after dispersal, leading to either more or less small-scale aggregation, depending on the mechanism. Our general aim was to study the small-scale spatial structure within patterns of seed dispersal of Raphanus raphanistrum L. to generate hypotheses about the sequence of processes and events leading to the spatial pattern of dispersal in this species. More specifically, we determined the sizes of small-scale structures within the seed shadows on the ground after dispersal and the extent to which these match the sizes of pre-dispersal aggregations within the parental canopy. Variation in plant size and shape was provided by four levels of inter-specific competition resulting from differing wheat crop densities. Positions of propagules were determined using a three-dimensional digitizer, and the data for each plant were analysed using point pattern analysis. Not surprisingly, larger plants, growing at lower plant density, had larger seed shadows, showing an overall influence of maternal plant size. The pattern of propagules exhibited significant small-scale aggregates, with similar sizes on the plant and on the ground. There was no evidence that aggregation size was greater on the ground or increased with time, but the strength of the aggregation increased with length of time on the ground. PMID:18818953

Cousens, R D; Wiegand, T; Taghizadeh, M S

2008-12-01

141

Industrial Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains vocational education program courses standards (curriculum frameworks and student performance standards) for exploratory courses, practical arts courses, and job preparatory programs offered at the secondary or postsecondary level in Florida. Each program courses standard is composed of two parts: a curriculum framework and…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

142

Model Facilities for New Industrial Arts Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The classroom models were developed and illustrated by the Secondary Exploration of Technology Project (SET) for new ninth grade courses in industrial arts. (Communication lab, materials lab, power lab, and the total facility layout). (Author)

Dean, Harvey; Thuma, Ron

1975-01-01

143

Dislocation dynamics simulations of plasticity at small scales  

SciTech Connect

As metallic structures and devices are being created on a dimension comparable to the length scales of the underlying dislocation microstructures, the mechanical properties of them change drastically. Since such small structures are increasingly common in modern technologies, there is an emergent need to understand the critical roles of elasticity, plasticity, and fracture in small structures. Dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations, in which the dislocations are the simulated entities, offer a way to extend length scales beyond those of atomistic simulations and the results from DD simulations can be directly compared with the micromechanical tests. The primary objective of this research is to use 3-D DD simulations to study the plastic deformation of nano- and micro-scale materials and understand the correlation between dislocation motion, interactions and the mechanical response. Specifically, to identify what critical events (i.e., dislocation multiplication, cross-slip, storage, nucleation, junction and dipole formation, pinning etc.) determine the deformation response and how these change from bulk behavior as the system decreases in size and correlate and improve our current knowledge of bulk plasticity with the knowledge gained from the direct observations of small-scale plasticity. Our simulation results on single crystal micropillars and polycrystalline thin films can march the experiment results well and capture the essential features in small-scale plasticity. Furthermore, several simple and accurate models have been developed following our simulation results and can reasonably predict the plastic behavior of small scale materials.

Zhou, Caizhi

2010-12-15

144

Empirical spatial econometric modelling of small scale neighbourhood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the paper is to model small scale neighbourhood in a house price model by implementing the newest methodology in spatial econometrics. A common problem when modelling house prices is that in practice it is seldom possible to obtain all the desired variables. Especially variables capturing the small scale neighbourhood conditions are hard to find. If there are important explanatory variables missing from the model, the omitted variables are spatially autocorrelated and they are correlated with the explanatory variables included in the model, it can be shown that a spatial Durbin model is motivated. In the empirical application on new house price data from Helsinki in Finland, we find the motivation for a spatial Durbin model, we estimate the model and interpret the estimates for the summary measures of impacts. By the analysis we show that the model structure makes it possible to model and find small scale neighbourhood effects, when we know that they exist, but we are lacking proper variables to measure them.

Gerkman, Linda

2012-07-01

145

The nonlinear small-scale dynamo and isotropic MHD turbulence  

E-print Network

This is a brief review of the main results of our recent studies of the nonlinear evolution of the small-scale MHD dynamo in the high-Prandtl-number regime and of the structure of the resulting saturated state of the isotropic homogeneous MHD turbulence. It is emphasized that the MHD regime without a uniform mean field (as is the case in our studies) is fundamentally different from the one in which such a field is externally imposed. The ability of the turbulence to bend and fold the magnetic-field lines leads to the emergence of a distinctive small-scale structure. The fields are organized in folds of characteristic length comparable to the size of the largest turbulent eddies with spatial-direction reversals at the resistive scale. These folds are very hard to destroy. In the nonlinear regime, the folding structure coexists with Alfven waves propagating along the folds. The turbulent energy injected by the forcing is dissipated in part resistively via the small-scale magnetic fields, and in part viscously via the Alfven waves.

A. A. Schekochihin; S. C. Cowley; G. W. Hammett; J. L. Maron; J. C. McWilliams

2002-07-06

146

The Texas Industrial Energy Conservation Program  

E-print Network

cesses listed. Chart1-lndustrial Target Groups SIC CODE INDUSTRY 201 Meat Products 204 Feed and Grain 207 Fats and Oils 26 Paper and Allied Products 28 Chemicals and Allied Products 30 Rubber and Plastics 33 Primary Metals 34 Fabricated Metals... cesses listed. Chart1-lndustrial Target Groups SIC CODE INDUSTRY 201 Meat Products 204 Feed and Grain 207 Fats and Oils 26 Paper and Allied Products 28 Chemicals and Allied Products 30 Rubber and Plastics 33 Primary Metals 34 Fabricated Metals...

Waldrop, T.

1982-01-01

147

Pre-Industrial Preparation Program Handbook. Vocational-Technical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed in a workshop by principals, counselors, and teachers, this handbook is designed to serve as a guide for program implementation and to present an orientation to the pre-industrial preparation program. The primary goal of the program is to help academically deprived students improve their basic verbal, scientific, and mathematical skills…

Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

148

Canada's Voluntary ARET Program: Limited Success Despite Industry Cosponsorship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxins (ARET) Challenge was a voluntary program initiated in 1994 by the Government of Canada. Unlike the U.S. 33/50 Program, ARET involved industry partners in negotiation and cosponsorship of the program, with the intention that early involvement would yield stronger commitment to voluntary reductions. We…

Antweiler, Werner; Harrison, Kathryn

2007-01-01

149

Overview of the US industrial thermal energy storage program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal energy storage can contribute to industrial conservation efforts directed at saving premium (gas and oil) fuels, which is a priority national need. This can be done by using storage to allow the recycling of industrial reject heat to reduce primary energy consumption or to allow alternate fuels to replace gas and oil. Industrial thermal energy storage efforts include three major areas: in-plant reuse of industrial reject heat; external reuse of industrial reject heat for applications in the industrial or buildings sector; and use of alternate fuels to replace gas and oil. The program currently includes engineering field tests in the brick and aluminum industries. In addition, technology transfer activities are underway in the pulp and paper industry.

Olszewski, M.

1981-02-01

150

Program Director for the Industry University Cooperative Research Center (I/UCRC) Program, ENG/EEC (Open Until Filled)  

NSF Publications Database

... Education and Centers (EEC), Industry University Cooperative Research Center (I/UCRC) Program ... Director position for the Industry University Cooperative Research Center (I/UCRC) Program at the ...

151

Technology Roadmap Research Program for the Steel Industry  

SciTech Connect

The steel industry's Technology Roadmap Program (TRP) is a collaborative R&D effort jointly sponsored by the steel industry and the United States Department of Energy. The TRP program was designed to develop new technologies to save energy , increase competitiveness, and improve the environment. TRP ran from July, 1997 to December, 2008, with a total program budget of $38 million dollars. During that period 47 R&D projects were performed by 28 unique research organizations; co-funding was provided by DOE and 60 industry partners. The projects benefited all areas of steelmaking and much know-how was developed and transferred to industry. The American Iron and Steel Institute is the owner of all intellectual property developed under TRP and licenses it at commercial rates to all steelmakers. TRP technologies are in widespread use in the steel industry as participants received royalty-free use of intellectual property in return for taking the risk of funding this research.

Joseph R. Vehec

2010-12-30

152

Industrial cogeneration optimization program. Final report, September 1979  

SciTech Connect

This study program is part of the DOE Integrated Industry Cogeneration Program to optimize, evaluate, and demonstrate cogeneration systems, with direct participation of the industries most affected. One objective is to characterize five major energy-intensive industries with respect to their energy-use profiles. The industries are: petroleum refining and related industries, textile mill products, paper and allied products, chemicals and allied products, and food and kindred products. Another objective is to select optimum cogeneration systems for site-specific reference case plants in terms of maximum energy savings subject to given return on investment hurdle rates. Analyses were made that define the range of optimal cogeneration systems for each reference-case plant considering technology applicability, economic factors, and energy savings by type of fuel. This study also provides guidance to other parts of the program through information developed with regard to component development requirements, institutional and regulatory barriers, as well as fuel use and environmental considerations. (MCW)

Not Available

1980-01-01

153

Developing Ethics Programs: An Industry Primer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This primer describes the generally accepted elements of an ethics program. It can be used as a checklist for reviewing an existing ethics program or as a primer for initiating one. It focuses on developing and communicating company creeds and employee st...

H. M. Tayloe, K. D. Sorber

1989-01-01

154

An Industrial View of Undergraduate Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several areas that are lacking in undergraduate nuclear engineering programs are discussed. Although most programs provide adequate theoretical knowledge in nuclear science, the nuclear engineer must have a working knowledge with the complete nuclear power plant, and be acquainted with the functions and responsibilities of the various segments of…

Elliott, David M.

155

Report on Community College Industrial Production Technology Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides an in-depth analysis of the Industrial Production Technology Programs in Illinois, which, according to Illinois Community College Board policy, must be reviewed at least once every five years. The disciplines included in this report are: industrial manufacturing technology, corrosion technology, plastics technology, and…

Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

156

Occupational Employment Statistics Program. Staffing Patterns in Selected Nonmanufacturing Industries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The material in the publication is intended to acquaint users with the occupational composition of the various nonmanufacturing industries in the State of Indiana. It is directed particularly to those who are concerned with designing academic and vocational education programs in order to supply workers to fill the needs of industry and to…

Indiana State Employment Security Div., Indianapolis. Research and Statistics Section.

157

Industrial Arts Education: Purposes, Program, Facilities, Instruction, Supervision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Industrial arts education is designed specifically to help prepare individuals for meeting the requirements of a technological culture. It is an integral part of education from kindergarten through higher education which provides representative experiences in industrial skills and processes. This planned program requires special facilities which…

American Council of Industrial Arts Supervisors, Washington, DC.

158

Designing Industrial DSM Programs that Work  

E-print Network

of programs work much better than other types. Successful efforts include both custom and prescriptive components that show an understanding of the customers perspective, use marketing that is personal and user-friendly, provide flexibility, and include...

Nadel, S. M.; Jordan, J. A.

159

Material Management Program Can Attract Local Industry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the material management certificate and the associate in applied science degree programs at William Rainey Harper College, Palatine, Illinois. Material management functions include purchasing, production control, inventory control, material handling, warehousing, packaging, computer applications, and transportation. (MF)

Magad, Eugene L.

1978-01-01

160

Canada's Voluntary Industrial Energy Conservation Program  

E-print Network

comprised of the individual Task Force Chairmen and representatives of the federal government. While the program has been in existence only since 1976, impressive gains have already been made and targets have been set for 1980 and 1985. The strength...

Wolf, C. A., Jr.

1980-01-01

161

Numerical study of the small scale structures in Boussinesq convection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-dimensional Boussinesq convection is studied numerically using two different methods: a filtered pseudospectral method and a high order accurate Essentially Nonoscillatory (ENO) scheme. The issue whether finite time singularity occurs for initially smooth flows is investigated. The numerical results suggest that the collapse of the bubble cap is unlikely to occur in resolved calculations. The strain rate corresponding to the intensification of the density gradient across the front saturates at the bubble cap. We also found that the cascade of energy to small scales is dominated by the formulation of thin and sharp fronts across which density jumps.

Weinan, E.; Shu, Chi-Wang

1992-01-01

162

Efficient, small scale chemical oxygen-iodine laser  

SciTech Connect

More than 40% extractable power efficiency has been achieved in a transverse flow, small scale, chemically pumped iodine-atom laser. 5 W of cw laser emission at 1315 nm has been obtained via energy transfer from chemically generated O/sub 2/(/sup 1/..delta..) to I atoms in a 10 x 1 cm/sup 2/ rectangular flow duct. Simple construction materials, safely handled chemicals, and a medium size vacuum pump were used for fabricating and operating the laser. The importance of minimizing quenching of excited species by collision with water molecules or with the wall is demonstrated.

Bachar, J.; Rosenwaks, S.

1982-07-01

163

Dimensional analysis of small-scale steam explosion experiments  

SciTech Connect

Dimensional analysis applied to Nelson's small-scale steam explosion experiments to determine the qualitative effect of each relevant parameter for triggering a steam explosion. According to experimental results, the liquid entrapment model seems to be a consistent explanation for the steam explosion triggering mechanism. The three-dimensional oscillatory wave motion of the vapor/liquid interface is analyzed to determine the necessary conditions for local condensation and production of a coolant microjet to be entrapped in fuel. It is proposed that different contact modes between fuel and coolant may involve different initiation mechanisms of steam explosions.

Huh, K.; Corradini, M.L.

1986-05-01

164

Development of small scale soft x-ray lasers  

SciTech Connect

At present rapid progress is being made in the application of soft x-ray lasers to fields such as microscopy and microlithography. A critical factor in the range of suitable applications is the scale and hence cost of the soft x-ray lasers. At Princeton, gain at 183{angstrom} has been obtained with relatively low pump laser energies (as low as 6J) in a portable'' small-scale soft x-ray laser system. We will also discuss aspects of data interpretation and pitfalls to be avoided in measurements of gain in such systems. 14 refs., 7 figs.

Kim, D.; Suckewer, S. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab. Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering); Skinner, C.H.; Voorhees, D. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.)

1991-05-01

165

Rapid small-scale preparation method of cell surface polysaccharides.  

PubMed

A rapid small-scale method of extraction of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and capsular polysaccharides was developed for the purpose of identification of chemotypes of LPS and serotypes of capsular antigens. Cell surface polysaccharides were prepared within less than 2 hr from 1.5 ml of broth or suspension of colonies cultured overnight. The preparations were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for LPS, and by double diffusion gel precipitation (Ouchterlony) test and blotting to nitrocellulose membrane for capsular polysaccharide. The analyses with the preparations obtained by the method could provide adequate results capable of identifying chemotypes of LPS and serotypes of capsular antigens. PMID:2266883

Sugiyama, T; Kido, N; Arakawa, Y; Mori, M; Naito, S; Ohta, M; Kato, N

1990-01-01

166

Industry/University Cooperative Fellowship Supplement to the Industry/University Cooperative Research Center (I/UCRC) Program Solicitation (NSF 01-116)  

NSF Publications Database

... and Centers Industry/University Cooperative Research Center Program Industry/University ... Supplement to the Industry/University Cooperative Research Center (I/UCRC) Program Solicitation (NSF ...

167

DOE's Geothermal Program: New emphasis on industrial participation  

SciTech Connect

In line with industry's traditional strong role in targeting research priorities for the Department of Energy's geothermal program, the new policy thrust toward industry-driven R&D will complement our existing planning processes. Cost-sharing and leveraging of DOE's limited research resources remain critical elements, especially at The Geysers where DOE-funded research must have a very strong potential for yielding early industrial application. Upcoming geothermal reservoir engineering program initiatives respond to industry's expressed need for new exploration technologies to find undiscovered geothermal resources where there are little or no surface manifestations and for drilling innovations to reduce the costs of exploration for such resources. In accord with the Department's policy of focusing on research supported by industry, long-term research on geopressured and hot dry rock resources has been reduced in scope or deferred.

Mock, John, E.; Beeland, Gene

1991-01-01

168

INDUSTRIAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY MASTER'S DEGREE PROGRAM HANDBOOK  

E-print Network

INDUSTRIAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY MASTER'S DEGREE PROGRAM HANDBOOK University of Central Psychology. We refer to our program as "applied" and "professional." The "applied" refers to our focus Park. It is within one hour of the Atlantic Ocean, the Kennedy Space Center, and the Walt Disney World

Foroosh, Hassan

169

Special Issues for Program Design and Evaluation for Industrial Energy Programs  

E-print Network

Designing energy efficiency programs that include serving industrial customers, and evaluating them, carries with it a set of challenges. A summary view from prior efficiency program evaluations will be presented that examines these challenges, how...

Megdal, L.

2007-01-01

170

Industrial research enhancement program at the National Synchrotron Light Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industrial research has attracted more and more attention recently at synchrotron facilities. Bringing the state-of-the-art research capabilities provided by these facilities to the industrial user community will help this community to improve their products and processing methods, to foster competition and build the economy. The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) has a long and celebrated history in research partnerships with industry since its inception more than 25 years ago, and both industry and the facility have benefited tremendously from these partnerships. Over the years, the ways in which industrial research is conducted at synchrotron facilities have evolved significantly, and a new paradigm of collaboration between industry and facilities is clearly needed to address this changing situation. In this presentation, the discussion will focus on an enhancement plan recently implemented at the NSLS to address industrial users' concerns and needs. The goal of NSLS Industrial Program Enhancement plan is to encourage greater use of synchrotron tools by industry researchers, improve access to NSLS beamlines by industrial researchers and facilitate research collaborations between industrial researchers and NSLS staff as well as researchers from university and government laboratories. Examples of recent developments in these areas will be presented.

Wang, Jun; Nasta, Kathleen; Kao, Chi-Chang

2011-09-01

171

European semiconductor industry: Markets, government programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The marketing of the semiconductor industry in Europe and especially microelectronics which is situated between the millstones of USA and Japan is discussed. The concerned enterprises and governments appear to lack the motivation for close cooperation using European resources, corresponding to the ideas of the contracts on which the common market is based. It is felt that microelectronics is promoted in individual countries under more national perspectives, and the enterprises are pursuing strictly their own interests in cooperating with predominantly American and Japanese partners. An insight into the European semiconductor scene, its markets, as well as assistance for promotion and establishment available in the individual countries is discussed.

Scharf, A.

1983-01-01

172

Thermospheric and Ionospheric Reaction to Small-Scale Drivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aurora has many different length-scales, from sub-kilometer arcs to about 3,000 km to define the scale of the oval. Most global-scale models do not have enough resolution to capture the dynamics of the upper atmosphere at the smaller length-scales. In addition, most observations of the thermosphere are either extremely localized or have a more global in view. In the last few years, both instruments and models have become available that allow both small-scale and larger-scales to be explored. For example, the Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (GITM) is capable of being run with less than 50 km resolution, while Scanning Doppler Interferometers (SDI) allow regional coverage of neutral temperature and winds. In this study, we will explore the role of poleward boundary intensifications, which are small-scale auroral features, in determining the local, regional and global temperature and wind structure in the thermosphere. In addition, we will explore how the perturbations serve to change the ionospheric structure across the globe. We will utilize to explore these utilizing idealized simulations, and will compare to the Alaskan SDI measurements for specific events.

Ridley, A. J.; Zou, S.; Conde, M. G.

2012-12-01

173

MODELING THE VERY SMALL SCALE CLUSTERING OF LUMINOUS RED GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

We model the small-scale clustering of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Specifically, we use the halo occupation distribution formalism to model the projected two-point correlation function of LRGs on scales well within the sizes of their host halos (0.016 h {sup -1} Mpc <= r <= 0.42 h {sup -1} Mpc). We start by varying P(N|M), the probability distribution that a dark matter halo of mass M contains N LRGs, and assuming that the radial distribution of satellite LRGs within halos traces the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) dark matter density profile. We find that varying P(N|M) alone is not sufficient to match the small-scale data. We next allow the concentration of satellite LRG galaxies to differ from that of dark matter and find that this is also not sufficient. Finally, we relax the assumption of an NFW profile and allow the inner slope of the density profile to vary. We find that this model provides a good fit to the data and the resulting value of the slope is -2.17 +- 0.12. The radial density profile of satellite LRGs within halos is thus not compatible with that of the underlying dark matter, but rather is closer to an isothermal distribution.

Watson, Douglas F.; Berlind, Andreas A.; McBride, Cameron K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 1807 Station B, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Masjedi, Morad [Goldman Sachs and Co., 85 Broad Street, New York, NY 10004 (United States)

2010-01-20

174

A small-scale anatomical dosimetry model of the liver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radionuclide therapy is a growing and promising approach for treating and prolonging the lives of patients with cancer. For therapies where high activities are administered, the liver can become a dose-limiting organ; often with a complex, non-uniform activity distribution and resulting non-uniform absorbed-dose distribution. This paper therefore presents a small-scale dosimetry model for various source-target combinations within the human liver microarchitecture. Using Monte Carlo simulations, Medical Internal Radiation Dose formalism-compatible specific absorbed fractions were calculated for monoenergetic electrons; photons; alpha particles; and 125I, 90Y, 211At, 99mTc, 111In, 177Lu, 131I and 18F. S values and the ratio of local absorbed dose to the whole-organ average absorbed dose was calculated, enabling a transformation of dosimetry calculations from macro- to microstructure level. For heterogeneous activity distributions, for example uptake in Kupffer cells of radionuclides emitting low-energy electrons (125I) or high-LET alpha particles (211At) the target absorbed dose for the part of the space of Disse, closest to the source, was more than eight- and five-fold the average absorbed dose to the liver, respectively. With the increasing interest in radionuclide therapy of the liver, the presented model is an applicable tool for small-scale liver dosimetry in order to study detailed dose-effect relationships in the liver.

Stenvall, Anna; Larsson, Erik; Strand, Sven-Erik; Jönsson, Bo-Anders

2014-07-01

175

Atmospheric dispersion modelling over complex terrain at small scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous study concerned of qualitative modelling neutrally stratified flow over open-cut coal mine and important surrounding topography at meso-scale (1:9000) revealed an important area for quantitative modelling of atmospheric dispersion at small-scale (1:3300). The selected area includes a necessary part of the coal mine topography with respect to its future expansion and surrounding populated areas. At this small-scale simultaneous measurement of velocity components and concentrations in specified points of vertical and horizontal planes were performed by two-dimensional Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) and Fast-Response Flame Ionization Detector (FFID), respectively. The impact of the complex terrain on passive pollutant dispersion with respect to the prevailing wind direction was observed and the prediction of the air quality at populated areas is discussed. The measured data will be used for comparison with another model taking into account the future coal mine transformation. Thus, the impact of coal mine transformation on pollutant dispersion can be observed.

Nosek, S.; Janour, Z.; Kukacka, L.; Jurcakova, K.; Kellnerova, R.; Gulikova, E.

2014-03-01

176

NONLINEAR SMALL-SCALE DYNAMOS AT LOW MAGNETIC PRANDTL NUMBERS  

SciTech Connect

Saturated small-scale dynamo solutions driven by isotropic non-helical turbulence are presented at low magnetic Prandtl numbers Pr{sub M} down to 0.01. For Pr{sub M} < 0.1, most of the energy is dissipated via Joule heat and, in agreement with earlier results for helical large-scale dynamos, kinetic energy dissipation is shown to diminish proportional to Pr{sup 1/2}{sub M} down to values of 0.1. In agreement with earlier work, there is, in addition to a short Golitsyn k {sup -11/3} spectrum near the resistive scale, also some evidence for a short k {sup -1} spectrum on larger scales. The rms magnetic field strength of the small-scale dynamo is found to depend only weakly on the value of Pr{sub M} and decreases by about a factor of two as Pr{sub M} is decreased from 1 to 0.01. The possibility of dynamo action at Pr{sub M} = 0.1 in the nonlinear regime is argued to be a consequence of a suppression of the bottleneck seen in the kinetic energy spectrum in the absence of a dynamo and, more generally, a suppression of kinetic energy near the dissipation wavenumber.

Brandenburg, Axel, E-mail: brandenb@nordita.org [NORDITA, AlbaNova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

2011-11-10

177

Preliminary Scaling Estimate for Select Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Tests  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions’ Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems.

Wells, Beric E.; Fort, James A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.; Schonewill, Philip P.

2013-09-12

178

Intergenerational Wealth Transmission and the Dynamics of Inequality in Small-Scale Societies*  

PubMed Central

Small-scale human societies range from foraging bands with a strong egalitarian ethos to more economically stratified agrarian and pastoral societies. We explain this variation in inequality using a dynamic model in which a population’s long-run steady-state level of inequality depends on the extent to which its most important forms of wealth are transmitted within families across generations. We estimate the degree of intergenerational transmission of three different types of wealth (material, embodied, and relational) as well as the extent of wealth inequality in 21 historical and contemporary populations. We show that intergenerational transmission of wealth and wealth inequality are substantial among pastoral and small-scale agricultural societies (on a par with or even exceeding the most unequal modern industrial economies) and quite limited among horticultural and foraging peoples (equivalent to the most egalitarian of modern industrial populations). Differences in the technology by which a people derive their livelihood and in the institutions and norms making up the economic system jointly contribute to this pattern. PMID:19900925

Mulder, Monique Borgerhoff; Bowles, Samuel; Hertz, Tom; Bell, Adrian; Beise, Jan; Clark, Greg; Fazzio, Ila; Gurven, Michael; Hill, Kim; Hooper, Paul L.; Irons, William; Kaplan, Hillard; Leonetti, Donna; Low, Bobbi; Marlowe, Frank; McElreath, Richard; Naidu, Suresh; Nolin, David; Piraino, Patrizio; Quinlan, Rob; Schniter, Eric; Sear, Rebecca; Shenk, Mary; Smith, Eric Alden; von Rueden, Christopher; Wiessner, Polly

2009-01-01

179

Career Exploration in the Fashion Industry: A Suggested Program Guide. Fashion Industry Series No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The career exploration guide is the first of a series of five interrelated program resource guides encompassing the various dimensions of the fashion industry. The series is intended to provide an information source for establishing, expanding, or evaluating secondary and adult vocational instructional programs related to the broad field of…

Fashion Inst. of Tech., New York, NY.

180

DOE EM industry programs robotics development  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD&D, as well as testing and evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. OST has organized technology management activities along focus teams for each major problem area. There are currently five focus areas: decontamination and decommissioning, tanks, subsurface contaminants, mixed waste, and plutonium. In addition, OST is pursuing research and development (R&D) that cuts across these focus areas by having applications in two or more focus areas. Currently, there are three cross-cutting programs: the robotics technology development; characterization, monitoring, and sensor technologies; and efficient separations and processing.

Staubly, R.; Kothari, V. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

1997-12-01

181

Evaluating Industrial Conservation Programs: An Interdisciplinary Approach  

E-print Network

servation programs in homes, businesses, automobiles would then fall to 30 billion and factories as powerful strategies gallons. Hence, you estimate a 30 b(llion for conserving our nation's energy gallon per year savings, whic~ tran~llates resources... of an automobile, automat less than the original 60 billion. ically doubles the miles per gallon of ever, 40 billion is considerably mo the vehicle. the 30 billion which we had naively Are you interested? Of course. estimated in our original calculati Eagerly...

Einhorn, M. A.

182

SMALL SCALE FUEL CELL AND REFORMER SYSTEMS FOR REMOTE POWER  

SciTech Connect

New developments in fuel cell technologies offer the promise of clean, reliable affordable power, resulting in reduced environmental impacts and reduced dependence on foreign oil. These developments are of particular interest to the people of Alaska, where many residents live in remote villages, with no roads or electrical grids and a very high cost of energy, where small residential power systems could replace diesel generators. Fuel cells require hydrogen for efficient electrical production, however. Hydrogen purchased through conventional compressed gas suppliers is very expensive and not a viable option for use in remote villages, so hydrogen production is a critical piece of making fuel cells work in these areas. While some have proposed generating hydrogen from renewable resources such as wind, this does not appear to be an economically viable alternative at this time. Hydrogen can also be produced from hydrocarbon feed stocks, in a process known as reforming. This program is interested in testing and evaluating currently available reformers using transportable fuels: methanol, propane, gasoline, and diesel fuels. Of these, diesel fuels are of most interest, since the existing energy infrastructure of rural Alaska is based primarily on diesel fuels, but this is also the most difficult fuel to reform, due to the propensity for coke formation, due to both the high vaporization temperature and to the high sulfur content in these fuels. There are several competing fuel cell technologies being developed in industry today. Prior work at UAF focused on the use of PEM fuel cells and diesel reformers, with significant barriers identified to their use for power in remote areas, including stack lifetime, system efficiency, and cost. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells have demonstrated better stack lifetime and efficiency in demonstrations elsewhere (though cost still remains an issue), and procuring a system for testing was pursued. The primary function of UAF in the fuel cell industry is in the role of third party independent testing. In order for tests to be conducted, hardware must be purchased and delivered. The fuel cell industry is still in a pre-commercial state, however. Commercial products are defined as having a fixed set of specifications, fixed price, fixed delivery date, and a warrantee. Negotiations with fuel cell companies over these issues are often complex, and the results of these discussions often reveal much about the state of development of the technology. This work includes some of the results of these procurement experiments. Fuel cells may one day replace heat engines as the source of electrical power in remote areas. However, the results of this program to date indicate that currently available hardware is not developed sufficiently for these environments, and that significant time and resources will need to be committed for this to occur.

Dennis Witmer

2003-12-01

183

Scaling properties of small-scale fluctuations in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence  

E-print Network

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the majority of natural systems, including the interstellar medium, the solar corona, and the solar wind, has Reynolds numbers far exceeding the Reynolds numbers achievable in numerical experiments. Much attention is therefore drawn to the universal scaling properties of small-scale fluctuations, which can be reliably measured in the simulations and then extrapolated to astrophysical scales. However, in contrast with hydrodynamic turbulence, where the universal structure of the inertial and dissipation intervals is described by the Kolmogorov self-similarity, the scaling for MHD turbulence cannot be established based solely on dimensional arguments due to the presence of an intrinsic velocity scale -- the Alfven velocity. In this Letter, we demonstrate that the Kolmogorov first self-similarity hypothesis cannot be formulated for MHD turbulence in the same way it is formulated for the hydrodynamic case. Besides profound consequences for the analytical consideration, this...

Perez, J C; Boldyrev, S; Cattaneo, F

2014-01-01

184

Small-scale hydrous pyrolysis of macromolecular material in meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrous pyrolysis method, usually performed on several hundred grams of terrestrial rock sample, has been scaled down to accommodate less than two grams of meteorite sample. This technique makes full use of the high yields associated with hydrous pyrolysis experiments and permits the investigation of the meteorite macromolecular material, the major organic component in carbonaceous meteorites. The hydrous pyrolysis procedure transforms the high molecular weight macromolecular material into low molecular weight fragments. The released entities can then be extracted with supercritical fluid extraction. In contrast to the parent structure, the pyrolysis products are amenable for analysis by gas chromatography-based techniques. When subjected to hydrous pyrolysis, two carbonaceous chondrites (Orgueil and Cold Bokkeveld) released generally similar products, which consisted of abundant volatile aromatic and alkyl-substituted aromatic compounds. These results revealed the ability of small-scale hydrous pyrolysis to dissect extraterrestrial macromolecular material and thereby reveal its organic constitution.

Sephton, M. A.; Pillinger, C. T.; Gilmour, I.

1998-12-01

185

CAMUI Type Hybrid Rocket as Small Scale Ballistic Flight Testbed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors have been developing CAMUI (Cascaded Multistage Impinging-jet) type hybrid rockets, explosive-flee small rocket motors. This is to downsize the scale of suborbital flight experiments on space related technology development. A key idea is a new fuel grain design to increase gasification rates of a solid fuels. By the new fuel grain design, the combustion gas repeatedly impinges on fuel surfaces to hasten the heat transfer to the fuel. Suborbital flight experiments by sounding rockets provide variety of test beds to accumulate basic technologies common to the next step of space development in Japan. By using hybrid rockets one can take the cost advantage of small-scale rocket experiments. This cost advantage improves robustness of space technology development projects by dispersion of risk.

Nagata, Harunori; Uematsu, Tsutomu; Ito, Kenichi

186

Properties of small-scale magnetism of stellar atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic field outside of sunspots is concentrated in the intergranular space, where it forms a delicate filigree of bright ribbons and dots as seen on broad band images of the Sun. We expect this small-scale magnetic field to exhibit a similar behavior in stellar atmospheres. In order to find out more about it, we perform numerical simulations of the surface layers of stellar atmospheres. Here, we report on preliminary results from simulations in the range between 4000 K and 6500 K effective temperature with an initial vertical, homogeneous magnetic field of 50 G strength. We find that the field strength of the strongest magnetic flux concentrations increases with decreasing effective temperature at the height level where the average Rosseland optical depth is one. On the other hand, at the same level, the field is less strong than the thermal equipartition value in the coolest model but assumes superequipartition in the models hotter than 5000 K. While the Wilson depression of the strongest field concentrations is about one pressure scale height in the coolest model, it is more than four times the pressure scale height in the hottest one. We also find that the relative contribution of the bright filigree to the bolometric, vertically directed radiative intensity is most significant for the Teff = 5000 K model (0.6%-0.79%) and least significant for the hottest and coolest models (0.1%-0.46% and 0.14%-0.32%, respectively). This behavior suggests that the effect of the small-scale magnetic field on the photometric variability is more significant for K dwarf stars than for F-type and also M-type stars.

Steiner, Oskar; Salhab, René; Freytag, Bernd; Rajaguru, S. P.; Schaffenberger, Werner; Steffen, Matthias

2014-10-01

187

Models for Direct Industry Support of US Civil Engineering Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Of the approximately 250 accredited civil engineering programs in the US, the proportion that have direct and formal advisement from local industry is unknown. Where present, external, corporate-style advisory boards made up of practicing engineers and executives from local engineering and construction firms provide formal support in the form of curricular development advice, scholarships and operational funding, as well as co-op and internship programs. The presence and involvement of advisory bodies focused on the departmental rather than the college or university level is perceived as a distinct program advantage and has been recognized by ABET program evaluators. Still, the relative benefits of direct industry support and advisement have not previously been measured. This paper will describe the various forms of informal and formal CE program support and present a survey methodology for evaluating whether these arrangements have a quantifiable effect on program success. A database of advisory boards from surveyed programs is presented and analyzed. The objectives of this work are to correlate the relative performance of CE programs' enrollment, research expenditures, and other factors with direct advisement and support by external boards; and to enumerate the co-incentives that advisory boards and CEprograms share. A case study is presented based on the Civil Engineering Institute (CEI), a nonprofit Virginia corporation and formal advisory board established in 1989 whose purpose is to assist with the Civil and Infrastructure Engineering program of GMU. The paper will finally present guidance and suggestions for implementing formal program support.

Casey, Michael; O'Donnel, Ellen

2009-09-30

188

Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power in the Pacific Northwest: New Impetus for an Old Energy Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The small scale hydroelectric power policy projects of the national conference of state legislators (NCSL) was designed to assist state legislators in looking at the benefits of one alternative, small scale hydro. Because of the need for state legislative support in the development of small scale hydroelectric, NCSL, as part of its contract with the Department of Energy, conducted the following conference on small scale hydro in the Pacific Northwest. State obstacles to development and options for change available to policymakers were explored.

1980-07-01

189

Quantifying the overlooked socio-economic contribution of small-scale fisheries in Sabah, Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study objective is to quantify the present and historical contribution of small-scale fisheries to national economies. We focus on the small-scale fishing sector in Sabah, Malaysia, and use a previously reconstructed time series of Sabah's small-scale catches as the basis for estimating the economic value of these fisheries. Our findings suggest that since the early 1990s, small-scale fish catches

Louise S. L. Teh; Lydia C. L. Teh; U. Rashid Sumaila

2011-01-01

190

Technical assessment of the Office of Industrial Programs' Advanced Heat Exchanger Program  

SciTech Connect

The DOE's AHX Program is an integral part of the OIP's Waste Heat Recovery Program whose goals are to increase the end-use energy efficiency of industry and agricultural operations, and to expand the energy options for manufacturing processes by providing technologies which use various fuels including coal, renewables, oil, and natural gas. The OIP and PNL convened a panel of industry experts to conduct a technical assessment of OIP's AHX program. This report documents the results of the panel's assessment.

Rinker, F.G.; Bergles, A.E.; Marciniak, T.J.; Batman, J.

1987-02-01

191

A small-scale randomized efficacy trial of Carescapes: Enhancing children’s social development in child care homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of the child care environment and caregiver practices can potentially have significant, lasting impact on children’s social development. This study involves the development and a small-scale efficacy trial of the Carescapes program, a video-based training program that focuses on promoting positive social development in young children attending family child care. Fifty-seven caregivers who provided child care in their

Julie C. Rusby; Keith Smolkowski; Brion Marquez; Ted K. Taylor

2008-01-01

192

DOE EM industry programs robotics development  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD and D, as well as testing and evaluation for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. Robotic systems reduce worker exposure to the absolute minimum, while providing proven, cost-effective, and, for some applications, the only acceptable technique for addressing challenging problems. Development of robotic systems for remote operations occurs in three main categories: tank waste characterization and retrieval; decontamination and dismantlement; and characterization, mapping, and inspection systems. In addition, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has some other projects which fall under the heading of supporting R and D. The central objective of all FETC robotic projects is to make robotic systems more attractive by reducing costs and health risks associated with the deployment of robotic technologies in the cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. This will be accomplished through development of robots that are cheaper, faster, safer, and more reliable, as well as more straightforward to modify/adapt and more intuitive to operate with autonomous capabilities and intelligent controls that prevent accidents and optimize task execution.

Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.

1998-12-31

193

Small-scale features of temperature and salinity surface fields in the Christophe Maes,1  

E-print Network

Small-scale features of temperature and salinity surface fields in the Coral Sea Christophe Maes,1 August 2013; accepted 11 August 2013. [1] The small-scale features in sea surface temperature¸on, and D. Varillon (2013), Small-scale features of temperature and salinity surface fields in the Coral Sea

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

194

Descriptive Assessment of Small-Scale and Traditional Fisheries in the Western  

E-print Network

Descriptive Assessment of Small-Scale and Traditional Fisheries in the Western Pacific Introduction, Impact Assessment, Inc. #12;Project Objectives · Descriptive assessment of small-scale and traditional Collect & analyze empirical data to improve: · Characterize small-scale and traditional fishing fleets

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

195

Descriptive Assessment of Traditional and Small-Scale Fisheries and Prospective ACLs  

E-print Network

Descriptive Assessment of Traditional and Small- Scale Fisheries and Prospective ACLs · Rationale for new PFRP study of traditional and small-scale fleets and fisheries in the Western Pacific study that would serve to: (1)Better define "traditional and small-scale" fisheries and fleets

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

196

7 CFR 4279.175 - Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside...AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Business and Industry Loans § 4279.175 Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set...

2010-01-01

197

AFBC-HAGT, an efficient small scale power plant  

SciTech Connect

A team comprised of the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), the Will-Burt Company, and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC) designed installed and tested a pilot scale atmospheric fluidized (bubbling) bed combustion (AFBC) system to heat hot water. Following testing, a commercial prototype unit was installed at Cedar Lane Farms (CLF), near Wooster, Ohio. The unit was started up in January, 1995, and is currently in operation. It provides hot water for greenhouse heating, requiring about two hours per day of operator attention. The development was funded by the Ohio Coal Development Office, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the team members. Based on the success of the prototype operation a commercial size unit was recently designed for hot water heating use. This small scale AFBC system can be designed not only to produce hot water or steam but also to efficiently generate electricity (60 kWe to 3.5 MWe size range). Most small scale fluidized bed systems use in-bed heat transfer tubes to generate saturated steam which can then be superheated and fed to a steam turbine for electrical power generation. This AFBC has no internal heat transfer surfaces. It can be combined with an air heater that is integrated with a recuperated Hot Air Gas Turbine (HAGT), to yield a more efficient power plant than that possible with small steam plants of comparable size that have optimal gross efficiencies of about 12% (29,060 Btu/kWhr). Depending on ambient air temperature, this AFBC-HAGT power cycle can reach efficiencies of 28% without auxiliary diesel fuel oil firing. The system is ideally suited for rural communities that are not tied into an electric power grid. It is low tech, easy to operate, provides approximately double the efficiency of small steam cycle power plants, and can be used in areas where water is scarce. When firing local coal and/or bio-mass it can be very cost effective compared to diesel power generation.

Ashworth, R.A. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Orrville, OH (United States); Webner, R.L. [Will-Burt Company, Orrville, OH (United States); Keener, H.M. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center

1997-12-31

198

Robust, small-scale cultivation platform for Streptomyces coelicolor  

PubMed Central

Background For fermentation process and strain improvement, where one wants to screen a large number of conditions and strains, robust and scalable high-throughput cultivation systems are crucial. Often, the time lag between bench-scale cultivations to production largely depends on approximate estimation of scalable physiological traits. Microtiter plate (MTP) based screening platforms have lately become an attractive alternative to shake flasks mainly because of the ease of automation. However, there are very few reports on applications for filamentous organisms; as well as efforts towards systematic validation of physiological behavior compared to larger scale are sparse. Moreover, available small-scale screening approaches are typically constrained by evaluating only an end point snapshot of phenotypes. Results To address these issues, we devised a robust, small-scale cultivation platform in the form of MTPs (24-square deepwell) for the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor and compared its performance to that of shake flasks and bench-scale reactors. We observed that re-designing of medium and inoculum preparation recipes resulted in improved reproducibility. Process turnaround time was significantly reduced due to the reduction in number of unit operations from inoculum to cultivation. The incorporation of glass beads (ø 3 mm) in MTPs not only improved the process performance in terms of improved oxygen transfer improving secondary metabolite production, but also helped to transform morphology from pellet to disperse, resulting in enhanced reproducibility. Addition of MOPS into the medium resulted in pH maintenance above 6.50, a crucial parameter towards reproducibility. Moreover, the entire trajectory of the process was analyzed for compatibility with bench-scale reactors. The MTP cultivations were found to behave similar to bench-scale in terms of growth rate, productivity and substrate uptake rate and so was the onset of antibiotic synthesis. Shake flask cultivations however, showed discrepancy with respect to morphology and had considerably reduced volumetric production rates of antibiotics. Conclusion We observed good agreement of the physiological data obtained in the developed MTP platform with bench-scale. Hence, the described MTP-based screening platform has a high potential for investigation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Streptomycetes and other filamentous bacteria and the use may significantly reduce the workload and costs. PMID:22252012

2012-01-01

199

Program Improvement Project for Industrial Education. Annual Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to improve industrial education programs through the development of minimum uniform quality standards, a project developed a task list, educationally sequenced the identified tasks, and developed a recommended shop layout and equipment list for four occupational areas: diesel repair, appliance repair, office machine repair, and small…

Shaeffer, Bruce W.

200

DOE's Industrial Assessment Centers (IAC) Program: Results and Benefits  

E-print Network

in the energy efficiency industry. The DOE’s IAC program is an important federal effort which provides a steady stream of top young engineers into energy efficiency careers, helps small/medium sized manufacturers save energy and copes with the enormous recent...

Nimbalker, S.; Martin, M.

201

Off-line programming: a success for the automotive industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines the developing uses of off-line programming (OLP) in the automotive industry, particularly in the areas of robot welding and robot painting of vehicle bodies. States that this is due to the development of graphical simulation tools and outlines their role in “right first time” policies. Looks at applications of OLP at Volvo, Capponi Alesina (Fiat’s largest, painting subcontractor) and

Brian W. Rooks

1997-01-01

202

Developing Customized Programs for Steel and Other Heavy Industries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Dundalk Community College's (DCC's) customized training programs for local industries. Looks at employment problems and outlook in Baltimore County, the development of a training agreement with Bethlehem Steel, the use of the Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process to develop skill profiles, and future directions. (DMM)

Day, Philip R., Jr.

1984-01-01

203

Industrial Cogeneration Optimization Program: A summary of two studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two industrial cogeneration optimization programs were performed to examine the economic and energy saving impacts of adding cogeneration to site specific plants in the chemical, food, pulp and paper, petroleum refining, and textile industries. Industrial cogeneration is reviewed. The two parallel ICOP studies are described. The five industrial sectors are also described, followed by highlights of each of the site specific case studies. Steam turbine cogeneration systems fired by coal or alternative fuels are generally the most attractive in terms of economic performance and oil/gas savings potential. Of the 15 cogeneration systems selected as optimum in the ICOP studies, 11 were coal or wood fired steam turbines. By contrast, gas turbines, combined cycles, and diesel engines, which are limited to oil or gas firing, are usually less economical.

1981-08-01

204

Risk management programs in the chemical industry from Bhopal onward  

SciTech Connect

Chemical process safety has long been a consideration in industry but the tragedy at Bhopal in late 1984 resulted in significantly increased attention from industry, government, and the public. Whereas Bhopal had a major effect on regulations in the US, two earlier, highly publicized accidents affected regulations in the United Kingdom and Europe. A 1974 cyclohexane explosion at a chemical manufacturing plant in Flixborough, England, caused a number of fatalities, while a 1976 runaway reaction at a chemical works near Sevesco, Italy, contaminated surrounding farmland and water supplies with dioxin. Although the public's interest can be fickle, the residual concern from all these incidents has been sufficient to affect important regulatory and industry initiatives in the US and abroad. The development of the most important of the US initiatives are reviewed here. Common elements in various process safety management programs are noted and the latest regulatory developments reported. Application can be made to the nuclear industry.

Cramer, J.J. (Brown and Root, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)); Greenberg, H.R. (Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., New York, NY (United States))

1992-01-01

205

Motivational contracting in space programs - Government and industry prospectives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has used incentive-free policies in contracting for Apollo's Saturn Launch vehicle hardware, as well as award-fee contracts for major development and early production programs in the case of the Space Shuttle Program. These programs have evolved to a point at which multiple incentive fees are useful in motivating cost reductions and assuring timely achievement of delivery requirements and flight mission goals. An examination is presently conducted of the relative success of these motivation-oriented techniques, drawing on the comments of both government and industry personnel.

Clough, D. R.

1985-01-01

206

Requirements for future development of small scale rainfall simulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainfall simulation with small scale simulators is a method used worldwide to assess the generation of overland flow, soil erosion, infiltration and interrelated processes such as soil sealing, crusting, splash and redistribution of solids and solutes. Following the outcomes of the project "Comparability of simulation results of different rainfall simulators as input data for soil erosion modelling (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - DFG, Project No. Ri 835/6-1)" and the "International Rainfall Simulator Workshop 2011" in Trier, the necessity for further technical improvements of simulators and strategies towards an adaption of designs and methods becomes obvious. Uniform measurements of artificially generated rainfall and comparative measurements on a prepared bare fallow with rainfall simulators used by European research groups showed limitations of the comparability of the results. The following requirements, essential for small portable rainfall simulators, were identified: (I) Low and efficient water consumption for use in areas with water shortage, (II) easy handling and control of test conditions, (III) homogeneous spatial rainfall distribution, (IV) best possible drop spectrum (physically), (V) reproducibility and knowledge of spatial distribution and drop spectrum, (VI) easy and fast training of operators to obtain reproducible experiments and (VII) good mobility and easy installation for use in remote areas and in regions where highly erosive rainfall events are rare or irregular. The presentation discusses possibilities for a common use of identical plot designs, rainfall intensities and nozzles.

Iserloh, Thomas; Ries, Johannes B.; Seeger, Manuel

2013-04-01

207

Small Scale Microwave Bursts in Long-duration Solar Flares  

E-print Network

Solar small scale microwave bursts (SMBs), including microwave dot, spike, and narrow band type III bursts, are characterized with very short timescales, narrow frequency bandwidth, and very high brightness temperatures. Based on observations of the Chinese Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer at Huairou with superhigh cadence and frequency resolution, this work presents an intensive investigation of SMBs in several flares occurred in active region NOAA 10720 during 2005 Jan 14-21. Especially long-duration flares, SMBs occurred not only in early rising and impulsive phase, but also in the flare decay phase, and even in time of after the flare ending. These SMBs are strong bursts with inferred brightness temperature at least 8.18*10^11 - 1.92*10^13 K, very short lifetime of 5-18 ms, relative frequency bandwidths of 0.7-3.5%, and superhigh frequency drifting rates. Together with their obviously different polarizations from the background emission (the quiet Sun, and the underlying flaring broadband continuum), su...

Tan, Baolin

2013-01-01

208

Numerical Simulation of a Small-Scale Mild Combustor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reports numerical simulations of a small-scale cylindrical combustor operating in the mild combustion regime. Preheated air is supplied by a central nozzle, while the fuel (methane) is injected through 16 holes placed equidistantly in a circumference concentric with the air nozzle. The calculations were carried out using the commercial code Ansys-Fluent. Turbulence was modelled using the realizable k-epsilon model. Two different combustion models were employed, namely the eddy dissipation concept and the joint composition pdf transport model. In both cases, a chemical mechanism comprising 13 transported species and 73 chemical reactions was used, as well as a global single-step reaction. A thorough comparison of the predictions obtained using the pdf transport model and the eddy dissipation concept with detailed experimental data is presented. Both models are able to accurately predict the temperature and the O2 and CO2 molar fractions over most of the combustor, but the temperature field is overestimated in the vicinity of the burner. Discrepancies are found in the prediction of the CO molar fraction, particularly when the eddy dissipation concept is used.

Veríssimo, A.; Oliveira, R.; Coelho, P. J.; Costa, M.

2012-11-01

209

Small scale flow processes in aqueous heterogeneous porous media  

SciTech Connect

Small scale flow processes in aqueous heterogeneous porous systems have been studied experimentally via novel nonintrusive fluorescence imaging techniques. The techniques involve 3D visualization and quantification of flow fields within a refractive index-matched transparent porous column. The refractive index-matching yields a transparent porous medium, free from any scattering and refraction at the solid-liquid interfaces, as a result allowing direct optical probing at any point within the porous system. By illuminating the porous regions within the column with a planar sheet of laser beam, flow processes through the porous medium can be observed microscopically, and qualitative and quantitative in-pore transport information can be obtained at a good resolution and a good accuracy. A CCD camera is used to record the fluorescent images at every vertical plane location while sweeping back and forth across the column. These digitized flow images are then analyzed and accumulated over a 3D volume within the column. Series of flow experiments in aqueous, refractive index-matched, porous systems packed with natural mineral particles have been performed successfully in these laboratories.

Rashidi, M.; Dickenson, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Programs Directorate

1996-04-01

210

Small Scale Energy Cascade of the Solar Wind Turbulence  

E-print Network

Magnetic fluctuations in the solar wind are distributed according to Kolmogorov's power law $f^{-5/3}$ below the ion cyclotron frequency $f_{ci}$. Above this frequency, the observed steeper power law is usually interpreted in two different ways: a dissipative range of the solar wind turbulence or another turbulent cascade, the nature of which is still an open question. Using the Cluster magnetic data we show that after the spectral break the intermittency increases toward higher frequencies, indicating the presence of non-linear interactions inherent to a new inertial range and not to the dissipative range. At the same time the level of compressible fluctuations raises. We show that the energy transfer rate and intermittency are sensitive to the level of compressibility of the magnetic fluctuations within the small scale inertial range. We conjecture that the time needed to establish this inertial range is shorter than the eddy-turnover time, and is related to dispersive effects. A simple phenomenological model, based on the compressible Hall MHD, predicts the magnetic spectrum $\\sim k^{-7/3+2\\alpha}$, which depends on the degree of plasma compression $\\alpha$.

O. Alexandrova; V. Carbone; P. Veltri; L. Sorriso-Valvo

2007-10-03

211

MeV Dark Matter and Small Scale Structure  

SciTech Connect

WIMPs with electroweak scale masses (neutralinos, etc.) remain in kinetic equilibrium with other particle species until temperatures approximately in the range of 10 MeV to 1 GeV, leading to the formation of dark matter substructure with masses as small as 10{sup -4} M{sub {circle_dot}} to 10{sup -12} M{sub {circle_dot}}. However, if dark matter consists of particles with MeV scale masses, as motivated by the observation of 511 keV emission from the Galactic Bulge, such particles are naturally expected to remain in kinetic equilibrium with the cosmic neutrino background until considerably later times. This would lead to a strong suppression of small scale structure with masses below about 10{sup 7}M{sub {circle_dot}} to 10{sup 4} M{sub {circle_dot}}. This cutoff scale has important implications for present and future searches for faint Local Group satellite galaxies and for the missing satellites problem.

Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Strigari, Louis E.; /UC, Irvine; Zurek, Kathryn M.; /Wisconsin U., Madison

2007-04-01

212

Developments in a small scale test of violence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilising recent advances in diagnostic technologies, a test is under development to obtain a numerical value for the violence of response to thermal stimuli on a small explosive sample. The assembly is designed to accept pressed explosive pellets which enables the test to be conducted at the small-scale development stage and thus is anticipated to be of use in the screening of new materials. Building on previously published work describing the test development, twenty-three new cook-off experiments have been conducted. Eleven explosive compositions were subjected to the same slow heat input profile. As a sample rapidly decomposed, part of the steel confinement was designed to rupture, producing a pellet whose velocity was measured using a Heterodyne Velocimeter (Het-V). Temperatures of the confinement unit were also recorded. A development aim is to interpret this data to provide useful information on the violence of decomposition. This is discussed in the paper and leads to the data from these experiments being presented in order of increasing violence of response.

Sorber, Susan; Stennett, Chris; Goldsmith, Matt

2012-03-01

213

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities are phylogenetically clustered at small scales.  

PubMed

Next-generation sequencing technologies with markers covering the full Glomeromycota phylum were used to uncover phylogenetic community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with Festuca brevipila. The study system was a semi-arid grassland with high plant diversity and a steep environmental gradient in pH, C, N, P and soil water content. The AMF community in roots and rhizosphere soil were analyzed separately and consisted of 74 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in total. Community-level variance partitioning showed that the role of environmental factors in determining AM species composition was marginal when controlling for spatial autocorrelation at multiple scales. Instead, phylogenetic distance and spatial distance were major correlates of AMF communities: OTUs that were more closely related (and which therefore may have similar traits) were more likely to co-occur. This pattern was insensitive to phylogenetic sampling breadth. Given the minor effects of the environment, we propose that at small scales closely related AMF positively associate through biotic factors such as plant-AMF filtering and interactions within the soil biota. PMID:24824667

Horn, Sebastian; Caruso, Tancredi; Verbruggen, Erik; Rillig, Matthias C; Hempel, Stefan

2014-11-01

214

Development of a small scale BIGGT power plant. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

Cratech, Inc. is progressing on a 3-phase plan to develop a one ton per hour (tph) biomass-fueled integrated-gasifier gas turbine (BIGGT) power plant. The goal is to develop economical, small scale (1--20 MWe) power plants for entities worldwide that desire to use a variety of biomass resources for fuel including those with high ash content and prone to slagging. Phase 1 included design, fabrication and operation of a 0.5 tph air-blown pressurized fluidized bed gasification unit complete with a hot gas cleanup system. The unit was fueled with cotton gin trash (CGT), a biomass resource that is high in ash and very prone to slagging. The system demonstrated production of a gas from CGT that can be maintained at a minimum chemical heating value of 130 Btu/SCF, at an outlet temperature of 1265 {+-} 15 F with a maximum particle content of 6.4 ppmw of 2.8 microns maximum particle size.

Craig, J.D.

1994-10-02

215

Development of a small scale BIGGT power plant  

SciTech Connect

Cratech, Inc. is progressing on a 3-phase plan to develop a one ton per hour (tph) biomass-fueled integrated-gasifier gas turbine (BIGGT) power plant. The goal is to develop economical, small scale (1-20 MWe) power plants for entities worldwide that desire to use a variety of biomass resources for fuel including those with high ash content and that are prone to slagging. Phase 1 has been successfully completed. Phase 1 included design, fabrication and operation of a 0.5 tph air-blown pressurized fluidized bed gasification unit complete with a hot gas cleanup system. The unit was fueled with cotton gin trash (CGT), a biomass resource that is high in ash and very prone to slagging. The system demonstrated production of a gas from CGT that can be maintained at a minimum chemical heating value of 130 BTU/SCF, at an outlet temperature of 1265 {+-} 15{degrees}F with a maximum particle content of 6.4 ppmw of 2.8 um maximum particle size.

Craig, J.D. [Cratech, Inc., Tahoka, TX (United States)

1994-12-31

216

Small-scale plasma irregularities in the nightside Venus ionosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The individual volt-ampere curves from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter electron temperature probe showed evidence for small-scale density irregularities, or short-period plasma waves, in regions of the nightside ionosphere where the Orbiter electric field detector observed waves in its 100-Hz channel. A survey of the nightside volt-ampere curves has revealed several hundred examples of such irregularities. The I-V structures correspond to plasma density structure with spatial scale sizes in the range of about 100-2000 m, or alternatively they could be viewed as waves having frequencies extending toward 100 Hz. They are often seen as isolated events, with spatial extent along the orbit frequently less than 80 km. The density irregularities or waves occur in or near prominent gradients in the ambient plasma concentrations both at low altitudes where molecular ions are dominant and at higher altitudes in regions of reduced plasma density where O(+) is the major ion. Electric field 100-Hz bursts occur simultaneously, with the majority of the structured I-V curves providing demonstrative evidence that at least some of the E field signals are produced within the ionosphere.

Grebowsky, J. M.; Curtis, S. A.; Brace, L. H.

1991-01-01

217

Shaping mobile belts by small-scale convection.  

PubMed

Mobile belts are long-lived deformation zones composed of an ensemble of crustal fragments, distributed over hundreds of kilometres inside continental convergent margins. The Mediterranean represents a remarkable example of this tectonic setting: the region hosts a diffuse boundary between the Nubia and Eurasia plates comprised of a mosaic of microplates that move and deform independently from the overall plate convergence. Surface expressions of Mediterranean tectonics include deep, subsiding backarc basins, intraplate plateaux and uplifting orogenic belts. Although the kinematics of the area are now fairly well defined, the dynamical origins of many of these active features are controversial and usually attributed to crustal and lithospheric interactions. However, the effects of mantle convection, well established for continental interiors, should be particularly relevant in a mobile belt, and modelling may constrain important parameters such as slab coherence and lithospheric strength. Here we compute global mantle flow on the basis of recent, high-resolution seismic tomography to investigate the role of buoyancy-driven and plate-motion-induced mantle circulation for the Mediterranean. We show that mantle flow provides an explanation for much of the observed dynamic topography and microplate motion in the region. More generally, vigorous small-scale convection in the uppermost mantle may also underpin other complex mobile belts such as the North American Cordillera or the Himalayan-Tibetan collision zone. PMID:20520711

Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W

2010-06-01

218

Small-scale electric generators for arctic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires that have endangered remote US Air Force sites equipped with radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) has prompted the assessment of power generating systems as substitutes for RTGs in small scale (10-120 watt) applications. A team of scientists and engineers of the US Air Forces' Wright Laboratory conductd an assessment of electrical power technologies for use by the Air Force in remote, harsh environments. The surprisingly high logistics costs of operating fossil fuel generators resulted in the extension of the assessment to non-RTG sites. The candidate power sources must operate unattended for long periods at a high level of operational reliability. Selection of the optimum power generation technology is complicated and heavily driven by the severe operating environment and compounded by the remoteness of the location. It is these site-related characteristics, more than any other, that drive the selection of a safe and economical power source for Arctic applications. A number of proven power generation technologies were evaluated. The assessment concluded that RGTs are clearly the safest, most reliable, and most economical approach to supplying electrical power for remote, difficult to assess locations. The assessment also indicated that the logistics costs associated with combustion driven generator systems could be substantially reduced through the use of conversion technologies which have been previously developed for space power applications.

Lamp, Thomas R.

1995-01-01

219

Development of a new generation of small scale biomass-fueled electric generating power plants  

SciTech Connect

There exists a need by a large worldwide market for greatly improved small scale (1 to 20 MWe per unit) biomass-fueled power plants. These power plants will significantly increase the efficiency of generating electric power from wood and bagasse as well as convert non-traditional fuel sources such as rice hulls, animal manure, cotton gin trash, straws, and grasses to electricity. Advancing the technology of biomass-fueled power plants will greatly expand the use of this environmentally friendly sustainable 24 hr-per-day source of electrical power for industry and communities worldwide. This paper briefly describes the status of a biomass-fueled power plant under development by Cratech, Inc.

Craig, J.D. [Cratech, Inc., Tahoka, TX (United States); Purvis, C.R. [EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1995-11-01

220

Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program. Annual report, FY 1991  

SciTech Connect

Six area reported progress in the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program during FY 1991. As part of Industry Guidance, meetings were held with steering and technical committees in computers, housing design and manufacturing. This task area enables the program to benefit from the expertise of industry representatives and communicate research results directly to them. As part of the Design Process performance specifications were being developed for the future housing system designed last year. These house designs coordinate and optimize predicted and desirable advances in computerized design processes, materials, components, and manufacturing automation to achieve energy efficiency at reduced first cost. Energy design software were being developed for CAD systems, stressed skin insulating core panel manufacturers; and a prototype energy sales tool. A prototype design was to be developed to integrate one or more subsystems with the building skin. As part of the Manufacturing Process we are developing a manufacturing process simulation and data base to help current and new entrants to the industrialized housing industry in assessing the impact of implementing new manufacturing techniques. For Evaluation we are developing testing plans for six units of housing on the UO campus and the stressed skin insulating core house to be constructed in Oregon. The DOW Chemical test structure will be retrofitted with a tile roof and retested to compare to the dome and conventional construction structures. Calibration of the wind tunnel will be completed so that laboratory tests can be conducted to simulate the ventilation cooling efficiency of houses in design. Research utilization and program management were either aspects of this program.

Not Available

1992-03-01

221

A comparison of Mexico's Border Industry Program with the Border Industry Program of South Africa and its Bantu homelands  

E-print Network

- ized. The Mexican Border Industry Program has shown a more rapid rate of growth then'the program in South Africa, 'but the South African program has thus far resulted in the creation of a greater number of new Jobs. Also, the areas being... that this study could serve as a useful reference to other countries seeking to resolve problems similar to those faced in Mexico and South Africa, although any new development policies adopted would have to 'be tailored to fit their own needs and situations...

Notzon, Brian Anthony

2012-06-07

222

American Chemical Society (ACS) Regional Industrial Innovation Awards Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Chemical Society's (ACS) "Regional Industrial Innovation Awards Program celebrates the successful innovations of industrial chemists and chemical engineers that contribute to the health of their local and regional economy and the corporate leadership for its advancement of a healthy economy." The website illustrates the significance of a nomination and describes the criteria and eligibility for a nominee. Users can find out about the honorees' exciting opportunity to present their innovations at a symposium. Visitors can read synopses of the outstanding developments of past recipients.

223

Observation and Analysis of Small-Scale Solar Magnetic Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Properties of small-scale magnetic structures in the photosphere are analyzed in multi-spectral time-series image sets obtained at the 50 cm Swedish Solar Vacuum Telescope (SVST) on the island of La Palma, Spain. Several of the images are among the highest resolution images of the solar photosphere yet obtained. Sub-arcsecond-scale magnetic 'elements' are identified, segmented, and tracked using bright points found in very high spatial resolution G-band 4305 A filtergrams. Simultaneous images including Ca II K-line filtergrams, Fe I 6302 A magnetograms, and 4686 A broadband continuum filtergrams allow cross-wavelength comparison of properties. Angular resolution of the filtergrams is typically 0.25 '' and temporal resolution is in the range of 20-100 sec; magnetogram resolution approaches 0.3'' in some images and is generally below 0.5''. To above an 84% statistical confidence level, G-band bright points occur exclusively at sites of kilogauss, sub-arcsecond, magnetic flux concentrations in the photosphere; magnetic flux concentration is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the occurrence of G-band bright points. The measured distribution of magnetic element diameters in active region network is log-normal with a modal value of 220 km (0.3''). The smallest elements observed are 120 km (0.17'') in diameter; the largest are about 600 km (0.7'') in diameter. The average contrast with respect to quiet Sun of magnetic elements in the G-band is 30%: 2-3 times higher than the average continuum contrast. Magnetic element contrast does not vary with size within the size range of G-band bright point measurements. Average contrast increases with limbward heliocentric angle to a peak of about 80% at ? = /cos? = 0.3; there is evidence of a decrease with further increase in angle. Magnetic elements undergo a continual fragmentation/merging evolution driven by the granular convective flowfield of the photosphere; morphological time scales are on the order of 100 seconds. Velocities of individual elements range from 1-5 km s-1 with an RMS value of 2.4 km s-1. The range of motion is typically on granular and mesogranular scales (1000-2500 km) with an average value of 2100 km. Individual fragments from clusters have a characteristic lifetime on the order of the granulation correlation time (6-8 minutes). The lifetime of clusters associated with persistent sinks in the granular flowfield is on the order of hours. Classical statistical analysis of displacement versus time yields a diffusion coefficient for network magnetic elements of 224.8± 0.2 km s-1. In general, the results are inconsistent with the idea of small-scale magnetic flux in the photosphere being contained in stable, isolated, 'flux tubes' and emphasize the need for better understanding of the formation and the thermal (and? non-thermal) heating of magnetic regions in the photosphere.

Berger, Thomas Edward

1997-05-01

224

Small-Scale Spray Releases: Orifice Plugging Test Results  

SciTech Connect

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities, is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations published in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials present in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty introduced by extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches in which the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are largely absent. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine the aerosol release fractions and aerosol generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents (AFA) was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. The purpose of the study described in this report is to provide experimental data for the first key technical area, potential plugging of small breaches, by performing small-scale tests with a range of orifice sizes and orientations representative of the WTP conditions. The simulants used were chosen to represent the range of process stream properties in the WTP. Testing conducted after the plugging tests in the small- and large-scale test stands addresses the second key technical area, aerosol generation. The results of the small-scale aerosol generation tests are included in Mahoney et al. 2012. The area of spray generation from large breaches is covered by large-scale testing in Schonewill et al. 2012.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Kimura, Marcia L.; Kurath, Dean E.

2012-09-01

225

Propulsion engineering study for small-scale Mars missions  

SciTech Connect

Rocket propulsion options for small-scale Mars missions are presented and compared, particularly for the terminal landing maneuver and for sample return. Mars landing has a low propulsive {Delta}v requirement on a {approximately}1-minute time scale, but at a high acceleration. High thrust/weight liquid rocket technologies, or advanced pulse-capable solids, developed during the past decade for missile defense, are therefore more appropriate for small Mars landers than are conventional space propulsion technologies. The advanced liquid systems are characterize by compact lightweight thrusters having high chamber pressures and short lifetimes. Blowdown or regulated pressure-fed operation can satisfy the Mars landing requirement, but hardware mass can be reduced by using pumps. Aggressive terminal landing propulsion designs can enable post-landing hop maneuvers for some surface mobility. The Mars sample return mission requires a small high performance launcher having either solid motors or miniature pump-fed engines. Terminal propulsion for 100 kg Mars landers is within the realm of flight-proven thruster designs, but custom tankage is desirable. Landers on a 10 kg scale also are feasible, using technology that has been demonstrated but not previously flown in space. The number of sources and the selection of components are extremely limited on this smallest scale, so some customized hardware is required. A key characteristic of kilogram-scale propulsion is that gas jets are much lighter than liquid thrusters for reaction control. The mass and volume of tanks for inert gas can be eliminated by systems which generate gas as needed from a liquid or a solid, but these have virtually no space flight history. Mars return propulsion is a major engineering challenge; earth launch is the only previously-solved propulsion problem requiring similar or greater performance.

Whitehead, J.

1995-09-12

226

The Small-Scale Power Spectrum of Cold Dark Matter  

E-print Network

One of the best motivated hypotheses in cosmology states that most of the matter in the universe is in the form of weakly-interacting massive particles that decoupled early in the history of the universe and cooled adiabatically to an extremely low temperature. Nevertheless, the finite temperature and horizon scales at which these particles decoupled imprint generic signatures on their small scales density fluctuations. We show that the previously recognized cut-off in the fluctuation power-spectrum due to free-streaming of particles at the thermal speed of decoupling, is supplemented by acoustic oscillations owing to the initial coupling between the cold dark matter (CDM) and the radiation field. The power-spectrum oscillations appear on the scale of the horizon at thermal decoupling which corresponds to a mass scale of \\~10^{-4}*(T_d/10MeV)^{-3} solar masses for a CDM decoupling temperature T_d. The suppression of the power-spectrum on smaller scales by the acoustic oscillations is physically independent from the free-streaming effect, although the two cut-off scales are coincidentally comparable for T_d~10MeV and a particle mass of M~100GeV. The initial conditions for recent numerical simulations of the earliest and smallest objects to have formed in the universe, need to be modified accordingly. The smallest dark matter clumps may be detectable through gamma-ray production from particle annihilation, through fluctuations in the event rate of direct detection experiments, or through their tidal gravitational effect on wide orbits of objects near the outer edge of the solar system.

Abraham Loeb; Matias Zaldarriaga

2005-04-05

227

Small scale turbulence in a plane mixing layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two measures of small scale turbulence, viscous dissipation and a direct count of the random fine eddies which dissipate energy, were correlated to the large scale coherent motions in a plane mixing layer. Experiments were conducted in a low speed wind tunnel at moderate Reynolds number with laminar boundary layers separating from both the high and low speed sides. Extensive x- and parallel-wire measurements yielded three-component velocity data taken point by point in a plane normal to the freestream. The location of the large scale coherent motions was determined by spatially differentiating the long-time averages of these data. The primary spanwise vortex was identified from Delta U/Delta y while the secondary streamwise ribs were obtained from Delta V/Delta z, where Delta y and Delta z represent the spacing between data points in the cross-stream and spanwise directions, respectively. It will be demonstrated how Delta U/Delta z identifies the rib locations, as well. The data, moreover, were taken so that the fine-scale eddies, those whose length scale corresponds exactly to the peak in the 3-D dissipation spectrum, were resolved both spatially and temporally. These 'dissipative' eddies were identified by a novel technique, the peak-valley-counting (PVC) method. Several of the viscous dissipation terms were also calculated. The fine-scale eddy population distributions and the measures of viscous dissipation correlated extremely well. Indeed, the 'dissipative' eddies dissipate the energy, and the PVC method identifies them. Both sets of distributions peak in the core of the spanwise vortex, and are independent of the streamwise ribs at this downstream location.

Foss, Judith Kathleen

1994-03-01

228

Industrial Test Program: Summary report on SIC (Standard Industrial Classification) 20, food processing  

SciTech Connect

In-depth electrical energy conservation studies were conducted at five food processing plants in the BPA region. Each study resulted in a report submitted to the industry and to BPA describing the major plant systems that use electrical energy and presenting specific recommendations for energy conservation measures to reduce the plant electrical consumption. Data from the five plant studies have been supplemented where appropriate with information from other energy studies in the food processing industry and with information from published sources. This document presents the following information: industry attitudes toward electrical energy conservation, corporate investment criteria for capital improvements to reduce energy consumption, the process used and steps taken to design a work plan for use in the energy studies, the steps in conducting the studies, the calculation procedures used to determine energy use patterns, energy savings, and installed costs for conservation measures, results of the energy studies, industry response to the study, and specific considerations for program design for industrial sector conservation programs.

Not Available

1985-04-01

229

Small-Scale Test Protocol for Firefighting Foams DEF(AUST)5706: Effect of Bubble Size Distribution and Expansion Ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental program described in this paper sought to assess the suitability of the small scale DEF(AUST)5706 standard\\u000a for measuring the suppression and burnback performance of Class B foams on pool fires. DEF(AUST)5706 is an Australian Defence\\u000a standard mandatory for use by the Australian Navy, Army and Air Force. The test protocol required the measurement of the 3\\/4\\u000a control, extinguishment

Ashlea J. Laundess; Mark S. Rayson; Bogdan Z. Dlugogorski; Eric M. Kennedy

2011-01-01

230

First NASA/Industry High Speed Research Program Nozzle Symposium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The First High Speed Research (HSR) Nozzle Symposium was hosted by NASA Lewis Research Center on November 17-19, 1992 in Cleveland, Ohio, and was sponsored by the HSR Source Noise Working Group. The purpose of this symposium was to provide a national forum for the government, industry, and university participants in the program to present and discuss important low noise nozzle research results and technology issues related to the development of appropriate nozzles for a commercially viable, environmentally compatible, U.S. High-Speed Civil Transport. The HSR Phase I research program was initiated in FY90 and is approaching the first major milestone (end of FY92) relative to an initial FAR 36 Stage 3 nozzle noise assessment. Significant research results relative to that milestone were presented. The opening session provided a brief overview of the Program and status of the Phase H plan. The next five sessions were technically oriented and highlighted recent significant analytical and experimental accomplishments. The last Session included a panel discussion by the Session Chairs, summarizing the progress seen to date and discussing issues relative to further advances in technology necessary to achieve the Program Goals. Attendance at the Symposium was by invitation only and included only industry, academic, and government participants who are actively involved in the High-Speed Research Program. The technology presented in this meeting is considered commercially sensitive.

Long-Davis, Mary Jo

1999-01-01

231

Providing Utilities with Tools for Industrial Marketing Programs  

E-print Network

to marketing representa tives. The Center for Metals Fabrication is using several tools to tailor marketing programs for 18 electric utilities. CMF provides: o A hotline that customer and utility representatives can use to get advice on implenenting... electrotechnologies. o Publications that address the techni cal and economic factors that are crucial in selecting the appropriate electrotechnologies. o An industrial market profile that indicates the processes used in utility service territories. o...

Cahill, L. E.

232

An Energy Conservation Program in the Food Industry  

E-print Network

AN ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY Carl T. Farner General Foods Corporation White Plains, General Foods Corporation is one of the largest food manufacturing companies in the United States. It's brand names are well known..., covering a wide range of food products. Maxwell House coffee, Post cereals, Birds Eye frozen vegetables, Jell-O desserts and Kool-Aid powdered drink mixes are some of the more prominent ones. The company also manufactures some food ingredients...

Farner, C. T.

233

Muscle Sensor Model Using Small Scale Optical Device for Pattern Recognitions  

PubMed Central

A new sensor system for measuring contraction and relaxation of muscles by using a PANDA ring resonator is proposed. The small scale optical device is designed and configured to perform the coupling effects between the changes in optical device phase shift and human facial muscle movement, which can be used to form the relationship between optical phase shift and muscle movement. By using the Optiwave and MATLAB programs, the results obtained have shown that the measurement of the contraction and relaxation of muscles can be obtained after the muscle movements, in which the unique pattern of individual muscle movement from facial expression can be established. The obtained simulation results, that is, interference signal patterns, can be used to form the various pattern recognitions, which are useful for the human machine interface and the human computer interface application and discussed in detail. PMID:24222730

Tamee, Kreangsak; Chaiwong, Khomyuth; Yothapakdee, Kriengsak; Yupapin, Preecha P.

2013-01-01

234

Muscle sensor model using small scale optical device for pattern recognitions.  

PubMed

A new sensor system for measuring contraction and relaxation of muscles by using a PANDA ring resonator is proposed. The small scale optical device is designed and configured to perform the coupling effects between the changes in optical device phase shift and human facial muscle movement, which can be used to form the relationship between optical phase shift and muscle movement. By using the Optiwave and MATLAB programs, the results obtained have shown that the measurement of the contraction and relaxation of muscles can be obtained after the muscle movements, in which the unique pattern of individual muscle movement from facial expression can be established. The obtained simulation results, that is, interference signal patterns, can be used to form the various pattern recognitions, which are useful for the human machine interface and the human computer interface application and discussed in detail. PMID:24222730

Tamee, Kreangsak; Chaiwong, Khomyuth; Yothapakdee, Kriengsak; Yupapin, Preecha P

2013-01-01

235

Small-scale variability in Saturn's lower ionosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform and present a wavelet analysis on all 31 Cassini electron density profiles published to date (Nagy, A.F. et al. [2006]. J. Geophys. Res. 111 (A6), CiteID A06310; Kliore, A.J. et al. [2009]. J. Geophys. Res. 114 (A4), CiteID A04315). We detect several discrete scales of variability present in the observations. Small-scale variability (S < 700 km) is observed in almost all data sets at different latitudes, both at dawn and dusk conditions. The most typical scale of variability is 300 km with scales between 200 km and 450 km being commonly present in the vast majority of the profiles. A low latitude dawn/dusk asymmetry is noted in the prevalent scales with the spectrum peaking sharply at the 300 km scale at dusk conditions and being broader at dawn conditions. Compared to dawn conditions the dusk ionosphere also shows more significant variability at the 100 km scale. The 300 km vertical scale is also present in the few available profiles from the northern hemisphere. Early observations from 2005 show a dominant scale at 350 km whereas later in 2007-2008 the spectrum shifts to the shorter scales with the most prominent scale being 300 km. The performed wavelet analysis and the obtained results are independent of assumptions about the nature of the layers and do not require a definition for a "background" electron density profile. In the second part of the paper we present a gravity wave propagation/dissipation model for Saturn's upper atmosphere and compare the wave properties to the characteristics of the observed electron density variability at different scales. The general features observed in the data are consistent with gravity waves being present in the lower ionosphere and causing layering of the ions and the electrons. The wave-driving mechanism provides a simultaneous explanation for several of the properties of the observed variability: (i) lack of variability in the electron density above the predicted region of wave dissipation; (ii) in most cases the peak amplitude of variability occurs within the altitude range for dissipation of gravity waves or below; (iii) shorter scales have smaller amplitudes than the longer scales; (iv) shorter scales are present at lower altitudes whereas longer scales persist to higher altitudes; and (v) several layers often form a system of equally spaced maxima and minima that can be traced over a large altitude range.

Matcheva, Katia I.; Barrow, Daniel J.

2012-11-01

236

THE EXTREME SMALL SCALES: DO SATELLITE GALAXIES TRACE DARK MATTER?  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the radial distribution of galaxies within their host dark matter halos as measured in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey by modeling their small-scale clustering. Specifically, we model the Jiang et al. measurements of the galaxy two-point correlation function down to very small projected separations (10 h{sup -1} kpc {<=} r {<=} 400 h{sup -1} kpc), in a wide range of luminosity threshold samples (absolute r-band magnitudes of -18 up to -23). We use a halo occupation distribution framework with free parameters that specify both the number and spatial distribution of galaxies within their host dark matter halos. We assume one galaxy resides in the halo center and additional galaxies are considered satellites that follow a radial density profile similar to the dark matter Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile, except that the concentration and inner slope are allowed to vary. We find that in low luminosity samples (M{sub r} < -19.5 and lower), satellite galaxies have radial profiles that are consistent with NFW. M{sub r} < -20 and brighter satellite galaxies have radial profiles with significantly steeper inner slopes than NFW (we find inner logarithmic slopes ranging from -1.6 to -2.1, as opposed to -1 for NFW). We define a useful metric of concentration, M{sub 1/10}, which is the fraction of satellite galaxies (or mass) that are enclosed within one-tenth of the virial radius of a halo. We find that M{sub 1/10} for low-luminosity satellite galaxies agrees with NFW, whereas for luminous galaxies it is 2.5-4 times higher, demonstrating that these galaxies are substantially more centrally concentrated within their dark matter halos than the dark matter itself. Our results therefore suggest that the processes that govern the spatial distribution of galaxies, once they have merged into larger halos, must be luminosity dependent, such that luminous galaxies become poor tracers of the underlying dark matter.

Watson, Douglas F.; Berlind, Andreas A.; McBride, Cameron K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 1807 Station B, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Hogg, David W.; Jiang Tao [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

2012-04-10

237

Integrated bioenergy conversion concepts for small scale gasification power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal and biological gasification are promising technologies for addressing the emerging concerns in biomass-based renewable energy, environmental protection and waste management. However, technical barriers such as feedstock quality limitations, tars, and high NOx emissions from biogas fueled engines impact their full utilization and make them suffer at the small scale from the need to purify the raw gas for most downstream processes, including power generation other than direct boiler use. The two separate gasification technologies may be integrated to better address the issues of power generation and waste management and to complement some of each technologies' limitations. This research project investigated the technical feasibility of an integrated thermal and biological gasification concept for parameters critical to appropriately matching an anaerobic digester with a biomass gasifier. Specific studies investigated the thermal gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks in four fixed-bed gasification experiments: (1) updraft gasification of rice hull, (2) indirect-heated gasification of rice hull, (3) updraft gasification of Athel wood, and (4) downdraft gasification of Athel and Eucalyptus woods. The effects of tars and other components of producer gas on anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperature of 36°C and the biodegradation potentials and soil carbon mineralization of gasification tars during short-term aerobic incubation at 27.5°C were also examined. Experiments brought out the ranges in performance and quality and quantity of gasification products under different operating conditions and showed that within the conditions considered in the study, these gasification products did not adversely impact the overall digester performance. Short-term aerobic incubation demonstrated variable impacts on carbon mineralization depending on tar and soil conditions. Although tars exhibited low biodegradation indices, degradation may be improved if the microorganisms used to deal with tars are selected and pre-conditioned to the tar environment. Overall, the results provided a basis for operational and design strategy for a combined gasification system but further study is recommended such as determination of the impacts in terms of emissions, power, efficiency and costs associated with the use of producer gas-enriched biogas taking advantage of hydrogen enrichment to reduce NOx and other pollutants in reciprocating engines and other energy conversion systems.

Aldas, Rizaldo Elauria

238

Stabilization of ion temperature gradient mode by small-scale zonal flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interaction between large-scale turbulence and small-scale sheared flows is a new issue in magnetized plasmas. In this work, the key interaction mechanism is explored by sampling the large-scale ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode and the small-scale zonal flows driven by the electron temperature gradient turbulence. It is analytically found that the small-scale zonal flows lead to a radially nonlocal mode

Jiquan Li; Y. Kishimoto

2003-01-01

239

Small-scale forest ownership across Europe: Characteristics and future potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of small-scale forest ownership means different things to different people in different countries. Traditionally,\\u000a within Europe, many small-scale forest owners were economically dependent on their forests, either for home or commercial\\u000a use, usually linked with farming activities. However, many small-scale forest owners are no longer economically dependent\\u000a on their forests and these owners appear to increasingly focus their

K. Freerk Wiersum; Birgit H. M. Elands; Marjanke A. Hoogstra

2005-01-01

240

Real-time hardware simulation of a small-scale helicopter dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a real-time simulation environment for the validation of controller for an autonomous small-scale helicopter. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The real-time simulation platform is developed based on the nonlinear model of a series of small-scale helicopters. Dynamics of small-scale helicopter is analyzed through simulation. The controller is designed based on the extracted linear

Agus Budiyono; Idris E. Putro; K. Yoon; Gilar B. Raharja; G. B. Kim

2010-01-01

241

Small-scale forestry in the Italian Alps: from mass  

E-print Network

Average standing price Roadside price (spruce) on the road side Roadside price (larch) on the road side: Ciotti & Pettenella (2005) The weighted average real prices of spruce decreased: from 276 to 52 /m3 (-82 Wood working SME Wood working industry Number of working hours in forest that can be covered by selling

Pettenella, Davide

242

NASA industry education initiative. Education programs report, 1991  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Findings from the initial inventory of education programs show that support for the NASA-Industry Education Initiative (NIEI) appears to be strong among the organizations surveyed. In addition, the range, depth and historical baselines of NIEI education programs are encouraging. It is also apparent that there is a significant level of cooperation between NIEI members and other organizations. Heavily focused towards science, engineering, mathematics and technology achievement, NIEI activities appear to be aligned with national education goals. Three criticisms are revealed: (1) the majority of programs are targeted fairly late in the education cycle; (2) the number of initiatives geared towards adult literacy and adult skills-enhancement appears to be relatively low; (3) the majority of NIEI activities involve traditional education-assistance programs, but the number of critical assessment and systematic reform initiatives is low. Four Working Group recommendations resulted from this activity: (1) NIEI Working Group operations should continue for an indefinite period, with participation open to other like-minded private-sector organization; (2) the report should be periodically updated; (3) an analysis of ongoing education programs should be conducted; (4) American corporations should continue to support education and evaluate in-house programs periodically.

1991-01-01

243

Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results  

SciTech Connect

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and net generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of antifoam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. For the combination of both test stands, the round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the much larger flow rates and equipment that would be required. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

2013-05-29

244

Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results  

SciTech Connect

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

2012-11-01

245

Work Ethic of Prison Inmates Who Participate in Correctional Industries Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the relationship between correctional industry work experience and the work ethic of the inmate workers assigned to certain Florida correctional industry programs. Inmate workers (n=369) assigned to three of PRIDE Enterprises's correctional industry programs were participants. These industries were selected for the study:…

Mann, Timothy J.

246

Office of Industrial Technologies: Summary of program results  

SciTech Connect

Working in partnership with industry, the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) is helping reduce industrial energy use, emissions, and waste while boosting productivity. Operating within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE), OIT conducts research, development, demonstration, and technology transfer efforts that are producing substantial, measurable benefits to industry. This document summarizes some of the impacts of OIT`s programs through 1997. OIT tracks energy savings as well as other benefits associated with the successfully commercialized technologies resulting from OIT-supported research partnerships. Specifically, a chart shows current and cumulative energy savings as well as cumulative reductions of various air pollutants including particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}), and the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The bulk of the document consists of four appendices. Appendix 1 describes the technologies currently available commercially, along with their applications and benefits; Appendix 2 describes the OIT-supported emerging technologies that are likely to be commercialized within the next year or two; Appendix 3 describes OIT-sponsored technologies used in commercial applications in the past that are no longer tracked; and Appendix 4 describes the methodology used to assess and track OIT-supported technologies.

NONE

1999-01-01

247

Education programs designed to support the optics/photonics industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The explosive photonics industry in the United States and elsewhere signals a critical need for comprehensive programs in education for the preparation of photonics technicians, engineers, and scientists. This paper outlines curricular plans in photonics education which begin at the ninth grade in high school and end generally at the fourteenth grade with an associate of applied science degree. Beginning with comprehensive lists of appropriate tasks for photonics technicians -- as identified by photonics-related industries - - extrapolation is made to specific courses, sequences of courses, and on to comprehensive high school/ post-secondary curricula, with appropriate emphasis on the necessary basics in mathematics, science communications, and introductory technology courses. The identification of a photonics core for technician education is a major part of this paper. In addition, a strategy for the development of the photonics core courses in modular form -- with the desired pedagogical organization of a typical module -- is discussed.

Pedrotti, Leno S.; Hull, Darrell M.; Guenther, Arthur H.

1997-12-01

248

Macroscopic structural behavior on the small-scale PHE prototype under high-temperature test condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

PHE (Process Heat Exchanger) is a key component to transfer the high temperature heat generated from a VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) to the chemical reaction for massive production of hydrogen. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute established a small-scale gas loop for the performance test of VHTR components and manufactured a PHE prototype in order to test in the small-scale

Kee-Nam Song; S-D Hong; H-Y Lee; H-Y Park

2011-01-01

249

Design and testing of a small scale indirect type ultra high temperature (UHT) milk sterilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small scale ultra high temperature (UHT) sterilizer suitable for rural tropical cooperatives was designed and tested. An indirect, tubular type UHT sterilizer is better suited to small scale operation and low investment cost. A triple tube heat exchanger (TTHE) was designed for heating milk from 95 to 145 °C in the annulus of the triple tube using steam in

Ch. V. V. Satyanarayana; A. K. Datta; B. P. Mishra

1995-01-01

250

Construction and capability analysis of a small scale cluster system for CFD  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this context, a small scale cluster system for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) platform OpenFOAM is constructed, then a turbulent combustion case is simulated on the small scale cluster system. After the simulation is done, we can draw a conclusion with data that the effect of three-dimensional flow field is achieved. At last, the performance of the cluster system and

Zhao Dong-Mei; Lin Tao-Tao; Liu Tao; Sun Zhao-Guo

2012-01-01

251

Small scales formation via Alfven wave propagation in compressible nonuniform media  

Microsoft Academic Search

In weakly dissipative media governed by the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations, any efficient mechanism of energy dissipation requires the formation of small scales. The possibility to produce small scales has been studied by Malara et al. in the case of MHD disturbances propagating in an incompressible and inhomogeneous medium, for a strictly 2D geometry. We extend the work of Malara et

F. Malara; L. Primavera; P. Veltri

1995-01-01

252

Formation of Small Scales via Alfven Wave Propagation in Compressible Nonuniform Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

In weakly dissipative media governed by the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations, any efficient mechanism of energy dissipation requires the formation of small scales. In a previous paper (Paper I) the possibility of producing small scales has been numerically studied in the case of MHD disturbances propagating in an incompressible and inhomogeneous medium, for a strictly two-dimensional slab geometry, the ignorable coordinate

Francesco Malara; Leonardo Primavera; Pierluigi Veltri

1996-01-01

253

Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Livestock Projects. Guidelines for Planning Series Number 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document was developed in response to the need for simplified technical information for planning environmentally sound small-scale projects in third world countries. It is aimed specifically at those who are planning or managing small-scale livestock projects in less-developed areas of the tropics and sub-tropics. The guidelines included in…

Jacobs, Linda

254

Human exposure to mercury due to small scale gold mining in northern Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

In northern Tanzania large numbers of small scale miners use mercury in the gold extraction process causing contamination of the environment and risks to human health. Human exposure to Hg was assessed in populations in and around small scale gold mining camps by means of human hair and urine surveys. We also determined Hg concentration in fish in aquatic bodies

Peter van Straaten

2000-01-01

255

Testing of pyrolysis oil emulsions in small scale boiler pumps: preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of Pyrolysis Oil (PO, also called Bio Crude Oil) in small scale domestic oil boilers represents a very interesting potential market. However, it is well known that the corrosive and aggressive characteristics of PO (compared to those of Light Fuel Oil, LFO) makes very difficult its use, expecially in small scale systems. Metallic components are subject to fast

David Chiaramonti

256

Small scale ethanol production: design manual. [10 to 15 gallons per hour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the project was to design, fabricate, and evaluate a small scale continuous ethanol plant. The scope of the study was to satisfy four specific objectives. The first objective was to design a small scale continuous distillation unit capable of producing 10 to 15 gallons per hour of 170 to 190 proof ethanol. A second objective was to

L. E. II Adcock; M. H. Eley; B. J. Schroer

1981-01-01

257

SMALL-SCALE DISTRIBUTION OF WINTERING TERRESTRIAL SNAILS IN FOREST SITE: RELATION TO HABITAT CONDITIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of our study was to as- sess the small scale distribution (up to several m 2 ) of hibernating forest-dwelling snails in relation to small-scale environmental factors, like litter com- position, soil temperature and humidity or vegeta- tion cover. The study was conducted in the \\

Krystyna SZYBIAK

2009-01-01

258

Irrigation Water Value at Small-scale Schemes: Evidence from the North West Province, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insight into the value of water is essential to support policy decision making about investments in the water sector, efficient allocation of water and water pricing. However, information on irrigation water values at small-scale schemes is scarce and in general little attention is paid to the determinants of these values. In this study values are calculated for small-scale irrigation schemes

S. Speelman; S. Farolfi; S. Perret; L. Dhaese; M. Dhaese

2008-01-01

259

Origin and consumption of mercury in small-scale gold mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury (Hg) is used by small-scale gold miners in more than 50 developing countries, where the accompanied releases affect human health and the environment. The objectives of this paper are to summarize present use of Hg in artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) worldwide, reveal the origin of part of the Hg used by the gold miners, and propose appropriate actions

Marcello M. Veiga; Peter A. Maxson; Lars D. Hylander

2006-01-01

260

Velocity and heading tracking control for small-scale unmanned helicopters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a linear tracking control design technique for small-scale unmanned helicopters. The design objective is for the helicopter to track predefined velocity and heading reference trajectories. The controller design is based on a generic linear model which successfully describes the dynamic behavior of most small-scale helicopters. The flight controller is composed of two distinct output feedback loops of

Ioannis A. Raptis; Kimon P. Valavanis

2011-01-01

261

Measured turbulent mixing in a small-scale circuit breaker model  

E-print Network

Measured turbulent mixing in a small-scale circuit breaker model N. P. T. Basse,* R. Bini, and M, we constructed a simple small-scale model of a gas circuit breaker. The heating volume was a two circuit breakers depends on the temperature distribution of hot gas or plasma from the arc zone mixed

Basse, Nils Plesner

262

CPT and N-resonance phenomena in rubidium vapor for small-scale atomic clocks  

E-print Network

CPT and N-resonance phenomena in rubidium vapor for small-scale atomic clocks A thesis presented: Christopher Lee Smallwood CPT and N-resonance phenomena in rubidium vapor for small-scale atomic clocks, and lock this laser, and demonstrate the production of a coherent population trapping (CPT) resonance

Walsworth, Ronald L.

263

Large- and small-scale constraints on power spectra in Omega = 1 universes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CDM model of structure formation, normalized on large scales, leads to excessive pairwise velocity dispersions on small scales. In an attempt to circumvent this problem, we study three scenarios (all with Omega = 1) with more large-scale and less small-scale power than the standard CDM model: (1) cold dark matter with significantly reduced small-scale power (inspired by models with an admixture of cold and hot dark matter); (2) cold dark matter with a non-scale-invariant power spectrum; and (3) cold dark matter with coupling of dark matter to a long-range vector field. When normalized to COBE on large scales, such models do lead to reduced velocities on small scales and they produce fewer halos compared with CDM. However, models with sufficiently low small-scale velocities apparently fail to produce an adequate number of halos.

Gelb, James M.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami; Frieman, Joshua A.

1993-01-01

264

Development program to support industrial coal gasification. Quarterly report 1  

SciTech Connect

The Development Program to Support Industrial Coal Gasification is on schedule. The efforts have centered on collecting background information and data, planning, and getting the experimental program underway. The three principal objectives in Task I-A were accomplished. The technical literature was reviewed, the coals and binders to be employed were selected, and tests and testing equipment to be used in evaluating agglomerates were developed. The entire Erie Mining facility design was reviewed and a large portion of the fluidized-bed coal gasification plant design was completed. Much of the work in Task I will be experimental. Wafer-briquette and roll-briquette screening tests will be performed. In Task II, work on the fluidized-bed gasification plant design will be completed and work on a plant design involving entrained-flow gasifiers will be initiated.

None

1982-01-15

265

Advanced Turbine Systems Program industrial system concept development  

SciTech Connect

Solar approached Phase II of ATS program with the goal of 50% thermal efficiency. An intercolled and recuperated gas turbine was identified as the ultimate system to meet this goal in a commercial gas turbine environment. With commercial input from detailed market studies and DOE`s ATS program, Solar redefined the company`s proposed ATS to fit both market and sponsor (DOE) requirements. Resulting optimized recuperated gas turbine will be developed in two sizes, 5 and 15 MWe. It will show a thermal efficiency of about 43%, a 23% improvement over current industrial gas turbines. Other ATS goals--emissions, RAMD (reliability, availability, maintainability, durability), cost of power--will be met or exceeded. During FY95, advanced development of key materials, combustion and component technologies proceeded to the point of acceptance for inclusion in ATS Phase III.

Gates, S.

1995-12-31

266

Small-Scale Evaluation of the Expeditionary Unit Water Purifier  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA?s Technology Testing and Evaluation Program has been charged by EPA to evaluate the performance of commercially available water security-related technologies. Throughout 2007, an evaluation the Expeditionary Unit Water Purifier (EUWP), a mobile water treatment techno...

267

Industrial Rates and Demand-Side Management Programs  

E-print Network

The industrial sector in Texas is large and energy intensive. Industrial sales constitute a major portion of total sales for several utilities in Texas. Industrial demand-side management (DSM) can be used by utilities to provide industrial customers...

Kasprowicz, L. M.; House, R.

268

Cyber Security Testing and Training Programs for Industrial Control Systems  

SciTech Connect

Service providers rely on industrial control systems (ICS) to manage the flow of water at dams, open breakers on power grids, control ventilation and cooling in nuclear power plants, and more. In today's interconnected environment, this can present a serious cyber security challenge. To combat this growing challenge, government, private industry, and academia are working together to reduce cyber risks. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a key contributor to the Department of Energy National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program (CSSP), both of which focus on improving the overall security posture of ICS in the national critical infrastructure. In support of the NSTB, INL hosts a dedicated SCADA testing facility which consists of multiple control systems supplied by leading national and international manufacturers. Within the test bed, INL researchers systematically examine control system components and work to identify vulnerabilities. In support of the CSSP, INL develops and conducts training courses which are designed to increase awareness and defensive capabilities for IT/Control System professionals. These trainings vary from web-based cyber security trainings for control systems engineers to more advanced hands-on training that culminates with a Red Team/ Blue Team exercise that is conducted within an actual control systems environment. INL also provides staffing and operational support to the DHS Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) Security Operations Center which responds to and analyzes control systems cyber incidents across the 18 US critical infrastructure sectors.

Daniel Noyes

2012-03-01

269

Plowshare Program - American Atomic Bomb Tests For Industrial Applications  

SciTech Connect

The United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) established the Plowshare Program as a research and development activity to explore the technical and economic feasibility of using nuclear explosives for industrial applications. The reasoning was that the relatively inexpensive energy available from nuclear explosions could prove useful for a wide variety of peaceful purposes. The Plowshare Program began in 1958 and continued through 1975. Between December 1961 and May 1973, the United States conducted 27 Plowshare nuclear explosive tests comprising 35 individual detonations. Conceptually, industrial applications resulting from the use of nuclear explosives could be divided into two broad categories: 1) large-scale excavation and quarrying, where the energy from the explosion was used to break up and/or move rock; and 2) underground engineering, where the energy released from deeply buried nuclear explosives increased the permeability and porosity of the rock by massive breaking and fracturing. Possible excavation applications included: canals, harbors, highway and railroad cuts through mountains, open pit mining, construction of dams, and other quarry and construction-related projects. Underground nuclear explosion applications included: stimulation of natural gas production, preparation of leachable ore bodies for in situ leaching, creation of underground zones of fractured oil shale for in situ retorting, and formation of underground natural gas and petroleum storage reservoirs.

None

2012-04-22

270

Relating Computer Science programs to the needs of industry through internships and cooperative programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to discuss some approaches for achieving more meaningful relationships between degree programs at the college level in Computer Science and the needs of industry. Nothing is more encouraging to most students than to know that their academic preparation will enhance their future life styles and future employment opportunities. Also, probably nothing is more depressing

Alton R. Goddard

1974-01-01

271

Analysis of the Effectiveness of the Departament of Defense Industrial Security Program and Recommendations for Program Improvement,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial contents: Policy - - Increased emphasis on counter-intelligence and human reliability within the Defense Industrial Security Program, Priority emphasis on security of sensitive contracts, Revising the Industrial Security Manual, Defense Investigat...

A. W. Hazen, D. R. Foley, J. E. Frields, J. R. Hancock, K. A. Buck

1984-01-01

272

State Demand-Side Management Programs Funds are Exploding! How Industries Can Best Use These Programs to Maximize Their Benefits  

E-print Network

Find out from an Industrial Program Manager that runs a successful state DSM/Energy Efficiency program for the industrial sector how to best find, use and benefit from these types of programs. The amount of money that states are investing in DSM...

Nicol, J.

2008-01-01

273

Satellite observations of the small-scale cyclonic eddies in the western South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution ocean color observation offers an opportunity to investigate the oceanic small-scale processes. In this study, The Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) daily 300 m data are used to study small-scale processes in the western South China Sea. It is indicated that the cyclonic eddies with horizontal scales of the order of 10 km are frequently observed during upwelling season of each year over 2004-2009. These small-scale eddies are generated in the vicinity of the southern front of the cold tongue, and then propagate eastward with a speed of approximately 12 cm s-1. This propagation speed is consistent with the velocity of the western boundary current. As a result, the small-scale eddies keep rotating high levels of the phytoplankton away from the coastal areas, resulting in the accumulation of phytoplankton in the interior of the eddies. The generation of the small-scale eddies may be associated with strengthening of the relative movement between the rotation speed of the anticylconic mesoscale eddies and the offshore transport. With the increases of the normalized rotation speed of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies relative to the offshore transport, the offshore current become meander under the impacts of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies. The meandered cold tongue and instability front may stimulate the generation of the small-scale eddies. Unidirectional uniform wind along cold tongue may also contribute to the formation of the small-scale eddies.

Liu, F.; Tang, S.; Chen, C.

2014-09-01

274

Autonomous Guidance of Agile Small-scale Rotorcraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes a guidance system for agile vehicles based on a hybrid closed-loop model of the vehicle dynamics. The hybrid model represents the vehicle dynamics through a combination of linear-time-invariant control modes and pre-programmed, finite-duration maneuvers. This particular hybrid structure can be realized through a control system that combines trim controllers and a maneuvering control logic. The former enable precise trajectory tracking, and the latter enables trajectories at the edge of the vehicle capabilities. The closed-loop model is much simpler than the full vehicle equations of motion, yet it can capture a broad range of dynamic behaviors. It also supports a consistent link between the physical layer and the decision-making layer. The trajectory generation was formulated as an optimization problem using mixed-integer-linear-programming. The optimization is solved in a receding horizon fashion. Several techniques to improve the computational tractability were investigate. Simulation experiments using NASA Ames 'R-50 model show that this approach fully exploits the vehicle's agility.

Mettler, Bernard; Feron, Eric

2004-01-01

275

Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion for small scale market sectors. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to demonstrate and promote the commercialization of coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) systems, with limestone addition for SO{sub 2} emissions control and a baghouse for particulate emissions control. This AFBC system was targeted for small scale industrial-commercial-institutional space and process heat applications. A cost effective and environmentally acceptable AFBC technology in this size range would displace a considerable amount of gas/oil with coal while resulting in significant total cost savings to the owner/operators. In the Proof-of-Concept Phase, a 2.2 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr unit was installed and successfully operated at Cedar Lane Farms (CLF), a commercial nursery in Ohio. The heat from the fluidized bed was used to heat hot water which was recirculated through greenhouses for cool weather heating. The system was designed to be fully automated with minimal operator attention required. The AFBC system installed at CLF was an improved design that incorporated flyash/sorbent reinjection and an underbed feed system to improve limestone utilization. With these additions it was possible to lower the Ca/S ratio from {approximately} 3.0 to 2.0, and still maintain an SO{sub 2} emissions level of 1.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu when burning the same high sulfur Ohio coal tested at OARDC.

Ashworth, R.A.; Plessinger, D.A.; Sommer, T.M. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Orville, OH (United States); Keener, H.M. [Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, OH (United States); Webner, R.L. [Will-Burt Co., Orrville, OH (United States)

1997-03-31

276

AFBC - operation of small scale demonstration for greenhouse heating  

SciTech Connect

A 2.2 million Btu/hr unit prototype AFBC system was installed in 1995 at Cedar Lane Farms, a commercial nursery in Ohio. The AFBC is in operation and is heating hot water for greenhouse temperature control. A team consisting of the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation, the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center of Ohio State University and the Will-Burt Company developed this technology with funding support from the Ohio Coal Development Office and the U.S. Department of Energy. The system is fully automated with little operator attention being required. Operating experience at Cedar Lane Farms has shown that only 2 hours per day of operation attention is required for the system. The system includes flyash/sorbent reinjection and underbed coal/limestone feed. These features provide for good limestone utilization; a Ca/S (in coal) ratio of 2.5 will maintain an SO{sub 2} emissions level of 1.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu when burning high sulfur (3.2%) Ohio coal. A baghouse is used to control particulate emissions. Based on the success of the prototype unit, a design has been recently completed for a commercial size 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr capacity range. Multiple AFBC units can be used to provide larger heat outputs. Potential coal-fired AFBC users include institutions (schools, hospitals, prisons, government), light industry (agricultural, food processing), commercial users (shopping centers), and large residential users (apartment complexes). 6 figs., 1 tab.

Ashworth, R.A.; Plessinger, D.A.; Webner, R.L.; Machamer, T.

1996-12-31

277

La Apaicultura de Pequena Escala (Small Scale Beekeeping). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Manual Series No. M-25.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Spanish-language manual is designed to assist Peace Corps volunteers in Spanish-speaking countries in the implementation of small-scale beekeeping programs as a tool for development. Addressed in the individual chapters are bees and humans; project planning; the types and habits of bees; the essence of beekeeping; bee space and beehives;…

Gentry, Curtis

278

Apiculture de Petite Eschelle (Small Scale Beekeeping). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Manual Series No. M-26.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This French-language manual is designed to assist Peace Corps volunteers in French-speaking countries in the implementation of small-scale beekeeping programs as a tool for development. Addressed in the individual chapters are bees and humans; project planning; the types and habits of bees; the essence of beekeeping; bee space and beehives;…

Gentry, Curtis

279

Summary of the Mid-Atlantic conference on small-scale hydropower in the Mid-Atlantic states: resolution of the barriers impeding its development  

SciTech Connect

The workshop was conducted to bring together interested persons to examine and discuss the major problems associated with small-scale hydroelectric dam development in the Mid-Atlantic region. The conference opened with an introductory panel which outlined the objectives and the materials available to conference participants. Two of the workshops discussed problems and policy responses raised by state and Federal regulation. The other two workshops concerned economic issues confronting small-scale hydro development and the operation and usefulness of the systems dynamics model under development by the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth. Various Federal and state programs designed to stimulate small-scale hydro development were discussed. A plenary session completed the workshops.

Not Available

1980-05-01

280

Binary Quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Evidence for Excess Clustering on Small Scales  

E-print Network

We present a sample of 218 new quasar pairs with proper transverse separations R_prop 3 Mpc/h quasar correlation function, extrapolated down as a power law to the separations probed by our binaries. The excess grows to ~ 30 at R_prop ~ 10 kpc/h, and provides compelling evidence that the quasar autocorrelation function gets progressively steeper on sub-Mpc scales. This small scale excess can likely be attributed to dissipative interaction events which trigger quasar activity in rich environments. Recent small scale measurements of galaxy clustering and quasar-galaxy clustering are reviewed and discussed in relation to our measurement of small scale quasar clustering.

Joseph F. Hennawi; Michael A. Strauss; Masamune Oguri; Naohisa Inada; Gordon T. Richards; Bartosz Pindor; Donald P. Schneider; Robert H. Becker; Michael D. Gregg; Patrick B. Hall; David E. Johnston; Xiaohui Fan; Scott Burles; David J. Schlegel; James E. Gunn; Robert Lupton; Neta A. Bahcall; Robert J. Brunner; Jon Brinkman

2005-04-25

281

Small scale wind tunnel model investigation of hybrid high lift systems combining upper surface blowing with the internally blown flap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A small-scale wind tunnel test of a two engine hybrid model with upper surface blowing on a simulated expandable duct internally blown flap was accomplished in a two phase program. The low wing Phase I model utilized 0.126c radius Jacobs/Hurkamp flaps and 0.337c radius Coanda flaps. The high wing Phase II model was utilized for continued studies on the Jacobs/Hurkamp flap. Principal study areas included: basic data both engines operative and with an engine out, control flap utilization, horizontal tail effectiveness, spoiler effectiveness, USB nacelle deflector study and USB/IBF pressure ratio effects.

Waites, W. L.; Chin, Y. T.

1974-01-01

282

Nonlinear Generation of shear flows and large scale magnetic fields by small scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EGU2009-233 Nonlinear Generation of shear flows and large scale magnetic fields by small scale turbulence in the ionosphere by G. Aburjania Contact: George Aburjania, g.aburjania@gmail.com,aburj@mymail.ge

Aburjania, G.

2009-04-01

283

Small scale hydroelectric power potential in Nevada: a preliminary reconnaissance survey  

SciTech Connect

This preliminary reconnaissance survey is intended to: develop a first estimate as to the potential number, location and characteristics of small-scale (50 kW to 15 MW) hydroelectric sites in Nevada; provide a compilation of various Federal and state laws and regulations, including tax and financing regulations, that affect small-scale hydroelectric development and provide information on sources of small-scale hydroelectric generation hardware and consultants/ contractors who do small scale hydroelectric work. The entire survey has been conducted in the office working with various available data bases. The site survey and site evaluation methods used are described, and data are tabulated on the flow, power potential, predicted capital expenditures required, etc. for 61 potential sites with measured flows and for 77 sites with derived flows. A map showing potential site locations is included. (LCL)

Cochran, G.F.; Fordham, J.W.; Richard, K.; Loux, R.

1981-04-01

284

Design of a small-scale continuous linear motion pharmaceutical filtration module  

E-print Network

A new small-scale continuous linear motion pharmaceutical filtration prototype was designed, fabricated, and tested. The goal of this unit is to filter an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) from a mixture of API ...

Wong, Katherine Wing-Shan

2010-01-01

285

Thermal design of humidification dehumidification systems for affordable and small-scale desalination  

E-print Network

The humidification dehumidification (HDH) technology is a carrier-gas-based thermal desalination technique ideal for application in a small-scale system but, currently, has a high cost of water production (about 30 $/m³ ...

Govindan, Prakash Narayan

2012-01-01

286

Radiation and dissipation of internal waves generated by geostrophic motions impinging on small-scale topography  

E-print Network

Observations and inverse models suggest that small-scale turbulent mixing is enhanced in the Southern Ocean in regions above rough topography. The enhancement extends 1 km above the topography suggesting that mixing is ...

Nikurashin, Maxim (Maxim Anatolevich)

2009-01-01

287

Small-scale hydroelectric power in the Pacific Northwest: new impetus for an old energy source  

SciTech Connect

Energy supply is one of the most important issues facing Northwestern legislators today. To meet the challenge, state legislatures must address the development of alternative energy sources. The Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Policy Project of the National Conference of State Legislators (NCSL) was designed to assist state legislators in looking at the benefits of one alternative, small-scale hydro. Because of the need for state legislative support in the development of small-scale hydroelectric, NCSL, as part of its contract with the Department of Energy, conducted the following conference on small-scale hydro in the Pacific Northwest. The conference was designed to identify state obstacles to development and to explore options for change available to policymakers. A summary of the conference proceedings is presented.

Not Available

1980-07-01

288

Mercury contamination associated with small-scale gold mining in Tanzania and Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury contamination associated with small-scale gold mining and processing represents a major environmental and human health concern in Eastern and Southern Africa. Approximately 200000–300000 persons are involved in small-scale gold mining activities in Tanzania and >200000 persons in Zimbabwe. Mercury (Hg) is used mainly for the processing of primary gold quartz veins and supergene gold mineralizations. Gravimetric material flow analyses

Peter van Straaten

2000-01-01

289

The Flight Control System Based On Multivariable PID Neural Network For Small-Scale Unmanned Helicopter  

Microsoft Academic Search

How to design the flight control system (FCS) of small-scale unmanned helicopter is still a difficult challenge today. In this paper, one novel control approach based on Multivariable PID Neural Network (MPIDNN) was firstly used to design the FCS of small-scale unmanned helicopter. MPIDNN is suitable for controlling the multi-input multi-output (MIMO), nonlinear, highly coupled, uncertain and dynamic system such

Ping Song; Guangping Qi; Kejie Li

2009-01-01

290

Fish passage experience at small-scale hydro-electric power plants in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are more than 1,700 small-scale hydro-electric power stations in France today, which can be found on the majority of\\u000a rivers with migratory species in them. This article gives an overview of the different types of fish facilities in use at\\u000a these small-scale hydro plants. The relative advantages and drawbacks of each type of fish pass are discussed, with reference

Michel Larinier

2008-01-01

291

A case report of anti-smoking measures at a Japanese small-scale worksite.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to introduce spatial separation of smoking areas and to perform and evaluate smoking cessation support and anti-smoking education at a small scale business site (Worksite "A"), where sweeping anti-smoking measures have not been enforced. The smoking environments at Worksite "A" and at other companies were examined, health education was introduced, and through the cooperation of the Health and Safety Committee, a program for the separation of smoking areas was proposed. The Health and Safety Committee at Worksite "A" played a central role in changing of the women's toilets into a designated smoking area. Through smoking cessation support and anti-smoking education as a part of general health education, and the creation of a designated smoking area, the workplace environment was improved. Through spatial separation of smoking areas and the execution of anti-smoking education, the workplace environment improved and the importance of anti-smoking was better understood by workers, which led to the creation of a comfortable workplace environment based on the ideology of health promotion. PMID:19533857

Ariyoshi, Hiromi

2008-10-01

292

Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Maryland  

SciTech Connect

The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level in Maryland are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The dual regulatory system is examined with the aim of creating a more orderly understanding of the vagaries of the system, focusing on the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. In Maryland, by common law rule, title to all navigable waters and to the soil below the high-water mark of those waters is vested in the state as successor to the Lord Proprietary who had received it by grant from the Crown. Rights to non-navigable water, public trust doctrine, and eminent domain are also discussed. Direct and indirect regulations, continuing obligations, loan programs, and regional organizations are described in additional sections.

None,

1980-05-01

293

Small Scale Trace Contaminant Testing of SA9T at Ambient and Reduced Pressure Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A principle concern for air revitalization technology in a closed loop system is the capability to control carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity (H2O). An amine based sorbent technology, SA9T, has long been evaluated for use in this application and several programs are evaluating it for use in both a cabin as well as space suit applications. While the CO2 and H2O performance of the sorbent has been tested extensively, the question of how trace contaminants impact performance requires further evaluation. This paper presents experimental results of small scale SA9T testing that was performed over a variety of test conditions and with a variety of trace contaminants. Testing evaluated the ability of SA9T media to sufficiently remove CO2 and H2O after exposure to a fully saturated trace contaminant at ambient conditions. Testing also evaluated the impact of CO2 and H2O removal performance at suit loop pressures during cyclic operation with a constant inlet contaminant load. In addition, testing evaluated the performance of SA9T at ambient conditions in a continuous 30-day test with a mixed trace contaminant stream.

Broerman, Craig; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey

2011-01-01

294

Small-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Cesium and Technetium from Hanford Tank 241-AN-103  

SciTech Connect

The pretreatment process for BNFL, Inc.'s Hanford River Protection Project is to provide decontaminated low activity waste and concentrated eluate streams for vitrification into low activity and high level waste glass, respectively. The pretreatment includes sludge washing, filtration, precipitation, and ion exchange processes to remove entrained solids, cesium, transuranics, technetium, and strontium. The ion exchange removal of cesium (Cs) and technetium (Tc) ions is accomplished by using SuperLig 644, and 639 resins from IBC Advanced Technologies, American Fork, Utah. The resins were shown to selectively remove cesium and technetium (as pertechnetate), from alkaline salt solutions. The efficiency of ion exchange column loading and elution is a complex function involving feed compositions, equilibrium and kinetic behavior of ion exchange resins, diffusion, and the ionic strength and pH of the aqueous solution. A previous experimental program completed at the Savannah River Technology Center demonstrated the conceptualized flow sheet parameters with a similar Hanford tank sample (241-AW-101). Those experiments included determination of Cs and Tc batch distribution coefficients by SuperLig 644 and 639 resins and demonstration of small-scale column breakthrough and elution. The experimental findings were used in support of preliminary design bases and pretreatment flow sheet development by BNFL, Inc.

Hassan, N.M.

2000-07-27

295

Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Bio-Based and Fossil Fuels  

SciTech Connect

Technology Management, Inc. (TMI) of Cleveland, Ohio, has completed the project entitled â??Small Scale SOFC Demonstration using Bio-based and Fossil Fuels.â? Under this program, two 1-kW systems were engineered as technology demonstrators of an advanced technology that can operate on either traditional hydrocarbon fuels or renewable biofuels. The systems were demonstrated at Patterson's Fruit Farm of Chesterland, OH and were open to the public during the first quarter of 2012. As a result of the demonstration, TMI received quantitative feedback on operation of the systems as well as qualitative assessments from customers. Based on the test results, TMI believes that > 30% net electrical efficiency at 1 kW on both traditional and renewable fuels with a reasonable entry price is obtainable. The demonstration and analysis provide the confidence that a 1 kW entry-level system offers a viable value proposition, but additional modifications are warranted to reduce sound and increase reliability before full commercial acceptance.

Michael Petrik; Robert Ruhl

2012-03-31

296

Ethnographic Approaches to Understanding Social Sustainability in Small-scale Water Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social sustainability is an important, but often neglected, aspect of determining the success of small-scale water systems. This paper reviews ethnographic approaches for understanding how indigenous knowledge enhances social sustainability of small-scale water systems, particularly in small-scale water systems threatened by water scarcity. After reviewing the literature on common-pool and traditional resource management strategies, the paper will focus on the case of a community-managed small-scale water system in Cochabamba, Bolivia. This study uses ethnographic evidence to demonstrate how indigenous institutions can be used to manage a small-scale urban water system sustainably. Several factors were crucial to the institution's success. First, indigenous residents had previous experience with common management of rural irrigation systems which they were able to adapt for use in an urban environment. Second, institutional rules were designed to prioritize the conservation of the water source. Third, indigenous Andean social values of uniformity, regularity, and transparency ensured that community members perceived the system as legitimate and complied with community rules. Fourth, self-governance enabled community members to quickly adapt to changing environmental conditions, such as seasonal scarcity and groundwater overdraft. The paper concludes with a discussion of the promise and limitations of ethnographic approaches and indigenous knowledge for understanding social sustainability in small-scale water systems.

Wutich, A.

2011-12-01

297

The NASA/industry Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) program: A government overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA-Langley, under the Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) Program, set out in 1984 to establish the technology base needed by the rotorcraft industry for developing an advanced finite-element-based dynamics design analysis capability for vibrations. Considerable work has been done by the industry participants in the program since that time. Because the DAMVIBS Program is being phased out, a government/industry assessment of the program has been made to identify those accomplishments and contributions which may be ascribed to the program. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the program and its accomplishments and contributions from the perspective of the government sponsoring organization.

Kvaternik, Raymond G.

1993-01-01

298

The NASA/industry Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) Program: A government overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LaRC, under the Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) Program, set out in 1984 to establish the technology base needed by the rotorcraft industry for developing an advanced finite-element-based dynamics design analysis capability for vibrations. Considerable work was performed by the industry participants in the program since that time. Because the DAMVIBS Program is being phased out, a government/industry assessment of the program was made to identify those accomplishments and contributions which may be ascribed to the program. The purpose is to provide an overview of the program and its accomplishments and contributions from the perspective of the government sponsoring organization.

Kvaternik, Raymond G.

1992-01-01

299

Small-Scale Industrial Cogeneration: Design Using Reciprocating Engines and Absorption Chillers  

E-print Network

: of performance (COp) for such units is low, andl the resulting refrigeration tonnage is small. Thi s often leaves the engine's exhaust gas as the only useable form of heat. It can be used to generate a small amount of steam, or possibly can be linked to a... the refrigeration cycle to function. If condensation does not occur fast enough, pressure increases on the condenser side of the system. Staged Condensers ,--------------------, :J, I I? I I I I Heat Reclaim I for DomestIc ____ I L _ HoI Waler...

Wagner, J. R.

300

Analytical Hierarchy Process Applied to Vendor Selection Problem: Small Scale, Medium Scale and Large Scale Industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vendor selection is an important process for an effective inventory management. This paper deals with a brief review of the literature regarding AHP technique and its relevancy to its application in vendor selection process. Vendor selection is a complicated process. This process needs evaluation of multiple criteria and various constraints associated with them. This paper has been developed based upon

Sanjay Kumar; Neeraj Parashar; Abid Haleem

301

Entering Industry: A Case Study of Links between a School Vocational Program and the Building and Construction Industry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies have tracked youth transition beyond the immediate post-school period or have looked at the longer-term outcomes of post-school programs. This study reports the findings of a case study investigating links between an industry-specific school vocational education and training (VET) program and subsequent work transitions to the building…

Taylor, Anthea

2004-01-01

302

Demonstration and theoretical basis of energy-efficient high recovery small-scale brackish reverse osmosis system.  

E-print Network

??An innovative small-scale reverse osmosis (RO) system was developed for energy-efficient brackish desalination at high-recovery. The small-scale RO system used such features as closed (pressurized)… (more)

Schuetze, Bryan David 1958-

2013-01-01

303

Coronal hole boundaries evolution at small scales. II. XRT view. Can small-scale outflows at CHBs be a source of the slow solar wind  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: We aim to further explore the small-scale evolution of coronal hole boundaries using X-ray high-resolution and high-cadence images. We intend to determine the fine structure and dynamics of the events causing changes of coronal hole boundaries and to explore the possibility that these events are the source of the slow solar wind. Methods: We developed an automated procedure for

S. Subramanian; M. S. Madjarska; J. G. Doyle

2010-01-01

304

The use of dried bakery products in a free-choice feeding method for small-scale broiler production.  

PubMed

Waste material from bakeries is an unconventional energy feed source which is available in sufficient quantities for use in small-scale broiler production in South Africa. Small-scale broiler producers do not have access to the computer programs required to balance home-mixed rations. This investigation confirms that the use of dried bakery products (DBP) in a 2-stage, free-choice method can be used to compensate for this lack. A total of 570 day-old male broiler chickens was assigned to 3 feeding treatments: the control group was fed a 2-stage feeding programme using standard commercial starter and grower rations. The 2nd group received a commercial starter ration up to Day 7 and was thereafter given a choice of a commercial starter ration with normal salt content (0.35%) and DBP. The 3rd group was fed a commercial starter ration up to Day 7, then offered a choice of commercial starter ration with a lower salt content (0.1%) and DBP. The low salt alternative was used to test whether the higher salt percentage in DBP influenced the choice of feed by the birds. It was found that the control group consumed significantly more feed (P < 0.05) and was significantly heavier (P < 0.05) than the experimental groups. However, there was no significant difference between the 2 experimental groups, which indicated that salt content did not play a role in the choice of ration. Feed consumption by both experimental groups was about one-third less than the control group, but the profit margin, as calculated using gross margin analysis, was approximately 15 % higher. It was therefore concluded that dried bakery products can be profitably incorporated as an energy feed source, using the free-choice feeding method, in small-scale broiler enterprises. PMID:15038423

Madiya, A T; McCrindle, C M E; Veary, C M; Bisschop, S P R

2003-12-01

305

EPA pollution program makes sense to industry, environmentalists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical industry representatives and environmentalists can agree on some things. One in particular is EPA`s Common Sense Initiative (CSI), an industry-by-industry approach to evaluating environmental federal regulations rather than the current pollutant-by pollutant approach. Both groups call it a major step toward setting higher environmental protection standards. While the chemical industry was not one of the groups chosen to participate

1994-01-01

306

University-Industry Cooperative Research Programs in the Mathematical Sciences  

NSF Publications Database

The Division of Mathematical Sciences (DMS) supports this relationship through the university-industry postdoctoral research fellowships, university-industry senior research fellowships, industry-based graduate research assistantships, and industry-based graduate cooperative fellowships described in this solicitation. More comprehensive information on NSF Award Conditions is contained in the NSF Grant Policy Manual (GPM) Chapter II, available electronically on the NSF Website at http://www....

307

Small scale effects on the mechanical behaviors of protein microtubules based on the nonlocal elasticity theory  

SciTech Connect

Based on the nonlocal elastic theory, small scale effects are considered in the investigation of the mechanical properties of protein microtubules. A new prediction formula for the persistence lengths of microtubules with the consideration of the small scale effect is presented. Subsequently, the buckling of microtubules is studied based on a nonlocal elastic beam model. The predicted results of our model indicate that the length-dependence of persistence length is related not only to the shear terms, but also to the small scale effect. The Eular beam model, which is always considered unable to explain the length-dependence of microtubules, can capture the length-dependence of the persistence length of microtubules with the consideration of the small scale effect. The elastic buckling behaviors of microtubules in viscoelastic surrounding cytoplasm are also considered using the nonlocal Timoshenko beam model in this paper, and the results indicate that the small scale effect of microtubules also plays an important role in the buckling of microtubules.

Gao, Yuanwen, E-mail: ywgao@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment, Ministry of Education, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment, Ministry of Education, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Lei, Fang-Ming [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment, Ministry of Education, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment, Ministry of Education, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

2009-09-25

308

New Directions and Trends in Industrial Training and Their Implications for Vocational Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A basic position of industry is that it picks up where schools leave off. Training policy within industry is diverse in theory and practice. Companies vary in their approach to training, ranging from highly informal to highly formal. The many new trends in industrial training may be analyzed in four dimensions: in-house education programs

Ashley, William L.; And Others

1986-01-01

309

California’s Industrial Energy Efficiency Best Practices Technical Outreach and Training Program  

E-print Network

in partnership with industry and the state’s utilities. In addition to energy and cost savings for California’s industrial sector, this program will also reduce direct carbon dioxide emissions from industrial processes by over 110,500 tons each year....

Kazama, D. B.; Wong, T.; Wang, J.

2007-01-01

310

Risk of Resource Failure and Toolkit Variation in Small-Scale Farmers and Herders  

PubMed Central

Recent work suggests that global variation in toolkit structure among hunter-gatherers is driven by risk of resource failure such that as risk of resource failure increases, toolkits become more diverse and complex. Here we report a study in which we investigated whether the toolkits of small-scale farmers and herders are influenced by risk of resource failure in the same way. In the study, we applied simple linear and multiple regression analysis to data from 45 small-scale food-producing groups to test the risk hypothesis. Our results were not consistent with the hypothesis; none of the risk variables we examined had a significant impact on toolkit diversity or on toolkit complexity. It appears, therefore, that the drivers of toolkit structure differ between hunter-gatherers and small-scale food-producers. PMID:22844421

Collard, Mark; Ruttle, April; Buchanan, Briggs; O'Brien, Michael J.

2012-01-01

311

Mixing transition and the cascade to small scales in a plane mixing layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct numerical simulations of time-developing plane mixing layers have been performed using a variety of initial conditions. Up to two pairings of the dominant spanwise rollers have been simulated. When the flow is sufficiently three-dimensional, a pairing can cause the mixing layer to undergo a transition to small-scale turbulence. This small-scale transition is accompanied by increased mixing of a passive scalar, similar to observations of the mixing transition in experiments. As part of the transition process, thin vortex sheets are generated by vortex stretching and roll up in a two-dimensional mixing layer. This higher-order rollup is part of the cascade to small-scale turbulence. Estimates are obtained for the degree of three-dimensionality required for the pairing to initiate the transition.

Moser, R. D.; Rogers, M. M.

1991-01-01

312

Small-scale martian polygonal terrain: Implications for liquid surface water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Images from the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) through August 1999 were analyzed for the global distribution of small-scale polygonal terrain not clearly resolved in Viking Orbiter imagery. With very few exceptions, small-scale polygonal terrain occurs at middle to high latitudes of the northern and southern hemisphere in Hesperian-age geologic units. The largest concentration of this terrain occurs in the Utopia basin in close association with scalloped depressions (interpreted as thermokarst) and appears to represent an Amazonia event. The morphology and occurence of small polygonal terrain suggest they are either mud desiccation cracks or ice-wedge polygons. Because the small-scale polygons in Utopia and Argyre Planitiae are associated with other cold-climate permafrost or glacial features, an ice-wedge model is preferred for these areas. Both cracking mechanisms work most effectively in water- or ice-rich finegrained material and may imply the seasonal or episodic existence of liquid water at the surface.

Seibert, N. M.; Kargel, J. S.

2001-01-01

313

Lensing dispersion of SNIa and small scales of the primordial power spectrum  

E-print Network

Probing the primordial power spectrum at small scales is crucial for discerning inflationary models, especially if BICEP2 results are confirmed. We demonstrate this necessity by briefly reviewing single small field models that give a detectable gravitational waves signal, thus being degenerate with large field models on CMB scales. A distinct prediction of these small field models is an enhancement of the power spectrum at small scales, lifting up the degeneracy. We propose a way to detect this enhancement, and more generally, different features in the power spectrum at small scales $1\\lesssim k \\lesssim 10^2-10^3 \\,\\mathrm{Mpc}^{-1}$ by considering the existing data of lensing dispersion in Type Ia supernovae. We show that for various deviations from the simplest $n_s\\simeq 0.96$ the lensing dispersion cuts considerably into the allowed parameter space by PLANCK and constrains the spectrum to smaller scales beyond the reach of other current data sets.

Ben-Dayan, Ido

2014-01-01

314

Small-scale field-aligned currents observed by the AKEBONO (EXOS-D) satellite  

SciTech Connect

The EXOS-D fluxgate magnetometer data obtained at 3,000-10,000 km altitude have shown that small-scale field-aligned currents always exist in large-scale region 1, region 2, cusp and polar cap current systems. Assuming that these small-scale field-aligned currents have current sheet structure, the width of current sheet is estimated to be 5-20 km at ionospheric altitude. By comparing the magnetometer data with charged particle and high frequency plasma wave data simultaneously obtained from EXOS-D, it is found that small-scale currents have one-to-one correspondence with localized electron precipitation events characterized by flux enhancement over a wide energy range from 10 eV to several keV and broadband electrostatic bursts occasionally extending above local plasma frequencies or electron cyclotron frequencies.

Fukunishi, H.; Oya, H. (Tohoku Univ. (Japan)); Kokubun, S. (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)); Tohyama, F. (Tokai Univ. (Japan)); Mukai, T.; Fujii, R.

1991-02-01

315

Federal legal obstacles and incentives to the development of the small-scale hydroelectric potential of the nineteen Northeastern states. Executive summary  

SciTech Connect

The main report for which this report is the executive summary, DOE/RA--23-216.00.0-01 (see EAPA 5:3929), was published in revised form in March 1979. Also, since that time, Energy Law Institute has produced detailed legal memoranda on obstacles and incentives for each of the 19 states. This executive summary summarizes the findings and observations of the original report. Specific summaries included are: Federal Jurisdiction Over Small-Scale Hydroelectric Facilities; The FERC; The Regulation of Construction in and the Discharge of Dredged, Fill, and Other Materials into the Waters of the US; The Protection of Fish, Wildlife, and Endangered Species; The Preservation of Historic Places, Archaeological Sites, and Natural Areas; Regulation of the Use of Federal Lands; Federal Dam Construction and Power-Distribution Agencies; Additional Federal Agencies Concerned with Small-Scale Hydroelectric Dams; Federal Tax Devices and Business Structures Affecting Small-Scale Hydroelectric Development; and an Outline of Federal-Assistance programs Available for Small-Scale Hydroelectric Development.

None,

1980-05-01

316

Utility and State Industrial Efficient Motors Systems Incentives Programs: Experience and Success Factors  

E-print Network

not specifically target industrial customers; instead, industrial customers are combined with commercial and, in two programs surveyed, agricultural customers. 60% of the programs provide incentives for both motors and motor controllers, usually referred... Barriers Many barriers inhibit the implementation f efficient motor systems within industry. Some ~f the more common barriers on the customer's ~ide include I ? higher initial cost: Efficient motor technologies tend to cost more than stand~rd motors...

Roop, J. M.; Stucky, D. J.

317

Collective backscattering of gyrotron radiation by small-scale plasma density fluctuations in large helical device  

SciTech Connect

A version of the collective backscattering diagnostic using gyrotron radiation for small-scale turbulence is described. The diagnostic is used to measure small-scale (k{sub s}{approx_equal}34 cm{sup -1}) plasma density fluctuations in large helical device experiments on the electron cyclotron heating of plasma with the use of 200 kW 82.7 GHz heating gyrotron. A good signal to noise ratio during plasma production phase was obtained, while contamination of stray light increased during plasma build-up phase. The effect of the stray radiation was investigated. The available quasioptical system of the heating system was utilized for this purpose.

Kharchev, Nikolay; Batanov, German; Petrov, Alexandr; Sarksyan, Karen; Skvortsova, Nina [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Vavilova 38, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Tanaka, Kenji; Kubo, Shin; Igami, Hiroe [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Azuma, Yoshifumi; Tsuji-Iio, Shunji [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-N1-11, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

2008-10-15

318

Profile of the chemicals industry in California: Californiaindustries of the future program  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) established the Industries of the Future (IOF) program to increase energy efficiency, reduce waste production and to improve competitiveness, currently focusing on nine sectors. The IOF is a partnership strategy involving industry, the research community and the government, working together to identify technology needs, promote industrial partnerships and implement joint measures with all partners involved. The State Industries of the Future (SIOF) program delivers the accomplishments of the national Industries of the Future strategy to the local level, to expand the technology opportunities to a larger number of partners and reach smaller businesses and manufacturers that were not initially involved in the IOF effort. The state programs bring together industry, academia, and state agencies to address the important issues confronting industry in the state. These public-private coalitions facilitate industry solutions locally and enhance economic development. California has started a State Industries of the Future effort, in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy. The California Energy Commission (CEC) is leading the SIOF program in California, as part of many other programs to improve the energy efficiency and performance of industries in California. The California State IOF program aims to build a network of participants from industry, academia and government in four selected industrial sectors as a basis for the development of a strategic partnership for industrial energy efficient technology in the state. In California the IOF effort focuses petroleum refining, chemical processing, food processing and electronics. As part of this effort, the SIOF program will develop roadmaps for technology development for the selected sectors. On the basis of the roadmap, the program will develop successful projects with co-funding from state and federal government, and promote industry-specific energy-efficiency. An important element of the SIOF-program is the preparation of R&D roadmaps for each of the selected industries. The roadmap will help to identify priority needs for the participating industries to meet their energy challenges. The roadmap effort builds on the roadmaps developed by DOE, and on the conditions specific for the industry in California. Key to the successful preparation of a roadmap in the selected industries is the development of a profile of the industries. The profile provides a basis for the participants in the roadmap-effort, especially as the structure of the industries in California can be different than in the nation. The sector profiles describe the current economic and energy situation of these industries in California, the processes and energy uses, and the potential future developments in each industry. The profiles are an integral part of the roadmap, to help working group partners to evaluate the industry's R&D needs for their industry in California. In this report, we focus on the chemicals industry. The industry is an important economic factor in the state, providing over 82,300 jobs directly, and more in indirect employment. Value of shipments in 2001 was just under $25.7 Billion, or 6% of all manufacturing in California. There are over 1,500 chemical plants in California, of which 52% are pharmaceutical companies. Many companies operate chemical plants in California. The industry consumes 8% of the electricity and 5% of the natural gas in California. In this report, we start with a description of the chemical industry in the United States and California. This is followed by a discussion of the energy consumption and energy intensity of the Californian chemical industry. Chapter 3 focuses on the main sub-sectors. For each of the sub-sectors a general process description is provided in Chapter 4. Based on this analysis, in Chapter 5, we discuss potential technology developments that can contribute to further improving the energy efficiency in chemical plants, with a focus on the situation in California.

Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst

2004-06-01

319

Greenhouse Gas Programs, Energy Efficiency, and the Industrial Sector  

E-print Network

.6 metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per capita in 2006. The industrial sector (agriculture is excluded) is responsible for 28.7 percent of the GHG emissions in the U.S. However, the U.S. industrial sector has numerous economically viable...

Zhou, A.; Tutterow, V.; Harris, J.

320

A thermal mechanism for generation of small-scale irregularities in the ionospheric E region  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a mechanism for small-scale irregularity generation in the E region due to a thermal instability driven by the neutral wind. The polarization electric field induced by the neutral wind causes frictional heating due to ion neutral collisions. In plasma-depleted regions this leads to enhanced plasma pressure and plasma is forced out, enhancing the plasma depletion. When heat advection

L. M. Kagan; M. C. Kelley

2000-01-01

321

Scattering of small-scale internal waves by near-inertial wavepackets in the ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The breaking of oceanic internal waves is an essential part of the deep-ocean mixing processes that contribute to the general circulation of the ocean, the exchange of heat and gases with the atmosphere, the distribution of nutrients and the dispersal of pollutants. The aim of this work is to further our understanding of how a spectrum of a small-scale internal

Julie Vanderhoff; James Rottman; Keiko Nomura

2006-01-01

322

Experimental and theoretical analysis of a small scale thermoacoustic cooler driven by two sources  

E-print Network

Experimental and theoretical analysis of a small scale thermoacoustic cooler driven by two sources by scaling down thermoacoustic coolers to provide practical solutions for thermal heat management, especially diameter d = 9.4 cm. A thermoacoustic core (stack or regenerator, without any heat exchangers) is set

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

323

Experimental study on a small scale of gas hydrate cold storage apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

To have an overall investigation of cold storage characteristics to help to promote the application, a novel small scale of gas hydrate cold storage apparatus was designed. The amount of cold energy, growth rate, Hydrate Packed Factor (HPF) and overall heat transfer coefficient during the cold storage process were calculated and analyzed under different heat exchangers, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate

Yingming Xie; Gang Li; Daoping Liu; Ni Liu; Yingxia Qi; Deqing Liang; Kaihua Guo; Shuanshi Fan

2010-01-01

324

Use of plastic construction materials in small-scale fuel alcohol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several general designs for small-scale fuel alcohol plants that have been published primarily use conventional materials of construction (steel, copper, etc.). A fuel alcohol plant owned by Dixie Fuels, Inc. Valley Park, Mississippi, and a farm-scale alcohol plant being developed by the Tennessee Valley Authority have incorporated plastic materials in several areas of their plants; results have been excellent in

G. R. Lightsey; O. Kadir

1982-01-01

325

Increased power to heat ratio of small scale CHP plants using biomass fuels and natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a systematic study of process changes for increased power production in 1–20MWe combined heat and power (CHP) plants. The changes are simulated, and their economic feasibility evaluated by using existing small scale CHP case plants. Increasing power production in decentralised CHP plants that operate according to a certain heat demand could reduce the fuel consumption

Tuula Savola; Carl-Johan Fogelholm

2006-01-01

326

Small-scale dispersal and population structure in stream-living brown trout (Salmo trutta) inferred  

E-print Network

Small-scale dispersal and population structure in stream-living brown trout (Salmo trutta) inferred-scale location change of resident brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a small stream (1500 m). During the first summer pour étudier l'importance des changements d'emplacement à petite échelle de la truite de mer (Salmo

Bernatchez, Louis

327

Small-scale spatial patterns determine ecological relationships: an experimental example using nectar production rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structuring of populations at small scales has important consequences for ecological relationships and may contribute to the maintenance of genetic diversity within populations. As an example we tested the effects of variation in nectar production rates (NPR) on pollinator visitation in experimental populations of Echium vulgare with different spatial arrangements. Bumblebees discriminate between groups of plants with different NPRs

Peter G. L. Klinkhamer; Tom J. de Jong; Lucas A. Linnebank

2001-01-01

328

Cultivation of maize landraces by small-scale shade coffee farmers in western El Salvador  

E-print Network

Cultivation of maize landraces by small-scale shade coffee farmers in western El Salvador Meryl through the on-farm cultivation of native land- races. This study empirically examined the factors landraces for milpa plots on more marginal land, and continue to cultivate landraces despite

Vermont, University of

329

Influence of Global Shapes on Children's Coding of Local Geometric Information in Small-Scale Spaces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research uses enclosed whole shapes, rather than visual form fragments, to demonstrate that children's use of local geometric information is influenced by global shapes in small-scale spaces. Three- to six-year-old children and adults participated in two experiments with a table-top task. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with a…

Chiang, Noelle C.

2013-01-01

330

DESIGN OF SMALL SCALE GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS FOR UNMANNED-AERIAL VEHICLES  

E-print Network

) Inlet, diffuser and nozzle design system (6) Gas Turbine Component Matching (3) Gas Turbine HealthDESIGN OF SMALL SCALE GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS FOR UNMANNED-AERIAL VEHICLES (AERSP 597/497-K) SPRING 814 865 9871 cxc11@psu.edu Summary : The proposed course is a three-credit gas turbine design course

Camci, Cengiz

331

Torsional Alfvén waves in small scale density threads of the solar corona  

Microsoft Academic Search

The density structuring of the solar corona is observed at large scales (loops and funnels), but also at small scales (sub-structures of loops and funnels). Coronal loops consist of thin density threads with sizes down to (and most probably below) the resolution limit. We study properties of torsional Alfvén waves propagating in inhomogeneous cylindrical density threads using the two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic

P. Copil; Y. Voitenko; M. Goossens

2008-01-01

332

Fuel From Farms: A Guide to Small-Scale Ethanol Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethanol and blends of ethanol and gasoline (such as gasohol) offer a near-term fuel alternative to oil. The focus of this handbook is upon the small-scale production of ethanol using farm crops as the source of raw materials. Provided are chapters on ethanol production procedures, feedstocks, plant design, and financial planning. Also presented…

Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO.

333

Validity of small scale tests for turret/fairing loads and cavity effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from several wind tunnel experiments along with available flight test data are used to discuss the validity of small scale tests and their inherent limitations. Tests were performed at transonic speeds to measure the turbulence levels in a cavity with and without a forward porous fence, turret drag with and without an aerodynamic fairing, and turret/fairing unsteady pressures.

Mcdermott, D. J.; Vankuren, J. T.

1980-01-01

334

Small scales formation via Alfven wave propagation in compressible nonuniform media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In weakly dissipative media governed by the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations, any efficient mechanism of energy dissipation requires the formation of small scales. The possibility to produce small scales has been studied by Malara et al. in the case of MHD disturbances propagating in an incompressible and inhomogeneous medium, for a strictly 2D geometry. We extend the work of Malara et al. to include both compressibility and the third component for vector quantities. Using numerical simulations we show that, when an Alfven wave propagates in a compressible nonuniform medium, the two dynamical effects responsible for the small scales formation in the incompressible case are still at work: energy pinching and phase-mixing. Moreover, the interaction between the initial Alfven wave and the inhomogeneity gives rise to the formation of compressible perturbations (fast and slow waves or a static entropy wave). Some of these compressive fluctuations are subject to the steepening of the wave front and become shock waves, which are extremely efficient in dissipating their energy, their dissipation being independent of the Reynolds number. A rough estimate of the typical times which the various dynamical processes take to produce small scales and then to dissipate the energy show that these times are consistent with those required to dissipate inside the solar corona the energy of Alfven waves of photospheric origin.

Malara, F.; Primavera, L.; Veltri, P.

1995-06-01

335

Updating global Hg emissions from small-scale gold mining and assessing its environmental impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-scale gold mining is a significant source of Hg to the environment and may reach an annual input of about 450 t of Hg, mostly in South America, Russia and Asia. Countries of the Amazon Basin and Russia are the major contributors. On a regional scale, this source can contribute to more than 50% of the total Hg anthropogenic emission.

Luiz Drude de Lacerda

2003-01-01

336

ORIGINAL PAPER Small-scale gold mining erodes fish assemblage structure  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Small-scale gold mining erodes fish assemblage structure in small neotropical- turbing freshwater ecosystems. Indeed, streams act as receptors for the water that drains gold mining sites and that contain a high load of sediment and toxicants. We here investigated how gold mining

Grenouillet, Gael

337

Visualization of individual DNA molecules in a small-scale coating flow  

E-print Network

Visualization of individual DNA molecules in a small- scale coating flow Rajat Duggal and Matteo 77005 (Received 30 June 2003; final revision received 27 April 2004) Synopsis Individual DNA molecules there is a zero velocity surface. We report the mean and the distribution of fractional extension of DNA molecules

Natelson, Douglas

338

Heliospheric evolution of solar wind small-scale magnetic flux ropes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from the first comprehensive small-scale flux rope survey between 0.3 and 5.5 AU using the Helios 1, Helios 2, IMP 8, Wind, ACE, and Ulysses spacecrafts to examine their occurrence rate, properties, and evolution. Small-scale flux ropes are similar to magnetic clouds and can be modeled as a constant-alpha, force-free, cylindrically symmetric flux rope. They differ from magnetic clouds in that they have durations on the order of tens of minutes up to a few hours, they lack an expansion signature at 1 AU, and they do not have a depressed proton temperature compared to the surrounding solar wind plasma. The occurrence rate of small-scale flux ropes is slightly higher in the inner heliosphere than the outer heliosphere and has a weak dependence on the phase of the solar cycle. The duration of the events as a function of radial distance indicates there is a large, rapid expansion within 1 AU and it becomes constant in the outer heliosphere. This behavior implies small-scale flux ropes are created and nearly complete their evolution within 1 AU.

Cartwright, M. L.; Moldwin, M. B.

2010-08-01

339

Small-Scale Steam Distillation Plant for Cymbopogon Nardus Essential Oil Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the extraction result and quality analysis of Cymbopogon Nardus leaves using a small-scale steam distillation plant. The extraction plant was successfully developed and interfaced to a computer for monitoring and control purposes. The plant performance was analyzed in terms of its efficiency and the quality of the oil produced. The oil quality was assessed by means of

Mohd Hezri Fazalul Rahiman; Hamazul Azhar Hamzah; Mazidah Tajjudin; Mohd Nasir Taib

340

Behavioural Processes 72 (2006) 115127 Small-scale spatial cognition in pigeons  

E-print Network

Behavioural Processes 72 (2006) 115�127 Review Small-scale spatial cognition in pigeons Ken Chenga. Spatial memory in pigeons on the radial maze. J. Exp. Psychol.: Anim. Behav. Proc. 11, 241�260] study on pigeons in the radial maze sparked research on landmark use by pigeons in lab-based tasks as well

Cook, Robert

341

The role of artisanal and small-scale mining in China's economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last decades have seen increased international attention paid to a number of features of artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM). The beneficial roles of ASM in society and the economy in many countries, however, are often overlooked, while its negative impacts dominate official press coverage and scholarly publications of the sector. Through a review of the available literature and statistics,

Lei Shen; Aaron James Gunson

2006-01-01

342

Small-Scale Spatial Variability of Atrazine and Dinoseb Adsorption Parameters in an Alluvial Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil sorption processes largely control the environmental fate of herbicides. Th erefore, accuracy of sorption parameters is crucial for accurate prediction of herbicide mobility in agricultural soils. A combined experimental and statistical study was performed to investigate the small-scale spatial variability of sorption parameters for atrazine and dinoseb in soils and to establish the number of samples needed to provide

A. Mermoud; J. M. F. Martins; D. Zhang; A. C. Favre

2008-01-01

343

Small-scale entrepreneurs in the urban water and sanitation market  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: This paper describes the importance of small-scale private sector or NGO providers of water and sanitation in a great range of urban areas in Africa, Asia and Latin America. It in- cludes many examples of where - contrary to conventional wis- dom - they provide good quality, low-cost services. Without these operations, large sections of the South's urban populations,

Tova Maria Solo

1999-01-01

344

"It's Really Making a Difference": How Small-Scale Research Projects Can Enhance Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following an internal evaluation exercise, using Action Research, this paper identifies the positive impact of small-scale research projects on teaching and learning at a single case study UK University. Clear evidence is given of how the projects benefited students and staff, and enhanced institutional culture. Barriers to better practice are…

Dexter, Barbara; Seden, Roy

2012-01-01

345

Small scales, many species and the manifold challenges of turbulent combustion  

E-print Network

Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA tools, and well short of what has been achieved in other disciplines, such as solid mechanics and fluid are posed by the small scales, the many chemical species involved in hydrocarbon combustion, and the coupled

346

Waalbot: An Agile Small-Scale Wall-Climbing Robot Utilizing Dry Elastomer Adhesives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a small-scale agile wall-climbing robot, which is able to climb on smooth vertical surfaces using flat adhesive elastomer materials for attachment. Using two actuated legs with rotary motion and two passive revolute joints at each foot, this robot can climb and steer in any orientation. Due to its compact design, a high degree of miniaturization is possible.

Michael P. Murphy; Metin Sitti

2007-01-01

347

Waalbot: An Agile Small-Scale Wall Climbing Robot Utilizing Pressure Sensitive Adhesives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a small-scale agile wall climb- ing robot able to navigate on smooth surfaces of any orientation, including vertical and inverted surfaces, which uses adhesive elastomer materials for attachment. Using two actuated legs with rotary motion and two passive revolute joints at each foot the robot can climb and steer in any orientation. Due to its compact design,

Michael P. Murphy; William Tso; Michael Tanzini; Metin Sitti

2006-01-01

348

The treatment of domestic wastewater using small-scale vermicompost filter beds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to quantify the effect of filter bed depth and solid waste inputs on the performance of small-scale vermicompost filter beds that treat the soluble contaminants within domestic wastewater. The study also aims to identify environmental conditions within the filters by quantifying the oxygen content and pH of wastewater held within it. Vermicompost is being

M Taylor; W. P Clarke; P. F Greenfield

2003-01-01

349

Grassland community composition drives small-scale spatial patterns in soil properties and processes  

E-print Network

Grassland community composition drives small-scale spatial patterns in soil properties. At the landscape scale, plant community composition exerts a strong control over long-term soil genesis (Jenny plants can affect soil resource availability and microbial processes, and can influence the spatial scale

350

DESIGN OF RAPID SMALL-SCALE ADSORPTION TESTS FOR A CONSTANT DIFFUSIVITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The rapid small-scale column test (RSSCT), a physical model of a fixed bed, was developed and evaluated experimentally to simulate full-scale adsorber performance. The RSSCT can simulate months of full-scale adsorber operation in several days; however, some isotherms and kinetic ...

351

ORIGINAL PAPER Causes for the small scale variability of nitrate concentration  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Causes for the small scale variability of nitrate concentration in seepage water-Verlag France 2012 Abstract & Context In N-saturated forests nitrate concentrations in seepage water (NO3 Ã? of net N mineralization in the organic layer is decisive for the nitrate production in the soil. Roots

Boyer, Edmond

352

Vascular plants and small-scale spatial heterogeneity in semi-natural grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abiotic factors such as variation in micro topography, soil properties, light and microsite composition can create small-scale heterogeneity and influence plant assemblages. Apart from abiotic factors many biotic sources can increase heterogeneity. Factors such as grazing, ant mounds, spiny and unpalatable plants, trees and shrubs have strong influences on plant communities. Grazing animals can significantly influence grassland heterogeneity by

Aina Pihlgren

2005-01-01

353

Measurement of Small-Scale CMB Anisotropy with the Viper Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viper is a 2-meter off-axis telescope designed to measure small-scale anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. The spatial sensitivity of this instrument (50 < l < 800) was chosen to provide maximum discrimination between competing cosmological models. We present data taken with a 40 GHz HEMT receiver at Amundsen-Scott Station, Antarctica, and discuss future applications of the instrument.

Griffin, G.; Peterson, J.; Newcomb, M.; Alvarez, D.; Cantalupo, C.; Morgan, D.; Vincent, M.; Miller, K.

1998-05-01

354

Development of 3D Vision Enabled Small-scale Autonomous Helicopter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of vision based autonomous helicopter at Chiba University. The platform is designed to enable autonomous flight of a small-scale helicopter in unstructured environment. 3D vision system is chosen for the perception and measurement purpose. The whole system is designed with the consideration of payload, hardware availability, and software performance. The hardware is built with COTS

Zhenyu Yu; Demian Celestino; Kenzo Nonami

2006-01-01

355

Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering Fall 2011 Small Scale Anaerobic Digestion by PENERGY Solutions  

E-print Network

as a model for potential use on small farms to benefit food production, both on plants and animals. This would provide a means for owners of small-scale and hobby farms to produce valuable food products: A mechanical anaerobic digester to handle organic farm waste. A complete biogas collection system with hook

Demirel, Melik C.

356

Small-scale magnetic buoyancy and magnetic pumping effects in a turbulent convection  

E-print Network

We determine the nonlinear drift velocities of the mean magnetic field and nonlinear turbulent magnetic diffusion in a turbulent convection. We show that the nonlinear drift velocities are caused by the three kinds of the inhomogeneities, i.e., inhomogeneous turbulence; the nonuniform fluid density and the nonuniform turbulent heat flux. The inhomogeneous turbulence results in the well-known turbulent diamagnetic and paramagnetic velocities. The nonlinear drift velocities of the mean magnetic field cause the small-scale magnetic buoyancy and magnetic pumping effects in the turbulent convection. These phenomena are different from the large-scale magnetic buoyancy and magnetic pumping effects which are due to the effect of the mean magnetic field on the large-scale density stratified fluid flow. The small-scale magnetic buoyancy and magnetic pumping can be stronger than these large-scale effects when the mean magnetic field is smaller than the equipartition field. We discuss the small-scale magnetic buoyancy and magnetic pumping effects in the context of the solar and stellar turbulent convection. We demonstrate also that the nonlinear turbulent magnetic diffusion in the turbulent convection is anisotropic even for a weak mean magnetic field. In particular, it is enhanced in the radial direction. The magnetic fluctuations due to the small-scale dynamo increase the turbulent magnetic diffusion of the toroidal component of the mean magnetic field, while they do not affect the turbulent magnetic diffusion of the poloidal field.

I. Rogachevskii; N. Kleeorin

2006-05-18

357

Small-scale response of plant species to land-use intensification1 ric Fdoroff  

E-print Network

1 Small-scale response of plant species to land-use intensification1 2 �ric Fédoroff a , Jean, Departamento de12 Ciencias Ambientales, 45071 Toledo, Spain13 14 Abstract15 Plant communities are affected by land-use and landscape heterogeneity and can be used as16 indicators of environmental change. At small

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

358

Big Science, Small Scale Western University has made significant investments in nanotechnology  

E-print Network

Big Science, Small Scale Western University has made significant investments in nanotechnology in materials and biomaterials. Nanotechnology is poised to revolutionize and advance many vital sectors in nanotechnology and photonics · Houses state-of-the-art instruments, with tools for SEM capabilities and focused

Denham, Graham

359

Vulnerability and household livelihoods in small scale fishing areas in Africa: An asset-based approach  

E-print Network

vulnerability to poverty and livelihood choices in small-scale fishing areas. The use of an asset is affected by low expected income (structural poverty), while other households are found to be transiently, to the contrary, mainly require policies that protect them from negative income shocks. Key words: Vulnerability

Krivobokova, Tatyana

360

Optimization strategy for a small-scale reverse osmosis water desalination system based on solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimization strategy for the design and operation of a small-scale solar-powered reverse osmosis desalination system is presented. It has been analyzed and optimized with regard to power needs and energy consumption. Both quantities scale linearly with the concentration of the total dissolved salt (TDS) concentration in the feed solution. The desalination of brackish water at a TDS value of

H. M. Laborde; K. B. França; H. Neff; A. M. N. Lima

2001-01-01

361

Small-scale brine inflow experiments: Data report through June 6, 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventeen small-scale brine inflow experiment boreholes have been and are currently being monitored for brine accumulation. All of the boreholes were drilled from underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM. Experiments are ongoing in Room D, Room L4, and the Q access drift in the WIPP underground. The boreholes range from approximately 5 to 90

S. J. Finley; D. J. Hanson; R. Parsons

1992-01-01

362

Few data but many fish: marine small-scale fisheries catches for Mozambique and Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fisheries data supplied to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) by national agencies have served as the primary tool for many global and regional studies. However, it is recognised that these data are incomplete and often underestimate actual catches, particularly for small-scale fisheries. This study reconstructed total marine fisheries catches from 1950 to 2005 for

J Jacquet; H Fox; H Motta; A Ngusaru; D Zeller

2010-01-01

363

FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF SMALL-SCALE FORESTS IN THE AMU DARYA LOWLANDS OF RURAL UZBEKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The establishment of forests on small-scale marginal lands in the Amu Darya Lowlands in Uzbekistan is an alternative use of land abandoned from cropping. Over four consecutive years biomass data were collected from Elaeagnus angustifolia, Ulmus pumila, and Populus euphratica plantings and complemented with data of mature trees (15–20 years) growing naturally on marginal land. These formed the basis for

JOHN P. A. LAMERS; IHTIYOR BOBOJONOV; ASIA KHAMZINA; JENNIFER S. FRANZ

2008-01-01

364

Small-Scale Bullying Prevention Discussion Video for Classrooms: A Preliminary Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bullying has been shown to be negatively related to both academic performance and attendance among students. The present study examined a small-scale bullying intervention using a video-discussion model. Eighty-one students in grades 4 through 6 completed pre- and posttests examining gains in knowledge of bullying and responses to it. Results…

Migliaccio, Todd; Raskauskas, Juliana

2013-01-01

365

Performance Assessment of Micro and Small-Scale Wind Turbines in Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses some general issues related to the difficulties and uncertainties during the assessment and characterization of micro and small-scale wind-based generation in urban areas. This paper proposes four generic wind turbine models, which could be used for the analysis and selection of optimal wind turbines in target applications, as they accurately represent the range of wind turbines currently

Jorge L. Acosta; Kevin Combe; Saša Ž Djokic; Ignacio Hernando-Gil

2012-01-01

366

10January 1998 Small-Scale Gasification-Based Biomass Power Generation  

E-print Network

10January 1998 I Small-Scale Gasification-Based Biomass Power Generation Eric D. Larson Centerfor are the technologies of choice today for gasification-based power generationfrom biomass(Fig. I). Fuel cells and micro during gasification of raw biomass. Condensationof tars on downstream equipment causessystem operating

367

Robust Control for Longitudinal and Lateral Dynamics of Small Scale Tushar K. Roy1  

E-print Network

Robust Control for Longitudinal and Lateral Dynamics of Small Scale Helicopter Tushar K. Roy1 , Hemanshu R. Pota2 , Matt Garratt2 and Hamid Teimoori2 1,2 School of Engineering and Information Technology autonomous helicopter (UAH) in a gusty environment is considered. The controller design is based on generic

Pota, Himanshu Roy

368

Nanoflares, Spicules, and Other Small-Scale Dynamic Phenomena on the Sun  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is abundant evidence of highly dynamic phenomena occurring on very small scales in the solar atmosphere. For example, the observed pr operties of many coronal loops can only be explained if the loops are bundles of unresolved strands that are heated impulsively by nanoflares. Type II spicules recently discovered by Hinode are an example of small-scale impulsive events occurring in the chromosphere. The exist ence of these and other small-scale phenomena is not surprising given the highly structured nature of the magnetic field that is revealed by photospheric observations. Dynamic phenomena also occur on much lar ger scales, including coronal jets, flares, and CMEs. It is tempting to suggest that these different phenomena are all closely related and represent a continuous distribution of sizes and energies. However, this is a dangerous over simplification in my opinion. While it is tru e that the phenomena all involve "magnetic reconnection" (the changin g of field line connectivity) in some form, how this occurs depends s trongly on the magnetic geometry. A nanoflare resulting from the interaction of tangled magnetic strands within a confined coronal loop is much different from a major flare occurring at the current sheet form ed when a CME rips open an active region. I will review the evidence for ubiquitous small-scale dynamic phenomena on the Sun and discuss wh y different phenomena are not all fundamentally the same.

Klimchuk, James

2010-01-01

369

Electrode displacement measurement dynamics in monitoring of small scale resistance spot welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-scale resistance spot welding (SSRSW) process is widely used in medical and electronic devices manufacturing, where it is used to join thin foils and fine wires. Although tremendous work has been focused on traditional RSW process monitoring and control, SSRSW has received less attention, one reason being the process variables that are used in monitoring and control are very small

J Z Chen; D F Farson

2004-01-01

370

A study of dynamic resistance during small scale resistance spot welding of thin Ni sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic resistance has been investigated during small scale resistance spot welding (SSRSW) of Ni sheets. Electrical measurements have been correlated with scanning electron microscope images of joint development. The results show that the dynamic resistance curve can be divided into the following stages based on physical change in the workpieces: asperity heating, surface breakdown, asperity softening, partial surface melting,

W. Tan; Y. Zhou; H. W. Kerr; S. Lawson

2004-01-01

371

A Small-Scale Voting Protocol Hiding Vote-Counts of All Candidates  

E-print Network

1 A Small-Scale Voting Protocol Hiding Vote-Counts of All Candidates Pei-yih Ting and Po-Yueh Hung voting protocol used at critical elections, e.g. at the meeting of the board of a company for critical is limited to several hundreds but the voting should satisfy a new privacy requirement that the accumulated

372

Selective harvesting by small-scale sheries: ecosystem analysis of San Miguel Bay, Philippines  

E-print Network

Selective harvesting by small-scale ®sheries: ecosystem analysis of San Miguel Bay, Philippines September 2000 Abstract San Miguel Bay is a large embayment along the Paci®c coast of southeast Luzon, Philippines. The estuarine ecosystem therein is described through a mass-balance model that includes 16

Pauly, Daniel

373

Unit-Credit Titles under Program Headings, Directory. Technology Education: Vocational Industrial, Industrial Arts, Home Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory lists the unit-credit titles of the technology education courses offered in Manitoba, along with their corresponding department codes and course numbers. Sections A through C list the unit-credit titles of the following vocational-industrial clusters: heavy industrial (agriculture, auto body repair, building construction, building…

Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg. Curriculum Services Branch.

374

Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments, FY 1997  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. A fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrates on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support. Assessments of materials needs and opportunities in the process industries are an on-going effort within the program. These assessments are being used for program planning and priority setting, followed by support of work to satisfy those needs. All the industries have identified materials as critical, particularly for high-temperature strength, corrosion resistance, and wear resistance. Also important from the energy efficiency viewpoint are membranes, catalytic membranes, and reactors for separations, both for processing and waste reduction. AIM focuses, therefore, on high-temperature materials, corrosion resistant materials, wear resistant materials, strong polymers, coatings, and membrane materials for industrial applications.

NONE

1998-05-01

375

Twelve Years of Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Characteristics, 1989-2000: Small Scale Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Lightning Detection Network recorded over 250 million cloud-to-ground lightning flashes from 1989 to 2000. Analysis of lightning flash density and polarity reveal significant small-scale geographical variations. These variations can occur as broad trends over several hundred kilometers, or as sharp contrasts over as little as a few kilometers. This study focuses on four regions of the United States: the Pacific Coast, Rocky Mountains, Appalachian Mountains, and the Houston Metropolitan area. In the Pacific Coastal region, an interesting geographical variation is found in the percentage of positive lightning. A higher than normal percentage of positive lightning discharges (up to five times the national average) dominates the coastline, but drastically decreases about a hundred kilometers inland. In the Rocky and Appalachian Mountains, observations of lightning flash density reveal two distinct and opposite patterns, despite similar terrain. Although located at about the same latitude, the southern Rockies display a significant increase in flash density over regions of high terrain, while the southern Appalachians show a significant decrease in flash density as elevations increase. Further analysis shows that the pattern in the Southern Rockies is a result of a large number of days with low flash counts, while the pattern in the Appalachians results from a few large events. The top 5 percent of lightning producing days accounted for 28.6 percent of all flashes in the high terrain of Rockies, but 56.9 percent of the total flashes in the Appalachians. Our final area of research concerns the lightning enhancement over the Houston, TX region. Fine scale analysis of this area suggests two leading hypotheses to explain this phenomenon. The first explanation is that the complex coastline of Galveston Bay in combination with the urban heat island alters the wind flow in the Houston area, initiating new thunderstorms directly over the city. The second possibility is that pollutants from an industrial city like Houston can act to increase the electrical charge separation processes within storms. The culmination of these three studies will lead to a better understanding of lightning, one of nature's most incredible displays of power.

Ely, B. L.; Steiger, S. M.; Phillips, S. E.; Orville, R. E.; Huffines, G. R.

2001-12-01

376

An Examination of Aspect-Oriented Programming in Industry  

E-print Network

................................................................................................................. 3 2 Motivation and Uses for Aspect-Oriented Programming........................................... 5 ........................................................................................ 16 4.1.1 How Aspect-Oriented Programming Affects Structural Complexity....... 18 4.1.2 How Aspect-Oriented Programming Affects Cognitive Complexity....... 21 4.2 Software Correctness

Alexander, Roger T.

377

Perceived Value of Industrial Arts Teacher Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the methodology and findings of a survey to determine the extent to which industrial arts teachers in Alberta, Canada, feel they are adequately prepared to teach in various technical areas at the junior and senior high levels. (Editor)

Ross, Campbell J.; Young, Darius R.

1977-01-01

378

New framework for analyzing the effects of small scale inhomogeneities in cosmology  

SciTech Connect

We develop a new, mathematically precise framework for treating the effects of nonlinear phenomena occurring on small scales in general relativity. Our approach is an adaptation of Burnett's formulation of the shortwave approximation, which we generalize to analyze the effects of matter inhomogeneities as well as gravitational radiation. Our framework requires the metric to be close to a background metric, but allows arbitrarily large stress-energy fluctuations on small scales. We prove that, within our framework, if the matter stress-energy tensor satisfies the weak energy condition (i.e., positivity of energy density in all frames), then the only effect that small-scale inhomogeneities can have on the dynamics of the background metric is to provide an effective stress-energy tensor that is traceless and has positive energy density-corresponding to the presence of gravitational radiation. In particular, nonlinear effects produced by small-scale inhomogeneities cannot mimic the effects of dark energy. We also develop perturbation theory off of the background metric. We derive an equation for the long-wavelength part of the leading order deviation of the metric from the background metric, which contains the usual terms occurring in linearized perturbation theory plus additional contributions from the small-scale inhomogeneities. Under various assumptions concerning the absence of gravitational radiation and the nonrelativistic behavior of the matter, we argue that the short-wavelength deviations of the metric from the background metric near a point x should be accurately described by Newtonian gravity, taking into account only the matter lying within a homogeneity length scale of x. Finally, we argue that our framework should provide an accurate description of the actual universe.

Green, Stephen R.; Wald, Robert M. [Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2011-04-15

379

New framework for analyzing the effects of small scale inhomogeneities in cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a new, mathematically precise framework for treating the effects of nonlinear phenomena occurring on small scales in general relativity. Our approach is an adaptation of Burnett’s formulation of the shortwave approximation, which we generalize to analyze the effects of matter inhomogeneities as well as gravitational radiation. Our framework requires the metric to be close to a background metric, but allows arbitrarily large stress-energy fluctuations on small scales. We prove that, within our framework, if the matter stress-energy tensor satisfies the weak energy condition (i.e., positivity of energy density in all frames), then the only effect that small-scale inhomogeneities can have on the dynamics of the background metric is to provide an effective stress-energy tensor that is traceless and has positive energy density—corresponding to the presence of gravitational radiation. In particular, nonlinear effects produced by small-scale inhomogeneities cannot mimic the effects of dark energy. We also develop perturbation theory off of the background metric. We derive an equation for the long-wavelength part of the leading order deviation of the metric from the background metric, which contains the usual terms occurring in linearized perturbation theory plus additional contributions from the small-scale inhomogeneities. Under various assumptions concerning the absence of gravitational radiation and the nonrelativistic behavior of the matter, we argue that the short-wavelength deviations of the metric from the background metric near a point x should be accurately described by Newtonian gravity, taking into account only the matter lying within a homogeneity length scale of x. Finally, we argue that our framework should provide an accurate description of the actual universe.

Green, Stephen R.; Wald, Robert M.

2011-04-01

380

Deciphering the V-Chip: An Examination of the Television Industry's Program Rating Judgments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the validity of the television industry's labeling of sensitive program content following the advent of the V-chip television ratings system. The analysis is based on a large program sample gathered from 10 of the most fre- quently viewed channels including broadcast network, independent broadcast, basic cable, and premium cable channels. Programs were examined for the na- ture

Dale Kunkel; Wendy Jo Maynard Farinola; Kirstie Farrar; Edward Donnerstein; Erica Biely; Lara Zwarun

2002-01-01

381

An Empirical Study of the Challenges Facing Hospitality Master's Programs: a Hotel Industry Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

As master's-level hospitality programs continue to grow in size and number, concerns still remain over the acceptability and recognition of such programs by the hotel industry. In order to understand the challenges faced by these programs, it was considered appropriate to conduct an empirical investigation that would reveal the gap between perceptions of corporate hotel executives and master's level hospitality

Jayshree Ramakrishna; Eddystone C. Nebel

1996-01-01

382

Evaluation of the Industrial Maintenance Program at Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1982-83, a study was conducted at Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute to determine whether the objectives of the Industrial Maintenance Program were being met, to measure program success, and to identify aspects needing improvement. Surveys were sent to 30 students who graduated from the program before 1978, yielding a 57%…

Pipes, V. David

383

Implementing and managing a DSM program: Central Hudson`s dollar $avers commercial/industrial rebate program  

SciTech Connect

Demand-Side Management (DSM) program managers at utilities throughout the United States are faced with the challenge of achieving DSM goals while minimizing program costs in order to mitigate rate impacts. Many utilities are also allowed to earn a shareholder equity incentive based upon the cost effectiveness of DSM programs (shared savings type incentive). Program goals must be achieved in a market which is constantly evolving. This paper presents Central Hudson Gas & Electric Corporations`s experience over the past 4 years implementing and managing a commercial industrial (C/I) efficient lighting rebate program which has been marketed as the Dollar $avers Lighting rebate program.

Voltz, M.F.

1996-01-01

384

Energy-Efficiency Retrofits in Small-Scale Multifamily Rental Housing: A Business Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this thesis to develop a real estate investment model that creates a financial incentive for property owners to perform energy efficiency retrofits in small multifamily rental housing in southern New England. The medium for this argument is a business plan that is backed by a review of the literature and input from industry experts. In addition to industry expertise, the research covers four main areas: the context of green building, efficient building technologies, precedent programs, and the Providence, RI real estate market for the business plan. The thesis concludes that the model proposed can improve the profitability of real estate investment in small multifamily rental properties, though the extent to which this is possible depends partially on utility-run incentive programs and the capital available to invest in retrofit measures.

DeChambeau, Brian

385

78 FR 11996 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Commercial and Industrial Pumps  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The comment period for the notice of public meeting and availability of the Framework Document pertaining to the development of energy conservation standards for commercial and industrial pumps published on February 1, 2013, is extended to May 2,...

2013-02-21

386

Industry's voluntary program: Community Awareness and Emergency Response Program and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the chemical industry's Community Awareness and Emergency Response (CAER) Program, and voluntary and mandatory actions by the chemical industry to comply with the major environmental legislation. The chemical industry started the voluntary CAER Program soon after the Bhopal Disaster in 1984; it is coordinated through the Chemical Manufacturer's Association. This program, which began in March 1985, is a long-term industry commitment to develop a community outreach program and to improve local emergency response planning. The Congress of the United States began, in 1985, to consider proposals for mandatory programs. This led to enactment of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, known as SARA. A portion of this Act, entitled Title III is also known as the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act. Although this legislation has many mandatory requirements, it should be emphasized that a significant degree of voluntary industrial participation is needed if the purposes of the statute are to be achieved. Title III has created an intricate and still evolving system that ties together the EPA, industrial plant managers, state emergency response commissions, local emergency planning committees and fire departments with jurisdiction over the facility. Each of these groups has a different role and responsibilities but must work cooperatively with other participants. Because of the intricate network of participants, the magnitude of the information flow, and the continuing evolution of the system, unique public relations problems exist in order to comply with Title III.

Cooper, J.S. (Hill and Knowlton Public Affairs Worldwide, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-10-01

387

Living on the Margin: The Poverty-Vulnerability Nexus in the Small-Scale Fisheries of Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter examines the relationship between poverty and vulnerability in small-scale fisheries of Bangladesh. For this\\u000a purpose, data were collected in three coastal fishing communities. The results show that in small-scale fisheries, poverty\\u000a is a complex issue, with a wide array of causal factors in effect. Small-scale fishers’ livelihoods are threatened by: low\\u000a productivity of fisheries and high dependency on

Mohammad Mahmudul Islam

388

Energy Efficiency Programs for Small and Medium Sized Industry  

E-print Network

) value brief review of the 2000 Annual Energy Outlook of shipments. This ratio gradually rose from 3.84 in (A EO)(EIA 1999). 1985 to 3.8& in 19&8, and then to 3.97 in 1991 (EIA 1997). Between 1985 and 1994, the manufacturing The DOE's annual forecast... in the treatment, but the point is worth noting. 51 ESL-IE-01-05-08 Proceedings from the Twenty-third National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, May 1-4, 2001 Annual Energy Outlook 1999. Energy consumption in the industrial sector...

Shipley, A. M.; Elliott, R. N.

389

Advanced Sensor Development Program for the Pulp and Paper Industry. Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A program is described for the development of measurement science and technology for on-line measurement of process variables in the pulp and paper industry. Four research projects are currently in progress; (1) combustion control sensor, (2) pulp consist...

1984-01-01

390

76 FR 56125 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EERE-2011-BT-STD-0047] RIN 1904-AC56 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products...Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,...

2011-09-12

391

2012/2013 Race Track Industry Program Section A. All students must complete following courses.  

E-print Network

sessions. #12;Department of Anima Sciences l 2012/2013 Bachelor of Science Degree Program Student to the Animal Racing Industry 2 units F ________ AN S 270 Introductory Horse Science 3 units F ________ AN S 301

Guerriero, Vince

392

75 FR 41845 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Decision and Order...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Energy Conservation Program for Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Decision...Corporation From the Department of Energy Commercial Package Air Conditioner and Heat Pump...existing DOE test procedures applicable to commercial package air-source and...

2010-07-19

393

78 FR 49202 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Proposed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Conservation Program for Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Proposed Determination of Natural Draft Commercial Packaged Boilers as Covered Equipment...to determine that natural draft commercial packaged boilers meet the...

2013-08-13

394

76 FR 28099 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office, National...discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES...ADDRESSES: Hilton Riverside Hotel, Two Poydras Street, Belle...submitted to the Information Security Oversight Office (ISOO)...

2011-05-13

395

An investigation of a professional development program using industry partnerships and student achievement  

E-print Network

This investigation examined the impact on student achievement of teachers who participated in a professional development program using industry partnerships. One treatment and one non-treatment school in a large urban school district served...

Sullivan, Helen Grace

2008-10-10

396

New 3E Plus Computer Program- A Tool for Improving Industrial Energy Efficiency  

E-print Network

The task of determining how much insulation is necessary in the US industrial and manufacturing sector to save money, use less energy, reduce plant emissions and improve process efficiency has been greatly simplified thanks to a software program...

Brayman, N. J.

397

The Role of Industry in Minority Engineering Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Until recently, U.S. engineering education and American industry drew candidates from only about 43 percent of the potential market--white males. Many segments of American business, education, and government have been involved in a process to increase minority participation in engineering; the 1974 freshmen engineering enrollment for women…

Branigan, Thomas L.

398

Teaching Resource Recovery in Industrial Arts. Resource Recovery Education Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, one component of the Resource Recovery Education Kit (See SO 007 866 for a description), contains ideas and activities for teaching about solid waste disposal in secondary level industrial arts classes. Among the course objectives are the following: (1) to understand that litter represents a small but highly visible portion of our…

National Center for Resource Recovery, Inc., Washington, DC.

399

Rebate programs available to the pulp and paper industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy consumption by pulp and paper mills in North America represents a large percentage of the total electrical energy consumption of industrial plants. There are several new technologies available to make it possible to save energy. Current information indicates that few businesses are taking advantage of these technology advancements. With the addition of electric utility rebates, businesses have an added

D. A. Lanser

1994-01-01

400

Weaving Close Bonds: The TFE Georgia Tech Industry Student Mentoring Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TFE mentoring program offers the industry an opportunity to be directly involved with the education of undergraduate engineering students at Georgia Tech through one-on-one guided mentoring experiences. Not only do these mentors offer advice and guidance in matters pertaining to the industry, they are also involved in shaping the individual student's curricula and extracurricular choices. This paper will discuss

Joseph Hoey; Meredith Frazer

401

Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program Compilation of Project Summaries and Significant Accomplishments FY 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past 10 years the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) has supported development of new and improved materials to enable U.S. industry to improve energy efficiency, increase productivity, and reduce waste. It has been a National Laboratory based program, with work currently under way at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories, in collaboration with

Angelini

2000-01-01

402

Energy Incentives and Programs Available to the Pulp & Paper Industry PPIC 2006 Panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This panel discusses energy incentives, strategies and programs available to the pulp and paper industry from motors to corporate management. At the process level, US Department of Energy surveys indicate that within process industries, electric usage by motors and drives accounts for as much as two-thirds of all electric usage. By adopting best practices, electric usage for motor driven equipment

J. Malinowski; J. Aue; J. Medo; W. Tunnessen

2006-01-01

403

A study of the educational outcomes of the teacher-in-industry program  

E-print Network

A STUDY OF THE EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES OF THE TEACHER-IN-INDUSTRY PROGRAM A Thesis by TERI FLYNN METCALF Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Educational Curriculum &, Instruction A STUDY OF THE EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES OF THE TEACHER-IN-INDUSTRY PROGRAM A Thesis by TERI FLYNN METCALF Approved as to style and content by: Robert (Chair of James mmittee...

Metcalf, Teri Flynn

2012-06-07

404

International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-SettingPrograms  

SciTech Connect

Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.

Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

2008-02-02

405

Magnetic Field Tunable Small-scale Mechanical Properties of Nickel Single Crystals Measured by Nanoindentation Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano- and micromagnetic materials have been extensively employed in micro-functional devices. However, measuring small-scale mechanical and magnetomechanical properties is challenging, which restricts the design of new products and the performance of smart devices. A new magnetomechanical nanoindentation technique is developed and tested on a nickel single crystal in the absence and presence of a saturated magnetic field. Small-scale parameters such as Young's modulus, indentation hardness, and plastic index are dependent on the applied magnetic field, which differ greatly from their macroscale counterparts. Possible mechanisms that induced 31% increase in modulus and 7% reduction in hardness (i.e., the flexomagnetic effect and the interaction between dislocations and magnetic field, respectively) are analyzed and discussed. Results could be useful in the microminiaturization of applications, such as tunable mechanical resonators and magnetic field sensors.

Zhou, Hao; Pei, Yongmao; Fang, Daining

2014-04-01

406

Numerical simulation of the interaction between solar granules and small-scale magnetic fields  

E-print Network

We have carried out numerical simulation based on the equations of radiation magnetohydrodynamics to study the interaction of solar granules and small-scale magnetic fields in photospheric regions with various magnetic fluxes. Four sequences of 2D time-dependent models were calculated for photospheric regions with average vertical magnetic fluxes of 0, 10, 20, and 30 mT. The models exhibit no substantial variations in their temperature structure with varying average field strength, while the density and gas pressure profiles display gross changes. The solar granulation brightness field also varies substantially with magnetic flux. The contribution of the small-scale component to the intensity power spectrum increases with average field strength, whereas the large-scale component (of about a granule size) contributes less, the total rms intensity fluctuations being approximately the same. Thus the observed decrease in rms intensity fluctuations with growing average magnetic flux can be interpreted as smoothing...

Atroshchenko, I N

2010-01-01

407

Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are examined. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. Additional sections cover acquisition; liability; Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection; energy utilities; local regulations; incidental impacts; financial considerations; and sources of information. In Kentucky, many of the impacts have not been implemented with regard to small-scale hydroelectric energy, since in Kentucky most electricity is coal-generated and any hydroelectric power that does exist, is derived from TVA or the Army Corp of Engineer projects.

None,

1980-05-01

408

Influence of small-scale heterogeneities on contaminant transport in fractured crystalline rock.  

PubMed

We present a sequence of purely advective transport models that demonstrate the influence of small-scale geometric inhomogeneities on contaminant transport in fractured crystalline rock. Special weight is placed on the role of statistically generated variable fracture apertures. The fracture network geometry and the aperture distribution are based on information from an in situ radionuclide retardation experiment performed at Grimsel test site (Swiss Alps). The obtained breakthrough curves are fitted with the advection dispersion equation and continuous-time random walks (CTRW). CTRW is found to provide superior fits to the late-arrival tailing and is also found to show a good correlation with the velocity distributions obtained from the hydraulic models. The impact of small-scale heterogeneities, both in fracture geometry and aperture, on transport is shown to be considerable. PMID:16961491

Mettier, Ralph; Kosakowski, Georg; Kolditz, Olaf

2006-01-01

409

The Small-Scale Dynamo and Non-Ideal MHD in Primordial Star Formation  

E-print Network

We study the amplification of magnetic fields during the formation of primordial halos. The turbulence generated by gravitational infall motions during the formation of the first stars and galaxies can amplify magnetic fields very efficiently and on short timescales up to dynamically significant values. Using the Kazantsev theory, which describes the so-called small-scale dynamo - a magnetohydrodynamical process converting kinetic energy from turbulence into magnetic energy - we can then calculate the growth rate of the small-scale magnetic field. Our calculations are based on a detailed chemical network and we include non-ideal magnetohydrodynamical effects such as ambipolar diffusion and Ohmic dissipation. We follow the evolution of the magnetic field up to larger scales until saturation occurs on the Jeans scale. Assuming a weak magnetic seed field generated by the Biermann battery process, both Burgers and Kolmogorov turbulence lead to saturation within a rather small density range. Such fields are likely...

Schober, Jennifer; Federrath, Christoph; Glover, Simon; Klessen, Ralf; Banerjee, Robi

2012-01-01

410

Several small-scale vector array performance analysis and simulation of DOA estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To research the application and estimate performance in some small-scale vector sensor array by traditional direction of arrival estimate , we derivate the time delay expression of four small-scale non-uniform vector sensor array, the array direction vector is given, and the MUSIC algorithm is applied successfully to non-uniform vector array for direction of arrival(DOA) estimate, select the better performance of each array element setting method, and compare of beam forming, the probability of success and the mean square error, this shows that the performance of line array is best, followed by L-array and circular array, the performance of cross-array is worst.

Mei, Yinzhen

2011-10-01

411

Small-scale disequilibrium in a magmatic inclusion and its more silicic host  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation of small-scale isotopic, compositional, and mineralogical variation across the interface of a basaltic-andesite inclusion and its dacitic host from Cerro-Chascon, a Holocene dome in northern Chile, is discussed. Serial sectioning across the interface of the inclusion and its host dacite, complemented by microdrill sampling and detailed microprobe work, has enabled an examination of the scale of mixing and chemical disequilibrium. The composition of the inclusion is found to be relatively homogeneous; the dacite host is heterogeneous on a small scale; the isotopic composition in the marginal zone shows the highest Sr-87/Sr-86 and lowest Nd-143/Nd-144; the large plagioclase crystals in the inclusions and host are xenocrystic. These differences are reconciled with a model of magma evolution in a crustal magma chamber.

Davidson, Jon P.; Holden, Peter; Halliday, Alex N.; De Silva, Shanaka L.

1990-01-01

412

Prevalence of small-scale jets from the networks of the solar transition region and chromosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the interface between the Sun’s photosphere and corona, the chromosphere and transition region play a key role in the formation and acceleration of the solar wind. Observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph reveal the prevalence of intermittent small-scale jets with speeds of 80 to 250 kilometers per second from the narrow bright network lanes of this interface region. These jets have lifetimes of 20 to 80 seconds and widths of ?300 kilometers. They originate from small-scale bright regions, often preceded by footpoint brightenings and accompanied by transverse waves with amplitudes of ~20 kilometers per second. Many jets reach temperatures of at least ~105 kelvin and constitute an important element of the transition region structures. They are likely an intermittent but persistent source of mass and energy for the solar wind.

Tian, H.; DeLuca, E. E.; Cranmer, S. R.; De Pontieu, B.; Peter, H.; Martínez-Sykora, J.; Golub, L.; McKillop, S.; Reeves, K. K.; Miralles, M. P.; McCauley, P.; Saar, S.; Testa, P.; Weber, M.; Murphy, N.; Lemen, J.; Title, A.; Boerner, P.; Hurlburt, N.; Tarbell, T. D.; Wuelser, J. P.; Kleint, L.; Kankelborg, C.; Jaeggli, S.; Carlsson, M.; Hansteen, V.; McIntosh, S. W.

2014-10-01

413

Water over the dam: a small scale hydro workbook for Colorado  

SciTech Connect

This manual is for individuals interested in developing small scale hydropower sites in Colorado. Although small scale hydro is sometimes defined as power production up to 80 megawatts, most developers using this handbook will have projects ranging from 10 kilowatts to 20 megawatts. No information is provided in this handbook about constructing new storage or diversion structures on the assumption that the sites to be developed involve existing dams or minor diversion projects. Topics covered include: who should develop the site, feasibility, water law, permits and licenses, environmental effects, sale and purchase of power, financing, taxation, and equipment selection and consumer protection. Included in appendices are: municipal options for public/private development of hydropower, engineering and manufacturing firms, hydropower, engineering and manufacturing firms, state permitting details, federal permitting details, examples of managed areas requiring consultation, agency contacts, Colorado utility jurisdictions, and recommended avoided cost rates for small power production and cogeneration sale of power to Colorado regulated utilities. (MHR)

Not Available

1981-07-01

414

Prevalence of small-scale jets from the networks of the solar transition region and chromosphere.  

PubMed

As the interface between the Sun's photosphere and corona, the chromosphere and transition region play a key role in the formation and acceleration of the solar wind. Observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph reveal the prevalence of intermittent small-scale jets with speeds of 80 to 250 kilometers per second from the narrow bright network lanes of this interface region. These jets have lifetimes of 20 to 80 seconds and widths of ?300 kilometers. They originate from small-scale bright regions, often preceded by footpoint brightenings and accompanied by transverse waves with amplitudes of ~20 kilometers per second. Many jets reach temperatures of at least ~10(5) kelvin and constitute an important element of the transition region structures. They are likely an intermittent but persistent source of mass and energy for the solar wind. PMID:25324395

Tian, H; DeLuca, E E; Cranmer, S R; De Pontieu, B; Peter, H; Martínez-Sykora, J; Golub, L; McKillop, S; Reeves, K K; Miralles, M P; McCauley, P; Saar, S; Testa, P; Weber, M; Murphy, N; Lemen, J; Title, A; Boerner, P; Hurlburt, N; Tarbell, T D; Wuelser, J P; Kleint, L; Kankelborg, C; Jaeggli, S; Carlsson, M; Hansteen, V; McIntosh, S W

2014-10-17

415

Models for small-scale structure of cosmic strings: Mathematical formalism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the formalism of a quantitative analytic model for the evolution of realistic wiggly (as opposed to Goto-Nambu) cosmic strings. The model is particularly suited for describing the evolution of small-scale structure on string networks. We discuss model solutions in the extreme limit where the wiggles make up a high fraction of the total energy of the string network (which physically corresponds to the tensionless limit) and also provide a brief discussion of the opposite (linear) limit where wiggles are a small fraction of the total energy. A companion paper will discuss the detailed modeling and scaling behavior of the small-scale wiggles in the general model, together with a basic comparison with numerical simulations.

Martins, C. J. A. P.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Vieira, J. P. P.

2014-08-01

416

Fractal Properties and Small-scale Structure of Cosmic String Networks  

E-print Network

We present results from a detailed numerical study of the small-scale and loop production properties of cosmic string networks, based on the largest and highest resolution string simulations to date. We investigate the non-trivial fractal properties of cosmic strings, in particular, the fractal dimension and renormalised string mass per unit length, and we also study velocity correlations. We demonstrate important differences between string networks in flat (Minkowski) spacetime and the two very similar expanding cases. For high resolution matter era network simulations, we provide strong evidence that small-scale structure has converged to `scaling' on all dynamical lengthscales, without the need for other radiative damping mechanisms. We also discuss preliminary evidence that the dominant loop production size is also approaching scaling.

C. J. A. P. Martins; E. P. S. Shellard

2005-11-29

417

Travel Reimbursements for Industry/University Cooperative Centers Program  

NSF Publications Database

... that EEC program officers gave preferential treatment to IUCRCs in return for travel reimbursements ... be viewed as biased or giving preferential treatment to IUCRCs in response to providing travel funds ...

418

Wind-water tunnel simulation of small-scale ocean-atomsphere interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various results obtained at the Institut de Mecanique Statistique de la Turbulence wind-water facility, where small-scale dynamic and thermodynamic air-sea exchange processes can be partially simulated, during the past 10 years are reviewed in the light of present ideas on ocean-atmosphere interactions. The object here is to draw conclusions on both the validity and the usefulness of such laboratory studies.

Michel Coantic; Alfred Ramamonijiarisoa; Patrice Mestayer; Fransois Resch; Alexandre Favre

1981-01-01

419

Design of a Small Scale High Temperature Gas Loop for Process Heat Exchanger Design Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

We designed a small scale gas loop that can simulate reference operating conditions, that is, a temperature up to 950 deg C and a pressure up to 6 MPa. Main objective of the loop is to screen the candidate process-heat-exchanger designs of a very small capacity of 10 â 20 kW. We arranged the components of a primary gas loop

Hong SungDeok; Oh DongSeok; Lee WonJae; Chang JongHwa

2006-01-01

420

Parameter comparison of two small-scale natural gas liquefaction processes in skid-mounted packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two typical types of small-scale natural gas liquefaction process in skid-mounted package were designed and simulated. The key parameters of the two processes were compared, and the matching of the heating and cooling curves in heat exchangers was also analyzed. The results show that the N2–CH4 expander cycle precedes the mixed-refrigerant cycle on the premise of lacking propane pre-cooling. Large

Wen-sheng Cao; Xue-sheng Lu; Wen-sheng Lin; An-zhong Gu

2006-01-01

421

Linking small-scale fisheries and aquaculture to household nutritional security: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-scale fisheries and aquaculture have been recognized as important opportunities to enhance household food security in\\u000a developing countries. While interventions aiming at promoting these activities reveal many positive effects, their direct\\u000a and indirect impacts on nutritional status have not yet been fully documented. The objective of this paper is to identify\\u000a more specifically the potential pathways that exist between fish-related

Nozomi Kawarazuka; Christophe Béné

2010-01-01

422

Experiment and modeling of a small-scale, supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on detailed experiment and modeling of a small-scale, supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser. The laser has a 5 cm long active medium and utilizes a simple sparger-type O2(1?) chemical generator and a medium-size pumping system. A grid nozzle is used for iodine injection and supersonic expansion. 25 W of cw laser emission at 1.315 µm are obtained in the

A. Elior; B. D. Barmashenko; E. Lebiush; S. Rosenwaks

1995-01-01

423

Technology demonstration for reducing mercury emissions from small-scale gold refining facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold that is brought from artisanal and small-scale gold mining areas to gold shops for processing and sale typically contains 5-40% mercury. The uncontrolled removal of the residual mercury in gold shops by using high-temperature evaporation can be a significant source of mercury emissions in urban areas where the shops are located. Emissions from gold shop hoods during a burn

L. J. Habegger; L. E. Fernandez; M. Engle; J. L. Bailey; D. P. Peterson; M. M. MacDonell

2008-01-01

424

The small-scale topology of a 2:1 aspect-ratio elliptic jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topology of the large-scale vortices and associated small-scale structures that together constitute the free shear layer of a subsonic 2:1 aspect-ratio elliptic jet is investigated by phase-averaged analyses of turbulent velocity signals. The range of Reynolds numbers is extended in this investigation from 4 x 10(exp 4) to 1.7 x 10(exp 5) based on nozzle hydraulic diameter and corresponds

Thomas Robert Austin

1993-01-01

425

Some tests on small-scale rectangular throat ejector. [thrust augmentation for V/STOL aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A small scale rectangular throat ejector with plane slot nozzles and a fixed throat area was tested to determine the effects of diffuser sidewall length, diffuser area ratio, and sidewall nozzle position on thrust and mass augmentation. The thrust augmentation ratio varied from approximately 0.9 to 1.1. Although the ejector did not have good thrust augmentation performance, the effects of the parameters studied are believed to indicate probable trends in thrust augmenting ejectors.

Dean, W. N., Jr.; Franke, M. E.

1979-01-01

426

Development of small-scale soft x-ray lasers: aspects of data interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widespread application of soft-x-ray laser technology is contingent on the development of small-scale soft- x-ray lasers that do not require large laser facilities. Progress in the development of soft-x-ray lasers that are pumped by a neodymium laser of energy 6-12 J is reported. Some aspects of data interpretation and gain mea- surements in such systems are discussed. The field

C. H. Skinner; D. Kim; D. Voorhees; S. Suckewer

1990-01-01

427

Impact of small-scale variability on airsea CO2 fluxes  

E-print Network

Impact of small-scale variability on air­sea CO2 fluxes R. Wanninkhof1 , G.-H. Park1,2 , D. B-mail: chelton@coas.oregonstate.edu; crisien@coas.oregonstate.edu Abstract. Global air-sea CO2 fluxes are commonly determined using the CO2 partial pressure difference between surface water and air (pCO2

Kurapov, Alexander

428

Prediciting Size Effects and Determing Length Scales in Small Scale Metaliic Volumes  

E-print Network

of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, Rashid K. Abu Al-Rub Committee Members, Xin-Lin Gao Eyad Masad Head of Department, John Niedzwecki May 2010 Major Subject: Civil Engineering iii ABSTRACT... Predicting Size Effects and Determining Length Scales in Small Scale Metallic Volumes. (May 2010) Abu Nayeem Md. Faruk, B.Sc., Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Rashid K. Abu Al-Rub The purpose...

Faruk, Abu N.

2011-08-08

429

Small-Scale Heterogeneity in Deep-Sea Nematode Communities around Biogenic Structures  

PubMed Central

The unexpected high species richness of deep-sea sediments gives rise to the questions, which processes produce and maintain diversity in the deep sea, and at what spatial scales do these processes operate? The idea of a small-scale habitat structure at the deep-sea floor provides the background for this study. At small scales biogenic structures create a heterogeneous environment that influences the structure of the surrounding communities and the dynamics of the meiobenthic populations. As an example for biogenic structures, small deep-sea sponges (Tentorium semisuberites Schmidt 1870) and their sedimentary environment were investigated for small-scale distribution patterns of benthic deep-sea nematodes. Sampling was carried out with the remotely operated vehicle Victor 6000 at the Arctic deep-sea observatory HAUSGARTEN. In order to investigate nematode community patterns sediment cores around three small sponges and corresponding control cores were analysed. A total of approx. 5800 nematodes were identified. The comparison of the nematode communities from sponge and control samples indicated an influence of the biogenic structure “sponge” on diversity patterns and habitat heterogeneity. The increased number of nematode species and functional groups found in the sediments around the sponges suggest that on a small scale the sponge acts as a gradient and creates a more divers habitat structure. The nematode community from the sponge sediments shows a greater taxonomic variance and species richness together with lower relative abundances of the species compared to those from control sediments. Obviously, the more homogeneous habitat conditions of the control sediments offer less micro-habitats than the sediments around the sponges. This seems to reduce the number of functional groups and species coexisting in the control sediments. PMID:22216193

Hasemann, Christiane; Soltwedel, Thomas

2011-01-01

430

Circular periodic motion of plasma produced by a small-scale vacuum arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small-scale plasma source based on a low-current vacuum arc is described. Temporal and spatial evolution of the ion current is measured. The plasma plume circular motion follows the cathode spot motion in the retrograde direction and is guided along the magnetic field line. It is observed that the applied magnetic field efficiently guide the plasma leading to an increase in the output ion current by a factor of 50 in comparison with that without the magnetic field.

Zhuang, T.; Shashurin, A.; Keidar, M.; Beilis, I. I.

2011-02-01

431

Concentrations of urinary pesticide metabolites in small-scale farmers in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our research goal was to assess exposure to currently used pesticides among small-scale male farmers residing in two topographically different areas in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. Farmers (N=136) were recruited from Pong Yaeng subdistrict (N=67) and Inthakhin subdistrict (N=69). Each farmer provided a morning urine void for the analysis of 30 urinary metabolites of insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides. Farmers in

Parinya Panuwet; Tippawan Prapamontol; Somporn Chantara; Prasak Thavornyuthikarn; M. Angela Montesano; Ralph D. Whitehead; Dana B. Barr

2008-01-01

432

Formation of Small Scales via Alfven Wave Propagation in Compressible Nonuniform Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In weakly dissipative media governed by the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations, any efficient mechanism of energy dissipation requires the formation of small scales. In a previous paper (Paper I) the possibility of producing small scales has been numerically studied in the case of MHD disturbances propagating in an incompressible and inhomogeneous medium, for a strictly two-dimensional slab geometry, the ignorable coordinate being the one that is perpendicular both to the magnetic field and to the inhomogeneity direction. In this paper we extend the work of Paper I, to study the properties of Alfven waves propagating in a compressible medium, in the presence of an inhomogeneity transverse to the direction of wave propagation. The study has been performed using a 2.5-dimensional pseudospectral numerical code. The simulations show that, when an Alfven wave propagates in a compressible nonuniform medium, the two dynamical effects responsible for the formation of small scales in the incompressible case are still at work: energy pinching and phase mixing. Moreover, the interaction between the initial Alfven wave and the inhomogeneity gives rise to the formation of compressible perturbations (fast and slow waves or a static entropy wave). Some of these compressive fluctuations are subject to the steepening of the wave front and become shock waves, which are extremely efficient in dissipating their energy, their dissipation being independent of the Reynolds number. A rough estimate of the typical times which the various dynamical processes take to produce small scales and then to dissipate the energy show that for Reynolds numbers of the order of S = 108 or greater, the steepening of compressive fluctuations can represent an efficient mechanism to dissipate the wave energy and do not require large values of the wave amplitude.

Malara, Francesco; Primavera, Leonardo; Veltri, Pierluigi

1996-03-01

433

Spatially resolved sub-Doppler overtone gain measurements on a small-scale supersonic HF laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small signal gain of a small-scale HF overtone laser was measured using a sub-Doppler tunable diode laser system. Measurements of reactant concentration, flow velocity and gain length were also made. The spatially resolved, two-dimensional small signal gain and temperature maps that were generated show a highly inhomogeneous gain medium indicating the dominant role played by mixing of the H2

Charles F. Wisniewski; Kevin B. Hewett; Gerald C. Manke II; C. Randall Truman; Gordon D. Hager

2004-01-01

434

Mercury Exposure of Maroon Workers in the Small Scale Gold Mining in Suriname  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suriname is experiencing a revival of small scale gold mining activities, with about 10,000 to 15,000 workers involved in 1996. The estimated production in 1995 is at least 10,000 kg crude gold. Gold is extracted with mercury and methods used are comparable with those described for gold mining in the Amazon Basin. Since no data exist on the internal mercury

Julius F. M. de Kom; Gijsbert B. van der Voet; Frederik A. de Wolff

1998-01-01

435

On the Small-Scale Clustering of Ly-alpha Forest Clouds  

E-print Network

Recent measurements of the autocorrelation function of the Ly-alpha clouds are analyzed from the point of view of a simple model with strong clustering on the small scales. It is shown that this toy model reproduces fairly well the important linear relation between amplitude of the absorber autocorrelation function and neutral hydrogen column density. In addition, it predicts a correct evolutionary trend of correlation amplitudes. Some possible ramifications of these results are discussed.

Milan M. Cirkovic; Kenneth M. Lanzetta

2000-10-11

436

Long term\\/low dose formalin exposure to small-scale recirculation aquaculture systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive long term formalin application at low dose was investigated to determine the effect on formaldehyde removal rate, biofilter nitrification and the microbial composition in small-scale recirculation aquaculture biofilters. Six pilot-scale recirculation aquaculture systems holding rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were designated to formalin treatments (C0 at 10 and 20mg\\/L formaldehyde) on a daily or weekly basis. Formaldehyde removal rates were

Lars-Flemming Pedersen; Per B. Pedersen; Jeppe L. Nielsen; Per H. Nielsen

2010-01-01

437

ECOFARMING AND AGROFORESTRY FOR SELF-RELIANCE: Small-scale, Sustainable Growing Practices in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry concepts are applicable to both small-scale (family farm) and microscale (e.g., home garden) cultivation. However, there is little research on the relevance of gardening practices in temperate zones to agroforestry and vice versa. In Russia, microscale ecofarming is an extremely widespread, time-tested practice. Despite the minuscule size (600 m2) of individual plots and absence of machinery, cultivators have demonstrated

Leonid Sharashkin; Michael Gold; Elizabeth Barham

438

Small-scale spatial patterns of meiobenthos in the Arctic deep sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of analytical techniques were used to quantify and describe small-scale (centimetre to decimetre) spatial patterns\\u000a of meiofauna taxa, with emphasis on nematode species, at a bathyal site in the Arctic deep sea. Three cores (10-cm diameter)\\u000a taken from the same multicorer were each subsampled as 12 contiguous subcores (1.2-cm diameter) for meiofauna and 16 contiguous\\u000a subcores (0.9-cm diameter)

Fabiane Gallucci; Tom Moens; Gustavo Fonseca

2009-01-01

439

Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package. Appendix A  

SciTech Connect

This appendix provides the data for Alternate HTM Flowsheet 1 (No Reductant Addition, Nitric Acid) melter feed preparation activities in both the laboratory and small-scale testing. The first section provides an outline of this appendix. The melter feed preparation data are presented in the next two main sections, laboratory welter feed preparation data and small-scale melter feed preparation data. Section 3.0 provides the laboratory data which is discussed in the main body of the Small-Scale High Temperature-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package, milestone C95-02.02Y. Section 3.1 gives the flowsheet in outline form as used in the laboratory-scale tests. This section also includes the ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` which gives a chronological account of the test in terms of time, temperature, slurry pH, and specific observations about slurry appearance, acid addition rates, and samples taken. The ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` provides a road map to the reader by which all the activity and data from the laboratory can be easily accessed. A summary of analytical data is presented next, section 3.2, which covers starting materials and progresses to the analysis of the melter feed. The next section, 3.3, characterizes the off-gas generation that occurs during the slurry processing. The following section, 3.4, provides the rheology data gathered including gram waste oxide loading information for the various slurries tested. The final section, 3.5. includes data from standard crucible redox testing. Section 4.0 provides the small-scale data tn parallel form to section 3.0. Section 5.0 concludes with the references for this appendix.

Smith, G.L.

1996-03-01

440

Natural Resource Conservation and Technical Efficiency from Small-scale Farmers in Central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimates a stochastic production frontier to measure technical efficiency (TE) using farm-level survey data for a random sample of small-scale farmers in Central Chile. Socioeconomic and productive information was collected in season 2005\\/06 through a survey of 319 farmers in the Province of Linares. An important issue in the paper is the effect of adoption of soil and

Roberto Jara-Rojas; Boris E. Bravo-Ureta; Victor H. Moreira; Jose Diaz

2012-01-01

441

Temperature Measurement in Small-Scale Flows with Digital Moire Deflectometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the potential of Moiré deflectometry for measuring the temperature field in quasi-two-dimensional small scale flows. The research shows that digital Moiré deflectometry combined with two-dimensional Fourier transform for phase map extraction constitutes a useful diagnostic tool for acquiring the fluid temperature with sufficient sensibility and spatial resolution in small two-dimensional or axisymmetric arrangements with negligible pressure variations.

G. L. Juste; E. M. Benavides

2011-01-01

442

Laboratory modeling of nonlinear trapping of Langmuir waves inside a small-scale magnetoplasma irregularity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory studies modeling the small-scale plasma filamentation under the conditions relevant to the ionospheric heating experiments are presented. Filamentation is caused by nonlinear interaction of the short-wavelength quasi-electrostatic waves of the Z-mode with the plasma. This interaction occurs due to thermal plasma nonlinearity, i.e. due to local plasma heating and consequent thermodiffusion, which results in the formation of a narrow

Vladimir V. Nazarov; Mikhail V. Starodubtsev; Alexander V. Kostrov

2007-01-01

443

Asymmetric small-scale distribution and allelopathy: Interaction between Rumex obtusifolius L. and meadow species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of small-scale distribution may allow allelopathic interaction among plant species to be distinguished from competitive interaction. If all environmental factors except slope are uniform, allelopathy produces spatial asymmetry in the association with a hypothetical receptor species and the corresponding hypothetical emitter species in the neighborhood of the latter. The interaction betweenRumex obtusifolius and the meadow speciesLolium perenne, Poa pratensis,

A. Carballeira; E. Carral; M. J. Reigosa

1988-01-01

444

Septic Tank Treatment of the Effluent from a Small-Scale Commercial Recycle Aquaculture System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of a conventional domestic septic tank for primary treatment of the wastewater effluent from a small-scale commercial recycle aquaculture system (RAS) was evaluated. The aquaculture facility had five 39.2-m dual-drain culture tanks and a total system volume of 249.9 m. The mean standing stock of fish during the study was 4,837 kg (25.6 kg\\/m) consisting of 9.6% largemouth

Robert C. Summerfelt; Christopher R. Penne

2007-01-01

445

Small-scale polygonal features on Mars: Seasonal thermal contraction cracks in permafrost  

Microsoft Academic Search

A time-dependent viscoelastic model of thermal stress in Martian ice-rich permafrost is developed to test the hypothesis that small-scale polygonal features observed from orbit and by the Viking Lander 2 are the result of thermal contraction cracking, as commonly occurs in terrestrial permafrost. Results indicate that significant tensile stress occurs in Martian ice-rich permafrost as a result of seasonal cycles

Michael T. Mellon

1997-01-01

446

Measurements of small-scale fading and path loss for long range RF tags  

Microsoft Academic Search

RF modulated backscatter (RFMB), also known as modulated radar cross section or sigma modulation, is a RF transmission technique useful for short-range, low-data-rate applications, such as nonstop toll collection, electronic shelf tags, freight container identification and chassis identification in automobile manufacturing, that are constrained to have extremely low power requirements. The small-scale fading observed on the backscattered signal has deeper

Daeyoung Kim; Mary Ann Ingram

2003-01-01

447

Intergenerational Wealth Transmission and the Dynamics of Inequality in Small-Scale Societies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-scale human societies range from foraging bands with a strong egalitarian ethos to more economically stratified agrarian and pastoral societies. We explain this variation in inequality using a dynamic model in which a population's long-run steady-state level of inequality depends on the extent to which its most important forms of wealth are transmitted within families across generations. We estimate the

Monique Borgerhoff Mulder; Samuel Bowles; Tom Hertz; Adrian Bell; Jan Beise; Greg Clark; Ila Fazzio; Michael Gurven; Kim Hill; Paul L. Hooper; William Irons; Hillard Kaplan; Donna Leonetti; Bobbi Low; Frank Marlowe; Richard McElreath; Suresh Naidu; David Nolin; Patrizio Piraino; Rob Quinlan; Eric Schniter; Rebecca Sear; Mary Shenk; Eric Alden Smith; Christopher von Rueden; Polly Wiessner

2009-01-01

448

The Impact of Shared-Cache Clustering in Small-Scale Shared-Memory Multiprocessors  

Microsoft Academic Search

As processor performance continues to increase, greater demands are placed on the bus and memory systems of small-scale shared-memory multiprocessors. In this paper, we investigate how to reduce these demands by organizing groups of processors into clusters which are then connected together using a shared global bus. We take advantage of the high-bandwidth, low-latency interconnections available from multichip module (MCM)

Basem A. Nayfeh; Kunle Olukotun; Jaswinder Pal Singht

1996-01-01

449

The Viper Telescope : an Instrument to Measure Primary and Secondary CMB Anisotropy at Small Scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viper is a 2-meter off-axis telescope designed to measure small-scale anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. It is currently deployed at the South Pole, operating with a 40 GHz HEMT receiver. We are attempting to measure primary anisotropy in addition to secondary anistropy from the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (S-Z) effect. Preliminary data will be presented, along with a description of plans for future cosmological and non-cosmological observations.

Griffin, G.; Peterson, J.; Romer, K.; Alvarez, D.; Cantalupo, C.; Morgan, D.; Newcomb, M.; Vincent, M.; Miller, K.; Novak, G.; Dragovan, M.; Crone, B.

1998-05-01

450

Design report small-scale fuel alcohol plant. Volume 2: Detailed construction information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives are to provide potential alcohol producers with a reference design and provide a complete, demonstrated design of a small scale fuel alcohol plant. The plant has the capability for feedstock preparation, cooking, saccharification, fermentation, distillation, by-product dewatering, and process steam generation. An interesting feature is an instrumentation and control system designed to allow the plant to run 24 hours per day with only four hours of operator attention.

1980-12-01

451

Development of small scale soft x-ray lasers: Aspects of data interpretation  

SciTech Connect

The widespread application of soft x-ray laser technology is contingent on the development of small scale soft x-ray lasers that do not require large laser facilities. Progress in the development of soft x-ray lasers pumped by a Nd laser of energy 6-12J is reported below. Some aspects of data interpretation and gain measurements in such systems are discussed. 11 refs., 11 figs.

Skinner, C.H.; Kim, D.; Voorhees, D.; Suckewer, S.

1990-02-01

452

Barriers and Opportunities for the Development of Small-scale Forest Enterprises in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article introduces the background and summarises main research findings of the research articles in this special issue.\\u000a The focus is on the key issues relevant for forest-based entrepreneurship development in small-scale forestry in relation\\u000a to both wood and non-wood forest products and services (NWFP&S). The article draws special attention to changing forest ownership,\\u000a changing owners’ motives and values, and

Anssi Niskanen; D. Pettenella; B. Slee

2007-01-01

453

First Results from Viper: Detection of Small-Scale Anisotropy at 40 GHZ  

E-print Network

Results of a search for small-scale anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) are presented. Observations were made at the South Pole using the Viper telescope, with a .26 degree (FWHM) beam and a passband centered at 40 GHz. Anisotropy band-power measurements in bands centered at l = 108, 173, 237, 263, 422 and 589 are reported. Statistically significant anisotropy is detected in all bands.

J. B. Peterson; G. S. Griffin; M. G. Newcomb; D. L. Alvarez; C. M. Cantalupo; D. Morgan; K. W. Miller; K. Ganga; D. Pernic; M. Thoma

1999-10-28

454

Supporting small-scale dairy farmers in increasing milk production: evidence from Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of technical support provided to five small-scale cattle farms in the Tadla irrigation\\u000a scheme (Morocco) on their milk yield. The first stage consisted of assessing the initial management of dairy herds, especially\\u000a feeding strategies, and their effects on milk output. This diagnosis revealed major gaps between the existing and the potential\\u000a milk yield,

Mohamed Taher Sraïri; Meryem El Jaouhari; Abdessalam Saydi; Marcel Kuper; Pierre-Yves Le Gal

2011-01-01

455

Small-Scale Systems of Galaxies. I. Photometric and Spectroscopic Properties of Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the first of a series addressed to the investigation of galaxy formation\\/evolution in small-scale systems of galaxies (SSSGs), which are located in low-density cosmic environments. Our algorithm for SSSG selection includes galaxy systems of two or more galaxies lying within Deltacz<=1000 km s-1 and a 200 h-1100 kpc radius volume. We present the analysis of the photometric

L. Tanvuia; B. Kelm; P. Focardi; R. Rampazzo; W. W. Zeilinger

2003-01-01

456

Proceedings of a Topical Meeting On Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings describe the workshop of the Topical Meeting on Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects. The projects covered include binary power plants, rotary separator, screw expander power plants, modular wellhead power plants, inflow turbines, and the EPRI hybrid power system. Active projects versus geothermal power projects were described. In addition, a simple approach to estimating effects of fluid deliverability on geothermal power cost is described starting on page 119. (DJE-2005)

None

1986-02-12

457

Turbulent small-scale neutral and ion density fluctuations as measured during MAC/Epsilon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the MAC/Epsilon campaign (Fall 1987, from Andoya, Northern Norway, 69 N, 16 E) a total of four altitude profiles of neutral gas number densities and six profiles of ion number densities were measured with high spatial resolution in the height range from 60 to 120 km. First results of these rocket-borne experiments are presented with emphasis on small scale turbulent density variations and related turbulent parameter as structure function constants and energy dissipation rates.

Luebken, F.-J.; Hillert, W.; Vonzahn, U.; Blix, T. A.; Thrane, E. V.

1989-01-01

458

Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package. Appendix B  

SciTech Connect

This appendix provides the data for Alternate HTM Flowsheet 2 (Glycolic Acid) melter feed preparation activities in both the laboratory- and small-scale testing. The first section provides an outline of this appendix. The melter feed preparation data are presented in the next two main sections, laboratory melter feed preparation data and small-scale melter feed preparation data. Section 3.0 provides the laboratory data which is discussed in the main body of the Small-Scale High Temperature-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package, milestone C95-02.02Y. Section 3.1 gives the flowsheet in outline form as used in the laboratory-scale tests. This section also includes the ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` which gives A chronological account of the test in terms of time, temperature, slurry pH, and specific observations about slurry appearance, acid addition rates, and samples taken. The ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` provides a road map to the reader by which all the activity and data from the laboratory can be easily accessed. A summary of analytical data is presented next, section 3.2, which covers starting materials and progresses to the analysis of the melter feed. The next section, 3.3, characterizes the off-gas generation that occurs during the slurry processing. The following section, 3.4, provides the rheology data gathered including gram waste oxide loading information for the various slurries tested. The final section, 3.5, includes data from standard crucible redox testing. Section 4.0 provides the small-scale data in parallel form to section 3.0. Section 5.0 concludes with the references for this appendix.

NONE

1996-03-01

459

A study of dynamic resistance during small scale resistance spot welding of thin Ni sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic resistance has been investigated during small scale resistance spot welding (SSRSW) of Ni sheets. Electrical measurements have been correlated with scanning electron microscope images of joint development. The results show that the dynamic resistance curve can be divided into the following stages based on physical change in the workpieces: asperity heating, surface breakdown, asperity softening, partial surface melting, nugget growth and expulsion. These results are also compared and contrasted with dynamic resistance behaviour in large scale RSW.

Tan, W.; Zhou, Y.; Kerr, H. W.; Lawson, S.

2004-07-01

460

Effects of au plating on small-scale resistance spot welding of thin-sheet nickel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of Au plating on joint formation and joint strength in small-scale resistance spot welding (SSRSW) of Ni sheets\\u000a have been investigated using tensile-shear testing, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive\\u000a X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The results show that the mechanisms of the joint formation during the welding of Au-plated Ni sheets\\u000a involve solid-state bonding, brazing, and fusion

W. Tan; Y. Zhou; H. W. Kerr

2002-01-01

461

Numerical study on the effect of electrode force in small-scale resistance spot welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since electrode force is an important process parameter in small-scale resistance spot welding (SSRSW), its effects on the electrical, thermal and mechanical behavior of the welding process when using direct current have been studied numerically in the present paper using the finite element method. The variations of contact radius, current density distribution and temperature profile at the sheet\\/sheet (S\\/S) and

B. H. Chang; Y. Zhou

2003-01-01

462

Modeling small-scale resistance spot welding machine dynamics for process control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrode displacement is generally regarded as a variable that can provide real-time information useful for monitoring and\\u000a controlling resistance spot welding (RSW) process quality. However, in small-scale RSW production, it is difficult to measure\\u000a the displacement because its magnitude is very small. By contrast, force signals are relatively large and thus are less susceptible\\u000a to measurement noise. In this article,

Jianzhong Chen; Dave F. Farson; Kevin Ely; Tim Frech

2006-01-01

463

Con Edison Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Program  

E-print Network

? Alignment & Compliance Ratings 3 Selected Local Laws and Regulations ? LL 84 - Benchmarking the Energy & Water Efficiency of Buildings ? LL 85 - NYC Energy Conservation Code ? LL 87 - Energy Audits and Retro-commissioning ? LL 88 - Lighting Upgrades... ? Con Edison C&I Energy Efficiency Team ? Program Management and Account Executives ? Lockheed Martin Team ? Marketing, Operations, Engineering and Administration ? Market Partner Network ? Con Edison Customers 6 C&I Program: Three Major...

Pospisil, D.

2011-01-01

464

Establishment of a Graduate Certificate Program in Biobased Industrial Products – Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

A certificate of graduate studies in Biobased Industrial Products is to be established at Kansas State University (KSU) along with the development of a similar program at Pittsburg State University, Pittsburg, KS. At KSU, the program of study will be coordinated through the steering committee of the Agricultural Products Utilization Forum (APUF); the certificate of graduate studies will be awarded through the Graduate School of Kansas State University. This certificate will establish an interdisciplinary program of study that will: (1) ensure participating students receive a broad education in several disciplines related to Biobased Industrial Products, (2) provide a documented course of study for students preferring a freestanding certificate program, and (3) provide a paradigm shift in student awareness away from petroleum-based feedstocks to the utilization of renewable resources for fuels and chemical feedstocks. The academic program described herein will accomplish this goal by: (1) providing exposure to several academic disciplines key to Biobased Industrial Products; (2) improving university/industry collaboration through an external advisory board, distance learning opportunities, and student internships; (3) expanding the disciplines represented on the students' supervisory committee; (4) establishing a seminar series on Biobased Industrial Products that draws upon expert speakers representing several disciplines; and (5) increasing collaboration between disciplines. Numerous research programs emphasizing Biobased Industrial Products currently exist at KSU and PSU. The certificate of graduate studies, the emphasis on interdisciplinary collaboration within the students? thesis research, the proposed seminar series, and formation of an industrial advisory board will: (1) provide an interdisciplinary academic experience that spans several departments, four colleges, four research centers, and two universities; (2) tangibly promote collaboration between KSU and PSU; (3) catalyze involvement of plant geneticists with researchers active in the development and utilization of biobased industrial products; and, (4) promote university/industry collaboration.

John R. Schlup

2005-11-04

465

Formal Verification of Process Communications in Operational Flight Program for a Small-Scale Unmanned Helicopter  

E-print Network

-Scale Unmanned Helicopter Dong-Ah Lee1 , Junbeom Yoo2 and Doo-Hyun Kim3 1, 2 School of Computer Science-scale unmanned helicopters have been increasingly developed and deployed for various scientific, commercial and defense applications. The HELISCOPE project is aiming to develop an unmanned helicopter and its on

466

The French National Energy Conservation Program - The Case of Industry  

E-print Network

.......................................................,', ~~blI'.."t' 1973 1979 1985 1990 l ~l ~ ., =- ?.? ~. IX. ....:: ~~..-t~lr. ??.a" 1\\ .... ', ~ tJ"C, 1IX .riA" ~ 142 ESL-IE-80-04-20 Proceedings from the Second Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 13-16, 1980 I . The French... .......................................................,', ~~blI'.."t' 1973 1979 1985 1990 l ~l ~ ., =- ?.? ~. IX. ....:: ~~..-t~lr. ??.a" 1\\ .... ', ~ tJ"C, 1IX .riA" ~ 142 ESL-IE-80-04-20 Proceedings from the Second Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 13-16, 1980 I . The French...

Zyss, J.

1980-01-01

467

On the scaling of small-scale jet noise to large scale  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An examination was made of several published jet noise studies for the purpose of evaluating scale effects important to the simulation of jet aeroacoustics. Several studies confirmed that small conical jets, one as small as 59 mm diameter, could be used to correctly simulate the overall or PNL noise of large jets dominated by mixing noise. However, the detailed acoustic spectra of large jets are more difficult to simulate because of the lack of broad-band turbulence spectra in small jets. One study indicated that a jet Reynolds number of 5 x 10 exp 6 based on exhaust diameter enabled the generation of broad-band noise representative of large jet mixing noise. Jet suppressor aeroacoustics is even more difficult to simulate at small scale because of the small mixer nozzles with flows sensitive to Reynolds number. Likewise, one study showed incorrect ejector mixing and entrainment using small-scale, short ejector that led to poor acoustic scaling. Conversely, fairly good results were found with a longer ejector and, in a different study, with a 32-chute suppressor nozzle. Finally, it was found that small-scale aeroacoustic resonance produced by jets impacting ground boards does not reproduce at large scale.

Soderman, Paul T.; Allen, Christopher S.

1992-01-01

468

Low cost, small scale processing technologies for production applications in various environments: Mass produced factories  

SciTech Connect

The requirements for chemical and food production technologies will change in the future as a result of shorter time to market and increasing market volatility. Especially the rising use of renewable resources will require the implementation of flexible and fast to install small-scale production technologies. The increasing number of necessary apparatuses and their distributed operation, however, will constitute major challenges, both economically and procedurally. The proposed solution to face the economic challenge is modularization and standardization. For food production, dewatering represents a key issue. Thus, biomass processing should first be divided into small-scale water separation steps and then into further large-scale processing steps. As dewatering usually happens thermally and heat exchangers often benefit from the economies of scale, heat supply and energy consumption or heat transfer with little capital investment are further issues. Therefore, temperature levels should be decreased and the use of solar heat increased. For the production of biofuels and chemicals from biomass, process integration and process simplification are proposed to improve the efficacy of production equipment and processes. Choosing raw materials with molecular structures, similar to the desired chemical building block, will lower the need for heat exchange and make small-scale manufacturing of fuels and chemicals possible.

Bramsiepe, C.; Sievers, S.; Seifert, T.; Stefanidis, G. D.; Vlachos, Dion G.; Schnitzer, H.; Muster, B.; Brunner, C.; Sanders, J. P.M.; Bruins, M. E; Schembecker, G.

2012-01-01

469

Experimental Approach for Deep Proteome Measurements from Small-Scale Microbial Biomass Samples.  

SciTech Connect

Many methods of microbial proteome characterizations require large quantities of cellular biomass (> 1-2 g) for sample preparation and protein identification. Our experimental approach differs from traditional techniques by providing the ability to identify the proteomic state of a microbe from a few milligrams of starting cellular material. The small-scale, guanidine-lysis method minimizes sample loss by achieving cellular lysis and protein digestion in a single tube experiment. For this experimental approach, the freshwater microbe Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and the purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA0010 were used as model organisms for technology development and evaluation. A 2-D LC-MS/MS comparison between a standard sonication lysis method and the small-scale guanidine-lysis techniques demonstrates that the guanidine-lysis method is more efficient with smaller sample amounts of cell pellet (i.e. down to 1 mg). The described methodology would enable deep proteome measurements from a few milliliters of confluent bacterial cultures. We also report a new protocol for efficient lysis from small amounts of natural biofilm samples for deep proteome measurements, which should greatly enhance the emerging field of microbial community proteomics. This straightforward sample boiling protocol is complementary to the small-scale guanidine-lysis technique, is amenable for small sample quantities, and requires no special reagents that might complicate the MS measurements.

Thompson, Melissa R [ORNL; Chourey, Karuna [ORNL; Froelich, Jennifer M. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Erickson, Brian K [ORNL; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL

2008-01-01

470

Small-scale Gradients of Charged Particles in the Heliospheric Magnetic Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using numerical simulations of charged-particles propagating in the heliospheric magnetic field, we study small-scale gradients, or "dropouts," in the intensity of solar energetic particles seen at 1 AU. We use two turbulence models, the foot-point random motion model and the two-component model, to generate fluctuating magnetic fields similar to spacecraft observations at 1 AU. The turbulence models include a Kolmogorov-like magnetic field power spectrum containing a broad range of spatial scales from those that lead to large-scale field-line random walk to small scales leading to resonant pitch-angle scattering of energetic particles. We release energetic protons (20 keV-10 MeV) from a spatially compact and instantaneous source. The trajectories of energetic charged particles in turbulent magnetic fields are numerically integrated. Spacecraft observations are mimicked by collecting particles in small windows when they pass the windows at a distance of 1 AU. We show that small-scale gradients in the intensity of energetic particles and velocity dispersions observed by spacecraft can be reproduced using the foot-point random motion model. However, no dropouts are seen in simulations using the two-component magnetic turbulence model. We also show that particle scattering in the solar wind magnetic field needs to be infrequent for intensity dropouts to form.

Guo, Fan; Giacalone, Joe

2014-01-01

471

Are small-scale irrigators water use efficient? Evidence from lake Naivasha basin, Kenya.  

PubMed

With increasing water scarcity and competing uses and users, water use efficiency is becoming increasingly important in many parts of developing countries. The lake Naivasha basin has an array of different water users and uses ranging from large scale export market agriculture, urban domestic water users to small holder farmers. The small scale farmers are located in the upper catchment areas and form the bulk of the users in terms of area and population. This study used farm household data to explore the overall technical efficiency, irrigation water use efficiency and establish the factors influencing water use efficiency among small scale farmers in the Lake Naivasha basin in Kenya. Data envelopment analysis, general algebraic and modeling system, and Tobit regression methods were used in analyzing cross sectional data from a sample of 201 small scale irrigation farmers in the lake Naivasha basin. The results showed that on average, the farmers achieved only 63 % technical efficiency and 31 % water use efficiency. This revealed that substantial inefficiencies occurred in farming operations among the sampled farmers. To improve water use efficiency, the study recommends that more emphasis be put on orienting farmers toward appropriate choice of irrigation technologies, appropriate choice of crop combinations in their farms, and the attainment of desirable levels of farm fragmentation. PMID:23954914

Njiraini, Georgina W; Guthiga, Paul M

2013-11-01

472

Running with BICEP2: implications for small-scale problems in CDM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BICEP2 results, when interpreted as a gravitational wave signal and combined with other cosmic microwave background data, suggest a roll-off in power towards small scales in the primordial matter power spectrum. Among the simplest possibilities is a running of the spectral index. Here we show that the preferred level of running alleviates small-scale issues within the ?CDM model, more so even than viable WDM models. We use cosmological zoom-in simulations of a Milky Way-sized halo along with full-box simulations to compare predictions among four separate cosmologies: a BICEP2-inspired running index model (?s = -0.024), two fixed-tilt ?CDM models motivated by Planck, and a 2.6 keV thermal WDM model. We find that the running BICEP2 model reduces the central densities of large dwarf-sized haloes (Vmax ˜ 30-80 km s-1) and alleviates the too-big-to-fail problem significantly compared to our adopted Planck and WDM cases. Further, the BICEP2 model suppresses the count of small subhaloes by ˜50 per cent relative to Planck models, and yields a significantly lower `boost' factor for dark matter annihilation signals. Our findings highlight the need to understand the shape of the primordial power spectrum in order to correctly interpret small-scale data.

Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Abazajian, Kevork N.; Bullock, James S.; Kaplinghat, Manoj

2014-10-01

473

Analysis of curricular units of a graduate industrial hygiene program  

E-print Network

and with the Association must and will be maintained. Fears are openly expressed that the massive recruit- ment by OSHA and NIOSH has already resulted in bring- ing "new" people into positions that carry the title of industrial hygiene. These people may later make claim... performance objectives. The authors assert: The performance objectives are individually and collec- tively important since they provide a cohesiveness and direction not always apparent in a group of task/ac- tivity statements. In this project, the term...

Collier, Stephen Ward

2012-06-07

474

Utility energy conservation programs for the pulp and paper industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy conservation has been alive and well in the pulp and paper industry for many years. In the early 70s and 80s, each paper mill or organization worked independently to reduce their total energy consumption. Now in the 1990s, federal and state legislation (i.e. State of Minnesota Omnibus Energy Bill) make it advantageous for pulp and paper mills to share

P. L. Jackson; W. L. Bundschuh; M. D. Weaver; J. R. Thompson

1994-01-01

475

Commercial and Industrial Energy Conservation Programs in Illinois  

E-print Network

3) Seven O&M workshops have been conducted through~ severely affected by higher energy costs; and to the out Illinois with 475 in attendance. ! builders and suppliers of new buildings and 4) Three hundred seventy-seven organizations have e..., April 13-16, 1980 owners. Any commercial or industrial facility not employing personnel presently trained to conduct energy audits, waste heat audits or boiler efficiency tests will be eligible for assi stance. The target audience was selected...

Thomas, S. K.

1980-01-01

476

Joint DOE/industry photovoltaic system reliability program  

SciTech Connect

To achieve the lowest life-cycle cost (LCC), photovoltaic (PV) systems must have the optimum mix of low first cost, low operation and maintenance (O&M) cost, and high availability. Additionally, the long-term health of the photovoltaic (PV) industry requires that PV systems work as expected. Although PV modules now enjoy high reliability due to a significant multi-year effort by both the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and industry, the same is not always true of PV systems. Even for systems that do operate reliably, customers, suppliers, and manufacturers can benefit from knowing what O&M expenses to expect. This knowledge will reduce technology risk to the customer and improve likelihood of commitment to PV projects. System integrators and utilities may benefit from O&M cost information to improve system designs, to properly price service agreements and warranties, and to optimize maintenance strategies. The DOE and component manufacturers may benefit from identifying cost drivers to optimally focus research and quality assurance resources to improve product reliability. This paper discusses the first of five tasks identified for this project, quantifying system reliability and life cycle cost by collecting, analyzing and reporting data on PV system reliability and cost. Industry participants collect the necessary O&M data on systems they are monitoring. Sandia provides support in the form of assistance identifying data that needs to be collected, helping develop forms or databases to collect the data, and analyzing the data.

Maish, A.B.; Atcitty, C. [Sandia National Labs., NM (United States); Hester, S. [Utility Photo Voltaic Group, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

1997-06-01

477

(Technical and engineering support for the Office of Industrial Programs)  

SciTech Connect

As of April 19, 1991, technical, operational and analytic support and assistance to the offices and divisions of the Office of Renewable Energy, under contract DE-AC01-86CE30844 was completed. The overall work effort, initiated February 20, 1986, was characterized by timely, comprehensive, high quality, professional responsiveness to a broad range of renewable energy program operational support requirements. These are no instances of failure to respond, nor unacceptable response, during the five-year period. The technology program areas covered are Solar Buildings Technology, Wind Energy Technology, Photovoltaic Energy Technology, Geothermal Energy Technology, Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology, Solar Thermal Technology, Hydropower Energy Technology, Ocean Energy Technology, and Electric Energy Systems and Energy Storage. The analytical and managerial support provided to the office and staff of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Renewable Energy enabled a comprehensive evaluation of program and policy alternatives, and the selection and execution of appropriate courses of action from amongst those alternatives. Largely through these means the Office has been able to maintain continuity and a meaningful program thrust through the vacillations of policies and budgets that it has experienced over that it has experienced over the past five years. Appended are summaries of support activities within each of the individual technology program areas, as well as a complete listing of all project deliverables and due-dates for each submittal under the contract.

Not Available

1991-01-01

478

Review of a State Industrial Efficiency Program: Texas Industries of the Future  

E-print Network

Plan accomplishments; attendees at events; impacts of Best Practice trainings; and individual project outcomes. Since its inception, the program has organized 48 workshops, forums, roundtables and conferences, with a total of over 2,300 attendees...

Ferland, K.

2008-01-01

479

Resolving the problem of galaxy clustering on small scales: any new physics needed?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galaxy clustering sets strong constraints on the physics governing galaxy formation and evolution. However, most current models fail to reproduce the clustering of low-mass galaxies on small scales (r < 1 Mpc h-1). In this paper, we study the galaxy clusterings predicted from a few semi-analytical models. We first compare two Munich versions, Guo et al. and De Lucia & Blaizot. The Guo11 model well reproduces the galaxy stellar mass function, but overpredicts the clustering of low-mass galaxies on small scales. The DLB07 model provides a better fit to the clustering on small scales, but overpredicts the stellar mass function. These seem to be puzzling. The clustering on small scales is dominated by galaxies in the same dark matter halo, and there is slightly more fraction of satellite galaxies residing in massive haloes in the Guo11 model, which is the dominant contribution to the clustering discrepancy between the two models. However, both models still overpredict the clustering at 0.1 < r < 10 Mpc h-1 for low-mass galaxies. This is because both models overpredict the number of satellites by 30 per cent in massive haloes than the data. We show that the Guo11 model could be slightly modified to simultaneously fit the stellar mass function and clusterings, but that cannot be easily achieved in the DLB07 model. The better agreement of DLB07 model with the data actually comes as a coincidence as it predicts too many low-mass central galaxies which are less clustered and thus brings down the total clustering. Finally, we show the predictions from the semi-analytical models of Kang et al. We find that this model can simultaneously fit the stellar mass function and galaxy clustering if the supernova feedback in satellite galaxies is stronger. We conclude that semi-analytical models are now able to solve the small-scales clustering problem, without invoking of any other new physics or changing the dark matter properties, such as the recent favoured warm dark matter.

Kang, X.

2014-02-01

480

Garnering the Industrial Sector: A Comparison of Cutting Edge Industrial DSM Programs  

E-print Network

representatives. ? Regulatory prudence. Under the current regulatory framework, the utility is able to recover program costs through rate I adjustments. This option of cost recovery will greatLy diminish in the future. ? Customer eligibility. The utility... representatives. ? Regulatory prudence. Under the current regulatory framework, the utility is able to recover program costs through rate I adjustments. This option of cost recovery will greatLy diminish in the future. ? Customer eligibility. The utility...

Kyricopoulos, P. F.; Wikler, G. A.; Faruqui, A.; Wood, B. G.