Science.gov

Sample records for program small-scale industrial

  1. Small Scale Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural Development Detwork Bulletin, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Innovative programs for the promotion of small-scale enterprise are being conducted by a variety of organizations, including universities, government agencies, international research institutes, and voluntary assistance agencies. Their activities encompass basic extension services, management of cooperatives, community action programs, and…

  2. Development of interactive workplace improvement programs in collaboration with trade associations of small-scale industries.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akiyoshi; Sakai, Kazuhiro; Kogi, Kazutaka

    2006-01-01

    Serial participatory action programs for reducing occupational safety and health risks were undertaken to know the types of support suited for small-scale industries. Working groups were formed with workplace people and occupational safety and health experts. It was agreed to develop an action-oriented strategy focusing on improving both work environment and productivity by making low-cost improvements through group work. Many workplace improvements achieved by participating enterprises and the group work procedures taken were analyzed. As supporting tools for effectively implementing the workplace improvement action programs, we developed action checklists according to industry and workplace implementation guides. Collections of local good examples also served as part of these support tools. These experiences show that keys to the sustainable action in small-scale industries are: (1) mobilization of the industry-wise network by trade associations, (2) an output-oriented strategy based on interactive group work and (3) the effective use of support tools such as low-cost action checklists and group work methods. PMID:16610539

  3. Brevion: the new small-scale industrial gamma irradiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinney, Dan; Perrins, Robert; Gibson, Wayne; Levesque, Daniel

    2002-03-01

    The economical processing of low-volume products has been a challenge to the gamma industry since inception, influencing customers to send their products to contractors or choose alternative technologies. With the introduction of the Brevion irradiator (patent pending), economical gamma processing of low annual volume product lines is now possible. This innovative design is specifically targeted at plants processing product volumes of up to 20,000 m 3/yr. Brevion provides good cobalt efficiency and good dose uniformity, thus processing these volumes efficiently and economically. The Brevion facility has the distinct advantage of a low capital cost, compared to medium-sized automatic tote plants, while maintaining similar performance. Lead-time for the construction phase is also considerably shorter, resulting in significantly lower start-up costs. Companies with low-volume product lines can now achieve the control provided by in-house processing, and eliminate transportation time and costs associated with shipping products off-site.

  4. Experimental evidence for convergent evolution of maternal care heuristics in industrialized and small-scale populations

    PubMed Central

    Kushnick, Geoff; Hanowell, Ben; Kim, Jun-Hong; Langstieh, Banrida; Magnano, Vittorio; Oláh, Katalin

    2015-01-01

    Maternal care decision rules should evolve responsiveness to factors impinging on the fitness pay-offs of care. Because the caretaking environments common in industrialized and small-scale societies vary in predictable ways, we hypothesize that heuristics guiding maternal behaviour will also differ between these two types of populations. We used a factorial vignette experiment to elicit third-party judgements about likely caretaking decisions of a hypothetical mother and her child when various fitness-relevant factors (maternal age and access to resources, and offspring age, sex and quality) were varied systematically in seven populations—three industrialized and four small-scale. Despite considerable variation in responses, we found that three of five main effects, and the two severity effects, exhibited statistically significant industrialized/ small-scale population differences. All differences could be explained as adaptive solutions to industrialized versus small-scale caretaking environments. Further, we found gradients in the relationship between the population-specific estimates and national-level socio-economic indicators, further implicating important aspects of the variation in industrialized and small-scale caretaking environments in shaping heuristics. Although there is mounting evidence for a genetic component to human maternal behaviour, there is no current evidence for interpopulation variation in candidate genes. We nonetheless suggest that heuristics guiding maternal behaviour in diverse societies emerge via convergent evolution in response to similar selective pressures. PMID:26543577

  5. Experimental evidence for convergent evolution of maternal care heuristics in industrialized and small-scale populations.

    PubMed

    Kushnick, Geoff; Hanowell, Ben; Kim, Jun-Hong; Langstieh, Banrida; Magnano, Vittorio; Oláh, Katalin

    2015-06-01

    Maternal care decision rules should evolve responsiveness to factors impinging on the fitness pay-offs of care. Because the caretaking environments common in industrialized and small-scale societies vary in predictable ways, we hypothesize that heuristics guiding maternal behaviour will also differ between these two types of populations. We used a factorial vignette experiment to elicit third-party judgements about likely caretaking decisions of a hypothetical mother and her child when various fitness-relevant factors (maternal age and access to resources, and offspring age, sex and quality) were varied systematically in seven populations-three industrialized and four small-scale. Despite considerable variation in responses, we found that three of five main effects, and the two severity effects, exhibited statistically significant industrialized/ small-scale population differences. All differences could be explained as adaptive solutions to industrialized versus small-scale caretaking environments. Further, we found gradients in the relationship between the population-specific estimates and national-level socio-economic indicators, further implicating important aspects of the variation in industrialized and small-scale caretaking environments in shaping heuristics. Although there is mounting evidence for a genetic component to human maternal behaviour, there is no current evidence for interpopulation variation in candidate genes. We nonetheless suggest that heuristics guiding maternal behaviour in diverse societies emerge via convergent evolution in response to similar selective pressures. PMID:26543577

  6. Developing a Small Scale Preventive Maintenance Program: Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, John M.

    1981-01-01

    The first of two articles outlines how the director of the physical plant at Monroe County Community College (Michigan) developed a preventive maintenance program. The first step, assembling a set of up-to-date records, is detailed. (MLF)

  7. Summary Report on FY12 Small-Scale Test Activities High Temperature Electrolysis Program

    SciTech Connect

    James O'Brien

    2012-09-01

    This report provides a description of the apparatus and the single cell testing results performed at Idaho National Laboratory during January–August 2012. It is an addendum to the Small-Scale Test Report issued in January 2012. The primary program objectives during this time period were associated with design, assembly, and operation of two large experiments: a pressurized test, and a 4 kW test. Consequently, the activities described in this report represent a much smaller effort.

  8. Education, Training and Employment in Small-Scale Enterprises: Three Industries in Sao Paulo, Brazil. IIEP Research Report No. 63.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Elenice M.; Caillods, Francoise

    Despite the prophecies forecasting their probable disappearance or annihilation, small-scale enterprises have persisted in the Brazilian industrial structure since 1950. To account for the survival of small firms in Brazil, specifically in the state of Sao Paulo, a study examined 100 small firms in three industrial sectors: clothing, mechanical…

  9. Villacidro solar demo plant: Integration of small-scale CSP and biogas power plants in an industrial microgrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerada, M.; Cau, G.; Cocco, D.; Damiano, A.; Demontis, V.; Melis, T.; Musio, M.

    2016-05-01

    The integration of small scale concentrating solar power (CSP) in an industrial district, in order to develop a microgrid fully supplied by renewable energy sources, is presented in this paper. The plant aims to assess in real operating conditions, the performance, the effectiveness and the reliability of small-scale concentrating solar power technologies in the field of distributed generation. In particular, the potentiality of small scale CSP with thermal storage to supply dispatchable electricity to an industrial microgrid will be investigated. The microgrid will be realized in the municipal waste treatment plant of the Industrial Consortium of Villacidro, in southern Sardinia (Italy), which already includes a biogas power plant. In order to achieve the microgrid instantaneous energy balance, the analysis of the time evolution of the waste treatment plant demand and of the generation in the existing power systems has been carried out. This has allowed the design of a suitable CSP plant with thermal storage and an electrochemical storage system for supporting the proposed microgrid. At the aim of obtaining the expected energy autonomy, a specific Energy Management Strategy, which takes into account the different dynamic performances and characteristics of the demand and the generation, has been designed. In this paper, the configuration of the proposed small scale concentrating solar power (CSP) and of its thermal energy storage, based on thermocline principle, is initially described. Finally, a simulation study of the entire power system, imposing scheduled profiles based on weather forecasts, is presented.

  10. Computers in the Small Scale Construction Trades. Industry Applications and Education. Vocational Education Special Project, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charns, Harold; Porter, Dennis

    This project introduced microcomputers to small-scale construction trades programs through selected California community colleges. The computers were used for applications and computer-aided instruction in construction management and carpentry classes within the departments of vocational education. The project aimed to (1) define the uses for…

  11. Department of Energy Small-Scale Hydropower Program: Feasibility assessment and technology development summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, B.N.

    1991-06-01

    This report summarizes two subprograms under the US Department of Energy's Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program. These subprograms were part of the financial assistance activities and included the Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) feasibility assessments and the technology development projects. The other major subprograms included engineering research and development, legal and institutional aspects, and technology transfer. These other subprograms are covered in their respective summary reports. The problems of energy availability and increasing costs of energy led to a national effort to develop economical and environmental attractive alternative energy resources. One such alternative involved the utilization of existing dams with hydraulic heads of <65 ft and the capacity to generate hydroelectric power of 15 MW or less. Thus, the PRDA program was initiated along with the Technology Development program. The purpose of the PRDA feasibility studies was to encourage development of renewable hydroelectric resources by providing engineering, economic, environmental, safety, and institutional information. Fifty-five feasibility studies were completed under the PRDA. This report briefly summarizes each of those projects. Many of the PRDA projects went on to become technology development projects. 56 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  12. Summary of Large-and Small-Scale Unreinforced Masonry Test Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, K.E.

    2002-06-28

    A five-year, large- and small-scale, static and dynamic experimental research program, in which more than 700 tests were conducted, has demonstrated that unreinforced masonry infills are more ductile and resist lateral loads more effectively than anticipated by conventional code procedures. The tests were conducted both in the laboratory and on existing structures at the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex. The experimental data indicate that the combination of a steel frame and infill material efficiently resists lateral loads--the infilling provides significant lateral stiffness while the surrounding frame adds ductility and confinement to the overall system. The results from approximately 25 moderate- and full-scale tests on infills showed that with simulated seismic loads, the frames confined the masonry, and the load-carrying capacity of the infill was considerably above the load that caused initial cracking. This finding was a significant departure from classical code approaches that assumed first cracking to be failure of an unreinforced masonry wall. The experimental program, performed for the US Department of Energy, consisted of the following large-scale tests on infills: in situ airbag pressure testing, shake-table tests, and the application of quasi-static in-plane and out-of-plane drift loads. This paper provides a summary of the overall experimental methodology and results.

  13. Inventory compilation and distribution of heavy metals in wastewater from small-scale industrial areas of Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Manju; Moturi, Mechah Charles Zuriels; Subramanian, Vaidyanathan

    2003-12-01

    Delhi has the highest cluster of small-scale industries (SSI) in India. There are generally less stringent rules for the treatment of waste in SSI due to less waste generation within each individual industry. This results in SSI disposing of their wastewater untreated into drains and subsequently into the river Yamuna, which is a major source of potable water in Delhi, thus posing a potential health and environmental risk to the people living in Delhi and downstream. To study the quantity, quality and distribution of heavy metals in liquid waste from industrial areas, wastewater, suspended materials and bed sediments were collected from industrial areas and from the river Yamuna in Delhi. This study has also focused on the efficiency of production processes in small-scale industries in India. Heavy metals such as Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Co and Pb were detected using a GBC 902 atomic absorption spectrometer. The concentration of heavy metals observed was as follows: Fe 2-212, Mn 0.3-39, Cu 0.2-20, Zn 0.2-5, Ni 0.6-6, Cr 0.2-53, Cd 0.08-0.2, Co 0.013-0.55, Pb 0.3-0.7 mg L(-1) in wastewater; Fe 5842-78 000, Mn 585-10 889, Cu 206-7201, Zn 406-9000, Ni 22-3621, Cr 178-10 533, Co 17-114, Cd 13-141, Pb 67-50 171 mg kg(-1) in suspended material; and Fe 3000-84000, Mn 479-1230, Cu 378-8127, Zn 647-4010, Ni 164-1582, Cr 139-3281, Co 20-54, Cd 37-65, Pb 228-293 mg kg(-1) in bed residues. This indicates that SSI could be one of the point sources of metals pollution in the river system. PMID:14710931

  14. The development of educational programs for small-scale business women managers.

    PubMed

    Ha, P Y

    1991-01-01

    Results of a survey of demand for education among women managers of small-scale businesses in Korea are provided. Personal interviews were conducted by the Korean Women Development Institute in 1988 among 56 prospective women managers and 15 women managers and 32 experts. A pilot education program was held in 1988 and 1989; 69 women completed the course. Educational objectives are to give women an opportunity to learn the basic rudiments of running a business and develop the self-confidence to undertake this venture. The general objectives, management, evaluation, and postguidance of an educational program for women managers is given in addition to curriculum descriptions of several model programs in general and specifically directed to women. A profile of women surveyed is given; most had completed education beyond high school and were married. 66% planned to use their own money. In self-preparation for the establishment of a business, 26.9% of women used published market surveys and the advice of women already in business. 8 out of the 15 women managers had used their own start-up money. Net monthly earned income for women managers ranged from 500,000 won to 1.5 million won. Women worked 14-15 hour days. Some took holidays. Obstacles articulated by prospective managers were the lack of professional knowledge and experience and difficulties in human relationships due to lack of self-confidence and negative character. Difficulties expressed by women managers were lack of funding for expansion and maintenance of the business, of up-to-date technology, of information on the circulation of merchandise, credit dealings with customers, pricing, health, and laws. 78.5% of prospective women reported no confidence in management skills while most managers were satisfied. 54.2% reported feeling more confident after the pilot course and 39.0% had acquired skills. Content recommended included items on investment, site selection, and business planning for prospective managers

  15. A program for handling map projections of small-scale geospatial raster data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Michael P.; Steinwand, Daniel R.; Trent, Jason R.; Buehler, Robert A.; Mattli, David M.; Yamamoto, Kristina H.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists routinely accomplish small-scale geospatial modeling using raster datasets of global extent. Such use often requires the projection of global raster datasets onto a map or the reprojection from a given map projection associated with a dataset. The distortion characteristics of these projection transformations can have significant effects on modeling results. Distortions associated with the reprojection of global data are generally greater than distortions associated with reprojections of larger-scale, localized areas. The accuracy of areas in projected raster datasets of global extent is dependent on spatial resolution. To address these problems of projection and the associated resampling that accompanies it, methods for framing the transformation space, direct point-to-point transformations rather than gridded transformation spaces, a solution to the wrap-around problem, and an approach to alternative resampling methods are presented. The implementations of these methods are provided in an open-source software package called MapImage (or mapIMG, for short), which is designed to function on a variety of computer architectures.

  16. The Role of Small Scale Industry in Employment Generation and Rural Development: Initial Research Results from Sierra Leone. African Rural Employment Paper No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuta, Enyinna; Liedholm, Carl

    Urban and rural small scale industry and employment generation in Sierra Leone, Africa were studied via a 2 phase procedure. Phase 1 data collection (March-June, 1974) involved a random sampling procedure based on locality size. The following information was obtained from each of the localities (cities, towns, and villages) and "enumeration areas"…

  17. Effect of a physical activity improvement program using the transtheoretical model at a small-scale company.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Atsuko; Nakiri, Makoto; Nagatomi, Kaori; Tsuji, Yoshiyasu; Hoshiko, Michiko; Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Muramoto, Junko; Ishitake, Tatsuya

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the potential use of the transtheoretical model (TTM) by clarifying the program's effects on workers at a small-scale company. Subjects were 22 male workers at a communication system company. They were divided into two physical activity improvement program groups, the TTM-based assistance group (TTM group, n=12) and the control group (n=10). During the study period each subject was asked to wear a calorie counter and to record daily exercise. Changes in number of steps per day and body weight were measured before, immediately after, and 1 month after the intervention ended. Stage of exercise behavior, health protective behavior, and self-efficacy were also examined by means of self-administered questionnaires. In the control group, the number of steps per day tended to increase immediately after the intervention and then decreased at 1 month after the program ended. In both groups, physical activity peaked during commuting and lunch hours. This peak persisted for 1 month after the intervention in the TTM group, but not in the control group. Moreover, the stage of exercise behavior tended to progress in the TTM group, whereas regression in the stage of exercise behavior was observed in the control group. In the control group, although the exercise self-efficacy score after intervention was higher than that before intervention, the health protective behavior score decreased at 1 month after the program ended. This study suggested that physical activity improvement programs based on TTM may be useful for workers at small-scale companies. However, further study of larger numbers of workers will be needed to confirm the validity and usefulness of these results. PMID:18332591

  18. Small-scale Interstellar Structure Toward the Open Cluster Chi Persei; Program ID: BO29 (Cycle 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, David M.

    2004-01-01

    The primary objective of this program was to obtain FUSE observations of the interstellar H2 absorption toward six early-type stars in the core of the open star cluster Chi Persei. High resolution optical observations of the interstellar Na I absorption toward these stars and others in the core of Chi Per have revealed a rich variety of small-scale diffuse ISM structure in both the distant Perseus and more local Orion spiral arms. At the 1 arc minute angular scales typically probed by the separations of these stars, this structure corresponds to respective physical length scales of 0.6 and 0.15 pc in the Perseus and Orion arm gas. The principal scientific goal of the FUSE observations was to determine if this small-scale Na I structure toward the core of Chi Per was reflected in the abundance and/or excitation of interstellar H2. In September 2001, we obtained FUSE observations of the Chi Per stars BD +56 563, BD +56 571, BD +56 573, BD +56 574, BD +56 575, and BD +56 578 for this program. The data reveal that the Perseus arm gas exhibits significant small-scale variations in the strength of its molecular hydrogen absorption while the Orion arm H2 absorption is relatively uniform. We presented these results at the January 2003 American Astronomical Society meeting in Seattle, WA (points, Meyer, Lauroesch, Nguyen, and Friedman 2002, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 34,1229). Since Na I is not a dominant ion in H I clouds, the variations detected in the Perseus arm Na I line profiles could be due to spatial differences in either the physical structure or the physical conditions in the gas. Although many of the H2 absorption profiles are too saturated or too weak to be definitive in this regard, it is clear that small-scale variations are present in H2 gas with excitation as high as the J=4 rotational level. In contrast, lower spatial resolution H I 21 cm studies of the Perseus arm gas across the face of the h and Chi Per double cluster have shown

  19. Guidelines for Management Consulting Programs for Small-Scale Enterprise. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Gary L.

    This manual is designed to assist management consultants in working with small-scale entrepreneurs in developing countries. Addressed in an overview of the small-scale enterprise (SSE) are: the role of the SSE in third world development, problems of SSEs, and target firms. The second chapter deals with various forms of management assistance to…

  20. Small Scale Organic Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, V.; Crist, DeLanson R.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of using small scale experimentation in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. Describes small scale filtration techniques as an example of a semi-micro method applied to small quantities of material. (MLH)

  1. Involvement of small-scale dairy farms in an industrial supply chain: when production standards meet farm diversity.

    PubMed

    Bernard, J; Le Gal, P Y; Triomphe, B; Hostiou, N; Moulin, C H

    2011-05-01

    In certain contexts, dairy firms are supplied by small-scale family farms. Firms provide a set of technical and economic recommendations meant to help farmers meet their requirements in terms of the quantity and quality of milk collected. This study analyzes how such recommendations may be adopted by studying six farms in Brazil. All farms are beneficiaries of the country's agrarian reforms, but they differ in terms of how they developed their activities, their resources and their milk collection objectives. First, we built a technical and economic benchmark farm based on recommendations from a dairy firm and farmer advisory institutions. Our analysis of the farms' practices and technical and economic results show that none of the farms in the sample apply all of the benchmark recommendations; however, all farms specialized in dairy production observe the main underlying principles with regard to feeding systems and breeding. The decisive factors in whether the benchmark is adopted and successfully implemented are (i) access to the supply chain when a farmer establishes his activity, (ii) a grasp of reproduction and forage production techniques and (iii) an understanding of dairy cattle feed dietary rationing principles. The technical problems observed in some cases impact the farms' dairy performance and cash position; this can lead to a process of disinvestment. This dynamic of farms facing production standards suggests that the diversity of specialized livestock farmers should be taken into account more effectively through advisory approaches that combine basic zootechnical training with assistance in planning farm activities over the short and medium term. PMID:22440036

  2. NOAA/USAID SMALL-SCALE SHRIMP PRODUCER TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM FOR NICARAGUA, ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING COMPONENT - FINAL REPORT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Through the NOAA/USAID Small Shrimp Producer Assistance Program for Nicaragua: Environmental Monitoring Component, a water quality monitoring program for the Estero Real system was designed in consultation with the NOAA Consultative Group for Aquaculture and implemented by the Center for Environmen...

  3. Industrial Waste Reduction Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-24

    US industry generates over 12 billion tons of wastes each year. These wastes consist of undesirable by-products of industrial production that are discarded into our environment. Energy is an integral part of these wastes; it is found in the embodied energy of industrial feedstocks not optimally used, in the energy content of the wastes themselves, and in the energy needed to transport, treat, and dispose of wastes. Estimates of the potential energy savings from reducing industrial wastes range from three to four quadrillion Btu per year -- enough to meet the annual energy needs of 30 million American homes. This document presents a plan for the Industrial Waste Reduction Program, which has been designed to help achieve national goals for energy efficiency and waste minimization. The objective of the program is to improve the energy efficiency of industrial processes through cost-effective waste reduction. The initial program focus is on waste reduction opportunities in the production and use of chemicals, due to the significant amount of energy used in these activities and the large amounts of hazardous and toxic wastes they generate. The chemical industry will be the initial subject of a series of waste reduction opportunity assessments conducted as part of the program. Assessments of other industries and waste problems will follow.

  4. Small Scale Irrigation Systems: A Training Manual. Planning--Construction--Operation and Maintenance of Small Scale Irrigation Systems. A Two-Week In-Service Training Program for Peace Corps Volunteers. Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Planning and Research Associates, Inc., Manhattan, KS.

    This manual provides materials for a two-week inservice training program for Peace Corps volunteers on the planning, construction, and operation and maintenance of small-scale irrigation systems. The workshop is designed to be given by two experienced professionals: one with practical knowledge of irrigation system design, operation, and…

  5. Small-scale test program to develop a more efficient swivel nozzle thrust deflector for V/STOL lift/cruise engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlundt, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    The installed performance degradation of a swivel nozzle thrust deflector system obtained during increased vectoring angles of a large-scale test program was investigated and improved. Small-scale models were used to generate performance data for analyzing selected swivel nozzle configurations. A single-swivel nozzle design model with five different nozzle configurations and a twin-swivel nozzle design model, scaled to 0.15 size of the large-scale test hardware, were statically tested at low exhaust pressure ratios of 1.4, 1.3, 1.2, and 1.1 and vectored at four nozzle positions from 0 deg cruise through 90 deg vertical used for the VTOL mode.

  6. General patterns of niche construction and the management of 'wild' plant and animal resources by small-scale pre-industrial societies.

    PubMed

    Smith, Bruce D

    2011-03-27

    Niche construction efforts by small-scale human societies that involve 'wild' species of plants and animals are organized into a set of six general categories based on the shared characteristics of the target species and similar patterns of human management and manipulation: (i) general modification of vegetation communities, (ii) broadcast sowing of wild annuals, (iii) transplantation of perennial fruit-bearing species, (iv) in-place encouragement of economically important perennials, (v) transplantation and in-place encouragement of perennial root crops, and (vi) landscape modification to increase prey abundance in specific locations. Case study examples, mostly drawn from North America, are presented for each of the six general categories of human niche construction. These empirically documented categories of ecosystem engineering form the basis for a predictive model that outlines potential general principles and commonalities in how small-scale human societies worldwide have modified and manipulated their 'natural' landscapes throughout the Holocene. PMID:21320898

  7. General patterns of niche construction and the management of ‘wild’ plant and animal resources by small-scale pre-industrial societies

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    Niche construction efforts by small-scale human societies that involve ‘wild’ species of plants and animals are organized into a set of six general categories based on the shared characteristics of the target species and similar patterns of human management and manipulation: (i) general modification of vegetation communities, (ii) broadcast sowing of wild annuals, (iii) transplantation of perennial fruit-bearing species, (iv) in-place encouragement of economically important perennials, (v) transplantation and in-place encouragement of perennial root crops, and (vi) landscape modification to increase prey abundance in specific locations. Case study examples, mostly drawn from North America, are presented for each of the six general categories of human niche construction. These empirically documented categories of ecosystem engineering form the basis for a predictive model that outlines potential general principles and commonalities in how small-scale human societies worldwide have modified and manipulated their ‘natural’ landscapes throughout the Holocene. PMID:21320898

  8. Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT) Program As a Useful Adjunct to Conventional Psychosocial Rehabilitation for Patients with Schizophrenia: Results of a Small-scale Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Paula; Fortuny, Joan R.; Guzmán, Sergio; Macías, Cristina; Bowen, Jonathan; García, María L.; Orejas, Olivia; Molins, Ferran; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Cerón, José J.; Bulbena, Antoni; Fatjó, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    . Adherence to the AAT-treatment was significantly higher than overall adherence to the control group’s functional rehabilitation activities. Cortisol level was significantly reduced after participating in an AAT session, which could indicate that interaction with the therapy dogs reduced stress. In conclusion, the results of this small-scale RCT suggest that AAT could be considered a useful adjunct to conventional psychosocial rehabilitation for people with schizophrenia. PMID:27199859

  9. Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT) Program As a Useful Adjunct to Conventional Psychosocial Rehabilitation for Patients with Schizophrenia: Results of a Small-scale Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Paula; Fortuny, Joan R; Guzmán, Sergio; Macías, Cristina; Bowen, Jonathan; García, María L; Orejas, Olivia; Molins, Ferran; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Cerón, José J; Bulbena, Antoni; Fatjó, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    -treatment was significantly higher than overall adherence to the control group's functional rehabilitation activities. Cortisol level was significantly reduced after participating in an AAT session, which could indicate that interaction with the therapy dogs reduced stress. In conclusion, the results of this small-scale RCT suggest that AAT could be considered a useful adjunct to conventional psychosocial rehabilitation for people with schizophrenia. PMID:27199859

  10. INDUSTRIAL ASSESSMENT CENTER PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    ASFAW BEYENE

    2008-09-29

    Since its establishment in 1990, San Diego State University’s Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) has served close to 400 small and medium-sized manufacturing plants in Southern California. SDSU/IAC’s efforts to transfer state-of-the-art technologies to industry have increased revenues, cultivated creativity, improved efficiencies, and benefited the environment. A substantial benefit from the program has been the ongoing training of engineering faculty and students. During this funding cycle, SDSU/IAC has trained 31 students, 7 of the graduate. A total of 92 assessments and 108 assessment days were completed, resulting in 638 assessment recommendations.

  11. Industrial Assessment Center Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Dereje Agonafer

    2007-11-30

    The work described in this report was performed under the direction of the Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) at University of Texas at Arlington. The IAC at The University of Texas at Arlington is managed by Rutgers University under agreement with the United States Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technology, which financially supports the program. The objective of the IAC is to identify, evaluate, and recommend, through analysis of an industrial plant’s operations, opportunities to conserve energy and prevent pollution, thereby reducing the associated costs. IAC team members visit and survey the plant. Based upon observations made in the plant, preventive/corrective actions are recommended. At all times we try to offer specific and quantitative recommendations of cost savings, energy conservation, and pollution prevention to the plants we serve.

  12. Small-scale strength

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.

    1995-11-01

    In the world of power project development there is a market for smaller scale cogeneration projects in the range of 1MW to 10MW. In the European Union alone, this range will account for about $25 Billion in value over the next 10 years. By adding the potential that exists in Eastern Europe, the numbers are even more impressive. In Europe, only about 7 percent of needed electrical power is currently produced through cogeneration installations; this is expected to change to around 15 percent by the year 2000. Less than one year ago, two equipment manufacturers formed Dutch Power Partners (DPP) to focus on the market for industrial cogeneration throughout Europe.

  13. Industrial cogeneration optimization program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to identify up to 10 good near-term opportunities for cogeneration in 5 major energy-consuming industries which produce food, textiles, paper, chemicals, and refined petroleum; select, characterize, and optimize cogeneration systems for these identified opportunities to achieve maximum energy savings for minimum investment using currently available components of cogenerating systems; and to identify technical, institutional, and regulatory obstacles hindering the use of industrial cogeneration systems. The analysis methods used and results obtained are described. Plants with fuel demands from 100,000 Btu/h to 3 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h were considered. It was concluded that the major impediments to industrial cogeneration are financial, e.g., high capital investment and high charges by electric utilities during short-term cogeneration facility outages. In the plants considered an average energy savings from cogeneration of 15 to 18% compared to separate generation of process steam and electric power was calculated. On a national basis for the 5 industries considered, this extrapolates to saving 1.3 to 1.6 quads per yr or between 630,000 to 750,000 bbl/d of oil. Properly applied, federal activity can do much to realize a substantial fraction of this potential by lowering the barriers to cogeneration and by stimulating wider implementation of this technology. (LCL)

  14. SMALL SCALE ETHANOL DRYING - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    This program exceeded all key milestones. Using cellulose Waste, CMS demonstrated novel ethanol drying membranes via small scale dephlegmation process that yields fuel grade ethanol (FGE) at a lower cost than large switch grass ethanol plants. This success yields positive valu...

  15. AVLIS industrial access program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-15

    This document deals with the procurements planned for the construction of an Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) production plant. Several large-scale AVLIS facilities have already been built and tested; a full-scale engineering demonstration facility is currently under construction. The experience gained from these projects provides the procurement basis for the production plant construction and operation. In this document, the status of the AVLIS process procurement is presented from two viewpoints. The AVLIS Production Plant Work Breakdown Structure is referenced at the level of the items to be procured. The availability of suppliers for the items at this level is discussed. In addition, the work that will result from the AVLIS enrichment plant project is broken down by general procurement categories (construction, mechanical equipment, etc.) and the current AVLIS suppliers are listed according to these categories. A large number of companies in all categories are currently providing AVLIS equipment for the Full-Scale Demonstration Facility in Livermore, California. These companies form an existing and expanding supplier network for the AVLIS program. Finally, this document examines the relationship between the AVLIS construction project/operational facility and established commercial suppliers. The goal is to utilize existing industrial capability to meet the needs of the project in a competitive procurement situation. As a result, costs and procurement risks are both reduced because the products provided come from within the AVLIS suppliers' experience base. At the same time, suppliers can benefit by the potential to participate in AVLIS technology spin-off markets. 35 figures.

  16. Small-Scale Farming: A Portrait from Polk County, Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, John A.; Caday, Peter

    A study of small-scale farmers in Polk County, Oregon, examined characteristics of, and variations among, small-scale farmers and developed some guidelines for assistance programs targeted for such a group. During the months of May, June, and July of 1978 an average of 4 days a week was spent locating and interviewing 44 small farm operators in…

  17. DOE small scale fuel alcohol plant design

    SciTech Connect

    LaRue, D.M.; Richardson, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    The Department of Energy, in an effort to facilitate the deployment of rural-based ethanol production capability, has undertaken this effort to develop a basic small-scale plant design capable of producing anhydrous ethanol. The design, when completed, will contain all necessary specifications and diagrams sufficient for the construction of a plant. The design concept is modular; that is, sections of the plant can stand alone or be integrated into other designs with comparable throughput rates. The plant design will be easily scaled up or down from the designed flow rate of 25 gallons of ethanol per hour. Conversion factors will be provided with the final design package to explain scale-up and scale-down procedures. The intent of this program is to provide potential small-scale producers with sound information about the size, engineering requirements, costs and level of effort in building such a system.

  18. Small-Scale-Field Dynamo

    SciTech Connect

    Gruzinov, A.; Cowley, S.; Sudan, R. ||

    1996-11-01

    Generation of magnetic field energy, without mean field generation, is studied. Isotropic mirror-symmetric turbulence of a conducting fluid amplifies the energy of small-scale magnetic perturbations if the magnetic Reynolds number is high, and the dimensionality of space {ital d} satisfies 2.103{lt}{ital d}{lt}8.765. The result does not depend on the model of turbulence, incompressibility, and isotropy being the only requirements. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  19. Industrial Waste Reduction Program. Program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-24

    US industry generates over 12 billion tons of wastes each year. These wastes consist of undesirable by-products of industrial production that are discarded into our environment. Energy is an integral part of these wastes; it is found in the embodied energy of industrial feedstocks not optimally used, in the energy content of the wastes themselves, and in the energy needed to transport, treat, and dispose of wastes. Estimates of the potential energy savings from reducing industrial wastes range from three to four quadrillion Btu per year -- enough to meet the annual energy needs of 30 million American homes. This document presents a plan for the Industrial Waste Reduction Program, which has been designed to help achieve national goals for energy efficiency and waste minimization. The objective of the program is to improve the energy efficiency of industrial processes through cost-effective waste reduction. The initial program focus is on waste reduction opportunities in the production and use of chemicals, due to the significant amount of energy used in these activities and the large amounts of hazardous and toxic wastes they generate. The chemical industry will be the initial subject of a series of waste reduction opportunity assessments conducted as part of the program. Assessments of other industries and waste problems will follow.

  20. Philippines: Small-scale renewable energy update

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This paper gives an overview of the application of small scale renewable energy sources in the Philippines. Sources looked at include solar, biomass, micro-hydroelectric, mini-hydroelectric, wind, mini-geothermal, and hybrid. A small power utilities group is being spun off the major utility, to provide a structure for developing rural electrification programs. In some instances, private companies have stepped forward, avoiding what is perceived as overwhelming beaurocracy, and installed systems with private financing. The paper provides information on survey work which has been done on resources, and the status of cooperative programs to develop renewable systems in the nation.

  1. Doctorate Program Trains Industrial Chemists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The University of Texas (Dallas) has initiated a new Ph.D. program specifically to train chemists for doctoral level work in industry (Doctor of Chemistry). Participants will complete three research practica (at an industrial site and in two laboratory settings) instead of the traditional dissertation, emphasizing breadth and flexibility in…

  2. Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gleeson, L.

    1991-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

  3. Industrial Assessment Center Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kolarik, William J.

    2007-02-26

    Over the five-year period (2002-2006) the Oklahoma State University Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) performed energy assessments for 106 different clients, writing 835 recommendations, for a total of $23,937,099 in potential estimated annual savings. IAC clients served consisted of small and medium-sized manufacturers ranging from food manufactures to foundries. The OSU IAC served clients in Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri, Arkansas, and Texas. In addition to client service, student training and instruction was a major accomplishment. The OSU IAC employed (and trained) 12 baccalaureate-level students, 17 masters-level graduate students, and 7 doctoral-level graduate students. Most are practicing in the energy management area. Training was focused on both energy assessment and safety. Safety training was both center-based training as well as on-site training. Energy management related training was focused on classroom (for academic credit) work at both the undergraduate and graduate level. IEM 4923 (Energy and Water Management) was developed to serve both the IAC as well as non-IAC students. It was delivered once per year, with enrollments of typically 10 to 20 students. This course was required for IAC student employees, both undergraduate and graduate. This course was patterned after the AEE CEM (five-day) course for practicing professionals. IEM 4923 required each student to attend at least one on-site assessment and write at least one recommendation for their client’s report. Hence, a hands-on approach was practiced. Advance level courses were used to train graduate students. Two courses played major roles here: IEM 5923 (Advanced Energy and Water Management) and IEM 5943 (Hazardous Material and Waste). Graduate student participation in these courses helped the IAC to gain additional perspectives in on-site assessment and resulting recommendations. Numerous hands-on demonstration/training was conducted by directors and graduate students in order to gain

  4. Economic analysis of small-scale fuel alcohol plants

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, J.J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    To plan Department of Energy support programs, it is essential to understand the fundamental economics of both the large industrial size plants and the small on-farm size alcohol plants. EG and G Idaho, Inc., has designed a 25 gallon per hour anhydrous ethanol plant for the Department of Energy's Alcohol Fuels Office. This is a state-of-the-art reference plant, which will demonstrate the cost and performance of currently available equipment. The objective of this report is to examine the economics of the EG and G small-scale alcohol plant design and to determine the conditions under which a farm plant is a financially sound investment. The reference EG and G Small-Scale Plant is estimated to cost $400,000. Given the baseline conditions defined in this report, it is calculated that this plant will provide an annual after-tax of return on equity of 15%, with alcohol selling at $1.62 per gallon. It is concluded that this plant is an excellent investment in today's market, where 200 proof ethanol sells for between $1.80 and $2.00 per gallon. The baseline conditions which have a significant effect on the economics include plant design parameters, cost estimates, financial assumptions and economic forecasts. Uncertainty associated with operational variables will be eliminated when EG and G's reference plant begins operation in the fall of 1980. Plant operation will verify alcohol yield per bushel of corn, labor costs, maintenance costs, plant availability and by-product value.

  5. Small Scale High Speed Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    London, Adam P. (Inventor); Droppers, Lloyd J. (Inventor); Lehman, Matthew K. (Inventor); Mehra, Amitav (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A small scale, high speed turbomachine is described, as well as a process for manufacturing the turbomachine. The turbomachine is manufactured by diffusion bonding stacked sheets of metal foil, each of which has been pre-formed to correspond to a cross section of the turbomachine structure. The turbomachines include rotating elements as well as static structures. Using this process, turbomachines may be manufactured with rotating elements that have outer diameters of less than four inches in size, and/or blading heights of less than 0.1 inches. The rotating elements of the turbomachines are capable of rotating at speeds in excess of 150 feet per second. In addition, cooling features may be added internally to blading to facilitate cooling in high temperature operations.

  6. Accrediting industrial safety training programs

    SciTech Connect

    Beitel, L.

    1992-12-31

    There are job-specific training requirements established by regulations that Impose stringent training requirements on a contractor, for example, the Occupational Safety & Health Act (OSHA). Failure to comply with OSHA training requirements can result in severe penalties being levied against a company. Although an accredited training program is expensive, it is a possible solution for minimizing risks associated with job-specific training requirements for employees. Operating DOE contractors direct approximately 10 percent of the operating funds toward training activities. Training needs for contractors span a broad range, from requirements awareness training for managers, to general training required on a one-time basis for all employees, to highly specialized training programs for employees involved In clean-up operations at hazardous waste sites. With this kind of an investment in training, it is logical to maximize the most return on an investment of training funds and to limit exposure to liability suits whenever possible. This presentation will provide an overview of accredited industrial safety programs. The criteria for accredited industrial safety programs will be defined. The question of whether accredited training programs are necessary will be examined. Finally, advantages and disadvantages will be identified for accrediting industrial safety training programs.

  7. Accrediting industrial safety training programs

    SciTech Connect

    Beitel, L.

    1992-01-01

    There are job-specific training requirements established by regulations that Impose stringent training requirements on a contractor, for example, the Occupational Safety Health Act (OSHA). Failure to comply with OSHA training requirements can result in severe penalties being levied against a company. Although an accredited training program is expensive, it is a possible solution for minimizing risks associated with job-specific training requirements for employees. Operating DOE contractors direct approximately 10 percent of the operating funds toward training activities. Training needs for contractors span a broad range, from requirements awareness training for managers, to general training required on a one-time basis for all employees, to highly specialized training programs for employees involved In clean-up operations at hazardous waste sites. With this kind of an investment in training, it is logical to maximize the most return on an investment of training funds and to limit exposure to liability suits whenever possible. This presentation will provide an overview of accredited industrial safety programs. The criteria for accredited industrial safety programs will be defined. The question of whether accredited training programs are necessary will be examined. Finally, advantages and disadvantages will be identified for accrediting industrial safety training programs.

  8. Small-scale combustion testing

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbon, G.A.; Ekmann, J.M.; White, C.M.; Navadauskas, R.J.; Retcofsky, H.L.; Joubert, J.I.

    1983-01-01

    In order to assess the possible environmental impact of substituting synfuels for petroleum in utility and industrial boilers, two experimental programs have been undertaken at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. First, a fully instrumented 20-hp firetube boiler capable of burning liquid fuels ranging in combustion characteristics from No. 2 to No. 6 petroleum has been installed in the Combustion Division. Second, a sampling and analytical methodology for the organic compounds present in the exhaust duct of the 20-hp boiler is being developed by the Analytical Chemistry Division. This report outlines the progress on this project to date: twenty-four successful combustion runs have been completed on the 20-hp boiler, using a variety of petroleum-based fuels and synfuels; a sampling protocol for organic vapors in hot exhaust gases has been developed; significant differences in the composition of the trace organics in the exhaust gases have been observed as a function of the fuel being burned, but total polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon levels are comparable for all fuels. 6 references, 10 tables.

  9. Program Budgeting for Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gramberg, Merlyn Ludwig

    In recognition of the increasing concern for the expenditure of tax dollars and the resulting need for accountability in budgeting, this study provides a model for program budgeting at the collegiate level in industrial education. Course outlines for drafting and woodworking at the University of Northern Colorado were analyzed and activities were…

  10. A small scale honey dehydrator.

    PubMed

    Gill, R S; Hans, V S; Singh, Sukhmeet; Pal Singh, Parm; Dhaliwal, S S

    2015-10-01

    A small scale honey dehydrator has been designed, developed, and tested to reduce moisture content of honey below 17 %. Experiments have been conducted for honey dehydration by using drying air at ambient temperature, 30 and 40 °C and water at 35, 40 and 45 °C. In this dehydrator, hot water has been circulated in a water jacket around the honey container to heat honey. The heated honey has been pumped through a sieve to form honey streams through which drying air passes for moisture removal. The honey streams help in increasing the exposed surface area of honey in contact with drying air, thus resulting in faster dehydration of honey. The maximum drying rate per square meter area of honey exposed to drying air was found to be 197.0 g/h-m(2) corresponding to the drying air and water temperature of 40 and 45 °C respectively whereas it was found to be minimum (74.8 g/h-m(2)) corresponding to the drying air at ambient temperature (8-17 °C) and water at 35 °C. The energy cost of honey moisture content reduction from 25.2 to 16.4 % was Rs. 6.20 to Rs. 17.36 (US $ 0.10 to US $ 0.28 (One US $ = 62.00 Indian Rupee on February, 2014) per kilogram of honey. PMID:26396418

  11. The Effectiveness of Videotape Programs as a Communication Tool in the Small-Scale Livestock for Rural Farming Women Project, Honduras.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Dean, Lynn

    This study examines economic development in Third World countries and the use of portable video systems in development projects. The study, conducted in 1985, attempts to measure the level of effectiveness of videotape programs as a communication tool for training rural subsistence women in Honduras in technical aspects of pig-keeping. Classical…

  12. Small Scale Marine Fisheries: An Extension Training Manual. TR-30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, Steven; And Others

    This manual is designed for use in a preservice training program for prospective volunteers whose Peace Corps service will be spent working with small-scale artisanal fishing communities in developing nations. The program consists of 8 weeks of intensive training to develop competencies in marine fisheries technology and fisheries extension work…

  13. Small-Scale Fisheries Bycatch Jeopardizes Endangered Pacific Loggerhead Turtles

    PubMed Central

    Peckham, S. Hoyt; Diaz, David Maldonado; Walli, Andreas; Ruiz, Georgita; Crowder, Larry B.; Nichols, Wallace J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Although bycatch of industrial-scale fisheries can cause declines in migratory megafauna including seabirds, marine mammals, and sea turtles, the impacts of small-scale fisheries have been largely overlooked. Small-scale fisheries occur in coastal waters worldwide, employing over 99% of the world's 51 million fishers. New telemetry data reveal that migratory megafauna frequent coastal habitats well within the range of small-scale fisheries, potentially producing high bycatch. These fisheries occur primarily in developing nations, and their documentation and management are limited or non-existent, precluding evaluation of their impacts on non-target megafauna. Principal Findings/Methodology 30 North Pacific loggerhead turtles that we satellite-tracked from 1996–2005 ranged oceanwide, but juveniles spent 70% of their time at a high use area coincident with small-scale fisheries in Baja California Sur, Mexico (BCS). We assessed loggerhead bycatch mortality in this area by partnering with local fishers to 1) observe two small-scale fleets that operated closest to the high use area and 2) through shoreline surveys for discarded carcasses. Minimum annual bycatch mortality in just these two fleets at the high use area exceeded 1000 loggerheads year−1, rivaling that of oceanwide industrial-scale fisheries, and threatening the persistence of this critically endangered population. As a result of fisher participation in this study and a bycatch awareness campaign, a consortium of local fishers and other citizens are working to eliminate their bycatch and to establish a national loggerhead refuge. Conclusions/Significance Because of the overlap of ubiquitous small-scale fisheries with newly documented high-use areas in coastal waters worldwide, our case study suggests that small-scale fisheries may be among the greatest current threats to non-target megafauna. Future research is urgently needed to quantify small-scale fisheries bycatch worldwide. Localizing

  14. Small scale structure on cosmic strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Andreas

    1989-01-01

    The current understanding of cosmic string evolution is discussed, and the focus placed on the question of small scale structure on strings, where most of the disagreements lie. A physical picture designed to put the role of the small scale structure into more intuitive terms is presented. In this picture it can be seen how the small scale structure can feed back in a major way on the overall scaling solution. It is also argued that it is easy for small scale numerical errors to feed back in just such a way. The intuitive discussion presented here may form the basis for an analytic treatment of the small scale structure, which argued in any case would be extremely valuable in filling the gaps in the present understanding of cosmic string evolution.

  15. Directives Relatives a l'Elaboration de Programmes de Conseil en Gestion pour Petites Entreprises (Guidelines for Management Consulting Programs for Small-Scale Enterprise). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Manual Series No. M-29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Gary L.

    Written in French, this manual is designed to assist management consultants in working with small-scale entrepreneurs in developing countries. Addressed in an overview of the small-scale enterprise (SSE) are the role of the SSE in Third World development, problems of SSEs, and target firms. The second chapter deals with various forms of management…

  16. Pautas para Programas de Asesoramiento Gestional para Microempresas (Guidelines for Management Consulting Programs for Small-Scale Enterprise). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Manual Series No. M-27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Gary L.

    Written in Spanish, this manual is designed to assist management consultants in working with small-scale entrepreneurs in developing countries. Addressed in an overview of the small-scale enterprise (SSE) are the role of the SSE in Third World development, problems of SSEs, and target firms. The second chapter deals with various forms of…

  17. Collaborating To Create a Portfolio Assessment in a Small-Scale Evaluation Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert L.; Bergman, Teresa

    During the 1994-95 program year, the staff of Even Start, a family literacy program in Lincoln (Nebraska), and an evaluator collaborated to create a low-stakes, small-scale portfolio assessment to collect information on program impact. The small scale of the evaluation offered opportunities to involve the staff in each step of the portfolio…

  18. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Water Projects. Guidelines for Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Gus

    This manual is the second volume in a series of publications on community development programs. Guidelines are suggested for small-scale water projects that would benefit segments of the world's urban or rural poor. Strategies in project planning, implementation and evaluation are presented that emphasize environmental conservation and promote…

  19. Small Scale Charcoal Making: A Manual for Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karch, Ed; And Others

    This training program offers skills training in all stages of the development of technologies related to small-scale charcoal production, including the design, construction, operation, maintenance, repair, and evaluation of prototype kilns. The kiln designs are selected to be as consistent as possible with the realities of rural areas in…

  20. Small Scale Beekeeping. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Curtis

    This manual is designed to assist Peace Corps volunteers in the development and implementation of small-scale beekeeping programs as a tool for development. Addressed in the individual chapters are bees and humans; project planning; the types and habits of bees; the essence of beekeeping; bee space and beehives; intermediate technology beekeeping;…

  1. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Energy Projects. Guidelines for Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassan, Elizabeth Ann; Wood, Timothy S., Ed.

    This manual is the fourth volume in a series of publications that provide information for the planning of environmentally sound small-scale projects. Programs that aim to protect the renewable natural resources that supply most of the energy used in developing nations are suggested. Considerations are made for physical environmental factors as…

  2. Method and system for small scale pumping

    DOEpatents

    Insepov, Zeke; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2010-01-26

    The present invention relates generally to the field of small scale pumping and, more specifically, to a method and system for very small scale pumping media through microtubes. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for small scale pumping, comprising the following steps: providing one or more media; providing one or more microtubes, the one or more tubes having a first end and a second end, wherein said first end of one or more tubes is in contact with the media; and creating surface waves on the tubes, wherein at least a portion of the media is pumped through the tube.

  3. Small scale bipolar nickel-hydrogen testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1988-01-01

    Bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, ranging in capacity from 6 to 40 A-hr, have been tested at the NASA Lewis Research Center over the past six years. Small scale tests of 1 A-hr nickel-hydrogen stacks have been initiated as a means of screening design and component variations for bipolar nickel-hydrogen cells and batteries. Four small-scale batteries have been built and tested. Characterization and limited cycle testing were performed to establish the validity of test results in the scaled down hardware. The results show characterization test results to be valid. LEO test results in the small scale hardware have limited value.

  4. Value of Academe-Industry Programs Studied.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Highlights survey in which chemistry chairman and industry counterparts rated 20 examples of university-industry programs as to current participation and estimated value, indicating that participation is consistent with high value for certain programs (such as faculty seminars at industry sites). Other findings suggesting possibilities for new…

  5. Small scale structure on cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, A.

    1989-10-30

    I discuss our current understanding of cosmic string evolution, and focus on the question of small scale structure on strings, where most of the disagreements lie. I present a physical picture designed to put the role of the small scale structure into more intuitive terms. In this picture one can see how the small scale structure can feed back in a major way on the overall scaling solution. I also argue that it is easy for small scale numerical errors to feed back in just such a way. The intuitive discussion presented here may form the basis for an analytic treatment of the small structure, which I argue in any case would be extremely valuable in filling the gaps in our resent understanding of cosmic string evolution. 24 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Industrial Technology Programs: The Influence of Industry on Program Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozak, Michael R.; Richards, John V.

    1981-01-01

    Presents data collected concerning concepts and skills which should be emphasized in the general academic curriculum and in the industrial technology curriculum, recommended minor fields of study for industrial technology majors, characteristics of successful employees, and present and future professional industrial employment needs in the…

  7. Programmed Learning in Integrated Industrial Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirley-Smith, Katalin

    Beginning with the system of industrial training boards and other background considerations, this British work gives detailed, practical guidance on applying programed instruction (PI) principles in various job functions and industries. Potential advantages of PI in industrial training are summarized, along with uses of audiovisual aids and…

  8. Small-scale physics of the ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    Progress in research on the small-scale physics of the ocean is reviewed. The contribution of such research to the understanding of the large scales is addressed and compared for various depth ranges of the ocean. The traditional framework for discussing small-scale measurements and turbulence is outlined, and recent research in the area is reviewed, citing references. Evidence for the existence of salt fingering in oceanic mixing is discussed. Factors that might inhibit the growth of salt fingers are assessed, and the influence of differences between laboratory tank and ocean in studying the fingers is discussed. The role of salt fingers in creating intrusions is examined. Instruments and methods used to measure the smallest scales at which there is appreciable variation and the stability of the patch of ocean in which the small-scale motions take place are considered.

  9. Industrial Assessment Center Program Impact Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.A.

    2000-01-26

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) Program. The purpose of this program is to conduct energy, waste, and productivity assessments for small to medium-sized industrial firms. Assessments are conducted by 30 university-based industrial assessment centers. The purpose of this project was to evaluate energy and cost savings attributable to the assessments, the trained alumni, and the Websites sponsored by this program. How IAC assessments, alumni, and Web-based information may influence industrial energy efficiency decision making was also studied. It is concluded that appreciable energy and cost savings may be attributed to the IAC Program and that the IAC Program has resulted in more active and improved energy-efficiency decision making by industrial firms.

  10. Geologic utility of small-scale airphotos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, M. M.

    1969-01-01

    The geologic value of small scale airphotos is emphasized by describing the application of high altitude oblique and 1:120,000 to 1:145,000 scale vertical airphotos to several geologic problems in California. These examples show that small-scale airphotos can be of use to geologists in the following ways: (1) high altitude, high oblique airphotos show vast areas in one view; and (2) vertical airphotos offer the most efficient method of discovering the major topographic features and structural and lithologic characteristics of terrain.

  11. IAPSA 2 small-scale system specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Gerald C.; Torkelson, Thomas C.

    1990-01-01

    The details of a hardware implementation of a representative small scale flight critical system is described using Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) building block components and simulated sensor/actuator interfaces. The system was used to study application performance and reliability issues during both normal and faulted operation.

  12. SMALL SCALE BIOMASS FUELED GAS TURBINE ENGINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new generation of small scale (less than 20 MWe) biomass fueled, power plants are being developed based on a gas turbine (Brayton cycle) prime mover. These power plants are expected to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of generating power from fuels such as wood. The n...

  13. Industrial Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Applied Tech., Adult, and Community Education.

    This document contains vocational education program course standards for exploratory courses, practical arts courses, and job preparatory programs offered at the secondary and postsecondary level as part of the industrial education component in Florida. Curriculum frameworks are provided for 144 programs/clusters; representative topics are as…

  14. Industrial Advanced Turbine Systems Program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Esbeck, D.W.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in partnership with industry, has set new performance standards for industrial gas turbines through the creation of the Industrial Advanced Turbine System Program. Their leadership will lead to the development of an optimized, energy efficient, and environmentally friendly gas turbine power systems in this size class (3-to-20 MW). The DOE has already created a positive effect by encouraging gas turbine system manufacturers to reassess their product and technology plans using the new higher standards as the benchmark. Solar Turbines has been a leader in the industrial gas turbine business, and is delighted to have joined with the DOE in developing the goals and vision for this program. We welcome the opportunity to help the national goals of energy conservation and environmental enhancement. The results of this program should lead to the U.S. based gas turbine industry maintaining its international leadership and the creation of highly paid domestic jobs.

  15. The Genetic Programming of Industrial Microorganisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopwood, David A.

    1981-01-01

    Traces the development of the field of industrial microbial genetics, describing a range of techniques for genetic programing. Includes a discussion of site-directed mutagenesis, protoplast fusion, and recombinant DNA manipulations. (CS)

  16. Results of Small-scale Solid Rocket Combustion Simulator testing at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin E.; Cook, Jerry

    1993-06-01

    The Small-scale Solid Rocket Combustion Simulator (SSRCS) program was established at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and used a government/industry team consisting of Hercules Aerospace Corporation, Aerotherm Corporation, United Technology Chemical Systems Division, Thiokol Corporation and MSFC personnel to study the feasibility of simulating the combustion species, temperatures and flow fields of a conventional solid rocket motor (SRM) with a versatile simulator system. The SSRCS design is based on hybrid rocket motor principles. The simulator uses a solid fuel and a gaseous oxidizer. Verification of the feasibility of a SSRCS system as a test bed was completed using flow field and system analyses, as well as empirical test data. A total of 27 hot firings of a subscale SSRCS motor were conducted at MSFC. Testing of the Small-scale SSRCS program was completed in October 1992. This paper, a compilation of reports from the above team members and additional analysis of the instrumentation results, will discuss the final results of the analyses and test programs.

  17. Results of Small-scale Solid Rocket Combustion Simulator testing at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin E.; Cook, Jerry

    1993-01-01

    The Small-scale Solid Rocket Combustion Simulator (SSRCS) program was established at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and used a government/industry team consisting of Hercules Aerospace Corporation, Aerotherm Corporation, United Technology Chemical Systems Division, Thiokol Corporation and MSFC personnel to study the feasibility of simulating the combustion species, temperatures and flow fields of a conventional solid rocket motor (SRM) with a versatile simulator system. The SSRCS design is based on hybrid rocket motor principles. The simulator uses a solid fuel and a gaseous oxidizer. Verification of the feasibility of a SSRCS system as a test bed was completed using flow field and system analyses, as well as empirical test data. A total of 27 hot firings of a subscale SSRCS motor were conducted at MSFC. Testing of the Small-scale SSRCS program was completed in October 1992. This paper, a compilation of reports from the above team members and additional analysis of the instrumentation results, will discuss the final results of the analyses and test programs.

  18. Creating Tech Programs Industry Wants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Community colleges serve on the front line of workforce development. With their focus on applied science associate degrees and technical certificate programs, they provide students with a high-quality, low-cost education that prepares them for careers in one to two years. And for students who can't take time away from their family or work to…

  19. Energy Industry Powers CTE Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khokhar, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Michael Fields is a recent graduate of Buckeye Union High School in Buckeye, Arizona. Fields is enrolled in the Estrella Mountain Community College (EMCC) Get Into Energy program, which means he is well on his way to a promising career. Specializing in power plant technology, in two years he will earn a certificate that will all but guarantee a…

  20. Classification of wetlands vegetation using small scale color infrared imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. S. L.

    1975-01-01

    A classification system for Chesapeake Bay wetlands was derived from the correlation of film density classes and actual vegetation classes. The data processing programs used were developed by the Laboratory for the Applications of Remote Sensing. These programs were tested for their value in classifying natural vegetation, using digitized data from small scale aerial photography. Existing imagery and the vegetation map of Farm Creek Marsh were used to determine the optimal number of classes, and to aid in determining if the computer maps were a believable product.

  1. Industrial Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This document contains the Florida program course standards for 151 courses in industrial education. For each course, the following information is provided: program title, effective date of standards, code number, whether secondary or postsecondary, credits, educational level, certification coverage, major concepts/content, laboratory activities,…

  2. School-Industry Programs. National Survey 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainley, John; Fleming, Marianne

    The extent and nature of Australia's school-industry programs in 1996 were examined through a survey of 1,868 government and nongovernment schools and programs. It was conducted using a questionnaire similar to that which had been used in 1995. According to the 1,453 completed questionnaires (response rate 78%) by 11th and 12th grade students, 62%…

  3. Industrial Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This document contains industrial education courses standards for 183 exploratory courses, practical arts courses, and job preparatory programs offered at the secondary or postsecondary level in Florida. Each program courses standard is composed of two parts. The first part, the curriculum framework, includes four major sections: major…

  4. Wireless Success Story - Industrial Technologies Program (ITP)

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-05-01

    This success story presents the results of wireless research by Sensors & Automation, a sub-program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Industrial Technologies Program (ITP). The prioritized research resulted in success with realized energy and cost savings.

  5. Small-Scale High-Performance Optics

    SciTech Connect

    WILSON, CHRISTOPHER W.; LEGER, CHRIS L.; SPLETZER, BARRY L.

    2002-06-01

    Historically, high resolution, high slew rate optics have been heavy, bulky, and expensive. Recent advances in MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) technology and micro-machining may change this. Specifically, the advent of steerable sub-millimeter sized mirror arrays could provide the breakthrough technology for producing very small-scale high-performance optical systems. For example, an array of steerable MEMS mirrors could be the building blocks for a Fresnel mirror of controllable focal length and direction of view. When coupled with a convex parabolic mirror the steerable array could realize a micro-scale pan, tilt and zoom system that provides full CCD sensor resolution over the desired field of view with no moving parts (other than MEMS elements). This LDRD provided the first steps towards the goal of a new class of small-scale high-performance optics based on MEMS technology. A large-scale, proof of concept system was built to demonstrate the effectiveness of an optical configuration applicable to producing a small-scale (< 1cm) pan and tilt imaging system. This configuration consists of a color CCD imager with a narrow field of view lens, a steerable flat mirror, and a convex parabolic mirror. The steerable flat mirror directs the camera's narrow field of view to small areas of the convex mirror providing much higher pixel density in the region of interest than is possible with a full 360 deg. imaging system. Improved image correction (dewarping) software based on texture mapping images to geometric solids was developed. This approach takes advantage of modern graphics hardware and provides a great deal of flexibility for correcting images from various mirror shapes. An analytical evaluation of blur spot size and axi-symmetric reflector optimization were performed to address depth of focus issues that occurred in the proof of concept system. The resulting equations will provide the tools for developing future system designs.

  6. Small-scale dynamic gap test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Malcolm David

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we describe a new small-scale test, requiring small quantities of energetic material, designed using our CHARM ignition and growth routine in the DYNA2D hydrocode. The new test is a modified gap test and uses detonating nitromethane to provide dynamic confinement (instead of a thick metal case) whilst exposing the sample to a long duration shock wave. This arrangement allows less reactive materials that are below their critical diameter, more time to react. We present details of the modelling of the test together with some preliminary experiments to demonstrate the potential of the new test method.

  7. Small-scale physics of the ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Douglas R.

    1987-01-01

    Observations and theoretical models of small-scale phenomena in the oceans are reviewed, with a focus on progress during the period 1983-1986. Topics examined include surface layers, equatorial turbulence, off-equator mixed layers, the scaling of mixing, turbulence concepts, laboratory results, internal waves and mixing, rings, the nature of the bottom layer, double diffusion and intrusions, salt fingers, and biological interactions. Also discussed are developments in instrumentation (fast sampling profilers with upward-profiling capability, deep profilers, ship-motion correction, horizontal samplers, small submersibles, submarines, towed packages, conductivity sensors, dissolved-oxygen sensors, and acoustic Doppler current profilers) and goals for future research.

  8. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) fellowship program

    SciTech Connect

    McCleary, D.D.

    1997-04-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program administers a Graduate Fellowship Program focused toward helping students who are currently under represented in the nation`s pool of scientists and engineers, enter and complete advanced degree programs. The objectives of the program are to: (1) establish and maintain cooperative linkages between DOE and professors at universities with graduate programs leading toward degrees or with degree options in Materials Science, Materials Engineering, Metallurgical Engineering, and Ceramic Engineering, the disciplines most closely related to the AIM Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); (2) strengthen the capabilities and increase the level of participation of currently under represented groups in master`s degree programs, and (3) offer graduate students an opportunity for practical research experience related to their thesis topic through the three-month research assignment or practicum at ORNL. The program is administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE).

  9. The energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.Z.

    1990-01-01

    The United states housing industry is undergoing a metamorphosis from hand built to factory built products. Virtually all new housing incorporates manufactured components; indeed, an increasing percentage is totally assembled in a factory. The factory-built process offers the promise of houses that are more energy efficient, of higher quality, and less costly. To ensure that this promise can be met, the US industry must begin to develop and use new technologies, new design strategies, and new industrial processes. However, the current fragmentation of the industry makes research by individual companies prohibitively expensive, and retards innovation. This research program addresses the need to increase the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers have responsibility for the program: the Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. The two organizations provide complementary architectural, systems engineering, and industrial engineering capabilities. In 1989 we worked on these tasks: the formation of a steering committee; the development of a multiyear research plan; analysis of the US industrialized housing industry; assessment of foreign technology; assessment of industrial applications; analysis of computerized design and evaluation tools; and assessment of energy performance of baseline and advanced industrialized housing concepts. Our goal is to develop techniques to produce marketable industrialized housing that is 25% more energy efficient that the most stringent US residential codes now require, and that costs less. Energy efficiency is the focus of the research, but it is viewed in the context of production and design. 63 refs.

  10. GAS INDUSTRY GROUNDWATER RESEARCH PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Sorensen; John R. Gallagher; Steven B. Hawthorne; Ted R. Aulich

    2000-10-01

    The objective of the research described in this report was to provide data and insights that will enable the natural gas industry to (1) significantly improve the assessment of subsurface glycol-related contamination at sites where it is known or suspected to have occurred and (2) make scientifically valid decisions concerning the management and/or remediation of that contamination. The described research was focused on subsurface transport and fate issues related to triethylene glycol (TEG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and ethylene glycol (EG). TEG and DEG were selected for examination because they are used in a vast majority of gas dehydration units, and EG was chosen because it is currently under regulatory scrutiny as a drinking water pollutant. Because benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (collectively referred to as BTEX) compounds are often very closely associated with glycols used in dehydration processes, the research necessarily included assessing cocontaminant effects on waste mobility and biodegradation. BTEX hydrocarbons are relatively water-soluble and, because of their toxicity, are of regulatory concern. Although numerous studies have investigated the fate of BTEX, and significant evidence exists to indicate the potential biodegradability of BTEX in both aerobic and anaerobic environments (Kazumi and others, 1997; Krumholz and others, 1996; Lovely and others, 1995; Gibson and Subramanian, 1984), relatively few investigations have convincingly demonstrated in situ biodegradation of these hydrocarbons (Gieg and others, 1999), and less work has been done on investigating the fate of BTEX species in combination with miscible glycols. To achieve the research objectives, laboratory studies were conducted to (1) characterize glycol related dehydration wastes, with emphasis on identification and quantitation of coconstituent organics associated with TEG and EG wastes obtained from dehydration units located in the United States and Canada, (2) evaluate

  11. Industrial energy-efficiency-improvement program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Progress made by industry toward attaining the voluntary 1980 energy efficiency improvement targets is reported. The mandatory reporting population has been expanded from ten original industries to include ten additional non-targeted industries and all corporations using over one trillion Btu's annually in any manufacturing industry. The ten most energy intensive industries have been involved in the reporting program since the signing of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act and as industrial energy efficiency improvement overview, based primarily on information from these industries (chemicals and allied products; primary metal industry; petroleum and coal products; stone, clay, and glass products; paper and allied products; food and kindred products; fabricated metal products; transportation equipment; machinery, except electrical; and textile mill products), is presented. Reports from industries, now required to report, are included for rubber and miscellaneous plastics; electrical and electronic equipment; lumber and wood; and tobacco products. Additional data from voluntary submissions are included for American Gas Association; American Hotel and Motel Association; General Telephone and Electronics Corporation; and American Telephone and Telegraph Company. (MCW)

  12. Expanded Small-Scale Shock Reactivity Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granholm, Richard

    2005-07-01

    Explosives react from a strong shock, even in quantities too small for detonation. The potential for a new material to be an explosive can be evaluated from this shock reactivity. The recently developed small-scale shock reactivity test (SSRT)ootnotetextH. W. Sandusky, R. H. Granholm, D. G. Bohl, ``Small-Scale Shock Reactivity Test,'' NSWC Technical Report (in publication), Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head, MD 20640 uses very high confinement to allow prompt reactions to occur in less than half-gram samples well below critical diameter, with the reactions quantified by a dent in a soft aluminum witness block. This test has been expanded to simultaneously measure both early and late-time reactions from a single sample subjected to the output from an RP-80 detonator. The sample apparatus is further confined within a small chamber instrumented with a pressure gage for internal air blast. This provides a measure of late-time reactions, such as from fuel/air combustion. Results are shown from several simultaneous early- and late-reaction measurements.

  13. Small-scale modular wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressers, Scott; Vernier, Chris; Regan, Jess; Chappell, Stephen; Hotze, Mark; Luhman, Stephen; Avirovik, Dragan; Priya, Shashank

    2010-04-01

    This study reports the design, fabrication, and implementation of a horizontal-axis, small-scale modular wind turbine termed as "small-scale wind energy portable turbine (SWEPT)". Portability, efficient operation at low wind speeds, and cost-effectiveness were the primary goals of SWEPT. The fabrication and component design for SWEPT are provided along with the modifications that can provide improvement in performance. A comparative analysis is presented with the prototype reported in literature. The results show that current version of SWEPT leads to 150% increase in output power. It was found that SWEPT can generate 160 mW power at rated wind speed of 7 mph and 500mW power at wind speeds above 10 mph with a cut-in wind speed of 3.8 mph. Furthermore, the prototype was subjected to field testing in which the average output was measured to be 40 mW despite the average wind distribution being centered around 3 mph.

  14. Small-scale universality in fluid turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Jörg; Scheel, Janet D.; Krasnov, Dmitry; Donzis, Diego A.; Yakhot, Victor; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2014-01-01

    Turbulent flows in nature and technology possess a range of scales. The largest scales carry the memory of the physical system in which a flow is embedded. One challenge is to unravel the universal statistical properties that all turbulent flows share despite their different large-scale driving mechanisms or their particular flow geometries. In the present work, we study three turbulent flows of systematically increasing complexity. These are homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in a periodic box, turbulent shear flow between two parallel walls, and thermal convection in a closed cylindrical container. They are computed by highly resolved direct numerical simulations of the governing dynamical equations. We use these simulation data to establish two fundamental results: (i) at Reynolds numbers Re ∼ 102 the fluctuations of the velocity derivatives pass through a transition from nearly Gaussian (or slightly sub-Gaussian) to intermittent behavior that is characteristic of fully developed high Reynolds number turbulence, and (ii) beyond the transition point, the statistics of the rate of energy dissipation in all three flows obey the same Reynolds number power laws derived for homogeneous turbulence. These results allow us to claim universality of small scales even at low Reynolds numbers. Our results shed new light on the notion of when the turbulence is fully developed at the small scales without relying on the existence of an extended inertial range. PMID:25024175

  15. Small-scale AFBC hot air gas turbine power cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, R.A.; Keener, H.M.; Hall, A.W.

    1995-12-31

    The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC), the Will-Burt Company (W-B) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have successfully developed and completed pilot plant tests on a small scale atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) system. This system can be used to generate electricity, and/or hot water, steam. Following successful pilot plant operation, commercial demonstration will take place at Cedar Lane Farms (CLF), near Wooster, Ohio. The system demonstration will be completed by the end of 1995. The project is being funded through a cooperative effort between the DOE, EER, W-B, OARDC, CLF and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO). The small scale AFBC, has no internal heat transfer surfaces in the fluid bed proper. Combining the combustor with a hot air gas turbine (HAGT) for electrical power generation, can give a relatively high overall system thermal efficiency. Using a novel method of recovering waste heat from the gas turbine, a gross heat rate of 13,500 Btu/kWhr ({approximately}25% efficiency) can be achieved for a small 1.5 MW{sub e} plant. A low technology industrial recuperation type gas turbine is used that operates with an inlet blade temperature of 1,450 F and a compression ratio of 3.9:1. The AFBC-HAGT technology can be used to generate power for remote rural communities to replace diesel generators, or can be used for small industrial co-generation applications.

  16. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the southeast: new impetus for an old energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The Southeastern conference, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power: New Impetus for an Old Energy Source, was convened to provide a forum for state legislators and other interested persons to discuss the problems facing small-scale hydro developers, and to recommend appropriate solutions to resolve those problems. During the two-day meeting state legislators and their staffs, along with dam developers, utility and industry representatives, environmentalists and federal/state officials examined and discussed the problems impeding small-scale hydro development at the state level. Based upon the problem-oriented discussions, alternative policy options were recommended for consideration by the US Department of Energy, state legislatures and the staff of the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). Emphasis was placed on the legal, institutional, environmental and economic barriers at the state level, as well as the federal delays associated with licensing small-scale hydro projects. Whereas other previously held conferences have emphasized the identification and technology of small-scale hydro as an alternative energy source, this conference stressed legislative resolution of the problems and delays in small-scale hydro licensing and development. Panel discussions and workshops are summarized. Papers on the environmental, economic, and legal aspects of small-scale hydropower development are presented. (LCL)

  17. Career Education: Suggested School-Industry Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Donald, Ed.

    The document, produced to aid Ohio communities in linking their schools' kindergarten through secondary career education (CE) programs with the needs and interests of local General Motors (GM) plants, defines some central concepts of career education and discusses successful, cooperative interaction between industry and career education. The focus…

  18. Industry's Interest in Ocean Engineering Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbich, John B.

    This publication presents the results of a survey conducted to determine the viewpoint of industry regarding the subject matter that should be included in ocean engineering education programs. Questionnaires were mailed to over 1,000 individuals; 270 replies, or 27 percent of those surveyed, respond. Seventy percent of the replies indicated…

  19. Small-scale positive flower structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clendenin, C. W.

    1993-01-01

    Field relations indicate that small-scale positive flower structures along sub-regional strike-slip faults localize ore in particular 4 m thick, bedded ore zones in Mississippi Valley-type Pb-Zn deposits of the Viburnum Trend, southeast Missouri, U.S.A. Outwardly divergent, shallow-dipping, duplex-deformed fault splays control ore and merge inwardly with sub-vertical fault strands. The characteristics of both duplex-deformed splays and ore suggest that the flower structures acted as drains for fluids being moved vertically along the strike-slip faults. This ore control differs from pipe-like conduits of transtensional dilation jogs in that duplex-deformed splays form under transpression and develop horizontal veins adjacent to strike-slip faults.

  20. Models of Small-Scale Patchiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGillicuddy Dennis J., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Patchiness is perhaps the most salient characteristic of plankton populations in the ocean. The scale of this heterogeneity spans many orders of magnitude in its spatial extent, ranging from planetary down to microscale. It has been argued that patchiness plays a fundamental role in the functioning of marine ecosystems, insofar as the mean conditions may not reflect the environment to which organisms are adapted. For example, the fact that some abundant predators cannot thrive on the mean concentration of their prey in the ocean implies that they are somehow capable of exploiting small-scale patches of prey whose concentrations are much larger than the mean. Understanding the nature of this patchiness is thus one of the major challenges of oceanographic ecology. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Practical small-scale explosive seam welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    A small-scale explosive seam welding process has been developed that can significantly contribute to remote metal joining operations under hazardous or inaccessible conditions, such as nuclear reactor repair and assembly of structure in space. This paper describes this explosive seam welding process in terms of joining principles, variables, types of joints created, capabilities, and applications. Very small quantities of explosive in a ribbon configuration are used to create narrow (less than 0.5 inch), long-length, uniform, hermetically sealed joints that exhibit parent metal properties in a wide variety of metals, alloys, and combinations. The practicality of this process has been demonstrated by its current acceptance, as well as its capabilities that are superior in many applications to the universally accepted joining processes, such as mechanical fasteners, fusion and resistance welding, and adhesives.

  2. Cold dark matter: Controversies on small scales

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, David H.; Bullock, James S.; Governato, Fabio; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Peter, Annika H. G.

    2015-01-01

    The cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological model has been remarkably successful in explaining cosmic structure over an enormous span of redshift, but it has faced persistent challenges from observations that probe the innermost regions of dark matter halos and the properties of the Milky Way’s dwarf galaxy satellites. We review the current observational and theoretical status of these “small-scale controversies.” Cosmological simulations that incorporate only gravity and collisionless CDM predict halos with abundant substructure and central densities that are too high to match constraints from galaxy dynamics. The solution could lie in baryonic physics: Recent numerical simulations and analytical models suggest that gravitational potential fluctuations tied to efficient supernova feedback can flatten the central cusps of halos in massive galaxies, and a combination of feedback and low star formation efficiency could explain why most of the dark matter subhalos orbiting the Milky Way do not host visible galaxies. However, it is not clear that this solution can work in the lowest mass galaxies, where discrepancies are observed. Alternatively, the small-scale conflicts could be evidence of more complex physics in the dark sector itself. For example, elastic scattering from strong dark matter self-interactions can alter predicted halo mass profiles, leading to good agreement with observations across a wide range of galaxy mass. Gravitational lensing and dynamical perturbations of tidal streams in the stellar halo provide evidence for an abundant population of low-mass subhalos in accord with CDM predictions. These observational approaches will get more powerful over the next few years. PMID:25646464

  3. Cold dark matter: Controversies on small scales.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, David H; Bullock, James S; Governato, Fabio; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Peter, Annika H G

    2015-10-01

    The cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological model has been remarkably successful in explaining cosmic structure over an enormous span of redshift, but it has faced persistent challenges from observations that probe the innermost regions of dark matter halos and the properties of the Milky Way's dwarf galaxy satellites. We review the current observational and theoretical status of these "small-scale controversies." Cosmological simulations that incorporate only gravity and collisionless CDM predict halos with abundant substructure and central densities that are too high to match constraints from galaxy dynamics. The solution could lie in baryonic physics: Recent numerical simulations and analytical models suggest that gravitational potential fluctuations tied to efficient supernova feedback can flatten the central cusps of halos in massive galaxies, and a combination of feedback and low star formation efficiency could explain why most of the dark matter subhalos orbiting the Milky Way do not host visible galaxies. However, it is not clear that this solution can work in the lowest mass galaxies, where discrepancies are observed. Alternatively, the small-scale conflicts could be evidence of more complex physics in the dark sector itself. For example, elastic scattering from strong dark matter self-interactions can alter predicted halo mass profiles, leading to good agreement with observations across a wide range of galaxy mass. Gravitational lensing and dynamical perturbations of tidal streams in the stellar halo provide evidence for an abundant population of low-mass subhalos in accord with CDM predictions. These observational approaches will get more powerful over the next few years. PMID:25646464

  4. Small-Scale Smart Grid Construction and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surface, Nicholas James

    The smart grid (SG) is a commonly used catch-phrase in the energy industry yet there is no universally accepted definition. The objectives and most useful concepts have been investigated extensively in economic, environmental and engineering research by applying statistical knowledge and established theories to develop simulations without constructing physical models. In this study, a small-scale version (SSSG) is constructed to physically represent these ideas so they can be evaluated. Results of construction show data acquisition three times more expensive than the grid itself although mainly due to the incapability to downsize 70% of data acquisition costs to small-scale. Experimentation on the fully assembled grid exposes the limitations of low cost modified sine wave power, significant enough to recommend pure sine wave investment in future SSSG iterations. Findings can be projected to full-size SG at a ratio of 1:10, based on the appliance representing average US household peak daily load. However this exposes disproportionalities in the SSSG compared with previous SG investigations and recommended changes for future iterations are established to remedy this issue. Also discussed are other ideas investigated in the literature and their suitability for SSSG incorporation. It is highly recommended to develop a user-friendly bidirectional charger to more accurately represent vehicle-to-grid (V2G) infrastructure. Smart homes, BEV swap stations and pumped hydroelectric storage can also be researched on future iterations of the SSSG.

  5. Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    Six area reported progress in the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program during FY 1991. As part of Industry Guidance, meetings were held with steering and technical committees in computers, housing design and manufacturing. This task area enables the program to benefit from the expertise of industry representatives and communicate research results directly to them. As part of the Design Process performance specifications were being developed for the future housing system designed last year. These house designs coordinate and optimize predicted and desirable advances in computerized design processes, materials, components, and manufacturing automation to achieve energy efficiency at reduced first cost. Energy design software were being developed for CAD systems, stressed skin insulating core panel manufacturers; and a prototype energy sales tool. A prototype design was to be developed to integrate one or more subsystems with the building skin. As part of the Manufacturing Process we are developing a manufacturing process simulation and data base to help current and new entrants to the industrialized housing industry in assessing the impact of implementing new manufacturing techniques. For Evaluation we are developing testing plans for six units of housing on the UO campus and the stressed skin insulating core house to be constructed in Oregon. The DOW Chemical test structure will be retrofitted with a tile roof and retested to compare to the dome and conventional construction structures. Calibration of the wind tunnel will be completed so that laboratory tests can be conducted to simulate the ventilation cooling efficiency of houses in design. Research utilization and program management were either aspects of this program.

  6. Small-scale pig farmers’ behavior, silent release of African swine fever virus and consequences for disease spread

    PubMed Central

    Costard, Solenne; Zagmutt, Francisco J.; Porphyre, Thibaud; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo

    2015-01-01

    The expanding distribution of African swine fever (ASF) is threatening the pig industry worldwide. Most outbreaks occur in backyard and small-scale herds, where poor farmers often attempt to limit the disease’s economic consequences by the emergency sale of their pigs. The risk of African swine fever virus (ASFV) release via this emergency sale was investigated. Simulation modeling was used to study ASFV transmission in backyard and small-scale farms as well as the emergency sale of pigs, and the potential impact of improving farmers and traders’ clinical diagnosis ability–its timeliness and/or accuracy–was assessed. The risk of ASFV release was shown to be high, and improving farmers’ clinical diagnosis ability does not appear sufficient to effectively reduce this risk. Estimates obtained also showed that the distribution of herd size within the backyard and small-scale sectors influences the relative contribution of these farms to the risk of release of infected pigs. These findings can inform surveillance and control programs. PMID:26610850

  7. Small-scale dynamic confinement gap test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Malcolm

    2011-06-01

    Gap tests are routinely used to ascertain the shock sensitiveness of new explosive formulations. The tests are popular since that are easy and relatively cheap to perform. However, with modern insensitive formulations with big critical diameters, large test samples are required. This can make testing and screening of new formulations expensive since large quantities of test material are required. Thus a new test that uses significantly smaller sample quantities would be very beneficial. In this paper we describe a new small-scale test that has been designed using our CHARM ignition and growth routine in the DYNA2D hydrocode. The new test is a modified gap test and uses detonating nitromethane to provide dynamic confinement (instead of a thick metal case) whilst exposing the sample to a long duration shock wave. The long duration shock wave allows less reactive materials that are below their critical diameter, more time to react. We present details on the modelling of the test together with some preliminary experiments to demonstrate the potential of the new test method.

  8. Hall-magnetohydrodynamic small-scale dynamos.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Daniel O; Mininni, Pablo D; Dmitruk, Pablo

    2010-09-01

    Magnetic field generation by dynamo action is often studied within the theoretical framework of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). However, for sufficiently diffuse media, the Hall effect may become non-negligible. We present results from three-dimensional simulations of the Hall-MHD equations subjected to random nonhelical forcing. We study the role of the Hall effect in the dynamo efficiency for different values of the Hall parameter. For small values of the Hall parameter, the small-scale dynamo is more efficient, displaying faster growth and saturating at larger amplitudes of the magnetic field. For larger values of the Hall parameter, saturation of the magnetic field is reached at smaller amplitudes than in the MHD case. We also study energy transfer rates among spatial scales and show that the Hall effect produces a reduction of the direct energy cascade at scales larger than the Hall scale, therefore leading to smaller energy dissipation rates. Finally, we present results stemming from simulations at large magnetic Prandtl numbers, which is the relevant regime in the hot and diffuse interstellar medium. In the range of magnetic Prandtl numbers considered, the Hall effect moves the peak of the magnetic energy spectrum as well as other relevant magnetic length scales toward the Hall scale. PMID:21230195

  9. Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Miller

    2009-03-22

    This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

  10. Slip Dynamics in Small Scale Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maass, Robert; Derlet, Peter; Greer, Julia; Volkert, Cynthia

    2015-03-01

    Classical work showed that dislocation velocities are strongly dependent on applied stress. Numerous experiments have validated this for individual or groups of dislocations in macroscopic crystals by using imaging techniques combined with either mechanical data or time resolved topological data. Developments in small scale mechanical testing allow to correlate the intermittency of collective dislocation motion with the mechanical response. Discrete forward surges in displacement can be related to dislocation avalanches, which are triggered by the evolving dislocation sub-structure. We study the spatiotemporal characteristics of intermittent plastic flow in quasi-statically sheared single crystalline Au crystals with diameters between 300 nm and 10000 nm, whose displacement bursts were recorded at several kHz (Scripta Mater. 2013, 69, 586; Small, available online). Both the crystallographic slip magnitude, as well as the velocity of the slip events are exhibiting power-law scaling as. The obtained slip velocity distribution has a cubic decay at high values, and a saturated flat shoulder at lower velocities. No correlation between the slip velocity and the applied stress or plastic strain is found. Further, we present DD-simulations that are supportive of our experimental findings. The simulations suggest that the dynamics of the internal stress fields dominate the evolving dislocation structure leading to velocities that are insensitive to the applied stress - a regime indicative of microplasticity.

  11. TURBULENT SMALL-SCALE DYNAMO ACTION IN SOLAR SURFACE SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Jonathan Pietarila; Cameron, Robert; Schuessler, Manfred

    2010-05-10

    We demonstrate that a magneto-convection simulation incorporating essential physical processes governing solar surface convection exhibits turbulent small-scale dynamo action. By presenting a derivation of the energy balance equation and transfer functions for compressible magnetohydrodynamics, we quantify the source of magnetic energy on a scale-by-scale basis. We rule out the two alternative mechanisms for the generation of the small-scale magnetic field in the simulations: the tangling of magnetic field lines associated with the turbulent cascade and Alfvenization of small-scale velocity fluctuations ('turbulent induction'). Instead, we find that the dominant source of small-scale magnetic energy is stretching by inertial-range fluid motions of small-scale magnetic field lines against the magnetic tension force to produce (against Ohmic dissipation) more small-scale magnetic field. The scales involved become smaller with increasing Reynolds number, which identifies the dynamo as a small-scale turbulent dynamo.

  12. Extreme events and small-scale structure in computational turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, X. M.; Yeung, P. K.; Sreenivasan, K. R.

    2015-11-01

    Detailed analyses have been made of data from a direct numerical simulation of turbulence on a periodic domain with 81923 grid points designed to improve our understanding of small-scale structure and intermittency. At the Reynolds number of this simulation (1300 based on the Taylor scale) extreme events of dissipation and enstrophy as large as 105 times the mean value are observed. These events are shown to possess a form that is different from similar events at low Reynolds numbers. Extreme vorticity appears to be ``chunky'' in character, in contrast to elongated vortex tubes at moderately large amplitudes commonly reported in the literature. We track the temporal evolution of these extreme events and find that they are generally short-lived, which suggests frequent sampling on-the-fly is useful. Extreme magnitudes of energy dissipation rate and enstrophy are essentially coincident in space and remain so during their evolution. Numerical tests show sensitivity to small-scale resolution and sampling but not machine precision. The connections expected between indicators of fine-scale intermittency such as acceleration statistics and the anomalous scaling of high-order velocity structure functions are also investigated. Supported by NSF Grant ACI-1036170 (Track 1 Petascale Resource Allocations Program).

  13. Health and Safety Management for Small-scale Methane Fermentation Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, Masaru; Yuyama, Yoshito; Nakamura, Masato; Oritate, Fumiko

    In this study, we considered health and safety management for small-scale methane fermentation facilities that treat 2-5 ton of biomass daily based on several years operation experience with an approximate capacity of 5 t·d-1. We also took account of existing knowledge, related laws and regulations. There are no qualifications or licenses required for management and operation of small-scale methane fermentation facilities, even though rural sewerage facilities with a relative similar function are required to obtain a legitimate license. Therefore, there are wide variations in health and safety consciousness of the operators of small-scale methane fermentation facilities. The industrial safety and health laws are not applied to the operation of small-scale methane fermentation facilities. However, in order to safely operate a small-scale methane fermentation facility, the occupational safety and health management system that the law recommends should be applied. The aims of this paper are to clarify the risk factors in small-scale methane fermentation facilities and encourage planning, design and operation of facilities based on health and safety management.

  14. Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, E. T.

    1974-01-01

    The Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP) was originated in 1959 by the Army, Navy, and Air Force Ballistic Missile Agencies. Known at that time as IDEP--Interservice Data Exchange Program--its intent was to eliminate duplicate testing of parts and components by disseminating pertinent test data among Department of Defense contractors and various government agencies. In 1966 both the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Canadian Military Electronics Standards Agency (CAMESA) recognized the value of the data provided by the program and became participants. Today, GIDEP provides the interchange of specialized technical data to all the military services, participating government contractors and numerous government agencies such as the Atomic Energy Commission, Federal Aviation Administration, Defense Supply Agency, and the Small Business Administration.

  15. Industrial Advanced Turbine Systems Program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Esbeck, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    DOE`s ATS Program will lead to the development of an optimized, energy efficient, and environmentally friendly gas turbine power systems in the 3 to 20 MW class. Market studies were conducted for application of ATS to the dispersed/distributed electric power generation market. The technology studies have led to the design of a gas-fired, recuperated, industrial size gas turbine. The Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine program continues. In the High Performance Steam Systems program, a 100 hour development test to prove the advanced 1500 F, 1500 psig system has been successfully completed. A market transformation will take place: the customer will be offered a choice of energy conversion technologies to meet heat and power generation needs into the next century.

  16. Small-Scale Magnetic Reconnection at Equatorial Coronal Hole Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Derek; DeForest, C. E.

    2011-05-01

    Coronal holes have long been known to be the source of the fast solar wind at both high and low latitudes. The equatorial extensions of polar coronal holes have long been assumed to have substantial magnetic reconnection at their boundaries, because they rotate more rigidly than the underlying photosphere. However, evidence for this reconnection has been sparse until very recently. We present some evidence that reconnection due to the evolution of small-scale magnetic fields may be sufficient to drive coronal hole boundary evolution. We hypothesize that a bias in the direction of that reconnection is sufficient to give equatorial coronal holes their rigid rotation. We discuss the prospects for investigating this using FLUX, a reconnection-controlled coronal MHD simulation framework. This work was funded by the NASA SHP-GI program.

  17. NASA/industry advanced turboprop technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemianski, Joseph A.; Whitlow, John B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental and analytical effort shows that use of advanced turboprop (propfan) propulsion instead of conventional turbofans in the older narrow-body airline fleet could reduce fuel consumption for this type of aircraft by up to 50 percent. The NASA Advanced Turboprop (ATP) program was formulated to address the key technologies required for these thin, swept-blade propeller concepts. A NASA, industry, and university team was assembled to develop and validate applicable design codes and prove by ground and flight test the viability of these propeller concepts. Some of the history of the ATP Project, an overview of some of the issues, and a summary of the technology developed to make advanced propellers viable in the high-subsonic cruise speed application are presented. The ATP program was awarded the prestigious Robert J. Collier Trophy for the greatest achievement in aeronautics and astronautics in America in 1987.

  18. NASA/industry advanced turboprop technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemianski, Joseph A.; Whitlow, John B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental and analytical effort shows that use of advanced turboprop (propfan) propulsion instead of conventional turbofans in the older narrow-body airline fleet could reduce fuel consumption for this type of aircraft by up to 50 percent. The NASA Advanced Turboprop (ATP) program was formulated to address the key technologies required for these thin, swept-blade propeller concepts. A NASA, industry, and university team was assembled to develop and validate applicable design codes and prove by ground and flight test the viability of these propeller concepts. Some of the history of the ATP project, an overview of some of the issues, and a summary of the technology developed to make advanced propellers viable in the high-subsonic cruise speed application are presented. The ATP program was awarded the prestigious Robert J. Collier Trophy for the greatest achievement in aeronautics and astronautics in America in 1987.

  19. Space Industrialization. Volume 2: Opportunities, Markets and Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The nature of space industrialization and the reasons for its promotion are examined. Increases in space industry activities to be anticipated from 1980 to 2010 are assessed. A variety of future scenarios against which space industrialization could evolve were developed and the various industrial opportunities that might constitute that evolution were defined. The needs and markets of industry activities were quantitatively and qualitatively assessed and messed. The various hardware requirements vs. time (space industry programs) as space industrialization evolves are derived and analyzed.

  20. Small scale adaptive optics experiment systems engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boykin, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Assessment of the current technology relating to the laser power beaming system which in full scale is called the Beam Transmission Optical System (BTOS). Evaluation of system integration efforts are being conducted by the various government agencies and industry. Concepts are being developed for prototypes of adaptive optics for a BTOS.

  1. Program of Studies: Trade and Industrial: Grades 9-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax County Schools, VA.

    Part 1 of the trade and industrial education curriculum guide for grades 9-12 contains a brief program overview and Vocational Industrial Clubs of America (VICA) description, more detailed descriptions of in-school and out-of-school programs and program classification methods, a list of references, and charts of various programs and training…

  2. The Environmental protection agency industrial technology transfer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suter, K. H.

    1974-01-01

    Today TAC consists of a full service information center and five programs, which are: (1) our industrial program; (2) the energy information center; (3) the business and industry extension program; (4) the remote sensing program; and (5) the center for environmental research and development.

  3. Big Ideas at a Very Small Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khourey-Bowers, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to share a learning-cycle sequence of lessons designed to convey the particulate nature of matter through use of physical models and analogical thinking. This activity was adapted from Conceptual Chemistry, a long-running professional development program for teachers of grades 4-9. Conceptual Chemistry's approach is…

  4. Tobacco Industry Youth Smoking Prevention Programs: Protecting the Industry and Hurting Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Landman, Anne; Ling, Pamela M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This report describes the history, true goals, and effects of tobacco industry–sponsored youth smoking prevention programs. Methods. We analyzed previously-secret tobacco industry documents. Results. The industry started these programs in the 1980s to forestall legislation that would restrict industry activities. Industry programs portray smoking as an adult choice and fail to discuss how tobacco advertising promotes smoking or the health dangers of smoking. The industry has used these programs to fight taxes, clean-indoor-air laws, and marketing restrictions worldwide. There is no evidence that these programs decrease smoking among youths. Conclusions. Tobacco industry youth programs do more harm than good for tobacco control. The tobacco industry should not be allowed to run or directly fund youth smoking prevention programs. PMID:12036777

  5. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the

  6. Industrial Energy Efficiency: Designing Effective State Programs for the Industrial Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Amelie Goldberg; Taylor, Robert P.; Hedman, Bruce

    2014-03-21

    This report provides state regulators, utilities, and other program administrators with an overview of U.S. industrial energy efficiency programs and assesses some of the key features of programs that have generated increased energy savings.

  7. Exposure assessment in SMES: a low-cost approach to bring OHS services to small-scale enterprises.

    PubMed

    Seneviratne, Mahinda; Phoon, Wai On

    2006-01-01

    There is increased attention to improving occupational health and safety in small to medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). The Workers Health Centre, a not-for-profit OHS service in western Sydney, assessed workplace exposures in two SMEs following intervention by regulatory agencies. A low-cost monitoring program for noise, airbone dust, fibers and chemicals was conducted at these two metal working industry workplaces. Results showed that exposure to the hazards were above the statutory limits and there was generally an unhealthy access to OHS information by the predominantly immigrant or low literate worker population, were identified. The potential for using a program of low-cost exposure assessments, accompanied by a strategy to provide OHSs information for workers in small-scale enterprises, is discussed. PMID:16610529

  8. Small scale combustion testing of synthetic fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbon, G.A.; Ekmann, J.M.; Navadauskas, R.J.; White, C.M.

    1982-03-01

    In order to assess any changes in the environmental impact of industrial or utility boiler exhaust gases upon changing from petroleum-based fuels to synthetic fuels, detailed characterizations of the exhaust emissions from both types of fuels burned under identical combustion conditions are required. A 20-hp (approximately 5 gallons of liquid fuel feed per hour) firetube boiler has been installed in the Combustion Technology Division of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) so such experiments can be performed. The boiler is fully instrumented for heat and material balance measurements, including analysis of the major and minor components of the combustion gases and the total hydrocarbons and particulates present in the gases. In addition, the exhaust duct of the boiler has a sampling port adjacent to the one used for major and minor components; this port is used to sample exhaust gases for the analysis of the trace organic compounds present in the gases. The Analytical Chemistry Division of PETC is developing the sampling and analytical methodologies for the trace organics. The effort to date has been focused on the problems involved in sampling the hot (ca. 350/sup 0/F) exhaust gases and on the analysis of the gases for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons.

  9. "Medicine Today;" A Small Scale Trial of Subjective Responses of Doctors Viewing Television in Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyrick, R. L.

    The intent of this admittedly small scale and unsophisticated trial was to test the response of General Practitioners to being given a form to fill out following a television broadcast, to test the value of the semantic differential method for testing subjective responses to the programs, and to see if some means of testing by multiple-choice…

  10. Physico-chemical treatment of wastewater from clusters of small scale cotton textile units.

    PubMed

    Pathe, P P; Biswas, A K; Rao, N N; Kaul, S N

    2005-03-01

    Small scale industries can not own individual wastewater treatment facility due to non-availability of land and skilled manpower for operation and maintenance of wastewater treatment plants. A centralized wastewater treatment facility for clusters of small scale industries is appropriate. This concept is gaining popularity in recent years. In India, various textile process operations are undertaken by individual small scale units. The wastewater generated at these units is conveyed to a common effluent treatment facility comprising of equalization, flocculation-clarification, activated sludge process, secondary clarification and finally discharge into inland surface water bodies. The wastewater from small scale cotton textile processing units was highly coloured and alkaline with average BOD and COD concentration of 205 and 790 mg l(-1), respectively. Due to the presence of several dyes, particularly reactive dyes, the biological treatment is often found less effective. Therefore, applicability of various physico-chemical treatment methods needs to be investigated in pursuit of an alternative to biological treatment of textile wastewater. A physico-chemical treatment scheme, involving chemical coagulation-sedimentation, dual media filtration, activated carbon adsorption followed by chemical oxidation was investigated in this paper. The quality of final treated wastewater in terms of BOD and COD was 18-24 and 230-240 mg l(-1), respectively through this scheme. A scheme of treatment comprising coagulation-sedimentation, dual media filtration, activated carbon, chemical oxidation may be considered as an alternative to biological treatment of textile wastewater. PMID:15881028

  11. Advanced Industrial Materials Program. Annual progress report, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Stooksbury, F.

    1994-06-01

    Mission of the AIM program is to commercialize new/improved materials and materials processing methods that will improve energy efficiency, productivity, and competitiveness. Program investigators in the DOE national laboratories are working with about 100 companies, including 15 partners in CRDAs. Work is being done on intermetallic alloys, ceramic composites, metal composites, polymers, engineered porous materials, and surface modification. The program supports other efforts in the Office of Industrial Technologies to assist the energy-consuming process industries. The aim of the AIM program is to bring materials from basic research to industrial application to strengthen the competitive position of US industry and save energy.

  12. Small scale thematic mapping - A case for radar imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, F. M.

    1974-01-01

    Small scale thematic maps (1:250,000 and smaller) of physical and cultural phenomena manifested on the landscape are a major concern to scientists and investigators in diverse disciplines. A strip of K-band radar imagery consisting of a traverse from eastern Minnesota to northern Utah was employed to evaluate the potential of radar imagery for small scale land use mapping. In the course of this investigation, it was discovered that certain borders derived from radar imagery were compatible with borders found on the nonland use thematic maps used for comparison. Specifically, numerous borders and regions of small scale maps of landforms, soils, vegetation, and geology are found to be similar to the radar land use regions. Although far from conclusive it appears that radar imagery can be employed in the small scale mapping of landforms and possibly for mapping physiognomic or economic vegetation.

  13. A Small-Scale Low-Cost Gas Chromatograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gros, Natasa; Vrtacnik, Margareta

    2005-01-01

    The design and application of a small-scale portable gas chromatograph for learning of the basic concepts of chromatography is described. The apparatus consists of two basic separable units, which includes a chromatographic unit and an electronic unit.

  14. Small-scale eruptive filaments on the quiet sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermans, Linda M.; Martin, Sara F.

    1986-01-01

    A study of a little known class of eruptive events on the quiet sun was conducted. All of 61 small-scale eruptive filamentary structures were identified in a systematic survey of 32 days of H alpha time-lapse films of the quiet sun acquired at Big Bear Solar Observatory. When fully developed, these structures have an average length of 15 arc seconds before eruption. They appear to be the small-scale analog of large-scale eruptive filaments observed against the disk. At the observed rate of 1.9 small-scale eruptive features per field of view per average 7.0 hour day, the rate of occurence of these events on the sun were estimated to be greater than 600 per 24 hour day.. The average duration of the eruptive phase was 26 minutes while the average lifetime from formation through eruption was 70 minutes. A majority of the small-scale filamentary sturctures were spatially related to cancelling magnetic features in line-of-sight photospheric magnetograms. Similar to large-scale filaments, the small-scale filamentary structures sometimes divided opposite polarity cancelling fragments but often had one or both ends terminating at a cancellation site. Their high numbers appear to reflect the much greater flux on the quiet sun. From their characteristics, evolution, and relationship to photospheric magnetic flux, it was concluded that the structures described are small-scale eruptive filaments and are a subset of all filaments.

  15. The Physical Character of Small-Scale Interstellar Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauroesch, James T.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this program was to obtain FUSE observations of the multiple interstellar absorption lines of H2 toward the members of 3 resolvable binary/multiple star systems to explore the physical conditions in known interstellar small-scale structures. Each of the selected systems was meant to address a different aspect of the models for the origin of these structures: 1) The stars HD 32039/40 were meant to probe a temporally varying component which probed a cloud with an inferred size of tens to a few hundreds of AU. The goal was to see if there was any significant H2 associated with this component; 2) The star HD 36408B and its companion HD 36408A (observed as part of FUSE GTO program P119) show significant spatial and temporal (proper motion induced) Na I column variations in a strong, relatively isolated component, as well as a relatively simple component structure. The key goal here was to identify any differences in H2 or C I excitation between the sightlines, and to measure the physical conditions (primarily density and temperature) in the temporally varying component; 3) The stars HD 206267C and HD 206267D are highly reddened sightlines which showed significant variations in K I and molecular absorption lines in multiple velocity components. Coupled with FUSE GTO observations of HD 206267A (program P116), the goal was to study the variations in H2 along sightlines which are significantly more distant, with larger separations, and with greater extinctions than the other selected binary systems.

  16. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; McDonald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, Tomoko . Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Mazwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. )

    1989-12-01

    This document describes the research work completed in five areas in fiscal year 1989. (1) The analysis of the US industrialized housing industry includes statistics, definitions, a case study, and a code analysis. (2) The assessment of foreign technology reviews the current status of design, manufacturing, marketing, and installation of industrialized housing primarily in Sweden and Japan. (3) Assessment of industrialization applications reviews housing production by climate zone, has a cost and energy comparison of Swedish and US housing, and discusses future manufacturing processes and emerging components. (4) The state of computer use in the industry is described and a prototype design tool is discussed. (5) Side by side testing of industrialized housing systems is discussed.

  17. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; Mc Donald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, T. . Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Maxwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. )

    1989-01-01

    This is the second volume of a two volume report on energy efficient industrialized housing. Volume II contains support documentation for Volume I. The following items are included: individual trip reports; software bibliography; industry contacts in the US, Denmark, and Japan; Cost comparison of industrialized housing in the US and Denmark; draft of the final report on the systems analysis for Fleetwood Mobile Home Manufacturers. (SM)

  18. Educational Technology Looks at Industry-Sponsored Economics Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedermeyer, Fred C.

    1990-01-01

    Surveys the technical characteristics of 22 industry-sponsored instructional programs in economics, and identifies the objectives of economics education. Contends that the 22 concepts identified by the Joint Council on Economic Education need to be translated into a framework of learning objectives. Concludes that industry sponsored programs could…

  19. Model University-Industry Engineering Programs. An AEA Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Electronics Association, Palo Alto, CA.

    This guide presents 37 sample industry-university programs as part of the American Electronics Association's leadership role of encouraging companies to increase investments in engineering education. Model university-industry partnerships in the following areas are presented: faculty assistance grants; faculty loan programs; endowments; graduate…

  20. A Small-College Undergraduate Program in Industrial Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasinski, Jerry P.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a program designed to prepare students to work upon graduation in the industrial chemical field as chief chemists in production plants; in analytical laboratories; or in sales, management, or public relations within chemical firms. Also describes industry-college relationship established to achieve program objectives. (JN)

  1. National Survey of Computer Aided Manufacturing in Industrial Technology Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidari, Farzin

    The current status of computer-aided manufacturing in the 4-year industrial technology programs in the United States was studied. All industrial technology department chairs were mailed a questionnaire divided into program information, equipment information, and general comments sections. The questionnaire was designed to determine the subjects…

  2. Computer Adaptive Testing for Small Scale Programs and Instructional Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.; Guo, Fanmin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates measurement decision theory (MDT) as an underlying model for computer adaptive testing when the goal is to classify examinees into one of a finite number of groups. The first analysis compares MDT with a popular item response theory model and finds little difference in terms of the percentage of correct classifications. The…

  3. Cartographic research in EREP program for small scale mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mott, P. G.; Fullard, H.; Bartholomew, J. C.; Leatherdale, J. D.; Chismon, H. J.; Hall, H. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab photography is suitable for producing planimetric maps with graphical representation of landform at scales up to 1:100,000. It cannot supply all the detail necessary for maps at this scale, but it may be used to produce a sound framework which can be completed by detail from other sources. Its principal cartographic use is for original mapping of undeveloped areas of the world, but it would also be useful for the revision of existing maps and for monitoring extensive urban changes.

  4. DOE/Industry Matching Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    John C. Lee

    2003-09-30

    For the academic year 2001-2002, the Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences received $50,000 of industrial contributions, matched by a DOE grant of $35,000. We used the combined DOE/Industry Matching Grant of $85,000 toward (a) undergraduate merit scholarships and research support, (b) graduate student support, and (c) partial support of a research scientist.

  5. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; McDonald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, Tomoko . Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Maxwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. )

    1990-02-01

    This report summarizes three documents: Multiyear Research Plan, Volume I FY 1989 Task Reports, and Volume II Appendices. These documents describe tasks that were undertaken from November 1988 to December 1989, the first year of the project. Those tasks were: (1) the formation of a steering committee, (2) the development of a multiyear research plan, (3) analysis of the US industrialized housing industry, (4) assessment of foreign technology, (5) assessment of industrial applications, (6) analysis of computerized design and evaluation tools, and (7) assessment of energy performance of baseline and advanced industrialized housing concepts. While this document summarizes information developed in each task area, it doesn't review task by task, as Volume I FY 1989 Task Reports does, but rather treats the subject of energy efficient industrialized housing as a whole to give the reader a more coherent view. 7 figs., 9 refs.

  6. The Industry Coupled Case Study Program final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stringfellow, J.

    1982-10-01

    The Industry Coupled Case Study Program was conceived as a short-term cooperative program between the Federal government and private industry. Federal funds were committed to stimulate geothermal exploration and development between 1977 and 1979, although some work under the program continues into 1982. Federal funding has been phased out and the remaining information developed during the program is being disseminated and reported. This report presents an overview of the program and documents the technical results and open-file data base resulting from the program.

  7. Industrial Maintenance. Program CIP: 47.0303 - Industrial Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Curriculum Unit, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  8. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Annual progress report FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This Annual Report for FY 1995 contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Areas covered here are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  9. Industrial Technologies Program Research Plan for Energy-Intensive Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Chapas, Richard B.; Colwell, Jeffery A.

    2007-10-01

    In this plan, the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) identifies the objectives of its cross-cutting strategy for conducting research in collaboration with industry and U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories to develop technologies that improve the efficiencies of energy-intensive process industries.

  10. 78 FR 11996 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Commercial and Industrial Pumps

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... efficiency of commercial and industrial pumps. (76 FR 34192, June 13, 2011). DOE subsequently published a...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AC54 Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Commercial and Industrial Pumps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable...

  11. The "We Card" program: tobacco industry "youth smoking prevention" as industry self-preservation.

    PubMed

    Apollonio, Dorie E; Malone, Ruth E

    2010-07-01

    The "We Card" program is the most ubiquitous tobacco industry "youth smoking prevention" program in the United States, and its retailer materials have been copied in other countries. The program's effectiveness has been questioned, but no previous studies have examined its development, goals, and uses from the tobacco industry's perspective. On the basis of our analysis of tobacco industry documents released under the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, we concluded that the We Card program was undertaken for 2 primary purposes: to improve the tobacco industry's image and to reduce regulation and the enforcement of existing laws. Policymakers should be cautious about accepting industry self-regulation at face value, both because it redounds to the industry's benefit and because it is ineffective. PMID:20466965

  12. Industrial Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This document contains vocational education program courses standards (curriculum frameworks and student performance standards) for exploratory courses, practical arts courses, and job preparatory programs offered at the secondary or postsecondary level in Florida. Each program courses standard is composed of two parts: a curriculum framework and…

  13. Small Scale Equidistribution of Eigenfunctions on the Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lester, Stephen; Rudnick, Zeév

    2016-08-01

    We study the small scale distribution of the L 2 mass of eigenfunctions of the Laplacian on the flat torus {{T}d} . Given an orthonormal basis of eigenfunctions, we show the existence of a density one subsequence whose L 2 mass equidistributes at small scales. In dimension two our result holds all the way down to the Planck scale. For dimensions d = 3, 4 we can restrict to individual eigenspaces and show small scale equidistribution in that context. We also study irregularities of quantum equidistribution: We construct eigenfunctions whose L 2 mass does not equidistribute at all scales above the Planck scale. Additionally, in dimension d = 4 we show the existence of eigenfunctions for which the proportion of L 2 mass in small balls blows up at certain scales.

  14. A unified large/small-scale dynamo in helical turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Pallavi; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Brandenburg, Axel

    2016-09-01

    We use high resolution direct numerical simulations (DNS) to show that helical turbulence can generate significant large-scale fields even in the presence of strong small-scale dynamo action. During the kinematic stage, the unified large/small-scale dynamo grows fields with a shape-invariant eigenfunction, with most power peaked at small scales or large k, as in Subramanian & Brandenburg. Nevertheless, the large-scale field can be clearly detected as an excess power at small k in the negatively polarized component of the energy spectrum for a forcing with positively polarized waves. Its strength overline{B}, relative to the total rms field Brms, decreases with increasing magnetic Reynolds number, ReM. However, as the Lorentz force becomes important, the field generated by the unified dynamo orders itself by saturating on successively larger scales. The magnetic integral scale for the positively polarized waves, characterizing the small-scale field, increases significantly from the kinematic stage to saturation. This implies that the small-scale field becomes as coherent as possible for a given forcing scale, which averts the ReM-dependent quenching of overline{B}/B_rms. These results are obtained for 10243 DNS with magnetic Prandtl numbers of PrM = 0.1 and 10. For PrM = 0.1, overline{B}/B_rms grows from about 0.04 to about 0.4 at saturation, aided in the final stages by helicity dissipation. For PrM = 10, overline{B}/B_rms grows from much less than 0.01 to values of the order the 0.2. Our results confirm that there is a unified large/small-scale dynamo in helical turbulence.

  15. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program annual progress report, FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is a part of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of AIM is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. OIT has embarked on a fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrating on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans, some of which have been completed. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support.

  16. Small-scale Anisotropies of Cosmic Rays from Relative Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlers, Markus; Mertsch, Philipp

    2015-12-01

    The arrival directions of multi-TeV cosmic rays show significant anisotropies at small angular scales. It has been argued that this small-scale structure can naturally arise from cosmic ray scattering in local turbulent magnetic fields that distort a global dipole anisotropy set by diffusion. We study this effect in terms of the power spectrum of cosmic ray arrival directions and show that the strength of small-scale anisotropies is related to properties of relative diffusion. We provide a formalism for how these power spectra can be inferred from simulations and motivate a simple analytic extension of the ensemble-averaged diffusion equation that can account for the effect.

  17. Fundamental economic issues in the development of small scale hydro

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    Some basic economic issues involved in the development of small-scale hydroelectric power are addressed. The discussion represents an economist's view of the investment process in this resource. Very little investment has been made in small-scale hydro development and an attempt is made to show that the reason for this may not be that the expected present worth of the returns of the project do not exceed the construction cost by a sufficient amount. Rather, a set of factors in combination impose costs on the project not normally incurred in small businesses. The discussion covers costs, supply, demand, and profitability.

  18. Kinks and small-scale structure on cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, E. J.; Kibble, T. W. B.

    2009-12-15

    We discuss some hitherto puzzling features of the small-scale structure of cosmic strings. We argue that kinks play a key role, and that an important quantity to study is their sharpness distribution. In particular we suggest that for very small scales the two-point correlation function of the string tangent vector varies linearly with the separation and not as a fractional power, as proposed by Polchinski and Rocha [Phys. Rev. D 74, 083504 (2006)]. However, our results are consistent with theirs, because the range of scales to which this linearity applies shrinks as evolution proceeds.

  19. Effectiveness of an Undergraduate Program in Industrial/Organizational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirnan, Jean P.; Reilly, Maura; Decker, William

    2000-01-01

    Reports on an evaluation of an undergraduate program in industrial/organizational psychology (College of New Jersey) five years after its implementation in order to assess the effectiveness of the program and identify areas in need of change. Describes the program and makes recommendations for future directions. (CMK)

  20. Canada's Voluntary ARET Program: Limited Success Despite Industry Cosponsorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antweiler, Werner; Harrison, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    The Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxins (ARET) Challenge was a voluntary program initiated in 1994 by the Government of Canada. Unlike the U.S. 33/50 Program, ARET involved industry partners in negotiation and cosponsorship of the program, with the intention that early involvement would yield stronger commitment to voluntary reductions. We…

  1. Pre-Industrial Preparation Program Handbook. Vocational-Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Developed in a workshop by principals, counselors, and teachers, this handbook is designed to serve as a guide for program implementation and to present an orientation to the pre-industrial preparation program. The primary goal of the program is to help academically deprived students improve their basic verbal, scientific, and mathematical skills…

  2. Computer simulation program is adaptable to industrial processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, F. E.

    1966-01-01

    The Reaction kinetics ablation program /REKAP/, developed to simulate ablation of various materials, provides mathematical formulations for computer programs which can simulate certain industrial processes. The programs are based on the use of nonsymmetrical difference equations that are employed to solve complex partial differential equation systems.

  3. Overview of the US industrial thermal energy storage program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olszewski, M.

    1981-02-01

    Thermal energy storage can contribute to industrial conservation efforts directed at saving premium (gas and oil) fuels, which is a priority national need. This can be done by using storage to allow the recycling of industrial reject heat to reduce primary energy consumption or to allow alternate fuels to replace gas and oil. Industrial thermal energy storage efforts include three major areas: in-plant reuse of industrial reject heat; external reuse of industrial reject heat for applications in the industrial or buildings sector; and use of alternate fuels to replace gas and oil. The program currently includes engineering field tests in the brick and aluminum industries. In addition, technology transfer activities are underway in the pulp and paper industry.

  4. An Industrial View of Undergraduate Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, David M.

    Several areas that are lacking in undergraduate nuclear engineering programs are discussed. Although most programs provide adequate theoretical knowledge in nuclear science, the nuclear engineer must have a working knowledge with the complete nuclear power plant, and be acquainted with the functions and responsibilities of the various segments of…

  5. Automated small-scale fuel alcohol plant: A means to add value to food processing waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfram, J.H.; Keller, J.; Wernimont, L.P.

    1993-12-31

    A small scale fuel grade alcohol plant was designed, constructed and operated a decade ago. This plant design incorporated several innovative processes and features that are still on the cutting edge for small scale alcohol production. The plant design could be scaled down or up to match the needs of food processing waste streams that contain sugars or starches as BOD. The novel features include automation requiring four hours of labor per 24 hour day and a plug flow low temperature cooking system which solubilizes and liquifies the starch in one step. This plant consistently produced high yield of alcohol. Yields of 2.6 gallons of absolute alcohol were produced from a bushel of corn. Potato waste grain dust and cheese whey were also processed in this plant as well as barley. Production energy for a 190 proof gallon was approximately 32,000 BTU. This paper discusses the design, results, and applicability of this plant to food processing industries.

  6. Designing Writing Programs in Business and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freed, Richard C.

    Current training in writing for business and industry usually takes the form of short courses. However, the short course is an inappropriate way to teach writing because it is inefficient, represents writing behaviors or strategies inappropriate for some writers, rarely allows time for adequate criticism and revision, presents too much material in…

  7. Biobased industrial lubricants and biopreferred program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global chemical industry growth is projected at 3 to 6 percent per year through 2025, while the biobased chemicals market share is expected to grow from 2 to 22 percent and biobased polymers are expected to increase from 0.1 to 10-20 percent market share. Finding a renewable replacement for petrole...

  8. Design and operation of a small-scale ethanol still

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of a small-scale alcohol still utilizing beer derived from both corn and potato mash. Use was made of the ethanol in alcohol vehicles imported from Brazil. By-products (stillage) were successfully used as cattle feed. (DMC)

  9. Small-Scale Spatial Variability of Ozone in Boulder, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deanes, L. N.; Sadighi, K.; Casey, J. G.; Collier, A. M.; Hannigan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Surface ozone (O3) can pose several health risks to humans, such as an increased number of and intensity of asthma attacks. Considering this, it is important that ozone levels are monitored. While municipal air quality monitors are present in cities like Boulder, Colorado, these monitors often only consider regional analysis, neglecting the variability of compounds, such as ozone or carbon monoxide, over smaller distances. Small-scale (approximately 1 kilometer) spatial variability in ozone is important because humans experience these small scales on a daily basis. Using low-cost, next-generation air quality monitors ("pods") developed at the University of Colorado-Boulder, we assessed small-scale spatial variability of surface ozone in Boulder, Colorado. This was done by placing clusters of 4-5 pods within approximately 1 kilometer of each other at specific sites in the city of Boulder. We collected data at two sites: one on the University of Colorado-Boulder campus (i.e., an urban site) and one outside of the city (i.e., a rural site). Pods were left in their positions for one to two weeks allowing for observation of ozone trends. As expected the typical diurnal trend was observed; however, further analysis revealed differences between these daily trends. Data collected by the pods allows for better understanding of small-scale spatial variability of surface ozone and how this may be driven by nearby sources.

  10. The Role of Leadership in Small Scale Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Wei; DeBrot, David; Witney, Carol

    2015-01-01

    By investigating the factors facilitating and hindering a small scale educational change, this study highlights the crucial role of leadership in designing and implementing an educational change at a transnational university in Vietnam. During its initiation stage, the programme leaders seemed to fail to (1) set up a clear schedule for changing,…

  11. A Small Scale Experimental Study: Using Animations to Learn Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayaoglu, M. Naci; Dag Akbas, Raside; Ozturk, Zeynep

    2011-01-01

    This study attempts to investigate whether a difference exists between learning vocabulary via animation and via traditional paper-based method. This small scale study was conducted at Karadeniz Technical University in academic year 2009-2010. Two pre-intermediate classes were randomly selected as the experimental group (n = 17), and control group…

  12. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Forestry Projects. Guidelines for Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ffolliott, Peter F.; Thames, John L.

    This manual, the third in a series of publications that address community development possibilities in developing nations, provides guidelines for small-scale forestry projects that are integrative and conservation-oriented. Chapters focus on: (1) users and uses (specifying targeted audience and general objectives); (2) planning process (including…

  13. On the Small-Scale Morphology of Asthenospheric Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, V.; Davaille, A.; Crambes, C.

    2003-12-01

    We investigated the interaction of small-scale cold instabilities dripping from a cooling lithosphere with a shear flow confined in the asthenosphere, using analog experiments. Rayleigh numbers ranged between 104 and 108. The fluids were either polymer solutions (constant viscosity), sugar or corn syrups (viscosity depending on temperature), or wax (phase transition). When cooling away from the ridge, the thickening lithosphere becomes thermally unstable and develops small-scale convective instabilities at its bottom. For sufficiently fast asthenospheric flow, these instabilities are sheared and remain trapped in the asthenosphere, following a helicoidal path aligned with the direction of plate motion. A phase diagram and scaling laws for the flow characteristics were determined. The observed helicoidal pattern could explain some geophysical observables such as small wavelength lineations in the terrestrial gravity field, or seismic anisotropy anomalies under the Pacific plate. Moreover, the distance from the ridge at which the small-scale instabilities form depends on the underlying mantle temperature: for a hotter mantle, they are generated closer to the ridge. Therefore, in the case of a ridge-centered plume, the hot temperature anomaly due to the plume triggers small-scale instabilities almost at the ridge. The heat transfer out of the mantle is accelerated, and the thickening of the lithosphere away from the ridge is delayed. Therefore, a groove at the bottom of the lithosphere may be expected along the track of a ridge-centred hotspot.

  14. Spatial nonlocality of the small-scale solar dynamo

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, D. A.; Howard, T. A.; DeForest, C. E.

    2014-06-10

    We explore the nature of the small-scale solar dynamo by tracking magnetic features. We investigate two previously explored categories of the small-scale solar dynamo: shallow and deep. Recent modeling work on the shallow dynamo has produced a number of scenarios for how a strong network concentration can influence the formation and polarity of nearby small-scale magnetic features. These scenarios have measurable signatures, for which we test using magnetograms from the Narrowband Filter Imager (NFI) on board Hinode. We find no statistical tendency for newly formed magnetic features to cluster around or away from network concentrations, nor do we find any statistical relationship between their polarities. We conclude that there is no shallow or 'surface' dynamo on the spatial scales observable by Hinode/NFI. In light of these results, we offer a scenario in which the subsurface field in a deep solar dynamo is stretched and distorted via turbulence, allowing the small-scale field to emerge at random locations on the photosphere.

  15. 2010 Thin Film & Small Scale Mechanical Behavior Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Thomas Balk

    2010-07-30

    Over the past decades, it has been well established that the mechanical behavior of materials changes when they are confined geometrically at least in one dimension to small scale. It is the aim of the 2010 Gordon Conference on 'Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior' to discuss cutting-edge research on elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation as well as degradation mechanisms like fracture, fatigue and wear at small scales. As in the past, the conference will benefit from contributions from fundamental studies of physical mechanisms linked to material science and engineering reaching towards application in modern applications ranging from optical and microelectronic devices and nano- or micro-electrical mechanical systems to devices for energy production and storage. The conference will feature entirely new testing methodologies and in situ measurements as well as recent progress in atomistic and micromechanical modeling. Particularly, emerging topics in the area of energy conversion and storage, such as material for batteries will be highlighted. The study of small-scale mechanical phenomena in systems related to energy production, conversion or storage offer an enticing opportunity to materials scientists, who can provide new insight and investigate these phenomena with methods that have not previously been exploited.

  16. SMALL-SCALE AND LOW-TECHNOLOGY RESOURCE RECOVERY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to assess the applicability of various approaches to resource recovery to selected waste generators. The resource recovery systems and technologies were limited to those operating in the small-scale range, defined as less than 100 tons per day input, or thos...

  17. Solar small-scale dynamo and polarity of sunspot groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokoloff, D.; Khlystova, A.; Abramenko, V.

    2015-08-01

    In order to clarify a possible role of small-scale dynamo in formation of solar magnetic field, we suggest an observational test for small-scale dynamo action based on statistics of anti-Hale sunspot groups. As we have shown, according to theoretical expectations the small-scale dynamo action has to provide a population of sunspot groups which do not follow the Hale polarity law, and the density of such groups on the time-latitude diagram is expected to be independent on the phase of the solar cycle. Correspondingly, a percentage of the anti-Hale groups is expected to reach its maximum values during solar minima. For several solar cycles, we considered statistics of anti-Hale groups obtained by several scientific teams, including ours, to find that the percentage of anti-Hale groups becomes indeed maximal during a solar minimum. Our interpretation is that this fact may be explained by the small-scale dynamo action inside the solar convective zone.

  18. Technology Roadmap Research Program for the Steel Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph R. Vehec

    2010-12-30

    The steel industry's Technology Roadmap Program (TRP) is a collaborative R&D effort jointly sponsored by the steel industry and the United States Department of Energy. The TRP program was designed to develop new technologies to save energy , increase competitiveness, and improve the environment. TRP ran from July, 1997 to December, 2008, with a total program budget of $38 million dollars. During that period 47 R&D projects were performed by 28 unique research organizations; co-funding was provided by DOE and 60 industry partners. The projects benefited all areas of steelmaking and much know-how was developed and transferred to industry. The American Iron and Steel Institute is the owner of all intellectual property developed under TRP and licenses it at commercial rates to all steelmakers. TRP technologies are in widespread use in the steel industry as participants received royalty-free use of intellectual property in return for taking the risk of funding this research.

  19. Industrial cogeneration optimization program. Final report, September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Jerry; McWhinney, Jr., Robert T.

    1980-01-01

    This study program is part of the DOE Integrated Industry Cogeneration Program to optimize, evaluate, and demonstrate cogeneration systems, with direct participation of the industries most affected. One objective is to characterize five major energy-intensive industries with respect to their energy-use profiles. The industries are: petroleum refining and related industries, textile mill products, paper and allied products, chemicals and allied products, and food and kindred products. Another objective is to select optimum cogeneration systems for site-specific reference case plants in terms of maximum energy savings subject to given return on investment hurdle rates. Analyses were made that define the range of optimal cogeneration systems for each reference-case plant considering technology applicability, economic factors, and energy savings by type of fuel. This study also provides guidance to other parts of the program through information developed with regard to component development requirements, institutional and regulatory barriers, as well as fuel use and environmental considerations. (MCW)

  20. Industrial irradiator radiation safety program assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Mark A.

    2000-03-01

    Considerable attention is typically given to radiation safety in the design of irradiators and initially establishing the program. However, one component that may not receive enough attention is applying the continuous improvement philosophy to the radiation safety program. Periodic total program assessments of radiation safety can ensure that the design and implementation of the program continues to be applicable to the operations. The first step in the process must be to determine what is to be covered in the program assessment. While regulatory compliance audits are a component, the most useful evaluation will extend beyond looking only at compliance and determine whether the radiation safety program is the most appropriate for the particular operation. Several aspects of the irradiator operation, not all of which may routinely be considered "radiation safety", per se, should be included: Design aspects of the irradiator and operating system, system controls, and maintenance procedures, as well as the more traditional radiation safety program components such as surveys, measurements and training.

  1. For Drafting Programs--Computer Graphics in Industrial Tech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutliff, Ron

    1980-01-01

    Posits that computer-aided drafting and design should be introduced to students in industrial technology programs. Discusses ways the technical educator can get involved in computer graphics to familiarize students with it without a large outlay of money. (JOW)

  2. Certification Programs for Business and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settle, Theodore J.

    1991-01-01

    Examples of certification programs are given: Certified Professional Managers, Certified Professional Secretary, Certified Purchasing Manager, certified Clinical Specialist in Medical-Surgical Nursing, Certified Financial Planner, Senior Professional in Human Resources, and Certified Quality Engineer. (SK)

  3. Material Management Program Can Attract Local Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magad, Eugene L.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the material management certificate and the associate in applied science degree programs at William Rainey Harper College, Palatine, Illinois. Material management functions include purchasing, production control, inventory control, material handling, warehousing, packaging, computer applications, and transportation. (MF)

  4. Occupational Employment Statistics Program. Staffing Patterns in Selected Nonmanufacturing Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Employment Security Div., Indianapolis. Research and Statistics Section.

    The material in the publication is intended to acquaint users with the occupational composition of the various nonmanufacturing industries in the State of Indiana. It is directed particularly to those who are concerned with designing academic and vocational education programs in order to supply workers to fill the needs of industry and to…

  5. Report on Community College Industrial Production Technology Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    This report provides an in-depth analysis of the Industrial Production Technology Programs in Illinois, which, according to Illinois Community College Board policy, must be reviewed at least once every five years. The disciplines included in this report are: industrial manufacturing technology, corrosion technology, plastics technology, and…

  6. Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP) and NASA Advisories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP) and NASA Advisories policy to practice. The contents include: 1) Purpose of the Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP); 2) NASA and GSFC Documentation; 3) NASA Advisories, differences from GIDEP; 4) GIDEP Distribution by Originator; 5) New Interim GIDEP Policy for Suspect Counterfeits; 6) NASA and Suspect Counterfeits; 7) Threats to GIDEP; and 8) Conclusions and Contact Information.

  7. A Comparative Study to Determine the Efficacy of Two Industrial Arts Program Approaches Upon Pupils' Attitudes Toward Manufacturing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazzini, Phillip Albert

    This experimental study was designed to determine the differences in attitudes toward the manufacturing industry among pupils enrolled in (1) a conventional industrial arts program, (2) an innovative industrial arts program, and (3) a parochial school having no industrial arts program. A self-constructed attitude scale was administered to 128…

  8. Industrial Technologies Program - A Clean, Secure Energy Future via Industrial Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-01

    The Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) leads the national effort to save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the largest energy-using sector of the U.S. economy. ITP drives energy efficiency improvements and carbon dioxide reductions throughout the manufacturing supply chain, helping develop and deploy innovative technologies that transform the way industry uses energy.

  9. Industrial R&D Program Evaluation Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, David P.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The history of research and development (R&D) and its evaluation within the 3M Company are traced as an example of the progression of the use of evaluation and evaluation techniques. Scoring methods, cost-benefit analysis, and risk analysis have been among the most frequently used program evaluation methods. (SLD)

  10. The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) program office of industrial technologies fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Sorrell, C.A.

    1997-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in FY95 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven `Vision Industries` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. These are: aluminium; chemical; forest products; glass; metal casting; refineries; and steel. OIT is working with these industries, through appropriate organizations, to develop Visions of the desired condition of each industry some 20 to 25 years in the future and then to prepare Road Maps and Implementation Plans to enable them to reach their goals. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to `Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`

  11. A Small-Scale Randomized Efficacy Trial of Carescapes: Enhancing Children's Social Development in Child Care Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusby, Julie C.; Smolkowski, Keith; Marquez, Brion; Taylor, Ted K.

    2008-01-01

    The quality of the child care environment and caregiver practices can potentially have significant, lasting impact on children's social development. This study involves the development and a small-scale efficacy trial of the Carescapes program, a video-based training program that focuses on promoting positive social development in young children…

  12. A continuing program for technology transfer to the apparel industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clingman, W. H.

    1971-01-01

    A six month program has been carried out to investigate various mechanisms for transferring technology to industry. This program has focused on transfer to the apparel industry through the Apparel Research Foundation. The procedure was to analyze the problem, obtain potentially relevant aerospace technology, and then transfer this technology to the industry organization. This was done in a specific case. Technology was identified relevant to stitchless joining, and this technology was transferred to the Apparel Research Foundation. The feasibility and ground rules for carrying out such activities on a broader scale were established. A specific objective was to transfer new technology from the industry organization to the industry itself. This required the establishment of an application engineering program. Another transfer mechanism tested was publication of solutions to industry problems in a format familiar to the industry. This is to be distinguished from circulating descriptions of new technology. Focus is on the industry problem and the manager is given a formula for solving it that he can follow. It was concluded that this mechanism can complement the problem statement approach to technology transfer. It is useful in achieving transfer when a large amount of application engineering is not necessary. A wide audience is immediately exposed to the technology. On the other hand, the major manufacturing problems which require a sophisticated technical solution integrating many innovations are less likely to be helped.

  13. Answering Industry's Needs: An Internship Training Program for Technical Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Helen M.

    Northeastern University (Boston) offers an internship program to train technical writers for the computer industry. The program is designed for 20 individuals with bachelor's degrees and writing experience. Students attend classes at night, taking one computer science course and one graduate level writing course per academic quarter. The computer…

  14. WORK INSTRUCTION PROGRAMS FOR THE FOOD SERVICE INDUSTRY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KONZ, STEPHAN A.; MIDDLETON, RAYMONA

    A PROJECT WAS INITIATED TO DEVELOP EFFICIENT WORK METHODS FOR 100 COMMON TASKS IN THE FOOD SERVICE INDUSTRY AND THEN TO PREPARE PROGRAMED LEARNING "PACKAGES" FOR EACH OF THESE TASKS FOR TRAINING POTENTIAL EMPLOYEES AND EMPLOYEES WITH LOWER LEVELS OF EDUCATION TO HOLD USEFUL JOBS. THE CONCEPT OF PROGRAMED LEARNING PACKAGES FOR FOOD SERVICING WAS…

  15. Strategies for Improving Compliance with Health Promotion Programs in Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert H. L.

    1983-01-01

    Behavioral, educational, and organizational methods for improving the degree to which workers comply with the objectives of industrial health promotion programs are discussed. Compliance can be enhanced through: (1) better program location and scheduling; (2) increased worker satisfaction; (3) use of psychological and educational techniques; and…

  16. Energy efficiency programs and policies in the industrial sector in industrialized countries

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst

    2004-06-01

    About 37% of the primary energy consumed both in the U.S. and globally is used by the industrial sector. A variety of energy efficiency policies and programs have been implemented throughout the world in an effort to improve the energy efficiency of this sector. This report provides an overview of these policies and programs in twelve industrialized nations and the European Union (EU). We focus on energy efficiency products and services that are available to industrial consumers, such as reports, guidebooks, case studies, fact sheets, profiles, tools, demonstrations, roadmaps and benchmarking. We also focus on the mechanisms to communicate the availability and features of these products and services and to disseminate them to the industrial consumers who can use them. Communication channels include customer information centers and websites, conferences and trade shows, workshops and other training mechanisms, financial assistance programs, negotiated agreements, newsletters, publicity, assessments, tax and subsidy schemes and working groups. In total, over 30 types of industrial sector energy efficiency products, services and delivery channels have been identified in the countries studied. Overall, we found that the United States has a large variety of programs and offers industry a number of supporting programs for improving industrial energy efficiency. However, there are some products and services found in other industrialized countries that are not currently used in the U.S., including benchmarking programs, demonstration of commercialized technologies and provision of energy awareness promotion materials to companies. Delivery mechanisms found in other industrialized countries that are not employed in the U.S. include negotiated agreements, public disclosure and national-level tax abatement for energy-efficient technologies.

  17. DOE EM industry programs robotics development

    SciTech Connect

    Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.

    1997-12-01

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD&D, as well as testing and evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. OST has organized technology management activities along focus teams for each major problem area. There are currently five focus areas: decontamination and decommissioning, tanks, subsurface contaminants, mixed waste, and plutonium. In addition, OST is pursuing research and development (R&D) that cuts across these focus areas by having applications in two or more focus areas. Currently, there are three cross-cutting programs: the robotics technology development; characterization, monitoring, and sensor technologies; and efficient separations and processing.

  18. Leadership solves collective action problems in small-scale societies.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, Luke; von Rueden, Chris

    2015-12-01

    Observation of leadership in small-scale societies offers unique insights into the evolution of human collective action and the origins of sociopolitical complexity. Using behavioural data from the Tsimane forager-horticulturalists of Bolivia and Nyangatom nomadic pastoralists of Ethiopia, we evaluate the traits of leaders and the contexts in which leadership becomes more institutional. We find that leaders tend to have more capital, in the form of age-related knowledge, body size or social connections. These attributes can reduce the costs leaders incur and increase the efficacy of leadership. Leadership becomes more institutional in domains of collective action, such as resolution of intragroup conflict, where collective action failure threatens group integrity. Together these data support the hypothesis that leadership is an important means by which collective action problems are overcome in small-scale societies. PMID:26503683

  19. Radar for small-scale land-use mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, F. M.

    1975-01-01

    Small-scale (1:250,000 and smaller) land-use maps are a major concern not only to geographers but also to national and regional planners. Unfortunately, such maps are usually out of date by the time they are printed. An interpretation key consisting of five physical and cultural characteristics of the environment evident on radar imagery is used to create land-use regions. Regions and borders interpreted from radar are compared with those found on two existing land-use maps created by traditional methods. Radar imagery can be used to create a small-scale land-use map with regions comparable to those found on existing land-use maps. However, the radar regions depict something more than land use and should be termed rural landscape regions.

  20. Electron Precipitation Associated with Small-Scale Auroral Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michell, R.; Samara, M.; Grubbs, G. A., II; Hampton, D. L.; Bonnell, J. W.; Ogasawara, K.

    2014-12-01

    We present results from the Ground-to-Rocket Electrons Electrodynamics Correlative Experiment (GREECE) sounding rocket mission, where we combined high-resolution ground-based auroral imaging with high time-resolution precipitating electron measurements. The GREECE payload successfully launched from Poker Flat, Alaska on 03 March 2014 and reached an apogee of approximately 335 km. The narrow field-of-view auroral imaging was taken from Venetie, AK, which is directly under apogee. This enabled the small-scale auroral features at the magnetic footpoint of the rocket payload to be imaged in detail. The electron precipitation was measured with the Acute Precipitating Electron Spectrometer (APES) onboard the payload. Features in the electron data are matched up with their corresponding auroral structures and boundaries, enabling measurement of the exact electron distributions responsible for the specific small-scale auroral features. These electron distributions will then be used to infer what the potential electron acceleration processes were.

  1. LLNL Small-Scale Friction sensitivity (BAM) Test

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, L.R.; Foltz, M.F.

    1996-06-01

    Small-scale safety testing of explosives, propellants and other energetic materials, is done to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli including friction, static spark, and impact. Testing is done to discover potential handling problems for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior, or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing {open_quotes}BAM{close_quotes} Small-Scale Friction Test, and the methods used to determine the friction sensitivity pertinent to handling energetic materials. The accumulated data for the materials tested is not listed here - that information is in a database. Included is, however, a short list of (1) materials that had an unusual response, and (2), a few {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} materials representing the range of typical responses usually seen.

  2. Legal factors affecting the financing of small scale hydroelectric projects

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.H.; Ringo, M.J.; Forgione, N.

    1983-09-01

    An introduction to the major business organizational options open to small-scale hydroelectric (SSH) projects is given. The major federal income tax treatments of these options are compared. Significant general federal income tax factors affecting SSH projects are reintroduced and explained. Some of the special federal income tax problem areas in SSH development are isolated. Tax benefit flow through or transfer mechanisms are discussed. Tax exempt financing opportunities for private SSH projects are reviewed. (MHR)

  3. Financing of private small scale hydroelectric projects: a summary guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    Small-scale hydroelectric (SSH) projects are increasingly being supported financially by private developers. Increases in fossil fuel prices, difficulties in the siting of large power plants, streamlining of the federal licensing process, changes in the marketing of power, and the extension of tax credits-all contribute to expectations of profitability in SSH projects. This document provides an overview of private financing for SSH projects.

  4. On the Dynamics of Small-Scale Solar Magnetic Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, T. E.; Title, A. M.

    1996-01-01

    We report on the dynamics of the small-scale solar magnetic field, based on analysis of very high resolution images of the solar photosphere obtained at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope. The data sets are movies from 1 to 4 hr in length, taken in several wavelength bands with a typical time between frames of 20 s. The primary method of tracking small-scale magnetic elements is with very high contrast images of photospheric bright points, taken through a 12 A bandpass filter centered at 4305 A in the Fraunhofer 'G band.' Previous studies have established that such bright points are unambiguously associated with sites of small-scale magnetic flux in the photosphere, although the details of the mechanism responsible for the brightening of the flux elements remain uncertain. The G band bright points move in the intergranular lanes at speeds from 0.5 to 5 km/s. The motions appear to be constrained to the intergranular lanes and are primarily driven by the evolution of the local granular convection flow field. Continual fragmentation and merging of flux is the fundamental evolutionary mode of small-scale magnetic structures in the solar photosphere. Rotation and folding of chains or groups of bright points are also observed. The timescale for magnetic flux evolution in active region plage is on the order of the correlation time of granulation (typically 6-8 minutes), but significant morphological changes can occur on timescales as short as 100 S. Smaller fragments are occasionally seen to fade beyond observable contrast. The concept of a stable, isolated subarcsecond magnetic 'flux tube' in the solar photosphere is inconsistent with the observations presented here.

  5. Dislocation dynamics simulations of plasticity at small scales

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Caizhi

    2010-01-01

    As metallic structures and devices are being created on a dimension comparable to the length scales of the underlying dislocation microstructures, the mechanical properties of them change drastically. Since such small structures are increasingly common in modern technologies, there is an emergent need to understand the critical roles of elasticity, plasticity, and fracture in small structures. Dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations, in which the dislocations are the simulated entities, offer a way to extend length scales beyond those of atomistic simulations and the results from DD simulations can be directly compared with the micromechanical tests. The primary objective of this research is to use 3-D DD simulations to study the plastic deformation of nano- and micro-scale materials and understand the correlation between dislocation motion, interactions and the mechanical response. Specifically, to identify what critical events (i.e., dislocation multiplication, cross-slip, storage, nucleation, junction and dipole formation, pinning etc.) determine the deformation response and how these change from bulk behavior as the system decreases in size and correlate and improve our current knowledge of bulk plasticity with the knowledge gained from the direct observations of small-scale plasticity. Our simulation results on single crystal micropillars and polycrystalline thin films can march the experiment results well and capture the essential features in small-scale plasticity. Furthermore, several simple and accurate models have been developed following our simulation results and can reasonably predict the plastic behavior of small scale materials.

  6. Small-scale clumps in the Galactic halo

    SciTech Connect

    Berezinsky, V. S.; Dokuchaev, V. I. Eroshenko, Yu. N.

    2010-01-15

    A mass function of small-scale dark matter clumps is calculated. We take into account the tidal destruction of clumps at early stages of structure formation starting from a time of clump detachment from the Universe expansion. Only a small fraction of these clumps, {approx}0.1%, in each logarithmic mass interval {Delta} log M {approx} 1 survives the stage of hierarchical clustering. We calculate the probability of surviving of the remnants of dark matter clumps in the Galaxy by modelling the tidal destruction of the small-scale clumps by disk and stars. It is demonstrated that a substantial fraction of clump remnants may survive through the tidal destruction during the lifetime of the Galaxy if a radius of core is rather small. The resulting mass spectrum of survived clumps is extended down to the mass of the core of the cosmologically produced clumps with a minimal mass. The survived dense remnants of tidally destructed clumps provides a large contribution to the annihilation signal in the Galaxy. We describe the anisotropy of dark matter clump distribution caused by tidal destruction of clumps in the Galactic disk. A corresponding annihilation of dark matter particles in small-scale clumps produces the anisotropic gamma-ray signal with respect to the Galactic disk.

  7. Does small scale structure significantly affect cosmological dynamics?

    PubMed

    Adamek, Julian; Clarkson, Chris; Durrer, Ruth; Kunz, Martin

    2015-02-01

    The large-scale homogeneity and isotropy of the Universe is generally thought to imply a well-defined background cosmological model. It may not. Smoothing over structure adds in an extra contribution, transferring power from small scales up to large. Second-order perturbation theory implies that the effect is small, but suggests that formally the perturbation series may not converge. The amplitude of the effect is actually determined by the ratio of the Hubble scales at matter-radiation equality and today-which are entirely unrelated. This implies that a universe with significantly lower temperature today could have significant backreaction from more power on small scales, and so provides the ideal testing ground for understanding backreaction. We investigate this using two different N-body numerical simulations-a 3D Newtonian and a 1D simulation which includes all relevant relativistic effects. We show that while perturbation theory predicts an increasing backreaction as more initial small-scale power is added, in fact the virialization of structure saturates the backreaction effect at the same level independently of the equality scale. This implies that backreaction is a small effect independently of initial conditions. Nevertheless, it may still contribute at the percent level to certain cosmological observables and therefore it cannot be neglected in precision cosmology. PMID:25699430

  8. Empirical spatial econometric modelling of small scale neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerkman, Linda

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the paper is to model small scale neighbourhood in a house price model by implementing the newest methodology in spatial econometrics. A common problem when modelling house prices is that in practice it is seldom possible to obtain all the desired variables. Especially variables capturing the small scale neighbourhood conditions are hard to find. If there are important explanatory variables missing from the model, the omitted variables are spatially autocorrelated and they are correlated with the explanatory variables included in the model, it can be shown that a spatial Durbin model is motivated. In the empirical application on new house price data from Helsinki in Finland, we find the motivation for a spatial Durbin model, we estimate the model and interpret the estimates for the summary measures of impacts. By the analysis we show that the model structure makes it possible to model and find small scale neighbourhood effects, when we know that they exist, but we are lacking proper variables to measure them.

  9. Extraction of Extended Small-Scale Objects in Digital Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, V. Y.

    2015-05-01

    Detection and localization problem of extended small-scale objects with different shapes appears in radio observation systems which use SAR, infra-red, lidar and television camera. Intensive non-stationary background is the main difficulty for processing. Other challenge is low quality of images, blobs, blurred boundaries; in addition SAR images suffer from a serious intrinsic speckle noise. Statistics of background is not normal, it has evident skewness and heavy tails in probability density, so it is hard to identify it. The problem of extraction small-scale objects is solved here on the basis of directional filtering, adaptive thresholding and morthological analysis. New kind of masks is used which are open-ended at one side so it is possible to extract ends of line segments with unknown length. An advanced method of dynamical adaptive threshold setting is investigated which is based on isolated fragments extraction after thresholding. Hierarchy of isolated fragments on binary image is proposed for the analysis of segmentation results. It includes small-scale objects with different shape, size and orientation. The method uses extraction of isolated fragments in binary image and counting points in these fragments. Number of points in extracted fragments is normalized to the total number of points for given threshold and is used as effectiveness of extraction for these fragments. New method for adaptive threshold setting and control maximises effectiveness of extraction. It has optimality properties for objects extraction in normal noise field and shows effective results for real SAR images.

  10. Industrial Waste Reduction Program annual report, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy`s Industrial Waste Reduction Program (IWRP) sponsors the development, demonstration, and deployment of technologies that offer a significant opportunity to reduce waste generation, improve productivity, and enhance environmental performance in US industry. The program emphasizes technology-driven solutions that are economically beneficial and environmentally sound. Its goal is to improve the energy efficiency and competitiveness of private industry by cost-effectively reducing waste. Industry, universities, national laboratories and other government agencies are working cooperatively to meet this goal. The IWRP emphasizes the timely commercialization of new technologies that can produce measurable energy, environmental, and economic benefits. All projects are substantially cost-shared with private companies to foster the commercialization process. The program is proud to claim four successfully commercialized technologies that have begun generating benefits. The current IWRP portfolio boasts 32 projects in progress. Funding for the IWRP has grown from $1.7 million in 1990 to $13 million in 1994. New companies join the program each year, reaping the benefits of working cooperatively with government. New technologies are expected to reach commercial success in fiscal year (FY) 1994, further increasing the benefits already accrued. Future Annual Reports will also include projects from the Waste Utilization and Conversion Program. Descriptions of the program`s 32 active projects are organized in this report according these elements. Each project description provides a brief background and the major accomplishments during FY 1993.

  11. Career Exploration in the Fashion Industry: A Suggested Program Guide. Fashion Industry Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fashion Inst. of Tech., New York, NY.

    The career exploration guide is the first of a series of five interrelated program resource guides encompassing the various dimensions of the fashion industry. The series is intended to provide an information source for establishing, expanding, or evaluating secondary and adult vocational instructional programs related to the broad field of…

  12. A study of large scale gust generation in a small scale atmospheric wind tunnel with applications to Micro Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roadman, Jason Markos

    Modern technology operating in the atmospheric boundary layer can always benefit from more accurate wind tunnel testing. While scaled atmospheric boundary layer tunnels have been well developed, tunnels replicating portions of the atmospheric boundary layer turbulence at full scale are a comparatively new concept. Testing at full-scale Reynolds numbers with full-scale turbulence in an "atmospheric wind tunnel" is sought. Many programs could utilize such a tool including Micro Aerial Vehicle(MAV) development, the wind energy industry, fuel efficient vehicle design, and the study of bird and insect flight, to name just a few. The small scale of MAVs provide the somewhat unique capability of full scale Reynolds number testing in a wind tunnel. However, that same small scale creates interactions under real world flight conditions, atmospheric gusts for example, that lead to a need for testing under more complex flows than the standard uniform flow found in most wind tunnels. It is for these reasons that MAVs are used as the initial testing application for the atmospheric gust tunnel. An analytical model for both discrete gusts and a continuous spectrum of gusts is examined. Then, methods for generating gusts in agreement with that model are investigated. Previously used methods are reviewed and a gust generation apparatus is designed. Expected turbulence and gust characteristics of this apparatus are compared with atmospheric data. The construction of an active "gust generator" for a new atmospheric tunnel is reviewed and the turbulence it generates is measured utilizing single and cross hot wires. Results from this grid are compared to atmospheric turbulence and it is shown that various gust strengths can be produced corresponding to weather ranging from calm to quite gusty. An initial test is performed in the atmospheric wind tunnel whereby the effects of various turbulence conditions on transition and separation on the upper surface of a MAV wing is investigated

  13. DOE EM industry programs robotics development

    SciTech Connect

    Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.

    1998-12-31

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD and D, as well as testing and evaluation for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. Robotic systems reduce worker exposure to the absolute minimum, while providing proven, cost-effective, and, for some applications, the only acceptable technique for addressing challenging problems. Development of robotic systems for remote operations occurs in three main categories: tank waste characterization and retrieval; decontamination and dismantlement; and characterization, mapping, and inspection systems. In addition, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has some other projects which fall under the heading of supporting R and D. The central objective of all FETC robotic projects is to make robotic systems more attractive by reducing costs and health risks associated with the deployment of robotic technologies in the cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. This will be accomplished through development of robots that are cheaper, faster, safer, and more reliable, as well as more straightforward to modify/adapt and more intuitive to operate with autonomous capabilities and intelligent controls that prevent accidents and optimize task execution.

  14. Technical assessment of the Office of Industrial Programs' Advanced Heat Exchanger Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rinker, F.G.; Bergles, A.E.; Marciniak, T.J.; Batman, J.

    1987-02-01

    The DOE's AHX Program is an integral part of the OIP's Waste Heat Recovery Program whose goals are to increase the end-use energy efficiency of industry and agricultural operations, and to expand the energy options for manufacturing processes by providing technologies which use various fuels including coal, renewables, oil, and natural gas. The OIP and PNL convened a panel of industry experts to conduct a technical assessment of OIP's AHX program. This report documents the results of the panel's assessment.

  15. Analysis of hydrological triggered clayey landslides by small scale experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spickermann, A.; Malet, J.-P.; van Asch, T. W. J.; Schanz, T.

    2010-05-01

    Hydrological processes, such as slope saturation by water, are a primary cause of landslides. This effect can occur in the form of e.g. intense rainfall, snowmelt or changes in ground-water levels. Hydrological processes can trigger a landslide and control subsequent movement. In order to forecast potential landslides, it is important to know both the mechanism leading to failure, to evaluate whether a slope will fail or not, and the mechanism that control the movement of the failure mass, to estimate how much material will move in which time. Despite numerous studies which have been done there is still uncertainty in the explanation of the processes determining the failure and post-failure. Background and motivation of the study is the Barcelonnette area that is part of the Ubaye Valley in the South French Alps which is highly affected by hydrological-controlled landslides in reworked black marls. Since landslide processes are too complex to understand it only by field observation experiments and computer calculations are used. The main focus of this work is to analyse the initialization of failure and the post-failure behaviour of hydrological triggered landslides in clays by small-scale experiments, namely by small-scale flume tests and centrifuge tests. Although a lot of effort is made to investigate the landslide problem by either small-scale or even large-scale slope experiments there is still no optimal solution. Small-scale flume tests are often criticised because of their scale-effect problems dominant in dense sands and cohesive material and boundary problems. By means of centrifuge tests the scale problem with respect to stress conditions is overcome. But also centrifuge testing is accompanied with problems. The objectives of the work are 1) to review potential failure and post-failure mechanisms, 2) to evaluate small-scale experiments, namely flume and centrifuge tests in the analysis of the failure behaviour in clayey slopes and 3) to interpret the

  16. Small-scale Conformity of the Virgo Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hye-Ran; Lee, Joon Hyeop; Jeong, Hyunjin; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the small-scale conformity in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions in the Virgo Cluster. Cluster member galaxies are spectroscopically determined using the Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12. We find that the luminosity-weighted mean color of faint galaxies depends on the color of adjacent bright galaxy as well as on the cluster-scale environment (gravitational potential index). From this result for the entire area of the Virgo Cluster, it is not distinguishable whether the small-scale conformity is genuine or if it is artificially produced due to cluster-scale variation of galaxy color. To disentangle this degeneracy, we divide the Virgo Cluster area into three sub-areas so that the cluster-scale environmental dependence is minimized: A1 (central), A2 (intermediate), and A3 (outermost). We find conformity in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions (color–color slope significance S ˜ 2.73σ and correlation coefficient {cc}˜ 0.50) in A2, where the cluster-scale environmental dependence is almost negligible. On the other hand, the conformity is not significant or very marginal (S ˜ 1.75σ and {cc}˜ 0.27) in A1. The conformity is not significant either in A3 (S ˜ 1.59σ and {cc}˜ 0.44), but the sample size is too small in this area. These results are consistent with a scenario in which the small-scale conformity in a cluster is a vestige of infallen groups and these groups lose conformity as they come closer to the cluster center.

  17. Cyclic Behavior of the Sun's Small-scale Magnetic Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingxiu; Jin, C.

    2011-05-01

    With the unique database from the Michelson Doppler Imager on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory in an interval embodying solar cycle 23, the cyclic behavior of solar small-scale magnetic elements is studied. More than 13 million small-scale magnetic elements are selected, and their cyclic behavior is analyzed in comparison with the changes of sunspot numbers and active region magnetic flux. From the small to large end of the flux spectrum, the variations of numbers and total flux of the network elements show no correlation, anti-correlation, and correlation with sunspots, respectively. The anti-correlated elements, covering the flux of (2.9-32.0)×1018 Mx, occupy 77.2% of the total element number and 37.4% of the quiet-Sun flux. Unlike the correlated elements, which follow the sunspot butterfly diagram, the anti-correlated elements cover very broad range of latitude and do not show clear latitude migration during the cycle. These results provide insight for understanding the anti-correlations of small-scale magnetic activity during the solar cycle. The quiet regions dominate the Sun's magnetic flux for about 8 years in the 12.25 year duration of cycle 23, their monthly average magnetic flux is 1.12 times that of the active regions in the cycle. For the 28 continuous months from July 2007 to October 2009, the six-month running average ratio of quiet region flux to that of the total Sun is larger than 90.0%, which characterizes the gram minima in cycles 23 and 24 very well.

  18. Small-scale Conformity of the Virgo Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hye-Ran; Lee, Joon Hyeop; Jeong, Hyunjin; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the small-scale conformity in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions in the Virgo Cluster. Cluster member galaxies are spectroscopically determined using the Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12. We find that the luminosity-weighted mean color of faint galaxies depends on the color of adjacent bright galaxy as well as on the cluster-scale environment (gravitational potential index). From this result for the entire area of the Virgo Cluster, it is not distinguishable whether the small-scale conformity is genuine or if it is artificially produced due to cluster-scale variation of galaxy color. To disentangle this degeneracy, we divide the Virgo Cluster area into three sub-areas so that the cluster-scale environmental dependence is minimized: A1 (central), A2 (intermediate), and A3 (outermost). We find conformity in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions (color–color slope significance S ∼ 2.73σ and correlation coefficient {cc}∼ 0.50) in A2, where the cluster-scale environmental dependence is almost negligible. On the other hand, the conformity is not significant or very marginal (S ∼ 1.75σ and {cc}∼ 0.27) in A1. The conformity is not significant either in A3 (S ∼ 1.59σ and {cc}∼ 0.44), but the sample size is too small in this area. These results are consistent with a scenario in which the small-scale conformity in a cluster is a vestige of infallen groups and these groups lose conformity as they come closer to the cluster center.

  19. Synthesis of underreported small-scale fisheries catch in Pacific island waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, D.; Harper, S.; Zylich, K.; Pauly, D.

    2015-03-01

    We synthesize fisheries catch reconstruction studies for 25 Pacific island countries, states and territories, which compare estimates of total domestic catches with officially reported catch data. We exclude data for the large-scale tuna fleets, which have largely foreign beneficial ownership, even when flying Pacific flags. However, we recognize the considerable financial contributions derived from foreign access or charter fees for Pacific host countries. The reconstructions for the 25 entities from 1950 to 2010 suggested that total domestic catches were 2.5 times the data reported to FAO. This discrepancy was largest in early periods (1950: 6.4 times), while for 2010, total catches were 1.7 times the reported data. There was a significant difference in trend between reported and reconstructed catches since 2000, with reconstructed catches declining strongly since their peak in 2000. Total catches increased from 110,000 t yr-1 in 1950 (of which 17,400 t were reported) to a peak of over 250,000 t yr-1 in 2000, before declining to around 200,000 t yr-1 by 2010. This decrease is driven by a declining artisanal (small-scale commercial) catch, which was not compensated for by increasing domestic industrial (large-scale commercial) catches. The artisanal fisheries appear to be declining from a peak of 97,000 t yr-1 in 1992 to less than 50,000 t yr-1 by 2010. However, total catches were dominated by subsistence (small-scale, non-commercial) fisheries, which accounted for 69 % of total catches, with the majority missing from the reported data. Artisanal catches accounted for 22 %, while truly domestic industrial fisheries accounted for only 6 % of total catches. The smallest component is the recreational (small-scale, non-commercial and largely for leisure) sector (2 %), which, although small in catch, is likely of economic importance in some areas due to its direct link to tourism income.

  20. Development of small scale soft x-ray lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D.; Suckewer, S. . Plasma Physics Lab. Princeton Univ., NJ . Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering); Skinner, C.H.; Voorhees, D. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1991-05-01

    At present rapid progress is being made in the application of soft x-ray lasers to fields such as microscopy and microlithography. A critical factor in the range of suitable applications is the scale and hence cost of the soft x-ray lasers. At Princeton, gain at 183{angstrom} has been obtained with relatively low pump laser energies (as low as 6J) in a portable'' small-scale soft x-ray laser system. We will also discuss aspects of data interpretation and pitfalls to be avoided in measurements of gain in such systems. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Numerical study of the small scale structures in Boussinesq convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinan, E.; Shu, Chi-Wang

    1992-01-01

    Two-dimensional Boussinesq convection is studied numerically using two different methods: a filtered pseudospectral method and a high order accurate Essentially Nonoscillatory (ENO) scheme. The issue whether finite time singularity occurs for initially smooth flows is investigated. The numerical results suggest that the collapse of the bubble cap is unlikely to occur in resolved calculations. The strain rate corresponding to the intensification of the density gradient across the front saturates at the bubble cap. We also found that the cascade of energy to small scales is dominated by the formulation of thin and sharp fronts across which density jumps.

  2. Overview of the Testing of a Small-Scale Proprotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Booth, Earl R., Jr.; Botha, Gavin; Dawson, Seth

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of results from the wind tunnel test of a 1/4-scale V-22 proprotor in the Duits-Nederlandse Windtunnel (DNW) in The Netherlands. The small-scale proprotor was tested on the isolated rotor configuration of the Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM). The test was conducted by a joint team from NASA Ames, NASA Langley, U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate, and The Boeing Company. The objective of the test was to acquire a benchmark database for validating aeroacoustic analyses. Representative examples of airloads, acoustics, structural loads, and performance data are provided and discussed.

  3. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Four-Year Industrial Technology Programs In Preparing Industrial Electronic Technicians to Meet the Requirements of Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Roger W.

    To determine the effectiveness of the 4-year industrial technology programs in preparing industrial electronic technicians for employment in industry, data were obtained through an opinionnaire, which was sent to the higher education institutions offering a 4-year electronic technician program and to selected industrial representatives located in…

  4. Tobacco industry sociological programs to influence public beliefs about smoking.

    PubMed

    Landman, Anne; Cortese, Daniel K; Glantz, Stanton

    2008-02-01

    The multinational tobacco companies responded to arguments about the social costs of smoking and hazards of secondhand smoke by quietly implementing the Social Costs/Social Values project (1979-1989), which relied upon the knowledge and authoritative power of social scientists to construct an alternate cultural repertoire of smoking. Social scientists created and disseminated non-health based, pro-tobacco arguments without fully acknowledging their relationship with the industry. After the US Surgeon General concluded that nicotine was addictive in 1988, the industry responded by forming "Associates for Research in the Science of Enjoyment" (c.1988-1999), whose members toured the world promoting the health benefits of the use of legal substances, including tobacco, for stress relief and relaxation, without acknowledging the industry's role. In this paper we draw on previously secret tobacco industry documents, now available on the Internet to show how both of these programs utilized academic sociologists, political scientists, anthropologists, psychologists, philosophers and economists, and allowed the industry to develop and widely disseminate friendly research through credible channels. Strategies included creating favorable surveys and opinions, infusing them into the lay press and media through press releases, articles and conferences, publishing, promoting and disseminating books, commissioning and placing favorable book reviews, providing media training for book authors and organizing media tours. These programs allowed the tobacco industry to affect public and academic discourse on the social acceptability of smoking. PMID:18164524

  5. Development of the Small-Scale Shock Sensitivity Test (ssst)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felts, J. E.; Sandusky, H. W.; Granholm, R. H.

    2009-12-01

    A small-scale test to measure shock sensitivity with less than a half gram of sample per test and six tests at most was developed. The goal is to screen new energetic compositions before the need for costly scale-up. The concept merged aspects of the Small-Scale Shock Reactivity Test (SSRT) developed at IHDIV, NSWC with those of standard gap tests. The SSRT measures the shock reactivity (explosiveness) of potentially energetic materials, often well-below critical diameter, without requiring a transition to detonation. Gap tests are used to gage shock sensitivity of explosives, but require a sample size large enough for steady detonation. The new test arrangement combined the shock-attenuating gap before the sample and the air gap after the sample found in gap tests with the small sample size and high confinement of the SSRT. The results for a plastic-bonded explosive formulated with either a regular or insensitive RDX confirmed the difference in sensitivities observed in traditional gap tests. Also, the results gave further confirmation to a two-part reaction mechanism for the insensitive RDX formulation.

  6. Development of the Small-Scale Shock Sensitivity Test (SSST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felts, Joshua; Sandusky, Harold; Granholm, Richard

    2009-06-01

    This effort is to develop a small-scale test to measure shock sensitivity that only needs a half gram sample at most. The test will screen new energetic compositions before the need for costly scale-up. The concept is to merge aspects of the Small-Scale Shock Reactivity Test (SSRT) developed at IHDIV, NSWC with that of gap tests. The SSRT measures the shock reactivity (explosiveness) of samples well-below critical diameter without requiring a transition to detonation. Gap tests are used to gage shock sensitivity of explosives, but require a sample size large enough for steady or near-steady detonation. The new test arrangement will combine the shock-attenuating gap before the sample and the air gap after the sample found in gap tests with the small sample size and high confinement of the SSRT. Our results for two plastic-bonded explosives formulated with either a regular or insensitive RDX confirm the difference in sensitivities observed in gap tests. More samples need to be tested to fully characterize the new test and to develop relations with shock sensitivity data from gap tests.

  7. MODELING THE VERY SMALL SCALE CLUSTERING OF LUMINOUS RED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Douglas F.; Berlind, Andreas A.; McBride, Cameron K.; Masjedi, Morad

    2010-01-20

    We model the small-scale clustering of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Specifically, we use the halo occupation distribution formalism to model the projected two-point correlation function of LRGs on scales well within the sizes of their host halos (0.016 h {sup -1} Mpc <= r <= 0.42 h {sup -1} Mpc). We start by varying P(N|M), the probability distribution that a dark matter halo of mass M contains N LRGs, and assuming that the radial distribution of satellite LRGs within halos traces the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) dark matter density profile. We find that varying P(N|M) alone is not sufficient to match the small-scale data. We next allow the concentration of satellite LRG galaxies to differ from that of dark matter and find that this is also not sufficient. Finally, we relax the assumption of an NFW profile and allow the inner slope of the density profile to vary. We find that this model provides a good fit to the data and the resulting value of the slope is -2.17 +- 0.12. The radial density profile of satellite LRGs within halos is thus not compatible with that of the underlying dark matter, but rather is closer to an isothermal distribution.

  8. A small-scale anatomical dosimetry model of the liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenvall, Anna; Larsson, Erik; Strand, Sven-Erik; Jönsson, Bo-Anders

    2014-07-01

    Radionuclide therapy is a growing and promising approach for treating and prolonging the lives of patients with cancer. For therapies where high activities are administered, the liver can become a dose-limiting organ; often with a complex, non-uniform activity distribution and resulting non-uniform absorbed-dose distribution. This paper therefore presents a small-scale dosimetry model for various source-target combinations within the human liver microarchitecture. Using Monte Carlo simulations, Medical Internal Radiation Dose formalism-compatible specific absorbed fractions were calculated for monoenergetic electrons; photons; alpha particles; and 125I, 90Y, 211At, 99mTc, 111In, 177Lu, 131I and 18F. S values and the ratio of local absorbed dose to the whole-organ average absorbed dose was calculated, enabling a transformation of dosimetry calculations from macro- to microstructure level. For heterogeneous activity distributions, for example uptake in Kupffer cells of radionuclides emitting low-energy electrons (125I) or high-LET alpha particles (211At) the target absorbed dose for the part of the space of Disse, closest to the source, was more than eight- and five-fold the average absorbed dose to the liver, respectively. With the increasing interest in radionuclide therapy of the liver, the presented model is an applicable tool for small-scale liver dosimetry in order to study detailed dose-effect relationships in the liver.

  9. NONLINEAR SMALL-SCALE DYNAMOS AT LOW MAGNETIC PRANDTL NUMBERS

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenburg, Axel

    2011-11-10

    Saturated small-scale dynamo solutions driven by isotropic non-helical turbulence are presented at low magnetic Prandtl numbers Pr{sub M} down to 0.01. For Pr{sub M} < 0.1, most of the energy is dissipated via Joule heat and, in agreement with earlier results for helical large-scale dynamos, kinetic energy dissipation is shown to diminish proportional to Pr{sup 1/2}{sub M} down to values of 0.1. In agreement with earlier work, there is, in addition to a short Golitsyn k {sup -11/3} spectrum near the resistive scale, also some evidence for a short k {sup -1} spectrum on larger scales. The rms magnetic field strength of the small-scale dynamo is found to depend only weakly on the value of Pr{sub M} and decreases by about a factor of two as Pr{sub M} is decreased from 1 to 0.01. The possibility of dynamo action at Pr{sub M} = 0.1 in the nonlinear regime is argued to be a consequence of a suppression of the bottleneck seen in the kinetic energy spectrum in the absence of a dynamo and, more generally, a suppression of kinetic energy near the dissipation wavenumber.

  10. Preliminary Scaling Estimate for Select Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Beric E.; Fort, James A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.; Schonewill, Philip P.

    2013-09-12

    The Hanford Site double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions’ Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems.

  11. Simulations of Small-Scale Liquid Film Combustors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Pavel; Sirignano, William

    2015-11-01

    Recent technological advances have generated need for small-scale combustor designs. The reduction of scale, however, leads to a higher area to volume ratio and thus greater relative heat loss. Liquid film combustors are one proposed design which aims to overcome this obstacle. In them, the fuel is injected as a liquid film on the combustor wall, and heat transfer is reduced due to evaporative cooling of the liquid film leading to reduced temperature gradients at the combustor walls. In this work, we present simulation results for a cylindrical small scale liquid film combustor, in which the reactants are liquid heptane and gaseous air. A computational procedure has been developed to simulate this two-phase combustion problem, using detailed chemical mechanisms. A cubic equation of state is applied for the simulation of the gaseous phase at high pressures. The present study examines the structure of the triple flame inside this combustor design, which has been analyzed in previous experimental work. Comparison between simulation and experimental work is made, with particular emphasis on the influence of the chemical mechanism, high-pressure equation of state, and the effect of swirl amplitudes in the liquid and gas phases on the structure of the flame. Supported by AFOSR grant FA9550-12-1-0156, AFOSR scientific manager: Dr. Mitat Birkan.

  12. Intergenerational Wealth Transmission and the Dynamics of Inequality in Small-Scale Societies*

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Monique Borgerhoff; Bowles, Samuel; Hertz, Tom; Bell, Adrian; Beise, Jan; Clark, Greg; Fazzio, Ila; Gurven, Michael; Hill, Kim; Hooper, Paul L.; Irons, William; Kaplan, Hillard; Leonetti, Donna; Low, Bobbi; Marlowe, Frank; McElreath, Richard; Naidu, Suresh; Nolin, David; Piraino, Patrizio; Quinlan, Rob; Schniter, Eric; Sear, Rebecca; Shenk, Mary; Smith, Eric Alden; von Rueden, Christopher; Wiessner, Polly

    2009-01-01

    Small-scale human societies range from foraging bands with a strong egalitarian ethos to more economically stratified agrarian and pastoral societies. We explain this variation in inequality using a dynamic model in which a population’s long-run steady-state level of inequality depends on the extent to which its most important forms of wealth are transmitted within families across generations. We estimate the degree of intergenerational transmission of three different types of wealth (material, embodied, and relational) as well as the extent of wealth inequality in 21 historical and contemporary populations. We show that intergenerational transmission of wealth and wealth inequality are substantial among pastoral and small-scale agricultural societies (on a par with or even exceeding the most unequal modern industrial economies) and quite limited among horticultural and foraging peoples (equivalent to the most egalitarian of modern industrial populations). Differences in the technology by which a people derive their livelihood and in the institutions and norms making up the economic system jointly contribute to this pattern. PMID:19900925

  13. Small-scale AFBC-hot air gas turbine power cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, R.C.; Keener, H.M.; Hall, A.W.

    1995-02-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC), the Will-Burt Company (W-B) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have successfully developed and completed pilot plant tests on a small scale atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) system. This system can be used to generate electricity, and/or hot water, steam. Following successful pilot plant operation, commercial demonstration will take place at Cedar Lane Farms (CLF), near Wooster, Ohio. The system demonstration will be completed by the end of 1995. The project is being funded through a cooperative effort between the DOE, EER, W-B, OARDC, CLF and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO). The small scale AFBC, has no internal heat transfer surfaces in the fluid bed proper. Combining the combustor with a hot air gas turbine (HAGT) for electrical power generation, can give a relatively high overall system thermal efficiency. Using a novel method of recovering waste heat from the gas turbine, a gross heat rate of 13,500 Btu/kWhr ({approximately}25% efficiency) can be achieved for a small 1.5 MW, plant. A low technology industrial recuperation type gas turbine is used that operates with an inlet blade temperature of 1450{degrees}F and a compression ratio of 3.9:1. The AFBC-HAGT technology can be used to generate power for remote rural communities to replace diesel generators, or can be used for small industrial co-generation applications.

  14. Handbook for Small-Scale Densified Biomass Fuel (Pellets) Manufacturing for Local Markets.

    SciTech Connect

    Folk, Richard L.; Govett, Robert L.

    1992-07-01

    Wood pellet manufacturing in the Intermountain West is a recently founded and rapidly expanding energy industry for small-scale producers. Within a three-year period, the total number of manufacturers in the region has increased from seven to twelve (Folk et al., 1988). Small-scale industry development is evolving because a supply of raw materials from small and some medium-sized primary and secondary wood processors that has been largely unused. For the residue producer considering pellet fuel manufacturing, the wastewood generated from primary products often carries a cost associated with residue disposal when methods at-e stockpiling, landfilling or incinerating. Regional processors use these methods for a variety of reasons, including the relatively small amounts of residue produced, residue form, mixed residue types, high transportation costs and lack of a local market, convenience and absence of regulation. Direct costs associated with residue disposal include the expenses required to own and operate residue handling equipment, costs for operating and maintaining a combustor and tipping fees charged to accept wood waste at public landfills. Economic and social costs related to environmental concerns may also be incurred to include local air and water quality degradation from open-air combustion and leachate movement into streams and drinking water.

  15. The Need for Education/Training Programs in Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwaller, Anthony E.

    1980-01-01

    Education training programs in industry stem from several major needs--to accommodate the turnover and growth in personnel, to accommodate changes in knowledge and skills required by a company and its employees, and to improve the skills and performance of present employees. (Author/IRT)

  16. Program Improvement Project for Industrial Education. Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaeffer, Bruce W.

    Designed to improve industrial education programs through the development of minimum uniform quality standards, a project developed a task list, educationally sequenced the identified tasks, and developed a recommended shop layout and equipment list for four occupational areas: diesel repair, appliance repair, office machine repair, and small…

  17. Developing Customized Programs for Steel and Other Heavy Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Philip R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Describes Dundalk Community College's (DCC's) customized training programs for local industries. Looks at employment problems and outlook in Baltimore County, the development of a training agreement with Bethlehem Steel, the use of the Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process to develop skill profiles, and future directions. (DMM)

  18. Appendix H - GPRA06 industrial technologies program documentation

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The information provided in this appendix is based on the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) report of the GPRA06 process, "GPRA06 Quality Metrics - Methodology and Results," Energetics Inc., October 25, 2004. The report includes additional methodological details and the actual off-line energy savings results submitted to the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).

  19. 75 FR 1566 - National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... rule FR Doc. E9-28517, beginning on page 62531 in the issue of November 30, 2009, make the following... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office 32 CFR Part 2004 RIN 3095-AB34 National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1 AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office, NARA....

  20. Appendix H: GPRA05 Industrial Technologies Program documentation

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The information provided in this report is based on the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) report of the GPRA05 process, “GPRA05 Quality Metrics – Methodology and Results,” Energetics, Inc., March 11, 2004. The report includes additional methodological details and the actual off-line energy savings results submitted to the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).

  1. Experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies of small scale combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bo

    Recently, the demand increased for the development of microdevices such as microsatellites, microaerial vehicles, micro reactors, and micro power generators. To meet those demands the biggest challenge is obtaining stable and complete combustion at relatively small scale. To gain a fundamental understanding of small scale combustion in this thesis, thermal and kinetic coupling between the gas phase and the structure at meso and micro scales were theoretically, experimentally, and numerically studied; new stabilization and instability phenomena were identified; and new theories for the dynamic mechanisms of small scale combustion were developed. The reduction of thermal inertia at small scale significantly reduces the response time of the wall and leads to a strong flame-wall coupling and extension of burning limits. Mesoscale flame propagation and extinction in small quartz tubes were theoretically, experimentally and numerically studied. It was found that wall-flame interaction in mesoscale combustion led to two different flame regimes, a heat-loss dominant fast flame regime and a wall-flame coupling slow flame regime. The nonlinear transition between the two flame regimes was strongly dependent on the channel width and flow velocity. It is concluded that the existence of multiple flame regimes is an inherent phenomenon in mesoscale combustion. In addition, all practical combustors have variable channel width in the direction of flame propagation. Quasi-steady and unsteady propagations of methane and propane-air premixed flames in a mesoscale divergent channel were investigated experimentally and theoretically. The emphasis was the impact of variable cross-section area and the flame-wall coupling on the flame transition between different regimes and the onset of flame instability. For the first time, spinning flames were experimentally observed for both lean and rich methane and propane-air mixtures in a broad range of equivalence ratios. An effective Lewis number

  2. Industrial Cogeneration Optimization Program: A summary of two studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-08-01

    Two industrial cogeneration optimization programs were performed to examine the economic and energy saving impacts of adding cogeneration to site specific plants in the chemical, food, pulp and paper, petroleum refining, and textile industries. Industrial cogeneration is reviewed. The two parallel ICOP studies are described. The five industrial sectors are also described, followed by highlights of each of the site specific case studies. Steam turbine cogeneration systems fired by coal or alternative fuels are generally the most attractive in terms of economic performance and oil/gas savings potential. Of the 15 cogeneration systems selected as optimum in the ICOP studies, 11 were coal or wood fired steam turbines. By contrast, gas turbines, combined cycles, and diesel engines, which are limited to oil or gas firing, are usually less economical.

  3. Investigation of the small-scale structure and dynamics of Uranus' atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eshleman, Von R.; Hinson, David P.

    1991-01-01

    This document constitutes the final technical report of the Uranus Analysis Program. Papers and/or abstracts resulting from this research are presented. The following topics are covered: (1) past and future of radio occultation studies of planetary atmospheres; (2) equatorial waves in the stratosphere of Uranus; (3) the atmosphere of Uranus- results of radio occultation measurements with Voyager 2; (4) Uranus' atmospheric dynamics and circulation; (5) small-scale structure and dynamics in the atmosphere of Uranus; (6) evidence for inertia-gravity waves in the stratosphere of Uranus derived from Voyager 2 radio occultation data; and (7) planetary waves in the equatorial stratosphere of Uranus.

  4. Motivational contracting in space programs - Government and industry prospectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clough, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has used incentive-free policies in contracting for Apollo's Saturn Launch vehicle hardware, as well as award-fee contracts for major development and early production programs in the case of the Space Shuttle Program. These programs have evolved to a point at which multiple incentive fees are useful in motivating cost reductions and assuring timely achievement of delivery requirements and flight mission goals. An examination is presently conducted of the relative success of these motivation-oriented techniques, drawing on the comments of both government and industry personnel.

  5. SMALL SCALE FUEL CELL AND REFORMER SYSTEMS FOR REMOTE POWER

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Witmer

    2003-12-01

    New developments in fuel cell technologies offer the promise of clean, reliable affordable power, resulting in reduced environmental impacts and reduced dependence on foreign oil. These developments are of particular interest to the people of Alaska, where many residents live in remote villages, with no roads or electrical grids and a very high cost of energy, where small residential power systems could replace diesel generators. Fuel cells require hydrogen for efficient electrical production, however. Hydrogen purchased through conventional compressed gas suppliers is very expensive and not a viable option for use in remote villages, so hydrogen production is a critical piece of making fuel cells work in these areas. While some have proposed generating hydrogen from renewable resources such as wind, this does not appear to be an economically viable alternative at this time. Hydrogen can also be produced from hydrocarbon feed stocks, in a process known as reforming. This program is interested in testing and evaluating currently available reformers using transportable fuels: methanol, propane, gasoline, and diesel fuels. Of these, diesel fuels are of most interest, since the existing energy infrastructure of rural Alaska is based primarily on diesel fuels, but this is also the most difficult fuel to reform, due to the propensity for coke formation, due to both the high vaporization temperature and to the high sulfur content in these fuels. There are several competing fuel cell technologies being developed in industry today. Prior work at UAF focused on the use of PEM fuel cells and diesel reformers, with significant barriers identified to their use for power in remote areas, including stack lifetime, system efficiency, and cost. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells have demonstrated better stack lifetime and efficiency in demonstrations elsewhere (though cost still remains an issue), and procuring a system for testing was pursued. The primary function of UAF in the fuel cell

  6. Small-scale societies exhibit fundamental variation in the role of intentions in moral judgment

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, H. Clark; Bolyanatz, Alexander; Crittenden, Alyssa N.; Fessler, Daniel M. T.; Fitzpatrick, Simon; Gurven, Michael; Henrich, Joseph; Kanovsky, Martin; Kushnick, Geoff; Pisor, Anne; Scelza, Brooke A.; Stich, Stephen; von Rueden, Chris; Zhao, Wanying; Laurence, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Intent and mitigating circumstances play a central role in moral and legal assessments in large-scale industrialized societies. Although these features of moral assessment are widely assumed to be universal, to date, they have only been studied in a narrow range of societies. We show that there is substantial cross-cultural variation among eight traditional small-scale societies (ranging from hunter-gatherer to pastoralist to horticulturalist) and two Western societies (one urban, one rural) in the extent to which intent and mitigating circumstances influence moral judgments. Although participants in all societies took such factors into account to some degree, they did so to very different extents, varying in both the types of considerations taken into account and the types of violations to which such considerations were applied. The particular patterns of assessment characteristic of large-scale industrialized societies may thus reflect relatively recently culturally evolved norms rather than inherent features of human moral judgment. PMID:27035959

  7. Small-scale societies exhibit fundamental variation in the role of intentions in moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Barrett, H Clark; Bolyanatz, Alexander; Crittenden, Alyssa N; Fessler, Daniel M T; Fitzpatrick, Simon; Gurven, Michael; Henrich, Joseph; Kanovsky, Martin; Kushnick, Geoff; Pisor, Anne; Scelza, Brooke A; Stich, Stephen; von Rueden, Chris; Zhao, Wanying; Laurence, Stephen

    2016-04-26

    Intent and mitigating circumstances play a central role in moral and legal assessments in large-scale industrialized societies. Although these features of moral assessment are widely assumed to be universal, to date, they have only been studied in a narrow range of societies. We show that there is substantial cross-cultural variation among eight traditional small-scale societies (ranging from hunter-gatherer to pastoralist to horticulturalist) and two Western societies (one urban, one rural) in the extent to which intent and mitigating circumstances influence moral judgments. Although participants in all societies took such factors into account to some degree, they did so to very different extents, varying in both the types of considerations taken into account and the types of violations to which such considerations were applied. The particular patterns of assessment characteristic of large-scale industrialized societies may thus reflect relatively recently culturally evolved norms rather than inherent features of human moral judgment. PMID:27035959

  8. Small scale tests on the progressive retreat of soil slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voulgari, Chrysoula; Utili, Stefano; Castellanza, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the influence due to the presence of cracks on the morphologic evolution of natural cliffs subject to progressive retreat induced by weathering is investigated through small scale laboratory tests. Weathering turns hard rocks into soft rocks that maintain the structure of the intact rocks, but are characterised by higher void ratios and reduced bond strengths; soft rocks are transformed into granular soils generally called residual soils. A number of landslides develop in slopes due to weathering which results in the progressive retrogression of the slope face and the further degradation within the weathering zone. Cracks, that are widely present, can be a result of weathering and they can cause a significant decrease in their stability, as they provide preferential flow channels which increase the soil permeability and decrease the soil strength. The geological models employed until now are mainly empirical. Several researchers have tried to study the stability of slopes through experimental procedures. Centrifuge modelling is widely used to investigate the failure of slopes. Small scale tests are also an important approach, in order to study the behaviour of a slope under certain conditions, such as the existence of water, as they allow the observation of the infiltration processes, the movement of the weathering front, deformation and failure. However, the deformation response of a slope subject to weathering is not yet thoroughly clarified. In this work, a set of experiments were conducted to investigate weathering induced successive landslides. Weathering was applied to the slope model by wetting the slope crest through a rainfall simulator device. The moisture content of the soil during the tests was monitored by soil moisture sensors that were buried inside the slope model. High resolution cameras were recording the behaviour of the slope model. GeoPIV was used to analyse the frames and obtain the deformations of the slope model during the

  9. Small-scale nonlinear dynamics of K-mouflage theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brax, Philippe; Valageas, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the small-scale static configurations of K-mouflage models defined by a general function K (χ ) of the kinetic terms. The fifth force is screened by the nonlinear K-mouflage mechanism if K'(χ ) grows sufficiently fast for large negative χ . In the general nonspherically symmetric case, the fifth force is not aligned with the Newtonian force. For spherically symmetric static matter density profiles, we show that the results depend on the potential function W-(y )=y K'(-y2/2 ) ; i.e., W-(y ) must be monotonically increasing to +∞ for y ≥0 to guarantee the existence of a single solution throughout space for any matter density profile. Small radial perturbations around these static profiles propagate as travelling waves with a velocity greater than the speed of light. Starting from vanishing initial conditions for the scalar field and for a time-dependent matter density corresponding to the formation of an overdensity, we numerically check that the scalar field converges to the static solution. If W- is bounded, for high-density objects there are no static solutions throughout space, but one can still define a static solution restricted to large radii. Our dynamical study shows that the scalar field relaxes to this static solution at large radii, whereas spatial gradients keep growing with time at smaller radii. If W- is not bounded but nonmonotonic, there is an infinite number of discontinuous static solutions. However, the Klein-Gordon equation is no longer a well-defined hyperbolic equation, which leads to complex characteristic speeds and exponential instabilities. Therefore, these discontinuous static solutions are not physical, and these models are not theoretically sound. Such K-mouflage scenarios provide an example of theories that can appear viable at the cosmological level, for the cosmological background and perturbative analysis, while being meaningless at a nonlinear level for small-scale configurations. This shows the importance of

  10. Small-scale upper mantle extension beneath a destroyed craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Zheng, T.; Chen, L.; Ai, Y.; He, Y.; Xu, X.

    2014-12-01

    The North China Craton (NCC), as an unusual craton with part of its thick lithosphere destructed, records the geodynamic processes associated with the convergence of Eurasia and the Pacific and Philippine plates lasting from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic. How the cratonic lithosphere deformed in response to the extensional tectonics caused by the oceanic plate subduction, however, remains debated. In order to investigate the mantle deformation of the NCC, we present new shear wave splitting measurements and updated tomographic models beneath a 900-km long profile across the north NCC. Compared to our other observations in the NCC, this profile is shorter but also crosses a region that experienced strong lithospheric destruction, therefore provides a good opportunity to improve our understanding of upper mantle deformation during the craton destruction. The upper mantle deformation is studied using SKS data from 60 broadband stations with average spacing of 15 km. For the data from events occurring at distances of 85º-115º, fast polarization directions and delay times (fδt) are retrieved by a routine method, while for the events at distances < 85º, waveform modeling are applied to obtain (fδt) after separating the effects of S and SKS. The measured splitting parameters show small-scale variations from east to west: the major fast directions, trending NE-SW or NW-SE in contrast, distribute intermittently along the profile. We plot the splitting parameters overlapping on the geological map and the tomography image for a depth range of 120-300 km. Comparison shows good consistency of the splitting pattern and structural features both at shallow and deep depths: NW-SE trending fast directions are observed at stations located within the basins or extensional zones like metamorphic core complexes, with the fast direction parallel to the extensional or stretching directions; the fast directions and the shear-wave velocity anomalies within the upper mantle

  11. Tobacco industry sociological programs to influence public beliefs about smoking

    PubMed Central

    Glantz, Stanton; Landman, Anne; Cortese, Daniel K

    2008-01-01

    The multinational tobacco companies responded to arguments about the social costs of smoking and hazards of secondhand smoke by quietly implementing the Social Costs/Social Values project (1979–1989), which relied upon the knowledge and authoritative power of social scientists to construct an alternate cultural repertoire of smoking. Social scientists created and disseminated non-health based, pro-tobacco arguments without fully acknowledging their relationship with the industry. After the U.S. Surgeon General concluded that nicotine was addictive in 1988, the industry responded by forming “Associates for Research in the Science of Enjoyment” (c.1988–1999), whose members toured the world promoting the health benefits of the use of legal substances, including tobacco, for stress relief and relaxation, without acknowledging the industry’s role. In this paper we draw on previously secret tobacco industry documents, now available on the internet to show how both of these programs utilized academic sociologists, political scientists, anthropologists, psychologists, philosophers and economists, and allowed the industry to develop and widely disseminate friendly research through credible channels. Strategies included creating favorable surveys and opinions, infusing them into the lay press and media through press releases, articles and conferences, publishing, promoting and disseminating books, commissioning and placing favorable book reviews, providing media training for book authors and organizing media tours. These programs allowed the tobacco industry to affect public and academic discourse on the social acceptability of smoking. PMID:18164524

  12. Ranking of small scale proposals for water system repair using the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Shakib-Manesh, T.E.; Hirvonen, K.O.; Jalava, K.J.; Ålander, T.; Kuitunen, M.T.

    2014-11-15

    Environmental impacts of small scale projects are often assessed poorly, or not assessed at all. This paper examines the usability of the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) as a tool to prioritize project proposals for small scale water restoration projects in relation to proposals' potential to improve the environment. The RIAM scoring system was used to assess and rank the proposals based on their environmental impacts, the costs of the projects to repair the harmful impacts, and the size of human population living around the sites. A four-member assessment group (The expert panel) gave the RIAM-scores to the proposals. The assumed impacts of the studied projects at the Eastern Finland water systems were divided into the ecological and social impacts. The more detailed assessment categories of the ecological impacts in this study were impacts on landscape, natural state, and limnology. The social impact categories were impacts to recreational use of the area, fishing, industry, population, and economy. These impacts were scored according to their geographical and social significance, their magnitude of change, their character, permanence, reversibility, and cumulativeness. The RIAM method proved to be an appropriate and recommendable method for the small-scale assessment and prioritizing of project proposals. If the assessments are well documented, the RIAM can be a method for easy assessing and comparison of the various kinds of projects. In the studied project proposals there were no big surprises in the results: the best ranks were received by the projects, which were assumed to return watersheds toward their original state.

  13. The prevalence and correlates of occupational injuries in small-scale manufacturing enterprises.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Akinori; Ikeda, Tomoko; Takahashi, Masaya; Haratani, Takashi; Hojou, Minoru; Swanson, Naomi G; Fujioka, Yosei; Araki, Shunichi

    2006-09-01

    Workers involved in small-scale manufacturing businesses are known to comprise a high-risk population for occupational injury. The present study investigated the prevalence and correlates of occupational injury in this population. A self-administered questionnaire that solicited answers about occupational information including injury, demographic characteristics, health conditions and lifestyle factors was collected from a sample of 1,298 workers in 228 small-scale manufacturing enterprises (defined as fewer than 50 workers) aged 16-78 (mean 46) yr in Yashio city, Saitama, Japan (response rate 65.5%). The enterprises were randomly selected from the 2000 edition of the city commercial directory corresponding to the distribution of types of businesses in the city. Occupational injury was assessed by asking subjects, ;Have you ever been injured during your work, including minor scratches and cuts in the previous 1-yr period?' The possible response was either ;yes' or ;no.' The prevalence of study-defined occupational injury among the workers was 35.6% (male 43.0%, female 17.9%). Among job types, manufacturing (44.2%) and driving (43.5%) had high rates of occupational injuries. Similarly, occupational injuries were high in the papermaking (54.5%) and machinery (47.7%) industries. For males, younger age, current or former smoking, insomnia symptoms, and disease(s) currently under treatment were correlated with injury, whereas for females, being unmarried, higher educational status, and insomnia symptoms were the correlating factors. Occupational injury is common among small-scale manufacturing businesses, and is associated with multiple controllable factors. Countermeasures such as prohibiting smoking during work, sleep health education, job safety training for young/inexperienced workers are appropriate methods for eliminating or reducing injuries. PMID:17053303

  14. Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program. Annual report, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    Six area reported progress in the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program during FY 1991. As part of Industry Guidance, meetings were held with steering and technical committees in computers, housing design and manufacturing. This task area enables the program to benefit from the expertise of industry representatives and communicate research results directly to them. As part of the Design Process performance specifications were being developed for the future housing system designed last year. These house designs coordinate and optimize predicted and desirable advances in computerized design processes, materials, components, and manufacturing automation to achieve energy efficiency at reduced first cost. Energy design software were being developed for CAD systems, stressed skin insulating core panel manufacturers; and a prototype energy sales tool. A prototype design was to be developed to integrate one or more subsystems with the building skin. As part of the Manufacturing Process we are developing a manufacturing process simulation and data base to help current and new entrants to the industrialized housing industry in assessing the impact of implementing new manufacturing techniques. For Evaluation we are developing testing plans for six units of housing on the UO campus and the stressed skin insulating core house to be constructed in Oregon. The DOW Chemical test structure will be retrofitted with a tile roof and retested to compare to the dome and conventional construction structures. Calibration of the wind tunnel will be completed so that laboratory tests can be conducted to simulate the ventilation cooling efficiency of houses in design. Research utilization and program management were either aspects of this program.

  15. Industrial pollution prevention programs in selected developing Asian countries

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Shen-yann |

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the information on current activities to promote industrial pollution prevention (P2) in five selected Asian economies including Hong Kong, Republic of Korea, the Philippines, ROC in Taiwan, and Thailand. These activities, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into 6 categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technology development an demonstration, technical assistance, and financial incentives. Although participation is voluntary, these programs are all important at the early stages of P2 promotion and should be useful in informing industries of the benefit of P2 and helping them identify specific P2 measures as viable environmental management alternatives.

  16. Small-Scale Shock Reactivity and Internal Blast Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granholm, R. H.; Sandusky, H. W.

    2006-07-01

    Explosives react from a strong shock, even in quantities too small for detonation. The potential for a new material to be an explosive can be evaluated from this shock reactivity. The recently developed small-scale shock reactivity test (SSRT) uses very high confinement to allow prompt reactions to occur in less than half-gram samples well below critical diameter. Early and late-time reactions are simultaneously measured from a single sample subjected to the output from an RP-80 detonator. Prompt reactions are quantified by a dent in a soft aluminum witness block, while later reactions, such as from fuel/air combustion, are measured by recording blast pressure. Internal blast quasi-static pressure is obtained by confining the sample apparatus within a three-liter chamber. Late-time reaction effects of plastics, and results from HMX, HMX/Aluminum, and a plastic-bonded explosive (PBX) are reported.

  17. CAMUI Type Hybrid Rocket as Small Scale Ballistic Flight Testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Harunori; Uematsu, Tsutomu; Ito, Kenichi

    The authors have been developing CAMUI (Cascaded Multistage Impinging-jet) type hybrid rockets, explosive-flee small rocket motors. This is to downsize the scale of suborbital flight experiments on space related technology development. A key idea is a new fuel grain design to increase gasification rates of a solid fuels. By the new fuel grain design, the combustion gas repeatedly impinges on fuel surfaces to hasten the heat transfer to the fuel. Suborbital flight experiments by sounding rockets provide variety of test beds to accumulate basic technologies common to the next step of space development in Japan. By using hybrid rockets one can take the cost advantage of small-scale rocket experiments. This cost advantage improves robustness of space technology development projects by dispersion of risk.

  18. Small Scale Response and Modeling of Periodically Forced Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bos, Wouter; Clark, Timothy T.; Rubinstein, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The response of the small scales of isotropic turbulence to periodic large scale forcing is studied using two-point closures. The frequency response of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate, and the phase shifts between production, energy and dissipation are determined as functions of Reynolds number. It is observed that the amplitude and phase of the dissipation exhibit nontrivial frequency and Reynolds number dependence that reveals a filtering effect of the energy cascade. Perturbation analysis is applied to understand this behavior which is shown to depend on distant interactions between widely separated scales of motion. Finally, the extent to which finite dimensional models (standard two-equation models and various generalizations) can reproduce the observed behavior is discussed.

  19. Novel Small-scale Technique for Determining Detonation Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Daniel; Hill, Larry; Tappan, Bryce

    2013-06-01

    Measuring the local detonation velocity of an explosive has been limited to rate stick and cylinder tests. These tests traditionally used break wires, pins, and more recently PDV as a velocity diagnostic. These experimental techniques can be very accurate at measuring detonation velocities but are costly and require tens to hundreds of grams of material. This paper presents a novel small-scale technique for inferring detonation velocity from a modest sized pellet of explosive. A streak image is taken of the breakout shock on the flat output side of the pellet. Assuming a spherical shock wave, one can show that the breakout trace is of hyperbolic form. From this, one can simultaneously infer detonation velocty and apparent center. This method is ideal for energetic formulation and synthesis development due to the small amount of material required. Furthermore, this paper discusses the accuracy and limitations of this technique.

  20. Small-Scale Performance Testing for Studying New Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliardi, F J; Chambers, R D; Tran, T D

    2005-04-29

    The development of new high-explosive (HE) formulations involves characterizing their safety and performance. Small-scale experiments requiring only a small amount of explosives are of interest because they can facilitate development while minimizing hazards and reducing cost. A detonation-spreading, dent test, called the Floret test, was designed to obtain performance data for new explosives. It utilizes the detonation of about a 1.0 g sample of HE, initiated by an accelerated aluminum flyer. Upon impact, the HE sample detonates and a copper witness plate absorbs the ensuing shock wave. The dent of the plate is then measured and correlated to the energetic output of the HE. Additionally, the dent measurement can be used to compare the performance of different explosives. The Floret test is beneficial because it quickly returns important performance information, while requiring only a small explosive sample. This work will explain the Floret test and discuss some exemplary results.

  1. Using dark energy to suppress power at small scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Martin; Nesseris, Savvas; Sawicki, Ignacy

    2015-09-01

    The latest Planck results reconfirm the existence of a slight but chronic tension between the best-fit cosmic microwave background (CMB) and low-redshift observables: power seems to be consistently lacking in the late universe across a range of observables (e.g. weak lensing, cluster counts). We propose a two-parameter model for dark energy where the dark energy is sufficiently like dark matter at large scales to keep the CMB unchanged but where it does not cluster at small scales, preventing concordance collapse and erasing power. We thus exploit the generic scale-dependence of dark energy instead of the more usual time-dependence to address the tension in the data. The combination of CMB, distance and weak lensing data somewhat prefer our model to Λ CDM , at Δ χ2=2.4 . Moreover, this improved solution has σ8=0.79 ±0.02 , consistent with the value implied by cluster counts.

  2. Small-scale volcanoes on Mars: distribution and types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broz, Petr; Hauber, Ernst

    2015-04-01

    Volcanoes differ in sizes, as does the amount of magma which ascends to a planetary surface. On Earth, the size of volcanoes is anti-correlated with their frequency, i.e. small volcanoes are much more numerous than large ones. The most common terrestrial volcanoes are scoria cones (small-scale volcanoes were not intensely studied for a long time due to a lack of high-resolution data enabling their proper identification; however their existence and basic characteristics were predicted on theoretical grounds. Streams of new high-resolution images now enable discovering and studying kilometer-size volcanoes with various shapes in unprecedented detail. Several types of small-scale volcanoes in various regions on Mars were recently described. Scoria cones provide a record of magmatic volatile content and have been identified in Tharsis (Ulysses Colles), on flanks of large volcanoes (e.g., Pavonis Mons), in the caldera of Ulysses Patera, in chaotic terrains or other large depressions (Hydraotes Colles, Coprates Chasma) and in the northern lowlands. Tuff rings and tuff cones, formed as a result of water-magma interaction, seem to be relatively rare on Mars and were only tentatively identified in three locations (Nepenthes/Amenthes region, Arena Colles and inside Lederberg crater), and alternative interpretations (mud volcanoes) seem possible. Other relatively rare volcanoes seem to be lava domes, reported only from two regions (Acracida Planitia and Terra Sirenum). On the other hand, small shields and rootless cones (which are not primary volcanic landforms) represent widely spread phenomena recognized in Tharsis and Elysium. Based on these new observations, the distribution of small volcanoes on Mars seems to be much more widespread than anticipated a decade

  3. Externally fired gas turbine cycles for small scale biomass cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Anheden, M.; Ahlroth, M.; Martin, A.R.; Svedberg, G.

    1999-07-01

    In this conceptual study, externally fired gas turbine cycles in combination with a biomass-fueled, atmospheric circulating fluidized bed (CFB) furnace are investigated for small scale heat and power production ({approximately} 8 MW fuel input). Three cycle configurations are considered: closed cycle, with nitrogen, helium, and a helium/carbon dioxide mixture as working fluids; open cycle operating in parallel to the CFB system; and open cycle with a series connection to the CFB system. Intercooling, postcooling, and recuperation are employed with the goal of maximizing power output. Aside from a thermodynamic performance analysis, the study also includes an evaluation of the turbomachinery characteristics. Simulation results show that thermodynamic performance varies slightly between the different configurations, with electrical efficiencies approaching 38% (LHV) and power-to-heat ratios as high as 0.80. Equipment size is found to depend primarily upon the type of working fluid.

  4. Small-Scale Geothermal Power Plant Field Verification Projects: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.

    2001-07-03

    In the spring of 2000, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory issued a Request for Proposal for the construction of small-scale (300 kilowatt [kW] to 1 megawatt [MW]) geothermal power plants in the western United States. Five projects were selected for funding. Of these five, subcontracts have been completed for three, and preliminary design work is being conducted. The three projects currently under contract represent a variety of concepts and locations: a 1-MW evaporatively enhanced, air-cooled binary-cycle plant in Nevada; a 1-MW water-cooled Kalina-cycle plant in New Mexico; and a 750-kW low-temperature flash plant in Utah. All three also incorporate direct heating: onion dehydration, heating for a fish hatchery, and greenhouse heating, respectively. These projects are expected to begin operation between April 2002 and September 2003. In each case, detailed data on performance and costs will be taken over a 3-year period.

  5. Observations of small-scale flux evolution with HINODE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmino, S. L.; Romano, P.; Zuccarello, F.; Bellot Rubio, L. R.

    We present observations of NOAA 10971 acquired by the Solar Optical Telescope onboard the HINODE satellite. We have inverted spectropolarimetric data of SOT/SP along Fe I doublet at 630.15 nm and 630.25 nm, using the SIR inversion code in order to get magnetic field strength, inclination, azimuth, Doppler velocity and temperature from the observed Stokes profiles. We compare these first results with SOT/FG broad-band observations in the Ca II H line (396.85 ± 0.3 nm) and G-band (430.5 ±± 0.8 nm), and with magnetograms obtained from the narrow-band shuttered Stokes I and V in the wings of the Na I D1 line (589.6 nm). Small-scale events of flux emergence and flux cancellation have been singled out.

  6. Small-scale experiments in STOVL ground effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corsiglia, Victor R.; Wardwell, Douglas A.; Kuhn, Richard E.

    1990-01-01

    A series of tests has been completed in which suckdown and fountain forces and pressures were measured on circular plates and twin-tandem-jet generic STOVL (short takeoff and vertical landing) configurations. The tests were conducted using a small-scale hover rig, for jet pressure ratios up to 6 and jet temperatures up to 700 F. The measured suckdown force on a circular plate with a central jet was greater than that found with a commonly used empirical prediction method. The present data showed better agreement with other sets of data. The tests of the generic STOVL configurations were conducted to provide force and pressure data with a parametric variation of parameters so that an empirical prediction method cold be developed. The effects of jet pressure ratio and temperature were found to be small. Lift improvement devices were shown to substantially reduce the net suckdown forces.

  7. Small-scale experiments in STOVL ground effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corsiglia, Victor R.; Wardwell, Douglas A.; Kuhn, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    A series of tests was completed in which suckdown and fountain forces and pressures were measured on circular plates and twin-tandem-jet generic STOVL (short takeoff and vertical landing) configurations. The tests were conducted using a small-scale hover rig, for jet pressure ratios up to 6 and jet temperatures up to 700 F. The measured suckdown force on a circular plate with a central jet was greater than that found with a commonly used empirical prediction method. The present data showed better agreement with other sets of data. The tests of the generic STOVL configurations were conducted to provide force and pressure data with a parametric variation of parameters so that an empirical prediction method could be developed. The effects of jet pressure ratio and temperature were found to be small. Lift improvement devices were shown to substantially reduce the net suckdown forces.

  8. LLNL small-scale drop-hammer impact sensitivity test

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, L.R.; Foltz, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    Small-scale safety testing of explosives and other energetic materials is done to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli including friction, static spark, and impact. This testing is typically done to discover potential handling problems for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing ``ERL Type 12 Drop Weight Impact Sensitivity Apparatus``, or ``Drop Hammer Machine``, and the methods used to determine the impact sensitivity of energetic materials, Also discussed are changes made to both the machine and methods since the inception of impact sensitivity testing at LLNL in 1956. The accumulated data for the materials tested in not listed here, the exception being the discussion of those specific materials (primary calibrants: PETN, RDX, Comp-B3,and TNT; secondary calibrants: K-6, RX-26-AF, and TATB) used to calibrate the machine.

  9. Design and modeling of small scale multiple fracturing experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cuderman, J F

    1981-12-01

    Recent experiments at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have demonstrated the existence of three distinct fracture regimes. Depending on the pressure rise time in a borehole, one can obtain hydraulic, multiple, or explosive fracturing behavior. The use of propellants rather than explosives in tamped boreholes permits tailoring of the pressure risetime over a wide range since propellants having a wide range of burn rates are available. This technique of using the combustion gases from a full bore propellant charge to produce controlled borehole pressurization is termed High Energy Gas Fracturing (HEGF). Several series of HEGF, in 0.15 m and 0.2 m diameter boreholes at 12 m depths, have been completed in a tunnel complex at NTS where mineback permitted direct observation of fracturing obtained. Because such large experiments are costly and time consuming, smaller scale experiments are desirable, provided results from small experiments can be used to predict fracture behavior in larger boreholes. In order to design small scale gas fracture experiments, the available data from previous HEGF experiments were carefully reviewed, analytical elastic wave modeling was initiated, and semi-empirical modeling was conducted which combined predictions for statically pressurized boreholes with experimental data. The results of these efforts include (1) the definition of what constitutes small scale experiments for emplacement in a tunnel complex at the Nevada Test Site, (2) prediction of average crack radius, in ash fall tuff, as a function of borehole size and energy input per unit length, (3) definition of multiple-hydraulic and multiple-explosive fracture boundaries as a function of boreholes size and surface wave velocity, (4) semi-empirical criteria for estimating stress and acceleration, and (5) a proposal that multiple fracture orientations may be governed by in situ stresses.

  10. Small-Scale Variability of Large Cloud Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Knyazikhin, Y.; Wiscombe, Warren

    2004-01-01

    Cloud droplet size distribution is one of the most fundamental subjects in cloud physics. Understanding of spatial distribution and small-scale fluctuations of cloud droplets is essential for both cloud physics and atmospheric radiation. For cloud physics, it relates to the coalescence growth of raindrops while for radiation, it has a strong impact on a cloud's radiative properties. Most of the existing cloud radiation and precipitation formation models assume that the mean number of drops with a given radius varies proportionally to volume. The analysis of microphysical data on liquid water drop sizes shows that, for sufficiently small volumes, the number is proportional to the drop size dependent power of the volume. For abundant small drops present, the exponent is 1 as assumed in the conventional approach. However, for rarer large drops, the exponents fall below unity. At small scales, therefore, the mean number of large drops decreases with volume at a slower rate than the conventional approach assumes, suggesting more large drops at these scales than conventional models account for; their impact is consequently underestimated. Size dependent models of spatial distribution of cloud drops that simulate the observed power laws show strong drop clustering, the more so the larger the drops. The degree of clustering is determined by the observed exponents. The strong clustering of large drops arises naturally from the observed power-law statistics. Current theories of photon-cloud interaction and warm rain formation will need radical revision in order to produce these statistics; their underlying equations are unable to yield the observed power law.

  11. Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC) process. Health programs: industrial hygiene, clinical and toxicological programs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hubis, W.

    1982-03-01

    This final report summarizes the Health Program under the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Process Contract from January 1, 1976 through December 31, 1981 with particular emphasis on the period January 1, 1980 through December 31, 1981. The major areas of activity within the Health program were: an industrial hygiene monitoring program, a clinical medical examination program, a personal hygiene and educational program, an epidemiology program, and a toxicological program. The industrial hygiene monitoring program during the past two years continued evaluation of occupational exposures to various air contaminants. The major emphasis was directed to the development, refinement and implementation of the skin contamination evaluation project. The medical examination program continued to indicate the absence of discernible occupationally related changes in employee medical profiles. In addition, appreciable effort was expended on efforts to develop a single layered garment which would prevent the appearance of black specks on the anterior thighs of plant operators working in areas of high particulate concentrations. The employee personal hygiene and educational program was extended to include both temporary and contract personnel. An epidemiology program was initiated during the period and efforts were concentrated primarily on program design and data collection. In the toxicological program, acute and genetic studies were completed on most of the SRC-II materials but no studies were initiated in the SRC-I portion of the program because of unavailability of test materials.

  12. Dynamic cross-flow filtration: enhanced continuous small-scale solid-liquid separation.

    PubMed

    Gursch, Johannes; Hohl, Roland; Dujmovic, Diana; Brozio, Jörg; Krumme, Markus; Rasenack, Norbert; Khinast, Johannes

    2016-06-01

    In a previous study, a small-scale dynamic filtration device (SFD) was analyzed and the basic mechanisms governing the filtration process were characterized. The present work aims at improving the device's performance in terms of actual production. Various operation modes were tested in order to increase permeate flow and concentration factors (CF), while maintaining a fully continuous production mode. Both, a vacuum-enhanced and a pulsating operation mode, proved to be superior to the currently implemented open-operation mode. For example, for lactose, an increase of the CF could be achieved from 1.7 in open mode to 7.6 in pulsating operation mode. The investigated operation strategy enables process control systems to rapidly react to fluctuating feeds that may occur due to changes in upstream manufacturing steps. As a result, not only filtration performance in terms of permeate rate but also process flexibility can be significantly increased. Overall, vacuum-enhanced operation was shown to be most promising for integration into an industrial environment. The option to elevate achievable concentration factors, ease of flow monitoring as well as the ability to react to changes in the feed conditions allow for effective and efficient continuous small-scale filtration. PMID:26489453

  13. Design and testing of small scale fish meat bone separator useful for fish processing.

    PubMed

    Ali Muhammed, M; Manjunatha, N; Murthy, K Venkatesh; Bhaskar, N

    2015-06-01

    The present study relates to the food processing machinery and, more specifically machine for producing boneless comminuted meat from raw fish fillet. This machine is of belt and drum type meat bone separator designed for small scale fish processing in a continuous mode. The basic principal involved in this machine is compression force. The electric geared motor consists of 1HP and the conveyor belt has a linear velocity of 19 to 22 m min(-1), which was sufficient to debone the fish effectively. During the meat bone separation trials an efficiency up to 75 % on dressed fish weight basis was observed and with a capacity to separate 70 kg h(-1) of meat from fish at the machine speed of 25 rpm. During the trials, it was demonstrated that there was no significant change in the proximate composition of comminuted fish meat when compared to unprocessed fish meat. This design has a greater emphasis on hygiene, provision for cleaning-in-place (CIP) and gives cost effective need and reliability for small scale industries to produce fish meat in turn used for their value added products. PMID:26028734

  14. 77 FR 68104 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Socio-Economic Profile of Small-Scale...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ...-Economic Profile of Small-Scale Commercial Fisheries in the U.S. Caribbean AGENCY: National Oceanic and... socio-economic data about small scale fishermen and seafood dealers operating in the U.S. Caribbean. The...-economic performance of small- scale fleets, and evaluate the socio-economic impacts of Federal...

  15. The Structure and Climate of Size: Small Scale Schooling in an Urban District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeChasseur, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    This study explores mechanisms involved in small scale schooling and student engagement. Specifically, this study questions the validity of arguments for small scale schooling reforms that confound the promised effects of small scale schooling "structures" (such as smaller enrollments, schools-within-schools, and smaller class sizes) with the…

  16. A Niche for Small-Scale Farmers: Report of a Five-State Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, John A.

    This paper reports on a survey of 221 small-scale farmers conducted in 5 western states. Despite the current productive dominance of large farms, an argument can be made that small-scale farming is desirable both for social and ecological reasons. Discussion focuses on the tradition-oriented goals and values of small-scale farmers, special…

  17. Preliminary results of the NASA/industry hybrid propulsion program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, B. E.; Cook, J. R.

    1992-07-01

    NASA has been investigating the potential of hybrid propulsion, on and off, for the last thirty years. In 1989, a study to identify the required technologies for large boosters was funded and, in March of 1992, the NASA-Marshall formalized a coordinated program of research on hybrid propulsion. The cornerstone of this program is represented by a partnership between government and industry to test hybrid systems and technology in motors ranging up to 40,000 lbs thrust. New data indicate the presence of at least two different nonacoustic instability mechanisms.

  18. Preliminary results of the NASA/industry hybrid propulsion program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, B. E.; Cook, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    NASA has been investigating the potential of hybrid propulsion, on and off, for the last thirty years. In 1989, a study to identify the required technologies for large boosters was funded and, in March of 1992, the NASA-Marshall formalized a coordinated program of research on hybrid propulsion. The cornerstone of this program is represented by a partnership between government and industry to test hybrid systems and technology in motors ranging up to 40,000 lbs thrust. New data indicate the presence of at least two different nonacoustic instability mechanisms.

  19. First NASA/Industry High Speed Research Program Nozzle Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long-Davis, Mary Jo

    1999-01-01

    The First High Speed Research (HSR) Nozzle Symposium was hosted by NASA Lewis Research Center on November 17-19, 1992 in Cleveland, Ohio, and was sponsored by the HSR Source Noise Working Group. The purpose of this symposium was to provide a national forum for the government, industry, and university participants in the program to present and discuss important low noise nozzle research results and technology issues related to the development of appropriate nozzles for a commercially viable, environmentally compatible, U.S. High-Speed Civil Transport. The HSR Phase I research program was initiated in FY90 and is approaching the first major milestone (end of FY92) relative to an initial FAR 36 Stage 3 nozzle noise assessment. Significant research results relative to that milestone were presented. The opening session provided a brief overview of the Program and status of the Phase H plan. The next five sessions were technically oriented and highlighted recent significant analytical and experimental accomplishments. The last Session included a panel discussion by the Session Chairs, summarizing the progress seen to date and discussing issues relative to further advances in technology necessary to achieve the Program Goals. Attendance at the Symposium was by invitation only and included only industry, academic, and government participants who are actively involved in the High-Speed Research Program. The technology presented in this meeting is considered commercially sensitive.

  20. Analysis of industrial pollution prevention programs in selected Asian countries

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.Y. |

    1995-05-01

    Industrialization in developing countries is causing increasing environmental damage. Pollution prevention (P2) is an emerging environmental concept that could help developing countries achieve leapfrog goals, bypassing old and pollutive technologies and minimizing traditional control practices. The current P2 promotion activities in Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand are discussed. These programs, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into five categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technical assistance, and financial incentives. All important at the early stages of P2 promotion, these programs should inform industries of the benefits of P2 and help them identify applicable P2 measures. Participation in these programs is voluntary. The limited data indicate that adoption of P2 measures in these countries is not yet widespread. Recommendations for expanding P2 promotion activities include (1) strengthening the design and enforcement of environmental regulations; (2) providing P2 training and education to government workers, nongovernmental organizations and labor unions officials, university faculties, and news media; (3) tracking the progress of P2 programs; (4) implementing selected P2 mandatory measures; (5) identifying cleaner production technologies for use in new facilities; (6) implementing special programs for small and medium enterprises; and (7) expanding P2 promotion to other sectors, such as agriculture and transportation, and encouraging green design and green consumerism.

  1. Implementing an industrial hearing conservation program in the schools.

    PubMed

    Roeser, R J; Coleman, T; Adams, R M

    1983-09-01

    The harmful effects of exposure to high noise levels have been well-documented and include auditory and non-auditory factors. The most notable auditory effect is permanent loss of hearing, many times accompanied by the constant perception of a ringing-type noise in the ears (tinnitus). Despite this, there has been insufficient attention given to the hazardous effects of noise in the school health education curriculum. The industrial arts program is one area that deserves special attention because of the noise levels that teachers and students are exposed to in the classroom and the assumed future exposure that students will experience in their recreational and work experiences. This report describes a hearing conservation program implemented in the Industrial Arts Program in the Dallas Independent School District that attempts to provide: 1) protection for students and teachers using equipment that produces excessive, damaging noise; and 2) information to students on the hazardous effects of noise, so they will understand the consequences of not protecting their ears when exposed to excessive noise and the available means to protect their hearing. As the cost of the program was minimal, other school districts could implement similar programs with little additional resources and effort. PMID:6556389

  2. Use of stakeholder analysis to inform risk communication and extension strategies for improved biosecurity amongst small-scale pig producers.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Jover, M; Gilmour, J; Schembri, N; Sysak, T; Holyoake, P K; Beilin, R; Toribio, J-A L M L

    2012-05-01

    Extension and communication needs amongst small-scale pig producers, described as pig producers with less than 100 sows, have been previously identified. These producers, who are believed to pose a biosecurity risk to commercial livestock industries, are characterized by a lack of formal networks, mistrust of authorities, poor disease reporting behaviour and motivational diversity, and reliance on other producers, veterinarians and family for pig health and production advice. This paper applies stakeholder identification and analysis tools to determine stakeholders' influence and interest on pig producers' practices. Findings can inform a risk communication process and the development of an extension framework to increase producers' engagement with industry and their compliance with biosecurity standards and legislation in Australia. The process included identification of stakeholders, their issues of concerns regarding small-scale pig producers and biosecurity and their influence and interest in each of these issues. This exercise identified the capacity of different stakeholders to influence the outcomes for each issue and assessed their success or failure to do so. The disconnection identified between the level of interest and influence suggests that government and industry need to work with the small-scale pig producers and with those who have the capacity to influence them. Successful biosecurity risk management will depend on shared responsibility and building trust amongst stakeholders. Flow-on effects may include legitimating the importance of reporting and compliance systems and the co-management of risk. Compliance of small-scale pig producers with biosecurity industry standards and legislation will reduce the risks of entry and spread of exotic diseases in Australia. PMID:22227304

  3. Small-scale combustion testing of synthetic fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbon, G.A.; Ekmann, J.M.; White, C.M.; Navadauskas, R.J.; Joubert, J.I.; Retcofsky, H.L.

    1981-11-01

    In order to assess the possible environmental impact of substituting synfuels for petroleum in utility and industrial boilers, two experimental programs have been undertaken at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. First, a fully instrumented 20-hp firetube boiler capable of burning liquid fuels ranging in combustion characteristics from No. 2 to No. 6 petroleum has been installed in the Combustion Division. Second, a sampling and analytical methodology for the organic compounds present in the exhaust duct of the 20-hp boiler is being developed by the Analytical Chemistry Division. This report outlines the progress on this project to date: twenty-four successful combustion runs have been completed on the 20-hp boiler, using a variety of petroleum-based fuels and synfuels; a sampling protocol for organic vapors in hot exhaust gases has been developed; significant differences in the composition of the trace organics in the exhaust gases have been observed as a function of the fuel being burned, but total polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon levels are comparable for all fuels.

  4. Investigation of the feasibility of a small scale transmutation device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sit, Roger Carson

    This dissertation presents the design and feasibility of a small-scale, fusion-based transmutation device incorporating a commercially available neutron generator. It also presents the design features necessary to optimize the device and render it practical for the transmutation of selected long-lived fission products and actinides. Four conceptual designs of a transmutation device were used to study the transformation of seven radionuclides: long-lived fission products (Tc-99 and I-129), short-lived fission products (Cs-137 and Sr-90), and selective actinides (Am-241, Pu-238, and Pu-239). These radionuclides were chosen because they are major components of spent nuclear fuel and also because they exist as legacy sources that are being stored pending a decision regarding their ultimate disposition. The four designs include the use of two different devices; a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) neutron generator (for one design) and a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) neutron generator (for three designs) in configurations which provide different neutron energy spectra for targeting the radionuclide for transmutation. Key parameters analyzed include total fluence and flux requirements; transmutation effectiveness measured as irradiation effective half-life; and activation products generated along with their characteristics: activity, dose rate, decay, and ingestion and inhalation radiotoxicity. From this investigation, conclusions were drawn about the feasibility of the device, the design and technology enhancements that would be required to make transmutation practical, the most beneficial design for each radionuclide, the consequence of the transmutation, and radiation protection issues that are important for the conceptual design of the transmutation device. Key conclusions from this investigation include: (1) the transmutation of long-lived fission products and select actinides can be practical using a small-scale, fusion driven transmutation device; (2) the transmutation of long

  5. The Implications of Industrial Management for the Administration of Industrial Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Michael R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses the functions and principles of industrial management, compares educational and industrial organization, and notes industrial management techniques applicable to industrial education administration. (MF)

  6. Mapping small-scale vegetation changes in Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, Kevin M.; Lulla, Kemlesh; Venugopal, Gopalan

    1993-01-01

    This research attempts to map small-scale vegetation changes in Mexico. Forty-eight weeks of coarse resolution Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a digitized climax vegetation map, land cover samples from space shuttle photographs and actual vegetation samples were used as inputs. Principal components analyses and a clustering algorithm were applied to the NDVI data to generate a single layer that was stratified by the climax vegetation zones map. The purpose is to create a new layer that differentiates climax vegetation (hypothesized potential vegetation) from non-climax vegetation land covers. One of the keys to developing a present-day vegetation map was differentiating intrazone land covers based on the stratification; as great as 75% of the sampled land cover types differed from the climax vegetation. The present-day vegetation map achieved 80% classification accuracy when calculated from available ground reference data. About 55% of the temperate zones and 37% of the tropical zones were found to contain original climax vegetation. Most changes coincide with areas of major agricultural activity.

  7. Development of a small-scale computer cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Jay; Smith, Justin T.; Smith, James E.

    2008-04-01

    An increase in demand for computing power in academia has necessitated the need for high performance machines. Computing power of a single processor has been steadily increasing, but lags behind the demand for fast simulations. Since a single processor has hard limits to its performance, a cluster of computers can have the ability to multiply the performance of a single computer with the proper software. Cluster computing has therefore become a much sought after technology. Typical desktop computers could be used for cluster computing, but are not intended for constant full speed operation and take up more space than rack mount servers. Specialty computers that are designed to be used in clusters meet high availability and space requirements, but can be costly. A market segment exists where custom built desktop computers can be arranged in a rack mount situation, gaining the space saving of traditional rack mount computers while remaining cost effective. To explore these possibilities, an experiment was performed to develop a computing cluster using desktop components for the purpose of decreasing computation time of advanced simulations. This study indicates that small-scale cluster can be built from off-the-shelf components which multiplies the performance of a single desktop machine, while minimizing occupied space and still remaining cost effective.

  8. Observations of How Magnetofluid Turbulence Dissipates at Small Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. L.; Sahraoui, Fouad

    2012-01-01

    The solar wind is a turbulent magneto fluid that can be studied intensively at multiple scales. Investigations using single spacecraft have revealed much about the properties of the solar wind throughout the heliosphere (from 0.3 AU to 100 AU). More recently, data from multiple spacecraft have provided further details of both the statistical properties of the turbulence and its small-scale structure. In particular, high time resolution magnetic field measurements from the four Cluster spacecrafl have led to the conclusion that at spatial scales of order the proton inertial length and smaller, the turbulence becomes strongly anisotropic and the power in fluctuations that are perpendicular to the (local) magnetic field is measured to be much larger than that in fluctuations that are parallel to the magnetic field. As the spatial scales approach the electron inertial length, the power is almost completely dissipated. Various analysis techniques and theoretical ideas have been put forward to account for the properties of those measurements. The talk will describe the current state of observations, theory and simulations.

  9. SCALING PROPERTIES OF SMALL-SCALE FLUCTUATIONS IN MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, Jean Carlos; Mason, Joanne; Boldyrev, Stanislav; Cattaneo, Fausto E-mail: j.mason@exeter.ac.uk E-mail: cattaneo@flash.uchicago.edu

    2014-09-20

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the majority of natural systems, including the interstellar medium, the solar corona, and the solar wind, has Reynolds numbers far exceeding the Reynolds numbers achievable in numerical experiments. Much attention is therefore drawn to the universal scaling properties of small-scale fluctuations, which can be reliably measured in the simulations and then extrapolated to astrophysical scales. However, in contrast with hydrodynamic turbulence, where the universal structure of the inertial and dissipation intervals is described by the Kolmogorov self-similarity, the scaling for MHD turbulence cannot be established based solely on dimensional arguments due to the presence of an intrinsic velocity scale—the Alfvén velocity. In this Letter, we demonstrate that the Kolmogorov first self-similarity hypothesis cannot be formulated for MHD turbulence in the same way it is formulated for the hydrodynamic case. Besides profound consequences for the analytical consideration, this also imposes stringent conditions on numerical studies of MHD turbulence. In contrast with the hydrodynamic case, the discretization scale in numerical simulations of MHD turbulence should decrease faster than the dissipation scale, in order for the simulations to remain resolved as the Reynolds number increases.

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities are phylogenetically clustered at small scales

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Sebastian; Caruso, Tancredi; Verbruggen, Erik; Rillig, Matthias C; Hempel, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies with markers covering the full Glomeromycota phylum were used to uncover phylogenetic community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with Festuca brevipila. The study system was a semi-arid grassland with high plant diversity and a steep environmental gradient in pH, C, N, P and soil water content. The AMF community in roots and rhizosphere soil were analyzed separately and consisted of 74 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in total. Community-level variance partitioning showed that the role of environmental factors in determining AM species composition was marginal when controlling for spatial autocorrelation at multiple scales. Instead, phylogenetic distance and spatial distance were major correlates of AMF communities: OTUs that were more closely related (and which therefore may have similar traits) were more likely to co-occur. This pattern was insensitive to phylogenetic sampling breadth. Given the minor effects of the environment, we propose that at small scales closely related AMF positively associate through biotic factors such as plant-AMF filtering and interactions within the soil biota. PMID:24824667

  11. A Small-Scale Safety Test for Initiation Components

    SciTech Connect

    Cutting, J; Chow, C; Chau, H; Hodgin, R; Lee, R

    2002-04-22

    We have developed a small-scale safety test for initiation train components. A low-cost test was needed to assess the response of initiation components to an abnormal shock environment and to detect changes in the sensitivity of initiation components as they age. The test uses a disk of Detasheet to transmit a shock through a PMMA barrier into a the test article. A schematic drawing of the fixture is shown. The 10-cm-diameter disk of 3-mm-thick Detasheet, initiated at its center by a RISI, RP detonator, produces a shock wave that is attenuated by a variable-thickness PMMA spacer (gap). Layers of metal and plastic above the test article and the material surrounding the test article may be chosen to mock up the environment of the test article at its location in a warhead. A metal plate at the bottom serves as a witness plate to record whether or not the test article detonated. For articles containing a small amount of explosive, it can be difficult to determine whether or not a detonation has occurred. In such cases, one can use a pressure transducer or laser velocimeter to detect the shock wave from the detonation of the article. The assembly is contained in a 10-cm-ID section of PVC pipe and fired in a containment vessel rated at 100 g. Test results are given for a hemispherical, exploding-bridgewire (EBW) detonator.

  12. Small-scale electric generators for arctic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamp, Thomas R.

    1995-01-01

    Forest fires that have endangered remote US Air Force sites equipped with radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) has prompted the assessment of power generating systems as substitutes for RTGs in small scale (10-120 watt) applications. A team of scientists and engineers of the US Air Forces' Wright Laboratory conductd an assessment of electrical power technologies for use by the Air Force in remote, harsh environments. The surprisingly high logistics costs of operating fossil fuel generators resulted in the extension of the assessment to non-RTG sites. The candidate power sources must operate unattended for long periods at a high level of operational reliability. Selection of the optimum power generation technology is complicated and heavily driven by the severe operating environment and compounded by the remoteness of the location. It is these site-related characteristics, more than any other, that drive the selection of a safe and economical power source for Arctic applications. A number of proven power generation technologies were evaluated. The assessment concluded that RGTs are clearly the safest, most reliable, and most economical approach to supplying electrical power for remote, difficult to assess locations. The assessment also indicated that the logistics costs associated with combustion driven generator systems could be substantially reduced through the use of conversion technologies which have been previously developed for space power applications.

  13. MeV Dark Matter and Small Scale Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, Dan; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Strigari, Louis E.; Zurek, Kathryn M.; /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2007-04-01

    WIMPs with electroweak scale masses (neutralinos, etc.) remain in kinetic equilibrium with other particle species until temperatures approximately in the range of 10 MeV to 1 GeV, leading to the formation of dark matter substructure with masses as small as 10{sup -4} M{sub {circle_dot}} to 10{sup -12} M{sub {circle_dot}}. However, if dark matter consists of particles with MeV scale masses, as motivated by the observation of 511 keV emission from the Galactic Bulge, such particles are naturally expected to remain in kinetic equilibrium with the cosmic neutrino background until considerably later times. This would lead to a strong suppression of small scale structure with masses below about 10{sup 7}M{sub {circle_dot}} to 10{sup 4} M{sub {circle_dot}}. This cutoff scale has important implications for present and future searches for faint Local Group satellite galaxies and for the missing satellites problem.

  14. Shaping mobile belts by small-scale convection.

    PubMed

    Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W

    2010-06-01

    Mobile belts are long-lived deformation zones composed of an ensemble of crustal fragments, distributed over hundreds of kilometres inside continental convergent margins. The Mediterranean represents a remarkable example of this tectonic setting: the region hosts a diffuse boundary between the Nubia and Eurasia plates comprised of a mosaic of microplates that move and deform independently from the overall plate convergence. Surface expressions of Mediterranean tectonics include deep, subsiding backarc basins, intraplate plateaux and uplifting orogenic belts. Although the kinematics of the area are now fairly well defined, the dynamical origins of many of these active features are controversial and usually attributed to crustal and lithospheric interactions. However, the effects of mantle convection, well established for continental interiors, should be particularly relevant in a mobile belt, and modelling may constrain important parameters such as slab coherence and lithospheric strength. Here we compute global mantle flow on the basis of recent, high-resolution seismic tomography to investigate the role of buoyancy-driven and plate-motion-induced mantle circulation for the Mediterranean. We show that mantle flow provides an explanation for much of the observed dynamic topography and microplate motion in the region. More generally, vigorous small-scale convection in the uppermost mantle may also underpin other complex mobile belts such as the North American Cordillera or the Himalayan-Tibetan collision zone. PMID:20520711

  15. Small-Scale Thermal Violence Cook Off Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Malcolm; Curtis, John; Stennett, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    The Small-Scale thermal Violence Test (SSVT) is designed to quantify the violence (explosiveness) of test materials by means of observing the velocity history of a metal burst disk that forms one end of a strong thick-walled cylindrical test vehicle. A copper heating block is placed to the rear of, but in contact with, the sample and provides sealing. The difference in thermal conductivity between copper and steel is sufficient that thermal runaway is induced near to the explosive / copper interface in an unlagged test. A series of experiments has been made, in which explosive specimens were confined and heated to explosion. A high-accuracy velocity measurement system was used to record the motion of the bursting disk. These experiments have shown that the early-time motion of the bursting disk corresponds qualitatively to the onset of thermal explosion and growth of reaction within the explosive specimens. However, the velocity history traces are more complex than had been anticipated. In particular, unexplained shoulders were observed in the Phase-Doppler Velocimeter (PDV) data. Some preliminary modelling studies have been carried out in order to shed light on the complex shapes of the projectile velocity histories.

  16. Small-Scale Irregularities in Equatorial Spread-F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimant, Yakov; Oppenheim, Meers

    2014-10-01

    Equatorial Spread-F is a spectacular plasma phenomenon that reshapes the nighttime ionosphere and disrupts GPS navigation and radio communication. Current computer models simulate the evolution of large-scale spread-F phenomena (1000km-to-kilometer), but they do not explain what causes the meter-scale irregularities observed by radars and space-borne instruments. Our recent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of weakly collisional plasma have demonstrated that large-scale plasma density gradients and related electric fields may drive local plasma instabilities, although only for a limited set of parameters. Motivated by these PIC simulations, we have revisited the linear theory of this instability, employing a novel and sophisticated eigenmode analysis. This method identified eigenmode wave structures in regions having strong plasma density gradients. These wave structures are not linearly unstable, but are not damped either. This means that small-scale fluctuations provided by an external source (e.g., by a nonlinear spectral cascade from longer-wavelength spread-F turbulence) can be resonantly amplified and may explain radar observations without invoking linear instability. Work supported by NASA LWS Grant 10-LWSTRT10-0078.

  17. The speckle image reconstruction of the solar small scale features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Libo; Tian, Yu; Rao, Changhui

    2014-11-01

    The resolution of the astronomical object observed by the earth-based telescope is limited due to the atmospheric turbulence. Speckle image reconstruction method provides access to detect small-scale solar features near the diffraction limit of the telescope. This paper describes the implementation of the reconstruction of images obtained by the 1-m new vacuum solar telescope at Full-Shine solar observatory. Speckle masking method is used to reconstruct the Fourier phases for its better dynamic range and resolution capabilities. Except of the phase reconstruction process, several problems encounter in the solar image reconstruction are discussed. The details of the implement including the flat-field, image segmentation, Fried parameter estimation and noise filter estimating are described particularly. It is demonstrated that the speckle image reconstruction is effective to restore the wide field of view images. The qualities of the restorations are evaluated by the contrast ratio. When the Fried parameter is 10cm, the contrast ratio of the sunspot and granulation can be improved from 0.3916 to 0.6845 and from 0.0248 to 0.0756 respectively.

  18. Small Scale Turbopump Manufacturing Technology and Material Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, Erika; Morgan, Kristin; Wells, Doug; Zimmerman, Frank

    2011-01-01

    As part of an internal research and development project, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been developing a high specific impulse 9,000-lbf LOX/LH2 pump-fed engine testbed with the capability to throttle 10:1. A Fuel Turbopump (FTP) with the ability to operate across a speed range of 30,000-rpm to 100,000-rpm was developed and analyzed. This small size and flight-like Fuel Turbopump has completed the design and analysis phase and is currently in the manufacturing phase. This paper highlights the manufacturing and processes efforts to fabricate an approximately 20-lb turbopump with small flow passages, intricately bladed components and approximately 3-in diameter impellers. As a result of the small scale and tight tolerances of the hardware on this turbopump, several unique manufacturing and material challenges were encountered. Some of the technologies highlighted in this paper include the use of powder metallurgy technology to manufacture small impellers, electron beam welding of a turbine blisk shroud, and casting challenges. The use of risk reduction efforts such as non-destructive testing (NDT) and evaluation (NDE), fractography, material testing, and component spin testing are also discussed in this paper.

  19. Small-scale structure in the diffuse interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, David M.

    1990-01-01

    The initial results of a study to probe the small-scale structure in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) through IUE and optical observations of interstellar absorption lines toward both components of resolvable binary stars is reported. The binaries (Kappa CrA, 57 Aql, 59 And, HR 1609/10, 19 Lyn, and Theta Ser) observed with IUE have projected linear separations ranging from 5700 to 700 Au. Except for Kappa CrA, the strengths of the interstellar absorption lines toward both components of these binaries agree to within 10 percent. In the case of Kappa CrA, the optically thin interstellar Mg I and Mn II lines are about 50 percent stronger toward Kappa-2 CrA than Kappa-1 CrA. Higher resolution observations of interstellar Ca II show that this difference is concentrated in the main interstellar component at V(LSR) = 9 + or - 2 km/s. Interestingly, this velocity corresponds to an intervening cloud that may be associated with the prominent Loop I shell in the local ISM. Given the separation (23 arcsec) and distance (120 pc) of Kappa CrA, the line strength variations indicate that this cloud has structure on scales of 2800 AU or less.

  20. Emergence of undulatory magnetic flux tubes by small scale reconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pariat, E.; Aulanier, G.; Schmieder, B.; Georgoulis, M. K.; Rust, D. M.; Bernasconi, P. N.

    With Flare Genesis Experiment (FGE), a balloon borne observatory launched in Antarctica on January 2000, series of high spatial resolution vector magnetograms, Dopplergrams, and Hα filtergrams have been obtained in an emerging active region (AR 8844). Previous analyses of this data revealed the occurence of many short-lived and small-scale Hα brightenings called 'Ellerman bombs' (EBs) within the AR. We performed an extrapolation of the field above the photosphere using the linear force-free field approximation. The analysis of the magnetic topology reveals a close connexion between the loci of EBs and the existence of ``Bald patches'' regions (BPs are regions where the vector magnetic field is tangential to the photosphere). Among 47 identified EBs, we found that 23 are co-spatial with a BP, while 19 are located at the footpoint of very flat separatrix field lines passing throught a distant BP. We reveal for the first time that some of these EBs/BPs are magneticaly connected by low-lying lines, presenting a 'sea-serpent' shape. This results leads us to conjecture that arch filament systems and active regions coronal loops do not result from the smooth emergence of large scale Ω loops, but rather from the rise of flat undulatory flux tubes which get released from their photospheric anchorage by reconnection at BPs, whose observational signature is Ellerman bombs.

  1. Emergence of undulatory magnetic flux tubes by small scale reconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pariat, E.; Aulanier, G.; Schmieder, B.; Georgoulis, M. K.; Rust, D. M.; Bernasconi, P. N.

    2006-01-01

    With Flare Genesis Experiment (FGE), a balloon borne observatory launched in Antarctica on January 2000, series of high spatial resolution vector magnetograms, Dopplergrams, and Hα filtergrams have been obtained in an emerging active region (AR 8844). Previous analyses of this data revealed the occurence of many short-lived and small-scale H α brightenings called 'Ellerman bombs' (EBs) within the AR. We performed an extrapolation of the field above the photosphere using the linear force-free field approximation. The analysis of the magnetic topology reveals a close connexion between the loci of EBs and the existence of "Bald patches" (BP) regions (BPs are regions where the vector magnetic field is tangential to the photosphere). Some of these EBs/BPs are magnetically connected by low-lying field lines, presenting a serpentine shape. This results leads us to conjecture that arch filament systems and active regions coronal loops do not result from the smooth emergence of large scale Ω-loops, but rather from the rise of flat undulatory flux tubes which get released from their photospheric anchorage by reconnection at BPs, which observational signature is Ellerman bombs.

  2. Small-Scale Fabrication of Biomimetic Structures for Periodontal Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Green, David W.; Lee, Jung-Seok; Jung, Han-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The periodontium is the supporting tissues for the tooth organ and is vulnerable to destruction, arising from overpopulating pathogenic bacteria and spirochaetes. The presence of microbes together with host responses can destroy large parts of the periodontium sometimes leading tooth loss. Permanent tissue replacements are made possible with tissue engineering techniques. However, existing periodontal biomaterials cannot promote proper tissue architectures, necessary tissue volumes within the periodontal pocket and a “water-tight” barrier, to become clinically acceptable. New kinds of small-scale engineered biomaterials, with increasing biological complexity are needed to guide proper biomimetic regeneration of periodontal tissues. So the ability to make compound structures with small modules, filled with tissue components, is a promising design strategy for simulating the anatomical complexity of the periodotium attachment complexes along the tooth root and the abutment with the tooth collar. Anatomical structures such as, intima, adventitia, and special compartments such as the epithelial cell rests of Malassez or a stellate reticulum niche need to be engineered from the start of regeneration to produce proper periodontium replacement. It is our contention that the positioning of tissue components at the origin is also necessary to promote self-organizing cell–cell connections, cell–matrix connections. This leads to accelerated, synchronized and well-formed tissue architectures and anatomies. This strategy is a highly effective preparation for tackling periodontitis, periodontium tissue resorption, and to ultimately prevent tooth loss. Furthermore, such biomimetic tissue replacements will tackle problems associated with dental implant support and perimimplantitis. PMID:26903872

  3. The small-scale turbulent dynamo in smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricco, T. S.; Price, D. J.; Federrath, C.

    2016-05-01

    Supersonic turbulence is believed to be at the heart of star formation. We have performed smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics (SPMHD) simulations of the small- scale dynamo amplification of magnetic fields in supersonic turbulence. The calculations use isothermal gas driven at rms velocity of Mach 10 so that conditions are representative of starforming molecular clouds in the Milky Way. The growth of magnetic energy is followed for 10 orders in magnitude until it reaches saturation, a few percent of the kinetic energy. The results of our dynamo calculations are compared with results from grid-based methods, finding excellent agreement on their statistics and their qualitative behaviour. The simulations utilise the latest algorithmic developments we have developed, in particular, a new divergence cleaning approach to maintain the solenoidal constraint on the magnetic field and a method to reduce the numerical dissipation of the magnetic shock capturing scheme. We demonstrate that our divergence cleaning method may be used to achieve ∇ • B = 0 to machine precision, albeit at significant computational expense.

  4. Social and Ecological Dynamics of Small-Scale Fisheries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, K.; Kramer, D.; Frank, K.

    2012-12-01

    Globalization's reach is rapidly extending to touch some of the most remote communities of the world, but we have yet to understand its scale and impact. On Nicaragua's previously remote Miskitu Coast, the introduction of new markets and global demand for seafood has resulted in changes in fishermen's harvest behavior manifested within the local fishery. Small-scale fisheries are a significant component in sustaining global fish trade, ensuring food security, and alleviating poverty, but because the fishermen are disperse, numerous and located in remote areas, the social and ecological dynamics of the system are poorly understood. Previous work has indicated a decline in fish abundance as a result of connection to markets, yet fishermen's response to this decline and the resulting shift in harvest strategy requires further examination. I identify the ecological and social factors that explain changes in fishermen behavior and use an innovative application of social network analysis to understand these changes. I also use interviews with fishermen and fishery-dependent surveys to measure catch and release behavior and seasonal gear use. Results demonstrate multiple cliques within a community that mitigate the response of fishermen to changes in the fishery. This research applies techniques in social science to address challenges in sustainable management of fisheries. As fisheries managers consider implementing new regulations, such as seasonal restrictions on gear, it is essential to understand not just how this might impact fish abundance, but how and why human systems respond as they do.

  5. Developments in a small scale test of violence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorber, Susan; Stennett, Chris; Goldsmith, Matt

    2012-03-01

    Utilising recent advances in diagnostic technologies, a test is under development to obtain a numerical value for the violence of response to thermal stimuli on a small explosive sample. The assembly is designed to accept pressed explosive pellets which enables the test to be conducted at the small-scale development stage and thus is anticipated to be of use in the screening of new materials. Building on previously published work describing the test development, twenty-three new cook-off experiments have been conducted. Eleven explosive compositions were subjected to the same slow heat input profile. As a sample rapidly decomposed, part of the steel confinement was designed to rupture, producing a pellet whose velocity was measured using a Heterodyne Velocimeter (Het-V). Temperatures of the confinement unit were also recorded. A development aim is to interpret this data to provide useful information on the violence of decomposition. This is discussed in the paper and leads to the data from these experiments being presented in order of increasing violence of response.

  6. Development of the Small Scale Violence Thermal Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorber, Susan

    2011-06-01

    When developing new explosive formulations, one of the most important safety goals is to characterise the formulations' scale of response to thermal insults. Established tests provide indications of violence of response from thermal stimuli through dent/fragment analysis of heater anvils and visual observations. Utilising recent advances in diagnostic technologies, a test is under development to obtain a numerical value for the violence of response to thermal stimuli on a small explosive sample. Furthermore, the test has been designed so that it can accept pressed explosive pellets. This enables the test to be conducted at the small-scale development stage and thus is anticipated to be if use in the screening of new materials. In continuation of previously published work describing the test development, twenty-seven new cook-off experiments have been conducted. Eleven explosive compositions were subjected to the same slow heat input profile. As a sample rapidly decomposed, part of the steel confinement was designed to produce a pellet whose velocity was measured using a Heterodyne Velocimeter (Het-V). Temperatures of the confinement unit were also recorded. A development aim is to interpret this data to provide useful information on the violence of decomposition. This is discussed in the paper and leads to the data from these experiments being presented in order of increasing violence of response.

  7. Requirements for future development of small scale rainfall simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iserloh, Thomas; Ries, Johannes B.; Seeger, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Rainfall simulation with small scale simulators is a method used worldwide to assess the generation of overland flow, soil erosion, infiltration and interrelated processes such as soil sealing, crusting, splash and redistribution of solids and solutes. Following the outcomes of the project "Comparability of simulation results of different rainfall simulators as input data for soil erosion modelling (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - DFG, Project No. Ri 835/6-1)" and the "International Rainfall Simulator Workshop 2011" in Trier, the necessity for further technical improvements of simulators and strategies towards an adaption of designs and methods becomes obvious. Uniform measurements of artificially generated rainfall and comparative measurements on a prepared bare fallow with rainfall simulators used by European research groups showed limitations of the comparability of the results. The following requirements, essential for small portable rainfall simulators, were identified: (I) Low and efficient water consumption for use in areas with water shortage, (II) easy handling and control of test conditions, (III) homogeneous spatial rainfall distribution, (IV) best possible drop spectrum (physically), (V) reproducibility and knowledge of spatial distribution and drop spectrum, (VI) easy and fast training of operators to obtain reproducible experiments and (VII) good mobility and easy installation for use in remote areas and in regions where highly erosive rainfall events are rare or irregular. The presentation discusses possibilities for a common use of identical plot designs, rainfall intensities and nozzles.

  8. Small scale flow processes in aqueous heterogeneous porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Rashidi, M.; Dickenson, E.

    1996-04-01

    Small scale flow processes in aqueous heterogeneous porous systems have been studied experimentally via novel nonintrusive fluorescence imaging techniques. The techniques involve 3D visualization and quantification of flow fields within a refractive index-matched transparent porous column. The refractive index-matching yields a transparent porous medium, free from any scattering and refraction at the solid-liquid interfaces, as a result allowing direct optical probing at any point within the porous system. By illuminating the porous regions within the column with a planar sheet of laser beam, flow processes through the porous medium can be observed microscopically, and qualitative and quantitative in-pore transport information can be obtained at a good resolution and a good accuracy. A CCD camera is used to record the fluorescent images at every vertical plane location while sweeping back and forth across the column. These digitized flow images are then analyzed and accumulated over a 3D volume within the column. Series of flow experiments in aqueous, refractive index-matched, porous systems packed with natural mineral particles have been performed successfully in these laboratories.

  9. Operant conditioning of a small-scale muscle response1

    PubMed Central

    Sasmor, Robert M.

    1966-01-01

    Six naive male subjects were reinforced for responses in the 20-30 microvolt range, and two each for those in 10-20 and 30-40 microvolt ranges. Records were taken of 15 min of “settling down,” 15 min of initial operant level responding, 30 min of conditioning, and 45 min of extinction, 30 min with light present and 15 min without. The results were: (1) small-scale muscle potentials from the thenar eminence, in the 10-20, 20-30, and 30-40 microvolt ranges, were conditioned, using pointer movement as the reinforcement; (2) the response rate in adjacent ranges of greater and lesser amplitude also increased during such conditioning and decreased during the subsequent extinction; (3) during conditioning the frequency of response distribution shifted toward the reinforced range; (4) subjects were unaware of the reinforced response; (5) observing a noncontingent moving pointer increased the response rate in the 20-30 microvolt range, but did not lead to conditioning. PMID:5903967

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities are phylogenetically clustered at small scales.

    PubMed

    Horn, Sebastian; Caruso, Tancredi; Verbruggen, Erik; Rillig, Matthias C; Hempel, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies with markers covering the full Glomeromycota phylum were used to uncover phylogenetic community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with Festuca brevipila. The study system was a semi-arid grassland with high plant diversity and a steep environmental gradient in pH, C, N, P and soil water content. The AMF community in roots and rhizosphere soil were analyzed separately and consisted of 74 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in total. Community-level variance partitioning showed that the role of environmental factors in determining AM species composition was marginal when controlling for spatial autocorrelation at multiple scales. Instead, phylogenetic distance and spatial distance were major correlates of AMF communities: OTUs that were more closely related (and which therefore may have similar traits) were more likely to co-occur. This pattern was insensitive to phylogenetic sampling breadth. Given the minor effects of the environment, we propose that at small scales closely related AMF positively associate through biotic factors such as plant-AMF filtering and interactions within the soil biota. PMID:24824667

  11. Social Norms of Cooperation in Small-Scale Societies

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Fernando P.; Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity, besides providing a convenient framework to address the evolution of moral systems, offers a simple and plausible explanation for the prevalence of cooperation among unrelated individuals. By helping someone, an individual may increase her/his reputation, which may change the pre-disposition of others to help her/him in the future. This, however, depends on what is reckoned as a good or a bad action, i.e., on the adopted social norm responsible for raising or damaging a reputation. In particular, it remains an open question which social norms are able to foster cooperation in small-scale societies, while enduring the wide plethora of stochastic affects inherent to finite populations. Here we address this problem by studying the stochastic dynamics of cooperation under distinct social norms, showing that the leading norms capable of promoting cooperation depend on the community size. However, only a single norm systematically leads to the highest cooperative standards in small communities. That simple norm dictates that only whoever cooperates with good individuals, and defects against bad ones, deserves a good reputation, a pattern that proves robust to errors, mutations and variations in the intensity of selection. PMID:26808261

  12. Small-Scale Convection Raising East Anatolia and Northern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogus, O.; Pysklywec, R. N.; Sengul Uluocak, E.

    2014-12-01

    The East Anatolia and Iranian plateaus (originally referred as a Turkish-Iranian plateau) are characterized by 1.5-2 km average elevation and have been deformed through Alpine-Himalayan continental collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. Recent seismological and geological studies suggest that the lithospheric structure between these two plateaus differs significantly since the Zagros fold-thrust belt in western Iran is associated with a thick lithospheric root (up to 225 km) whereas the East Anatolia seems to be lacking its mantle lithosphere. In this work, we use 2-D numerical experiments to test the applicability of small-scale convection model to account for the anomalous topography and uplift across the Turkish-Iranian plateau. Our models are designed to track the evolution of the surface topography as a response to a mantle flow activity in the step like morphology of the lithospheric base as wells as the temperature field. We test the role of several rheological parameters (e.g., viscosity) and variation in the lithospheric thickness in a series of experiments. Modeling results are tested against various observables for eastern Anatolia and Iran such as surface topography, crustal thickness, and surface strain rate. Our results provide new insight in the geodynamic evolution of Alpine type orogenic systems and suggest alternative mechanism to lithospheric delamination and/or slab break-off for the uplift of mountain belts.

  13. Dynamic properties of small-scale solar wind plasma fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Riazantseva, M. O.; Budaev, V. P.; Zelenyi, L. M.; Zastenker, G. N.; Pavlos, G. P.; Safrankova, J.; Nemecek, Z.; Prech, L.; Nemec, F.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the latest results of the studies of small-scale fluctuations in a turbulent flow of solar wind (SW) using measurements with extremely high temporal resolution (up to 0.03 s) of the bright monitor of SW (BMSW) plasma spectrometer operating on astrophysical SPECTR-R spacecraft at distances up to 350 000 km from the Earth. The spectra of SW ion flux fluctuations in the range of scales between 0.03 and 100 s are systematically analysed. The difference of slopes in low- and high-frequency parts of spectra and the frequency of the break point between these two characteristic slopes was analysed for different conditions in the SW. The statistical properties of the SW ion flux fluctuations were thoroughly analysed on scales less than 10 s. A high level of intermittency is demonstrated. The extended self-similarity of SW ion flux turbulent flow is constantly observed. The approximation of non-Gaussian probability distribution function of ion flux fluctuations by the Tsallis statistics shows the non-extensive character of SW fluctuations. Statistical characteristics of ion flux fluctuations are compared with the predictions of a log-Poisson model. The log-Poisson parametrization of the structure function scaling has shown that well-defined filament-like plasma structures are, as a rule, observed in the turbulent SW flows. PMID:25848078

  14. Small-scale spatial variations of shortwave downward radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Ralf; Gebauer, Petra; Behrens, Klaus

    2013-05-01

    DWD/Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg is operating a small-scale ground-based network of measurement sites for precipitation and shortwave radiation. The area is located roughly 60 km southeast of Berlin city. 8 measurement sites are equipped with high quality instruments CM21/CM11 by Kipp & Zonen. The quality assessment routinely applied takes into account the basic astronomical and empirical considerations as well as some interdependencies like total to diffuse flux ratio and cross checking with sunshine duration. Possible shading due to growing vegetation is taken into account, too. This is complemented by an approach that is utilizing time-series of clear sky radiative transfer simulations for every site. For that purpose a link to cloud coverage obtained from Meteosat second generation geostationary satellite data, highly resolved in time and space, was established. The paper provides an overview of the surface radiation network and the current activities to improve automatic quality assessment using remotely sensed data and clear sky modelling. First evaluation efforts cover up to 12 years of data.

  15. Dynamic properties of small-scale solar wind plasma fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Riazantseva, M O; Budaev, V P; Zelenyi, L M; Zastenker, G N; Pavlos, G P; Safrankova, J; Nemecek, Z; Prech, L; Nemec, F

    2015-05-13

    The paper presents the latest results of the studies of small-scale fluctuations in a turbulent flow of solar wind (SW) using measurements with extremely high temporal resolution (up to 0.03 s) of the bright monitor of SW (BMSW) plasma spectrometer operating on astrophysical SPECTR-R spacecraft at distances up to 350,000 km from the Earth. The spectra of SW ion flux fluctuations in the range of scales between 0.03 and 100 s are systematically analysed. The difference of slopes in low- and high-frequency parts of spectra and the frequency of the break point between these two characteristic slopes was analysed for different conditions in the SW. The statistical properties of the SW ion flux fluctuations were thoroughly analysed on scales less than 10 s. A high level of intermittency is demonstrated. The extended self-similarity of SW ion flux turbulent flow is constantly observed. The approximation of non-Gaussian probability distribution function of ion flux fluctuations by the Tsallis statistics shows the non-extensive character of SW fluctuations. Statistical characteristics of ion flux fluctuations are compared with the predictions of a log-Poisson model. The log-Poisson parametrization of the structure function scaling has shown that well-defined filament-like plasma structures are, as a rule, observed in the turbulent SW flows. PMID:25848078

  16. Structures and dynamics of small scales in decaying magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallas, V.; Alexakis, A.

    2013-10-01

    The topological and dynamical features of small scales are studied in the context of decaying magnetohydrodynamic turbulent flows using direct numerical simulations. Joint probability density functions (PDFs) of the invariants of gradient quantities related to the velocity and the magnetic fields demonstrate that structures and dynamics at the time of maximum dissipation depend on the large scale initial conditions at the examined Reynolds numbers. This is evident in particular from the fact that each flow has a different shape for the joint PDF of the invariants of the velocity gradient in contrast to the universal teardrop shape of hydrodynamic turbulence. The general picture that emerges from the analysis of the invariants is that regions of high vorticity are correlated with regions of high strain rate S also in contrast to hydrodynamic turbulent flows. Magnetic strain dominated regions are also well correlated with region of high current density j. Viscous dissipation ({∝ } S^2) as well as Ohmic dissipation ({∝ } j^2) resides in regions where strain and rotation are locally almost in balance. The structures related to the velocity gradient possess different characteristics than those associated with the magnetic field gradient with the latter being locally more quasi-two dimensional.

  17. Small-Scale Fabrication of Biomimetic Structures for Periodontal Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Green, David W; Lee, Jung-Seok; Jung, Han-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The periodontium is the supporting tissues for the tooth organ and is vulnerable to destruction, arising from overpopulating pathogenic bacteria and spirochaetes. The presence of microbes together with host responses can destroy large parts of the periodontium sometimes leading tooth loss. Permanent tissue replacements are made possible with tissue engineering techniques. However, existing periodontal biomaterials cannot promote proper tissue architectures, necessary tissue volumes within the periodontal pocket and a "water-tight" barrier, to become clinically acceptable. New kinds of small-scale engineered biomaterials, with increasing biological complexity are needed to guide proper biomimetic regeneration of periodontal tissues. So the ability to make compound structures with small modules, filled with tissue components, is a promising design strategy for simulating the anatomical complexity of the periodotium attachment complexes along the tooth root and the abutment with the tooth collar. Anatomical structures such as, intima, adventitia, and special compartments such as the epithelial cell rests of Malassez or a stellate reticulum niche need to be engineered from the start of regeneration to produce proper periodontium replacement. It is our contention that the positioning of tissue components at the origin is also necessary to promote self-organizing cell-cell connections, cell-matrix connections. This leads to accelerated, synchronized and well-formed tissue architectures and anatomies. This strategy is a highly effective preparation for tackling periodontitis, periodontium tissue resorption, and to ultimately prevent tooth loss. Furthermore, such biomimetic tissue replacements will tackle problems associated with dental implant support and perimimplantitis. PMID:26903872

  18. Small-scale turbulence detected in Mercury's magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-11-01

    With its closest approach a mere 46 million kilometers from the Sun, the blast of the solar wind was supposed to wash away any chance that Mercury could hold on to a magnetic field—an idea rejected by the observations of the Mariner 10 spacecraft in 1974. Though Mercury was shown to harbor a weak magnetic field (one-hundredth the strength of Earth's), its structure, behavior, and interactions with the solar wind remained heavily debated, yet untested, until the 14 January 2008 approach of NASA's MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) orbiter. Using a continuous scalogram analysis—a novel statistical technique in space research—Uritsky et al. analyzed the high-resolution magnetic field strength observations taken by MESSENGER as it flew within a few hundred kilometers of the planet's surface. The authors found turbulence in Mercury's magnetosphere, which they attributed to small-scale interactions between the solar wind plasma and the magnetic field. At large spatial and temporal scales the solar wind can be thought of as a fluid with some magnetic properties—a domain well explained by the theories of magnetohydrodynamics.

  19. Capital cost of small-scale tidal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Fay, J.A.; Smachio, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    A generic methodology is devised for estimating the capital costs of small-scale tidal power plants (1-100 MW rated power). In addition to the general dimensions determining the size of the tidal pond resource (surface area and tidal range) two site-specific dimensions (depth and length of closure structure) are required for this estimate. Dimensionless parameters and variables describing the power plant performance are used in the cost analysis to specify the relative sizes of the power plant components (turbine-generator, power house, sluice gates, cofferdam, and barrage). The generic cost estimates are compared with those used in several site-specific studies. Unit total capital cost (cost per unit of average power produced) is calculated as a function of the size of the tidal pond resource, the latter being measured in terms of the ideal tidal pond power. A range of closure depths and lengths was used in these generic cost estimates. The minimum unit capital cost is shown to depend upon the size of the tidal pond as well as the site-specific dimensions. An optimum turbogenerator size can be determined to minimize the capital cost.

  20. Small scale clustering of late forming dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, S.; Corasaniti, P.-S.; Das, S.; Rasera, Y.

    2015-09-01

    We perform a study of the nonlinear clustering of matter in the late-forming dark matter (LFDM) scenario in which dark matter results from the transition of a nonminimally coupled scalar field from radiation to collisionless matter. A distinct feature of this model is the presence of a damped oscillatory cutoff in the linear matter power spectrum at small scales. We use a suite of high-resolution N-body simulations to study the imprints of LFDM on the nonlinear matter power spectrum, the halo mass and velocity functions and the halo density profiles. The model largely satisfies high-redshift matter power spectrum constraints from Lyman-α forest measurements, while it predicts suppressed abundance of low-mass halos (˜109- 1010 h-1 M⊙ ) at all redshifts compared to a vanilla Λ CDM model. The analysis of the LFDM halo velocity function shows a better agreement than the Λ CDM prediction with the observed abundance of low-velocity galaxies in the local volume. Halos with mass M ≳1011 h-1 M⊙ show minor departures of the density profiles from Λ CDM expectations, while smaller-mass halos are less dense, consistent with the fact that they form later than their Λ CDM counterparts.

  1. Small-scale plasma irregularities in the nightside Venus ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebowsky, J. M.; Curtis, S. A.; Brace, L. H.

    1991-01-01

    The individual volt-ampere curves from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter electron temperature probe showed evidence for small-scale density irregularities, or short-period plasma waves, in regions of the nightside ionosphere where the Orbiter electric field detector observed waves in its 100-Hz channel. A survey of the nightside volt-ampere curves has revealed several hundred examples of such irregularities. The I-V structures correspond to plasma density structure with spatial scale sizes in the range of about 100-2000 m, or alternatively they could be viewed as waves having frequencies extending toward 100 Hz. They are often seen as isolated events, with spatial extent along the orbit frequently less than 80 km. The density irregularities or waves occur in or near prominent gradients in the ambient plasma concentrations both at low altitudes where molecular ions are dominant and at higher altitudes in regions of reduced plasma density where O(+) is the major ion. Electric field 100-Hz bursts occur simultaneously, with the majority of the structured I-V curves providing demonstrative evidence that at least some of the E field signals are produced within the ionosphere.

  2. Small Scale Evaporation Kinetics of a Binary Fluid Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basdeo, Carl; Ye, Dezhuang; Kalonia, Devendra; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Mechanical Engineering Team; Pharmaceutical Sciences Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Evaporation induces a concentrating effect in liquid mixtures. The transient process has significant influence on the dynamic behaviors of a complex fluid. To simultaneously investigate the fluid properties and small-scale evaporation kinetics during the transient process, the quartz crystal microbalance is applied to a binary mixture droplet of light alcohols including both a single volatile component (a fast evaporation followed by a slow evaporation) and a mixture of two volatile components with comparable evaporation rates. The density and viscosity stratification are evaluated by the shear wave, and the evaporation kinetics is measured by the resonant signature of the acoustic p-wave. The evaporation flux can be precisely determined by the resonant frequency spikes and the complex impedance. To predict the concentration field, the moving interface, and the precision evaporation kinetics of the mixture, a multiphase model is developed to interpret the complex impedance signals based on the underlying mass and momentum transport phenomena. The experimental method and theoretical model are developed for better characterizing and understanding of the drying process involving liquid mixtures of protein pharmaceuticals.

  3. Development, characterization and beam tests of a small-scale TORCH prototype module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo García, L.; Brook, N.; Conneely, T.; Cussans, D.; Föhl, K.; Forty, R.; Frei, C.; Gao, R.; Gys, T.; Harnew, N.; Milnes, J.; Piedigrossi, D.; Ros García, A.; van Dijk, M.

    2016-05-01

    Within the TORCH (Time Of internally Reflected CHerenkov light) R&D project, a small-scale TORCH prototype module is currently under study. Circular-shaped micro-channel plate photon detectors with finely segmented square anodes (32 × 32 channels) have been produced for TORCH requirements in industrial partnership. A new generation of custom multi-channel electronics based on the 32-channel NINO and HPTDC ASICs has been developed. The performance of the photon detector coupled to these customized electronics has been assessed in the laboratory and is reported on. A time resolution of 80 ps and a spatial resolution of 0.03 mm have been measured. Finally, tests of the TORCH prototype module illuminated with laser light and in a charged particle beam will be highlighted.

  4. NASA industry education initiative. Education programs report, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Findings from the initial inventory of education programs show that support for the NASA-Industry Education Initiative (NIEI) appears to be strong among the organizations surveyed. In addition, the range, depth and historical baselines of NIEI education programs are encouraging. It is also apparent that there is a significant level of cooperation between NIEI members and other organizations. Heavily focused towards science, engineering, mathematics and technology achievement, NIEI activities appear to be aligned with national education goals. Three criticisms are revealed: (1) the majority of programs are targeted fairly late in the education cycle; (2) the number of initiatives geared towards adult literacy and adult skills-enhancement appears to be relatively low; (3) the majority of NIEI activities involve traditional education-assistance programs, but the number of critical assessment and systematic reform initiatives is low. Four Working Group recommendations resulted from this activity: (1) NIEI Working Group operations should continue for an indefinite period, with participation open to other like-minded private-sector organization; (2) the report should be periodically updated; (3) an analysis of ongoing education programs should be conducted; (4) American corporations should continue to support education and evaluate in-house programs periodically.

  5. On-farm characteristics and biosecurity protocols for small-scale swine producers in eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Schembri, N; Hernandez-Jover, M; Toribio, J-A L M L; Holyoake, P K

    2015-01-01

    (by the industry and/or authorities; 18.5%). Up to three-quarters of all producers maintained an open breeding herd, regularly introducing new pigs to the main herd. Saleyards are an important source of income for backyard and small-scale producers as well as an important risk factor for the introduction and dissemination of endemic and emerging animal diseases. Differing management and biosecurity practices as well as the motivations of these producers keeping pigs in small numbers and trading pigs at saleyards need to be taken into account in the development of successful biosecurity extension programmes for this sector of the Australian pork industry. PMID:25433716

  6. Office of Industrial Technologies: Summary of program results

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    Working in partnership with industry, the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) is helping reduce industrial energy use, emissions, and waste while boosting productivity. Operating within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE), OIT conducts research, development, demonstration, and technology transfer efforts that are producing substantial, measurable benefits to industry. This document summarizes some of the impacts of OIT`s programs through 1997. OIT tracks energy savings as well as other benefits associated with the successfully commercialized technologies resulting from OIT-supported research partnerships. Specifically, a chart shows current and cumulative energy savings as well as cumulative reductions of various air pollutants including particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}), and the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The bulk of the document consists of four appendices. Appendix 1 describes the technologies currently available commercially, along with their applications and benefits; Appendix 2 describes the OIT-supported emerging technologies that are likely to be commercialized within the next year or two; Appendix 3 describes OIT-sponsored technologies used in commercial applications in the past that are no longer tracked; and Appendix 4 describes the methodology used to assess and track OIT-supported technologies.

  7. 76 FR 67484 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held...

  8. 77 FR 12623 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... ] Industrial Security Program policy matters. Dated: February 23, 2012. Mary Ann Hadyka, Committee...

  9. 77 FR 34411 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY... made for the following committee meeting. To discuss National Industrial Security Program...

  10. 76 FR 28099 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held...

  11. 75 FR 65526 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... committee meeting, to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  12. 76 FR 6636 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... meeting. To discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be...

  13. Work Ethic of Prison Inmates Who Participate in Correctional Industries Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Timothy J.

    A study examined the relationship between correctional industry work experience and the work ethic of the inmate workers assigned to certain Florida correctional industry programs. Inmate workers (n=369) assigned to three of PRIDE Enterprises's correctional industry programs were participants. These industries were selected for the study:…

  14. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Orifice Plugging Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Kimura, Marcia L.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2012-09-01

    included round holes and rectangular slots. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. The purpose of the study described in this report is to provide experimental data for the first key technical area, potential plugging of small breaches, by performing small-scale tests with a range of orifice sizes and orientations representative of the WTP conditions. The simulants used were chosen to represent the range of process stream properties in the WTP. Testing conducted after the plugging tests in the small- and large-scale test stands addresses the second key technical area, aerosol generation. The results of the small-scale aerosol generation tests are included in Mahoney et al. 2012. The area of spray generation from large breaches is covered by large-scale testing in Schonewill et al. 2012.

  15. The “We Card” Program: Tobacco Industry “Youth Smoking Prevention” as Industry Self-Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Ruth E.

    2010-01-01

    The “We Card” program is the most ubiquitous tobacco industry “youth smoking prevention” program in the United States, and its retailer materials have been copied in other countries. The program's effectiveness has been questioned, but no previous studies have examined its development, goals, and uses from the tobacco industry's perspective. On the basis of our analysis of tobacco industry documents released under the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, we concluded that the We Card program was undertaken for 2 primary purposes: to improve the tobacco industry's image and to reduce regulation and the enforcement of existing laws. Policymakers should be cautious about accepting industry self-regulation at face value, both because it redounds to the industry's benefit and because it is ineffective. PMID:20466965

  16. Small-scale thermal studies of volatile homemade explosives

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sandstrom, Mary M.; Brown, Geoffrey W.; Warner, Kirsten F.; Sorensen, Daniel N.; Phillips, Jason J.; Shelley, Timothy J.; Reyes, Jose A.; Hsu, Peter C.; Reynolds, John G.

    2016-01-26

    Several homemade or improvised explosive mixtures that either contained volatile components or produced volatile products were examined using standard small-scale safety and thermal (SSST) testing that employed differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques (constant heating rate and standard sample holders). KClO3 and KClO4 mixtures with dodecane exhibited different enthalpy behavior when using a vented sample holder in contrast to a sealed sample holder. The standard configuration produced profiles that exhibited only endothermic transitions. The sealed system produced profiles that exhibited additional exothermic transitions absent in the standard configuration produced profiles. When H2O2/fuel mixtures were examined, the volatilization of the peroxide (endothermic)more » dominated the profiles. When a sealed sample holder was used, the energetic releases of the mixture could be clearly observed. For AN and AN mixtures, the high temperature decomposition appears as an intense endothermic event. Using a nominally sealed sample holder also did not adequately contain the system. Only when a high-pressure rated sample holder was used the high temperature decomposition of the AN could be detected as an exothermic release. The testing was conducted during a proficiency (or round-robin type) test that included three U.S. Department of Energy and two U.S. Department of Defense laboratories. In the course of this proficiency test, certain HMEs exhibited thermal behavior that was not adequately accounted for by standard techniques. Further examination of this atypical behavior highlighted issues that may have not been recognized previously because some of these materials are not routinely tested. More importantly, if not recognized, the SSST testing results could lead to inaccurate safety assessments. Furthermore, this study provides examples, where standard techniques can be applied, and results can be obtained, but these results may be misleading in establishing

  17. Small-scale swirl events in the quiet Sun chromosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedemeyer-Böhm, S.; Rouppe van der Voort, L.

    2009-11-01

    Context: Recent progress in instrumentation enables solar observations with high resolution simultaneously in the spatial, temporal, and spectral domains. Aims: We use such high-resolution observations to study small-scale structures and dynamics in the chromosphere of the quiet Sun. Methods: We analyse time series of spectral scans through the Ca ii 854.2 nm spectral line obtained with the CRISP instrument at the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope. The targets are quiet Sun regions inside coronal holes close to disc-centre. Results: The line core maps exhibit relatively few fibrils compared to what is normally observed in quiet Sun regions outside coronal holes. The time series show a chaotic and dynamic scene that includes spatially confined “swirl” events. These events feature dark and bright rotating patches, which can consist of arcs, spiral arms, rings or ring fragments. The width of the fragments typically appears to be of the order of only 0.2 arcsec, which is close to the effective spatial resolution. They exhibit Doppler shifts of -2 to -4 km s-1 but sometimes up to -7 km s-1, indicating fast upflows. The diameter of a swirl is usually of the order of 2´´. At the location of these swirls, the line wing and wide-band maps show close groups of photospheric bright points that move with respect to each other. Conclusions: A likely explanation is that the relative motion of the bright points twists the associated magnetic field in the chromosphere above. Plasma or propagating waves may then spiral upwards guided by the magnetic flux structure, thereby producing the observed intensity signature of Doppler-shifted ring fragments. The movie is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org Marie Curie Intra-European Fellow of the European Commission.

  18. Estimation of GPS instrumental biases from small scale network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Guanyi; Gao, Wei; Li, Jinghua; Chen, Yanhong; Shen, Hua

    2014-09-01

    With 4 GPS receivers located in the equatorial anomaly region in southeast China, this paper proposes a grid-based algorithm to determine the GPS satellites and receivers biases, and at the same time to derive the total electron content (TEC) with time resolution of 15 min and spatial resolution of 1° by 3.5° in latitude and longitude. By assuming that the TEC is identical at any point within a given grid block and the biases do not vary within a day, the algorithm arranges unknown biases and TECs with slant path TEC from the 4 receivers’ observations into a set of equations. Then the instrumental biases and the TECs are determined by using the least squares fitting technique. The performance of the method is examined by applying it to the GPS receiver chain observations selected from 16 geomagnetically quiet days in four seasons of 2006. It is found that the fitting agrees with the data very well, with goodness of fit ranging from 0.452 TECU to 1.914 TECU. Having a mean of 0.9 ns, the standard deviations for most of the GPS satellite biases are less than 1.0 ns for the 16 days. The GPS receiver biases are more stable than that of the GPS satellites. The standard deviation in the 4 receiver bias is from 0.370 ns to 0.855 ns, with a mean of 0.5 ns. Moreover, the instrumental biases are highly correlated with those derived from CODE and JPL with independent methods. The typical precision of the derived TEC is 5 TECU by a conservative estimation. These results indicate that the proposed algorithm is valid and qualified for small scale GPS network.

  19. Modelling Relativistic Astrophysics at the Large and Small Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugboelle, Troels

    2005-10-01

    In this thesis different numerical methods, as well as applications of the methods to a number of current problems in relativistic astrophysics, are presented. In the first part the theoretical foundation and numerical implementation of a new general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics code is discussed. A new form of the equations of motion using global coordinates, but evolving the dynamical variables from the point of view of a local observer is presented. No assumptions are made about the background metric and the design is ready to be coupled with methods solving the full Einstein equations. In the second part of the thesis important results concerning the understanding of collisionless shocks, obtained from experiments with a relativistic charged particle code, are presented. Relativistic collisionless shocks are important in a range of astrophysical objects; in particular in gamma ray burst afterglows and other relativistic jets. It is shown that a strong small scale, fluctuating, and predominantly transversal magnetic field is unavoidably generated by a two-stream instability. The magnetic energy density reaches a few percent of equipartition. A new acceleration mechanism for electrons in ion-electron collisionless shocks is proposed. The mechanism is capable of creating a powerlaw electron distribution in a collisionless shocked region. The non-thermal acceleration of the electrons is directly related to the ion current channels generated by the two-stream instability and is local in nature. Thus the observed radiation field may be tied directly to the local conditions of the plasma and could be a strong handle on the physical processes. (abridged)

  20. A Small-Scale Tiltrotor Model Operating in Descending Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrego, Anita I.; Betzina, Mark D.; Long, Kurtis R.

    2002-01-01

    As a rotor s descent velocity in low speed flight approaches the induced wake velocity, a vortex ring is formed around the circumference of the rotor disk causing the flow to become very unsteady. This condition is known as Vortex Ring State (VRS). The aerodynamic Characteristics of edgewise operating rotors in this VRS induced environment have been studied for many years. In the 1960 s, two propellers were tested in vertical or near vertical descent, indicating a loss in thrust in the region of VRS. Thrust fluctuations of both single and tandem rotor configurations while operating in VRS were reported. More recently, the effects of descending flight on a single rotor operating in close proximity to a physical image plane, simulating the effects of a twin rotor tiltrotor system were investigated. Mean rotor thrust reductions and thrust fluctuations were shown in VRS. Results indicated the need to acquire additional data with a two-rotor model and the need to investigate the use of a single rotor/image plane apparatus to identify the characteristics of a two-rotor flowfield. As a result a small-scale tiltrotor model with 2-b1adedy untwisted, teetering rotors was tested at various states of descent and sideslip. Dual-rotor, single-rotor with image plane, and isolated-rotor results were reported, suggesting the single-rotor with image plane configuration may not properly capture the aerodynamic nature of a dual-rotor vehicle. Recommendations included additional testing of a model that better represents the physical characteristics of a tiltrotor aircraft. Specific recommendations for model improvements included using three-bladed rotors, twisted blades, a tiltrotor fuselage and wings.

  1. Detecting small scale CO2 emission structures using OCO-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwandner, Florian M.; Eldering, Annmarie; Verhulst, Kristal R.; Miller, Charles E.; Nguyen, Hai M.; Oda, Tomohiro; O'Dell, Christopher; Rao, Preeti; Kahn, Brian; Crisp, David; Gunson, Michael R.; Sanchez, Robert M.; Ashok, Manasa; Pieri, David; Linick, Justin P.; Yuen, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Localized carbon dioxide (CO2) emission structures cover spatial domains of less than 50 km diameter and include cities and transportation networks, as well as fossil fuel production, upgrading and distribution infra-structure. Anthropogenic sources increasingly upset the natural balance between natural carbon sources and sinks. Mitigation of resulting climate change impacts requires management of emissions, and emissions management requires monitoring, reporting and verification. Space-borne measurements provide a unique opportunity to detect, quantify, and analyze small scale and point source emissions on a global scale. NASA's first satellite dedicated to atmospheric CO2 observation, the July 2014 launched Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2), now leads the afternoon constellation of satellites (A-Train). Its continuous swath of 2 to 10 km in width and eight footprints across can slice through coincident emission plumes and may provide momentary cross sections. First OCO-2 results demonstrate that we can detect localized source signals in the form of urban total column averaged CO2 enhancements of ~2 ppm against suburban and rural backgrounds. OCO-2's multi-sounding swath observing geometry reveals intra-urban spatial structures reflected in XCO2 data, previously unobserved from space. The transition from single-shot GOSAT soundings detecting urban/rural differences (Kort et al., 2012) to hundreds of soundings per OCO-2 swath opens up the path to future capabilities enabling urban tomography of greenhouse gases. For singular point sources like coal fired power plants, we have developed proxy detections of plumes using bands of imaging spectrometers with sensitivity to SO2 in the thermal infrared (ASTER). This approach provides a means to automate plume detection with subsequent matching and mining of OCO-2 data for enhanced detection efficiency and validation. © California Institute of Technology

  2. Small scale folding observed in the NEEM ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Daniela; Llorens, Maria-Gema; Westhoff, Julien; Steinbach, Florian; Bons, Paul D.; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Griera, Albert; Weikusat, Ilka

    2015-04-01

    Disturbances on the centimeter scale in the layering of the NEEM ice core (North Greenland) can be mapped by means of visual stratigraphy as long as the ice does have a visual layering, such as, for example, cloudy bands. Different focal depths of the visual stratigraphy method allow, to a certain extent, a three dimensional view of the structures. In this study we present a structural analysis of the visible folds, discuss characteristics and frequency and present examples of typical fold structures. With this study we aim to quantify the potential impact of small scale folding on the integrity of climate proxy data. We also analyze the structures with regard to the stress environment under which they formed. The structures evolve from gentle waves at about 1700 m to overturned z-folds with increasing depth. Occasionally, the folding causes significant thickening of layers. Their shape indicates that they are passive features and are probably not initiated by rheology differences between layers. Layering is heavily disturbed and tracing of single layers is no longer possible below a depth of 2160 m. Lattice orientation distributions for the corresponding core sections were analyzed where available in addition to visual stratigraphy. The data show axial-plane parallel strings of grains with c.axis orientations that deviate from that of the matrix, which has more or less a single-maximum fabric at the depth where the folding occurs. We conclude from these data that folding is a consequence of deformation along localized shear planes and kink bands. The findings are compared with results from other deep ice cores. The observations presented are supplemented by microstructural modeling using a crystal plasticity code that reproduces deformation, applying a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), coupled with ELLE to include dynamic recrystallization processes. The model results reproduce the development of bands of grains with a tilted orientation relative to the single maximum

  3. Small Scale Cold Traps on Airless Planetary Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayne, Paul O.; Aharonson, O.; Williams, J.; Siegler, M. A.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Bandfield, J.; Vasavada, A. R.; Paige, D. A.; Diviner Lunar Radiometer Science Team

    2013-10-01

    Lacking an atmosphere to transport heat, temperatures on airless bodies are primarily controlled by latitude and local time. However, local topography strongly affects temperatures at the surface and in the subsurface by changing the intensity and timing of insolation. In the case of low-obliquity bodies such as Mercury and the Earth’s moon, topography near the poles casts perennial shadows where volatiles such as water ice may be cold-trapped for billions of years. Prior studies have focused primarily on large contiguous cold traps > 1 km resolvable by instruments in lunar orbit. In this investigation, we used infrared measurements of the Moon, thermal models, and a statistical rough surface model to show that such cold traps may exist on a vast range of scales, from the largest impact craters, down to the skin depth of the diurnal temperature oscillation. The extremely insulating nature of planetary regolith leads to extreme temperature gradients and shallow diurnal skin depths. For example, the lunar 29-day diurnal temperature oscillation is damped to ~1% at a depth of 0.5 m. Therefore, at latitudes > 60° where perennial shadow exists, cold traps as small as a few tens of centimeters could exist. As two test cases, we calculated the fractional surface areas on the Moon (obliquity = 1.6°) and Ceres (3-5°) where temperatures remain < 110 K all year round, such that water ice is thermally stable at the surface for billions of years. We also calculated fractional areas where subsurface temperatures are < 145 K, such that subsurface ice deposits are stable on similar timescales. Finally, we will discuss the implications of these proposed small-scale cold traps for other airless bodies, including asteroids and giant planet satellites.

  4. Potential small-scale development of western oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.; Renk, R.; Nordin, J.; Chatwin, T.; Harnsberger, M.; Fahy, L.J.; Cha, C.Y.; Smith, E.; Robertson, R.

    1989-10-01

    Several studies have been undertaken in an effort to determine ways to enhance development of western oil shale under current market conditions for energy resources. This study includes a review of the commercial potential of western oil shale products and byproducts, a review of retorting processes, an economic evaluation of a small-scale commercial operation, and a description of the environmental requirements of such an operation. Shale oil used as a blend in conventional asphalt appears to have the most potential for entering today's market. Based on present prices for conventional petroleum, other products from oil shale do not appear competitive at this time or will require considerable marketing to establish a position in the marketplace. Other uses for oil shale and spent shale, such as for sulfur sorbtion, power generation, cement, aggregate, and soil stabilization, are limited economically by transportation costs. The three-state area area consisting of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming seems reasonable for the entry of shale oil-blended asphalt into the commercial market. From a review of retorting technologies and the product characteristics from various retorting processes it was determined that the direct heating Paraho and inclined fluidized-bed processes produce a high proportion of heavy material with a high nitrogen content. The two processes are complementary in that they are each best suited to processing different size ranges of materials. An economic evaluation of a 2000-b/d shale oil facility shows that the operation is potentially viable, if the price obtained for the shale oil residue is in the top range of prices projected for this product. Environmental requirements for building and operating an oil shale processing facility are concerned with permitting, control of emissions and discharges, and monitoring. 62 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Propulsion engineering study for small-scale Mars missions

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J.

    1995-09-12

    Rocket propulsion options for small-scale Mars missions are presented and compared, particularly for the terminal landing maneuver and for sample return. Mars landing has a low propulsive {Delta}v requirement on a {approximately}1-minute time scale, but at a high acceleration. High thrust/weight liquid rocket technologies, or advanced pulse-capable solids, developed during the past decade for missile defense, are therefore more appropriate for small Mars landers than are conventional space propulsion technologies. The advanced liquid systems are characterize by compact lightweight thrusters having high chamber pressures and short lifetimes. Blowdown or regulated pressure-fed operation can satisfy the Mars landing requirement, but hardware mass can be reduced by using pumps. Aggressive terminal landing propulsion designs can enable post-landing hop maneuvers for some surface mobility. The Mars sample return mission requires a small high performance launcher having either solid motors or miniature pump-fed engines. Terminal propulsion for 100 kg Mars landers is within the realm of flight-proven thruster designs, but custom tankage is desirable. Landers on a 10 kg scale also are feasible, using technology that has been demonstrated but not previously flown in space. The number of sources and the selection of components are extremely limited on this smallest scale, so some customized hardware is required. A key characteristic of kilogram-scale propulsion is that gas jets are much lighter than liquid thrusters for reaction control. The mass and volume of tanks for inert gas can be eliminated by systems which generate gas as needed from a liquid or a solid, but these have virtually no space flight history. Mars return propulsion is a major engineering challenge; earth launch is the only previously-solved propulsion problem requiring similar or greater performance.

  6. 34 CFR 379.1 - What is the Projects With Industry (PWI) program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Projects With Industry (PWI) program? 379.1... SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION PROJECTS WITH INDUSTRY General § 379.1 What is the Projects With Industry (PWI) program? The purpose of this program is to (a)...

  7. 32 CFR 2004.20 - National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (NISPOM) [201(a)].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false National Industrial Security Program Operating... INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL SECURITY PROGRAM DIRECTIVE NO. 1 Operations § 2004.20 National Industrial Security Program Operating...

  8. 32 CFR 2004.20 - National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (NISPOM) [201(a)].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National Industrial Security Program Operating... INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL SECURITY PROGRAM DIRECTIVE NO. 1 Operations § 2004.20 National Industrial Security Program Operating...

  9. 32 CFR 2004.20 - National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (NISPOM) [201(a)].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Industrial Security Program Operating... INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL SECURITY PROGRAM DIRECTIVE NO. 1 Operations § 2004.20 National Industrial Security Program Operating...

  10. 32 CFR 2004.20 - National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (NISPOM) [201(a)].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false National Industrial Security Program Operating... INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL SECURITY PROGRAM DIRECTIVE NO. 1 Operations § 2004.20 National Industrial Security Program Operating...

  11. 75 FR 39582 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... of the National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee. The meeting will be held to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on July...

  12. 32 CFR 2004.20 - National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (NISPOM) [201(a)].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false National Industrial Security Program Operating... INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL SECURITY PROGRAM DIRECTIVE NO. 1 Operations § 2004.20 National Industrial Security Program Operating...

  13. Advanced Turbine Systems Program industrial system concept development

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, S.

    1995-12-31

    Solar approached Phase II of ATS program with the goal of 50% thermal efficiency. An intercolled and recuperated gas turbine was identified as the ultimate system to meet this goal in a commercial gas turbine environment. With commercial input from detailed market studies and DOE`s ATS program, Solar redefined the company`s proposed ATS to fit both market and sponsor (DOE) requirements. Resulting optimized recuperated gas turbine will be developed in two sizes, 5 and 15 MWe. It will show a thermal efficiency of about 43%, a 23% improvement over current industrial gas turbines. Other ATS goals--emissions, RAMD (reliability, availability, maintainability, durability), cost of power--will be met or exceeded. During FY95, advanced development of key materials, combustion and component technologies proceeded to the point of acceptance for inclusion in ATS Phase III.

  14. Development program to support industrial coal gasification. Quarterly report 1

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-15

    The Development Program to Support Industrial Coal Gasification is on schedule. The efforts have centered on collecting background information and data, planning, and getting the experimental program underway. The three principal objectives in Task I-A were accomplished. The technical literature was reviewed, the coals and binders to be employed were selected, and tests and testing equipment to be used in evaluating agglomerates were developed. The entire Erie Mining facility design was reviewed and a large portion of the fluidized-bed coal gasification plant design was completed. Much of the work in Task I will be experimental. Wafer-briquette and roll-briquette screening tests will be performed. In Task II, work on the fluidized-bed gasification plant design will be completed and work on a plant design involving entrained-flow gasifiers will be initiated.

  15. Ramsey County commercial, industrial, institutional waste reduction and recycling program

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman-Onkka, C.

    1995-09-01

    The Ramsey County Commercial, Industrial, Institutional Waste Reduction and Recycling Program was developed (1) to raise awareness of waste reduction and recycling opportunities for businesses, (2) to make information available to businesses, (3) to provide technical assistance to small and medium sized businesses on waste reduction and recycling, and (4) to raise awareness of Ramsey County as a technical resource. Ramsey County was founded in 1849 and is named for Alexander Ramsey, the first governor of the Minnesota Territory. Ramsey County is the smallest, most urban of all 87 counties in Minnesota. With 170 square miles and a 1990 population of 485,000, Ramsey has the most people per square mile of any county in Minnesota. There are 19 cities within the County, the largest is Saint Paul with a 1990 population of 272,000. There are no unincorporated areas in Ramsey County. This report describes the efforts directed towards raising the awareness of the county waste management, recycling program.

  16. Cyber Security Testing and Training Programs for Industrial Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Noyes

    2012-03-01

    Service providers rely on industrial control systems (ICS) to manage the flow of water at dams, open breakers on power grids, control ventilation and cooling in nuclear power plants, and more. In today's interconnected environment, this can present a serious cyber security challenge. To combat this growing challenge, government, private industry, and academia are working together to reduce cyber risks. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a key contributor to the Department of Energy National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program (CSSP), both of which focus on improving the overall security posture of ICS in the national critical infrastructure. In support of the NSTB, INL hosts a dedicated SCADA testing facility which consists of multiple control systems supplied by leading national and international manufacturers. Within the test bed, INL researchers systematically examine control system components and work to identify vulnerabilities. In support of the CSSP, INL develops and conducts training courses which are designed to increase awareness and defensive capabilities for IT/Control System professionals. These trainings vary from web-based cyber security trainings for control systems engineers to more advanced hands-on training that culminates with a Red Team/ Blue Team exercise that is conducted within an actual control systems environment. INL also provides staffing and operational support to the DHS Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) Security Operations Center which responds to and analyzes control systems cyber incidents across the 18 US critical infrastructure sectors.

  17. Plowshare Program - American Atomic Bomb Tests For Industrial Applications

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-07-31

    The United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) established the Plowshare Program as a research and development activity to explore the technical and economic feasibility of using nuclear explosives for industrial applications. The reasoning was that the relatively inexpensive energy available from nuclear explosions could prove useful for a wide variety of peaceful purposes. The Plowshare Program began in 1958 and continued through 1975. Between December 1961 and May 1973, the United States conducted 27 Plowshare nuclear explosive tests comprising 35 individual detonations. Conceptually, industrial applications resulting from the use of nuclear explosives could be divided into two broad categories: 1) large-scale excavation and quarrying, where the energy from the explosion was used to break up and/or move rock; and 2) underground engineering, where the energy released from deeply buried nuclear explosives increased the permeability and porosity of the rock by massive breaking and fracturing. Possible excavation applications included: canals, harbors, highway and railroad cuts through mountains, open pit mining, construction of dams, and other quarry and construction-related projects. Underground nuclear explosion applications included: stimulation of natural gas production, preparation of leachable ore bodies for in situ leaching, creation of underground zones of fractured oil shale for in situ retorting, and formation of underground natural gas and petroleum storage reservoirs.

  18. Plowshare Program - American Atomic Bomb Tests For Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2012-04-22

    The United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) established the Plowshare Program as a research and development activity to explore the technical and economic feasibility of using nuclear explosives for industrial applications. The reasoning was that the relatively inexpensive energy available from nuclear explosions could prove useful for a wide variety of peaceful purposes. The Plowshare Program began in 1958 and continued through 1975. Between December 1961 and May 1973, the United States conducted 27 Plowshare nuclear explosive tests comprising 35 individual detonations. Conceptually, industrial applications resulting from the use of nuclear explosives could be divided into two broad categories: 1) large-scale excavation and quarrying, where the energy from the explosion was used to break up and/or move rock; and 2) underground engineering, where the energy released from deeply buried nuclear explosives increased the permeability and porosity of the rock by massive breaking and fracturing. Possible excavation applications included: canals, harbors, highway and railroad cuts through mountains, open pit mining, construction of dams, and other quarry and construction-related projects. Underground nuclear explosion applications included: stimulation of natural gas production, preparation of leachable ore bodies for in situ leaching, creation of underground zones of fractured oil shale for in situ retorting, and formation of underground natural gas and petroleum storage reservoirs.

  19. IMPACTS. Industrial Technologies Program: Summary of Program Results for CY 2008

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-08-02

    The Impacts report summarizes benefits resulting from ITP-sponsored technologies, including energy savings, waste reduction, increased productivity, and lowered emissions. It also provides an overview of the activities of the Industrial Assessment Centers, BestPractices Program, and Combined Heat and Power efforts.

  20. Muscle Sensor Model Using Small Scale Optical Device for Pattern Recognitions

    PubMed Central

    Tamee, Kreangsak; Chaiwong, Khomyuth; Yothapakdee, Kriengsak; Yupapin, Preecha P.

    2013-01-01

    A new sensor system for measuring contraction and relaxation of muscles by using a PANDA ring resonator is proposed. The small scale optical device is designed and configured to perform the coupling effects between the changes in optical device phase shift and human facial muscle movement, which can be used to form the relationship between optical phase shift and muscle movement. By using the Optiwave and MATLAB programs, the results obtained have shown that the measurement of the contraction and relaxation of muscles can be obtained after the muscle movements, in which the unique pattern of individual muscle movement from facial expression can be established. The obtained simulation results, that is, interference signal patterns, can be used to form the various pattern recognitions, which are useful for the human machine interface and the human computer interface application and discussed in detail. PMID:24222730

  1. Small-scale Geothermal Power Plants Using Hot Spring Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosha, T.; Osato, K.; Kiuchi, T.; Miida, H.; Okumura, T.; Nakashima, H.

    2013-12-01

    The installed capacity of the geothermal power plants has been summed up to be about 515MW in Japan. However, the electricity generated by the geothermal resources only contributes to 0.2% of the whole electricity supply. After the catastrophic earthquake and tsunami devastated the Pacific coast of north-eastern Japan on Friday, March 11, 2011, the Japanese government is encouraging the increase of the renewable energy supply including the geothermal. It needs, however, more than 10 years to construct the geothermal power plant with more than 10MW capacity since the commencement of the development. Adding the problem of the long lead time, high temperature fluid is mainly observed in the national parks and the high quality of the geothermal resources is limited. On the other hand hot springs are often found. The utilisation of the low temperature hot water becomes worthy of notice. The low temperature hot water is traditionally used for bathing and there are many hot springs in Japan. Some of the springs have enough temperature and enthalpy to turn the geothermal turbine but a new technology of the binary power generation makes the lower temp fluid to generate electricity. Large power generators with the binary technology are already installed in many geothermal fields in the world. In the recent days small-scale geothermal binary generators with several tens to hundreds kW capacity are developed, which are originally used by the waste heat energy in an iron factory and so on. The newly developed binary unit is compact suitable for the installation in a Japanese inn but there are the restrictions for the temperature of the hot water and the working fluid. The binary power unit using alternatives for chlorofluorocarbon as the working fluid is relatively free from the restriction. KOBELCO, a company of the Kobe Steel Group, designed and developed the binary power unit with an alternative for chlorofluorocarbon. The unit has a 70 MW class electric generator. Three

  2. THE EXTREME SMALL SCALES: DO SATELLITE GALAXIES TRACE DARK MATTER?

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Douglas F.; Berlind, Andreas A.; McBride, Cameron K.; Hogg, David W.; Jiang Tao

    2012-04-10

    We investigate the radial distribution of galaxies within their host dark matter halos as measured in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey by modeling their small-scale clustering. Specifically, we model the Jiang et al. measurements of the galaxy two-point correlation function down to very small projected separations (10 h{sup -1} kpc {<=} r {<=} 400 h{sup -1} kpc), in a wide range of luminosity threshold samples (absolute r-band magnitudes of -18 up to -23). We use a halo occupation distribution framework with free parameters that specify both the number and spatial distribution of galaxies within their host dark matter halos. We assume one galaxy resides in the halo center and additional galaxies are considered satellites that follow a radial density profile similar to the dark matter Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile, except that the concentration and inner slope are allowed to vary. We find that in low luminosity samples (M{sub r} < -19.5 and lower), satellite galaxies have radial profiles that are consistent with NFW. M{sub r} < -20 and brighter satellite galaxies have radial profiles with significantly steeper inner slopes than NFW (we find inner logarithmic slopes ranging from -1.6 to -2.1, as opposed to -1 for NFW). We define a useful metric of concentration, M{sub 1/10}, which is the fraction of satellite galaxies (or mass) that are enclosed within one-tenth of the virial radius of a halo. We find that M{sub 1/10} for low-luminosity satellite galaxies agrees with NFW, whereas for luminous galaxies it is 2.5-4 times higher, demonstrating that these galaxies are substantially more centrally concentrated within their dark matter halos than the dark matter itself. Our results therefore suggest that the processes that govern the spatial distribution of galaxies, once they have merged into larger halos, must be luminosity dependent, such that luminous galaxies become poor tracers of the underlying dark matter.

  3. Global Study of Small-Scale Color Variations on Eros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riner, M. A.; Eckart, J. M.; Digilio, J. G.; Robinson, M. S.

    2005-12-01

    Small-scale color variations on Eros provide information about composition and regolith processes. We mosaicked all multispectral image sequences of Eros acquired with the NEAR Shoemaker MultiSpectral Imager (MSI) [1] to produce an exhaustive catalog of all color features. Consistent with previous findings we identify four types of spectral/albedo units: 1) high albedo streaks found on the steep slopes, 2) low albedo soils found in topographic lows and in association with high albedo streaks, 3) ponds which are smooth, flat deposits that infill topographic lows normal to local gravity, 4) and average Eros. From our global survey we have cataloged and characterized 137 white streaks, 66 dark soils, 123 areas of typical regolith, and 66 ponded deposits, roughly an order of magnitude more data points than reported in previous studies. We confirm the findings of [2]; white streaks, dark soils, and typical Eros fall on a two end-member mixing line with white streaks and dark soils as end members. White streaks are bluer (550nm/760nm) and have a deeper 1-micron absorption band (950nm/760nm), while dark soils are redder (550nm/760nm) and have a shallower 1-micron band (950nm/760nm). These trends are consistent with varying degrees of space weathering, from relatively immature white streaks to mature typical regolith. The dark soils may be a concentration of mature components (i.e. agglutinates, submicroscopic metallic iron) [2,3]. We also found a significant spatial association between dark soils and white streaks; all observed dark soils occur adjacent to white streaks however not all white streaks have associated dark soils. These observations support the hypothesis that white streaks are fresh material exposed on slopes by mass wasting and that dark soils are accumulations of mature components at the bottoms of slopes [2,3]. We find that ponded deposits are bluer (550nm/760nm) than and have similar 1-micron absorption band depths (950nm/760nm) as white streaks. However

  4. Small-scale soil moisture determination with GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igel, Jan; Preetz, Holger

    2010-05-01

    The knowledge of topsoil moisture distribution is an important input for modelling water flow and evapotranspiration which are essential processes in hydrology, meteorology, and agriculture. All these processes involve non-linear effects and thus the small-scale variability of input parameters play an important role. Using smoothed interpolations instead can cause significant biases. Lateral soil moisture distribution can be sensed by different techniques at various scales whereby geophysical methods provide spatial information which closes the gap between point measurements by classical soil scientific methods and measurements on the field or regional scale by remote sensing. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can be used to explore soil moisture on the field scale as propagation of electromagnetic waves is correlated to soil water content. By determining the velocity of the ground wave, which is a guided wave travelling along the soil surface, we can sense soil water content. This method has been applied to determine topsoil moisture for several years. We present a new groundwave technique which determines the velocity in between two receiving antennas which enables a higher lateral resolution (approx. 10 cm) compared to classical groundwave technique (half meter and more). We present synthetic data from finite-differences (FD) calculations as well as data from a sandbox experiment carried out under controlled conditions to demonstrate the performance of this method. Further, we carried out field measurements on two sites on a sandy soil which is used as grassland. The measurements were carried out in late summer at dry soil conditions. Soil moisture on the first site shows an isotropic pattern with correlation lengths of approx. 35 cm. We think this natural pattern is governed by rout distribution within the soil and the water uptake of vegetation. On the second site, soil moisture distribution shows a regular stripe pattern. As the land has been used as

  5. Small-scale chromospheric jets above a sunspot light bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, Rohan E.; Beck, Christian; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi

    2014-07-01

    Context. The chromosphere above sunspot umbrae and penumbrae shows several different types of fast dynamic events such as running penumbral waves, umbral flashes, and penumbral microjets. Aims: The aim of this paper is to identify the physical driver responsible for the dynamic and small-scale chromospheric jets above a sunspot light bridge. Methods: High-resolution broadband filtergrams of active region NOAA 11271 in Ca ii H and G band were obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode. We identified the jets in the Ca ii H images using a semi-automatic routine and determined their length and orientation. We applied local correlation tracking (LCT) to the G-band images to obtain the photospheric horizontal velocity field. The magnetic field topology was derived from a Milne-Eddington inversion of a simultaneous scan with the Spectropolarimeter. Results: The chromospheric jets consist of a bright, triangular-shaped blob that lies on the light bridge, while the apex of this blob extends into a spike-like structure that is bright against the dark umbral background. Most of the jets have apparent lengths of less than 1000 km and about 30% of the jets have lengths between 1000-1600 km. The jets are oriented within ±35° to the normal of the spine of the light bridge. Most of them are clustered near the central part of the light bridge within a 2'' area. The jets are seen to move rapidly along the light bridge and many of them cannot be identified in successive images taken with a 2 min cadence. The jets are primarily located on one side of the light bridge and are directed into the umbral core. The Stokes profiles at or close to the location of the blobs on the LB exhibit both a significant net circular polarization and multiple components, including opposite-polarity lobes. The magnetic field diverges from the light bridge towards the umbral cores that it separates. The LCT reveals that in the photosphere there is a predominantly uni-directional flow with

  6. Visualization of small scale structures on high resolution DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokalj, Žiga; Zakšek, Klemen; Pehani, Peter; Čotar, Klemen; Oštir, Krištof

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge on the terrain morphology is very important for observation of numerous processes and events and digital elevation models are therefore one of the most important datasets in geographic analyses. Furthermore, recognition of natural and anthropogenic microrelief structures, which can be observed on detailed terrain models derived from aerial laser scanning (lidar) or structure-from-motion photogrammetry, is of paramount importance in many applications. In this paper we thus examine and evaluate methods of raster lidar data visualization for the determination (recognition) of microrelief features and present a series of strategies to assist selecting the preferred visualization of choice for structures of various shapes and sizes, set in varied landscapes. Often the answer is not definite and more frequently a combination of techniques has to be used to map a very diverse landscape. Researchers can only very recently benefit from free software for calculation of advanced visualization techniques. These tools are often difficult to understand, have numerous options that confuse the user, or require and produce non-standard data formats, because they were written for specific purposes. We therefore designed the Relief Visualization Toolbox (RVT) as a free, easy-to-use, standalone application to create visualisations from high-resolution digital elevation data. It is tailored for the very beginners in relief interpretation, but it can also be used by more advanced users in data processing and geographic information systems. It offers a range of techniques, such as simple hillshading and its derivatives, slope gradient, trend removal, positive and negative openness, sky-view factor, and anisotropic sky-view factor. All included methods have been proven to be effective for detection of small scale features and the default settings are optimised to accomplish this task. However, the usability of the tool goes beyond computation for visualization purposes, as sky

  7. Small Scale Structure and Turbulence in the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangler, Steven

    Radio scintillation observations show fluctuations in electromagnetic wave properties (intensity, interferometer phase, etc) on spatial scales as small as hundreds of kilometers. These observations indicate that irregularities in the interstellar plasma density also exist on these scales. In this talk I will discuss what observations of these irregularities tell us about the nature of interstellar turbulence. I will be particularly interested in information on suitable mathematical models of such turbulence, as well as the mechanisms responsible for its generation. The small scale irregularities are important because their physics is arguably relatively simple; they probably respond to temporal and spatial variations in the turbulent kinetic and magnetic energy densities. Physical processes such as gravitation, radiative cooling, and ion-neutral collisional effects are important on larger scales and probably complicate the interpretation of observations on such scales. However, they should be unimportant on the scales probed by radio scintillations. The generally-observed Kolmogorov spectrum for these irregularities strongly indicates the existence of an inertial subrange of density and (probably) magnetic field and fluid velocity from scales of order 1015 cm to as small as 10^7 cm. This observation indicates that ion-neutral collisional or ambipolar effects, which would set an inner scale near the upper end of this range, cannot be dominant in the interstellar plasma probed by radio wave scintillations. One can speculate that structures formed by ion-neutral effects might manifest themselves in strong refractive scintillation phenomena, enhanced low frequency variability, and perhaps the "tiny-scale" ISM features (Heiles 1997, ApJ 481, 193). Interstellar scintillation observations also present consistent evidence for anisotropy of scattering, indicating anisotropic, magnetic field-aligned density irregularities. From existent observations, we would conclude that

  8. Experiments for comparison of small scale rainfall simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iserloh, T.; Ries, J. B.

    2012-04-01

    Small scale portable rainfall simulators are an essential tool in research of recent process dynamics of soil erosion. Such rainfall simulators differ in design, rainfall intensities, rain spectra etc., impeding comparison of the results. Due to different research questions a standardisation of rainfall simulation is not in sight. Nevertheless, the data become progressively important for soil erosion modelling and therefore the basis for decision-makers in application-oriented erosion protection. The project aims at providing a criteria catalogue for estimation of the different simulators as well as the comparability of the results and a uniform calibration procedure for generated rainfall. Within the project "Comparability of simulation results of different rainfall simulators as input data for soil erosion modelling (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - DFG, Project No. Ri 835/6-1)" many rainfall simulators used by European research groups were compared. The artificially generated rainfall of the rainfall simulators at the Universities Basel, La Rioja, Malaga, Trier, Tübingen, Valencia, Wageningen, Zaragoza and at different Spanish CSIC-institutes (Almeria, Cordoba, Granada, Murcia, Zaragoza) were measured with the same methods (Laser Precipitation Monitor for drop spectra and rain collectors for spatial distribution). The data are very beneficial for improvements of simulators and comparison of simulators and results. Furthermore, they can be used for comparative studies with natural rainfall spectra. A broad range of rainfall data was measured (e.g. intensity: 30 - 149 mmh-1, Christiansen Coefficient for spatial rainfall distribution 61 - 98 %, mean drop diameter 0.375 - 5.0 mm, mean kinetic energy expenditure 25 - 1322 J m-2 h-1, mean kinetic energy per unit area and unit depth of rainfall 4 - 14 J m-2 mm-1). Similarities among the simulators could be found e.g. concerning drop size distributions (maximum drop numbers are reached within the two smallest drop

  9. Adult Literacy: Industry-Based Training Programs. Research and Development Series No. 265C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Ernest L.; And Others

    Nine industry-based adult literacy programs across the country were studied to identify exemplary training programs and practices that business and industry trainers, planners, and policymakers and individuals in the public education sector alike could replicate in designing adult literacy programs. Training programs offered by the following…

  10. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2013-05-29

    rectangular slots. For the combination of both test stands, the round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the much larger flow rates and equipment that would be required. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

  11. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2012-11-01

    rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

  12. Small-scale expression of proteins in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Zerbs, Sarah; Giuliani, Sarah; Collart, Frank

    2014-01-01

    . Despite these advantages, many targets are unsuitable for expression in E. coli, and attempts will not yield protein that can be utilized in downstream applications. A thorough understanding of the protein target, the requirements of the final application, and available tools are all essential for planning a successful expression experiment. This protocol is designed to optimize expression and solubility using an E. coli host and expression vector with an IPTG-inducible T7 promoter. The general features of the method are easily extended to other organisms and expression systems. Small-scale expression cultures are used to identify the optimum expression parameters for a given target. Thorough analysis of the total cell content and soluble fraction is used to screen out failed targets and those unlikely to succeed in large-scale purification cultures. The protocol listed here can be used in individual tubes for a small number of targets or adapted for use in 48-well plates for high throughput applications (Abdullah et al., 2009). Using the same culture for initial expression analysis and solubility analysis reduces variability between expression trials and saves the time required to produce separate cultures. PMID:24423272

  13. Small-scale geodiversity and dirt road management, Ede (NL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk

    2016-04-01

    develop into potholes; - Although in general the natural infiltration of the terrains surrounding the roads is sufficient, in some road sections water from adjacent sloping terrain brings extra water on the road; - A thin cover of leaves on the footpaths and road sections with low car traffic improves the infiltration in the road, and reduces the run-off to other the road sections to nearly zero. Leaves along the roadside also help to retard and reduce the run-off over the roads. However leaves on or along the road are not tolerated by most inhabitants, the roads need to be 'clean'. Our conclusion: Each dirt road is unique, but also within one dirt road there are important geological differences that have consequences for its maintenance. Knowledge of geodiversity of the terrain and study of small-scale erosion processes can help to improve the management of dirt roads. References Gemeente Ede, Nota Zandwegen, 2009.

  14. Assessment of the industrial energy-conservation program. Final report of the Committee on Assessment of the Industrial Energy Conservation Program

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Industrial operations in the United States account for some 37% of the nation's consumptions of energy. It has been estimated that this figure will increase to 50% by 1990 unless appropriate industrial energy conservation measures are adopted. However, such measures are difficult to implement in spite of the potential of various existing, emerging, and advanced technologies that can be applied to the problem. Specifically, the application of many industrial energy conservation measures entails high economic, technological, and institutional risks and uncertainties that constrain industries from adopting such measures. Accordingly, in 1975 the federal government started a program designed to mitigate these risks and uncertainties via government-industry partnership arrangements in the interests of national energy conservation. An important element of this program is the Industrial Energy Conservation Program in the Federal Department of Energy (DOE). In June 1980, DOE asked the National Materials Advisory Board, a unit of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, to form a study committee to assess the effectiveness of the Industrial Energy Conservation Program. The committee concluded that federal support embodied in the DOE program, present and planned, is important to conserving additional industrial energy. However, the committee also concluded that the program needs various improvements in project selection and management and in transfer of results to industry. The committee's findings and recommendations and the results of the deliberation of the committee's three panels, a special report on heat and power, and a report on the visit by four members of the committee to Japan are presented.

  15. Industrial Program of Waste Management - Cigeo Project - 13033

    SciTech Connect

    Butez, Marc; Bartagnon, Olivier; Gagner, Laurent; Advocat, Thierry; Sacristan, Pablo; Beguin, Stephane

    2013-07-01

    The French Planning Act of 28 June 2006 prescribed that a reversible repository in a deep geological formation be chosen as the reference solution for the long-term management of high-level and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste. It also entrusted the responsibility of further studies and design of the repository (named Cigeo) upon the French Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), in order for the review of the creation-license application to start in 2015 and, subject to its approval, the commissioning of the repository to take place in 2025. Andra is responsible for siting, designing, implementing, operating the future geological repository, including operational and long term safety and waste acceptance. Nuclear operators (Electricite de France (EDF), AREVA NC, and the French Commission in charge of Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies (CEA) are technically and financially responsible for the waste they generate, with no limit in time. They provide Andra, on one hand, with waste packages related input data, and on the other hand with their long term industrial experiences of high and intermediate-level long-lived radwaste management and nuclear operation. Andra, EDF, AREVA and CEA established a cooperation agreement for strengthening their collaborations in these fields. Within this agreement Andra and the nuclear operators have defined an industrial program for waste management. This program includes the waste inventory to be taken into account for the design of the Cigeo project and the structural hypothesis underlying its phased development. It schedules the delivery of the different categories of waste and defines associated flows. (authors)

  16. 75 FR 10507 - Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy... regulation 41 CFR 101-6, announcement is made for a meeting of the National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee. The meeting will be held to discuss National Industrial Security...

  17. Joint Explorations Program. A Supplement to Home Economics/Industrial Arts 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This Joint Explorations Program for Home Economics/Industrial Arts, middle years, is a guide and support document related to the curriculum guides for Home Economics 7-9, and Industrial Arts 7-9. Developed as part of the overall revision of the Home Economics and Industrial Arts programs for the junior high schools of Manitoba, the guide provides…

  18. SUMMER PROGRAM FOR UPDATING THE TECHNICAL COMPETENCY OF TEACHERS OF INDUSTRIAL SUBJECTS. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOHN, RALPH C.

    STUDENTS OF THE INSERVICE PROGRAM WERE 96 INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION TEACHERS FROM THE AREAS OF AUTO AND POWER, DRAFTING, ELECTRONICS, AND METALS WHO WERE SELECTED FROM 576 APPLICANTS. OBJECTIVES WERE TO (1) DEVELOP MODELS FOR INDUSTRY-SCHOOL COOPERATIVE PROGRAMS, (2) INTEGRATE INSTRUCTION ON INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS, CYBERNETICS, AND AUTOMATION INTO THE…

  19. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Livestock Projects. Guidelines for Planning Series Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Linda

    This document was developed in response to the need for simplified technical information for planning environmentally sound small-scale projects in third world countries. It is aimed specifically at those who are planning or managing small-scale livestock projects in less-developed areas of the tropics and sub-tropics. The guidelines included in…

  20. Large- and small-scale constraints on power spectra in Omega = 1 universes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelb, James M.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami; Frieman, Joshua A.

    1993-01-01

    The CDM model of structure formation, normalized on large scales, leads to excessive pairwise velocity dispersions on small scales. In an attempt to circumvent this problem, we study three scenarios (all with Omega = 1) with more large-scale and less small-scale power than the standard CDM model: (1) cold dark matter with significantly reduced small-scale power (inspired by models with an admixture of cold and hot dark matter); (2) cold dark matter with a non-scale-invariant power spectrum; and (3) cold dark matter with coupling of dark matter to a long-range vector field. When normalized to COBE on large scales, such models do lead to reduced velocities on small scales and they produce fewer halos compared with CDM. However, models with sufficiently low small-scale velocities apparently fail to produce an adequate number of halos.

  1. Effect of small scale motions on dynamo actions generated by the Beltrami-like flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingtian

    2016-08-01

    The geodynamo and solar dynamo are driven by the turbulent flows which involve motions of various scales. Of particular interest is what role is played by the small scale motions in these dynamos. In this paper, the integral equation approach is employed to investigate the effect of the small scale motions on dynamo actions driven by multiscale Beltrami-like flows in a cylindrical vessel. The result shows that some small scale motions can trigger a transition of a dynamo from a steady to an unsteady state. Our results also show that when the poloidal components of the small and large scale flows share the same direction in the equatorial plane, the small scale flows have more positive or less detrimental effect on the onsets of the dynamo actions in comparison with the case that the poloidal components have different directions. These findings shed light on the effect of the small scale turbulence on dynamo actions.

  2. An Integrated Approach to Developing Small-Scale Standardized Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurier, Michel; Des Brisay, Margaret

    A discussion of the use of standardized tests in second language assessment focuses on the usefulness of program-based language tests aligned with specific curricula and capable of motivating students to participate in classroom activities that are a preparation both for the test and for life after the test. The purpose of this paper is to show…

  3. Small-Scale Evaluation of the Expeditionary Unit Water Purifier

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA’s Technology Testing and Evaluation Program has been charged by EPA to evaluate the performance of commercially available water security-related technologies. Throughout 2007, an evaluation the Expeditionary Unit Water Purifier (EUWP), a mobile water treatment techno...

  4. Alabama Industrial Technician Education Cooperative Demonstration Program (I-TEC). Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John M. Patterson State Technical Coll., Montgomery, AL.

    A cooperative demonstration program between industry (General Electric) and education (John Patterson State Technical College, Alabama) designed and conducted a training program and competency assessment for individuals entering high technology positions related to industrial production in Alabama. The program was designed to develop employees as…

  5. Model-Based Development of a Small-Scale Experiment for Non-Shock Ignition of High Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Bradley; Springer, H.; Reaugh, J.

    2013-06-01

    We demonstrate a model-based approach for developing small-scale experiments for non-shock ignition of high explosives (HEs) that are representative of abnormal environmental conditions. While small-scale experiments are often favored over large-scale testing since costs are lower and samples sizes are amenable to early stage HE formulation, concerns remain about the ability to predict full-scale non-shock ignition response. Our approach is to perform simulations of full-scale systems (i.e., Skid test) to identify the localized material extrema states (e.g., pressure, pressure duration, shear stress, strain-rate) underlying the non-shock ignition mechanism. The extrema states then provide a metric for iterative model-based development of small-scale experiments using a drop-hammer system. We performed these simulations using the HERMES (High Explosive Response to MEchanical Stimuli) model in the multiphysics code, ALE3D. Optimized experimental geometries reach 10s MPa pressures over 1-3 ms durations while inducing a large degree of shear. The results of the experimental development and the effects of design variations on non-shock initiation response of Comp B will be presented. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. This work was funded in part by the Joint DoD-DOE Munitions Program.

  6. The NASA/industry Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) program: A government overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, Raymond G.

    1993-01-01

    NASA-Langley, under the Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) Program, set out in 1984 to establish the technology base needed by the rotorcraft industry for developing an advanced finite-element-based dynamics design analysis capability for vibrations. Considerable work has been done by the industry participants in the program since that time. Because the DAMVIBS Program is being phased out, a government/industry assessment of the program has been made to identify those accomplishments and contributions which may be ascribed to the program. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the program and its accomplishments and contributions from the perspective of the government sponsoring organization.

  7. The NASA/industry Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) Program: A government overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, Raymond G.

    1992-01-01

    LaRC, under the Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) Program, set out in 1984 to establish the technology base needed by the rotorcraft industry for developing an advanced finite-element-based dynamics design analysis capability for vibrations. Considerable work was performed by the industry participants in the program since that time. Because the DAMVIBS Program is being phased out, a government/industry assessment of the program was made to identify those accomplishments and contributions which may be ascribed to the program. The purpose is to provide an overview of the program and its accomplishments and contributions from the perspective of the government sponsoring organization.

  8. Benefits of Strategic Small-Scale Targeted Screening.

    PubMed

    Sharlow, Elizabeth R

    2016-08-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) is a key technology platform for the discovery of chemical probes and identification of potential drug leads. Once mainly found in industry, HTS is now an integral component of a significant number of academic basic and translational research enterprises. Although the allure of large-scale diversity set-based HTS is substantive, the inherent costs associated with this type of screening strategy are steep and often yield suboptimal return on investment. Perhaps more appealing, and potentially more rewarding, are smaller scale screening strategies using targeted libraries coupled with assays with high-physiological relevance. These "high-physiocontextual"-targeted library screening paradigms, in turn, may have significant impact on the quality of chemical probes and ensuing drug discovery efforts. PMID:27341343

  9. AFBC - operation of small scale demonstration for greenhouse heating

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, R.A.; Plessinger, D.A.; Webner, R.L.; Machamer, T.

    1996-12-31

    A 2.2 million Btu/hr unit prototype AFBC system was installed in 1995 at Cedar Lane Farms, a commercial nursery in Ohio. The AFBC is in operation and is heating hot water for greenhouse temperature control. A team consisting of the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation, the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center of Ohio State University and the Will-Burt Company developed this technology with funding support from the Ohio Coal Development Office and the U.S. Department of Energy. The system is fully automated with little operator attention being required. Operating experience at Cedar Lane Farms has shown that only 2 hours per day of operator attention is required for the system. The system includes flyash/sorbent reinjection and underbed coal/limestone feed. These features provide for good limestone utilization; a Ca/S (in coal) ratio of 2.5 will maintain an SO{sub 2} emissions level of 1.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu when burning high sulfur (3.2 %) Ohio coal. A baghouse is used to control particulate emissions. Based on the success of the prototype unit, a design has been recently completed for a commercial size 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr unit. This environmentally acceptable and cost effective coal-fired AFBC system is targeted for industrial-commercial-institutional space and process heat applications in the 5 x 10{sup 6} to 10 X 10{sup 6} Btu/hr capacity range. Multiple AFBC units can be used to provide larger beat outputs. Potential coal-fired AFBC users include institutions (schools, hospitals, prisons, government), light industry (agriculture, food processing), commercial users (shopping centers), and large residential users (apartment complexes).

  10. Autonomous Guidance of Agile Small-scale Rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettler, Bernard; Feron, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a guidance system for agile vehicles based on a hybrid closed-loop model of the vehicle dynamics. The hybrid model represents the vehicle dynamics through a combination of linear-time-invariant control modes and pre-programmed, finite-duration maneuvers. This particular hybrid structure can be realized through a control system that combines trim controllers and a maneuvering control logic. The former enable precise trajectory tracking, and the latter enables trajectories at the edge of the vehicle capabilities. The closed-loop model is much simpler than the full vehicle equations of motion, yet it can capture a broad range of dynamic behaviors. It also supports a consistent link between the physical layer and the decision-making layer. The trajectory generation was formulated as an optimization problem using mixed-integer-linear-programming. The optimization is solved in a receding horizon fashion. Several techniques to improve the computational tractability were investigate. Simulation experiments using NASA Ames 'R-50 model show that this approach fully exploits the vehicle's agility.

  11. Injury Risk Factors in a Small-Scale Gold Mining Community in Ghana's Upper East Region.

    PubMed

    Long, Rachel N; Sun, Kan; Neitzel, Richard L

    2015-08-01

    Occupational injury is one of many health concerns related to small-scale gold mining (ASGM), but few data exist on the subject, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2011 and 2013, we examined accidents, injuries, and potential risk factors in a Ghanaian ASGM community. In 2011, 173 participants were surveyed on occupational history and health, and 22 of these were surveyed again in 2013. Injury rates were estimated at 45.5 and 38.5 injuries per 100 person-years in 2011 and in 2013, respectively; these rates far surpass those of industrialized mines in the U.S. and South Africa. Demographic and job characteristics generally were not predictive of injury risk, though there was a significant positive association with injury risk for males and smokers. Legs and knees were the most common body parts injured, and falling was the most common cause of injury. The most common type of injuries were cuts or lacerations, burns and scalds, and contusions and abrasions. Only two miners had ever received any occupational safety training, and PPE use was low. Our results suggest that injuries should be a priority area for occupational health research in ASGM. PMID:26213958

  12. Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion for small scale market sectors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, R.A.; Plessinger, D.A.; Sommer, T.M.; Keener, H.M.; Webner, R.L.

    1997-03-31

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate and promote the commercialization of coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) systems, with limestone addition for SO{sub 2} emissions control and a baghouse for particulate emissions control. This AFBC system was targeted for small scale industrial-commercial-institutional space and process heat applications. A cost effective and environmentally acceptable AFBC technology in this size range would displace a considerable amount of gas/oil with coal while resulting in significant total cost savings to the owner/operators. In the Proof-of-Concept Phase, a 2.2 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr unit was installed and successfully operated at Cedar Lane Farms (CLF), a commercial nursery in Ohio. The heat from the fluidized bed was used to heat hot water which was recirculated through greenhouses for cool weather heating. The system was designed to be fully automated with minimal operator attention required. The AFBC system installed at CLF was an improved design that incorporated flyash/sorbent reinjection and an underbed feed system to improve limestone utilization. With these additions it was possible to lower the Ca/S ratio from {approximately} 3.0 to 2.0, and still maintain an SO{sub 2} emissions level of 1.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu when burning the same high sulfur Ohio coal tested at OARDC.

  13. AFBC - operation of small scale demonstration for greenhouse heating

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, R.A.; Plessinger, D.A.; Webner, R.L.; Machamer, T.

    1996-12-31

    A 2.2 million Btu/hr unit prototype AFBC system was installed in 1995 at Cedar Lane Farms, a commercial nursery in Ohio. The AFBC is in operation and is heating hot water for greenhouse temperature control. A team consisting of the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation, the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center of Ohio State University and the Will-Burt Company developed this technology with funding support from the Ohio Coal Development Office and the U.S. Department of Energy. The system is fully automated with little operator attention being required. Operating experience at Cedar Lane Farms has shown that only 2 hours per day of operation attention is required for the system. The system includes flyash/sorbent reinjection and underbed coal/limestone feed. These features provide for good limestone utilization; a Ca/S (in coal) ratio of 2.5 will maintain an SO{sub 2} emissions level of 1.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu when burning high sulfur (3.2%) Ohio coal. A baghouse is used to control particulate emissions. Based on the success of the prototype unit, a design has been recently completed for a commercial size 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr capacity range. Multiple AFBC units can be used to provide larger heat outputs. Potential coal-fired AFBC users include institutions (schools, hospitals, prisons, government), light industry (agricultural, food processing), commercial users (shopping centers), and large residential users (apartment complexes). 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. La Apaicultura de Pequena Escala (Small Scale Beekeeping). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Manual Series No. M-25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Curtis

    This Spanish-language manual is designed to assist Peace Corps volunteers in Spanish-speaking countries in the implementation of small-scale beekeeping programs as a tool for development. Addressed in the individual chapters are bees and humans; project planning; the types and habits of bees; the essence of beekeeping; bee space and beehives;…

  15. Apiculture de Petite Eschelle (Small Scale Beekeeping). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Manual Series No. M-26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Curtis

    This French-language manual is designed to assist Peace Corps volunteers in French-speaking countries in the implementation of small-scale beekeeping programs as a tool for development. Addressed in the individual chapters are bees and humans; project planning; the types and habits of bees; the essence of beekeeping; bee space and beehives;…

  16. EMERGENCE OF THE KENNICUTT-SCHMIDT RELATION FROM THE SMALL-SCALE SFR-DENSITY RELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Tasker, Elizabeth J.; Fujimoto, Yusuke

    2014-05-20

    We use simulations of isolated galaxies with a few parsec resolution to explore the connection between the small-scale star formation rate (SFR)-gas density relation and the induced large-scale correlation between the SFR surface density and the surface density of the molecular gas (the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation). We find that, in the simulations, a power-law small-scale ''star formation law'' directly translates into an identical power-law Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. If this conclusion holds in the reality as well, it implies that the observed approximately linear Kennicutt-Schmidt relation must reflect the approximately linear small-scale ''star formation law''.

  17. Small-scale mechanical characterization of viscoelastic adhesive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shean, T. A. V.

    Aero engine hot end components are often covered with ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs). Laser drilling in the TBC coated components can be a source of service life TBC degradation and spallation. The present study aims to understand the mechanisms of TBC delamination and develop techniques to drill holes without damaging the TBC, Nimonic 263 workpieces coated with TBC are used in the experiments. Microwave non-destructive testing (NDT) is employed to monitor the integrity of the coating /substrate interfaces of the post-laser drilled materials. A numerical modelling technique is used to investigate the role of melt ejection on TBC delamination. The model accounts for the vapour and the assist gas flow effects in the process. Broadly, melt ejection induced mechanical stresses for the TBC coating / bond coating and thermal effects for the bond coating / substrate interfaces are found the key delamination mechanisms. Experiments are carried out to validate the findings from the model. Various techniques that enable laser drilling without damaging the TBC are demonstrated. Twin jet assisted acute angle laser drilling is one successful technique that has been analysed using the melt ejection simulation. Optimisation of the twin jet assisted acute angle laser drilling process parameters is carried out using Design of Experiments (DoE) and statistical modelling approaches. Finally, an industrial case study to develop a high speed, high quality laser drilling system for combustor cans is described. Holes are drilled by percussion and trepan drilling in TBC coated and uncoated Haynes 230 workpieces. The production rate of percussion drilling is significantly higher than the trepan drilling, however metallurgical hole quality and reproducibility is poor. A number of process parameters are investigated to improve these characteristics. Gas type and gas pressure effects on various characteristics of the inclined laser drilled holes are investigated through theoretical

  18. 75 FR 56651 - ITS Joint Program Office; Trucking Industry Mobility & Technology Coalition Annual Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ITS Joint Program Office; Trucking Industry Mobility & Technology Coalition Annual Meeting AGENCY... the 9th day of September 2010. John Augustine, Managing Director, ITS Joint Program Office....

  19. Summary of the Mid-Atlantic conference on small-scale hydropower in the Mid-Atlantic states: resolution of the barriers impeding its development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The workshop was conducted to bring together interested persons to examine and discuss the major problems associated with small-scale hydroelectric dam development in the Mid-Atlantic region. The conference opened with an introductory panel which outlined the objectives and the materials available to conference participants. Two of the workshops discussed problems and policy responses raised by state and Federal regulation. The other two workshops concerned economic issues confronting small-scale hydro development and the operation and usefulness of the systems dynamics model under development by the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth. Various Federal and state programs designed to stimulate small-scale hydro development were discussed. A plenary session completed the workshops.

  20. Programming Language Use in US Academia and Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Arfa Rabai, Latifa; Cohen, Barry; Mili, Ali

    2015-01-01

    In the same way that natural languages influence and shape the way we think, programming languages have a profound impact on the way a programmer analyzes a problem and formulates its solution in the form of a program. To the extent that a first programming course is likely to determine the student's approach to program design, program analysis,…

  1. Small scale wind tunnel model investigation of hybrid high lift systems combining upper surface blowing with the internally blown flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waites, W. L.; Chin, Y. T.

    1974-01-01

    A small-scale wind tunnel test of a two engine hybrid model with upper surface blowing on a simulated expandable duct internally blown flap was accomplished in a two phase program. The low wing Phase I model utilized 0.126c radius Jacobs/Hurkamp flaps and 0.337c radius Coanda flaps. The high wing Phase II model was utilized for continued studies on the Jacobs/Hurkamp flap. Principal study areas included: basic data both engines operative and with an engine out, control flap utilization, horizontal tail effectiveness, spoiler effectiveness, USB nacelle deflector study and USB/IBF pressure ratio effects.

  2. Statistical analysis of an inter-laboratory comparison of small-scale safety and thermal testing of RDX

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Geoffrey W.; Sandstrom, Mary M.; Preston, Daniel N.; Pollard, Colin J.; Warner, Kirstin F.; Sorensen, Daniel N.; Remmers, Daniel L.; Phillips, Jason J.; Shelley, Timothy J.; Reyes, Jose A.; Hsu, Peter C.; Reynolds, John G.

    2014-04-10

    In this study, the Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program has conducted a proficiency test for small-scale safety and thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are statistical analyses of the results from this test for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis of the RDX Class 5 Type II standard. The material was tested as a well-characterized standard several times during the proficiency test to assess differences among participants and the range of results that may arise for well-behaved explosive materials.

  3. Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project. Pennsylvania Hydroelectric Development Corporation Flat Rock Dam: Project summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Gleeson, L.

    1991-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

  4. Statistical analysis of an inter-laboratory comparison of small-scale safety and thermal testing of RDX

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brown, Geoffrey W.; Sandstrom, Mary M.; Preston, Daniel N.; Pollard, Colin J.; Warner, Kirstin F.; Sorensen, Daniel N.; Remmers, Daniel L.; Phillips, Jason J.; Shelley, Timothy J.; Reyes, Jose A.; et al

    2014-11-17

    In this study, the Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program has conducted a proficiency test for small-scale safety and thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are statistical analyses of the results from this test for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis of the RDX Class 5 Type II standard. The material was tested as a well-characterized standard several times during the proficiency test to assess differences among participants and the range of results that may arise for well-behaved explosive materials.

  5. Free-Hand Small-Scale Maps: Activities for Cognitive Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saveland, Robert N.

    1978-01-01

    Suggests that small-scale mapping activities can be used in geography courses to help students understand geographic concepts such as latitude, longitude, situation, relative location, and national boundaries. (Author/DB)

  6. Nonlinear Generation of shear flows and large scale magnetic fields by small scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aburjania, G.

    2009-04-01

    EGU2009-233 Nonlinear Generation of shear flows and large scale magnetic fields by small scale turbulence in the ionosphere by G. Aburjania Contact: George Aburjania, g.aburjania@gmail.com,aburj@mymail.ge

  7. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the Pacific Northwest: new impetus for an old energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Energy supply is one of the most important issues facing Northwestern legislators today. To meet the challenge, state legislatures must address the development of alternative energy sources. The Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Policy Project of the National Conference of State Legislators (NCSL) was designed to assist state legislators in looking at the benefits of one alternative, small-scale hydro. Because of the need for state legislative support in the development of small-scale hydroelectric, NCSL, as part of its contract with the Department of Energy, conducted the following conference on small-scale hydro in the Pacific Northwest. The conference was designed to identify state obstacles to development and to explore options for change available to policymakers. A summary of the conference proceedings is presented.

  8. Small scale hydroelectric power potential in Nevada: a preliminary reconnaissance survey

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, G.F.; Fordham, J.W.; Richard, K.; Loux, R.

    1981-04-01

    This preliminary reconnaissance survey is intended to: develop a first estimate as to the potential number, location and characteristics of small-scale (50 kW to 15 MW) hydroelectric sites in Nevada; provide a compilation of various Federal and state laws and regulations, including tax and financing regulations, that affect small-scale hydroelectric development and provide information on sources of small-scale hydroelectric generation hardware and consultants/ contractors who do small scale hydroelectric work. The entire survey has been conducted in the office working with various available data bases. The site survey and site evaluation methods used are described, and data are tabulated on the flow, power potential, predicted capital expenditures required, etc. for 61 potential sites with measured flows and for 77 sites with derived flows. A map showing potential site locations is included. (LCL)

  9. New Directions and Trends in Industrial Training and Their Implications for Vocational Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashley, William L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A basic position of industry is that it picks up where schools leave off. Training policy within industry is diverse in theory and practice. Companies vary in their approach to training, ranging from highly informal to highly formal. The many new trends in industrial training may be analyzed in four dimensions: in-house education programs,…

  10. 7 CFR 4279.175 - Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... National Office to fund loans to lamb processors for real estate purchases and improvements; working... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program... GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Business and Industry Loans § 4279.175 Domestic lamb industry adjustment...

  11. New industrial training program for interns and postdoctoral fellows.

    PubMed

    Richon, A B; Ambos, M

    2000-12-01

    Pharmaceutical industry research managers consistently have difficulty finding job candidates trained to address industrial research projects. The current situation is even worse than usual because of high demand for research scientists, particularly those trained in solid phase synthesis, computational chemistry, and informatics. Network Science Corp., Chemical Computing Group, and pharmaceutical research groups are creating a website to assist students in gaining experience as industrial interns or postdoctoral fellows. PMID:11155317

  12. Small-Scale Bioenergy Alternatives for Industry, Farm, and Institutions : A User`s Perspective.

    SciTech Connect

    Folk, Richard

    1991-12-31

    This report presents research on biomass as an energy source. Topics include: bioenergy development and application; bioenergy combustion technology; and bioenergy from agricultural, forest, and urban resources. There are a total of 57 individual reports included. Individual reports are processed separately for the databases.

  13. 77 FR 63893 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on November 14, 2012 from 10:00...

  14. 78 FR 64024 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on November 14, 2013 from 10:00...

  15. 78 FR 38077 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on July 17, 2013 from 10:00...

  16. 78 FR 9431 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on March 20, 2013 from 10:00...

  17. Tools for Schools. Defense Industrial Reserve Loan Program. Public Law 93-155, 93rd Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Logistics Agency (DOD), Memphis, TN.

    This brochure describes the "Tools for Schools" Loan Program and includes guidelines for preparation of an application for a loan of industrial manufacturing equipment from the Defense Industrial Reserve (DIR). The first section is in question-and-answer form and describes the program through which equipment from DIR may be loaned to any nonprofit…

  18. The Use of Small Scale Aerial Photography in a Regional Agricultural Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draeger, W. C.

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility of performing inventories of agricultural resources using very small scale aerial or space photography has been investigated. Results to date are encouraging on two counts: (1) the questions posed initially are being answered, and (2) it would seem that a fully operational agricultural inventory using very small scale photography is not beyond the scope of present technology. The biggest problems to be faced in establishing a functional inventory system are those concerning logistics and data handling.

  19. Skewness-induced asymmetric modulation of small-scale turbulence by large-scale structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, Lionel; Leschziner, Michael; Gaitonde, Datta

    2016-01-01

    Several recent studies discuss of role of skewness of the turbulent velocity fluctuations in near-wall shear layers, in the context of quantifying the correlation between large-scale motions and amplitude variations of small-scale fluctuations—referred to as "modulation." The present study is based on the premise that the skewness of the small-scale fluctuations should be accounted for explicitly in the process of defining their envelope, which characterizes their amplitude variations. This leads to the notion of two envelopes, one for positive and the other for negative small-scale fluctuations, and hence also to two corresponding correlation coefficients. Justification for this concept is provided first by an examination of a high-frequency synthetic signal subjected to realistic skewness-inducing modulation. A new formalism is provided for deriving the two envelopes, and its fidelity is demonstrated for the synthetic test case. The method is then applied to a channel flow at a friction Reynolds number of 4200, for which direct numerical simulation (DNS) data are available. The large-scale and small-scale fields are separated by the empirical mode decomposition method, and the modulation of the small-scale fluctuations by the large scales is examined. Separate maps of the correlation coefficient and of two-point correlations, the latter linking the large-scale motions and the envelopes of the small-scale motions, are derived for the two envelopes pertaining to positive and negative small-scale fluctuations, and these demonstrate a significant sensitivity to the envelope-definition process, especially close to the wall where the skewness of the small-scale fluctuations is the dominant contributor to the total value.

  20. Small-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Cesium and Technetium from Hanford Tank 241-AN-102

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, N.M.

    2000-07-27

    The pretreatment process for BNFL, Inc.'s Hanford River Protection Project is to provide decontaminated low activity waste and concentrated eluate streams for vitrification into low and high activity waste glass, respectively. The pretreatment includes sludge washing, filtration, precipitation, and ion exchange processes to remove entrained solids, cesium, transuranics, technetium, and strontium. The cesium (Cs-137) and technetium (Tc-99) ion exchange removal is accomplished by using SuperLig 644, and 639 resins from IBC Advanced Technologies, American Fork, Utah. The resins were shown to selectively remove cesium and technetium (as anionic pertechnetate ) from alkaline salt solutions. The efficiency of ion exchange column loading and elution is a complex function involving feed compositions, equilibrium and kinetic behavior of ion exchange resins, diffusion, and the ionic strength and pH of the aqueous solution. A previous experimental program completed at the Savannah River Tech nology Center2 demonstrated the conceptualized flow sheet parameters with an Envelope C sample from Hanford Tank 241-AN-107. Those experiments also included determination of Cs and Tc batch distribution coefficients by SuperLig 644 and 639 resins and demonstration of small-scale column breakthrough and elution. The experimental findings were used in support of preliminary design bases and pretreatment flow sheet development by BNFL, Inc.

  1. Small-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Cesium and Technetium from Hanford Tank 241-AN-103

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, N.M.

    2000-07-27

    The pretreatment process for BNFL, Inc.'s Hanford River Protection Project is to provide decontaminated low activity waste and concentrated eluate streams for vitrification into low activity and high level waste glass, respectively. The pretreatment includes sludge washing, filtration, precipitation, and ion exchange processes to remove entrained solids, cesium, transuranics, technetium, and strontium. The ion exchange removal of cesium (Cs) and technetium (Tc) ions is accomplished by using SuperLig 644, and 639 resins from IBC Advanced Technologies, American Fork, Utah. The resins were shown to selectively remove cesium and technetium (as pertechnetate), from alkaline salt solutions. The efficiency of ion exchange column loading and elution is a complex function involving feed compositions, equilibrium and kinetic behavior of ion exchange resins, diffusion, and the ionic strength and pH of the aqueous solution. A previous experimental program completed at the Savannah River Technology Center demonstrated the conceptualized flow sheet parameters with a similar Hanford tank sample (241-AW-101). Those experiments included determination of Cs and Tc batch distribution coefficients by SuperLig 644 and 639 resins and demonstration of small-scale column breakthrough and elution. The experimental findings were used in support of preliminary design bases and pretreatment flow sheet development by BNFL, Inc.

  2. Velocity Measurements Near the Empennage of a SmallScale Helicopter Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorton, Susan Althoff; Meyers, James F.; Berry, John D.

    1996-01-01

    A test program was conducted in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel to measure the flow near the empennage of a small-scale powered helicopter model with an operating tail fan. Three-component velocity profiles were measured with Laser Velocimetry (LV) one chord forward of the horizontal tail for four advance ratios to evaluate the effect of the rotor wake impingement on the horizontal tail angle of attack. These velocity data indicate the horizontal tail can experience unsteady downwash angle variations of over 30 degrees due to the rotor wake influence. The horizontal tail is most affected by the rotor wake above advance ratios of 0.10. Velocity measurements of the flow on the inlet side of the fan were made for a low-speed flight condition using both conventional LV techniques and a promising, non-intrusive, global, three-component velocity measurement technique called Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV). The velocity data show an accelerated flow near the fan duct, and vorticity calculations track the passage of main rotor wake vortices through the measurement plane. DGV shows promise as an evolving tool for rotor flowfield diagnostics.

  3. Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Bio-Based and Fossil Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Petrik, Michael; Ruhl, Robert

    2012-05-01

    Technology Management, Inc. (TMI) of Cleveland, Ohio, has completed the project entitled Small Scale SOFC Demonstration using Bio-based and Fossil Fuels. Under this program, two 1-kW systems were engineered as technology demonstrators of an advanced technology that can operate on either traditional hydrocarbon fuels or renewable biofuels. The systems were demonstrated at Patterson's Fruit Farm of Chesterland, OH and were open to the public during the first quarter of 2012. As a result of the demonstration, TMI received quantitative feedback on operation of the systems as well as qualitative assessments from customers. Based on the test results, TMI believes that > 30% net electrical efficiency at 1 kW on both traditional and renewable fuels with a reasonable entry price is obtainable. The demonstration and analysis provide the confidence that a 1 kW entry-level system offers a viable value proposition, but additional modifications are warranted to reduce sound and increase reliability before full commercial acceptance.

  4. Small Scale Trace Contaminant Testing of SA9T at Ambient and Reduced Pressure Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broerman, Craig; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    A principle concern for air revitalization technology in a closed loop system is the capability to control carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity (H2O). An amine based sorbent technology, SA9T, has long been evaluated for use in this application and several programs are evaluating it for use in both a cabin as well as space suit applications. While the CO2 and H2O performance of the sorbent has been tested extensively, the question of how trace contaminants impact performance requires further evaluation. This paper presents experimental results of small scale SA9T testing that was performed over a variety of test conditions and with a variety of trace contaminants. Testing evaluated the ability of SA9T media to sufficiently remove CO2 and H2O after exposure to a fully saturated trace contaminant at ambient conditions. Testing also evaluated the impact of CO2 and H2O removal performance at suit loop pressures during cyclic operation with a constant inlet contaminant load. In addition, testing evaluated the performance of SA9T at ambient conditions in a continuous 30-day test with a mixed trace contaminant stream.

  5. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level in Maryland are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The dual regulatory system is examined with the aim of creating a more orderly understanding of the vagaries of the system, focusing on the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. In Maryland, by common law rule, title to all navigable waters and to the soil below the high-water mark of those waters is vested in the state as successor to the Lord Proprietary who had received it by grant from the Crown. Rights to non-navigable water, public trust doctrine, and eminent domain are also discussed. Direct and indirect regulations, continuing obligations, loan programs, and regional organizations are described in additional sections.

  6. Ground and Flight Evaluation of a Small-Scale Inflatable-Winged Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, James E.; Pahle, Joseph W.; Thornton, Stephen V.; Vogus, Shannon; Frackowiak, Tony; Mello, Joe; Norton, Brook; Bauer, Jeff (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A small-scale, instrumented research aircraft was flown to investigate the night characteristics of innersole wings. Ground tests measured the static structural characteristics of the wing at different inflation pressures, and these results compared favorably with analytical predictions. A research-quality instrumentation system was assembled, largely from commercial off-the-shelf components, and installed in the aircraft. Initial flight operations were conducted with a conventional rigid wing having the same dimensions as the inflatable wing. Subsequent flights were conducted with the inflatable wing. Research maneuvers were executed to identify the trim, aerodynamic performance, and longitudinal stability and control characteristics of the vehicle in its different wing configurations. For the angle-of-attack range spanned in this flight program, measured flight data demonstrated that the rigid wing was an effective simulator of the lift-generating capability of the inflatable wing. In-flight inflation of the wing was demonstrated in three flight operations, and measured flight data illustrated the dynamic characteristics during wing inflation and transition to controlled lifting flight. Wing inflation was rapid and the vehicle dynamics during inflation and transition were benign. The resulting angles of attack and of sideslip ere small, and the dynamic response was limited to roll and heave motions.

  7. Irreversible Wash Aid Additive for Cesium Mitigation. Small-Scale Demonstration and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The Irreversible Wash Aid Additive process has been under development by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). This process for radioactive cesium mitigation consists of a solution to wash down contaminated structures, roadways, and vehicles and a sequestering agent to bind the radionuclides from the wash water and render them environmentally immobile. The purpose of this process is to restore functionality to basic services and immediately reduce the consequences of a radiologically-contaminated urban environment. Research and development have resulted in a down-selection of technologies for integration and demonstration at the pilot-scale level as part of the Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) under the Department of Homeland Security and the Denver Urban Area Security Initiative. As part of developing the methods for performing a pilot-scale demonstration at the WARRP conference in Denver in 2012, Argonne conducted small-scale field experiments at Separmatic Systems. The main purpose of these experiments was to refine the wash water collection and separations systems and demonstrate key unit operations to help in planning for the large scale demonstration in Denver. Since the purpose of these tests was to demonstrate the operations of the system, we used no radioactive materials. After a brief set of experiments with the LAKOS unit to familiarize ourselves with its operation, two experiments were completed on two separate dates with the Separmatic systems.

  8. Ethnographic Approaches to Understanding Social Sustainability in Small-scale Water Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wutich, A.

    2011-12-01

    Social sustainability is an important, but often neglected, aspect of determining the success of small-scale water systems. This paper reviews ethnographic approaches for understanding how indigenous knowledge enhances social sustainability of small-scale water systems, particularly in small-scale water systems threatened by water scarcity. After reviewing the literature on common-pool and traditional resource management strategies, the paper will focus on the case of a community-managed small-scale water system in Cochabamba, Bolivia. This study uses ethnographic evidence to demonstrate how indigenous institutions can be used to manage a small-scale urban water system sustainably. Several factors were crucial to the institution's success. First, indigenous residents had previous experience with common management of rural irrigation systems which they were able to adapt for use in an urban environment. Second, institutional rules were designed to prioritize the conservation of the water source. Third, indigenous Andean social values of uniformity, regularity, and transparency ensured that community members perceived the system as legitimate and complied with community rules. Fourth, self-governance enabled community members to quickly adapt to changing environmental conditions, such as seasonal scarcity and groundwater overdraft. The paper concludes with a discussion of the promise and limitations of ethnographic approaches and indigenous knowledge for understanding social sustainability in small-scale water systems.

  9. The Department of Energy`s Solar Industrial Program: 1994 review

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This is a report on DOE`s Solar Industrial Program. The topics of the report include an overview of the program, it`s participants and it`s objectives; solar detoxification--using solar energy to destroy environmental contaminants in air, water, and soil; solar process heat--generating industrial quantities of hot water, steam, and hot air from solar energy; and advanced processes--using concentrated solar energy to manufacture high-technology materials and develop new industrial processes.

  10. Profile of the chemicals industry in California: Californiaindustries of the future program

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst

    2004-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) established the Industries of the Future (IOF) program to increase energy efficiency, reduce waste production and to improve competitiveness, currently focusing on nine sectors. The IOF is a partnership strategy involving industry, the research community and the government, working together to identify technology needs, promote industrial partnerships and implement joint measures with all partners involved. The State Industries of the Future (SIOF) program delivers the accomplishments of the national Industries of the Future strategy to the local level, to expand the technology opportunities to a larger number of partners and reach smaller businesses and manufacturers that were not initially involved in the IOF effort. The state programs bring together industry, academia, and state agencies to address the important issues confronting industry in the state. These public-private coalitions facilitate industry solutions locally and enhance economic development. California has started a State Industries of the Future effort, in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy. The California Energy Commission (CEC) is leading the SIOF program in California, as part of many other programs to improve the energy efficiency and performance of industries in California. The California State IOF program aims to build a network of participants from industry, academia and government in four selected industrial sectors as a basis for the development of a strategic partnership for industrial energy efficient technology in the state. In California the IOF effort focuses petroleum refining, chemical processing, food processing and electronics. As part of this effort, the SIOF program will develop roadmaps for technology development for the selected sectors. On the basis of the roadmap, the program will develop successful projects with co-funding from state and federal government, and promote industry

  11. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments, FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This report contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Subject areas covered are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  12. Industrial demand-side management programs: What`s happened, what works, what`s needed

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, J.A.; Nadel, S.M.

    1993-03-01

    In order to analyze experience to date with industrial demand-side management (DSM), a survey of utilities was conducted and a database of industrial DSM programs was prepared. More than eighty utilities and third-party organizations were interviewed. Data were collected via phone, fax, and/or mail from the utilities and entered into a database. In order to limit the scope of this study, the database contains incentive-based, energy-saving programs and not load management or information-only programs (including technical assistance programs). Programs in the database were divided into four categories: two ``prescriptive rebate`` categories and two ``custom rebate`` categories. The database contains 31 incentive-based, energy-saving industrial DSM programs offered by 17 utilities. The appendix to this report summarizes the results approximately 60 industrial DSM programs. Most of the programs included in the appendix, but not in the database, are either C&I programs for which commercial and industrial data were not disaggregated or new industrial DSM programs for which data are not yet available.

  13. Training PhD Physicists for Industrial Careers: The Industrial Leadership in Physics Program at Georgetown University.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Keuren, Edward

    2009-03-01

    The Physics department at Georgetown University has a unique PhD level graduate program designed to prepare PhD physicists for positions in high-tech business. Launched in 2001, the Industrial Leadership in Physics (ILP) graduate program combines training in technical subjects and business topics with a focus on group learning, communication skills, and practical work experience. Some highlights of the program include a modular curriculum in fundamental physics, centered on solid-state physics, instrumentation, problem solving and computer modeling; a year-long apprenticeship at the site of an industrial partner chosen to match the interests of the student and coursework in the McDonough School of Business at Georgetown. This presentation will give an overview of the program.

  14. Unit-Credit Titles under Program Headings, Directory. Technology Education: Vocational Industrial, Industrial Arts, Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg. Curriculum Services Branch.

    This directory lists the unit-credit titles of the technology education courses offered in Manitoba, along with their corresponding department codes and course numbers. Sections A through C list the unit-credit titles of the following vocational-industrial clusters: heavy industrial (agriculture, auto body repair, building construction, building…

  15. Strategies for implementing Climate Smart Agriculture and creating marketable Greenhouse emission reduction credits, for small scale rice farmers in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, R.; Kritee, K.; Rudek, J.; Van Sanh, N.; Thu Ha, T.

    2014-12-01

    Industrial agriculture systems, mostly in developed and some emerging economies, are far different from the small holder farms that dot the landscapes in Asia and Africa. At Environmental Defense Fund, along with our partners from non-governmental, corporate, academic and government sectors and farmers, we have worked actively in India and Vietnam for the last four years to better understand how small scale farmers working on rice paddy (and other upland crops) cultivation can best deal with climate change. Some of the questions we have tried to answer are: What types of implementable best practices, both old and new, on small farm systems lend themselves to improved yields, farm incomes, climate resilience and mitigation? Can these practices be replicated everywhere or is the change more landscape and people driven? What are the institutional, cultural, financial and risk-perception related barriers that prevent scaling up of these practices? How do we innovate and overcome these barriers? The research community needs to work more closely together and leverage multiple scientific, economic and policy disciplines to fully answer these questions. In the case of small farm systems, we find that it helps to follow certain steps if the climate-smart (or low carbon) farming programs are to succeed and the greenhouse credits generated are to be marketed: Demographic data collection and plot demarcation Farmer networks and diaries Rigorous baseline determination via surveys Alternative practice determination via consultation with local universities/experts Measurements on representative plots for 3-4 years (including GHG emissions, yields, inputs, economic and environmental savings) to help calibrate biogeochemical models and/or calculate regional emission factors. Propagation of alternative practices across the landscape via local NGOs/governments Recording of parameters necessary to extrapolate representative plot GHG emission reductions to all farmers in a given

  16. Industrial Arts Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This document contains vocational education program courses standards for exploratory courses, practical arts courses, and job preparatory programs offered at the secondary or postsecondary level. Each program standard is composed of two parts: a curriculum framework and student performance standards. The curriculum framework includes four major…

  17. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) program. Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments FY 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven {open_quotes}Vision Industries{close_quotes} that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. These are: (1) Aluminum; (2) Chemical; (3) Forest Products; (4) Glass; (5) Metal Casting; (6) Refineries; and (7) Steel. This report is a compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments on materials.

  18. Partnerships between utilities and small-scale providers: Delegated management in Kisumu, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Klaas; Sanga, Anthony

    Increasingly, partnerships between small-scale providers and formal utilities are being promoted as an alternative model of infrastructure development and service provision. This paper analyzes the potential of such a model for bridging the gap in service provision in peri-urban areas. The model, which this article focuses on, is the delegated management model, which has been implemented in Kisumu, Kenya. In this model a formal utility entered into contracts with multiple small-scale providers to distribute water to an informal settlement. In this arrangement, the water utility sells bulk water to the small-scale providers and these then distribute the water to an area covering about 120 connections for each provider. The research finds that the arrangement in Kisumu has met with mixed results. On the one hand, the arrangement led to considerable service expansion and to service improvements for those not connected to the network. Also, the formal utility benefited from the fact that they generated additional revenue by selling bulk water to the small-scale providers. The arrangement has also generated employment for those working for the small-scale providers. On the other hand, experiences so far, show that some challenges need to be addressed before the partnership arrangement becomes truly sustainable. For some providers corruption seems to be a problem as funds have been misappropriated. Also, the utility has not upheld the agreement to transfer all ‘old connections’ to the small-scale providers. A particularly worrying feature is that in low-income areas of Nyalenda, the customers of kiosks run by the small-scale providers pay three times more for their water than households who have an in-house connection.

  19. Options on Roles, Organization, and Programs of the Private Industry Council. Private Industry Council Training Series: 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Alliance of Business, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This handbook, developed by the National Alliance of Business, is designed as a tool for Private Industry Councils (PICs) in promoting permanent partnerships between public and private interests in training and employing the disadvantaged. Basic information on roles, organizational issues, and program activities of the PIC are considered in four…

  20. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments, FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The mission of the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. A fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrates on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support. Assessments of materials needs and opportunities in the process industries are an on-going effort within the program. These assessments are being used for program planning and priority setting, followed by support of work to satisfy those needs. All the industries have identified materials as critical, particularly for high-temperature strength, corrosion resistance, and wear resistance. Also important from the energy efficiency viewpoint are membranes, catalytic membranes, and reactors for separations, both for processing and waste reduction. AIM focuses, therefore, on high-temperature materials, corrosion resistant materials, wear resistant materials, strong polymers, coatings, and membrane materials for industrial applications.

  1. Financial Awareness Education with Apprentices in the Australian Construction Industry: Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Plessis, Karin; Green, Emma

    2013-01-01

    A financial awareness education program was implemented with construction industry apprentices in Victoria, Australia. The program included face-to-face delivery of education around a range of financial management issues that apprentices face as they begin their apprenticeship. The paper reports on an evaluation of the program, which included…

  2. Career Preparation Program Curriculum Guide for: Hospitality/Tourism Industry (Food Services).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria. Curriculum Development Branch.

    This curriculum outline provides secondary and postsecondary instructors with detailed information on student learning outcomes for completion of the food services program requirements in the hospitality/tourism industry. A program overview discusses the aims of education; secondary school philosophy; and career preparation programs and their…

  3. 78 FR 28812 - Energy Efficiency Program for Industrial Equipment: Petition of UL Verification Services Inc. for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... national recognition of an energy efficiency certification program for ] electric motors. See 77 FR 26608... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency Program for Industrial Equipment... Program for Small Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department...

  4. A small-scale study of magneto-rheological track vibration isolation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rui; Mu, Wenjun; Zhang, Luyang; Wang, Xiaojie

    2016-04-01

    A magneto-rheological bearing (MRB) is proposed to improve the vibration isolation performance of a floating slab track system. However, it's difficult to carry out the test for the full-scale track vibration isolation system in the laboratory. In this paper, the research is based on scale analysis of the floating slab track system, from the point view of the dimensionless of the dynamic characteristics of physical quantity, to establish a small scale test bench system for the MRBs. A small scale MRB with squeeze mode using magneto-rheological grease is designed and its performance is tested. The major parameters of a small scale test bench are obtained according to the similarity theory. The force transmissibility ratio and the relative acceleration transmissibility ratio are selected as evaluation index of system similarity. Dynamics of these two similarity systems are calculated by MATLAB experiment. Simulation results show that the dynamics of the prototype and scale models have good similarity. Further, a test bench is built according to the small-scale model parameter analysis. The experiment shows that the bench testing results are consistency with that of theoretical model in evaluating the vibration force and acceleration. Therefore, the small-scale study of magneto-rheological track vibration isolation system based on similarity theory reveals the isolation performance of a real slab track prototype system.

  5. A Government/Industry Summary of the Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, Raymond G. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center in 1984 initiated a rotorcraft structural dynamics program, designated DAMVIBS (Design Analysis Methods for VIBrationS), with the objective of establishing the technology base needed by the rotorcraft industry for developing an advanced finite-element-based dynamics design analysis capability for vibrations. An assessment of the program showed that the DAMVIBS Program has resulted in notable technical achievements and major changes in industrial design practice, all of which have significantly advanced the industry's capability to use and rely on finite-element-based dynamics analyses during the design process.

  6. Industry's voluntary program: Community Awareness and Emergency Response Program and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act.

    PubMed

    Cooper, J S

    1990-10-01

    This paper describes the chemical industry's Community Awareness and Emergency Response (CAER) Program, and voluntary and mandatory actions by the chemical industry to comply with the major environmental legislation. The chemical industry started the voluntary CAER Program soon after the Bhopal Disaster in 1984; it is coordinated through the Chemical Manufacturer's Association. This program, which began in March 1985, is a long-term industry commitment to develop a community outreach program and to improve local emergency response planning. The Congress of the United States began, in 1985, to consider proposals for mandatory programs. This led to enactment of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, known as SARA. A portion of this Act, entitled Title III is also known as the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act. Although this legislation has many mandatory requirements, it should be emphasized that a significant degree of voluntary industrial participation is needed if the purposes of the statute are to be achieved. Title III has created an intricate and still evolving system that ties together the EPA, industrial plant managers, state emergency response commissions, local emergency planning committees and fire departments with jurisdiction over the facility. Each of these groups has a different role and responsibilities but must work cooperatively with other participants. Because of the intricate network of participants, the magnitude of the information flow, and the continuing evolution of the system, unique public relations problems exist in order to comply with Title III.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2274977

  7. NASA Propagation Program Status and Propagation Needs of Satcom Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golshan, Nassar

    1996-01-01

    The program objective is to enable the development of new commercial satellite systems and services and to support NASA's programs by providing timely data and models about propagation of satellite radio signals though the intervening environment. Provisions include new services, higher frequencies, higher data rates, different environments (mobile, indoors, fixed), and different orbits (geostationary, low earth orbit).

  8. Teaching Resource Recovery in Industrial Arts. Resource Recovery Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Resource Recovery, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guide, one component of the Resource Recovery Education Kit (See SO 007 866 for a description), contains ideas and activities for teaching about solid waste disposal in secondary level industrial arts classes. Among the course objectives are the following: (1) to understand that litter represents a small but highly visible portion of our…

  9. Small-scale field-aligned currents observed by the AKEBONO (EXOS-D) satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Fukunishi, H.; Oya, H. ); Kokubun, S. ); Tohyama, F. ); Mukai, T.; Fujii, R.

    1991-02-01

    The EXOS-D fluxgate magnetometer data obtained at 3,000-10,000 km altitude have shown that small-scale field-aligned currents always exist in large-scale region 1, region 2, cusp and polar cap current systems. Assuming that these small-scale field-aligned currents have current sheet structure, the width of current sheet is estimated to be 5-20 km at ionospheric altitude. By comparing the magnetometer data with charged particle and high frequency plasma wave data simultaneously obtained from EXOS-D, it is found that small-scale currents have one-to-one correspondence with localized electron precipitation events characterized by flux enhancement over a wide energy range from 10 eV to several keV and broadband electrostatic bursts occasionally extending above local plasma frequencies or electron cyclotron frequencies.

  10. Generation of large-scale magnetic fields by small-scale dynamo in shear flows

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Squire, J.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-10-20

    We propose a new mechanism for a turbulent mean-field dynamo in which the magnetic fluctuations resulting from a small-scale dynamo drive the generation of large-scale magnetic fields. This is in stark contrast to the common idea that small-scale magnetic fields should be harmful to large-scale dynamo action. These dynamos occur in the presence of a large-scale velocity shear and do not require net helicity, resulting from off-diagonal components of the turbulent resistivity tensor as the magnetic analogue of the "shear-current" effect. Furthermore, given the inevitable existence of nonhelical small-scale magnetic fields in turbulent plasmas, as well as the generic naturemore » of velocity shear, the suggested mechanism may help explain the generation of large-scale magnetic fields across a wide range of astrophysical objects.« less

  11. Generation of large-scale magnetic fields by small-scale dynamo in shear flows

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, J.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-10-20

    We propose a new mechanism for a turbulent mean-field dynamo in which the magnetic fluctuations resulting from a small-scale dynamo drive the generation of large-scale magnetic fields. This is in stark contrast to the common idea that small-scale magnetic fields should be harmful to large-scale dynamo action. These dynamos occur in the presence of a large-scale velocity shear and do not require net helicity, resulting from off-diagonal components of the turbulent resistivity tensor as the magnetic analogue of the "shear-current" effect. Furthermore, given the inevitable existence of nonhelical small-scale magnetic fields in turbulent plasmas, as well as the generic nature of velocity shear, the suggested mechanism may help explain the generation of large-scale magnetic fields across a wide range of astrophysical objects.

  12. Generation of Large-Scale Magnetic Fields by Small-Scale Dynamo in Shear Flows.

    PubMed

    Squire, J; Bhattacharjee, A

    2015-10-23

    We propose a new mechanism for a turbulent mean-field dynamo in which the magnetic fluctuations resulting from a small-scale dynamo drive the generation of large-scale magnetic fields. This is in stark contrast to the common idea that small-scale magnetic fields should be harmful to large-scale dynamo action. These dynamos occur in the presence of a large-scale velocity shear and do not require net helicity, resulting from off-diagonal components of the turbulent resistivity tensor as the magnetic analogue of the "shear-current" effect. Given the inevitable existence of nonhelical small-scale magnetic fields in turbulent plasmas, as well as the generic nature of velocity shear, the suggested mechanism may help explain the generation of large-scale magnetic fields across a wide range of astrophysical objects. PMID:26551120

  13. REPRODUCIBILITY OF SMALL SCALE HYDRAULIC EXPERIMENT ON CROSS-LEVEE BREACH BY OVERFLOW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yasuharu; Yamamoto, Masato; Shimada, Tomonori

    River bank failure causes a heavy disaster. Many experiments had been conducted. Full-scale hydraulic experiment is very few, because of it has a limit to conduct in terms of space and budget. Therefore, many experiments were conducted in small scale and they need to be compared with the actual phenomenon. The large scale hydraulic experiment on river bank failure was conducted at Chiyoda experiment flume in 2008. We conducted small scale experiments on river bank failure and examined the reproducibility of the small scale experiments by comparison with the Chiyoda experiment. Fine-grained soil strongly influences the widening process of bank failure. In order to reproduce the results of experiment at Chiyoda experimental flume on dike failure, it is necessary to remove the fine material from the material of scaled dikes. And it is found that the time scale of widening process of bank failure follows the Froude similarity law.

  14. African hot spot volcanism: small-scale convection in the upper mantle beneath cratons.

    PubMed

    King, S D; Ritsema, J

    2000-11-10

    Numerical models demonstrate that small-scale convection develops in the upper mantle beneath the transition of thick cratonic lithosphere and thin oceanic lithosphere. These models explain the location and geochemical characteristics of intraplate volcanos on the African and South American plates. They also explain the presence of relatively high seismic shear wave velocities (cold downwellings) in the mantle transition zone beneath the western margin of African cratons and the eastern margin of South American cratons. Small-scale, edge-driven convection is an alternative to plumes for explaining intraplate African and South American hot spot volcanism, and small-scale convection is consistent with mantle downwellings beneath the African and South American lithosphere. PMID:11073447

  15. SCION: CubeSat Mission Concept to Observe Midlatitude Small-Scale Irregularities and Scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, T.; Moldwin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The SCintillation and Ionospheric Occultation NanoSats (SCION) mission concept is to deploy two low-cost CubeSat spacecraft that maintain a separation distance <1 km to measure scintillation and associated small-scale density irregularities in the midlatitude ionosphere. Each spacecraft is equipped with a dual frequency GPS receiver to measure total electron content (TEC) and the S4 scintillation index along raypaths from the receiver to the GPS constellation. Scintillation causing small-scale density irregularities are increasingly observed in the vicinity of large TEC gradients associated with storm enhanced density (SED) regions. Detection of irregularities of the scale that cause GPS and VHF scintillation has previously relied on assumptions about their structural stability and drift speed. Space-based, multipoint observations would provide broad, regional coverage and disambiguation of temporal and spatial density fluctuations in order to detect small-scale irregularities without these assumptions.

  16. Risk of Resource Failure and Toolkit Variation in Small-Scale Farmers and Herders

    PubMed Central

    Collard, Mark; Ruttle, April; Buchanan, Briggs; O’Brien, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent work suggests that global variation in toolkit structure among hunter-gatherers is driven by risk of resource failure such that as risk of resource failure increases, toolkits become more diverse and complex. Here we report a study in which we investigated whether the toolkits of small-scale farmers and herders are influenced by risk of resource failure in the same way. In the study, we applied simple linear and multiple regression analysis to data from 45 small-scale food-producing groups to test the risk hypothesis. Our results were not consistent with the hypothesis; none of the risk variables we examined had a significant impact on toolkit diversity or on toolkit complexity. It appears, therefore, that the drivers of toolkit structure differ between hunter-gatherers and small-scale food-producers. PMID:22844421

  17. Thermodynamic modeling of small scale biomass gasifiers: Development and assessment of the ''Multi-Box'' approach.

    PubMed

    Vakalis, Stergios; Patuzzi, Francesco; Baratieri, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Modeling can be a powerful tool for designing and optimizing gasification systems. Modeling applications for small scale/fixed bed biomass gasifiers have been interesting due to their increased commercial practices. Fixed bed gasifiers are characterized by a wide range of operational conditions and are multi-zoned processes. The reactants are distributed in different phases and the products from each zone influence the following process steps and thus the composition of the final products. The present study aims to improve the conventional 'Black-Box' thermodynamic modeling by means of developing multiple intermediate 'boxes' that calculate two phase (solid-vapor) equilibriums in small scale gasifiers. Therefore the model is named ''Multi-Box''. Experimental data from a small scale gasifier have been used for the validation of the model. The returned results are significantly closer with the actual case study measurements in comparison to single-stage thermodynamic modeling. PMID:26855290

  18. Optimal management of on-farm resources in small-scale dairy systems of Central Mexico: model development and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Castelán-Ortega, Octavio Alonso; Martínez-García, Carlos Galdino; Mould, Fergus L; Dorward, Peter; Rehman, Tahir; Rayas-Amor, Adolfo Armando

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluates the available on-farm resources of five case studies typified as small-scale dairy systems in central Mexico. A comprehensive mixed-integer linear programming model was developed and applied to two case studies. The optimal plan suggested the following: (1) instruction and utilization of maize silage, (2) alfalfa hay making that added US$140/ha/cut to the total net income, (3) allocation of land to cultivated pastures in a ratio of 27:41(cultivated pastures/maize crop) rather than at the current 14:69, and dairy cattle should graze 12 h/day, (4) to avoid grazing of communal pastures because this activity represented an opportunity cost of family labor that reduced the farm net income, and (5) that the highest farm net income was obtained when liquid milk and yogurt sales were included in the optimal plan. In the context of small-scale dairy systems of central Mexico, the optimal plan would need to be implemented gradually to enable farmers to develop required skills and to change management strategies from reliance on forage and purchased concentrate to pasture-based and conserved forage systems. PMID:26992734

  19. Analysis on the detection performance of BOTDR in small-scale precision engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuai; Luan, Lijun

    2013-12-01

    In this thesis, the authors discuss the detection performance of the small-scale precision engineering with the Brillouin scattering light on the base of experiments. The authors made the measurements using the traditional Strain Distribution Gauge and optical fiber scattering light shift equipment AQ8603 and obtained two results. The authors compared and analyzed the data and made the conclusion that the BOTDR technology is not suitable for the small-scale Precision Engineering. The wiring methods and their effects to detection performance are also been discussed in this thesis.

  20. Fabrication of small-scale structures with non-planar features

    SciTech Connect

    Burckel, David B.; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2015-11-19

    The fabrication of small-scale structures is disclosed. A unit-cell of a small-scale structure with non-planar features is fabricated by forming a membrane on a suitable material. A pattern is formed in the membrane and a portion of the substrate underneath the membrane is removed to form a cavity. Resonators are then directionally deposited on the wall or sides of the cavity. The cavity may be rotated during deposition to form closed-loop resonators. The resonators may be non-planar. The unit-cells can be formed in a layer that includes an array of unit-cells.

  1. Preferential Sampling and Small-Scale Clustering of Gyrotactic Microswimmers in Turbulence.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, K; Berglund, F; Jonsson, P R; Mehlig, B

    2016-03-11

    Recent studies show that spherical motile microorganisms in turbulence subject to gravitational torques gather in down-welling regions of the turbulent flow. By analyzing a statistical model we analytically compute how shape affects the dynamics, preferential sampling, and small-scale spatial clustering. We find that oblong organisms may spend more time in up-welling regions of the flow, and that all organisms are biased to regions of positive fluid-velocity gradients in the upward direction. We analyze small-scale spatial clustering and find that oblong particles may either cluster more or less than spherical ones, depending on the strength of the gravitational torques. PMID:27015512

  2. Preferential Sampling and Small-Scale Clustering of Gyrotactic Microswimmers in Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, K.; Berglund, F.; Jonsson, P. R.; Mehlig, B.

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies show that spherical motile microorganisms in turbulence subject to gravitational torques gather in down-welling regions of the turbulent flow. By analyzing a statistical model we analytically compute how shape affects the dynamics, preferential sampling, and small-scale spatial clustering. We find that oblong organisms may spend more time in up-welling regions of the flow, and that all organisms are biased to regions of positive fluid-velocity gradients in the upward direction. We analyze small-scale spatial clustering and find that oblong particles may either cluster more or less than spherical ones, depending on the strength of the gravitational torques.

  3. Dynamics of the small-scale changes of metal optic surfaces induced by pulsed light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liukonen, R. A.; Trofimenko, A. M.

    1991-10-01

    A study is made of small-scale changes in the relief and absorptivity of mirror metal surfaces due to interaction with pulsed infrared irradiation. Several singularities are identified which are associated with the pulsed nature of the interaction and which cannot be explained by the surface temperature change alone. These include small-scale deformations observed even in the case of uniform distribution of the incident radiation intensity; an increase in deformation in excess of the increase attributable to heating only; and a change in the absorptivity of metal mirrors in excess of the theoretically predicted value.

  4. Collective backscattering of gyrotron radiation by small-scale plasma density fluctuations in large helical device.

    PubMed

    Kharchev, Nikolay; Tanaka, Kenji; Kubo, Shin; Igami, Hiroe; Batanov, German; Petrov, Alexandr; Sarksyan, Karen; Skvortsova, Nina; Azuma, Yoshifumi; Tsuji-Iio, Shunji

    2008-10-01

    A version of the collective backscattering diagnostic using gyrotron radiation for small-scale turbulence is described. The diagnostic is used to measure small-scale (k(s) approximately 34 cm(-1)) plasma density fluctuations in large helical device experiments on the electron cyclotron heating of plasma with the use of 200 kW 82.7 GHz heating gyrotron. A good signal to noise ratio during plasma production phase was obtained, while contamination of stray light increased during plasma build-up phase. The effect of the stray radiation was investigated. The available quasioptical system of the heating system was utilized for this purpose. PMID:19044538

  5. Collective backscattering of gyrotron radiation by small-scale plasma density fluctuations in large helical device

    SciTech Connect

    Kharchev, Nikolay; Batanov, German; Petrov, Alexandr; Sarksyan, Karen; Skvortsova, Nina; Tanaka, Kenji; Kubo, Shin; Igami, Hiroe; Azuma, Yoshifumi; Tsuji-Iio, Shunji

    2008-10-15

    A version of the collective backscattering diagnostic using gyrotron radiation for small-scale turbulence is described. The diagnostic is used to measure small-scale (k{sub s}{approx_equal}34 cm{sup -1}) plasma density fluctuations in large helical device experiments on the electron cyclotron heating of plasma with the use of 200 kW 82.7 GHz heating gyrotron. A good signal to noise ratio during plasma production phase was obtained, while contamination of stray light increased during plasma build-up phase. The effect of the stray radiation was investigated. The available quasioptical system of the heating system was utilized for this purpose.

  6. Small-scale Materials Behavior from X-ray Microdiffraction and Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, Rozaliya; Ice, Gene E

    2010-01-01

    This commentary introduces a JOM topic that highlights novel applications of x-ray microdiffraction and imaging to study structural properties of materials at a small scale. The development of ultra-brilliant synchrotron x-ray sources provides important new opportunities for the analysis of local and near-surface material structures. This topic includes manuscripts that describe how different versions of polychromatic and monochromatic microdiffraction can be used to study small scale plasticity in a range of materials. A variety of ingenious methods are described as developed in laboratories around the world.

  7. Simulation of turbulent magnetic reconnection in the small-scale solar wind.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Fengsi; Qiang, Hu; Schwen, R.; Feng, Xueshang

    2000-06-01

    Some observational examples for the possible occurrence of the turbulent magnetic reconnection in the solar wind are found by analysing Hellos spacecraft's high resolution data. The phenomena of turbulent magnetic reconnections in small scale solar wind are simulated by introducing a third order accuracy upwind compact difference scheme to the compressible two-dimensional MHD flow. Numerical results verify that the turbulent magnetic reconnection process could occur in small scale interplanetary solar wind, which is a basic feature characterizing the magnetic reconnection in high-magnetic Reynolds number solar wind.

  8. PROCEEDINGS: INDUSTRY BRIEFING ON EPA LIME/LIMESTONE WET SCRUBBING TEST PROGRAMS AUGUST 1978

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations made during the August 29, 1978 industry briefing conference which dealt with the status of EPA/IERL-RTP's flue gas desulfurization (FGD) research, development, and application programs. Subjects considered included: lime/limestone scrubbing...

  9. 77 FR 1955 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance--Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  10. 75 FR 54655 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance--Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  11. 78 FR 37584 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance--Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  12. 77 FR 27797 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance--Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  13. 76 FR 41302 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance--Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  14. 77 FR 39517 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance--Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  15. 78 FR 37583 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance--Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  16. 75 FR 453 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance--Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  17. 75 FR 50007 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance--Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  18. 77 FR 22612 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance--Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  19. 75 FR 50006 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance--Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  20. 75 FR 43207 - Request for Certification of Compliance -Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance --Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  1. 77 FR 31647 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance--Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  2. 76 FR 21042 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance--Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  3. 77 FR 27798 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance--Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  4. 75 FR 10326 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance--Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  5. 75 FR 454 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance--Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  6. 76 FR 51435 - Request for Certification of Compliance; Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance; Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  7. 76 FR 14996 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance--Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  8. International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-SettingPrograms

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-02-02

    Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.

  9. Experiment in Materials Processing Engineering Education: The Industrial Internship Program. Summary Report on Task "A".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinmann, K. J.; And Others

    The final report on a program to encourage industry-university interaction in the materials processing industries presents the findings of various proposed activities, establishes some conclusions, and provides suggestions and recommendations for extending the task to the actual design and conduct of the project. The background in which the…

  10. School Shops. Layouts, Justifications, Equipment for Trade and Industrial Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson.

    Suggestions for school shops are presented in three general areas--(1) planning, (2) layouts, and (3) tools and equipment. Within the planning area, two types of shop programs are discussed--(1) industrial arts education, and (2) trade and industrial education. Layouts and floor plans are provided for the following shops: auto mechanics, building…

  11. 48 CFR 1446.170 - Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Government-Industry Data... THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE General 1446.170 Government-Industry Data Exchange... cooperative program managed and funded by the U.S. Government to exchange engineering, failure...

  12. 48 CFR 1446.170 - Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Government-Industry Data... THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE General 1446.170 Government-Industry Data Exchange... cooperative program managed and funded by the U.S. Government to exchange engineering, failure...

  13. 48 CFR 1446.170 - Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Government-Industry Data... THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE General 1446.170 Government-Industry Data Exchange... cooperative program managed and funded by the U.S. Government to exchange engineering, failure...

  14. 48 CFR 1446.170 - Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Government-Industry Data... THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE General 1446.170 Government-Industry Data Exchange... cooperative program managed and funded by the U.S. Government to exchange engineering, failure...

  15. 34 CFR 379.1 - What is the Projects With Industry (PWI) program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true What is the Projects With Industry (PWI) program? 379.1 Section 379.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION PROJECTS WITH INDUSTRY...

  16. Environmental Monitoring and the Gas Industry: Program Manager Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory D. Gillispie

    1997-12-01

    This document has been developed for the nontechnical gas industry manager who has the responsibility for the development of waste or potentially contaminated soil and groundwater data or must make decisions based on such data for the management or remediation of these materials. It explores the pse of common analytical chemistry instrumentation and associated techniques for identification of environmentally hazardous materials. Sufficient detail is given to familiarize the nontechnical reader with the principles behind the operation of each technique. The scope and realm of the techniques and their constituent variations are portrayed through a discussion of crucial details and, where appropriate, the depiction of real-life data. It is the author's intention to provide an easily understood handbook for gas industry management. Techniques which determine the presence, composition, and quantification of gas industry wastes are discussed. Greater focus is given to traditional techniques which have been the mainstay of modem analytical benchwork. However, with the continual advancement of instrumental principles and design, several techniques have been included which are likely to receive greater attention in fiture considerations for waste-related detection. Definitions and concepts inherent to a thorough understanding of the principles common to analytical chemistry are discussed. It is also crucial that gas industry managers understand the effects of the various actions which take place before, during, and after the actual sampling step. When a series of sample collection, storage, and transport activities occur, new or inexperienced project managers may overlook or misunderstand the importance of the sequence. Each step has an impact on the final results of the measurement process; errors in judgment or decision making can be costly. Specific techniques and methodologies for the collection, storage, and transport of environmental media samples are not described or

  17. (Technical and engineering support for the Office of Industrial Programs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    As of April 19, 1991, technical, operational and analytic support and assistance to the offices and divisions of the Office of Renewable Energy, under contract DE-AC01-86CE30844 was completed. The overall work effort, initiated February 20, 1986, was characterized by timely, comprehensive, high quality, professional responsiveness to a broad range of renewable energy program operational support requirements. These are no instances of failure to respond, nor unacceptable response, during the five-year period. The technology program areas covered are Solar Buildings Technology, Wind Energy Technology, Photovoltaic Energy Technology, Geothermal Energy Technology, Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology, Solar Thermal Technology, Hydropower Energy Technology, Ocean Energy Technology, and Electric Energy Systems and Energy Storage. The analytical and managerial support provided to the office and staff of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Renewable Energy enabled a comprehensive evaluation of program and policy alternatives, and the selection and execution of appropriate courses of action from amongst those alternatives. Largely through these means the Office has been able to maintain continuity and a meaningful program thrust through the vacillations of policies and budgets that it has experienced over that it has experienced over the past five years. Appended are summaries of support activities within each of the individual technology program areas, as well as a complete listing of all project deliverables and due-dates for each submittal under the contract.

  18. Establishment of a Graduate Certificate Program in Biobased Industrial Products – Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Schlup

    2005-11-04

    A certificate of graduate studies in Biobased Industrial Products is to be established at Kansas State University (KSU) along with the development of a similar program at Pittsburg State University, Pittsburg, KS. At KSU, the program of study will be coordinated through the steering committee of the Agricultural Products Utilization Forum (APUF); the certificate of graduate studies will be awarded through the Graduate School of Kansas State University. This certificate will establish an interdisciplinary program of study that will: (1) ensure participating students receive a broad education in several disciplines related to Biobased Industrial Products, (2) provide a documented course of study for students preferring a freestanding certificate program, and (3) provide a paradigm shift in student awareness away from petroleum-based feedstocks to the utilization of renewable resources for fuels and chemical feedstocks. The academic program described herein will accomplish this goal by: (1) providing exposure to several academic disciplines key to Biobased Industrial Products; (2) improving university/industry collaboration through an external advisory board, distance learning opportunities, and student internships; (3) expanding the disciplines represented on the students' supervisory committee; (4) establishing a seminar series on Biobased Industrial Products that draws upon expert speakers representing several disciplines; and (5) increasing collaboration between disciplines. Numerous research programs emphasizing Biobased Industrial Products currently exist at KSU and PSU. The certificate of graduate studies, the emphasis on interdisciplinary collaboration within the students? thesis research, the proposed seminar series, and formation of an industrial advisory board will: (1) provide an interdisciplinary academic experience that spans several departments, four colleges, four research centers, and two universities; (2) tangibly promote collaboration between KSU

  19. Small-scale Mashing Procedure for Predicting Ethanol Yield of Sorghum Grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A small-scale mashing (SSM) procedure requiring only 300 mg of sample was investigated as a possible method of predicting ethanol yield of sorghum grain. The initial SSM procedure, which was conducted similarly to the mashing step in a traditional fermentation test, hydrolyzed just 38.5-47.2% of to...

  20. Simple Assessment Techniques for Soil and Water. Environmental Factors in Small Scale Development Projects. Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coordination in Development, New York, NY.

    This booklet was produced in response to the growing need for reliable environmental assessment techniques that can be applied to small-scale development projects. The suggested techniques emphasize low-technology environmental analysis. Although these techniques may lack precision, they can be extremely valuable in helping to assure the success…