Sample records for program small-scale industrial

  1. Assessment of air pollution from small scale industry.

    PubMed

    Bhanarkar, A D; Gajghate, D G; Hasan, M Z

    2002-12-01

    Air pollution due to small scale industries have been found to cause serious occupational health hazards and adverse effects on vegetation and heritage. The study for air pollution impact assessment for brick kiln industries was undertaken. The stack monitoring exercise was carried out to estimate the pollution level of SPM, SO2, and NOx. The ambient air quality was also measured in the vicinity of brick kilns to assess the impact of stack emission on ground level concentration. Characterisation of SPM for toxic metals were studied. Modelling exercise was carried to predict the impact of emission of brick kiln on surrounding environment. To minimise the emission level and ground level concentration, air pollution mitigation measures are suggested. PMID:12449320

  2. Membranes play growing role in small-scale industrial processing

    SciTech Connect

    Haggin, J.

    1988-07-11

    With industrial demands growing for better separation and/or purification in chemical, petroleum, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and other areas, membrane technology has been attracting more and more attention. This article examines many of the smaller scale operations that are now using membrane technology or are seen as potential application areas. An earlier C and EN article, focused on efforts to develop and expand applications for some of the more conventional operations employing membranes in high-volume industrial separations.

  3. Strategies for sustainable development of the small-scale gold and diamond mining industry of Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Amankwah; C. Anim-Sackey

    2003-01-01

    The small-scale gold and diamonds mining industry is of great importance to Ghana. Since its regularization in 1989 the sector has produced and sold over 1.5 million troy ounces of gold and 8.0 million carats of diamonds. During the same period the sector also provided direct employment to over 100,000 people and improved the socioeconomic life of many individuals and

  4. Formal Modeling and Verification of Operational Flight Program in a Small-Scale Unmanned Helicopter

    E-print Network

    of multimedia data. This paper shares the authors' experience on the formal verification of the operationalFormal Modeling and Verification of Operational Flight Program in a Small-Scale Unmanned Helicopter helicopter and its onboard embedded computing system for flight control and real-time transmission

  5. A STUDY ON THE NIGERIAN FOOD INDUSTRY AND THE IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES ON THE SMALL-SCALE FOOD ENTERPRISES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kehinde A. Taiwo; Olalere W. Oladepo; Matthew O. Ilori; Charles T. Akanbi

    2002-01-01

    Industrial processing of foods assists the nation to maintain a steady supply of food products. This study assessed some factors influencing the growth of the Nigerian food industry with the view to identify some technological changes within the small-scale food enterprises and their impact in the last ten years. Information on the Nigerian food industry was compiled from a secondary

  6. Use of a moss biomonitoring method to compile emission inventories for small-scale industries.

    PubMed

    Varela, Z; Aboal, J R; Carballeira, A; Real, C; Fernández, J A

    2014-06-30

    We used a method of detecting small-scale pollution sources (DSSP) that involves measurement of the concentrations of elements in moss tissues, with the following aims: (i) to determine any common qualitative patterns of contaminant emissions for individual industrial sectors, (ii) to compare any such patterns with previously described patterns, and (iii) to compile an inventory of the metals and metalloids emitted by the industries considered. Cluster analysis revealed that there were no common patterns of emission associated with the industrial sectors, probably because of differences in production processes and in the types of fuel and raw materials. However, when these variables were shared by different factories, the concentrations of the elements in moss tissues enabled the factories to be grouped according to their emissions. We compiled a list of the metals and metalloids emitted by the factories under study and found that the DSSP method was satisfactory for this purpose in most cases (53 of 56). The method appears to be a useful tool for compiling contaminant inventories; it may also be useful for determining the efficacy of technical improvements aimed at reducing the industrial emission of contaminants and could be incorporated in environmental monitoring and control programmes. PMID:24853138

  7. Modeling small-scale dairy farms in central Mexico using multi-criteria programming.

    PubMed

    Val-Arreola, D; Kebreab, E; France, J

    2006-05-01

    Milk supply from Mexican dairy farms does not meet demand and small-scale farms can contribute toward closing the gap. Two multi-criteria programming techniques, goal programming and compromise programming, were used in a study of small-scale dairy farms in central Mexico. To build the goal and compromise programming models, 4 ordinary linear programming models were also developed, which had objective functions to maximize metabolizable energy for milk production, to maximize margin of income over feed costs, to maximize metabolizable protein for milk production, and to minimize purchased feedstuffs. Neither multi-criteria approach was significantly better than the other; however, by applying both models it was possible to perform a more comprehensive analysis of these small-scale dairy systems. The multi-criteria programming models affirm findings from previous work and suggest that a forage strategy based on alfalfa, ryegrass, and corn silage would meet nutrient requirements of the herd. Both models suggested that there is an economic advantage in rescheduling the calving season to the second and third calendar quarters to better synchronize higher demand for nutrients with the period of high forage availability. PMID:16606736

  8. Education, Training and Employment in Small-Scale Enterprises: Three Industries in Sao Paulo, Brazil. IIEP Research Report No. 63.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Elenice M.; Caillods, Francoise

    Despite the prophecies forecasting their probable disappearance or annihilation, small-scale enterprises have persisted in the Brazilian industrial structure since 1950. To account for the survival of small firms in Brazil, specifically in the state of Sao Paulo, a study examined 100 small firms in three industrial sectors: clothing, mechanical…

  9. Summary Report on FY12 Small-Scale Test Activities High Temperature Electrolysis Program

    SciTech Connect

    James O'Brien

    2012-09-01

    This report provides a description of the apparatus and the single cell testing results performed at Idaho National Laboratory during January–August 2012. It is an addendum to the Small-Scale Test Report issued in January 2012. The primary program objectives during this time period were associated with design, assembly, and operation of two large experiments: a pressurized test, and a 4 kW test. Consequently, the activities described in this report represent a much smaller effort.

  10. Monitoring of cotton dust and health risk assessment in small-scale weaving industry.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Muhammad Wajid; Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Tauseef, Shanza; Sajjad, Muqadas; Nazeer, Awais; Farheen, Nazish; Iqbal, Muddsar

    2012-08-01

    The present study describes the estimation of particulate matter (cotton dust) with different sizes, i.e., PM(1.0), PM(2.5), PM(4.0), and PM(10.0 ?m) in small-scale weaving industry (power looms) situated in district Hafizabad, Punjab, Pakistan, and the assessment of health problems of workers associated with these pollutants. A significant difference was found in PM(1.0), PM(2.5), PM(4.0), and PM(10.0) with reference to nine different sampling stations with p values <0.05. Multiple comparisons of particulate matter with respect to size, i.e. PM(1.0), PM(2.5), PM(4.0), and PM(10.0), depict that PM(1.0) differs significantly from PM(2.5), PM(4.0), and PM(10.0), with p values <0.05 and that PM(2.5) differs significantly from PM(1.0) and PM(10.0), with p values <0.05, whereas PM(2.5) differs non-significantly from PM(4.0), with a p value >0.05 in defined sampling stations on an average basis. Majority of the workers were facing several diseases due to interaction with particulate matter (cotton dust) during working hours. Flue, cough, eye, and skin infections were the most common diseases among workers caused by particulate matter (cotton dust). PMID:21947877

  11. Department of Energy Small-Scale Hydropower Program: Feasibility assessment and technology development summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, B.N.

    1991-06-01

    This report summarizes two subprograms under the US Department of Energy's Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program. These subprograms were part of the financial assistance activities and included the Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) feasibility assessments and the technology development projects. The other major subprograms included engineering research and development, legal and institutional aspects, and technology transfer. These other subprograms are covered in their respective summary reports. The problems of energy availability and increasing costs of energy led to a national effort to develop economical and environmental attractive alternative energy resources. One such alternative involved the utilization of existing dams with hydraulic heads of <65 ft and the capacity to generate hydroelectric power of 15 MW or less. Thus, the PRDA program was initiated along with the Technology Development program. The purpose of the PRDA feasibility studies was to encourage development of renewable hydroelectric resources by providing engineering, economic, environmental, safety, and institutional information. Fifty-five feasibility studies were completed under the PRDA. This report briefly summarizes each of those projects. Many of the PRDA projects went on to become technology development projects. 56 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  12. Summary of Large-and Small-Scale Unreinforced Masonry Test Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, K.E.

    2002-06-28

    A five-year, large- and small-scale, static and dynamic experimental research program, in which more than 700 tests were conducted, has demonstrated that unreinforced masonry infills are more ductile and resist lateral loads more effectively than anticipated by conventional code procedures. The tests were conducted both in the laboratory and on existing structures at the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex. The experimental data indicate that the combination of a steel frame and infill material efficiently resists lateral loads--the infilling provides significant lateral stiffness while the surrounding frame adds ductility and confinement to the overall system. The results from approximately 25 moderate- and full-scale tests on infills showed that with simulated seismic loads, the frames confined the masonry, and the load-carrying capacity of the infill was considerably above the load that caused initial cracking. This finding was a significant departure from classical code approaches that assumed first cracking to be failure of an unreinforced masonry wall. The experimental program, performed for the US Department of Energy, consisted of the following large-scale tests on infills: in situ airbag pressure testing, shake-table tests, and the application of quasi-static in-plane and out-of-plane drift loads. This paper provides a summary of the overall experimental methodology and results.

  13. Formal Verification of Process Communications in Operational Flight Program for a Small-Scale Unmanned Helicopter

    E-print Network

    -Scale Unmanned Helicopter Dong-Ah Lee1 , Junbeom Yoo2 and Doo-Hyun Kim3 1, 2 School of Computer Science in demonstrating safety and correctness of safety-critical systems such as airplanes and helicopters. Small-scale unmanned helicopters have been increasingly developed and deployed for various scientific, commercial

  14. Small-scale Interstellar Structure Toward the Open Cluster Chi Persei; Program ID: BO29 (Cycle 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, David M.

    2004-01-01

    The primary objective of this program was to obtain FUSE observations of the interstellar H2 absorption toward six early-type stars in the core of the open star cluster Chi Persei. High resolution optical observations of the interstellar Na I absorption toward these stars and others in the core of Chi Per have revealed a rich variety of small-scale diffuse ISM structure in both the distant Perseus and more local Orion spiral arms. At the 1 arc minute angular scales typically probed by the separations of these stars, this structure corresponds to respective physical length scales of 0.6 and 0.15 pc in the Perseus and Orion arm gas. The principal scientific goal of the FUSE observations was to determine if this small-scale Na I structure toward the core of Chi Per was reflected in the abundance and/or excitation of interstellar H2. In September 2001, we obtained FUSE observations of the Chi Per stars BD +56 563, BD +56 571, BD +56 573, BD +56 574, BD +56 575, and BD +56 578 for this program. The data reveal that the Perseus arm gas exhibits significant small-scale variations in the strength of its molecular hydrogen absorption while the Orion arm H2 absorption is relatively uniform. We presented these results at the January 2003 American Astronomical Society meeting in Seattle, WA (points, Meyer, Lauroesch, Nguyen, and Friedman 2002, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 34,1229). Since Na I is not a dominant ion in H I clouds, the variations detected in the Perseus arm Na I line profiles could be due to spatial differences in either the physical structure or the physical conditions in the gas. Although many of the H2 absorption profiles are too saturated or too weak to be definitive in this regard, it is clear that small-scale variations are present in H2 gas with excitation as high as the J=4 rotational level. In contrast, lower spatial resolution H I 21 cm studies of the Perseus arm gas across the face of the h and Chi Per double cluster have shown smoother, continuous variations on the larger scale. In order to investigate if the global velocity structure of H2 toward h and Chi Per more closely follows the chaotic structure seen in interstellar Na I absorption or the smoother, continuous H I structure, we have expanded our FUSE study with a Cycle 4 program (D902, PI: Points) to survey the H2 absorption toward a number of other stars across the face of the double cluster. We have obtained FUSE spectra of 14 additional h and Chi Per stars through this program and are now combining all of the data into a comprehensive study that will be submitted for publication next year.

  15. SpICE: A program to study small-scale disturbances in the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, T. J.; Cervera, M. A.; Meehan, D. H.

    2012-06-01

    Ionospheric disturbances observed by bottom-side soundings of the ionosphere appear at many temporal and spatial scales. Australia has many simultaneous observations from vertically orientated ionospheric sounders with spatial separations on the scale of 1000 km. However, with this spatial sampling only large scale ionospheric disturbances can be mapped and subsequently modeled. DSTO has an experimental program in progress to investigate the smaller spatial scale disturbances. These are often seen on vertical incidence soundings and are uncorrelated with soundings from greater than 500 km away. They can also be uncorrelated with soundings from the same site only 15 min later. The DSTO program to investigate these ionospheric disturbances is called SpICE, for Spatial Ionospheric Correlation Experiment. SpICE uses a small set of transmitters and receivers with varying separations to achieve a geographically spread set of near-vertical incidence ionospheric “reflection” points separated by 50-150 km, allowing us to probe disturbances at this spatial scale. Using the latest digital receiver technology we can collect amplitude and phase information from the ionospheric returns of the continuous wave transmissions of a nearby transmitter that is rapidly sweeping through the HF band. The returned signal is processed at a very high resolution to achieve good signal-to-noise complex ionograms at better than one-minute time updates. To date there have been three SpICE campaigns. This paper will discuss the SpICE program goals and highlight some of the unusual features observed in the first campaign. Following papers will look more closely at this data set and the subsequent campaigns.

  16. The Impact of Social Assistance Programs on Reducing Inequities in Health Care Among Vulnerable Groups in the Republic of Macedonia (A Small Scale Descriptive Study)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir Lazarevik; Marija Risteska; Valentina Simonovska

    2009-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this research was to look at the impact of social assistance programs on reducing social inequities in health care among the vulnerable groups in Macedonia. Materials and methods. A small scale descriptive study was conducted using open ended questionnaire among the homeless, socially excluded Roma and people dependent on state provided financial allowances. These vulnerable groups

  17. Involvement of small-scale dairy farms in an industrial supply chain: when production standards meet farm diversity.

    PubMed

    Bernard, J; Le Gal, P Y; Triomphe, B; Hostiou, N; Moulin, C H

    2011-05-01

    In certain contexts, dairy firms are supplied by small-scale family farms. Firms provide a set of technical and economic recommendations meant to help farmers meet their requirements in terms of the quantity and quality of milk collected. This study analyzes how such recommendations may be adopted by studying six farms in Brazil. All farms are beneficiaries of the country's agrarian reforms, but they differ in terms of how they developed their activities, their resources and their milk collection objectives. First, we built a technical and economic benchmark farm based on recommendations from a dairy firm and farmer advisory institutions. Our analysis of the farms' practices and technical and economic results show that none of the farms in the sample apply all of the benchmark recommendations; however, all farms specialized in dairy production observe the main underlying principles with regard to feeding systems and breeding. The decisive factors in whether the benchmark is adopted and successfully implemented are (i) access to the supply chain when a farmer establishes his activity, (ii) a grasp of reproduction and forage production techniques and (iii) an understanding of dairy cattle feed dietary rationing principles. The technical problems observed in some cases impact the farms' dairy performance and cash position; this can lead to a process of disinvestment. This dynamic of farms facing production standards suggests that the diversity of specialized livestock farmers should be taken into account more effectively through advisory approaches that combine basic zootechnical training with assistance in planning farm activities over the short and medium term. PMID:22440036

  18. Understanding small scale industrial user internet purchase and information management intentions: A test of two attitude models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Celuch; Stephen Goodwin; Steven A. Taylor

    2007-01-01

    The present research compares two attitudinal models—variants of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TOPB) in terms of understanding the determinants of industrial buyer intentions to use the internet. The first variant of the Theory of Planned Behavior examines a decomposed perceived behavioral control construct that consists of self-efficacy and perceived control. The second variant of the TOPB model adds past

  19. An Empirical Investigation of Collective Action Possibilities for Industrial Water Pollution Abatement: Case Study of a Cluster of Small-Scale Industries in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Smita Misra

    A case study of the Nandesari Industrial Estate in Gujarat, India, demon- strates the roles played by different agents in industrial water pollution abatement: affected parties, polluters, nongovernmental organizations, regu- lators, and the court. The study empirically estimates the \\

  20. Small Scale Irrigation Systems: A Training Manual. Planning--Construction--Operation and Maintenance of Small Scale Irrigation Systems. A Two-Week In-Service Training Program for Peace Corps Volunteers. Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Planning and Research Associates, Inc., Manhattan, KS.

    This manual provides materials for a two-week inservice training program for Peace Corps volunteers on the planning, construction, and operation and maintenance of small-scale irrigation systems. The workshop is designed to be given by two experienced professionals: one with practical knowledge of irrigation system design, operation, and…

  1. NOAA/USAID SMALL-SCALE SHRIMP PRODUCER TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM FOR NICARAGUA, ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING COMPONENT - FINAL REPORT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Through the NOAA/USAID Small Shrimp Producer Assistance Program for Nicaragua: Environmental Monitoring Component, a water quality monitoring program for the Estero Real system was designed in consultation with the NOAA Consultative Group for Aquaculture and implemented by the Center for Environmen...

  2. Small-scale test program to develop a more efficient swivel nozzle thrust deflector for V/STOL lift/cruise engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlundt, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    The installed performance degradation of a swivel nozzle thrust deflector system obtained during increased vectoring angles of a large-scale test program was investigated and improved. Small-scale models were used to generate performance data for analyzing selected swivel nozzle configurations. A single-swivel nozzle design model with five different nozzle configurations and a twin-swivel nozzle design model, scaled to 0.15 size of the large-scale test hardware, were statically tested at low exhaust pressure ratios of 1.4, 1.3, 1.2, and 1.1 and vectored at four nozzle positions from 0 deg cruise through 90 deg vertical used for the VTOL mode.

  3. INDUSTRIAL STRENGTH GENETIC PROGRAMMING

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Chapter 15 INDUSTRIAL STRENGTH GENETIC PROGRAMMING Empirical Modeling and Symbolic Regression via and Arthur Kordon3 1Dow Chemical, Midland, MI USA 2Dow Benelux, Terneuzen, NV 3Dow Chemical, Freeport, TX USA of a multi-disciplinary approach to empir- ical modeling at Dow Chemical. Herein we review the role

  4. Goodyear Lake Hydroelectric Generating Station redevelopment final construction and cost report. DOE small-scale hydroelectric demonstration program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This project is one of the US Department of Energy's original seven low-head hydroelectric demonstration projects. The demonstration project was initiated by the release of a Program Opportunity Notice (PON) ET-78-N-07-1711 dated November 1, 1978. The purpose for the demonstration is to show the feasibility of small hydroelectric power development projects at a number of existing dam sites across the country. The Goodyear Lake Power Station provided an excellent example of the redevelopment of a discontinued low-head hydroelectric facility. The dam and power station were previously owned by the New York State Electric and Gas Corporation. Prior to F.W.E. Stapenhorst's involvement, it was the Utility's intention to breach the dam and dewater the lake. In order to rehabilitate the power station, title was transferred to F.W.E. Stapenhorst Inc., upon finalization of a Power Agreement (whereby F.W.E. Stapenhorst Inc. would sell the power generated to New York State Electric and Gas Corporation) and issuance of the FERC license. The station, as renovated, is fully automatic and utilizes two Ossberger Cross-Flow type turbines - turbines which, due to their flat efficiency curve, are well suited for small rivers and streams where the flow varies over a wide range. Both technical and financial feasibility of the project were carefully analyzed prior to the commencement of the project. The US Department of Energy awarded a cooperative agreement whereby DOE would share $245,000 of the project costs. The Goodyear Lake Station was the first demonstration project under the auspices of the Department of Energy to achieve power-on-line and to be officially dedicated.

  5. INDUSTRIAL ASSESSMENT CENTER PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    ASFAW BEYENE

    2008-09-29

    Since its establishment in 1990, San Diego State University’s Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) has served close to 400 small and medium-sized manufacturing plants in Southern California. SDSU/IAC’s efforts to transfer state-of-the-art technologies to industry have increased revenues, cultivated creativity, improved efficiencies, and benefited the environment. A substantial benefit from the program has been the ongoing training of engineering faculty and students. During this funding cycle, SDSU/IAC has trained 31 students, 7 of the graduate. A total of 92 assessments and 108 assessment days were completed, resulting in 638 assessment recommendations.

  6. Obtaining financial support from industry for a state-supported geoscience/mining library: a case study of Mines Librarys' small-scale fund raising efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Ansari, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    In addition to the faculty and students of the Mackay School of Mines, the University of Nevada Reno's Mines Library serves a large constituency of off-campus users from local mining and geological exploration firms. Many of these firms point to Mines Library's research facilities as one of their primary reasons for locating offices in the Reno area. In fiscal year 1983-1984 off-campus users accounted for 38% of Mines Library's circulation. Until the mid-1970's the library did not formally solicit cash contributions from the mining and exploration industries. As demands for service from the mineral industry grew, the librarian established an annual fund raising drive specifically aimed at that sector. It took a long time for the campaign to gain momentum. Initially, fund raising accounted for as little as $1000 - $2000 additional revenue per annum. Recently, however, the proceeds have grown to a more respectable $10,000 - $15,000 a year, enabling this library to purchase many publications and some items of equipment beyond that funded by the state. The paper outlines both successful and unsuccessful fund raising techniques and strategies employed over the years, such as letters, brochures, personal and group contacts, endowments, book plates, donor plaques, and various forms of publicity. Maintenance of mailing lists, donor files, and other records is briefly covered. Various problems and pitfalls associated with the program are examined. The presentation concludes with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of undertaking such an alternate funding program.

  7. Industrial Assessment Center Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Dereje Agonafer

    2007-11-30

    The work described in this report was performed under the direction of the Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) at University of Texas at Arlington. The IAC at The University of Texas at Arlington is managed by Rutgers University under agreement with the United States Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technology, which financially supports the program. The objective of the IAC is to identify, evaluate, and recommend, through analysis of an industrial plant’s operations, opportunities to conserve energy and prevent pollution, thereby reducing the associated costs. IAC team members visit and survey the plant. Based upon observations made in the plant, preventive/corrective actions are recommended. At all times we try to offer specific and quantitative recommendations of cost savings, energy conservation, and pollution prevention to the plants we serve.

  8. Small-Scale Fisheries Bycatch Jeopardizes Endangered Pacific Loggerhead Turtles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Hoyt Peckham; David Maldonado Diaz; Andreas Walli; Georgita Ruiz; Larry B. Crowder; Wallace J. Nichols

    2007-01-01

    Background. Although bycatch of industrial-scale fisheries can cause declines in migratory megafauna including seabirds, marine mammals, and sea turtles, the impacts of small-scale fisheries have been largely overlooked. Small-scale fisheries occur in coastal waters worldwide, employing over 99% of the world's 51 million fishers. New telemetry data reveal that migratory megafauna frequent coastal habitats well within the range of small-scale

  9. SMALL SCALE ETHANOL DRYING - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    This program exceeded all key milestones. Using cellulose Waste, CMS demonstrated novel ethanol drying membranes via small scale dephlegmation process that yields fuel grade ethanol (FGE) at a lower cost than large switch grass ethanol plants. This success yields positive valu...

  10. Industrial cogeneration optimization program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to identify up to 10 good near-term opportunities for cogeneration in 5 major energy-consuming industries which produce food, textiles, paper, chemicals, and refined petroleum; select, characterize, and optimize cogeneration systems for these identified opportunities to achieve maximum energy savings for minimum investment using currently available components of cogenerating systems; and to identify technical, institutional, and regulatory obstacles hindering the use of industrial cogeneration systems. The analysis methods used and results obtained are described. Plants with fuel demands from 100,000 Btu/h to 3 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h were considered. It was concluded that the major impediments to industrial cogeneration are financial, e.g., high capital investment and high charges by electric utilities during short-term cogeneration facility outages. In the plants considered an average energy savings from cogeneration of 15 to 18% compared to separate generation of process steam and electric power was calculated. On a national basis for the 5 industries considered, this extrapolates to saving 1.3 to 1.6 quads per yr or between 630,000 to 750,000 bbl/d of oil. Properly applied, federal activity can do much to realize a substantial fraction of this potential by lowering the barriers to cogeneration and by stimulating wider implementation of this technology. (LCL)

  11. Small-scale strength

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.

    1995-11-01

    In the world of power project development there is a market for smaller scale cogeneration projects in the range of 1MW to 10MW. In the European Union alone, this range will account for about $25 Billion in value over the next 10 years. By adding the potential that exists in Eastern Europe, the numbers are even more impressive. In Europe, only about 7 percent of needed electrical power is currently produced through cogeneration installations; this is expected to change to around 15 percent by the year 2000. Less than one year ago, two equipment manufacturers formed Dutch Power Partners (DPP) to focus on the market for industrial cogeneration throughout Europe.

  12. Ontario's Industrial Energy Services Program

    E-print Network

    Ploeger, L. K.

    and definition of industrial energy efficiency opportunities. The first phase provides for a freecompre hensive site energy audit/analysis, conducted over one to five days, by teams of private sector con sultants, selected to match expertise with manu...ONTARIO'S INDUSTRIAL ENERGY SERVICES PROGRAM LINDA K. PLOEGER, GENERAL MANAGER, INDUSTRY PROGRAMS ONTARIO MINISTRY OF ENERGY TORONTO, ONTARIO, ABSTRACT The Ontario Ministry of Energy began offering its new Industrial Energy Services Program...

  13. Oklahoma Industrial Energy Management Program

    E-print Network

    Turner, W. C.; Webb, R. E.; Phillips, J. M.; Viljoen, T. A.

    1979-01-01

    OKLAHCJ1A INDUSTRIAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT PROGRAM* Wayne C. Turner Richard E. Webb James M. Phillips Trevor A. Viljoen School of Industrial Engineering and Management Oklahoma Department of Energy Oklahoma State University Stillwater...

  14. Office of Industry Research and Technology Programs Greetings to Industry

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    and Propulsion...2 New Addition to the Office of Industry Research and Technology Programs 3 CentersOffice of Industry Research and Technology Programs Greetings to Industry Purdue/Industry Partnersh Competitiveness.......... 9 Technology Commercialization Available Technologies ............ 10 Purdue

  15. Turbulence Effects at Small Scales

    E-print Network

    A. Beresnyak; A. Lazarian

    2006-10-26

    It is most natural to assume that mysterious Small Ionized and Neutral Structures (SINS) indiffuse ISM arise from turbulence. There are two obvious problem with such an explanation, however. First of all, it is generally believed that at the small scales turbulence should be damped. Second, turbulence with Kolmogorov spectrum cannot be the responsible for the SINS. We consider, however, effects, that provide spectral index flatter than the Kolmogorov one and allow action at very small scales. These are the shocks that arise in high Mach number turbulence and transfer of energy to small scales by instabilities in cosmic rays. Our examples indicate that the origin of SINS may be discovered through systematic studies of astrophysical turbulence.

  16. Accreditation of Industrial Engineering Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, George H.

    The guidelines used in the accreditation of industrial engineering programs are discussed. Changes that have taken place in engineering curriculum are described, along with the philosophy of educators in formulating industrial engineering program requirements in the areas of faculty, facilities, curriculum, administration, and scholastic work.…

  17. AVLIS industrial access program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-15

    This document deals with the procurements planned for the construction of an Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) production plant. Several large-scale AVLIS facilities have already been built and tested; a full-scale engineering demonstration facility is currently under construction. The experience gained from these projects provides the procurement basis for the production plant construction and operation. In this document, the status of the AVLIS process procurement is presented from two viewpoints. The AVLIS Production Plant Work Breakdown Structure is referenced at the level of the items to be procured. The availability of suppliers for the items at this level is discussed. In addition, the work that will result from the AVLIS enrichment plant project is broken down by general procurement categories (construction, mechanical equipment, etc.) and the current AVLIS suppliers are listed according to these categories. A large number of companies in all categories are currently providing AVLIS equipment for the Full-Scale Demonstration Facility in Livermore, California. These companies form an existing and expanding supplier network for the AVLIS program. Finally, this document examines the relationship between the AVLIS construction project/operational facility and established commercial suppliers. The goal is to utilize existing industrial capability to meet the needs of the project in a competitive procurement situation. As a result, costs and procurement risks are both reduced because the products provided come from within the AVLIS suppliers' experience base. At the same time, suppliers can benefit by the potential to participate in AVLIS technology spin-off markets. 35 figures.

  18. Philippines: Small-scale renewable energy update

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This paper gives an overview of the application of small scale renewable energy sources in the Philippines. Sources looked at include solar, biomass, micro-hydroelectric, mini-hydroelectric, wind, mini-geothermal, and hybrid. A small power utilities group is being spun off the major utility, to provide a structure for developing rural electrification programs. In some instances, private companies have stepped forward, avoiding what is perceived as overwhelming beaurocracy, and installed systems with private financing. The paper provides information on survey work which has been done on resources, and the status of cooperative programs to develop renewable systems in the nation.

  19. Industry Studies Program: Clipping Service.

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Yi, Rong.

    The Industry Studies Program at Boston University has compiled a collection of news clippings relating to industrial organization. The clippings, obtained from public news sources such as the New York Times and CNN, cover topics such as antitrust, health, telecommunications and finance.

  20. Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gleeson, L.

    1991-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

  1. INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE PROGRAMS

    E-print Network

    Gelfond, Michael

    , Optimization, Mixed-Integer Programming Dr. Jennifer Farris Associate Professor Lean Manufacturing, Teams.S.I.E.), Master of Science in Systems and Engineering Management (M.S.S.E.M.), Master of Science in Manufacturing, human performance, human computer interaction, and occupational safety. Manufacturing and Quality

  2. Innovations for Reviving Small-Scale Industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anil K. Gupta

    Given the economic distress worldwide, the micro, small and medium scale enterprises (MSME) had been hit hard. Large numbers of workers have been laid off because of depressed demand, piled up inventory, pending retrievables and squeezed credit market. A sector which provides maximum employment cannot be left to fend for itself without a major transformation led by the entrepreneurs, policy

  3. Innovations for Reviving Small-Scale Industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anil K Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Given the economic distress worldwide, the micro, small and medium scale enterprises (MSME) had been hit hard. Large numbers of workers have been laid off because of depressed demand, piled up inventory, pending retrievables and squeezed credit market. A sector which provides maximum employment cannot be left to fend for itself without a major transformation led by the entrepreneurs, policy

  4. Small Scale High Speed Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    London, Adam P. (Inventor); Droppers, Lloyd J. (Inventor); Lehman, Matthew K. (Inventor); Mehra, Amitav (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A small scale, high speed turbomachine is described, as well as a process for manufacturing the turbomachine. The turbomachine is manufactured by diffusion bonding stacked sheets of metal foil, each of which has been pre-formed to correspond to a cross section of the turbomachine structure. The turbomachines include rotating elements as well as static structures. Using this process, turbomachines may be manufactured with rotating elements that have outer diameters of less than four inches in size, and/or blading heights of less than 0.1 inches. The rotating elements of the turbomachines are capable of rotating at speeds in excess of 150 feet per second. In addition, cooling features may be added internally to blading to facilitate cooling in high temperature operations.

  5. Method and system for small scale pumping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zeke Insepov; Ahmed Hassanein

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to the field of small scale pumping and, more specifically, to a method and system for very small scale pumping media through microtubes. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for small scale pumping, comprising the following steps: providing one or more media; providing one or more microtubes, the one or more tubes

  6. Industrial Assessment Center Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kolarik, William J.

    2007-02-26

    Over the five-year period (2002-2006) the Oklahoma State University Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) performed energy assessments for 106 different clients, writing 835 recommendations, for a total of $23,937,099 in potential estimated annual savings. IAC clients served consisted of small and medium-sized manufacturers ranging from food manufactures to foundries. The OSU IAC served clients in Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri, Arkansas, and Texas. In addition to client service, student training and instruction was a major accomplishment. The OSU IAC employed (and trained) 12 baccalaureate-level students, 17 masters-level graduate students, and 7 doctoral-level graduate students. Most are practicing in the energy management area. Training was focused on both energy assessment and safety. Safety training was both center-based training as well as on-site training. Energy management related training was focused on classroom (for academic credit) work at both the undergraduate and graduate level. IEM 4923 (Energy and Water Management) was developed to serve both the IAC as well as non-IAC students. It was delivered once per year, with enrollments of typically 10 to 20 students. This course was required for IAC student employees, both undergraduate and graduate. This course was patterned after the AEE CEM (five-day) course for practicing professionals. IEM 4923 required each student to attend at least one on-site assessment and write at least one recommendation for their client’s report. Hence, a hands-on approach was practiced. Advance level courses were used to train graduate students. Two courses played major roles here: IEM 5923 (Advanced Energy and Water Management) and IEM 5943 (Hazardous Material and Waste). Graduate student participation in these courses helped the IAC to gain additional perspectives in on-site assessment and resulting recommendations. Numerous hands-on demonstration/training was conducted by directors and graduate students in order to gain proficiency in using the combustion analyzer, IR camera, logging equipment, light metering equipment, and other equipment. Instruction included usage and basic maintenance. While undergraduate students worked with the coursework and on-the-job training, graduate students were expected to do more. A typical MS student was required to complete a 3-hour independent study in some interesting facet of energy management under the supervision of a director. PhD students were expected to complete from three to six hours of independent study work in the energy management field, as well as center their dissertation research in the general area of energy/productivity/quality management. During the project period, two PhDs were completed, with several more near completion.

  7. UW Computer Science & Engineering Industrial Affiliates Program

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Richard

    UW Computer Science & Engineering Industrial Affiliates Program 2011-12 Contributions for the CSE Industrial Affiliates Program are to be used to further the Computer Science & Engineering program with this completed form to: Kay Beck-Benton Industrial Affiliates Program University of Washington Computer Science

  8. UW Computer Science & Engineering Industry Affiliates Program

    E-print Network

    Borenstein, Elhanan

    UW Computer Science & Engineering Industry Affiliates Program 2013-14 Contributions for the CSE Industry Affiliates Program are to be used to further the Computer Science & Engineering program-Benton Industrial Affiliates Program University of Washington Computer Science & Engineering Box 352350 Seattle, WA

  9. The dynamics of artisanal and small-scale mining reform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Knud Sinding

    2005-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale mining are activities that have long been established in many developing countries, employing millions of people globally, either directly or in affiliated industries. Also, such activities are deplored for their adverse environmental impacts and their general avoidance of governments, tax collectors and other regulators. Decades of work have gone into addressing these problems, but with limited overall

  10. The Effectiveness of Videotape Programs as a Communication Tool in the Small-Scale Livestock for Rural Farming Women Project, Honduras.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Dean, Lynn

    This study examines economic development in Third World countries and the use of portable video systems in development projects. The study, conducted in 1985, attempts to measure the level of effectiveness of videotape programs as a communication tool for training rural subsistence women in Honduras in technical aspects of pig-keeping. Classical…

  11. Modular small-scale cogenerators

    SciTech Connect

    Hedden, R.E.

    1988-09-01

    This article concentrates on implementing technology which already exists and transferring it to modular cogeneration packages in an innovative way. Anyone who has worked with more than one technology in their career soon learns that what may be an accepted practice in one industry may be considered innovative in another. Cogeneration can easily benefit from such innovations.

  12. Industrial screening programs for workers

    SciTech Connect

    Lavine, M.P.

    1982-06-01

    Industrial screening efforts to identify classes of workers who are more susceptible to workplace hazards, by virtue of their fertility, genetic, or lifestyle characteristics, represent a relatively new approach to reducing workplace risks. Screening is attractive on cost and effectiveness grounds. It offers the firm an inexpensive alternative to reducing further workplace emissions. It may provide the only acceptable solution where no level of exposure is deemed acceptable for some workers. Screening has, however, already raised some important economic, legal, social, medical, and moral questions. Employers, employees, administrative agencies, and the courts are offering different, often conflicting answers. Ultimately, the acceptability of various screening schemes rests upon judgments about how a society justifies the distribution of risk. The questions that industrial screening programs raise are only partially answered by empirical evidence; the rest is a matter of values. 38 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  13. Energy Programs of the Texas Industrial Commission

    E-print Network

    Heare, J.; dePlante, L. E.

    1979-01-01

    ENERGY PROGRAMS OF THE TEXAS INDUSTRIAL COMMISSION Jerry Heare and Lance E. dePlante Community Development Division Texas Industrial Commission Austin, Texas The objectives of the Industrial Energy Conservation Program are to assist Texas.... Inquiries should be directed to: Lance E. dePlante, Manager Ene rgy Ut iii zat ion Depa rtment ~, . Texas Industrial Commission P. O. Box 12728, Capitol Station Austin, Texas 78711. 650 ESL-IE-79-04-73 Proceedings from the First Industrial Energy...

  14. Small scale structure on cosmic strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Andreas

    1989-01-01

    The current understanding of cosmic string evolution is discussed, and the focus placed on the question of small scale structure on strings, where most of the disagreements lie. A physical picture designed to put the role of the small scale structure into more intuitive terms is presented. In this picture it can be seen how the small scale structure can feed back in a major way on the overall scaling solution. It is also argued that it is easy for small scale numerical errors to feed back in just such a way. The intuitive discussion presented here may form the basis for an analytic treatment of the small scale structure, which argued in any case would be extremely valuable in filling the gaps in the present understanding of cosmic string evolution.

  15. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Water Projects. Guidelines for Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Gus

    This manual is the second volume in a series of publications on community development programs. Guidelines are suggested for small-scale water projects that would benefit segments of the world's urban or rural poor. Strategies in project planning, implementation and evaluation are presented that emphasize environmental conservation and promote…

  16. Small Scale Beekeeping. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Curtis

    This manual is designed to assist Peace Corps volunteers in the development and implementation of small-scale beekeeping programs as a tool for development. Addressed in the individual chapters are bees and humans; project planning; the types and habits of bees; the essence of beekeeping; bee space and beehives; intermediate technology beekeeping;…

  17. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Energy Projects. Guidelines for Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassan, Elizabeth Ann; Wood, Timothy S., Ed.

    This manual is the fourth volume in a series of publications that provide information for the planning of environmentally sound small-scale projects. Programs that aim to protect the renewable natural resources that supply most of the energy used in developing nations are suggested. Considerations are made for physical environmental factors as…

  18. Small Scale Charcoal Making: A Manual for Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karch, Ed; And Others

    This training program offers skills training in all stages of the development of technologies related to small-scale charcoal production, including the design, construction, operation, maintenance, repair, and evaluation of prototype kilns. The kiln designs are selected to be as consistent as possible with the realities of rural areas in…

  19. Method and system for small scale pumping

    DOEpatents

    Insepov, Zeke (Darien, IL); Hassanein, Ahmed (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2010-01-26

    The present invention relates generally to the field of small scale pumping and, more specifically, to a method and system for very small scale pumping media through microtubes. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for small scale pumping, comprising the following steps: providing one or more media; providing one or more microtubes, the one or more tubes having a first end and a second end, wherein said first end of one or more tubes is in contact with the media; and creating surface waves on the tubes, wherein at least a portion of the media is pumped through the tube.

  20. Small scale structure on cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, A.

    1989-10-30

    I discuss our current understanding of cosmic string evolution, and focus on the question of small scale structure on strings, where most of the disagreements lie. I present a physical picture designed to put the role of the small scale structure into more intuitive terms. In this picture one can see how the small scale structure can feed back in a major way on the overall scaling solution. I also argue that it is easy for small scale numerical errors to feed back in just such a way. The intuitive discussion presented here may form the basis for an analytic treatment of the small structure, which I argue in any case would be extremely valuable in filling the gaps in our resent understanding of cosmic string evolution. 24 refs., 8 figs.

  1. The Carlson School Medical Industry Leadership Programs

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    education and research, the Medical Industry Leadership Institute prepares MBA students for challengingThe Carlson School Medical Industry Leadership Programs Shaping the future of the medical industry #12;Driving innovation through education and research Dedicated to the advancement of cutting- edge

  2. Industrial strength software engineering training programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph E. Urban; R. Frye; A. Miller; A. G. Rao

    1992-01-01

    Includes presentations on industry training programs for software engineers and project managers that range from new hires through continuing education programs. Software engineering education in an academic setting is addressed as a precursor to a discussion of three approaches in industry to software engineering training. The introduction of a cross-functional technical training team and a project management training team at

  3. Geologic utility of small-scale airphotos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, M. M.

    1969-01-01

    The geologic value of small scale airphotos is emphasized by describing the application of high altitude oblique and 1:120,000 to 1:145,000 scale vertical airphotos to several geologic problems in California. These examples show that small-scale airphotos can be of use to geologists in the following ways: (1) high altitude, high oblique airphotos show vast areas in one view; and (2) vertical airphotos offer the most efficient method of discovering the major topographic features and structural and lithologic characteristics of terrain.

  4. EPRI's Industrial Energy Management Program

    E-print Network

    Mergens, E.; Niday, L.

    speed drives. In 1990, Process Industry Offices (PIO) were established to support key sectors of the industry. The Textile Office is located at North Carolina State University in Raleigh, pulp and paper activities are handled from the Atlanta..., and wood Materials Production-metals, glass, and mining/minerals processing Process Industries-food and agriculture, pulp and paper, textiles, chemicals, and petroleum Efforts in each sector include research, development, and commercialization...

  5. Electricity's future: the shift to efficiency and small-scale power

    SciTech Connect

    Flavin, C.

    1984-01-01

    Because most countries have rigid, centralized utility systems, small-scale power generation has barely caught on outside the US. In many countries a single state utility or a few large private utilities have exclusive rights to generate power, and these bureaucracies have concentrated on large power plants. But rapid advances under way in a wide range of small-scale generating technologies may soon encourage changes worldwide. Research programs are widespread, and international developments are closely followed. Improved energy efficiency and load management should also be considered as alternatives to building new power plants. In most regions of the world inefficient appliances can be replaced, houses weatherized, and industrial equipment upgraded for a fraction of the cost of building a new generating plant. Efficiency can be promoted many ways, but some of the best include utility-sponsored information and financing programs, with a return allowed on the investment, just as a new power plant would receive. Electricity prices can be adjusted to encourage less power use at peak periods, thus avoiding the need to build additional plants. Many utilities have recently adopted efficiency programs at the insistence of government regulators, but most are just token efforts. 101 references.

  6. Industrial Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Applied Tech., Adult, and Community Education.

    This document contains vocational education program course standards for exploratory courses, practical arts courses, and job preparatory programs offered at the secondary and postsecondary level as part of the industrial education component in Florida. Curriculum frameworks are provided for 144 programs/clusters; representative topics are as…

  7. IAPSA 2 small-scale system specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Gerald C.; Torkelson, Thomas C.

    1990-01-01

    The details of a hardware implementation of a representative small scale flight critical system is described using Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) building block components and simulated sensor/actuator interfaces. The system was used to study application performance and reliability issues during both normal and faulted operation.

  8. SMALL SCALE BIOMASS FUELED GAS TURBINE ENGINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new generation of small scale (less than 20 MWe) biomass fueled, power plants are being developed based on a gas turbine (Brayton cycle) prime mover. These power plants are expected to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of generating power from fuels such as wood. The n...

  9. SymposiumandIndustrialAffiliatesProgramLightinAction Industrial Affiliates Program

    E-print Network

    Van Stryland, Eric

    Session I Abstract: Recently Additive Manufacturing (AM) has been hailed as the "third industrial Platform for precision additive manufacturing largely depends on the speed and accuracy of in-situ optical Dean & Director, CREOL, UCF Symposium: Light in Action Session I. Manufacturing 9:15 Advances

  10. Industrial Energy Efficiency Programs: Development and Trends

    E-print Network

    Chittum, A.; Kaufman, N.; Elliot, N.

    2010-01-01

    As more states establish Energy Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS), goals for energy efficiency savings are increasing across the country. Increasingly, states are relying on their industrial energy efficiency programs to find and help implement...

  11. The Genetic Programming of Industrial Microorganisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopwood, David A.

    1981-01-01

    Traces the development of the field of industrial microbial genetics, describing a range of techniques for genetic programing. Includes a discussion of site-directed mutagenesis, protoplast fusion, and recombinant DNA manipulations. (CS)

  12. Energy Technical Assistance: Industrial Processes Program

    E-print Network

    McClure, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    utilization of energy and individualized planning are necessary parts of the sOlution. These activities can also be a significant influence in making Texas industry more productive and competitive in the market place. Energy technical assistance... to discuss the Industrial Pro cesses Program, energy conservation, and energy management with technical and industrial organiza tions. These discussions have resulted in requests for assistance. Other organizations such as the Dallas Minority Business...

  13. China's Energy Management System Program for Industry

    E-print Network

    Hedman, B.; Yu, Y.; Friedman, Z.; Taylor, R.

    2014-01-01

    /Industrial Remanufacturing Piloting of provincial by-product synergy program 15 ESL-IE-14-05-24 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 | iipnetwork.org Results of the 11th Five Year Plan 16 • 19.1% reduction...

  14. Electric Utility Industrial Conservation Programs

    E-print Network

    Norland, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    retail sales for AP&L were 14,540 million kilowatt-hours. 18.4 percent of the sales was in the commercial sector, 23.4 percent was one Aluminum processing plant, 25.3 percent was other industrial, and 2 percent was gov ernment. It is the other... OF TECHNICALLY AND ECONOMICALLY FEASIBLE INDUSTRIAL ENERGY CONSERVATION OPPORTUNITIES (AP&L FOR 1983) Demand Savings Energy Savings Energy Conservation Opportunity "' /0 MW % MWH 1. High Efficiency Fluorescent Lighting 6.7 6 7.3 25,826 2. Socket Compatible...

  15. Classification of wetlands vegetation using small scale color infrared imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. S. L.

    1975-01-01

    A classification system for Chesapeake Bay wetlands was derived from the correlation of film density classes and actual vegetation classes. The data processing programs used were developed by the Laboratory for the Applications of Remote Sensing. These programs were tested for their value in classifying natural vegetation, using digitized data from small scale aerial photography. Existing imagery and the vegetation map of Farm Creek Marsh were used to determine the optimal number of classes, and to aid in determining if the computer maps were a believable product.

  16. Oklahoma Industrial Energy Management Program

    E-print Network

    Estes, C. B.; Turner, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    Each and every citizen has been affected by the energy crisis by now. Business and industry have especially been hurt as the rising cost of energy and its dwindling supplies are the twin jaws of a vise rapidly closing in on profits. Much work...

  17. Small-Scale Turbulence in Clouds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Holger Siebert; Katrin Lehmann; Manfred Wendisch; Raymond Shaw

    1. Motivation Small scale turbulence in clouds plays a major role for mixing processes and the interaction between cloud droplets and the turbulent o w in the atmosphere. Mixing processes include internal mixing but also entrainment of dry and sub-saturated air into the cloud (so-called îen- trainmentî). However, the nature of cloud turbulence on sub-meter scale has not yet been

  18. Nature of the solar dynamo at small scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenflo, J. O.

    2013-07-01

    It is often claimed that there is not only one, but two different types of solar dynamos: the one that is responsible for the appearance of sunspots and the 11-yr cycle, frequently referred to as the ``global dynamo'', and a statistically time-invariant dynamo, generally referred to as the ``local dynamo'', which is supposed to be responsible for the ubiquitous magnetic structuring observed at small scales. Here we examine the relative contributions of these two qualitatively different dynamos to the small-scale magnetic flux, with the following conclusion: The local dynamo does not play a significant role at any of the spatially resolved scales, nearly all the small-scale flux, including the flux revealed by Hinode, is supplied by the global dynamo. This conclusion is reached by careful determination of the Sun's noise-corrected basal magnetic flux density while making use of a flux cancellation function determined from Hinode data. The only allowed range where there may be substantial or even dominating contributions from a local dynamo seems to be the scales below about 10 km, as suggested by observations of the Hanle depolarization effect in atomic spectral lines. To determine the fraction of the Hanle depolarization that may be due to the action of a local dynamo, a synoptic program is being initiated at IRSOL (Istituto Ricerche Solari Locarno).

  19. Evaluation of an Industrial Alcoholic Rehabilitation Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth-Jean Charlebois

    1976-01-01

    This thesis is a report of the evaluation of an industrial alcoholic rehabilitation program. The evaluation covered the years 1970 - 1974 inclusive and all those referred to the program were included in the sample.\\u000aSince employed problem drinkers are identified by deteriorating job performance, the variables selected for investigation were directly related to job performance. Absenteeism in four categories

  20. Aeronautics Leadership Program Canada's aerospace industry

    E-print Network

    Aeronautics Leadership Program Canada's aerospace industry is one of the largest in the world looking for its new hires to hold university degrees. www.uwindsor.ca/aeronautics The UWindsor Aeronautics of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences #12;Aeronautics Leadership Program We look forward to meeting you

  1. Energy Industry Powers CTE Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khokhar, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Michael Fields is a recent graduate of Buckeye Union High School in Buckeye, Arizona. Fields is enrolled in the Estrella Mountain Community College (EMCC) Get Into Energy program, which means he is well on his way to a promising career. Specializing in power plant technology, in two years he will earn a certificate that will all but guarantee a…

  2. Accrediting industrial safety training programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beitel

    1992-01-01

    There are job-specific training requirements established by regulations that Impose stringent training requirements on a contractor, for example, the Occupational Safety & Health Act (OSHA). Failure to comply with OSHA training requirements can result in severe penalties being levied against a company. Although an accredited training program is expensive, it is a possible solution for minimizing risks associated with job-specific

  3. Accrediting industrial safety training programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beitel

    1992-01-01

    There are job-specific training requirements established by regulations that Impose stringent training requirements on a contractor, for example, the Occupational Safety Health Act (OSHA). Failure to comply with OSHA training requirements can result in severe penalties being levied against a company. Although an accredited training program is expensive, it is a possible solution for minimizing risks associated with job-specific training

  4. Creating Tech Programs Industry Wants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Community colleges serve on the front line of workforce development. With their focus on applied science associate degrees and technical certificate programs, they provide students with a high-quality, low-cost education that prepares them for careers in one to two years. And for students who can't take time away from their family or work to…

  5. Small-scale AFBC hot air gas turbine power cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, R.A. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Orrville, OH (United States); Keener, H.M. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center; Hall, A.W. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC), the Will-Burt Company (W-B) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have successfully developed and completed pilot plant tests on a small scale atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) system. This system can be used to generate electricity, and/or hot water, steam. Following successful pilot plant operation, commercial demonstration will take place at Cedar Lane Farms (CLF), near Wooster, Ohio. The system demonstration will be completed by the end of 1995. The project is being funded through a cooperative effort between the DOE, EER, W-B, OARDC, CLF and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO). The small scale AFBC, has no internal heat transfer surfaces in the fluid bed proper. Combining the combustor with a hot air gas turbine (HAGT) for electrical power generation, can give a relatively high overall system thermal efficiency. Using a novel method of recovering waste heat from the gas turbine, a gross heat rate of 13,500 Btu/kWhr ({approximately}25% efficiency) can be achieved for a small 1.5 MW{sub e} plant. A low technology industrial recuperation type gas turbine is used that operates with an inlet blade temperature of 1,450 F and a compression ratio of 3.9:1. The AFBC-HAGT technology can be used to generate power for remote rural communities to replace diesel generators, or can be used for small industrial co-generation applications.

  6. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the southeast: new impetus for an old energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The Southeastern conference, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power: New Impetus for an Old Energy Source, was convened to provide a forum for state legislators and other interested persons to discuss the problems facing small-scale hydro developers, and to recommend appropriate solutions to resolve those problems. During the two-day meeting state legislators and their staffs, along with dam developers, utility and industry representatives, environmentalists and federal/state officials examined and discussed the problems impeding small-scale hydro development at the state level. Based upon the problem-oriented discussions, alternative policy options were recommended for consideration by the US Department of Energy, state legislatures and the staff of the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). Emphasis was placed on the legal, institutional, environmental and economic barriers at the state level, as well as the federal delays associated with licensing small-scale hydro projects. Whereas other previously held conferences have emphasized the identification and technology of small-scale hydro as an alternative energy source, this conference stressed legislative resolution of the problems and delays in small-scale hydro licensing and development. Panel discussions and workshops are summarized. Papers on the environmental, economic, and legal aspects of small-scale hydropower development are presented. (LCL)

  7. Industrial energy-efficiency-improvement program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Progress made by industry toward attaining the voluntary 1980 energy efficiency improvement targets is reported. The mandatory reporting population has been expanded from ten original industries to include ten additional non-targeted industries and all corporations using over one trillion Btu's annually in any manufacturing industry. The ten most energy intensive industries have been involved in the reporting program since the signing of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act and as industrial energy efficiency improvement overview, based primarily on information from these industries (chemicals and allied products; primary metal industry; petroleum and coal products; stone, clay, and glass products; paper and allied products; food and kindred products; fabricated metal products; transportation equipment; machinery, except electrical; and textile mill products), is presented. Reports from industries, now required to report, are included for rubber and miscellaneous plastics; electrical and electronic equipment; lumber and wood; and tobacco products. Additional data from voluntary submissions are included for American Gas Association; American Hotel and Motel Association; General Telephone and Electronics Corporation; and American Telephone and Telegraph Company. (MCW)

  8. THE DEPARTMENT OF Mechanical & Industrial Engineering's graduate programs ed-

    E-print Network

    Kusiak, Andrew

    THE DEPARTMENT OF Mechanical & Industrial Engineering's graduate programs ed- ucate students Mechanical and Industrial Engineering faculty members conduct research in affiliation with vari- ous College I N Industrial Engineering Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering 3131 Seamans Center

  9. VALUE-CHAIN CLUSTERING AS AN ALTERNATIVE STRATEGY FOR SMALL-SCALE AND MICRO FIRMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glykeria Karagouni; Ioannis Papadopoulos; George Valergas; Ioanna Sevopoulou

    2008-01-01

    Small-scale and micro industries (SSMIs) have received considerable attention in development strategies and policies. On the other hand, the past decade, industrial clusters have emerged as critical forces in economic development strategic planning. The debate of clustering as alternative strategy for SSMI development has dominated many discussions in economic literature. The main objective of the present paper is to explore

  10. Small Scale Cosmological Perturbations: An Analytic Approach

    E-print Network

    Wayne Hu; Naoshi Sugiyama

    1996-04-19

    Through analytic techniques verified by numerical calculations, we establish general relations between the matter and cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectra and their dependence on cosmological parameters on small scales. Fluctuations in the CMB, baryons, cold dark matter (CDM), and neutrinos receive a boost at horizon crossing. Baryon drag on the photons causes alternating acoustic peak heights in the CMB and is uncovered in its bare form under the photon diffusion scale. Decoupling of the photons at last scattering and of the baryons at the end of the Compton drag epoch, freezes the diffusion-damped acoustic oscillations into the CMB and matter power spectra at different scales. We determine the dependence of the respective acoustic amplitudes and damping lengths on fundamental cosmological parameters. The baryonic oscillations, enhanced by the velocity overshoot effect, compete with CDM fluctuations in the present matter power spectrum. We present new exact analytic solutions for the cold dark matter fluctuations in the presence of a growth- inhibiting radiation {\\it and} baryon background. Combined with the acoustic contributions and baryonic infall into CDM potential wells, this provides a highly accurate analytic form of the small-scale transfer function in the general case.

  11. Small-scale universality in fluid turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Jörg; Scheel, Janet D.; Krasnov, Dmitry; Donzis, Diego A.; Yakhot, Victor; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2014-01-01

    Turbulent flows in nature and technology possess a range of scales. The largest scales carry the memory of the physical system in which a flow is embedded. One challenge is to unravel the universal statistical properties that all turbulent flows share despite their different large-scale driving mechanisms or their particular flow geometries. In the present work, we study three turbulent flows of systematically increasing complexity. These are homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in a periodic box, turbulent shear flow between two parallel walls, and thermal convection in a closed cylindrical container. They are computed by highly resolved direct numerical simulations of the governing dynamical equations. We use these simulation data to establish two fundamental results: (i) at Reynolds numbers Re ? 102 the fluctuations of the velocity derivatives pass through a transition from nearly Gaussian (or slightly sub-Gaussian) to intermittent behavior that is characteristic of fully developed high Reynolds number turbulence, and (ii) beyond the transition point, the statistics of the rate of energy dissipation in all three flows obey the same Reynolds number power laws derived for homogeneous turbulence. These results allow us to claim universality of small scales even at low Reynolds numbers. Our results shed new light on the notion of when the turbulence is fully developed at the small scales without relying on the existence of an extended inertial range. PMID:25024175

  12. Small-scale modular wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressers, Scott; Vernier, Chris; Regan, Jess; Chappell, Stephen; Hotze, Mark; Luhman, Stephen; Avirovik, Dragan; Priya, Shashank

    2010-04-01

    This study reports the design, fabrication, and implementation of a horizontal-axis, small-scale modular wind turbine termed as "small-scale wind energy portable turbine (SWEPT)". Portability, efficient operation at low wind speeds, and cost-effectiveness were the primary goals of SWEPT. The fabrication and component design for SWEPT are provided along with the modifications that can provide improvement in performance. A comparative analysis is presented with the prototype reported in literature. The results show that current version of SWEPT leads to 150% increase in output power. It was found that SWEPT can generate 160 mW power at rated wind speed of 7 mph and 500mW power at wind speeds above 10 mph with a cut-in wind speed of 3.8 mph. Furthermore, the prototype was subjected to field testing in which the average output was measured to be 40 mW despite the average wind distribution being centered around 3 mph.

  13. Helping small scale hydro come back

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    The design, performance, and economics of vertical pumps run in reverse as turbines for small-scale hydroelectric power plants were studied. The results indicate that turbine-pumps provide significant advantages. They are simple to install, operate, and maintain. The pump tested can operate at efficiencies up to 87%, covering 30 to 60 ft of head, and flow rates up to 600 cfs. On the basis of cost per kilowatt hour, the reverse pump is competitive with a tubular turbine, and better than a Kaplan turbine. Capital investment for a pump is smaller than for a turbine. In cases where water can be impounded, a reverse pump can attain full water utilization. (The previous analysis was based on run of river operations.) A relatively small plant of 336 kW can provide power at a cost of 3.8 cents per kWh, which is lower than the units discussed above. When a small scale hydro power developer is limited by the amount of capital he can raise, the reverse pump arrangement should become attractive.

  14. GAS INDUSTRY GROUNDWATER RESEARCH PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Sorensen; John R. Gallagher; Steven B. Hawthorne; Ted R. Aulich

    2000-10-01

    The objective of the research described in this report was to provide data and insights that will enable the natural gas industry to (1) significantly improve the assessment of subsurface glycol-related contamination at sites where it is known or suspected to have occurred and (2) make scientifically valid decisions concerning the management and/or remediation of that contamination. The described research was focused on subsurface transport and fate issues related to triethylene glycol (TEG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and ethylene glycol (EG). TEG and DEG were selected for examination because they are used in a vast majority of gas dehydration units, and EG was chosen because it is currently under regulatory scrutiny as a drinking water pollutant. Because benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (collectively referred to as BTEX) compounds are often very closely associated with glycols used in dehydration processes, the research necessarily included assessing cocontaminant effects on waste mobility and biodegradation. BTEX hydrocarbons are relatively water-soluble and, because of their toxicity, are of regulatory concern. Although numerous studies have investigated the fate of BTEX, and significant evidence exists to indicate the potential biodegradability of BTEX in both aerobic and anaerobic environments (Kazumi and others, 1997; Krumholz and others, 1996; Lovely and others, 1995; Gibson and Subramanian, 1984), relatively few investigations have convincingly demonstrated in situ biodegradation of these hydrocarbons (Gieg and others, 1999), and less work has been done on investigating the fate of BTEX species in combination with miscible glycols. To achieve the research objectives, laboratory studies were conducted to (1) characterize glycol related dehydration wastes, with emphasis on identification and quantitation of coconstituent organics associated with TEG and EG wastes obtained from dehydration units located in the United States and Canada, (2) evaluate the biodegradability of TEG and DEG under conditions relevant to subsurface environments and representative of natural attenuation processes, and (3) examine the possibility that high concentrations of glycol may act as a cosolvent for BTEX compounds, thereby enhancing their subsurface mobility. To encompass a wide variety of potential wastes representative of different natural gas streams and dehydration processes, raw, rich, and lean glycol solutions were collected from 12 dehydration units at eight different gas-processing facilities located at sites in Texas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Alberta. To generate widely applicable environmental fate data, biodegradation and mobility experiments were performed using four distinctly different soils: three obtained from three gas-producing areas of North America (New Mexico, Louisiana, and Alberta), and one obtained from a North Dakota wetland to represent a soil with high organic matter content.

  15. Object level programming of industrial robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard FAVERJON

    1986-01-01

    We present a system designed for object level programming of industrial robots. It contains essentially four modules : - a C.A.D. module to build geometric models of objects and manipulators and define the implantation of the robotic cell. - a pre-processing module which uses the cell model to compute a representation of the free-space in the joint space of the

  16. Industrial energy-efficiency improvement program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-12-01

    The industrial energy efficiency improvement program to accelerate market penetration of new and emerging industrial technologies is described. Practices which will improve energy efficiency, encourage substitution of more plentiful domestic fuels, and enhance recovery of energy and materials from industrial waste streams are enumerated. Specific reports from the chemicals and allied products; primary metals; petroleum and coal products; stone, clay, and glass, paper and allied products; food and kindred products; fabricated metals; transportation equipment; machinery (except electrical); textile mill products; rubber and miscellaneous plastics; electrical and electronic equipment; lumber and wood; and tobacco products are discussed. A summary on progress in the utilization of recovered materials, and an analysis of industrial fuel mix is presented.

  17. Small-Scale Smart Grid Construction and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surface, Nicholas James

    The smart grid (SG) is a commonly used catch-phrase in the energy industry yet there is no universally accepted definition. The objectives and most useful concepts have been investigated extensively in economic, environmental and engineering research by applying statistical knowledge and established theories to develop simulations without constructing physical models. In this study, a small-scale version (SSSG) is constructed to physically represent these ideas so they can be evaluated. Results of construction show data acquisition three times more expensive than the grid itself although mainly due to the incapability to downsize 70% of data acquisition costs to small-scale. Experimentation on the fully assembled grid exposes the limitations of low cost modified sine wave power, significant enough to recommend pure sine wave investment in future SSSG iterations. Findings can be projected to full-size SG at a ratio of 1:10, based on the appliance representing average US household peak daily load. However this exposes disproportionalities in the SSSG compared with previous SG investigations and recommended changes for future iterations are established to remedy this issue. Also discussed are other ideas investigated in the literature and their suitability for SSSG incorporation. It is highly recommended to develop a user-friendly bidirectional charger to more accurately represent vehicle-to-grid (V2G) infrastructure. Smart homes, BEV swap stations and pumped hydroelectric storage can also be researched on future iterations of the SSSG.

  18. The case for small-scale domestic cannabis cultivation.

    PubMed

    Decorte, Tom

    2010-07-01

    The shift to (inter)regional production, trade and domestic cultivation has become an irreversible international trend. Until now, the focus of most empirical work has been on large-scale, commercially oriented and professionally organized segments of the cannabis industry, often based on police data and on the perspective of law enforcement agencies. This paper offers a review of recent Dutch-language research that focuses on cannabis cultivation. Empirical studies were identified through literature searches using relevant search terms and Web of Science, Elin, Social Science Research Network and Elsevier ScienceDirect. The paper presents the main findings of Dutch and Belgian empirical work on the factors that stimulated the import substitution process on the cannabis market, aspects related to quality and potency issues, typologies of cannabis growers, and (unintended) effects of pursued policies. In the light of this (selective) review the author offers some commentary and analysis concerning the claims made by different stakeholders, and concludes with some reflections on future research and on policy implications. The author outlines the importance of small-scale, independent or ideologically oriented cannabis cultivation as an under-researched market segment. The author also makes a case for greater toleration of small-scale cannabis cultivation, to secure the least worst of cannabis markets. PMID:20176465

  19. Small-Scale Features in Pulsating Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sarah; Jaynes, Allison N.; Knudsen, David J.; Trondsen, Trond; Lessard, Marc

    2011-01-01

    A field study was conducted from March 12-16, 2002 using a narrow-field intensified CCD camera installed at Churchill, Manitoba. The camera was oriented along the local magnetic zenith where small-scale black auroral forms are often visible. This analysis focuses on such forms occurring within a region of pulsating aurora. The observations show black forms with irregular shape and nonuniform drift with respect to the relatively stationary pulsating patches. The pulsating patches occur within a diffuse auroral background as a modulation of the auroral brightness in a localized region. The images analyzed show a decrease in the brightness of the diffuse background in the region of the pulsating patch at the beginning of the offphase of the modulation. Throughout the off phase the brightness of the diffuse aurora gradually increases back to the average intensity. The time constant for this increase is measured as the first step toward determining the physical process.

  20. Small-scale Features in Pulsating Aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S.; Jaynes, A. N.; Knudsen, D. J.; Trondsen, T.; Lessard, M.

    2011-12-01

    A field study was conducted from March 12-16, 2002 using a narrow-field intensified CCD camera installed at Churchill, Manitoba. The camera was oriented along the local magnetic zenith where small-scale black auroral forms are often visible. This analysis focuses on such forms occurring within a region of pulsating aurora. The observations show black forms with irregular shape and nonuniform drift with respect to the relatively stationary pulsating patches. The pulsating patches occur within a diffuse auroral background as a modulation of the auroral brightness in a localized region. The images analyzed show a decrease in the brightness of the diffuse background in the region of the pulsating patch at the beginning of the 'off' phase of the modulation. Throughout the off phase the brightness of the diffuse aurora gradually increases back to the average intensity. The time constant for this increase is measured as the first step toward determining the physical process.

  1. Small-scale waste-to-energy systems: A state-of-the-art report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, A. L.

    1982-02-01

    For industry and local government, small scale waste to energy systems represent an increasingly attractive option to enhance energy security, control energy costs, generate revenues and alleviate landfill constraints. Projects are characterized by: a mix of modular and waterwall systems; small and medium size industrial steam customers; a nascent interest in cogeneration; the utilization of a variety of public financing instruments; and growing vendor involvement in facility operations. Experience also points to the pivotal role of one or a few persistent individuals during the project implementation process. Recent operating history is likely to provide the foundation for steady growth in the number of small scale systems during the next decade.

  2. Health and Safety Management for Small-scale Methane Fermentation Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, Masaru; Yuyama, Yoshito; Nakamura, Masato; Oritate, Fumiko

    In this study, we considered health and safety management for small-scale methane fermentation facilities that treat 2-5 ton of biomass daily based on several years operation experience with an approximate capacity of 5 t·d-1. We also took account of existing knowledge, related laws and regulations. There are no qualifications or licenses required for management and operation of small-scale methane fermentation facilities, even though rural sewerage facilities with a relative similar function are required to obtain a legitimate license. Therefore, there are wide variations in health and safety consciousness of the operators of small-scale methane fermentation facilities. The industrial safety and health laws are not applied to the operation of small-scale methane fermentation facilities. However, in order to safely operate a small-scale methane fermentation facility, the occupational safety and health management system that the law recommends should be applied. The aims of this paper are to clarify the risk factors in small-scale methane fermentation facilities and encourage planning, design and operation of facilities based on health and safety management.

  3. Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Miller

    2009-03-22

    This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

  4. Space industrialization. Volume 2: Opportunities, markets and programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The nature of space industrialization and the reasons for its promotion are examined. Increases in space industry activities to be anticipated from 1980 to 2010 are assessed. A variety of future scenarios against which space industrialization could evolve were developed and the various industrial opportunities that might constitute that evolution were defined. The needs and markets of industry activities were quantitatively and qualitatively assessed and messed. The various hardware requirements vs. time (space industry programs) as space industrialization evolves are derived and analyzed.

  5. First Principle Approach to Modeling of Small Scale Helicopter

    E-print Network

    Budiyono, A; Lesmana, H

    2008-01-01

    The establishment of global helicopter linear model is very precious and useful for the design of the linear control laws, since it is never afforded in the published literatures. In the first principle approach, the mathematical model was developed using basic helicopter theory accounting for particular characteristic of the miniature helicopter. No formal system identification procedures are required for the proposed model structure. The relevant published literatures however did not present the linear models required for the design of linear control laws. The paper presents a step by step development of linear model for small scale helicopter based on first-principle approach. Beyond the previous work in literatures, the calculation of the stability derivatives is presented in detail. A computer program is used to solve the equilibrium conditions and then calculate the change in aerodynamics forces and moments due to the change in each degree of freedom and control input. The detail derivation allows the c...

  6. Small-scale models of multiring basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allemand, Pascal; Thomas, Pierre

    1999-07-01

    Small-scale sand-silicone simulations of multiring impact structures have been undertaken in order to understand the effects of the rheology of the lithosphere on the variability of natural multiring structures. For low sand-silicone thickness ratio (1:3), brittle strain is accommodated by spiral strike-slip faults. For higher sand-silicone ratios (1:1 or 2:1), an inner concentric ring affected by strike-slip faults is relayed by an external ring affected by concentric normal faults. The diameter of the inner ring decreases with the increase of the sand-silicone thickness ratio. It is suggested that the flexure of the brittle layer due to the silicone flow is responsible for the brittle strain field which is enhanced by the channel flow of the lower crust. The characteristic geometry of the intersection of conjugated strike-slip faults can be observed around large multiring basins on silicate crust such as Orientale on the Moon and on icy crust, such as Valhalla on Callisto and Gilgamesh on Ganymede. The strain field around these large craters is discussed in terms of mechanical properties of the lithospheres. On the Moon, large craters without relaxation faults, such as Imbrium are located on thin crust regions. The crust was too thin to have a ductile lower layer at the time of impact. Gilgamesh on Ganymede is surrounded mainly by strike-slip faults. Asgard on Callisto has the same diameter as Gilgamesh but is surrounded by concentric normal faults. The brittle-ductile thickness ratio is thus higher on Callisto than on Ganymede.

  7. Program of Studies: Trade and Industrial: Grades 9-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax County Schools, VA.

    Part 1 of the trade and industrial education curriculum guide for grades 9-12 contains a brief program overview and Vocational Industrial Clubs of America (VICA) description, more detailed descriptions of in-school and out-of-school programs and program classification methods, a list of references, and charts of various programs and training…

  8. The Environmental protection agency industrial technology transfer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suter, K. H.

    1974-01-01

    Today TAC consists of a full service information center and five programs, which are: (1) our industrial program; (2) the energy information center; (3) the business and industry extension program; (4) the remote sensing program; and (5) the center for environmental research and development.

  9. Exposure assessment in SMES: a low-cost approach to bring OHS services to small-scale enterprises.

    PubMed

    Seneviratne, Mahinda; Phoon, Wai On

    2006-01-01

    There is increased attention to improving occupational health and safety in small to medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). The Workers Health Centre, a not-for-profit OHS service in western Sydney, assessed workplace exposures in two SMEs following intervention by regulatory agencies. A low-cost monitoring program for noise, airbone dust, fibers and chemicals was conducted at these two metal working industry workplaces. Results showed that exposure to the hazards were above the statutory limits and there was generally an unhealthy access to OHS information by the predominantly immigrant or low literate worker population, were identified. The potential for using a program of low-cost exposure assessments, accompanied by a strategy to provide OHSs information for workers in small-scale enterprises, is discussed. PMID:16610529

  10. MASEC industrial fuel-wood program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohmann, M.

    1981-07-01

    The program is designed not only to identify technical and institutional barriers to the use of wood for fuel, but to effectively reduce these barriers and the economic uncertainty they cause by providing business and industry with the type of information they need for preliminary planning purposes. Information on resource availability, the types of equipment needed, sources of technical assistance, and the financial aspects of the potential investment are provided. A listing of existing wood-fired systems is also included. A key component of the program is a net-cash-flow analysis based upon a life-cycle economic model that is used to evaluate new and retrofit wood-fired boiler installations.

  11. NASA/industry advanced turboprop technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemianski, Joseph A.; Whitlow, John B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental and analytical effort shows that use of advanced turboprop (propfan) propulsion instead of conventional turbofans in the older narrow-body airline fleet could reduce fuel consumption for this type of aircraft by up to 50 percent. The NASA Advanced Turboprop (ATP) program was formulated to address the key technologies required for these thin, swept-blade propeller concepts. A NASA, industry, and university team was assembled to develop and validate applicable design codes and prove by ground and flight test the viability of these propeller concepts. Some of the history of the ATP project, an overview of some of the issues, and a summary of the technology developed to make advanced propellers viable in the high-subsonic cruise speed application are presented. The ATP program was awarded the prestigious Robert J. Collier Trophy for the greatest achievement in aeronautics and astronautics in America in 1987.

  12. NASA/industry advanced turboprop technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemianski, Joseph A.; Whitlow, John B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental and analytical effort shows that use of advanced turboprop (propfan) propulsion instead of conventional turbofans in the older narrow-body airline fleet could reduce fuel consumption for this type of aircraft by up to 50 percent. The NASA Advanced Turboprop (ATP) program was formulated to address the key technologies required for these thin, swept-blade propeller concepts. A NASA, industry, and university team was assembled to develop and validate applicable design codes and prove by ground and flight test the viability of these propeller concepts. Some of the history of the ATP Project, an overview of some of the issues, and a summary of the technology developed to make advanced propellers viable in the high-subsonic cruise speed application are presented. The ATP program was awarded the prestigious Robert J. Collier Trophy for the greatest achievement in aeronautics and astronautics in America in 1987.

  13. Small scale adaptive optics experiment systems engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boykin, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Assessment of the current technology relating to the laser power beaming system which in full scale is called the Beam Transmission Optical System (BTOS). Evaluation of system integration efforts are being conducted by the various government agencies and industry. Concepts are being developed for prototypes of adaptive optics for a BTOS.

  14. Geckobot and Waalbot: Small-Scale Wall Climbing Ozgur Unver

    E-print Network

    Sitti, Metin

    Geckobot and Waalbot: Small-Scale Wall Climbing Robots Ozgur Unver oUnver@andrew.cmu.edu Michael P, USA Metin Sitti sitti@cmu.edu Abstract-- This paper proposes two small-scale agile wall climbing is a lizard-inspired climbing robot with similar kinematics to a gecko climbing gait. Waalbot uses two

  15. Environmental management in small scale mining in PNG

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoff Crispin

    2003-01-01

    Although small-scale mining has developed rapidly in Papua New Guinea (PNG), it is only recently that formal recording has been carried to gain insight on employment and production totals, and environmental difficulties. This paper examines the state of small-scale mining in PNG, with special emphasis on its environmental impacts. In recent years, the PNG Department of Mining has become a

  16. Initiation of subduction by small-scale convection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. S. Solomatov

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of initiation of subduction by sublithospheric small-scale convection is investigated with the help of Fowler's theory, numerical constraints on the lithospheric stresses generated by convection, and direct numerical simulations of subduction. The derived scaling laws show that the critical yield stress for initiation of subduction by small-scale convection is of the order of 30 MPa. This value is

  17. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the relevant physical properties projected for actual WTP process streams.

  18. Electric Utility Industrial DSM and M&V Program

    E-print Network

    Lau, K. P. K.

    2008-01-01

    for residential, commercial and industrial customers. The Power Smart Partners Program (PSP) is the premier demand-side management program for BC Hydro’s large commercial and industrial non-transmission class customers. It is a direct energy acquisition program...

  19. Big Ideas at a Very Small Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khourey-Bowers, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to share a learning-cycle sequence of lessons designed to convey the particulate nature of matter through use of physical models and analogical thinking. This activity was adapted from Conceptual Chemistry, a long-running professional development program for teachers of grades 4-9. Conceptual Chemistry's approach is…

  20. 78 FR 11996 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Commercial and Industrial Pumps

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ...EERE-2011-BT-STD-0031] RIN 1904-AC54 Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial...Industrial Pumps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department...Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,...

  1. Analysis of curricular units of a graduate industrial hygiene program

    E-print Network

    Collier, Stephen Ward

    1983-01-01

    May 1983 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene ANALYSIS OF CURRICULAR UNITS OF A GRADUATE INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE PROGRAM A Thesis by STEPHEN WARD COLLIER Approved as to style and content by: J. Vernon (Chairman of Committee) C. L. Gilmore (member..., and despite the recent emergence of several undergraduate programs, graduate programs continue to be the major source of sus- tenance to education and training of industrial hygienists. Substantial shifts in both governmental public policy and economic...

  2. Office of Industry Research and Technology Programs Greetings to Industry

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    IPs Summer 2013 Vol. 20 No. 1 John A. Schneider Assistant Vice President, Industry Research Geanie Umberger president of Purdue University. His experiences in politics (governor of Indiana) and industry (Eli Lilly, please contact John A. Schneider at jas@ purdue.edu, (765) 494-0743 or Geanie Umberger at gumberger

  3. Advanced Industrial Materials Program. Annual progress report, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Stooksbury, F. [comp.

    1994-06-01

    Mission of the AIM program is to commercialize new/improved materials and materials processing methods that will improve energy efficiency, productivity, and competitiveness. Program investigators in the DOE national laboratories are working with about 100 companies, including 15 partners in CRDAs. Work is being done on intermetallic alloys, ceramic composites, metal composites, polymers, engineered porous materials, and surface modification. The program supports other efforts in the Office of Industrial Technologies to assist the energy-consuming process industries. The aim of the AIM program is to bring materials from basic research to industrial application to strengthen the competitive position of US industry and save energy.

  4. Big Ideas at a Very Small Scale

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Claudia Khourey-Bowers

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to share a learning-cycle sequence of lessons designed to convey the particulate nature of matter through use of physical models and analogical thinking. This activity was adapted from Conceptual Chemistry, a long-running professional development program for teachers of grades 4–9. Conceptual Chemistry’s approach is to emphasize broad conceptual understanding, students’ ideas about science, and content-focused literacy skills. As a result of engaging in this series of lessons, students will observe macroscopic properties of matter and begin to develop scientific models to explain the particulate nature of matter.

  5. A Small-Scale Low-Cost Gas Chromatograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gros, Natasa; Vrtacnik, Margareta

    2005-01-01

    The design and application of a small-scale portable gas chromatograph for learning of the basic concepts of chromatography is described. The apparatus consists of two basic separable units, which includes a chromatographic unit and an electronic unit.

  6. Impact of small scale inhomogeneities on observations of standard candles

    E-print Network

    Iwata, Kengo

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effect of small scale inhomogeneities on standard candle observations, such as type Ia supernovae (SNe) observations. Existence of the small scale inhomogeneities may cause a tension between SNe observations and other observations with larger diameter sources, such as the cosmic microwave background (CMB) observation. To clarify the impact of the small scale inhomogeneities, we use the Dyer-Roeder approach. We determined the smoothness parameter $\\alpha(z)$ as a function of the redshift $z$ so as to compensate the deviation of cosmological parameters for SNe from those for CMB. The range of the deviation which can be compensated by the smoothness parameter $\\alpha(z)$ satisfying $0\\leq\\alpha(z)\\leq1$ is reported. Our result suggests that the tension may give us the information of the small scale inhomogeneities through the smoothness parameter.

  7. Impact of small scale inhomogeneities on observations of standard candles

    E-print Network

    Kengo Iwata; Chul-Moon Yoo

    2014-09-11

    We investigate the effect of small scale inhomogeneities on standard candle observations, such as type Ia supernovae (SNe) observations. Existence of the small scale inhomogeneities may cause a tension between SNe observations and other observations with larger diameter sources, such as the cosmic microwave background (CMB) observation. To clarify the impact of the small scale inhomogeneities, we use the Dyer-Roeder approach. We determined the smoothness parameter $\\alpha(z)$ as a function of the redshift $z$ so as to compensate the deviation of cosmological parameters for SNe from those for CMB. The range of the deviation which can be compensated by the smoothness parameter $\\alpha(z)$ satisfying $0\\leq\\alpha(z)\\leq1$ is reported. Our result suggests that the tension may give us the information of the small scale inhomogeneities through the smoothness parameter.

  8. Anisotropic Structure of Small-Scale Ionospheric Turbulence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Alimov; F. I. Vybornov; A. V. Rakhlin

    2005-01-01

    We consider various theoretical models for the spectrum of small-scale ionospheric turbulence. The particular role of the generalized model of the ionospheric-turbulence spectrum, which takes into account that the anisotropy (extension) of small-scale irregularities of the upper ionosphere along the Earth's magnetic field direction depends on the transverse scale of those irregularities, is emphasized. The results of the. rst target

  9. Research on the terrain cognition in small-scale environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiang Zhijie; Zhangjie

    2010-01-01

    Although the terrain cognition of small-scale environment plays an important role in perception of geographical space, few studies have explored this issue. This study focus on the terrain cognition and its role and psychological mechanism in small-scale environment by adopting the Pukou pre-campus in Nanjing University as studying area. The survey interviewed 644 freshmen for two years. Then the data

  10. Natural Gas Liquefaction Process for Small-scale LNG Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cao Wensheng

    2012-01-01

    In the field of natural gas liquefaction, the small-scale natural gas liquefier has been attracting more and more attentions home and abroad, thanks to its small volume, mobile transportation, easy start-up and shut-down, as well as skid-mounted package. A study was made to choose the optimum liquefaction process to improve the economy of small-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant. The

  11. Small-scale eruptive filaments on the quiet sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermans, Linda M.; Martin, Sara F.

    1986-01-01

    A study of a little known class of eruptive events on the quiet sun was conducted. All of 61 small-scale eruptive filamentary structures were identified in a systematic survey of 32 days of H alpha time-lapse films of the quiet sun acquired at Big Bear Solar Observatory. When fully developed, these structures have an average length of 15 arc seconds before eruption. They appear to be the small-scale analog of large-scale eruptive filaments observed against the disk. At the observed rate of 1.9 small-scale eruptive features per field of view per average 7.0 hour day, the rate of occurence of these events on the sun were estimated to be greater than 600 per 24 hour day.. The average duration of the eruptive phase was 26 minutes while the average lifetime from formation through eruption was 70 minutes. A majority of the small-scale filamentary sturctures were spatially related to cancelling magnetic features in line-of-sight photospheric magnetograms. Similar to large-scale filaments, the small-scale filamentary structures sometimes divided opposite polarity cancelling fragments but often had one or both ends terminating at a cancellation site. Their high numbers appear to reflect the much greater flux on the quiet sun. From their characteristics, evolution, and relationship to photospheric magnetic flux, it was concluded that the structures described are small-scale eruptive filaments and are a subset of all filaments.

  12. THE OPERATIONS RESEARCH PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING

    E-print Network

    Bialas, Wayne

    THE OPERATIONS RESEARCH PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK. 79-2 February 1979 Department of Industrial Engineering State University of New York at Buffalo Specialty Conference, February 26, 1979. Assistant Professor, Department of Industrial Engineering, State

  13. Training Engineers of Joint Programs for the European Aerospace Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jurgen

    1985-01-01

    Examines topics and issues related to training engineers of joint programs for the European aerospace industry. Forms of cooperation, European educational systems, and skills needed to successfully work as an engineer in a joint program for the European aircraft industry are the major areas addressed. (JN)

  14. Model University-Industry Engineering Programs. An AEA Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Electronics Association, Palo Alto, CA.

    This guide presents 37 sample industry-university programs as part of the American Electronics Association's leadership role of encouraging companies to increase investments in engineering education. Model university-industry partnerships in the following areas are presented: faculty assistance grants; faculty loan programs; endowments; graduate…

  15. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Annual progress report FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This Annual Report for FY 1995 contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Areas covered here are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  16. Garnering the Industrial Sector: A Comparison of Cutting Edge Industrial DSM Programs

    E-print Network

    Kyricopoulos, P. F.; Wikler, G. A.; Faruqui, A.; Wood, B. G.

    of industrial customers' needs and DSM potential, with interesting results. Others have introduced creative approaches to meet customer needs in specific industry segments through a continuing process of evaluation and redesigning program elements..., program design and delivery, and evaluation. We also view the interface of DSM technologies and customer requirements in maintaining competitiveness in the marketplace and attaining environmental compliance. Improved understanding of the industrial...

  17. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; McDonald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, Tomoko (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (USA). Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Mazwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. (Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (USA))

    1989-12-01

    This document describes the research work completed in five areas in fiscal year 1989. (1) The analysis of the US industrialized housing industry includes statistics, definitions, a case study, and a code analysis. (2) The assessment of foreign technology reviews the current status of design, manufacturing, marketing, and installation of industrialized housing primarily in Sweden and Japan. (3) Assessment of industrialization applications reviews housing production by climate zone, has a cost and energy comparison of Swedish and US housing, and discusses future manufacturing processes and emerging components. (4) The state of computer use in the industry is described and a prototype design tool is discussed. (5) Side by side testing of industrialized housing systems is discussed.

  18. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; Mc Donald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, T. (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (USA). Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Maxwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. (Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This is the second volume of a two volume report on energy efficient industrialized housing. Volume II contains support documentation for Volume I. The following items are included: individual trip reports; software bibliography; industry contacts in the US, Denmark, and Japan; Cost comparison of industrialized housing in the US and Denmark; draft of the final report on the systems analysis for Fleetwood Mobile Home Manufacturers. (SM)

  19. Canada's Voluntary Industrial Energy Conservation Program

    E-print Network

    Wolf, C. A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    camnit to initiating a comprehensive programme of voluntary industrial energy conservation. 2. This programme would include, as far as practicable, all industries across Canada. 3. Voluntary conservation targets for improving the efficiency... original Task Forces and their ccmmit ments to reduce the energy required per unit of production were as follows: Task Forces 1980 Goal Ferrous Metals 3% Non-Ferrous Metals 6% Industrial Minerals 10% Textiles 11% Pulp and P'1per 12% Machinery 15...

  20. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program annual progress report, FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is a part of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of AIM is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. OIT has embarked on a fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrating on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans, some of which have been completed. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support.

  1. DOE/Industry Matching Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    John C. Lee

    2003-09-30

    For the academic year 2001-2002, the Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences received $50,000 of industrial contributions, matched by a DOE grant of $35,000. We used the combined DOE/Industry Matching Grant of $85,000 toward (a) undergraduate merit scholarships and research support, (b) graduate student support, and (c) partial support of a research scientist.

  2. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; McDonald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, Tomoko (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (USA). Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Maxwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. (Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (USA))

    1990-02-01

    This report summarizes three documents: Multiyear Research Plan, Volume I FY 1989 Task Reports, and Volume II Appendices. These documents describe tasks that were undertaken from November 1988 to December 1989, the first year of the project. Those tasks were: (1) the formation of a steering committee, (2) the development of a multiyear research plan, (3) analysis of the US industrialized housing industry, (4) assessment of foreign technology, (5) assessment of industrial applications, (6) analysis of computerized design and evaluation tools, and (7) assessment of energy performance of baseline and advanced industrialized housing concepts. While this document summarizes information developed in each task area, it doesn't review task by task, as Volume I FY 1989 Task Reports does, but rather treats the subject of energy efficient industrialized housing as a whole to give the reader a more coherent view. 7 figs., 9 refs.

  3. Industrial Machinery Maintenance and Repair. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This vocational program guide is intended to assist in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a program in industrial machinery maintenance and repair in school districts, area vocational centers, and community colleges. The following topics are covered: job duties of millwrights, maintenance mechanics, and machinery erectors; program

  4. Pre-Industrial Preparation Program Handbook. Vocational-Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Developed in a workshop by principals, counselors, and teachers, this handbook is designed to serve as a guide for program implementation and to present an orientation to the pre-industrial preparation program. The primary goal of the program is to help academically deprived students improve their basic verbal, scientific, and mathematical skills…

  5. Program on purification of industrial waste water. Country paper: Ethiopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mebratu

    1990-01-01

    The paper as a preliminary country paper for the UNIDO's programe on Industrial waste water purification, which embraces eight countries from Africa, is prepared in such a way that it could serve as source materi al for the programs implementation in the country. The program's main objective being developing the most appropriate and effective means to deal with long term

  6. On the diagnostics of solar small scale magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stodilka, M. I.

    2015-02-01

    The model of small scale magnetic fields was proposed. The fields are described by two distribution functions: for unsigned magnetic field and for field vectors directions. The distribution functions were used to derive expressions for elements of the line absorption matrix and to deduce function that characterizes mutual cancellation of magnetic fields. We received the solutions for polarized radiative transfer problem within 3D MHD model of the solar photosphere and determined Stokes profiles parameters for two magnetosensitive lines Fe I ? 525.0 nm and ? 524.7 nm. The Stokes profiles parameters of the lines were used for further test diagnostics of small scale magnetic fields. A regression approach to diagnostics of the magnetic fields was proposed. The correlation between theoretical and reproduced parameters of small scale magnetic fields is greater than 0.95.

  7. Overview of the US industrial thermal energy storage program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olszewski, M.

    1981-02-01

    Thermal energy storage can contribute to industrial conservation efforts directed at saving premium (gas and oil) fuels, which is a priority national need. This can be done by using storage to allow the recycling of industrial reject heat to reduce primary energy consumption or to allow alternate fuels to replace gas and oil. Industrial thermal energy storage efforts include three major areas: in-plant reuse of industrial reject heat; external reuse of industrial reject heat for applications in the industrial or buildings sector; and use of alternate fuels to replace gas and oil. The program currently includes engineering field tests in the brick and aluminum industries. In addition, technology transfer activities are underway in the pulp and paper industry.

  8. Computer Adaptive Testing for Small Scale Programs and Instructional Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.; Guo, Fanmin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates measurement decision theory (MDT) as an underlying model for computer adaptive testing when the goal is to classify examinees into one of a finite number of groups. The first analysis compares MDT with a popular item response theory model and finds little difference in terms of the percentage of correct classifications. The…

  9. Industrial cogeneration optimization program. Final report, September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Jerry; McWhinney, Jr., Robert T.

    1980-01-01

    This study program is part of the DOE Integrated Industry Cogeneration Program to optimize, evaluate, and demonstrate cogeneration systems, with direct participation of the industries most affected. One objective is to characterize five major energy-intensive industries with respect to their energy-use profiles. The industries are: petroleum refining and related industries, textile mill products, paper and allied products, chemicals and allied products, and food and kindred products. Another objective is to select optimum cogeneration systems for site-specific reference case plants in terms of maximum energy savings subject to given return on investment hurdle rates. Analyses were made that define the range of optimal cogeneration systems for each reference-case plant considering technology applicability, economic factors, and energy savings by type of fuel. This study also provides guidance to other parts of the program through information developed with regard to component development requirements, institutional and regulatory barriers, as well as fuel use and environmental considerations. (MCW)

  10. Technology Roadmap Research Program for the Steel Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph R. Vehec

    2010-12-30

    The steel industry's Technology Roadmap Program (TRP) is a collaborative R&D effort jointly sponsored by the steel industry and the United States Department of Energy. The TRP program was designed to develop new technologies to save energy , increase competitiveness, and improve the environment. TRP ran from July, 1997 to December, 2008, with a total program budget of $38 million dollars. During that period 47 R&D projects were performed by 28 unique research organizations; co-funding was provided by DOE and 60 industry partners. The projects benefited all areas of steelmaking and much know-how was developed and transferred to industry. The American Iron and Steel Institute is the owner of all intellectual property developed under TRP and licenses it at commercial rates to all steelmakers. TRP technologies are in widespread use in the steel industry as participants received royalty-free use of intellectual property in return for taking the risk of funding this research.

  11. Report on Community College Industrial Production Technology Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    This report provides an in-depth analysis of the Industrial Production Technology Programs in Illinois, which, according to Illinois Community College Board policy, must be reviewed at least once every five years. The disciplines included in this report are: industrial manufacturing technology, corrosion technology, plastics technology, and…

  12. Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP) and NASA Advisories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP) and NASA Advisories policy to practice. The contents include: 1) Purpose of the Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP); 2) NASA and GSFC Documentation; 3) NASA Advisories, differences from GIDEP; 4) GIDEP Distribution by Originator; 5) New Interim GIDEP Policy for Suspect Counterfeits; 6) NASA and Suspect Counterfeits; 7) Threats to GIDEP; and 8) Conclusions and Contact Information.

  13. A Small Scale Experimental Study: Using Animations to Learn Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayaoglu, M. Naci; Dag Akbas, Raside; Ozturk, Zeynep

    2011-01-01

    This study attempts to investigate whether a difference exists between learning vocabulary via animation and via traditional paper-based method. This small scale study was conducted at Karadeniz Technical University in academic year 2009-2010. Two pre-intermediate classes were randomly selected as the experimental group (n = 17), and control group…

  14. ROBUST INTELLIGENT CONTROL OF SMALL-SCALE MECHATRONIC DEVICES

    E-print Network

    Efe, Mehmet Ă?nder

    and Pradeep K. Khosla3 1 Atilim University, Department of Mechatronics Engineering, ncek, 06836 Ankara, Turkey Engineering Department, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213-3890, U.S.A. e-mail: pkk@ece.cmu.edu Abstract MechatronicsROBUST INTELLIGENT CONTROL OF SMALL-SCALE MECHATRONIC DEVICES Mehmet Ă?nder Efe1 , Lemi Dahan Acay2

  15. The Rugged Entrepreneurs ofIran's Small-Scale Mining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamid Etemad; Kamaleddin S. Salmasi

    2001-01-01

    This article – a prize-winner at the 2nd World Conference on International Entrepreneurship – reports on a nation wide survey of some 50 small-scale mining enterprises (SMEs) in 10 Provinces in Iran. Four families of factors impacting their operations are reported here. The overriding finding of this paper is that these rugged entrepreneurs create micro operating conditions, at the margins

  16. A SMALL-SCALE TILTROTOR MODEL OPERATING IN DESCENDING FLIGHT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita I. Abrego; Mark D. Betzina; Kurtis R. Long

    2002-01-01

    A small-scale tiltrotor model was tested in the 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center with the goal of further investigating the aerodynamic environment of a tiltrotor operating in the Vortex Ring State (VRS). Test objectives were to obtain performance data of a 3-bladed tiltrotor model over a range of descent and sideslip conditions and to compare

  17. The Large- and Small-scale Structure of HVCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Ulrich J.; Wakker, Bart P.

    2004-01-01

    The main question addressed in this chapter is whether or not HVCs have small-scale structure that di ers from that in low-velocity gas and the IVCs. If so, this could make it possible to distinguish HVCs from galactic gas not only by their deviating velocities, but also by their structural characteristics. Further, the physical characteristics derived from the small-scale structure may provide clues to their origin. We find that the core-halo structure that was discovered in the early seventies by Giovanelli, Hulsbosch and others, is typical for all HVCs that have been observed so far. We review some methods to characterize the small-scale structure numerically. These include the autocorrelation function, low- and high-pass filtering, and the concept of fractality. In general, these methods show a tendency for HVCs to have more pronounced small-scale structure than lower-velocity gas. However, the differences are not so pronounced that it is possible to easily distinguish between high- and low-velocity gas.

  18. 2010 Thin Film & Small Scale Mechanical Behavior Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Thomas Balk

    2010-07-30

    Over the past decades, it has been well established that the mechanical behavior of materials changes when they are confined geometrically at least in one dimension to small scale. It is the aim of the 2010 Gordon Conference on 'Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior' to discuss cutting-edge research on elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation as well as degradation mechanisms like fracture, fatigue and wear at small scales. As in the past, the conference will benefit from contributions from fundamental studies of physical mechanisms linked to material science and engineering reaching towards application in modern applications ranging from optical and microelectronic devices and nano- or micro-electrical mechanical systems to devices for energy production and storage. The conference will feature entirely new testing methodologies and in situ measurements as well as recent progress in atomistic and micromechanical modeling. Particularly, emerging topics in the area of energy conversion and storage, such as material for batteries will be highlighted. The study of small-scale mechanical phenomena in systems related to energy production, conversion or storage offer an enticing opportunity to materials scientists, who can provide new insight and investigate these phenomena with methods that have not previously been exploited.

  19. Economic assessment of small-scale electricity generation from wind

    E-print Network

    McAllister, Kristen Dawn

    2007-09-17

    Analysis was done to determine if small-scale wind energy could be economically feasible on a cotton farm with 1,200 irrigated acres, a house, and a barn. Lubbock and Midland were locations chosen for this model farm and the twenty-year analysis. A...

  20. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Forestry Projects. Guidelines for Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ffolliott, Peter F.; Thames, John L.

    This manual, the third in a series of publications that address community development possibilities in developing nations, provides guidelines for small-scale forestry projects that are integrative and conservation-oriented. Chapters focus on: (1) users and uses (specifying targeted audience and general objectives); (2) planning process (including…

  1. Energy Yield and Cost Analysis of Small Scale Wind Turbines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. Stannard; J. R. Bumby

    2006-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the attractiveness of small-scale wind turbines in the current economic climate. In order to do this, three pieces of information must be known: (1) the cost of the system; (2) the annual energy yield of the system; (3) the value of that energy yield. An Internet based search was conducted to establish current market prices

  2. A Permanent Magnet Generator for Small Scale Wind Turbines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Bumby; N. Stannard; R. Martin

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a permanent magnet generator for small scale wind turbines. The generator has been designed for ease of manufacture so that it can be made by small mechanical engineering companies with limited electrical engineering knowledge. The generator has also been designed to have no cogging torque so that it can be used with all horizontal

  3. DESIGN OF A SMALL ? SCALE SOLAR CHIMNEY FOR SUSTAINABLE POWER

    EPA Science Inventory

    After several months of design and testing it has been determined that a small scale solar chimney can be built using nearly any local materials and simple hand tools without needing superior construction knowledge. The biggest obstacle to over come was the weather conditions....

  4. DISPOSAL OF SMALL-SCALE FISH PROCESSING WASTE THROUGH COMPOSTING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large catfish processors in the U.S. typically recycle fish waste into fish meal. For small-scale processors or aquaculture research facilities, fish waste disposal can be problematic. We adapted a design developed for composting wastes from Minnesota fishing lodges and tested it for suitability fo...

  5. Incremental Mosaicking of Images from Autonomous, Small-Scale UAVs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saeed Yahyanejad; Daniel Wischounig-Strucl; Markus Quaritsch; Bernhard Rinner

    2010-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been recently deployed in various civilian applications such as environmental monitoring, aerial imaging or surveillance. Small-scale UAVs are of special interest for first responders since they can rather easily provide bird's eye view images of disaster areas. In this paper we present a hybrid approach to mosaick an overview image of the area of interest

  6. Analysis of Small-Scale Hydraulic Actuation Jicheng Xia

    E-print Network

    Durfee, William K.

    of force and power while at the same time being relatively light weight compared to the equivalent to an equivalent electromechanical system comprised of off-the-shelf components. Calculation results revealed that high operating pressures are needed for small-scale hydraulics to be lighter than the equivalent

  7. Understanding of shape and size on small scale atlas maps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rod Gerber

    1991-01-01

    Teachers regularly use small scale maps with their classes in their geography and social studies work to locate places or to conduct more detailed studies. Many of these maps are derived from school atlases. It is assumed that the different sizes and shapes of the continents, regional areas and other areas are understood by the children as they are presented

  8. Urban planning and small-scale enterprises in Nairobi, Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petronella W. K. Muraya

    2006-01-01

    The important role played by the informal sector in most economies in less developed countries is now recognized by governments and international agencies. However, enterprises in the informal sector continue to encounter various legal barriers that prevent them from attaining their full potential. This paper examines the performance of small-scale enterprises in three neighborhoods in Nairobi, Kenya. The study reveals

  9. The Industries of the Future Program: What's in it for Texas Industries?

    E-print Network

    Ferland, K. A.

    portion of the value chain (from suppliers to customers) in the Texas economy. You can find out more about the TEXAS INDUSTRIES OF THE FUTURE program by visiting our web site at http://texasiof.ces.utexas.edu...

  10. 32 CFR 2004.20 - National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (NISPOM) [201(a)].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual...to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE... National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual...release of classified information during all phases...

  11. 32 CFR 2004.20 - National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (NISPOM) [201(a)].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual...to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE... National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual...release of classified information during all phases...

  12. 32 CFR 2004.20 - National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (NISPOM) [201(a)].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual...to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE... National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual...release of classified information during all phases...

  13. 32 CFR 2004.20 - National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (NISPOM) [201(a)].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual...to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE... National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual...release of classified information during all phases...

  14. 32 CFR 2004.20 - National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (NISPOM) [201(a)].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual...to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE... National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual...release of classified information during all phases...

  15. Graduate Programs in Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering The industrial and manufacturing (IME) department at WSU

    E-print Network

    Graduate Programs in Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering The industrial and manufacturing (IME are encouraged to conduct research or take courses on topics that overlap several disciplines. The IME department completed or have credit in MATH 243, Calculus II, and IME 255, Engineering Economy 5. have a minimum GPA

  16. Jet Collimation by Small-Scale Magnetic Fields

    E-print Network

    Li-Xin Li

    2001-08-29

    A popular model for jet collimation is associated with the presence of a large-scale and predominantly toroidal magnetic field originating from the central engine (a star, a black hole, or an accretion disk). Besides the problem of how such a large-scale magnetic field is generated, in this model the jet suffers from the fatal long-wave mode kink magnetohydrodynamic instability. In this paper we explore an alternative model: jet collimation by small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields are assumed to be local, chaotic, tangled, but are dominated by toroidal components. Just as in the case of a large-scale toroidal magnetic field, we show that the ``hoop stress'' of the tangled toroidal magnetic fields exerts an inward force which confines and collimates the jet. The magnetic ``hoop stress'' is balanced either by the gas pressure of the jet, or by the centrifugal force if the jet is spinning. Since the length-scale of the magnetic field is small (< the cross-sectional radius of the jet << the length of the jet), in this model the jet does not suffer from the long-wave mode kink instability. Many other problems associated with the large-scale magnetic field are also eliminated or alleviated for small-scale magnetic fields. Though it remains an open question how to generate and maintain the required small-scale magnetic fields in a jet, the scenario of jet collimation by small-scale magnetic fields is favored by the current study on disk dynamo which indicates that small-scale magnetic fields are much easier to generate than large-scale magnetic fields.

  17. The Texas Industrial Energy Conservation Program

    E-print Network

    Waldrop, T.

    1982-01-01

    at by the firm of Arthur Young & Company. cost in tax dollars funded to the program? The following chart depicts savings directly The above-mentioned audit further reve~ls attributed to this program from 1978 through 1981. that for each one dollar funded...

  18. Recruitment Strategies for Industrial Technology Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, Ron; Carmichael, Mindy

    2004-01-01

    Today's competitive marketplace requires many colleges and universities to search for ways to maintain or increase their program enrollment numbers. One method is to focus on an enrollment management program with an emphasis placed on retention efforts for existing students. Although this is one important issue facing many colleges and…

  19. Future Directions for Mechanical, Manufacturing, and Industrial Engineering Technology Programs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mott, Robert L.

    Future Directions for Mechanical, Manufacturing, and Industrial Engineering Technology Programs presents viewpoints on the fields of Mechanical Engineering Technology (MET), Manufacturing Engineering Technology (MfgET), and Industrial Engineering Technology (IET). The authors are highly knowledgeable in their own right. In addition, each sought input from colleagues to gain a broad perspective. Each part begins with an overview of innovations in the field, covering both technical and educational issues. Then the future directions for the educational programs are explored, considering industry needs, curriculum design, laboratory experiences, pedagogy, accreditation, and interfaces with other fields.

  20. A continuing program for technology transfer to the apparel industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clingman, W. H.

    1971-01-01

    A six month program has been carried out to investigate various mechanisms for transferring technology to industry. This program has focused on transfer to the apparel industry through the Apparel Research Foundation. The procedure was to analyze the problem, obtain potentially relevant aerospace technology, and then transfer this technology to the industry organization. This was done in a specific case. Technology was identified relevant to stitchless joining, and this technology was transferred to the Apparel Research Foundation. The feasibility and ground rules for carrying out such activities on a broader scale were established. A specific objective was to transfer new technology from the industry organization to the industry itself. This required the establishment of an application engineering program. Another transfer mechanism tested was publication of solutions to industry problems in a format familiar to the industry. This is to be distinguished from circulating descriptions of new technology. Focus is on the industry problem and the manager is given a formula for solving it that he can follow. It was concluded that this mechanism can complement the problem statement approach to technology transfer. It is useful in achieving transfer when a large amount of application engineering is not necessary. A wide audience is immediately exposed to the technology. On the other hand, the major manufacturing problems which require a sophisticated technical solution integrating many innovations are less likely to be helped.

  1. DOE's Geothermal Program: New emphasis on industrial participation

    SciTech Connect

    Mock, John, E.; Beeland, Gene

    1991-01-01

    In line with industry's traditional strong role in targeting research priorities for the Department of Energy's geothermal program, the new policy thrust toward industry-driven R&D will complement our existing planning processes. Cost-sharing and leveraging of DOE's limited research resources remain critical elements, especially at The Geysers where DOE-funded research must have a very strong potential for yielding early industrial application. Upcoming geothermal reservoir engineering program initiatives respond to industry's expressed need for new exploration technologies to find undiscovered geothermal resources where there are little or no surface manifestations and for drilling innovations to reduce the costs of exploration for such resources. In accord with the Department's policy of focusing on research supported by industry, long-term research on geopressured and hot dry rock resources has been reduced in scope or deferred.

  2. Industrial irradiator radiation safety program assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Mark A.

    2000-03-01

    Considerable attention is typically given to radiation safety in the design of irradiators and initially establishing the program. However, one component that may not receive enough attention is applying the continuous improvement philosophy to the radiation safety program. Periodic total program assessments of radiation safety can ensure that the design and implementation of the program continues to be applicable to the operations. The first step in the process must be to determine what is to be covered in the program assessment. While regulatory compliance audits are a component, the most useful evaluation will extend beyond looking only at compliance and determine whether the radiation safety program is the most appropriate for the particular operation. Several aspects of the irradiator operation, not all of which may routinely be considered "radiation safety", per se, should be included: Design aspects of the irradiator and operating system, system controls, and maintenance procedures, as well as the more traditional radiation safety program components such as surveys, measurements and training.

  3. Special Issues for Program Design and Evaluation for Industrial Energy Programs

    E-print Network

    Megdal, L.

    2007-01-01

    Designing energy efficiency programs that include serving industrial customers, and evaluating them, carries with it a set of challenges. A summary view from prior efficiency program evaluations will be presented that examines these challenges, how...

  4. A study of large scale gust generation in a small scale atmospheric wind tunnel with applications to Micro Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roadman, Jason Markos

    Modern technology operating in the atmospheric boundary layer can always benefit from more accurate wind tunnel testing. While scaled atmospheric boundary layer tunnels have been well developed, tunnels replicating portions of the atmospheric boundary layer turbulence at full scale are a comparatively new concept. Testing at full-scale Reynolds numbers with full-scale turbulence in an "atmospheric wind tunnel" is sought. Many programs could utilize such a tool including Micro Aerial Vehicle(MAV) development, the wind energy industry, fuel efficient vehicle design, and the study of bird and insect flight, to name just a few. The small scale of MAVs provide the somewhat unique capability of full scale Reynolds number testing in a wind tunnel. However, that same small scale creates interactions under real world flight conditions, atmospheric gusts for example, that lead to a need for testing under more complex flows than the standard uniform flow found in most wind tunnels. It is for these reasons that MAVs are used as the initial testing application for the atmospheric gust tunnel. An analytical model for both discrete gusts and a continuous spectrum of gusts is examined. Then, methods for generating gusts in agreement with that model are investigated. Previously used methods are reviewed and a gust generation apparatus is designed. Expected turbulence and gust characteristics of this apparatus are compared with atmospheric data. The construction of an active "gust generator" for a new atmospheric tunnel is reviewed and the turbulence it generates is measured utilizing single and cross hot wires. Results from this grid are compared to atmospheric turbulence and it is shown that various gust strengths can be produced corresponding to weather ranging from calm to quite gusty. An initial test is performed in the atmospheric wind tunnel whereby the effects of various turbulence conditions on transition and separation on the upper surface of a MAV wing is investigated using the surface oil flow visualization technique.

  5. WORK INSTRUCTION PROGRAMS FOR THE FOOD SERVICE INDUSTRY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KONZ, STEPHAN A.; MIDDLETON, RAYMONA

    A PROJECT WAS INITIATED TO DEVELOP EFFICIENT WORK METHODS FOR 100 COMMON TASKS IN THE FOOD SERVICE INDUSTRY AND THEN TO PREPARE PROGRAMED LEARNING "PACKAGES" FOR EACH OF THESE TASKS FOR TRAINING POTENTIAL EMPLOYEES AND EMPLOYEES WITH LOWER LEVELS OF EDUCATION TO HOLD USEFUL JOBS. THE CONCEPT OF PROGRAMED LEARNING PACKAGES FOR FOOD SERVICING WAS…

  6. Program of Studies: Industrial Arts: Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax County Schools, VA.

    The first part of the industrial arts curriculum guide provides brief descriptions of the program and course goals for grades K-12 and a one-page chart of program courses. Part 2 contains unit plans for grades 7-12 which provide unit descriptions, credit values, minimum class times, maximum students per class, prerequisites, and various unit…

  7. The Office of Industrial Programs technical reports: A bibliography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography is the first annotated publication containing information on all scientific and technical reports sponsored by the DOE Industrial Energy Conservation Program during the years 1974--1987. The abstracts are grouped by program subdivision as shown in the Contents. Cross categorization is provided when the report covers more than one topic. Within each group, arrangement is alphabetized by report number

  8. Greenhouse Gas Programs, Energy Efficiency, and the Industrial Sector

    E-print Network

    Zhou, A.; Tutterow, V.; Harris, J.

    or the entire economy, to reduce GHG emissions. With experience from state programs and policies, effective energy efficiency and conservation strategies, as well as renewable energy programs, effective federal policies can now be developed. The long term... of promotion for efficiency improvement, advanced clean and renewable technologies, incentive programs, and other policies. ESL-IE-09-05-07 Proceedings of the Thirty-First Industrial Energy Technology Conference, New Orleans, LA, May 12-15, 2009 FEDERAL...

  9. Industrial Waste Reduction Program annual report, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy`s Industrial Waste Reduction Program (IWRP) sponsors the development, demonstration, and deployment of technologies that offer a significant opportunity to reduce waste generation, improve productivity, and enhance environmental performance in US industry. The program emphasizes technology-driven solutions that are economically beneficial and environmentally sound. Its goal is to improve the energy efficiency and competitiveness of private industry by cost-effectively reducing waste. Industry, universities, national laboratories and other government agencies are working cooperatively to meet this goal. The IWRP emphasizes the timely commercialization of new technologies that can produce measurable energy, environmental, and economic benefits. All projects are substantially cost-shared with private companies to foster the commercialization process. The program is proud to claim four successfully commercialized technologies that have begun generating benefits. The current IWRP portfolio boasts 32 projects in progress. Funding for the IWRP has grown from $1.7 million in 1990 to $13 million in 1994. New companies join the program each year, reaping the benefits of working cooperatively with government. New technologies are expected to reach commercial success in fiscal year (FY) 1994, further increasing the benefits already accrued. Future Annual Reports will also include projects from the Waste Utilization and Conversion Program. Descriptions of the program`s 32 active projects are organized in this report according these elements. Each project description provides a brief background and the major accomplishments during FY 1993.

  10. Observations of Small Scale ISM Structure in Dense Atomic Gas

    E-print Network

    J. T. Lauroesch; David M. Meyer

    1999-05-14

    We present high resolution (R~170,000) Kitt Peak National Observatory Co'ude Feed telescope observations of the interstellar KI 7698 angstrom line towards 5 multiple star systems with saturated NaI components. We compare the KI absorption line profiles in each of the two (or three) lines of sight in these systems, and find significant differences between the sight-lines in 3 out of the 5 cases. We infer that the small scale structure traced by previous NaI observations is also present in at least some of the components with saturated NaI absorption lines, and thus the small scale structures traced by the neutral species are occurring at some level in clouds of all column densities. We discuss the implications of that conclusion and a potential explanation by density inhomogeneities.

  11. LLNL Small-Scale Friction sensitivity (BAM) Test

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, L.R.; Foltz, M.F.

    1996-06-01

    Small-scale safety testing of explosives, propellants and other energetic materials, is done to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli including friction, static spark, and impact. Testing is done to discover potential handling problems for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior, or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing {open_quotes}BAM{close_quotes} Small-Scale Friction Test, and the methods used to determine the friction sensitivity pertinent to handling energetic materials. The accumulated data for the materials tested is not listed here - that information is in a database. Included is, however, a short list of (1) materials that had an unusual response, and (2), a few {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} materials representing the range of typical responses usually seen.

  12. Optimization of a small scale reluctance linear solenoid accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera, Thor; Beard, Robby

    2011-04-01

    Small scale accelerator technologies provide opportunities in innovative and efficient transportation systems. Accelerator technologies are ever decreasing in size and complexity. The goal of the research was to develop more efficient small scale accelerators by optimizing high current flow through the accelerating solenoid. To do this; low temperature liquid nitrogen cooling systems and Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier power supply systems were examined closely to maximize the magnetic field inside the solenoid. Additionally,ferromagnetic fluids were examined in conjunction with these technologies to investigate the possibility of controlled braking of an accelerated object. The experimentation provides a high quality laboratory experiment for undergraduates interested in accelerator physics. Additionally, it provides a useful demonstration apparatus for undergraduate students studying lower division electricity and magnetism courses. A demonstration of the current development on these technologies will be offered at the time of the lecture.

  13. On fractal properties of small-scale ionospheric irregularities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Alimov; F. I. Vybornov; A. V. Rakhlin

    2007-01-01

    We consider the problem of relating the local structure of small-scale ionospheric turbulence to the measured frequency-spectrum\\u000a indices and fractal dimensions of amplitude records of the signals received on the Earth during remote sensing of the ionosphere\\u000a onboard the satellites. It is shown that knowledge of these parameters permits one to determine the true values of the local-spectrum\\u000a indices of

  14. Multipower spectrum of small-scale ionospheric turbulence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Alimov; F. I. Vybornov; A. V. Rakhlin

    2009-01-01

    We consider the problem of diagnostics of the local structure of small-scale ionospheric turbulence using the multifractal\\u000a analysis of received signals from the Earth’s orbital satellites after the radio sounding of the inhomogeneous ionosphere\\u000a by these signals. In particular, it is shown that analysis of the multifractal structure of the received-signal amplitude\\u000a records by the method of multidimensional structural functions

  15. On the Dynamics of Small-Scale Solar Magnetic Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, T. E.; Title, A. M.

    1996-01-01

    We report on the dynamics of the small-scale solar magnetic field, based on analysis of very high resolution images of the solar photosphere obtained at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope. The data sets are movies from 1 to 4 hr in length, taken in several wavelength bands with a typical time between frames of 20 s. The primary method of tracking small-scale magnetic elements is with very high contrast images of photospheric bright points, taken through a 12 A bandpass filter centered at 4305 A in the Fraunhofer 'G band.' Previous studies have established that such bright points are unambiguously associated with sites of small-scale magnetic flux in the photosphere, although the details of the mechanism responsible for the brightening of the flux elements remain uncertain. The G band bright points move in the intergranular lanes at speeds from 0.5 to 5 km/s. The motions appear to be constrained to the intergranular lanes and are primarily driven by the evolution of the local granular convection flow field. Continual fragmentation and merging of flux is the fundamental evolutionary mode of small-scale magnetic structures in the solar photosphere. Rotation and folding of chains or groups of bright points are also observed. The timescale for magnetic flux evolution in active region plage is on the order of the correlation time of granulation (typically 6-8 minutes), but significant morphological changes can occur on timescales as short as 100 S. Smaller fragments are occasionally seen to fade beyond observable contrast. The concept of a stable, isolated subarcsecond magnetic 'flux tube' in the solar photosphere is inconsistent with the observations presented here.

  16. Propulsion engineering study for small-scale Mars missions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1995-01-01

    Rocket propulsion options for small-scale Mars missions are presented and compared, particularly for the terminal landing maneuver and for sample return. Mars landing has a low propulsive Îv requirement on a âĽ1-minute time scale, but at a high acceleration. High thrust\\/weight liquid rocket technologies, or advanced pulse-capable solids, developed during the past decade for missile defense, are therefore more appropriate

  17. Interaction of dynamic rupture with small-scale heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galis, Martin; Mai, P. Martin

    2014-05-01

    Broadband ground motion simulations, with frequencies up to 10Hz, are important for engineering purposes, in particular for seismic hazard assessment for critical facilities. One problem in such simulations is the generation of high frequency radiation emitted during the dynamic rupture process. Ad-hoc kinematic rupture characterizations can be tweaked through empirical models to radiate over the desired frequency range, but their physical consistency remains questionable. In contrast, for physically self-consistent dynamic rupture modeling, controlled by friction, material parameters and the adopted physical laws, the mechanism that may lead to appropriate high-frequency radiation require heterogeneity in friction, stress, or fault geometry (or even all three quantities) at unknown but small length scales. Dunham at al. (2011) studied dynamic rupture propagation on rough faults in 2D, and described how fault roughness excites high-frequency radiation. In our study, we focus on the interaction of the dynamic rupture with small-scale heterogeneities on planar faults in 3D. We study effects of the interaction of dynamic rupture with 1) small-scale heterogeneities in the medium (that is, randomized 3D wave speed and density variations), and 2) small-scale heterogeneities in the frictional parameters. Our numerical results show significant variations in rupture velocity or peak slip velocity if small-scale heterogeneities are present. This indicates that the dynamic rupture is sensitive to both types of spatial inhomogeneity. At the same time we observe that the resulting near-source seismic wave fields are not very sensitive to these rupture variations, indicating that wavefront healing effects may "simplify" the complex seismic radiation once the waves propagated several wave-lengths away from the fault.

  18. Development of small-scale microwave discharge ion thruster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiyuki Takao; Hirokazu Masui; Takashi Miyamoto; Hiroshi Kataharada; Hidenobu Ijiri; Hideki Nakashima

    2004-01-01

    Study of a small-scale ion engine (diameter of 2.5cm, input microwave power up to 25W) utilizing microwave-discharged plasma for space propulsion is reported. The ion extraction tests are conducted under several conditions such as the input microwave power range of 15–25W, the Ar gas (as propellant) flow rate range of 1.5–3.5sccm, and two types of antenna shape (L-type or disk

  19. ATTITUDE CONTROL OPTIMIZATION FOR A SMALL-SCALE UNMANNED HELICOPTER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard Mettler; Takeo Kanade; Mark B. Tischler; William Messner

    This paper presents results from the attitude control optimization for a small-scale helicopter by using an identified model of the vehicle dynamics that explicitly accounts for the coupled rotor\\/stabilizer\\/fuselage (r\\/s\\/f) dynamics. The accuracy of the model is verified by showing that it successfully predicts the performance of the control system currently used for Carnegie Mellon's autonomous helicopter (baseline controller). Elementary

  20. Legal factors affecting the financing of small scale hydroelectric projects

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.H.; Ringo, M.J.; Forgione, N.

    1983-09-01

    An introduction to the major business organizational options open to small-scale hydroelectric (SSH) projects is given. The major federal income tax treatments of these options are compared. Significant general federal income tax factors affecting SSH projects are reintroduced and explained. Some of the special federal income tax problem areas in SSH development are isolated. Tax benefit flow through or transfer mechanisms are discussed. Tax exempt financing opportunities for private SSH projects are reviewed. (MHR)

  1. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Four-Year Industrial Technology Programs In Preparing Industrial Electronic Technicians to Meet the Requirements of Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Roger W.

    To determine the effectiveness of the 4-year industrial technology programs in preparing industrial electronic technicians for employment in industry, data were obtained through an opinionnaire, which was sent to the higher education institutions offering a 4-year electronic technician program and to selected industrial representatives located in…

  2. Eagle-Picher Industries Sodium Sulfur Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvey, Ronald L.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs of the sodium sulfur program are presented. Sodium sulfur low earth orbit (LEO) cells are described. Topics covered include cell sizes, areas of improvement, and NaS cell testing. Sodium sulfur cell and battery designs continue to evolve with significant improvement demonstrated in resistance, rechargeability, cycle life, energy density, and electrolyte characterization.

  3. Does Small Scale Structure Significantly Affect Cosmological Dynamics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamek, Julian; Clarkson, Chris; Durrer, Ruth; Kunz, Martin

    2015-02-01

    The large-scale homogeneity and isotropy of the Universe is generally thought to imply a well-defined background cosmological model. It may not. Smoothing over structure adds in an extra contribution, transferring power from small scales up to large. Second-order perturbation theory implies that the effect is small, but suggests that formally the perturbation series may not converge. The amplitude of the effect is actually determined by the ratio of the Hubble scales at matter-radiation equality and today—which are entirely unrelated. This implies that a universe with significantly lower temperature today could have significant backreaction from more power on small scales, and so provides the ideal testing ground for understanding backreaction. We investigate this using two different N -body numerical simulations—a 3D Newtonian and a 1D simulation which includes all relevant relativistic effects. We show that while perturbation theory predicts an increasing backreaction as more initial small-scale power is added, in fact the virialization of structure saturates the backreaction effect at the same level independently of the equality scale. This implies that backreaction is a small effect independently of initial conditions. Nevertheless, it may still contribute at the percent level to certain cosmological observables and therefore it cannot be neglected in precision cosmology.

  4. Empirical spatial econometric modelling of small scale neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerkman, Linda

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the paper is to model small scale neighbourhood in a house price model by implementing the newest methodology in spatial econometrics. A common problem when modelling house prices is that in practice it is seldom possible to obtain all the desired variables. Especially variables capturing the small scale neighbourhood conditions are hard to find. If there are important explanatory variables missing from the model, the omitted variables are spatially autocorrelated and they are correlated with the explanatory variables included in the model, it can be shown that a spatial Durbin model is motivated. In the empirical application on new house price data from Helsinki in Finland, we find the motivation for a spatial Durbin model, we estimate the model and interpret the estimates for the summary measures of impacts. By the analysis we show that the model structure makes it possible to model and find small scale neighbourhood effects, when we know that they exist, but we are lacking proper variables to measure them.

  5. Does small scale structure significantly affect cosmological dynamics?

    PubMed

    Adamek, Julian; Clarkson, Chris; Durrer, Ruth; Kunz, Martin

    2015-02-01

    The large-scale homogeneity and isotropy of the Universe is generally thought to imply a well-defined background cosmological model. It may not. Smoothing over structure adds in an extra contribution, transferring power from small scales up to large. Second-order perturbation theory implies that the effect is small, but suggests that formally the perturbation series may not converge. The amplitude of the effect is actually determined by the ratio of the Hubble scales at matter-radiation equality and today-which are entirely unrelated. This implies that a universe with significantly lower temperature today could have significant backreaction from more power on small scales, and so provides the ideal testing ground for understanding backreaction. We investigate this using two different N-body numerical simulations-a 3D Newtonian and a 1D simulation which includes all relevant relativistic effects. We show that while perturbation theory predicts an increasing backreaction as more initial small-scale power is added, in fact the virialization of structure saturates the backreaction effect at the same level independently of the equality scale. This implies that backreaction is a small effect independently of initial conditions. Nevertheless, it may still contribute at the percent level to certain cosmological observables and therefore it cannot be neglected in precision cosmology. PMID:25699430

  6. Small-scale lipid-membrane structure: simulation versus experiment.

    PubMed

    Mouritsen, O G; Jřrgensen, K

    1997-08-01

    Recently, it has become obvious that the conventional picture of the fluid lipid-bilayer component of biological membranes being a fairly structureless 'fluid mosaic' solvent is far from correct. The lipid bilayer displays distinct static and dynamic structural organization on a small scale, for example in terms of differentiated lipid domains, and evidence is accumulating that these structures are of importance for the functioning of biological membranes, including the activity of membrane-bound enzymes and receptors and morphological changes at the cell surface. Insight into the relationship between this small-scale structure and biological functioning holds promise for a more rational approach to modulate function via manipulation of the lipid microenvironment and the lipid/protein interface in particular. Computer simulation has proved to be a useful tool in investigating membrane structure on a small scale-specifically the nanometer scale (1-100 nm), which is in between the molecular scale accessible by various spectroscopic techniques and molecular dynamics calculations, and the micrometer scale accessible by scattering and microscopy techniques. PMID:9266173

  7. Dislocation dynamics simulations of plasticity at small scales

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Caizhi

    2010-12-15

    As metallic structures and devices are being created on a dimension comparable to the length scales of the underlying dislocation microstructures, the mechanical properties of them change drastically. Since such small structures are increasingly common in modern technologies, there is an emergent need to understand the critical roles of elasticity, plasticity, and fracture in small structures. Dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations, in which the dislocations are the simulated entities, offer a way to extend length scales beyond those of atomistic simulations and the results from DD simulations can be directly compared with the micromechanical tests. The primary objective of this research is to use 3-D DD simulations to study the plastic deformation of nano- and micro-scale materials and understand the correlation between dislocation motion, interactions and the mechanical response. Specifically, to identify what critical events (i.e., dislocation multiplication, cross-slip, storage, nucleation, junction and dipole formation, pinning etc.) determine the deformation response and how these change from bulk behavior as the system decreases in size and correlate and improve our current knowledge of bulk plasticity with the knowledge gained from the direct observations of small-scale plasticity. Our simulation results on single crystal micropillars and polycrystalline thin films can march the experiment results well and capture the essential features in small-scale plasticity. Furthermore, several simple and accurate models have been developed following our simulation results and can reasonably predict the plastic behavior of small scale materials.

  8. DOE EM industry programs robotics development

    SciTech Connect

    Staubly, R.; Kothari, V. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD&D, as well as testing and evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. OST has organized technology management activities along focus teams for each major problem area. There are currently five focus areas: decontamination and decommissioning, tanks, subsurface contaminants, mixed waste, and plutonium. In addition, OST is pursuing research and development (R&D) that cuts across these focus areas by having applications in two or more focus areas. Currently, there are three cross-cutting programs: the robotics technology development; characterization, monitoring, and sensor technologies; and efficient separations and processing.

  9. Providing Utilities with Tools for Industrial Marketing Programs

    E-print Network

    Cahill, L. E.

    assistance with creating a customer data base o internal communication to staff o education of staff through MetalBri o initial customer contact through direct mail of METALINE brochure o periodic mailings of TechCommentary to target markets o...PROVIDING UTILITIES WITH TOOLS FOR INDUSTRIAL MARKETING PROGRAMS Laura E. Cahi 11 Center "for Metals Fabrication Columbus, Ohio Marketing electrotechnologies to industrial customers can be a complex task unless the right tools are available...

  10. Models for Direct Industry Support of US Civil Engineering Programs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Casey, Michael

    Of the approximately 250 accredited civil engineering programs in the US, the proportion that have direct and formal advisement from local industry is unknown. Where present, external, corporate-style advisory boards made up of practicing engineers and executives from local engineering and construction firms provide formal support in the form of curricular development advice, scholarships and operational funding, as well as co-op and internship programs. The presence and involvement of advisory bodies focused on the departmental rather than the college or university level is perceived as a distinct program advantage and has been recognized by ABET program evaluators. Still, the relative benefits of direct industry support and advisement have not previously been measured. This paper will describe the various forms of informal and formal CE program support and present a survey methodology for evaluating whether these arrangements have a quantifiable effect on program success. A database of advisory boards from surveyed programs is presented and analyzed. The objectives of this work are to correlate the relative performance of CE programs' enrollment, research expenditures, and other factors with direct advisement and support by external boards; and to enumerate the co-incentives that advisory boards and CEprograms share. A case study is presented based on the Civil Engineering Institute (CEI), a nonprofit Virginia corporation and formal advisory board established in 1989 whose purpose is to assist with the Civil and Infrastructure Engineering program of GMU. The paper will finally present guidance and suggestions for implementing formal program support.

  11. Synthesis of underreported small-scale fisheries catch in Pacific island waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, D.; Harper, S.; Zylich, K.; Pauly, D.

    2015-03-01

    We synthesize fisheries catch reconstruction studies for 25 Pacific island countries, states and territories, which compare estimates of total domestic catches with officially reported catch data. We exclude data for the large-scale tuna fleets, which have largely foreign beneficial ownership, even when flying Pacific flags. However, we recognize the considerable financial contributions derived from foreign access or charter fees for Pacific host countries. The reconstructions for the 25 entities from 1950 to 2010 suggested that total domestic catches were 2.5 times the data reported to FAO. This discrepancy was largest in early periods (1950: 6.4 times), while for 2010, total catches were 1.7 times the reported data. There was a significant difference in trend between reported and reconstructed catches since 2000, with reconstructed catches declining strongly since their peak in 2000. Total catches increased from 110,000 t yr-1 in 1950 (of which 17,400 t were reported) to a peak of over 250,000 t yr-1 in 2000, before declining to around 200,000 t yr-1 by 2010. This decrease is driven by a declining artisanal (small-scale commercial) catch, which was not compensated for by increasing domestic industrial (large-scale commercial) catches. The artisanal fisheries appear to be declining from a peak of 97,000 t yr-1 in 1992 to less than 50,000 t yr-1 by 2010. However, total catches were dominated by subsistence (small-scale, non-commercial) fisheries, which accounted for 69 % of total catches, with the majority missing from the reported data. Artisanal catches accounted for 22 %, while truly domestic industrial fisheries accounted for only 6 % of total catches. The smallest component is the recreational (small-scale, non-commercial and largely for leisure) sector (2 %), which, although small in catch, is likely of economic importance in some areas due to its direct link to tourism income.

  12. Technical assessment of the Office of Industrial Programs' Advanced Heat Exchanger Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rinker, F.G.; Bergles, A.E.; Marciniak, T.J.; Batman, J.

    1987-02-01

    The DOE's AHX Program is an integral part of the OIP's Waste Heat Recovery Program whose goals are to increase the end-use energy efficiency of industry and agricultural operations, and to expand the energy options for manufacturing processes by providing technologies which use various fuels including coal, renewables, oil, and natural gas. The OIP and PNL convened a panel of industry experts to conduct a technical assessment of OIP's AHX program. This report documents the results of the panel's assessment.

  13. Tobacco industry sociological programs to influence public beliefs about smoking

    PubMed Central

    Glantz, Stanton; Landman, Anne; Cortese, Daniel K

    2008-01-01

    The multinational tobacco companies responded to arguments about the social costs of smoking and hazards of secondhand smoke by quietly implementing the Social Costs/Social Values project (1979–1989), which relied upon the knowledge and authoritative power of social scientists to construct an alternate cultural repertoire of smoking. Social scientists created and disseminated non-health based, pro-tobacco arguments without fully acknowledging their relationship with the industry. After the U.S. Surgeon General concluded that nicotine was addictive in 1988, the industry responded by forming “Associates for Research in the Science of Enjoyment” (c.1988–1999), whose members toured the world promoting the health benefits of the use of legal substances, including tobacco, for stress relief and relaxation, without acknowledging the industry’s role. In this paper we draw on previously secret tobacco industry documents, now available on the internet to show how both of these programs utilized academic sociologists, political scientists, anthropologists, psychologists, philosophers and economists, and allowed the industry to develop and widely disseminate friendly research through credible channels. Strategies included creating favorable surveys and opinions, infusing them into the lay press and media through press releases, articles and conferences, publishing, promoting and disseminating books, commissioning and placing favorable book reviews, providing media training for book authors and organizing media tours. These programs allowed the tobacco industry to affect public and academic discourse on the social acceptability of smoking. PMID:18164524

  14. Designing Industrial DSM Programs that Work

    E-print Network

    Nadel, S. M.; Jordan, J. A.

    York State Energy Plan (NYSEO et al. 1991) estimates that power from new power plants ranges in cost from $0.05/kWh to more than $0.10/kWh, depending on the type of plant, but that DSM programs generally range in cost from $0.014-o.050/k... rarely received the same level of attention. As a result, there are many efficiency opportunities available in customer facilities that cost substantially less per kWh saved than the cost to generate a kWh from a new power plant. For example, the New...

  15. Handbook for Small-Scale Densified Biomass Fuel (Pellets) Manufacturing for Local Markets.

    SciTech Connect

    Folk, Richard L.; Govett, Robert L.

    1992-07-01

    Wood pellet manufacturing in the Intermountain West is a recently founded and rapidly expanding energy industry for small-scale producers. Within a three-year period, the total number of manufacturers in the region has increased from seven to twelve (Folk et al., 1988). Small-scale industry development is evolving because a supply of raw materials from small and some medium-sized primary and secondary wood processors that has been largely unused. For the residue producer considering pellet fuel manufacturing, the wastewood generated from primary products often carries a cost associated with residue disposal when methods at-e stockpiling, landfilling or incinerating. Regional processors use these methods for a variety of reasons, including the relatively small amounts of residue produced, residue form, mixed residue types, high transportation costs and lack of a local market, convenience and absence of regulation. Direct costs associated with residue disposal include the expenses required to own and operate residue handling equipment, costs for operating and maintaining a combustor and tipping fees charged to accept wood waste at public landfills. Economic and social costs related to environmental concerns may also be incurred to include local air and water quality degradation from open-air combustion and leachate movement into streams and drinking water.

  16. Small-scale AFBC-hot air gas turbine power cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, R.C. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Orrville, OH (United States); Keener, H.M. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Hall, A.W. [Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC), the Will-Burt Company (W-B) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have successfully developed and completed pilot plant tests on a small scale atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) system. This system can be used to generate electricity, and/or hot water, steam. Following successful pilot plant operation, commercial demonstration will take place at Cedar Lane Farms (CLF), near Wooster, Ohio. The system demonstration will be completed by the end of 1995. The project is being funded through a cooperative effort between the DOE, EER, W-B, OARDC, CLF and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO). The small scale AFBC, has no internal heat transfer surfaces in the fluid bed proper. Combining the combustor with a hot air gas turbine (HAGT) for electrical power generation, can give a relatively high overall system thermal efficiency. Using a novel method of recovering waste heat from the gas turbine, a gross heat rate of 13,500 Btu/kWhr ({approximately}25% efficiency) can be achieved for a small 1.5 MW, plant. A low technology industrial recuperation type gas turbine is used that operates with an inlet blade temperature of 1450{degrees}F and a compression ratio of 3.9:1. The AFBC-HAGT technology can be used to generate power for remote rural communities to replace diesel generators, or can be used for small industrial co-generation applications.

  17. Sunspots: From Small-Scale Inhomogeneities Towards a Global Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichenmaier, Rolf

    2009-04-01

    The penumbra of a sunspot is a fascinating phenomenon featuring complex velocity and magnetic fields. It challenges both our understanding of radiative magneto-convection and our means to measure and derive the actual geometry of the magnetic and velocity fields. In this contribution we attempt to summarize the present state-of-the-art from an observational and a theoretical perspective. We describe spectro-polarimetric measurements which reveal that the penumbra is inhomogeneous, changing the modulus and the direction of the velocity, and the strength and the inclination of the magnetic field with depth, i.e., along the line-of-sight, and on spatial scales below 0.5 arcsec. Yet, many details of the small-scale geometry of the fields are still unclear such that the small scale inhomogeneities await a consistent explanation. A simple model which relies on magnetic flux tubes evolving in a penumbral “background” reproduces some properties of sunspot inhomogeneities, like its filamentation, its strong (Evershed-) outflows, and its uncombed geometry, but it encounters some problems in explaining the penumbral heat transport. Another model approach, which can explain the heat transport and long bright filaments, but fails to explain the Evershed flow, relies on elongated convective cells, either field-free as in the gappy penumbra or filled with horizontal magnetic field as in Danielson’s convective rolls. Such simplified models fail to give a consistent picture of all observational aspects, and it is clear that we need a more sophisticated description of the penumbra, that must result from simulations of radiative magneto-convection in inclined magnetic fields. First results of such simulations are discussed. The understanding of the small-scales will then be the key to understand the global structure and the large-scale stability of sunspots.

  18. Examples of backreaction of small-scale inhomogeneities in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Stephen R.; Wald, Robert M.

    2013-06-01

    In previous work, we introduced a new framework to treat large-scale backreaction effects due to small-scale inhomogeneities in general relativity. We considered one-parameter families of spacetimes for which such backreaction effects can occur, and we proved that, provided the weak energy condition on matter is satisfied, the leading effect of small-scale inhomogeneities on large-scale dynamics is to produce a traceless effective stress-energy tensor that itself satisfies the weak energy condition. In this work, we illustrate the nature of our framework by providing two explicit examples of one-parameter families with backreaction. The first, based on previous work of Berger, is a family of polarized vacuum Gowdy spacetimes on a torus, which satisfies all of the assumptions of our framework. As the parameter approaches its limiting value, the metric uniformly approaches a smooth background metric, but spacetime derivatives of the deviation of the metric from the background metric do not converge uniformly to zero. The limiting metric has nontrivial backreaction from the small-scale inhomogeneities, with an effective stress energy that is traceless and satisfies the weak energy condition, in accord with our theorems. Our second one-parameter family consists of metrics which have a uniform Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker limit. This family satisfies all of our assumptions with the exception of the weak energy condition for matter. In this case, the limiting metric has an effective stress-energy tensor which is not traceless. We emphasize the importance of imposing energy conditions on matter in studies of backreaction.

  19. Investigation of the small-scale structure and dynamics of Uranus' atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eshleman, Von R.; Hinson, David P.

    1991-01-01

    This document constitutes the final technical report of the Uranus Analysis Program. Papers and/or abstracts resulting from this research are presented. The following topics are covered: (1) past and future of radio occultation studies of planetary atmospheres; (2) equatorial waves in the stratosphere of Uranus; (3) the atmosphere of Uranus- results of radio occultation measurements with Voyager 2; (4) Uranus' atmospheric dynamics and circulation; (5) small-scale structure and dynamics in the atmosphere of Uranus; (6) evidence for inertia-gravity waves in the stratosphere of Uranus derived from Voyager 2 radio occultation data; and (7) planetary waves in the equatorial stratosphere of Uranus.

  20. Numerical study of the small scale structures in Boussinesq convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinan, E.; Shu, Chi-Wang

    1992-01-01

    Two-dimensional Boussinesq convection is studied numerically using two different methods: a filtered pseudospectral method and a high order accurate Essentially Nonoscillatory (ENO) scheme. The issue whether finite time singularity occurs for initially smooth flows is investigated. The numerical results suggest that the collapse of the bubble cap is unlikely to occur in resolved calculations. The strain rate corresponding to the intensification of the density gradient across the front saturates at the bubble cap. We also found that the cascade of energy to small scales is dominated by the formulation of thin and sharp fronts across which density jumps.

  1. A small-scale concentrating solar thermal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, C.; Schulz, A.; Wu, W.; Sosa, A.; Huang, R.; Mohamed, T.; Atkins, R.; Simcik, J.

    2014-10-01

    The initial prototype design and characterization of a small-scale concentrating solar thermal system will be presented. A large Fresnel lens, with an area of 0.77 square meters on a two-axis tracking mount, is used to concentrate the solar energy and focus it to an area of a few square centimeters. The system design and the first prototype testing will be discussed. By leveraging concentration to achieve the maximum solar-to-thermal energy efficiency and low cost, the system is unique compared to currently available residential hot water systems.

  2. The Small Scale Integrated Sachs-Wolfe Effect

    E-print Network

    Wayne Hu; Naoshi Sugiyama

    1993-10-26

    The integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect (ISW) can be an important factor in the generation of Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies on all scales, especially in a reionized curvature or lambda dominated universe. We present an analytic treatment of the ISW effect, which is analogous to thick last scattering surface techniques for the Doppler effect, that compares quite well with the full numerical calculations. The power spectrum of temperature fluctuations due to the small scale ISW effect has wave number dependence k^{-5} times that of the matter power spectrum.

  3. Small-Scale Fruit Production: A Comprehensive Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    Created and maintained by Penn State University Agricultural Services, this guide is a resource for "people who wish to produce fruit on a small scale (on one acre or less) and who are not legally licensed to use pesticides." The guide discusses topics such as getting started, pruning and training fruit trees, pests and pesticides, and controlling wildlife damage. It also includes individual chapters for each fruit type (pome, stone, grapes, berries, kiwi, etc.). Each of these includes fruit-specific information on planting, nutrition, harvest, and pest management, among other topics. All in all, this is a well-organized and very handy resource for anyone planning or maintaining a fruit garden.

  4. Domestic wastewater treatment with a small-scale membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Abegglen, C; Siegrist, H

    2006-01-01

    A small-scale membrane plant for treating the domestic wastewater of a four-person household is presented. The membrane bioreactor has been in operation for 6 months and achieves elimination rates of 90, 95 and 80% for total organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand and total nitrogen, respectively. Only a small amount sludge is produced. The permeate is reused for flushing toilets and has a yellowish colour. After investigations of the effluent quality, decolourisation of the permeate, energy efficiency and control strategies in the first year, urine will be treated separately in an automated precipitation reactor where struvite is produced to improve the overall phosphate removal of the plant. PMID:16605019

  5. Small-Scale Fruit Production: A Comprehensive Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created and maintained by Penn State University Agricultural Services, this guide is a resource for "people who wish to produce fruit on a small scale (on one acre or less) and who are not legally licensed to use pesticides." The guide discusses topics such as getting started, pruning and training fruit trees, pests and pesticides, and controlling wildlife damage. It also includes individual chapters for each fruit type (pome, stone, grapes, berries, kiwi, etc.). Each of these includes fruit-specific information on planting, nutrition, harvest, and pest management, among other topics. All in all, this is a well-organized and very handy resource for anyone planning or maintaining a fruit garden.

  6. Development of small scale soft x-ray lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D.; Suckewer, S. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab. Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering); Skinner, C.H.; Voorhees, D. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1991-05-01

    At present rapid progress is being made in the application of soft x-ray lasers to fields such as microscopy and microlithography. A critical factor in the range of suitable applications is the scale and hence cost of the soft x-ray lasers. At Princeton, gain at 183{angstrom} has been obtained with relatively low pump laser energies (as low as 6J) in a portable'' small-scale soft x-ray laser system. We will also discuss aspects of data interpretation and pitfalls to be avoided in measurements of gain in such systems. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Optimal Tracking Controller Design for a Small Scale Helicopter

    E-print Network

    Budiyono, Agus

    2008-01-01

    A model helicopter is more difficult to control than its full scale counterparts. This is due to its greater sensitivity to control inputs and disturbances as well as higher bandwidth of dynamics. This works is focused on designing practical tracking controller for a small scale helicopter following predefined trajectories. A tracking controller based on optimal control theory is synthesized as part of the development of an autonomous helicopter. Some issues in regards to control constraints are addressed. The weighting between state tracking performance and control power expenditure is analyzed. Overall performance of the control design is evaluated based on its time domain histories of trajectories as well as control inputs.

  8. Aerodynamics of small-scale vertical-axis wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraschivoiu, I.; Desy, P.

    1985-12-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the influence of various rotor parameters on the aerodynamic performance of a small-scale Darrieus wind turbine. To do this, a straight-bladed Darrieus rotor is calculated by using the double-multiple-streamtube model including the streamtube expansion effects through the rotor (CARDAAX computer code) and the dynamicstall effects. The straight-bladed Darrieus turbine is as expected more efficient with respect the curved-bladed rotor but for a given solidity is operates at higher wind speeds.

  9. Overview of the Testing of a Small-Scale Proprotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Booth, Earl R., Jr.; Botha, Gavin; Dawson, Seth

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of results from the wind tunnel test of a 1/4-scale V-22 proprotor in the Duits-Nederlandse Windtunnel (DNW) in The Netherlands. The small-scale proprotor was tested on the isolated rotor configuration of the Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM). The test was conducted by a joint team from NASA Ames, NASA Langley, U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate, and The Boeing Company. The objective of the test was to acquire a benchmark database for validating aeroacoustic analyses. Representative examples of airloads, acoustics, structural loads, and performance data are provided and discussed.

  10. DOE EM industry programs robotics development

    SciTech Connect

    Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.

    1998-12-31

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD and D, as well as testing and evaluation for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. Robotic systems reduce worker exposure to the absolute minimum, while providing proven, cost-effective, and, for some applications, the only acceptable technique for addressing challenging problems. Development of robotic systems for remote operations occurs in three main categories: tank waste characterization and retrieval; decontamination and dismantlement; and characterization, mapping, and inspection systems. In addition, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has some other projects which fall under the heading of supporting R and D. The central objective of all FETC robotic projects is to make robotic systems more attractive by reducing costs and health risks associated with the deployment of robotic technologies in the cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. This will be accomplished through development of robots that are cheaper, faster, safer, and more reliable, as well as more straightforward to modify/adapt and more intuitive to operate with autonomous capabilities and intelligent controls that prevent accidents and optimize task execution.

  11. Project LIVE Learning through Industry and Volunteer Educators. A Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Aid Society, New York, NY.

    Project Learning through Industry and Volunteer Educators (Project LIVE) is a mentoring, tutorial, and world of work program that matches a junior high school student with a corporate volunteer. Since 1972, it has matched inner-city New York City seventh and eighth graders who are below grade-level in reading with volunteers who tutor in their…

  12. An NSF Industry/University Cooperative Research Program CCMC PROSPECTUS

    E-print Network

    /UCRCs, the UNM Center for Micro-Engineered Materials, the Rutgers Center for Ceramic Research An NSF Industry/University Cooperative Research Program CCMC PROSPECTUS May 2005 CERAMIC ALBUQUERQUE, NEW MEXICO 87131-1341, AND PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY 249 MATERIALS RESEARCH LABORATORY

  13. Taiwan Industrial Vocational Education: The Personnel Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Frank Tien-Jin

    The goal of industrial vocational education is reached only when the technical personnel it prepares find employment in a technological world and enjoy their working experience. Technological upgrading and economic advancement in Taiwan necessitate drastic revisions and improvements in the personnel development program. The government has been…

  14. A small-scale anatomical dosimetry model of the liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenvall, Anna; Larsson, Erik; Strand, Sven-Erik; Jönsson, Bo-Anders

    2014-07-01

    Radionuclide therapy is a growing and promising approach for treating and prolonging the lives of patients with cancer. For therapies where high activities are administered, the liver can become a dose-limiting organ; often with a complex, non-uniform activity distribution and resulting non-uniform absorbed-dose distribution. This paper therefore presents a small-scale dosimetry model for various source-target combinations within the human liver microarchitecture. Using Monte Carlo simulations, Medical Internal Radiation Dose formalism-compatible specific absorbed fractions were calculated for monoenergetic electrons; photons; alpha particles; and 125I, 90Y, 211At, 99mTc, 111In, 177Lu, 131I and 18F. S values and the ratio of local absorbed dose to the whole-organ average absorbed dose was calculated, enabling a transformation of dosimetry calculations from macro- to microstructure level. For heterogeneous activity distributions, for example uptake in Kupffer cells of radionuclides emitting low-energy electrons (125I) or high-LET alpha particles (211At) the target absorbed dose for the part of the space of Disse, closest to the source, was more than eight- and five-fold the average absorbed dose to the liver, respectively. With the increasing interest in radionuclide therapy of the liver, the presented model is an applicable tool for small-scale liver dosimetry in order to study detailed dose-effect relationships in the liver.

  15. A small-scale anatomical dosimetry model of the liver.

    PubMed

    Stenvall, Anna; Larsson, Erik; Strand, Sven-Erik; Jönsson, Bo-Anders

    2014-07-01

    Radionuclide therapy is a growing and promising approach for treating and prolonging the lives of patients with cancer. For therapies where high activities are administered, the liver can become a dose-limiting organ; often with a complex, non-uniform activity distribution and resulting non-uniform absorbed-dose distribution. This paper therefore presents a small-scale dosimetry model for various source-target combinations within the human liver microarchitecture. Using Monte Carlo simulations, Medical Internal Radiation Dose formalism-compatible specific absorbed fractions were calculated for monoenergetic electrons; photons; alpha particles; and (125)I, (90)Y, (211)At, (99m)Tc, (111)In, (177)Lu, (131)I and (18)F. S values and the ratio of local absorbed dose to the whole-organ average absorbed dose was calculated, enabling a transformation of dosimetry calculations from macro- to microstructure level. For heterogeneous activity distributions, for example uptake in Kupffer cells of radionuclides emitting low-energy electrons ((125)I) or high-LET alpha particles ((211)At) the target absorbed dose for the part of the space of Disse, closest to the source, was more than eight- and five-fold the average absorbed dose to the liver, respectively. With the increasing interest in radionuclide therapy of the liver, the presented model is an applicable tool for small-scale liver dosimetry in order to study detailed dose-effect relationships in the liver. PMID:24874832

  16. Small-scale Interstellar Structure and the Outer Heliosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, P. C.; Bzowski, M.; Funsten, H. O.; McComas, D. J.; Moebius, E.; Schwadron, N. A.; Slavin, J. D.

    2013-05-01

    Magnetized interstellar plasma interacts with the heliosphere in the outer heliosheath, which is the region close to but beyond the heliopause. The outer heliosheath (OHS) is unlikely to be a static entity. In the nearby interstellar medium (ISM), radio scintillation measurements show that tiny clouds of ionized gas are present. Over long sightlines, variations in the plasma density of the ISM are found over all spatial scales. These enigmatic pieces of data provide evidence for spatial variations in the ISM that are comparable to the dimensions of the heliosphere. As the Sun travels through the local ISM at 23 km/s, small-scale spatial structures in the interstellar plasma would interact with the heliosphere as it evolves through the solar cycle. The consequences of these interactions on the observables of the outer heliosheath are unknown. Outer heliosheath observables include the secondary helium population discovered by IBEX, the IBEX Ribbon, the 2 kHz emissions mapped by Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, the hydrogen wall diagnosed by a hot gas that absorbs the hydrogen Lyman-alpha emission from nearby stars, and the secondary hydrogen population traced by SOHO/SWAN data. This talk will explore whether the interaction between small scale structure in the local ISM and the evolving heliosphere might affect our measurements of the outer heliosheath.

  17. Small-scale variability of metal concentrations in soil leachates

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcke, W.

    2000-02-01

    Soil tests often use composite soil samples to assess metal bioavailability. Composite soil samples cannot address small-scale soil heterogeneity. In this study, the concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, dissolved organic C (DOC), and pH in soil leachates were examined as an index of small-scale soil heterogeneity. Ten undisturbed soil cores from a 1-m{sup 2} area of a Lithic Haplumbrept and a Typic Hapludoll (pH 4.3) under forest canopy were equilibrated with deionized water. The soil cores were then leached with a mock soil solution. In the Haplumbrept, the pH of the first 50-mL fraction of the leachates was 4.2 to 7.4, DOC concentrations were 11.4 to 38.9 mg L{sup {minus}1}. Aluminum, Cd, Mn, and Ni concentrations were significantly correlated with pH; varied little in the first 50-mL fractions; Cr, Cu, and Pb concentrations were correlated with DOC concentrations. The variability in metal concentrations of the first 50-mL fractions was comparable in both soils and did not change with increasing leachate volume except for Zn in the Haplumbrept. In all leachate fractions, variability was markedly higher than those reported for salt extracts of composite soil samples. Thus, the analysis of composite samples may be insufficient to address metal bioavailability in soils.

  18. Preliminary Scaling Estimate for Select Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Beric E.; Fort, James A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.; Schonewill, Philip P.

    2013-09-12

    The Hanford Site double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions’ Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems.

  19. Atmospheric dispersion modelling over complex terrain at small scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosek, S.; Janour, Z.; Kukacka, L.; Jurcakova, K.; Kellnerova, R.; Gulikova, E.

    2014-03-01

    Previous study concerned of qualitative modelling neutrally stratified flow over open-cut coal mine and important surrounding topography at meso-scale (1:9000) revealed an important area for quantitative modelling of atmospheric dispersion at small-scale (1:3300). The selected area includes a necessary part of the coal mine topography with respect to its future expansion and surrounding populated areas. At this small-scale simultaneous measurement of velocity components and concentrations in specified points of vertical and horizontal planes were performed by two-dimensional Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) and Fast-Response Flame Ionization Detector (FFID), respectively. The impact of the complex terrain on passive pollutant dispersion with respect to the prevailing wind direction was observed and the prediction of the air quality at populated areas is discussed. The measured data will be used for comparison with another model taking into account the future coal mine transformation. Thus, the impact of coal mine transformation on pollutant dispersion can be observed.

  20. Conceptual design of a small-scale plutonium recovery incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, W.F.

    1986-08-25

    A conceptional design study of a small scale incinerator for the plutonium production areas has been completed. This glovebox-enclosed incinerator would use pyrohydrolysis to allow recovery of plutonium from highly contaminated combustible waste. The system consists of a primary and secondary chamber and an off-gas system. Initial sizing and specification were completed using computer models, including pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis models. These models were verified by test runs on a TGA furnace. Reasonably good agreement was obtained between the predicted and observed reaction rates. One potential layout indicated the process would fit in a 6-2/3 by 4-1/3 by 7 foot glovebox. The cost of building a prototype is estimated at $300,000. If two machines were built, they could allow recovery of between 3 and 10 kilograms of plutonium per year and reduce waste volume by 2000 cubic feet per year. A small scale, plutonium recovery incinerator in the production areas appears both economically and technically feasible. 11 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. SMALL SCALE FUEL CELL AND REFORMER SYSTEMS FOR REMOTE POWER

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Witmer

    2003-12-01

    New developments in fuel cell technologies offer the promise of clean, reliable affordable power, resulting in reduced environmental impacts and reduced dependence on foreign oil. These developments are of particular interest to the people of Alaska, where many residents live in remote villages, with no roads or electrical grids and a very high cost of energy, where small residential power systems could replace diesel generators. Fuel cells require hydrogen for efficient electrical production, however. Hydrogen purchased through conventional compressed gas suppliers is very expensive and not a viable option for use in remote villages, so hydrogen production is a critical piece of making fuel cells work in these areas. While some have proposed generating hydrogen from renewable resources such as wind, this does not appear to be an economically viable alternative at this time. Hydrogen can also be produced from hydrocarbon feed stocks, in a process known as reforming. This program is interested in testing and evaluating currently available reformers using transportable fuels: methanol, propane, gasoline, and diesel fuels. Of these, diesel fuels are of most interest, since the existing energy infrastructure of rural Alaska is based primarily on diesel fuels, but this is also the most difficult fuel to reform, due to the propensity for coke formation, due to both the high vaporization temperature and to the high sulfur content in these fuels. There are several competing fuel cell technologies being developed in industry today. Prior work at UAF focused on the use of PEM fuel cells and diesel reformers, with significant barriers identified to their use for power in remote areas, including stack lifetime, system efficiency, and cost. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells have demonstrated better stack lifetime and efficiency in demonstrations elsewhere (though cost still remains an issue), and procuring a system for testing was pursued. The primary function of UAF in the fuel cell industry is in the role of third party independent testing. In order for tests to be conducted, hardware must be purchased and delivered. The fuel cell industry is still in a pre-commercial state, however. Commercial products are defined as having a fixed set of specifications, fixed price, fixed delivery date, and a warrantee. Negotiations with fuel cell companies over these issues are often complex, and the results of these discussions often reveal much about the state of development of the technology. This work includes some of the results of these procurement experiments. Fuel cells may one day replace heat engines as the source of electrical power in remote areas. However, the results of this program to date indicate that currently available hardware is not developed sufficiently for these environments, and that significant time and resources will need to be committed for this to occur.

  2. Industrial pollution prevention programs in selected developing Asian countries

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Shen-yann [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the information on current activities to promote industrial pollution prevention (P2) in five selected Asian economies including Hong Kong, Republic of Korea, the Philippines, ROC in Taiwan, and Thailand. These activities, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into 6 categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technology development an demonstration, technical assistance, and financial incentives. Although participation is voluntary, these programs are all important at the early stages of P2 promotion and should be useful in informing industries of the benefit of P2 and helping them identify specific P2 measures as viable environmental management alternatives.

  3. American Chemical Society (ACS) Regional Industrial Innovation Awards Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The American Chemical Society's (ACS) "Regional Industrial Innovation Awards Program celebrates the successful innovations of industrial chemists and chemical engineers that contribute to the health of their local and regional economy and the corporate leadership for its advancement of a healthy economy." The website illustrates the significance of a nomination and describes the criteria and eligibility for a nominee. Users can find out about the honorees' exciting opportunity to present their innovations at a symposium. Visitors can read synopses of the outstanding developments of past recipients.

  4. MTU MICUP Program and Industrial Technology Recruitment Efforts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Irwin, John

    This presentation reviews an ongoing community college outreach/recruiting initiative, MICUP delivered at MTU, Houghton Michigan, outlines a BS degree in Industrial Technology program designed for community college transfer students with an AS in approved technical disciplines, and reviews future recruitment and retention initiatives. MICUP is the Michigan College/University Partnership Program, MTU's Unlock Your Future Program, which is funded by the Michigan Department of Labor and Economic Growth, King-Chavez-Parks Initiative. This is a partnership program among MTU, Delta College, Grand Rapids Community College, and Northwestern Michigan College. Candidates who qualify for this program receive a competitive stipend to cover the cost of travel. Participants take a 3-credit MTU summer course at no cost to get a glimpse into what it is like to attend MTU as a full time student before making a huge commitment of time and money. (Cost of textbooks is not included.) Participants live on our campus for six weeks with room and meal plans included. The student participates in an Undergraduate Research Internship in their area of study. MTU's vision is that the Industrial Technology program attractiveness to community college transfer students will add to the overall enrollment and create a more diverse population in the School of Technology while educating a business savvy technical generalist necessary in a competitive global manufacturing market.

  5. Small-scale nonlinear dynamics of K-mouflage theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brax, Philippe; Valageas, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the small-scale static configurations of K-mouflage models defined by a general function K (? ) of the kinetic terms. The fifth force is screened by the nonlinear K-mouflage mechanism if K'(? ) grows sufficiently fast for large negative ? . In the general nonspherically symmetric case, the fifth force is not aligned with the Newtonian force. For spherically symmetric static matter density profiles, we show that the results depend on the potential function W-(y )=y K'(-y2/2 ) ; i.e., W-(y ) must be monotonically increasing to +? for y ?0 to guarantee the existence of a single solution throughout space for any matter density profile. Small radial perturbations around these static profiles propagate as travelling waves with a velocity greater than the speed of light. Starting from vanishing initial conditions for the scalar field and for a time-dependent matter density corresponding to the formation of an overdensity, we numerically check that the scalar field converges to the static solution. If W- is bounded, for high-density objects there are no static solutions throughout space, but one can still define a static solution restricted to large radii. Our dynamical study shows that the scalar field relaxes to this static solution at large radii, whereas spatial gradients keep growing with time at smaller radii. If W- is not bounded but nonmonotonic, there is an infinite number of discontinuous static solutions. However, the Klein-Gordon equation is no longer a well-defined hyperbolic equation, which leads to complex characteristic speeds and exponential instabilities. Therefore, these discontinuous static solutions are not physical, and these models are not theoretically sound. Such K-mouflage scenarios provide an example of theories that can appear viable at the cosmological level, for the cosmological background and perturbative analysis, while being meaningless at a nonlinear level for small-scale configurations. This shows the importance of small-scale nonlinear analysis of screening models. All healthy K-mouflage models should satisfy K'>0 , and W±(y )=y K'(±y2/2 ) are monotonically increasing to +? when y ?0 .

  6. Numerical Simulation and Optimazation of Small Scale LNG Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. Y.; Jia, L. X.; Fan, Q. H.; Yin, Q. S.

    2006-04-01

    The LNG20 is a small-scale natural gas liquefier. Its capacity is 20 cube meters LNG per day. This liquefier could be used for the pipeline gas, coalbed gas, oil field gas liquefaction and peakshaving plant for town gas gate station and natural gas power plant. Two processing cycles are applied to LNG20, nitrogen expander cycle and mixed refrigerant cycle. In this report, two feed gases are the target sources; one is the pipeline gas in "West-to-east pipeline gas" in a gate station in Zhejiang province and coalbed gas in Northeast China. The numerical simulation and optimization for the LNG20 were carried out to obtain the design parameters.

  7. The Challenge of Small-Scale Repeats for Indel Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Narzisi, Giuseppe; Schatz, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive sequences are abundant in the human genome. Different classes of repetitive DNA sequences, including simple repeats, tandem repeats, segmental duplications, interspersed repeats, and other elements, collectively span more than 50% of the genome. Because repeat sequences occur in the genome at different scales they can cause various types of sequence analysis errors, including in alignment, de novo assembly, and annotation, among others. This mini-review highlights the challenges introduced by small-scale repeat sequences, especially near-identical tandem or closely located repeats and short tandem repeats, for discovering DNA insertion and deletion (indel) mutations from next-generation sequencing data. We also discuss the de Bruijn graph sequence assembly paradigm that is emerging as the most popular and promising approach for detecting indels. The human exome is taken as an example and highlights how these repetitive elements can obscure or introduce errors while detecting these types of mutations. PMID:25674564

  8. Small-Scale Geothermal Power Plant Field Verification Projects: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.

    2001-07-03

    In the spring of 2000, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory issued a Request for Proposal for the construction of small-scale (300 kilowatt [kW] to 1 megawatt [MW]) geothermal power plants in the western United States. Five projects were selected for funding. Of these five, subcontracts have been completed for three, and preliminary design work is being conducted. The three projects currently under contract represent a variety of concepts and locations: a 1-MW evaporatively enhanced, air-cooled binary-cycle plant in Nevada; a 1-MW water-cooled Kalina-cycle plant in New Mexico; and a 750-kW low-temperature flash plant in Utah. All three also incorporate direct heating: onion dehydration, heating for a fish hatchery, and greenhouse heating, respectively. These projects are expected to begin operation between April 2002 and September 2003. In each case, detailed data on performance and costs will be taken over a 3-year period.

  9. Small-scale fuel cells for residential applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammes, N. M.; Boersma, R.

    The market and technical requirements for small-scale fuel cells in residential applications are investigated, focusing on the 1 to 10 kW range. In particular, the peculiar features of the New Zealand situation are explored, with its specific energy resources and demands. It is shown that various technologies could be applied, with PEM, SOFC, PAFC and AFC competing on almost equal terms, with cost targets of 500 to 700 EUR/kW. The attributes and disadvantages are discussed, with a number of technology gaps being identified, and some solutions proposed. Two new developments in the PEM and SOFC systems are compared in relation to their use in domestic applications. The obvious premium application of fuel cells in New Zealand exists where grid connection is expensive. Other priority markets are also studied.

  10. LLNL small-scale drop-hammer impact sensitivity test

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, L.R.; Foltz, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    Small-scale safety testing of explosives and other energetic materials is done to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli including friction, static spark, and impact. This testing is typically done to discover potential handling problems for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing ``ERL Type 12 Drop Weight Impact Sensitivity Apparatus``, or ``Drop Hammer Machine``, and the methods used to determine the impact sensitivity of energetic materials, Also discussed are changes made to both the machine and methods since the inception of impact sensitivity testing at LLNL in 1956. The accumulated data for the materials tested in not listed here, the exception being the discussion of those specific materials (primary calibrants: PETN, RDX, Comp-B3,and TNT; secondary calibrants: K-6, RX-26-AF, and TATB) used to calibrate the machine.

  11. The challenge of small-scale repeats for indel discovery.

    PubMed

    Narzisi, Giuseppe; Schatz, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive sequences are abundant in the human genome. Different classes of repetitive DNA sequences, including simple repeats, tandem repeats, segmental duplications, interspersed repeats, and other elements, collectively span more than 50% of the genome. Because repeat sequences occur in the genome at different scales they can cause various types of sequence analysis errors, including in alignment, de novo assembly, and annotation, among others. This mini-review highlights the challenges introduced by small-scale repeat sequences, especially near-identical tandem or closely located repeats and short tandem repeats, for discovering DNA insertion and deletion (indel) mutations from next-generation sequencing data. We also discuss the de Bruijn graph sequence assembly paradigm that is emerging as the most popular and promising approach for detecting indels. The human exome is taken as an example and highlights how these repetitive elements can obscure or introduce errors while detecting these types of mutations. PMID:25674564

  12. Small-scale experiments in STOVL ground effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corsiglia, Victor R.; Wardwell, Douglas A.; Kuhn, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    A series of tests was completed in which suckdown and fountain forces and pressures were measured on circular plates and twin-tandem-jet generic STOVL (short takeoff and vertical landing) configurations. The tests were conducted using a small-scale hover rig, for jet pressure ratios up to 6 and jet temperatures up to 700 F. The measured suckdown force on a circular plate with a central jet was greater than that found with a commonly used empirical prediction method. The present data showed better agreement with other sets of data. The tests of the generic STOVL configurations were conducted to provide force and pressure data with a parametric variation of parameters so that an empirical prediction method could be developed. The effects of jet pressure ratio and temperature were found to be small. Lift improvement devices were shown to substantially reduce the net suckdown forces.

  13. Small-scale experiments in STOVL ground effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corsiglia, Victor R.; Wardwell, Douglas A.; Kuhn, Richard E.

    1990-01-01

    A series of tests has been completed in which suckdown and fountain forces and pressures were measured on circular plates and twin-tandem-jet generic STOVL (short takeoff and vertical landing) configurations. The tests were conducted using a small-scale hover rig, for jet pressure ratios up to 6 and jet temperatures up to 700 F. The measured suckdown force on a circular plate with a central jet was greater than that found with a commonly used empirical prediction method. The present data showed better agreement with other sets of data. The tests of the generic STOVL configurations were conducted to provide force and pressure data with a parametric variation of parameters so that an empirical prediction method cold be developed. The effects of jet pressure ratio and temperature were found to be small. Lift improvement devices were shown to substantially reduce the net suckdown forces.

  14. Promoting sustainable development in Ghanaian small-scale gold mining operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gavin Hilson

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the initiatives that have been undertaken by the Ghanaian government to promote more sustainable development in resident small-scale gold mining operations, and recommends a series of strategies for perpetuating a pattern of continued improvement. Since the passing of the ‘Small Scale Gold Mining Law’ (PNDCL 218) in 1989, which effectively legalized small-scale gold mining

  15. Properties of small-scale magnetism of stellar atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Oskar; Salhab, René; Freytag, Bernd; Rajaguru, Paul; Schaffenberger, Werner; Steffen, Matthias

    2014-12-01

    The magnetic field outside of sunspots is concentrated in the intergranular space, where it forms a delicate filigree of bright ribbons and dots as seen on broad band images of the Sun. We expect this small-scale magnetic field to exhibit a similar behavior in stellar atmospheres. In order to find out more about it, we perform numerical simulations of the surface layers of stellar atmospheres. Here, we report on preliminary results from simulations in the range between 4000 K and 6500 K effective temperature with an initial vertical, homogeneous magnetic field of 50 G strength. We find that the field strength of the strongest magnetic flux concentrations increases with decreasing effective temperature at the height level where the average Rosseland optical depth is one. On the other hand, at the same level, the field is less strong than the thermal equipartition value in the coolest model but assumes superequipartition in the models hotter than 5000 K. While the Wilson depression of the strongest field concentrations is about one pressure scale height in the coolest model, it is more than four times the pressure scale height in the hottest one. We also find that the relative contribution of the bright filigree to the bolometric, vertically directed radiative intensity is most significant for the Teff = 5000 K model (0.6%-0.79%) and least significant for the hottest and coolest models (0.1%-0.46% and 0.14%-0.32%, respectively). This behavior suggests that the effect of the small-scale magnetic field on the photometric variability is more significant for K dwarf stars than for F-type and also M-type stars.

  16. Electric & Gas Conservation Programs Connecticut Energy Efficiency Fund Programs for Commercial & Industrial Customers

    E-print Network

    Sermakekian, E.

    2011-01-01

    1 Electric & Gas Conservation Programs Connecticut Energy Efficiency Fund Programs for Commercial & Industrial Customers Presented by: CL&P?s Conservation and Load Management Department 2 ? Connecticut Energy Efficiency... Fund (CEEF) was created in 1998 by CT State Legislature ? Energy efficiency is a valuable resource for Connecticut, it: ? Reduces air pollutants and greenhouse gases ? Creates monetary savings for customers ? Reduces need for more energy...

  17. Commercial national accounts program is a gas industry revenue builder

    SciTech Connect

    Moskitis, T.L.

    1984-04-01

    The need for gas distributors to implement revenue-generating strategies is clearly evident in the commercial sector - their fastest growing market. One strategy is A.G.A.'s commercial national accounts marketing program, designed to establish working relationships with national and regional food, hotel, and retail chains and with the firms that design energy systems for them. The program supplies these chains with information on gas industry services and research aimed at increasing energy utilization efficiency. Regular communications and coordinated sales calls by gas utility executives on chain headquarters often produce increased gas sales, even of traditionally all-electric chains, as illustrated by several case histories.

  18. Analysis of industrial pollution prevention programs in selected Asian countries

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Industrialization in developing countries is causing increasing environmental damage. Pollution prevention (P2) is an emerging environmental concept that could help developing countries achieve leapfrog goals, bypassing old and pollutive technologies and minimizing traditional control practices. The current P2 promotion activities in Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand are discussed. These programs, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into five categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technical assistance, and financial incentives. All important at the early stages of P2 promotion, these programs should inform industries of the benefits of P2 and help them identify applicable P2 measures. Participation in these programs is voluntary. The limited data indicate that adoption of P2 measures in these countries is not yet widespread. Recommendations for expanding P2 promotion activities include (1) strengthening the design and enforcement of environmental regulations; (2) providing P2 training and education to government workers, nongovernmental organizations and labor unions officials, university faculties, and news media; (3) tracking the progress of P2 programs; (4) implementing selected P2 mandatory measures; (5) identifying cleaner production technologies for use in new facilities; (6) implementing special programs for small and medium enterprises; and (7) expanding P2 promotion to other sectors, such as agriculture and transportation, and encouraging green design and green consumerism.

  19. First NASA/Industry High Speed Research Program Nozzle Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long-Davis, Mary Jo

    1999-01-01

    The First High Speed Research (HSR) Nozzle Symposium was hosted by NASA Lewis Research Center on November 17-19, 1992 in Cleveland, Ohio, and was sponsored by the HSR Source Noise Working Group. The purpose of this symposium was to provide a national forum for the government, industry, and university participants in the program to present and discuss important low noise nozzle research results and technology issues related to the development of appropriate nozzles for a commercially viable, environmentally compatible, U.S. High-Speed Civil Transport. The HSR Phase I research program was initiated in FY90 and is approaching the first major milestone (end of FY92) relative to an initial FAR 36 Stage 3 nozzle noise assessment. Significant research results relative to that milestone were presented. The opening session provided a brief overview of the Program and status of the Phase H plan. The next five sessions were technically oriented and highlighted recent significant analytical and experimental accomplishments. The last Session included a panel discussion by the Session Chairs, summarizing the progress seen to date and discussing issues relative to further advances in technology necessary to achieve the Program Goals. Attendance at the Symposium was by invitation only and included only industry, academic, and government participants who are actively involved in the High-Speed Research Program. The technology presented in this meeting is considered commercially sensitive.

  20. An Energy Conservation Program in the Food Industry

    E-print Network

    Farner, C. T.

    , covering a wide range of food products. Maxwell House coffee, Post cereals, Birds Eye frozen vegetables, Jell-O desserts and Kool-Aid powdered drink mixes are some of the more prominent ones. The company also manufactures some food ingredients...AN ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY Carl T. Farner General Foods Corporation White Plains, General Foods Corporation is one of the largest food manufacturing companies in the United States. It's brand names are well known...

  1. Software Tools and Training Program: For the Efficient Design and Operation of Industrial Processes

    E-print Network

    Soucy, E.

    2014-01-01

    1 Industrial Energy Technology Conference Software Tools & Training Program: For the Efficient Design and Operation of Industrial Processes Eric Soucy, Director, Industrial Systems Optimization Program, CanmetENERGY Wednesday, May 21...-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 34 Thank you for your time and attention! For further information, please contact: Eric Soucy, Director Industrial Systems Optimization Program CanmetENERGY Natural Resources...

  2. The Department of Energy's Solar Industrial Program: New ideas for American industry

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.V.; Hauser, S.G.; Clyne, R.J.

    1991-07-01

    As society becomes more and more sensitive to the environment, and energy supplies become more scarce, the application of solar energy is expanding into new areas. The industrial sector is one of the most difficult for solar energy to impact because of its technical diversity and economic requirements. However, the opportunities are still abundant. The Department of Energy's Solar Industrial Program is dedicated to advancing the applications of solar energy in this sector. Research and technology development activities are currently focused in three areas: solar process heat, advanced materials manufacturing, and destruction of chemical wastes. The Solar Energy Research Institute manages these activities for DOE with close interactions with other federal agencies, private industry, and universities. 7 figs.

  3. 75 FR 13114 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Publication of the Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ...Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Publication of the Petition...efficiency program titled ``Certain Industrial Equipment,'' which includes commercial...NJ 07004 Attn: Arturo Thur De Koos, Engineering & Technical Support LG Electronics...

  4. 75 FR 41845 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Decision and Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ...Conservation Program for Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Decision and Order Granting...efficiency program titled ``Certain Industrial Equipment,'' which includes large...referenced in ASHRAE/IES [Illuminating Engineering Society] Standard 90.1 and in...

  5. IntroductionIntroduction The use of small scale vertical axis wind turbinesThe use of small scale vertical axis wind turbines

    E-print Network

    Tullis, Stephen

    IntroductionIntroduction The use of small scale vertical axis wind turbinesThe use of small scale vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) is being studied at McMaster University using(VAWT) is being studied at McMaster University using a prototype wind turbine provided bya prototype wind turbine provided

  6. Small-scale irregularities and global plasma dynamics in the high-latitude ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuise, C.; Greenwald, R. A.; Baker, K. B.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Cerisier, J. C.; Senior, Catherine

    1989-04-01

    New sophisticated HF coherent radars were installed in the past few years at very high latitudes. The APL Goose Bay radar and the French SHERPA radar in Schefferville are the two components of the Polar Region Ionospheric Structrure Monitor (PRISM) operating in Canada. These instruments detect irregularities within the three-dimensional volume covering much of northeastern Canada and Greenland. The instruments are capable of following the temporal variability of these irregularities as well as determining unambiguously the Doppler shift and spectral broadening of radar signals scattered by them. The scientific goals of the program concern both the physics of the small-scale structures and the mapping of large-scale plasma convection. Several case studies of plasma mechanisms generating the small-scale density structures were already published. The temporal and spatial variability of the large-scale irregularity structures, as seen by the radars, is also investigated. The relationship between the radar Doppler velocity and the plasma drift velocity were confirmed. The potential of the system for studying global ionospheric dynamics is emphasized. When combining the two radial velocities measured by each radar, a two-dimensional map of plasma convection and electric field is derived over a region as large as 2 million square kilometers, with a fine temporal and spatial resolution in the auroral region and over the polar cap.

  7. Faculty for Factory: A University-Industry Link Program in Jordan

    E-print Network

    of Industry, Jordanian Pharmaceutical Manufacturing, and the Industrial Development Bank. · It later evolvedFaculty for Factory: A University- Industry Link Program in Jordan Yousef Al Abdallat and Tarek A Paris, France #12;Overview Faculty for Factory (FFF) program is a national Jordanian program

  8. On-farm characteristics and biosecurity protocols for small-scale swine producers in eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Schembri, N; Hernandez-Jover, M; Toribio, J-A L M L; Holyoake, P K

    2015-01-01

    Pigs are considered high risk for the introduction and spread of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Australia. Facilities where animals from different origins are commingled, such as saleyards, pose a high risk for disease spread. Sound on-farm management practices and biosecurity protocols are the first line of defence against a potential on-farm disease outbreak. This study evaluated the practices of 104 producers (vendors who sold pigs and purchasers of live pigs for grow-out) who traded pigs at 6 peri-urban and rural saleyards in eastern Australia. Specifically, management and on-farm biosecurity practices were assessed using an in-depth questionnaire. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to investigate (1) producer associations: producer type, State, motivation to keep pigs, farm type, gender, years having owned pigs, and the acquisition of formal livestock qualifications; and (2) pig associations: herd size, housing, management (husbandry and feeding) practices and biosecurity (including pig movement) practices. Backyard operations (<20 sows) were undertaken by 60.6% of participants, followed by small-scale pig operations (28.8%; 21-100 sows). Few producers (16.3%) reported residing in close proximity (<5 km) to commercial operations; however, less rural producers had neighbouring hobby pig operations within 5 km of their property (P=0.033). Motivation for keeping pigs was significantly associated with a number of biosecurity practices. Producers who kept pigs for primary income were more likely to provide footwear precautions (P=0.007) and ask visitors about prior pig contacts (P=0.004). Approximately 40% of backyard and small-scale producers reported not having any quarantine practices in place for incoming pigs, compared to only 9.1% among larger producers. The main reasons cited for not adopting on-farm biosecurity practices in this study included having no need on their property (43.1%) and a lack of information and support (by the industry and/or authorities; 18.5%). Up to three-quarters of all producers maintained an open breeding herd, regularly introducing new pigs to the main herd. Saleyards are an important source of income for backyard and small-scale producers as well as an important risk factor for the introduction and dissemination of endemic and emerging animal diseases. Differing management and biosecurity practices as well as the motivations of these producers keeping pigs in small numbers and trading pigs at saleyards need to be taken into account in the development of successful biosecurity extension programmes for this sector of the Australian pork industry. PMID:25433716

  9. Robust, small-scale cultivation platform for Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background For fermentation process and strain improvement, where one wants to screen a large number of conditions and strains, robust and scalable high-throughput cultivation systems are crucial. Often, the time lag between bench-scale cultivations to production largely depends on approximate estimation of scalable physiological traits. Microtiter plate (MTP) based screening platforms have lately become an attractive alternative to shake flasks mainly because of the ease of automation. However, there are very few reports on applications for filamentous organisms; as well as efforts towards systematic validation of physiological behavior compared to larger scale are sparse. Moreover, available small-scale screening approaches are typically constrained by evaluating only an end point snapshot of phenotypes. Results To address these issues, we devised a robust, small-scale cultivation platform in the form of MTPs (24-square deepwell) for the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor and compared its performance to that of shake flasks and bench-scale reactors. We observed that re-designing of medium and inoculum preparation recipes resulted in improved reproducibility. Process turnaround time was significantly reduced due to the reduction in number of unit operations from inoculum to cultivation. The incorporation of glass beads (ř 3 mm) in MTPs not only improved the process performance in terms of improved oxygen transfer improving secondary metabolite production, but also helped to transform morphology from pellet to disperse, resulting in enhanced reproducibility. Addition of MOPS into the medium resulted in pH maintenance above 6.50, a crucial parameter towards reproducibility. Moreover, the entire trajectory of the process was analyzed for compatibility with bench-scale reactors. The MTP cultivations were found to behave similar to bench-scale in terms of growth rate, productivity and substrate uptake rate and so was the onset of antibiotic synthesis. Shake flask cultivations however, showed discrepancy with respect to morphology and had considerably reduced volumetric production rates of antibiotics. Conclusion We observed good agreement of the physiological data obtained in the developed MTP platform with bench-scale. Hence, the described MTP-based screening platform has a high potential for investigation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Streptomycetes and other filamentous bacteria and the use may significantly reduce the workload and costs. PMID:22252012

  10. NASA industry education initiative. Education programs report, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Findings from the initial inventory of education programs show that support for the NASA-Industry Education Initiative (NIEI) appears to be strong among the organizations surveyed. In addition, the range, depth and historical baselines of NIEI education programs are encouraging. It is also apparent that there is a significant level of cooperation between NIEI members and other organizations. Heavily focused towards science, engineering, mathematics and technology achievement, NIEI activities appear to be aligned with national education goals. Three criticisms are revealed: (1) the majority of programs are targeted fairly late in the education cycle; (2) the number of initiatives geared towards adult literacy and adult skills-enhancement appears to be relatively low; (3) the majority of NIEI activities involve traditional education-assistance programs, but the number of critical assessment and systematic reform initiatives is low. Four Working Group recommendations resulted from this activity: (1) NIEI Working Group operations should continue for an indefinite period, with participation open to other like-minded private-sector organization; (2) the report should be periodically updated; (3) an analysis of ongoing education programs should be conducted; (4) American corporations should continue to support education and evaluate in-house programs periodically.

  11. Office of Industrial Technologies: Summary of program results

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Working in partnership with industry, the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) is helping reduce industrial energy use, emissions, and waste while boosting productivity. Operating within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE), OIT conducts research, development, demonstration, and technology transfer efforts that are producing substantial, measurable benefits to industry. This document summarizes some of the impacts of OIT`s programs through 1997. OIT tracks energy savings as well as other benefits associated with the successfully commercialized technologies resulting from OIT-supported research partnerships. Specifically, a chart shows current and cumulative energy savings as well as cumulative reductions of various air pollutants including particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}), and the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The bulk of the document consists of four appendices. Appendix 1 describes the technologies currently available commercially, along with their applications and benefits; Appendix 2 describes the OIT-supported emerging technologies that are likely to be commercialized within the next year or two; Appendix 3 describes OIT-sponsored technologies used in commercial applications in the past that are no longer tracked; and Appendix 4 describes the methodology used to assess and track OIT-supported technologies.

  12. Industrial Cogeneration Optimization Program: a summary of two studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    Two Industrial Cogeneration Optimization Programs were performed to examine the economic and energy-saving impacts of adding cogeneration to site-specific plants in the chemical, food, pulp and paper, petroleum refining, and textile industries. This booklet first presents an overview of industrial cogeneration in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 provides a description of the two parallel ICOP studies, with Chapter 3 summarizing the major findings and conclusions. Chapter 4 then presents short descriptions of the five industrial sectors, followed by highlights of each of the site-specific case studies. A central conclusion of the ICOP effort was that steam turbine cogeneration systems fired by coal or alternative fuels are generally the most attractive in terms of economic performance and oil/gas savings potential. Of the 15 cogeneration systems selected as optimum in the ICOP studies, 11 were coal- or wood-fired steam turbines. By contrast, gas turbines, combined cycles, and diesel engines, which are currently limited to oil- or gas-firing, are usually less economical.

  13. Performance of small-scale tidal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, J. A.; Smachlo, M. A.

    1983-12-01

    Small-scale tidal power plants - having electric power between 1 and 100 MW, approximately - possess several attractive economic and environmental benefits. The dynamical behavior of such systems is calculated in terms of dimensionless variables and parameters, so that the size of the system is inconsequential (except for one parameter related to the slope of the walls of the tidal basin). Two measures of system performance are defined: capacity factor (ratio of average to rated power) and effectiveness (ratio of average to ideal tidal power). It was found that improving both parameters is mutually incompatible so that an economic analysis will determine the optimum values of the system design and performance parameters. The effects of variation of tidal range and basin shape were determined. Using typical variable flow properties of low-head hydroturbines, a favorable design head could be determined from the analysis. It was found that the change in the area of the intertidal zone relative to the surface area of the tidal pond is greater for small, as compared to large, systems, possibly leading to proportionately greater environmental effects. A comparison of the performance of several tidal power plant designs with the methodology of this paper showed generally good agreement with the dimensionless performance parameters and only a modest difference among them over several orders of magnitude in size of power plant.

  14. Small Scale Microwave Bursts in Long-duration Solar Flares

    E-print Network

    Tan, Baolin

    2013-01-01

    Solar small scale microwave bursts (SMBs), including microwave dot, spike, and narrow band type III bursts, are characterized with very short timescales, narrow frequency bandwidth, and very high brightness temperatures. Based on observations of the Chinese Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer at Huairou with superhigh cadence and frequency resolution, this work presents an intensive investigation of SMBs in several flares occurred in active region NOAA 10720 during 2005 Jan 14-21. Especially long-duration flares, SMBs occurred not only in early rising and impulsive phase, but also in the flare decay phase, and even in time of after the flare ending. These SMBs are strong bursts with inferred brightness temperature at least 8.18*10^11 - 1.92*10^13 K, very short lifetime of 5-18 ms, relative frequency bandwidths of 0.7-3.5%, and superhigh frequency drifting rates. Together with their obviously different polarizations from the background emission (the quiet Sun, and the underlying flaring broadband continuum), su...

  15. The speckle image reconstruction of the solar small scale features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Libo; Tian, Yu; Rao, Changhui

    2014-11-01

    The resolution of the astronomical object observed by the earth-based telescope is limited due to the atmospheric turbulence. Speckle image reconstruction method provides access to detect small-scale solar features near the diffraction limit of the telescope. This paper describes the implementation of the reconstruction of images obtained by the 1-m new vacuum solar telescope at Full-Shine solar observatory. Speckle masking method is used to reconstruct the Fourier phases for its better dynamic range and resolution capabilities. Except of the phase reconstruction process, several problems encounter in the solar image reconstruction are discussed. The details of the implement including the flat-field, image segmentation, Fried parameter estimation and noise filter estimating are described particularly. It is demonstrated that the speckle image reconstruction is effective to restore the wide field of view images. The qualities of the restorations are evaluated by the contrast ratio. When the Fried parameter is 10cm, the contrast ratio of the sunspot and granulation can be improved from 0.3916 to 0.6845 and from 0.0248 to 0.0756 respectively.

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities are phylogenetically clustered at small scales.

    PubMed

    Horn, Sebastian; Caruso, Tancredi; Verbruggen, Erik; Rillig, Matthias C; Hempel, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies with markers covering the full Glomeromycota phylum were used to uncover phylogenetic community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with Festuca brevipila. The study system was a semi-arid grassland with high plant diversity and a steep environmental gradient in pH, C, N, P and soil water content. The AMF community in roots and rhizosphere soil were analyzed separately and consisted of 74 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in total. Community-level variance partitioning showed that the role of environmental factors in determining AM species composition was marginal when controlling for spatial autocorrelation at multiple scales. Instead, phylogenetic distance and spatial distance were major correlates of AMF communities: OTUs that were more closely related (and which therefore may have similar traits) were more likely to co-occur. This pattern was insensitive to phylogenetic sampling breadth. Given the minor effects of the environment, we propose that at small scales closely related AMF positively associate through biotic factors such as plant-AMF filtering and interactions within the soil biota. PMID:24824667

  17. Shaping mobile belts by small-scale convection.

    PubMed

    Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W

    2010-06-01

    Mobile belts are long-lived deformation zones composed of an ensemble of crustal fragments, distributed over hundreds of kilometres inside continental convergent margins. The Mediterranean represents a remarkable example of this tectonic setting: the region hosts a diffuse boundary between the Nubia and Eurasia plates comprised of a mosaic of microplates that move and deform independently from the overall plate convergence. Surface expressions of Mediterranean tectonics include deep, subsiding backarc basins, intraplate plateaux and uplifting orogenic belts. Although the kinematics of the area are now fairly well defined, the dynamical origins of many of these active features are controversial and usually attributed to crustal and lithospheric interactions. However, the effects of mantle convection, well established for continental interiors, should be particularly relevant in a mobile belt, and modelling may constrain important parameters such as slab coherence and lithospheric strength. Here we compute global mantle flow on the basis of recent, high-resolution seismic tomography to investigate the role of buoyancy-driven and plate-motion-induced mantle circulation for the Mediterranean. We show that mantle flow provides an explanation for much of the observed dynamic topography and microplate motion in the region. More generally, vigorous small-scale convection in the uppermost mantle may also underpin other complex mobile belts such as the North American Cordillera or the Himalayan-Tibetan collision zone. PMID:20520711

  18. Impact of small-scale geometric roughness on wetting behavior.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vaibhaw; Errington, Jeffrey R

    2013-09-24

    We examine the extent to which small-scale geometric substrate roughness influences the wetting behavior of fluids at solid surfaces. Molecular simulation is used to construct roughness wetting diagrams wherein the progression of the contact angle is traced from the Cassie to Wenzel to impregnation regime with increasing substrate strength for a collection of systems with rectangularly shaped grooves. We focus on the evolution of these diagrams as the length scale of the substrate features approaches the size of a fluid molecule. When considering a series of wetting diagrams for substrates with fixed shape and variable feature periodicity, we find that the diagrams progressively shift away from a common curve as the substrate features become smaller than approximately 10 fluid diameters. It is at this length scale that the macroscopic models of Cassie and Wenzel become unreliable. Deviations from the macroscopic models are attributed to the manner in which the effective substrate-fluid interaction strength evolves with periodicity and the important role that confinement effects play for substrates with small periodicities. PMID:24011170

  19. Efficient Small-scale Dynamo in the Solar Convection Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotta, H.; Rempel, M.; Yokoyama, T.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate small-scale dynamo action in the solar convection zone through a series of high-resolution MHD simulations in a local Cartesian domain with 1 {{R}? } (solar radius) of horizontal extent and a radial extent from 0.715 to 0.96 {{R}? }. The dependence of the solution on resolution and diffusivity is studied. For a grid spacing of less than 350 km, the rms magnetic field strength near the base of the convection zone reaches 95% of the equipartition field strength (i.e., magnetic and kinetic energy are comparable). For these solutions the Lorentz force feedback on the convection velocity is found to be significant. The velocity near the base of the convection zone is reduced to 50% of the hydrodynamic one. In spite of the significant decrease of the convection velocity, the reduction in the enthalpy flux is relatively small, since the magnetic field also suppresses the horizontal mixing of the entropy between up- and downflow regions. This effect increases the amplitude of the entropy perturbation and makes convective energy transport more efficient. We discuss potential implications of these results for solar global convection and dynamo simulations.

  20. Social and Ecological Dynamics of Small-Scale Fisheries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, K.; Kramer, D.; Frank, K.

    2012-12-01

    Globalization's reach is rapidly extending to touch some of the most remote communities of the world, but we have yet to understand its scale and impact. On Nicaragua's previously remote Miskitu Coast, the introduction of new markets and global demand for seafood has resulted in changes in fishermen's harvest behavior manifested within the local fishery. Small-scale fisheries are a significant component in sustaining global fish trade, ensuring food security, and alleviating poverty, but because the fishermen are disperse, numerous and located in remote areas, the social and ecological dynamics of the system are poorly understood. Previous work has indicated a decline in fish abundance as a result of connection to markets, yet fishermen's response to this decline and the resulting shift in harvest strategy requires further examination. I identify the ecological and social factors that explain changes in fishermen behavior and use an innovative application of social network analysis to understand these changes. I also use interviews with fishermen and fishery-dependent surveys to measure catch and release behavior and seasonal gear use. Results demonstrate multiple cliques within a community that mitigate the response of fishermen to changes in the fishery. This research applies techniques in social science to address challenges in sustainable management of fisheries. As fisheries managers consider implementing new regulations, such as seasonal restrictions on gear, it is essential to understand not just how this might impact fish abundance, but how and why human systems respond as they do.

  1. Requirements for future development of small scale rainfall simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iserloh, Thomas; Ries, Johannes B.; Seeger, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Rainfall simulation with small scale simulators is a method used worldwide to assess the generation of overland flow, soil erosion, infiltration and interrelated processes such as soil sealing, crusting, splash and redistribution of solids and solutes. Following the outcomes of the project "Comparability of simulation results of different rainfall simulators as input data for soil erosion modelling (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - DFG, Project No. Ri 835/6-1)" and the "International Rainfall Simulator Workshop 2011" in Trier, the necessity for further technical improvements of simulators and strategies towards an adaption of designs and methods becomes obvious. Uniform measurements of artificially generated rainfall and comparative measurements on a prepared bare fallow with rainfall simulators used by European research groups showed limitations of the comparability of the results. The following requirements, essential for small portable rainfall simulators, were identified: (I) Low and efficient water consumption for use in areas with water shortage, (II) easy handling and control of test conditions, (III) homogeneous spatial rainfall distribution, (IV) best possible drop spectrum (physically), (V) reproducibility and knowledge of spatial distribution and drop spectrum, (VI) easy and fast training of operators to obtain reproducible experiments and (VII) good mobility and easy installation for use in remote areas and in regions where highly erosive rainfall events are rare or irregular. The presentation discusses possibilities for a common use of identical plot designs, rainfall intensities and nozzles.

  2. Performance of small-scale tidal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Fay, J.A.; Smachio, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    Small-scale tidal power plants--having electric power between 1 and 100 MW, approximately--possess several attractive economic and environmental benefits. The dynamical behavior of such systems is calculated in terms of dimensionless variables and parameters so that the size of the system is inconsequential (except for one parameter related to the slope of the walls of the tidal basin). Two measures of system performance are defined: capacity factor (ratio of average to rated power) and effectiveness (ratio of average to ideal tidal power). It was found that improving both parameters is mutually incompatible so that an economic analysis will determine the optimum values of the system design and performance parameters. The effects of variation of tidal range and basin shape were determined. Using typical variable flow properties of low-head hydroturbines, a favorable design head could be determined from the analysis. It was found that the change in the area of the intertidal zone relative to the surface area of the tidal pond is greater for small, as compared to large, systems, possibly leading to proportionately greater environmental effects. A comparison of the performance of several tidal power plant designs with the methodology of this paper showed generally good agreement with the dimensionless performance parameters and only a modest difference among them over several orders of magnitude in size of power plant.

  3. Capital cost of small-scale tidal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Fay, J.A.; Smachio, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    A generic methodology is devised for estimating the capital costs of small-scale tidal power plants (1-100 MW rated power). In addition to the general dimensions determining the size of the tidal pond resource (surface area and tidal range) two site-specific dimensions (depth and length of closure structure) are required for this estimate. Dimensionless parameters and variables describing the power plant performance are used in the cost analysis to specify the relative sizes of the power plant components (turbine-generator, power house, sluice gates, cofferdam, and barrage). The generic cost estimates are compared with those used in several site-specific studies. Unit total capital cost (cost per unit of average power produced) is calculated as a function of the size of the tidal pond resource, the latter being measured in terms of the ideal tidal pond power. A range of closure depths and lengths was used in these generic cost estimates. The minimum unit capital cost is shown to depend upon the size of the tidal pond as well as the site-specific dimensions. An optimum turbogenerator size can be determined to minimize the capital cost.

  4. Structures and Intermittency in Small Scales Solar Wind Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Sahraoui, Fouad [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 20771 (United States); Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique-UPMC, Velizy, 78140 (France); Goldstein, Melvyn [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 20771 (United States)

    2010-03-25

    Several observations in space plasmas have reported the presence of coherent structures at different plasma scales. Structure formation is believed to result from nonlinear interactions between the plasma modes, which depend strongly on their phase synchronization. Despite this important role of the phases in turbulence, very limited work has been devoted to study the phases as potential tracers of nonlinearities in comparison with the wealth of literature on power spectra of turbulence where phases are totally missed. The reason why the phases are seldom used is probably because they usually appear to be completely mixed (due to their dependence on an arbitrary time origin and to 2pi periodicity). To handle the phases properly, a new method based on using surrogate data has been developed recently to detect coherent structures in magnetized plasmas [Sahraoui, PRE, 2008]. Here, we show new applications of the technique to study the nature (weak vs strong, self-similar vs intermittent) of the small scale turbulence in the solar wind using the Cluster observations.

  5. Observations of How Magnetofluid Turbulence Dissipates at Small Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. L.; Sahraoui, Fouad

    2012-01-01

    The solar wind is a turbulent magneto fluid that can be studied intensively at multiple scales. Investigations using single spacecraft have revealed much about the properties of the solar wind throughout the heliosphere (from 0.3 AU to 100 AU). More recently, data from multiple spacecraft have provided further details of both the statistical properties of the turbulence and its small-scale structure. In particular, high time resolution magnetic field measurements from the four Cluster spacecrafl have led to the conclusion that at spatial scales of order the proton inertial length and smaller, the turbulence becomes strongly anisotropic and the power in fluctuations that are perpendicular to the (local) magnetic field is measured to be much larger than that in fluctuations that are parallel to the magnetic field. As the spatial scales approach the electron inertial length, the power is almost completely dissipated. Various analysis techniques and theoretical ideas have been put forward to account for the properties of those measurements. The talk will describe the current state of observations, theory and simulations.

  6. Structures and Intermittency in Small Scales Solar Wind Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahraoui, Fouad; Goldstein, Melvyn

    2010-03-01

    Several observations in space plasmas have reported the presence of coherent structures at different plasma scales. Structure formation is believed to result from nonlinear interactions between the plasma modes, which depend strongly on their phase synchronization. Despite this important role of the phases in turbulence, very limited work has been devoted to study the phases as potential tracers of nonlinearities in comparison with the wealth of literature on power spectra of turbulence where phases are totally missed. The reason why the phases are seldom used is probably because they usually appear to be completely mixed (due to their dependence on an arbitrary time origin and to 2? periodicity). To handle the phases properly, a new method based on using surrogate data has been developed recently to detect coherent structures in magnetized plasmas [Sahraoui, PRE, 2008]. Here, we show new applications of the technique to study the nature (weak vs strong, self-similar vs intermittent) of the small scale turbulence in the solar wind using the Cluster observations.

  7. Dynamic properties of small-scale solar wind plasma fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Riazantseva, M O; Budaev, V P; Zelenyi, L M; Zastenker, G N; Pavlos, G P; Safrankova, J; Nemecek, Z; Prech, L; Nemec, F

    2015-05-13

    The paper presents the latest results of the studies of small-scale fluctuations in a turbulent flow of solar wind (SW) using measurements with extremely high temporal resolution (up to 0.03?s) of the bright monitor of SW (BMSW) plasma spectrometer operating on astrophysical SPECTR-R spacecraft at distances up to 350?000?km from the Earth. The spectra of SW ion flux fluctuations in the range of scales between 0.03 and 100?s are systematically analysed. The difference of slopes in low- and high-frequency parts of spectra and the frequency of the break point between these two characteristic slopes was analysed for different conditions in the SW. The statistical properties of the SW ion flux fluctuations were thoroughly analysed on scales less than 10?s. A high level of intermittency is demonstrated. The extended self-similarity of SW ion flux turbulent flow is constantly observed. The approximation of non-Gaussian probability distribution function of ion flux fluctuations by the Tsallis statistics shows the non-extensive character of SW fluctuations. Statistical characteristics of ion flux fluctuations are compared with the predictions of a log-Poisson model. The log-Poisson parametrization of the structure function scaling has shown that well-defined filament-like plasma structures are, as a rule, observed in the turbulent SW flows. PMID:25848078

  8. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Orifice Plugging Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Kimura, Marcia L.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2012-09-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities, is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations published in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials present in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty introduced by extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches in which the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are largely absent. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine the aerosol release fractions and aerosol generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents (AFA) was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. The purpose of the study described in this report is to provide experimental data for the first key technical area, potential plugging of small breaches, by performing small-scale tests with a range of orifice sizes and orientations representative of the WTP conditions. The simulants used were chosen to represent the range of process stream properties in the WTP. Testing conducted after the plugging tests in the small- and large-scale test stands addresses the second key technical area, aerosol generation. The results of the small-scale aerosol generation tests are included in Mahoney et al. 2012. The area of spray generation from large breaches is covered by large-scale testing in Schonewill et al. 2012.

  9. Emergence of a small-scale magnetic flux tube and the response of the solar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas Dominguez, S.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Yurchyshyn, V.

    Cutting-edge observations with the 1.6-meter telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) in California have taken research into the activity of the Sun to new levels of understanding of the structure and evolution of the solar atmosphere at high-resolution spatial and temporal scales. On August 7, 2013 the NST observed active region NOAA 11810 in photospheric and chromospheric wavelengths. The observations were performed as part of a program conducted jointly with NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) mission, Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Hinode satellite. These observations provided a unique view on the emergence of a buoyant small-scale magnetic-flux rope in the solar photosphere. The event is accompanied by response of the solar atmosphere once the newly emerged field interacts with the pre-existing overlying one. The reconnection process that takes place in the region produces jet emission and high-temperature points in the chromosphere and corona.

  10. Muscle Sensor Model Using Small Scale Optical Device for Pattern Recognitions

    PubMed Central

    Tamee, Kreangsak; Chaiwong, Khomyuth; Yothapakdee, Kriengsak; Yupapin, Preecha P.

    2013-01-01

    A new sensor system for measuring contraction and relaxation of muscles by using a PANDA ring resonator is proposed. The small scale optical device is designed and configured to perform the coupling effects between the changes in optical device phase shift and human facial muscle movement, which can be used to form the relationship between optical phase shift and muscle movement. By using the Optiwave and MATLAB programs, the results obtained have shown that the measurement of the contraction and relaxation of muscles can be obtained after the muscle movements, in which the unique pattern of individual muscle movement from facial expression can be established. The obtained simulation results, that is, interference signal patterns, can be used to form the various pattern recognitions, which are useful for the human machine interface and the human computer interface application and discussed in detail. PMID:24222730

  11. A Small-Scale Tiltrotor Model Operating in Descending Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrego, Anita I.; Betzina, Mark D.; Long, Kurtis R.

    2002-01-01

    As a rotor s descent velocity in low speed flight approaches the induced wake velocity, a vortex ring is formed around the circumference of the rotor disk causing the flow to become very unsteady. This condition is known as Vortex Ring State (VRS). The aerodynamic Characteristics of edgewise operating rotors in this VRS induced environment have been studied for many years. In the 1960 s, two propellers were tested in vertical or near vertical descent, indicating a loss in thrust in the region of VRS. Thrust fluctuations of both single and tandem rotor configurations while operating in VRS were reported. More recently, the effects of descending flight on a single rotor operating in close proximity to a physical image plane, simulating the effects of a twin rotor tiltrotor system were investigated. Mean rotor thrust reductions and thrust fluctuations were shown in VRS. Results indicated the need to acquire additional data with a two-rotor model and the need to investigate the use of a single rotor/image plane apparatus to identify the characteristics of a two-rotor flowfield. As a result a small-scale tiltrotor model with 2-b1adedy untwisted, teetering rotors was tested at various states of descent and sideslip. Dual-rotor, single-rotor with image plane, and isolated-rotor results were reported, suggesting the single-rotor with image plane configuration may not properly capture the aerodynamic nature of a dual-rotor vehicle. Recommendations included additional testing of a model that better represents the physical characteristics of a tiltrotor aircraft. Specific recommendations for model improvements included using three-bladed rotors, twisted blades, a tiltrotor fuselage and wings.

  12. ARCADE small-scale docking mechanism for micro-satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boesso, A.; Francesconi, A.

    2013-05-01

    The development of on-orbit autonomous rendezvous and docking (ARD) capabilities represents a key point for a number of appealing mission scenarios that include activities of on-orbit servicing, automated assembly of modular structures and active debris removal. As of today, especially in the field of micro-satellites ARD, many fundamental technologies are still missing or require further developments and micro-gravity testing. In this framework, the University of Padova, Centre of Studies and Activities for Space (CISAS), developed the Autonomous Rendezvous Control and Docking Experiment (ARCADE), a technology demonstrator intended to fly aboard a BEXUS stratospheric balloon. The goal was to design, build and test, in critical environment conditions, a proximity relative navigation system, a custom-made reaction wheel and a small-size docking mechanism. The ARCADE docking mechanism was designed against a comprehensive set of requirements and it can be classified as small-scale, central, gender mating and unpressurized. The large use of commercial components makes it low-cost and simple to be manufactured. Last, it features a good tolerance to off-nominal docking conditions and a by-design soft docking capability. The final design was extensively verified to be compliant with its requirements by means of numerical simulations and physical testing. In detail, the dynamic behaviour of the mechanism in both nominal and off-nominal conditions was assessed with the multibody dynamics analysis software MD ADAMS 2010 and functional tests were carried out within the fully integrated ARCADE experiment to ensure the docking system efficacy and to highlight possible issues. The most relevant results of the study will be presented and discussed in conclusion to this paper.

  13. Propulsion engineering study for small-scale Mars missions

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J.

    1995-09-12

    Rocket propulsion options for small-scale Mars missions are presented and compared, particularly for the terminal landing maneuver and for sample return. Mars landing has a low propulsive {Delta}v requirement on a {approximately}1-minute time scale, but at a high acceleration. High thrust/weight liquid rocket technologies, or advanced pulse-capable solids, developed during the past decade for missile defense, are therefore more appropriate for small Mars landers than are conventional space propulsion technologies. The advanced liquid systems are characterize by compact lightweight thrusters having high chamber pressures and short lifetimes. Blowdown or regulated pressure-fed operation can satisfy the Mars landing requirement, but hardware mass can be reduced by using pumps. Aggressive terminal landing propulsion designs can enable post-landing hop maneuvers for some surface mobility. The Mars sample return mission requires a small high performance launcher having either solid motors or miniature pump-fed engines. Terminal propulsion for 100 kg Mars landers is within the realm of flight-proven thruster designs, but custom tankage is desirable. Landers on a 10 kg scale also are feasible, using technology that has been demonstrated but not previously flown in space. The number of sources and the selection of components are extremely limited on this smallest scale, so some customized hardware is required. A key characteristic of kilogram-scale propulsion is that gas jets are much lighter than liquid thrusters for reaction control. The mass and volume of tanks for inert gas can be eliminated by systems which generate gas as needed from a liquid or a solid, but these have virtually no space flight history. Mars return propulsion is a major engineering challenge; earth launch is the only previously-solved propulsion problem requiring similar or greater performance.

  14. Potential small-scale development of western oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.; Renk, R.; Nordin, J.; Chatwin, T.; Harnsberger, M.; Fahy, L.J.; Cha, C.Y.; Smith, E.; Robertson, R.

    1989-10-01

    Several studies have been undertaken in an effort to determine ways to enhance development of western oil shale under current market conditions for energy resources. This study includes a review of the commercial potential of western oil shale products and byproducts, a review of retorting processes, an economic evaluation of a small-scale commercial operation, and a description of the environmental requirements of such an operation. Shale oil used as a blend in conventional asphalt appears to have the most potential for entering today's market. Based on present prices for conventional petroleum, other products from oil shale do not appear competitive at this time or will require considerable marketing to establish a position in the marketplace. Other uses for oil shale and spent shale, such as for sulfur sorbtion, power generation, cement, aggregate, and soil stabilization, are limited economically by transportation costs. The three-state area area consisting of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming seems reasonable for the entry of shale oil-blended asphalt into the commercial market. From a review of retorting technologies and the product characteristics from various retorting processes it was determined that the direct heating Paraho and inclined fluidized-bed processes produce a high proportion of heavy material with a high nitrogen content. The two processes are complementary in that they are each best suited to processing different size ranges of materials. An economic evaluation of a 2000-b/d shale oil facility shows that the operation is potentially viable, if the price obtained for the shale oil residue is in the top range of prices projected for this product. Environmental requirements for building and operating an oil shale processing facility are concerned with permitting, control of emissions and discharges, and monitoring. 62 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Development program to support industrial coal gasification. Quarterly report 1

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1982-01-15

    The Development Program to Support Industrial Coal Gasification is on schedule. The efforts have centered on collecting background information and data, planning, and getting the experimental program underway. The three principal objectives in Task I-A were accomplished. The technical literature was reviewed, the coals and binders to be employed were selected, and tests and testing equipment to be used in evaluating agglomerates were developed. The entire Erie Mining facility design was reviewed and a large portion of the fluidized-bed coal gasification plant design was completed. Much of the work in Task I will be experimental. Wafer-briquette and roll-briquette screening tests will be performed. In Task II, work on the fluidized-bed gasification plant design will be completed and work on a plant design involving entrained-flow gasifiers will be initiated.

  16. Advanced Turbine Systems Program industrial system concept development

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, S.

    1995-12-31

    Solar approached Phase II of ATS program with the goal of 50% thermal efficiency. An intercolled and recuperated gas turbine was identified as the ultimate system to meet this goal in a commercial gas turbine environment. With commercial input from detailed market studies and DOE`s ATS program, Solar redefined the company`s proposed ATS to fit both market and sponsor (DOE) requirements. Resulting optimized recuperated gas turbine will be developed in two sizes, 5 and 15 MWe. It will show a thermal efficiency of about 43%, a 23% improvement over current industrial gas turbines. Other ATS goals--emissions, RAMD (reliability, availability, maintainability, durability), cost of power--will be met or exceeded. During FY95, advanced development of key materials, combustion and component technologies proceeded to the point of acceptance for inclusion in ATS Phase III.

  17. State Demand-Side Management Programs Funds are Exploding! How Industries Can Best Use These Programs to Maximize Their Benefits

    E-print Network

    Nicol, J.

    2008-01-01

    Find out from an Industrial Program Manager that runs a successful state DSM/Energy Efficiency program for the industrial sector how to best find, use and benefit from these types of programs. The amount of money that states are investing in DSM...

  18. Industrial Rates and Demand-Side Management Programs

    E-print Network

    Kasprowicz, L. M.; House, R.

    The industrial sector in Texas is large and energy intensive. Industrial sales constitute a major portion of total sales for several utilities in Texas. Industrial demand-side management (DSM) can be used by utilities to provide industrial customers...

  19. Relating Computer Science programs to the needs of industry through internships and cooperative programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alton R. Goddard

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss some approaches for achieving more meaningful relationships between degree programs at the college level in Computer Science and the needs of industry. Nothing is more encouraging to most students than to know that their academic preparation will enhance their future life styles and future employment opportunities. Also, probably nothing is more depressing

  20. Cyber Security Testing and Training Programs for Industrial Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Noyes

    2012-03-01

    Service providers rely on industrial control systems (ICS) to manage the flow of water at dams, open breakers on power grids, control ventilation and cooling in nuclear power plants, and more. In today's interconnected environment, this can present a serious cyber security challenge. To combat this growing challenge, government, private industry, and academia are working together to reduce cyber risks. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a key contributor to the Department of Energy National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program (CSSP), both of which focus on improving the overall security posture of ICS in the national critical infrastructure. In support of the NSTB, INL hosts a dedicated SCADA testing facility which consists of multiple control systems supplied by leading national and international manufacturers. Within the test bed, INL researchers systematically examine control system components and work to identify vulnerabilities. In support of the CSSP, INL develops and conducts training courses which are designed to increase awareness and defensive capabilities for IT/Control System professionals. These trainings vary from web-based cyber security trainings for control systems engineers to more advanced hands-on training that culminates with a Red Team/ Blue Team exercise that is conducted within an actual control systems environment. INL also provides staffing and operational support to the DHS Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) Security Operations Center which responds to and analyzes control systems cyber incidents across the 18 US critical infrastructure sectors.

  1. Micrometer accuracy method for small-scale laser focal spot centroid measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Lu, Zhiwei; Wang, Xin; Ba, Dexin; Zhu, Chengyu

    2015-03-01

    The measurement of the centroid of small-scale laser focal spot is one of the most promising technologies for small-scale laser focal spot precise positioning. A method of two-dimensional scanning with CCD has been conducted to precisely measure the centroid of the small-scale laser focal spot (diameter in microns) by obtaining the change curve for gray value. The theoretical analysis is consistent with the experimental results.

  2. Plowshare Program - American Atomic Bomb Tests For Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2012-04-22

    The United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) established the Plowshare Program as a research and development activity to explore the technical and economic feasibility of using nuclear explosives for industrial applications. The reasoning was that the relatively inexpensive energy available from nuclear explosions could prove useful for a wide variety of peaceful purposes. The Plowshare Program began in 1958 and continued through 1975. Between December 1961 and May 1973, the United States conducted 27 Plowshare nuclear explosive tests comprising 35 individual detonations. Conceptually, industrial applications resulting from the use of nuclear explosives could be divided into two broad categories: 1) large-scale excavation and quarrying, where the energy from the explosion was used to break up and/or move rock; and 2) underground engineering, where the energy released from deeply buried nuclear explosives increased the permeability and porosity of the rock by massive breaking and fracturing. Possible excavation applications included: canals, harbors, highway and railroad cuts through mountains, open pit mining, construction of dams, and other quarry and construction-related projects. Underground nuclear explosion applications included: stimulation of natural gas production, preparation of leachable ore bodies for in situ leaching, creation of underground zones of fractured oil shale for in situ retorting, and formation of underground natural gas and petroleum storage reservoirs.

  3. Assessment of the industrial energy-conservation program. Final report of the Committee on Assessment of the Industrial Energy Conservation Program

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1982-01-01

    Industrial operations in the United States account for some 37% of the nation's consumptions of energy. It has been estimated that this figure will increase to 50% by 1990 unless appropriate industrial energy conservation measures are adopted. However, such measures are difficult to implement in spite of the potential of various existing, emerging, and advanced technologies that can be applied to the problem. Specifically, the application of many industrial energy conservation measures entails high economic, technological, and institutional risks and uncertainties that constrain industries from adopting such measures. Accordingly, in 1975 the federal government started a program designed to mitigate these risks and uncertainties via government-industry partnership arrangements in the interests of national energy conservation. An important element of this program is the Industrial Energy Conservation Program in the Federal Department of Energy (DOE). In June 1980, DOE asked the National Materials Advisory Board, a unit of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, to form a study committee to assess the effectiveness of the Industrial Energy Conservation Program. The committee concluded that federal support embodied in the DOE program, present and planned, is important to conserving additional industrial energy. However, the committee also concluded that the program needs various improvements in project selection and management and in transfer of results to industry. The committee's findings and recommendations and the results of the deliberation of the committee's three panels, a special report on heat and power, and a report on the visit by four members of the committee to Japan are presented.

  4. Small-scale ring structure observed in Cassini UVIS occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sremcevic, M.; Colwell, J. E.; Esposito, L. W.

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we give an overview of small-scale structure directly observed throughout Saturn's main rings. After 5 years of Cassini mission the UVIS instrument recorded more than hundred stellar occultations by Saturn's rings. Most of the observed occultations have excellent resolution on the order of ten meters. We use statistical and spectral methods (Fourier and wavelet transforms, and autocorrelations of the signal) to infer the properties of the microstructure. The multitude of observations allows us to infer the orientation and two-dimensional picture of the underlying structure. Most of the A ring and outer B ring show 10-50m structures pitched by about 20 degrees from the orbital motion. These observations are consistent with Toomre type self-gravity wakes reported by other researchers, and moreover allow to directly infer their spatial scalings. In a recent, specially crafted high-resolution occultation of the mid A ring we for the first time directly resolved individual self-gravity wakes. The occultation was designed to track the orbital motion of ring particles, achieving the true resolution in the co-rotating ring plane of below a meter. The self-gravity wakes appear nearly opaque and inter-spaced with almost void gaps. The transition between the wakes and gaps is rather sharp. The inner A ring and lower optical depth regions in the B ring show 100-200m scale regular waves. These waves have no pitch angle and are consistent with a viscous oscillatory instability, better known as overstability. The most surprising aspect of the wave structure is their patchy appearance throughout the rings. Additionally, occultation geometry dependence of the observed optical depth indicates the presence of self-gravity wakes within the wave structure. In higher optical depth regions of the B ring the most dominant structure is irregular with spatial scales of about 100m.The structure is axisymmetric and very distinct from the signature of both self-gravity wakes and overstable waves reported up to now. So far the only plausible theoretical candidate for the explanation is viscous or diffusion instability. Such interpretation, however, require either fairly elastic particle properties not observed so far, or alternatively small ring particles. The C ring and Cassini division are void of obvious self-gravity wakes or overstable waves. However, few occultations of double stars indicate the presence of microstructure, but its exact nature remains mysterious.

  5. Small-scale chromospheric jets above a sunspot light bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, Rohan E.; Beck, Christian; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi

    2014-07-01

    Context. The chromosphere above sunspot umbrae and penumbrae shows several different types of fast dynamic events such as running penumbral waves, umbral flashes, and penumbral microjets. Aims: The aim of this paper is to identify the physical driver responsible for the dynamic and small-scale chromospheric jets above a sunspot light bridge. Methods: High-resolution broadband filtergrams of active region NOAA 11271 in Ca ii H and G band were obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode. We identified the jets in the Ca ii H images using a semi-automatic routine and determined their length and orientation. We applied local correlation tracking (LCT) to the G-band images to obtain the photospheric horizontal velocity field. The magnetic field topology was derived from a Milne-Eddington inversion of a simultaneous scan with the Spectropolarimeter. Results: The chromospheric jets consist of a bright, triangular-shaped blob that lies on the light bridge, while the apex of this blob extends into a spike-like structure that is bright against the dark umbral background. Most of the jets have apparent lengths of less than 1000 km and about 30% of the jets have lengths between 1000-1600 km. The jets are oriented within ±35° to the normal of the spine of the light bridge. Most of them are clustered near the central part of the light bridge within a 2'' area. The jets are seen to move rapidly along the light bridge and many of them cannot be identified in successive images taken with a 2 min cadence. The jets are primarily located on one side of the light bridge and are directed into the umbral core. The Stokes profiles at or close to the location of the blobs on the LB exhibit both a significant net circular polarization and multiple components, including opposite-polarity lobes. The magnetic field diverges from the light bridge towards the umbral cores that it separates. The LCT reveals that in the photosphere there is a predominantly uni-directional flow with speeds of 100-150 m s-1 along the light bridge. This unidirectional flow is interrupted by a patch of weak or very small motions on the light bridge which also moves along the light bridge. Conclusions: The dynamic short-lived chromospheric jets above the LB seem to be guided by the magnetic field lines. Reconnection events are a likely trigger for such phenomenon since they occur at locations where the magnetic field changes orientation sharply and where we also observe isolated patches of opposite-polarity magnetic components. We find no clear relation between the jets and the photospheric flow pattern.

  6. Small-scale soil moisture determination with GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igel, Jan; Preetz, Holger

    2010-05-01

    The knowledge of topsoil moisture distribution is an important input for modelling water flow and evapotranspiration which are essential processes in hydrology, meteorology, and agriculture. All these processes involve non-linear effects and thus the small-scale variability of input parameters play an important role. Using smoothed interpolations instead can cause significant biases. Lateral soil moisture distribution can be sensed by different techniques at various scales whereby geophysical methods provide spatial information which closes the gap between point measurements by classical soil scientific methods and measurements on the field or regional scale by remote sensing. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can be used to explore soil moisture on the field scale as propagation of electromagnetic waves is correlated to soil water content. By determining the velocity of the ground wave, which is a guided wave travelling along the soil surface, we can sense soil water content. This method has been applied to determine topsoil moisture for several years. We present a new groundwave technique which determines the velocity in between two receiving antennas which enables a higher lateral resolution (approx. 10 cm) compared to classical groundwave technique (half meter and more). We present synthetic data from finite-differences (FD) calculations as well as data from a sandbox experiment carried out under controlled conditions to demonstrate the performance of this method. Further, we carried out field measurements on two sites on a sandy soil which is used as grassland. The measurements were carried out in late summer at dry soil conditions. Soil moisture on the first site shows an isotropic pattern with correlation lengths of approx. 35 cm. We think this natural pattern is governed by rout distribution within the soil and the water uptake of vegetation. On the second site, soil moisture distribution shows a regular stripe pattern. As the land has been used as agricultural crop land until two years before the measurements were carried out, this anisotropy is obviously caused by the former cultivation of the land. Finally, we present a second technique to determine moisture of the topsoil by GPR using the same principle as remote sensing: the reflection of electromagnetic waves at the soil surface and determination of reflection amplitude. We use a 1 GHz horn antenna that is operated 0.5 m above the ground surface. As this method is based on a completely different physical principle than the first one, it provides an independent revision of our results. Even though, lateral resolution is not that high as when using the groundwave technique and the depth of investigation is not exactly the same, we get similar results showing the same pattern and characteristics at both sites.

  7. Experiments for comparison of small scale rainfall simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iserloh, T.; Ries, J. B.

    2012-04-01

    Small scale portable rainfall simulators are an essential tool in research of recent process dynamics of soil erosion. Such rainfall simulators differ in design, rainfall intensities, rain spectra etc., impeding comparison of the results. Due to different research questions a standardisation of rainfall simulation is not in sight. Nevertheless, the data become progressively important for soil erosion modelling and therefore the basis for decision-makers in application-oriented erosion protection. The project aims at providing a criteria catalogue for estimation of the different simulators as well as the comparability of the results and a uniform calibration procedure for generated rainfall. Within the project "Comparability of simulation results of different rainfall simulators as input data for soil erosion modelling (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - DFG, Project No. Ri 835/6-1)" many rainfall simulators used by European research groups were compared. The artificially generated rainfall of the rainfall simulators at the Universities Basel, La Rioja, Malaga, Trier, Tübingen, Valencia, Wageningen, Zaragoza and at different Spanish CSIC-institutes (Almeria, Cordoba, Granada, Murcia, Zaragoza) were measured with the same methods (Laser Precipitation Monitor for drop spectra and rain collectors for spatial distribution). The data are very beneficial for improvements of simulators and comparison of simulators and results. Furthermore, they can be used for comparative studies with natural rainfall spectra. A broad range of rainfall data was measured (e.g. intensity: 30 - 149 mmh-1, Christiansen Coefficient for spatial rainfall distribution 61 - 98 %, mean drop diameter 0.375 - 5.0 mm, mean kinetic energy expenditure 25 - 1322 J m-2 h-1, mean kinetic energy per unit area and unit depth of rainfall 4 - 14 J m-2 mm-1). Similarities among the simulators could be found e.g. concerning drop size distributions (maximum drop numbers are reached within the two smallest drop classes < 1 mm) and low fall velocities of bigger drops due to a general physical restriction. The comparison provides a good data base for improvements and a consistent picture of the parameters of the simulators. To assess the influence of rainfall simulator type and plot dimensions on runoff and erosion, rainfall simulators from Freiberg, Tübingen, Trier, Valencia, Zaragoza, Basel and Wageningen were compared on a prepared bare fallow field during the Rainfall Simulator Workshop in Trier (Germany). The results show a clear and consistent relationship in runoff, erosion and infiltration behaviour of the different used rainfall simulators. With all the devices total soil loss was measurable, but different plot sizes, intensities and kinetic energies of the simulated rainfall caused differences in soil loss and runoff quantities per unit of area. Regarding course characteristics over runs, similarities could be observed especially in runoff behaviour.

  8. Small-scale Geothermal Power Plants Using Hot Spring Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosha, T.; Osato, K.; Kiuchi, T.; Miida, H.; Okumura, T.; Nakashima, H.

    2013-12-01

    The installed capacity of the geothermal power plants has been summed up to be about 515MW in Japan. However, the electricity generated by the geothermal resources only contributes to 0.2% of the whole electricity supply. After the catastrophic earthquake and tsunami devastated the Pacific coast of north-eastern Japan on Friday, March 11, 2011, the Japanese government is encouraging the increase of the renewable energy supply including the geothermal. It needs, however, more than 10 years to construct the geothermal power plant with more than 10MW capacity since the commencement of the development. Adding the problem of the long lead time, high temperature fluid is mainly observed in the national parks and the high quality of the geothermal resources is limited. On the other hand hot springs are often found. The utilisation of the low temperature hot water becomes worthy of notice. The low temperature hot water is traditionally used for bathing and there are many hot springs in Japan. Some of the springs have enough temperature and enthalpy to turn the geothermal turbine but a new technology of the binary power generation makes the lower temp fluid to generate electricity. Large power generators with the binary technology are already installed in many geothermal fields in the world. In the recent days small-scale geothermal binary generators with several tens to hundreds kW capacity are developed, which are originally used by the waste heat energy in an iron factory and so on. The newly developed binary unit is compact suitable for the installation in a Japanese inn but there are the restrictions for the temperature of the hot water and the working fluid. The binary power unit using alternatives for chlorofluorocarbon as the working fluid is relatively free from the restriction. KOBELCO, a company of the Kobe Steel Group, designed and developed the binary power unit with an alternative for chlorofluorocarbon. The unit has a 70 MW class electric generator. Three units have been installed in Obama Hot Spring area, Nagasaki Prefecture, where about 15,000 tonnes of hot water are produced in a day and more than 35% of the hot water flow directly to the sea. Another demonstration experiments are also conducted in several hot spring areas. In this study we will review several examples to utilise low temperature hot springs in Japan. Binary Power Unit at Obama (Fujino, 2013)

  9. An overview of small-scale food fermentation technologies in developing countries with special reference to Thailand: scope for their improvement.

    PubMed

    Valyasevi, Ruud; Rolle, Rosa S

    2002-05-25

    Small-scale food fermentation technologies in developing countries have evolved through years of experience rather than through scientific breakthroughs. Many small-scale manufacturers are, therefore, reluctant to accept change and modify fermentation processes. Upgrading the quality and safety of fermented foods, while reducing their production cost and maintaining their authenticity and uniqueness, is of utmost importance. One strategic approach, which has been successfully implemented for the improvement of small-scale soy sauce fermentation in Thailand, is the consortium approach. This approach has allowed industry to work closely in sharing knowledge and common problems, which in turn has provided scientists with the research direction that would best benefit the industry. This consortium approach has brought about changes in the methodologies used in the production of soy sauce, by shortening processing times, introducing fiberglass tanks as bioreactors instead of the traditionally used small earthenware containers and introducing cost-effective waste management systems. One barrier to the application of starter cultures in the small-scale fermentation industry is the loss of uniqueness of fermented products. However, the advent of molecular biology techniques has allowed science to tailor starter cultures to the specific requirements of the manufacturer. Using the techniques of molecular biology, it has been shown that microflora of a specific product vary according to origin and sensory quality. A cell bank is being developed to serve as a resource base for Thai fermented pork sausage in order to facilitate the application of starter cultures in the manufacture of that product. PMID:12036145

  10. Alabama Industrial Technician Education Cooperative Demonstration Program (I-TEC). Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John M. Patterson State Technical Coll., Montgomery, AL.

    A cooperative demonstration program between industry (General Electric) and education (John Patterson State Technical College, Alabama) designed and conducted a training program and competency assessment for individuals entering high technology positions related to industrial production in Alabama. The program was designed to develop employees as…

  11. Industrial Affiliates Program University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies

    E-print Network

    Gruner, Daniel S.

    Industrial Affiliates Program University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies and Department of Computer Science #12;Introducing the UMIACS/CS Industrial Affiliates Program The University, a joint CS/ UMIACS program, which in particular provides special opportunities for recruiting Computer

  12. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2013-05-29

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and net generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of antifoam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. For the combination of both test stands, the round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the much larger flow rates and equipment that would be required. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

  13. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2012-11-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

  14. The NASA/industry Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) Program: A government overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, Raymond G.

    1992-01-01

    LaRC, under the Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) Program, set out in 1984 to establish the technology base needed by the rotorcraft industry for developing an advanced finite-element-based dynamics design analysis capability for vibrations. Considerable work was performed by the industry participants in the program since that time. Because the DAMVIBS Program is being phased out, a government/industry assessment of the program was made to identify those accomplishments and contributions which may be ascribed to the program. The purpose is to provide an overview of the program and its accomplishments and contributions from the perspective of the government sponsoring organization.

  15. The NASA/industry Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) program: A government overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, Raymond G.

    1993-01-01

    NASA-Langley, under the Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) Program, set out in 1984 to establish the technology base needed by the rotorcraft industry for developing an advanced finite-element-based dynamics design analysis capability for vibrations. Considerable work has been done by the industry participants in the program since that time. Because the DAMVIBS Program is being phased out, a government/industry assessment of the program has been made to identify those accomplishments and contributions which may be ascribed to the program. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the program and its accomplishments and contributions from the perspective of the government sponsoring organization.

  16. INSTITUTIONAL TRANSFORMATION OF SMALL-SCALE IRRIGATION FARMING IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Hedden-Dunkhorst; T. M. Mathonzi; E. R. Mphahlele

    2001-01-01

    The paper outlines recent developments in small-scale irrigation farming in South Africa, particularly in terms of various institutional changes. In an attempt to put the South African situation in a broader context, institutional arrangements related to credit provision to small-scale farmers in Ghana, Tanzania and Pakistan are described. For two case studies from South Africa, regression models are used to

  17. Record of Projected Use: Small Scale Testing of Experimental Pesticides Applied Off Cornell Property (Spring)

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Record of Projected Use: Small Scale Testing of Experimental Pesticides Applied Off Cornell pesticides during the year on property other than that owned by Cornell. Experimental use pesticides include the "Record of Use: Small Scale Testing of Experimental Pesticides Applied Off Cornell Property (Fall)" form

  18. The characteristics of sharp (small-scale) boundaries of solar wind plasma and magnetic field structures

    E-print Network

    Richardson, John

    The characteristics of sharp (small-scale) boundaries of solar wind plasma and magnetic field investigate properties of large (>20%) and sharp (solar wind ion flux changes using INTERBALL-1 are the boundaries of small-scale and mid- dle-scale solar wind structures. We describe the behavior of the solar

  19. Construction and capability analysis of a small scale cluster system for CFD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhao Dong-Mei; Lin Tao-Tao; Liu Tao; Sun Zhao-Guo

    2012-01-01

    In this context, a small scale cluster system for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) platform OpenFOAM is constructed, then a turbulent combustion case is simulated on the small scale cluster system. After the simulation is done, we can draw a conclusion with data that the effect of three-dimensional flow field is achieved. At last, the performance of the cluster system and

  20. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Livestock Projects. Guidelines for Planning Series Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Linda

    This document was developed in response to the need for simplified technical information for planning environmentally sound small-scale projects in third world countries. It is aimed specifically at those who are planning or managing small-scale livestock projects in less-developed areas of the tropics and sub-tropics. The guidelines included in…

  1. CPT and N-resonance phenomena in rubidium vapor for small-scale atomic clocks

    E-print Network

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    CPT and N-resonance phenomena in rubidium vapor for small-scale atomic clocks A thesis presented: Christopher Lee Smallwood CPT and N-resonance phenomena in rubidium vapor for small-scale atomic clocks-scale atomic clocks. The first of these is the charac- terization of a vertical cavity surface emitting laser

  2. Performance of Rotational Speed Controlled Small-Scale Head-Dependent Hydroelectric Power Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tuomo Lindh; Risto Tiainen; Jero Ahola; Markku Niemelä; Ville Särkimäki

    Abstract— Small scale or micro scale hydroelectric power production is characterized by high investment costs compared to operation costs. In addition, the repayment time is often long, more than ten years (if not subsidized heavily) which requires that a small-scale hydropower plants can be profitable only if both the investment costs and the running costs are low. The performance and

  3. Chromospheric signatures of small-scale flux emergence as observed with NST and Hinode instruments

    E-print Network

    Chromospheric signatures of small-scale flux emergence as observed with NST and Hinode instruments the chromosphere. While significant progress has been made in understanding small-scale phenomena, many specifics chromospheric activity. Based on New Solar Telescope H data and Hinode photospheric line-of-sight magnetograms

  4. Experimental autonomous flight of a small-scaled helicopter using accurate

    E-print Network

    Experimental autonomous flight of a small-scaled helicopter using accurate dynamics model and low: In this paper, we address the problem of guidance and control of a small-scaled helicopter (Benzin Acrobatic-cost sensors; unmanned vehicle; data fusion; autonomous helicopter; embedded systems; Kalman filter

  5. Optimal Control For Power-Off Landing Of A Small-Scale Helicopter A Pseudospectral Approach

    E-print Network

    Van den Hof, Paul

    Optimal Control For Power-Off Landing Of A Small-Scale Helicopter A Pseudospectral Approach Skander, for the case of a small-scale helicopter UAV. These open-loop optimal trajectories represent the solution constraints. The plant dynamics features a 3-D nonlinear helicopter model, including dynamics from the rigid

  6. MAST 2011, 10(2): 85-94 85 small-scale fisheries

    E-print Network

    Charles, Anthony

    MAST 2011, 10(2): 85-94 85 small-scale fisheries: On Rights, Trade and Subsidies Anthony Charles exploration of current debates over the nature and interaction of rights within small-scale fisheries to discussions of fishery markets and trade; and how a focus on rights, together with Millennium Development

  7. EDACS: European deposition maps of acidifying components on a small scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. J. van Pul; C. J. M. Potma; E. P. van Leeuwen; G. P. J. Draaijers; J. W. Erisman

    1995-01-01

    In this paper a description is given of the EDACS model (European Deposition of Acidifying Components on Small scale), with which the deposition of acidifying components on a small scale over Europe is calculated for 1989. The acidifying components considered in EDACS are sulphur and reduced and oxidized nitrogen compounds. Dry deposition is estimated with the inference method i.e. the

  8. Small-scale spatial variation of benthic algal assemblages in a peat bog Katerina Cerna n

    E-print Network

    Small-scale spatial variation of benthic algal assemblages in a peat bog Katerina Cerna´ n test Peat bog a b s t r a c t Spatial patterns on a very small scale (10 cm), and the effect microhabitat types were investigated. Samples were taken in a peat bog along linear transects on a scale of 10

  9. Industrial Program of Waste Management - Cigeo Project - 13033

    SciTech Connect

    Butez, Marc [Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs - Andra, 1-7, rue Jean Monnet 92298 Chatenay-Malabry (France)] [Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs - Andra, 1-7, rue Jean Monnet 92298 Chatenay-Malabry (France); Bartagnon, Olivier; Gagner, Laurent [AREVA NC Tour AREVA 1 place de la Coupole 92084 Paris La Defense (France)] [AREVA NC Tour AREVA 1 place de la Coupole 92084 Paris La Defense (France); Advocat, Thierry; Sacristan, Pablo [Commissariat a l'energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, CEA-SACLAY 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)] [Commissariat a l'energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, CEA-SACLAY 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Beguin, Stephane [Electricite de France - EDF, Division Combustible Nucleaire, 1, Place Pleyel Site Cap Ampere93282 Saint Denis (France)] [Electricite de France - EDF, Division Combustible Nucleaire, 1, Place Pleyel Site Cap Ampere93282 Saint Denis (France)

    2013-07-01

    The French Planning Act of 28 June 2006 prescribed that a reversible repository in a deep geological formation be chosen as the reference solution for the long-term management of high-level and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste. It also entrusted the responsibility of further studies and design of the repository (named Cigeo) upon the French Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), in order for the review of the creation-license application to start in 2015 and, subject to its approval, the commissioning of the repository to take place in 2025. Andra is responsible for siting, designing, implementing, operating the future geological repository, including operational and long term safety and waste acceptance. Nuclear operators (Electricite de France (EDF), AREVA NC, and the French Commission in charge of Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies (CEA) are technically and financially responsible for the waste they generate, with no limit in time. They provide Andra, on one hand, with waste packages related input data, and on the other hand with their long term industrial experiences of high and intermediate-level long-lived radwaste management and nuclear operation. Andra, EDF, AREVA and CEA established a cooperation agreement for strengthening their collaborations in these fields. Within this agreement Andra and the nuclear operators have defined an industrial program for waste management. This program includes the waste inventory to be taken into account for the design of the Cigeo project and the structural hypothesis underlying its phased development. It schedules the delivery of the different categories of waste and defines associated flows. (authors)

  10. Large- and small-scale constraints on power spectra in Omega = 1 universes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelb, James M.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami; Frieman, Joshua A.

    1993-01-01

    The CDM model of structure formation, normalized on large scales, leads to excessive pairwise velocity dispersions on small scales. In an attempt to circumvent this problem, we study three scenarios (all with Omega = 1) with more large-scale and less small-scale power than the standard CDM model: (1) cold dark matter with significantly reduced small-scale power (inspired by models with an admixture of cold and hot dark matter); (2) cold dark matter with a non-scale-invariant power spectrum; and (3) cold dark matter with coupling of dark matter to a long-range vector field. When normalized to COBE on large scales, such models do lead to reduced velocities on small scales and they produce fewer halos compared with CDM. However, models with sufficiently low small-scale velocities apparently fail to produce an adequate number of halos.

  11. Entering Industry: A Case Study of Links between a School Vocational Program and the Building and Construction Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Anthea

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have tracked youth transition beyond the immediate post-school period or have looked at the longer-term outcomes of post-school programs. This study reports the findings of a case study investigating links between an industry-specific school vocational education and training (VET) program and subsequent work transitions to the building…

  12. La Apaicultura de Pequena Escala (Small Scale Beekeeping). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Manual Series No. M-25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Curtis

    This Spanish-language manual is designed to assist Peace Corps volunteers in Spanish-speaking countries in the implementation of small-scale beekeeping programs as a tool for development. Addressed in the individual chapters are bees and humans; project planning; the types and habits of bees; the essence of beekeeping; bee space and beehives;…

  13. Apiculture de Petite Eschelle (Small Scale Beekeeping). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Manual Series No. M-26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Curtis

    This French-language manual is designed to assist Peace Corps volunteers in French-speaking countries in the implementation of small-scale beekeeping programs as a tool for development. Addressed in the individual chapters are bees and humans; project planning; the types and habits of bees; the essence of beekeeping; bee space and beehives;…

  14. Small-Scale Evaluation of the Expeditionary Unit Water Purifier

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA?s Technology Testing and Evaluation Program has been charged by EPA to evaluate the performance of commercially available water security-related technologies. Throughout 2007, an evaluation the Expeditionary Unit Water Purifier (EUWP), a mobile water treatment techno...

  15. Department/Academic Unit: Industrial Relations Degree Program: Master of Industrial Relations MIR Degree Level Expectations, Learning Outcomes, Indicators of Achievement and the Program Requirements that Support the

    E-print Network

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    Department/Academic Unit: Industrial Relations Degree Program: Master of Industrial Relations MIR Required coursework MIR810 Unions & Collective Bargaining MIR823 Labour Law I MIR824 Labour Law II MIR830 Human Resource Management MIR840 Labour Economics and IR MIR850 Organizational Theory & Design Elective

  16. Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion for small scale market sectors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, R.A.; Plessinger, D.A.; Sommer, T.M. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Orville, OH (United States); Keener, H.M. [Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, OH (United States); Webner, R.L. [Will-Burt Co., Orrville, OH (United States)

    1997-03-31

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate and promote the commercialization of coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) systems, with limestone addition for SO{sub 2} emissions control and a baghouse for particulate emissions control. This AFBC system was targeted for small scale industrial-commercial-institutional space and process heat applications. A cost effective and environmentally acceptable AFBC technology in this size range would displace a considerable amount of gas/oil with coal while resulting in significant total cost savings to the owner/operators. In the Proof-of-Concept Phase, a 2.2 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr unit was installed and successfully operated at Cedar Lane Farms (CLF), a commercial nursery in Ohio. The heat from the fluidized bed was used to heat hot water which was recirculated through greenhouses for cool weather heating. The system was designed to be fully automated with minimal operator attention required. The AFBC system installed at CLF was an improved design that incorporated flyash/sorbent reinjection and an underbed feed system to improve limestone utilization. With these additions it was possible to lower the Ca/S ratio from {approximately} 3.0 to 2.0, and still maintain an SO{sub 2} emissions level of 1.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu when burning the same high sulfur Ohio coal tested at OARDC.

  17. Satellite observations of the small-scale cyclonic eddies in the western South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Tang, S.; Chen, C.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution ocean color observations offer an opportunity to investigate the oceanic small-scale processes. In this study, the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) daily 300 m data were used to study small-scale processes in the western South China Sea. It is indicated that the cyclonic eddies with horizontal scales of 10 km are frequently observed during the upwelling season of each year over the 2004-2009 period. These small-scale eddies were generated in the vicinity of the southern front of the cold tongue, and then propagated eastward with a speed of approximately 12 cm s-1. This propagation speed was consistent with the velocity of the western boundary current. As a result, the small-scale eddies kept the high levels of phytoplankton rotating away from the coastal areas, resulting in the accumulation of phytoplankton in the interior of the eddies. The generation of the small-scale eddies may be associated with strengthening of the relative movement between the rotation speed of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies and the offshore transport. With the increases of the normalized rotation speed of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies relative to the offshore transport, the offshore current became a meander under the impacts of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies. The meandered cold tongue and instability front may stimulate the generation of the small-scale eddies. Unidirectional uniform wind along the cold tongue may also contribute to the formation of the small-scale eddies.

  18. Satellite observations of the small-scale cyclonic eddies in the western South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Tang, S.; Chen, C.

    2014-09-01

    High-resolution ocean color observation offers an opportunity to investigate the oceanic small-scale processes. In this study, The Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) daily 300 m data are used to study small-scale processes in the western South China Sea. It is indicated that the cyclonic eddies with horizontal scales of the order of 10 km are frequently observed during upwelling season of each year over 2004-2009. These small-scale eddies are generated in the vicinity of the southern front of the cold tongue, and then propagate eastward with a speed of approximately 12 cm s-1. This propagation speed is consistent with the velocity of the western boundary current. As a result, the small-scale eddies keep rotating high levels of the phytoplankton away from the coastal areas, resulting in the accumulation of phytoplankton in the interior of the eddies. The generation of the small-scale eddies may be associated with strengthening of the relative movement between the rotation speed of the anticylconic mesoscale eddies and the offshore transport. With the increases of the normalized rotation speed of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies relative to the offshore transport, the offshore current become meander under the impacts of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies. The meandered cold tongue and instability front may stimulate the generation of the small-scale eddies. Unidirectional uniform wind along cold tongue may also contribute to the formation of the small-scale eddies.

  19. Small scale wind tunnel model investigation of hybrid high lift systems combining upper surface blowing with the internally blown flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waites, W. L.; Chin, Y. T.

    1974-01-01

    A small-scale wind tunnel test of a two engine hybrid model with upper surface blowing on a simulated expandable duct internally blown flap was accomplished in a two phase program. The low wing Phase I model utilized 0.126c radius Jacobs/Hurkamp flaps and 0.337c radius Coanda flaps. The high wing Phase II model was utilized for continued studies on the Jacobs/Hurkamp flap. Principal study areas included: basic data both engines operative and with an engine out, control flap utilization, horizontal tail effectiveness, spoiler effectiveness, USB nacelle deflector study and USB/IBF pressure ratio effects.

  20. Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project. Pennsylvania Hydroelectric Development Corporation Flat Rock Dam: Project summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Gleeson, L.

    1991-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

  1. Overview of the US industrial thermal energy storage program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Olszewski

    1981-01-01

    Thermal energy storage can contribute to industrial conservation efforts directed at saving premium (gas and oil) fuels, which is a priority national need. This can be done by using storage to allow the recycling of industrial reject heat to reduce primary energy consumption or to allow alternate fuels to replace gas and oil. Industrial thermal energy storage efforts include three

  2. Michigan reconsiders subsidy programs for the film industry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Grinnell, Max

    2011-03-26

    Hollywood on the dole: Draw the curtain on filmmaker subsidieshttp://www.economist.com/blogs/democracyinamerica/2011/03/hollywood_doleSenate approves $50M cap on NM film subsidieshttp://www.businessweek.com/ap/financialnews/D9M0DCRO2.htmLights. Camera. Stop the film subsidies action.http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/editorial_opinion/oped/articles/2011/02/19/lights_camera_stop_the_film_subsidies_action/Hollywood's disc problem: Video nastyhttp://www.economist.com/node/18388998Michigan Movie Magazinehttp://www.michiganmoviemagazine.biz/Amidst many programs designed to deal with the fiscal realities of tightening state budgets, some policymakers and legislators are reconsidering the practice of offering subsidies to film production companies. Recently, the state of Michigan has been contemplating abolishing their 42% tax credit for film production; effectively rolling back what are unlimited industry rebates to an annual cap of $25 million. Michigan's new governor, Rick Snyder, proposed the cut in his most recent budget proposal, and some have responded quite negatively to this proposal. A number of prominent local personages have spoken out against the cut, including best-selling author Mitch Albom, who pointed out in a committee hearing last week that the film and television business in the state grew from $2 million in $225 million in two years. Currently there are 43 studios with pending applications to film in Michigan, and the Michigan Film Office cannot approve them until a final decision is reached by the legislature, which may not come until late May. Nationwide, there is significant debate about the true long term benefits of such subsidies, and other states (such as New Mexico) are also considering gradually reducing or eliminating these tax benefits entirely.The first link will take interested parties to a piece from Fortune, which describes the proposed program to scale back subsidies for film production companies in the Wolverine State. The second link leads to a recent piece from The Economist which argues against providing subsidies to such endeavors. The third link will take visitors to an article from last week's Bloomberg Businessweek which reports on New Mexico's recent decision to cap film production studies. Moving on, the fourth link will take users to a Boston Globe editorial by Professor Peter Enrich in which he argues for an end to film production subsidies in Massachusetts. The fifth link leads to a piece from The Economist which talks about how the movie industry itself should focus more on digital distribution, rather than to continue to rely on their work renting film to cinema chains and shipping DVDs and such to retailers and the remaining rental outlets. The final link will take visitors to the online home of the Michigan Movie Magazine, which provides industry news about film productions and related matters in the state.

  3. Autonomous Guidance of Agile Small-scale Rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettler, Bernard; Feron, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a guidance system for agile vehicles based on a hybrid closed-loop model of the vehicle dynamics. The hybrid model represents the vehicle dynamics through a combination of linear-time-invariant control modes and pre-programmed, finite-duration maneuvers. This particular hybrid structure can be realized through a control system that combines trim controllers and a maneuvering control logic. The former enable precise trajectory tracking, and the latter enables trajectories at the edge of the vehicle capabilities. The closed-loop model is much simpler than the full vehicle equations of motion, yet it can capture a broad range of dynamic behaviors. It also supports a consistent link between the physical layer and the decision-making layer. The trajectory generation was formulated as an optimization problem using mixed-integer-linear-programming. The optimization is solved in a receding horizon fashion. Several techniques to improve the computational tractability were investigate. Simulation experiments using NASA Ames 'R-50 model show that this approach fully exploits the vehicle's agility.

  4. The Department of Energy`s Solar Industrial Program: 1994 review

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This is a report on DOE`s Solar Industrial Program. The topics of the report include an overview of the program, it`s participants and it`s objectives; solar detoxification--using solar energy to destroy environmental contaminants in air, water, and soil; solar process heat--generating industrial quantities of hot water, steam, and hot air from solar energy; and advanced processes--using concentrated solar energy to manufacture high-technology materials and develop new industrial processes.

  5. Determination of elements for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Engineering programs at the Masters level

    E-print Network

    Duke, James Edward

    1992-01-01

    DETERMINATION OF ELEMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE AND SAFETY ENGINEERING PROGRAMS AT THE MASTERS LEVEL A Thesis by JAMES EDWARD DUKE JR. Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene DETERMINATION OF ELEMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE AND SAFETY ENGINEERING PROGRAM% AT THE MASTERS LEVEL A Thesis by JAMES EDWARD DUKE JR. Submitted to Texas...

  6. Markets for small-scale, advanced coal-combustion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Placet, M.; Kenkeremath, L.D.; Streets, D.G.; Dials, G.E.; Kern, D.M.; Nehring, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.

    1988-12-01

    This report examines the potential of using US-developed advanced coal technologies (ACTs) for small combustors in foreign markets; in particular, the market potentials of the member countries of the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) were determined. First, the United States and those OECD countries with very low energy demands were eliminated. The remaining 15 countries were characterized on the basis of eight factors that would influence their decision to use US ACTs: energy plan and situation, dependence on oil and gas imports, experience with coal, residential/commercial energy demand, industrial energy demand, trade relationship with the United States, level of domestic competition with US ACT manufacturers, and environmental pressure to use advanced technology. Each country was rated high, medium-high, low-medium, or low on each factor, based on statistical and other data. The ratings were then used to group the countries in terms of their relative market potential (good, good but with impediments, or limited). The best potential markets appear to be Spain, Italy, turkey, Greece, and Canada. 25 refs., 1 fig., 37 tabs.

  7. Profile of the chemicals industry in California: Californiaindustries of the future program

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst

    2004-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) established the Industries of the Future (IOF) program to increase energy efficiency, reduce waste production and to improve competitiveness, currently focusing on nine sectors. The IOF is a partnership strategy involving industry, the research community and the government, working together to identify technology needs, promote industrial partnerships and implement joint measures with all partners involved. The State Industries of the Future (SIOF) program delivers the accomplishments of the national Industries of the Future strategy to the local level, to expand the technology opportunities to a larger number of partners and reach smaller businesses and manufacturers that were not initially involved in the IOF effort. The state programs bring together industry, academia, and state agencies to address the important issues confronting industry in the state. These public-private coalitions facilitate industry solutions locally and enhance economic development. California has started a State Industries of the Future effort, in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy. The California Energy Commission (CEC) is leading the SIOF program in California, as part of many other programs to improve the energy efficiency and performance of industries in California. The California State IOF program aims to build a network of participants from industry, academia and government in four selected industrial sectors as a basis for the development of a strategic partnership for industrial energy efficient technology in the state. In California the IOF effort focuses petroleum refining, chemical processing, food processing and electronics. As part of this effort, the SIOF program will develop roadmaps for technology development for the selected sectors. On the basis of the roadmap, the program will develop successful projects with co-funding from state and federal government, and promote industry-specific energy-efficiency. An important element of the SIOF-program is the preparation of R&D roadmaps for each of the selected industries. The roadmap will help to identify priority needs for the participating industries to meet their energy challenges. The roadmap effort builds on the roadmaps developed by DOE, and on the conditions specific for the industry in California. Key to the successful preparation of a roadmap in the selected industries is the development of a profile of the industries. The profile provides a basis for the participants in the roadmap-effort, especially as the structure of the industries in California can be different than in the nation. The sector profiles describe the current economic and energy situation of these industries in California, the processes and energy uses, and the potential future developments in each industry. The profiles are an integral part of the roadmap, to help working group partners to evaluate the industry's R&D needs for their industry in California. In this report, we focus on the chemicals industry. The industry is an important economic factor in the state, providing over 82,300 jobs directly, and more in indirect employment. Value of shipments in 2001 was just under $25.7 Billion, or 6% of all manufacturing in California. There are over 1,500 chemical plants in California, of which 52% are pharmaceutical companies. Many companies operate chemical plants in California. The industry consumes 8% of the electricity and 5% of the natural gas in California. In this report, we start with a description of the chemical industry in the United States and California. This is followed by a discussion of the energy consumption and energy intensity of the Californian chemical industry. Chapter 3 focuses on the main sub-sectors. For each of the sub-sectors a general process description is provided in Chapter 4. Based on this analysis, in Chapter 5, we discuss potential technology developments that can contribute to further improving the energy efficiency in chemical plants, with a focus on the situation in California.

  8. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments, FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This report contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Subject areas covered are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  9. Small-scale mechanical characterization of viscoelastic adhesive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shean, T. A. V.

    Aero engine hot end components are often covered with ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs). Laser drilling in the TBC coated components can be a source of service life TBC degradation and spallation. The present study aims to understand the mechanisms of TBC delamination and develop techniques to drill holes without damaging the TBC, Nimonic 263 workpieces coated with TBC are used in the experiments. Microwave non-destructive testing (NDT) is employed to monitor the integrity of the coating /substrate interfaces of the post-laser drilled materials. A numerical modelling technique is used to investigate the role of melt ejection on TBC delamination. The model accounts for the vapour and the assist gas flow effects in the process. Broadly, melt ejection induced mechanical stresses for the TBC coating / bond coating and thermal effects for the bond coating / substrate interfaces are found the key delamination mechanisms. Experiments are carried out to validate the findings from the model. Various techniques that enable laser drilling without damaging the TBC are demonstrated. Twin jet assisted acute angle laser drilling is one successful technique that has been analysed using the melt ejection simulation. Optimisation of the twin jet assisted acute angle laser drilling process parameters is carried out using Design of Experiments (DoE) and statistical modelling approaches. Finally, an industrial case study to develop a high speed, high quality laser drilling system for combustor cans is described. Holes are drilled by percussion and trepan drilling in TBC coated and uncoated Haynes 230 workpieces. The production rate of percussion drilling is significantly higher than the trepan drilling, however metallurgical hole quality and reproducibility is poor. A number of process parameters are investigated to improve these characteristics. Gas type and gas pressure effects on various characteristics of the inclined laser drilled holes are investigated through theoretical and experimental work.

  10. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the Pacific Northwest: new impetus for an old energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Energy supply is one of the most important issues facing Northwestern legislators today. To meet the challenge, state legislatures must address the development of alternative energy sources. The Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Policy Project of the National Conference of State Legislators (NCSL) was designed to assist state legislators in looking at the benefits of one alternative, small-scale hydro. Because of the need for state legislative support in the development of small-scale hydroelectric, NCSL, as part of its contract with the Department of Energy, conducted the following conference on small-scale hydro in the Pacific Northwest. The conference was designed to identify state obstacles to development and to explore options for change available to policymakers. A summary of the conference proceedings is presented.

  11. The UNEP Project CD4CDM BUNDLING SMALL-SCALE CDM PROJECTS

    E-print Network

    and estimates indicate potential of small-scale (SSC) projects under Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is large. This is on account of higher level of community involvement in such projects. Geographical equity considerations also

  12. Small scale hydroelectric power potential in Nevada: a preliminary reconnaissance survey

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, G.F.; Fordham, J.W.; Richard, K.; Loux, R.

    1981-04-01

    This preliminary reconnaissance survey is intended to: develop a first estimate as to the potential number, location and characteristics of small-scale (50 kW to 15 MW) hydroelectric sites in Nevada; provide a compilation of various Federal and state laws and regulations, including tax and financing regulations, that affect small-scale hydroelectric development and provide information on sources of small-scale hydroelectric generation hardware and consultants/ contractors who do small scale hydroelectric work. The entire survey has been conducted in the office working with various available data bases. The site survey and site evaluation methods used are described, and data are tabulated on the flow, power potential, predicted capital expenditures required, etc. for 61 potential sites with measured flows and for 77 sites with derived flows. A map showing potential site locations is included. (LCL)

  13. Design of a small-scale continuous linear motion pharmaceutical filtration module

    E-print Network

    Wong, Katherine Wing-Shan

    2010-01-01

    A new small-scale continuous linear motion pharmaceutical filtration prototype was designed, fabricated, and tested. The goal of this unit is to filter an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) from a mixture of API ...

  14. Radiation and dissipation of internal waves generated by geostrophic motions impinging on small-scale topography

    E-print Network

    Nikurashin, Maxim (Maxim Anatolevich)

    2009-01-01

    Observations and inverse models suggest that small-scale turbulent mixing is enhanced in the Southern Ocean in regions above rough topography. The enhancement extends 1 km above the topography suggesting that mixing is ...

  15. Free-Hand Small-Scale Maps: Activities for Cognitive Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saveland, Robert N.

    1978-01-01

    Suggests that small-scale mapping activities can be used in geography courses to help students understand geographic concepts such as latitude, longitude, situation, relative location, and national boundaries. (Author/DB)

  16. Thermal design of humidification dehumidification systems for affordable and small-scale desalination

    E-print Network

    Govindan, Prakash Narayan

    2012-01-01

    The humidification dehumidification (HDH) technology is a carrier-gas-based thermal desalination technique ideal for application in a small-scale system but, currently, has a high cost of water production (about 30 $/mł ...

  17. Impact of small-scale inhomogeneities on observations of standard candles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Kengo; Yoo, Chul-Moon

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the effect of small-scale inhomogeneities on standard candle observations, such as type-Ia supernovae (SNe) observations. The existence of the small-scale inhomogeneities may cause a tension between SNe observations and other observations with larger-diameter sources, such as the cosmic microwave background (CMB) observation. To clarify the impact of the small-scale inhomogeneities, we use the Dyer-Roeder approach. We determined the smoothness parameter ?(z) as a function of the redshift z so as to compensate the deviation of cosmological parameters for SNe from those for CMB. The range of the deviation which can be compensated by the smoothness parameter ?(z) satisfying 0??(z)?1 is reported. Our result suggests that the tension may give us the information of the small-scale inhomogeneities through the smoothness parameter.

  18. Waalbot: An Agile Small-Scale Wall Climbing Robot Utilizing Pressure Sensitive Adhesives

    E-print Network

    Sitti, Metin

    Waalbot: An Agile Small-Scale Wall Climbing Robot Utilizing Pressure Sensitive Adhesives Michael P and grasping robots cannot climb smooth surfaces like glass or painted structures. To avoid the drawbacks

  19. Nonlinear Generation of shear flows and large scale magnetic fields by small scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aburjania, G.

    2009-04-01

    EGU2009-233 Nonlinear Generation of shear flows and large scale magnetic fields by small scale turbulence in the ionosphere by G. Aburjania Contact: George Aburjania, g.aburjania@gmail.com,aburj@mymail.ge

  20. Detecting small-scale genotypeenvironment interactions in apomictic dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) populations

    E-print Network

    Vellend, Mark

    Detecting small-scale genotype­environment interactions in apomictic dandelion (Taraxacum O L O G Y 1667 Keywords: apomictic; dandelion; disturbance; local adaptation; microsatellites species). Here, we tested for G · E in asexual dandelions (Taraxacum officinale) by subjecting six

  1. Industrial demand-side management programs: What`s happened, what works, what`s needed

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, J.A.; Nadel, S.M. [American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-03-01

    In order to analyze experience to date with industrial demand-side management (DSM), a survey of utilities was conducted and a database of industrial DSM programs was prepared. More than eighty utilities and third-party organizations were interviewed. Data were collected via phone, fax, and/or mail from the utilities and entered into a database. In order to limit the scope of this study, the database contains incentive-based, energy-saving programs and not load management or information-only programs (including technical assistance programs). Programs in the database were divided into four categories: two ``prescriptive rebate`` categories and two ``custom rebate`` categories. The database contains 31 incentive-based, energy-saving industrial DSM programs offered by 17 utilities. The appendix to this report summarizes the results approximately 60 industrial DSM programs. Most of the programs included in the appendix, but not in the database, are either C&I programs for which commercial and industrial data were not disaggregated or new industrial DSM programs for which data are not yet available.

  2. Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Bio-Based and Fossil Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Petrik; Robert Ruhl

    2012-03-31

    Technology Management, Inc. (TMI) of Cleveland, Ohio, has completed the project entitled â??Small Scale SOFC Demonstration using Bio-based and Fossil Fuels.â?ť Under this program, two 1-kW systems were engineered as technology demonstrators of an advanced technology that can operate on either traditional hydrocarbon fuels or renewable biofuels. The systems were demonstrated at Patterson's Fruit Farm of Chesterland, OH and were open to the public during the first quarter of 2012. As a result of the demonstration, TMI received quantitative feedback on operation of the systems as well as qualitative assessments from customers. Based on the test results, TMI believes that > 30% net electrical efficiency at 1 kW on both traditional and renewable fuels with a reasonable entry price is obtainable. The demonstration and analysis provide the confidence that a 1 kW entry-level system offers a viable value proposition, but additional modifications are warranted to reduce sound and increase reliability before full commercial acceptance.

  3. Niche market assessment for a small-scale western oil shale project

    SciTech Connect

    Sinor, J.E. (Sinor (J.E.) Consultants, Inc., Niwot, CO (USA))

    1989-07-01

    As part of an overall program to study the economic feasibility of a small-scale western oil shale project, Western Research Institute requested J. E. Sinor Consultants Inc. to carry out a marketing analysis for the potential products. In undertaking such a study, it was recognized that the production of conventional fuels, such as gasoline, jet fuel and diesel fuel, would not be feasible under current economic conditions. Therefore, the approach used in this study was to focus on nonconventional products, having perhaps a small potential market size but providing an opportunity to sell shale oil at considerably more than its crude oil equivalent price. To find such potential market niches, it is necessary to emphasize and preserve the differences between shale oil and petroleum, rather than try to make shale oil simply a substitute for petroleum. The objectives of this analysis are to identify potential products; to determine the size of the existing market for these products; to estimate the prices that such products could receive; and to evaluate all factors influencing the ability to sell shale oil products in these markets. 23 refs., 47 figs., 52 tabs.

  4. Velocity Measurements Near the Empennage of a SmallScale Helicopter Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorton, Susan Althoff; Meyers, James F.; Berry, John D.

    1996-01-01

    A test program was conducted in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel to measure the flow near the empennage of a small-scale powered helicopter model with an operating tail fan. Three-component velocity profiles were measured with Laser Velocimetry (LV) one chord forward of the horizontal tail for four advance ratios to evaluate the effect of the rotor wake impingement on the horizontal tail angle of attack. These velocity data indicate the horizontal tail can experience unsteady downwash angle variations of over 30 degrees due to the rotor wake influence. The horizontal tail is most affected by the rotor wake above advance ratios of 0.10. Velocity measurements of the flow on the inlet side of the fan were made for a low-speed flight condition using both conventional LV techniques and a promising, non-intrusive, global, three-component velocity measurement technique called Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV). The velocity data show an accelerated flow near the fan duct, and vorticity calculations track the passage of main rotor wake vortices through the measurement plane. DGV shows promise as an evolving tool for rotor flowfield diagnostics.

  5. Ground and Flight Evaluation of a Small-Scale Inflatable-Winged Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, James E.; Pahle, Joseph W.; Thornton, Stephen V.; Vogus, Shannon; Frackowiak, Tony; Mello, Joe; Norton, Brook; Bauer, Jeff (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A small-scale, instrumented research aircraft was flown to investigate the night characteristics of innersole wings. Ground tests measured the static structural characteristics of the wing at different inflation pressures, and these results compared favorably with analytical predictions. A research-quality instrumentation system was assembled, largely from commercial off-the-shelf components, and installed in the aircraft. Initial flight operations were conducted with a conventional rigid wing having the same dimensions as the inflatable wing. Subsequent flights were conducted with the inflatable wing. Research maneuvers were executed to identify the trim, aerodynamic performance, and longitudinal stability and control characteristics of the vehicle in its different wing configurations. For the angle-of-attack range spanned in this flight program, measured flight data demonstrated that the rigid wing was an effective simulator of the lift-generating capability of the inflatable wing. In-flight inflation of the wing was demonstrated in three flight operations, and measured flight data illustrated the dynamic characteristics during wing inflation and transition to controlled lifting flight. Wing inflation was rapid and the vehicle dynamics during inflation and transition were benign. The resulting angles of attack and of sideslip ere small, and the dynamic response was limited to roll and heave motions.

  6. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level in Maryland are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The dual regulatory system is examined with the aim of creating a more orderly understanding of the vagaries of the system, focusing on the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. In Maryland, by common law rule, title to all navigable waters and to the soil below the high-water mark of those waters is vested in the state as successor to the Lord Proprietary who had received it by grant from the Crown. Rights to non-navigable water, public trust doctrine, and eminent domain are also discussed. Direct and indirect regulations, continuing obligations, loan programs, and regional organizations are described in additional sections.

  7. Structure and Organisation of Small-Scale Freshwater Fisheries: Aquarium Fish Collection in Western Amazonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Annick Moreau; Oliver T. Coomes

    2008-01-01

    Small-scale fisheries in developing countries are often vital to the livelihoods of the rural poor, yet the dynamic and variable\\u000a nature of household engagement in local fisheries remains poorly understood. This paper describes a small-scale fishery for\\u000a aquarium fish in two proximate villages of the Peruvian Amazon, and explains observed differences within and between villages\\u000a in participation, reliance and organisation

  8. Small-scale mining in South Africa: Past, present and future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nellie Mutemeri; Francis W. Petersen

    2002-01-01

    Mining is an important part of the South African economy and has been the driver of much of the economic development of the country. However, the small-scale mining subsector still has to realise its full potential. A small-scale mine has been defined as a mining activity employing less than 50 people and with an annual turnover of less than 7.5

  9. Forest Certification as an Instrument for Improved Forest Management within Small-scale Forestry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gun Lidestav; Solveig Berg Lejon

    Since early 1990 ties, Swedish forest land is increasingly becoming certified. Today all major forest owners have joined the\\u000a Swedish FSC-standard (Forest Stewardship Council), while small-scale forest owners preferably are joining the PEFC scheme\\u000a (Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification). With the overall aim of gaining a better insight into which small-scale\\u000a forest owners that have decided to take

  10. Comparison of power converters for small-scale wind turbine operation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Pathmanathan; C. Tang; W. L. Soong; N. Ertugrul

    2008-01-01

    Small-scale wind turbines commonly use AC\\/DC converters such as rectifiers, switched mode rectifiers (SMRs) and inverters. Another power converter, the semi-bridge SMR has been researched for automotive applications, and is utilised by a number of small-scale wind turbine manufacturers. This paper applies a novel modulation technique developed for automotive applications of the semi-bridge SMR for Lundell and interior permanent magnet

  11. Mercury contamination associated with small-scale gold mining in Tanzania and Zimbabwe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter van Straaten

    2000-01-01

    Mercury contamination associated with small-scale gold mining and processing represents a major environmental and human health concern in Eastern and Southern Africa. Approximately 200000–300000 persons are involved in small-scale gold mining activities in Tanzania and >200000 persons in Zimbabwe. Mercury (Hg) is used mainly for the processing of primary gold quartz veins and supergene gold mineralizations. Gravimetric material flow analyses

  12. Spatial structure of small-scale magnetic structures in quiet Sun regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mei Zhang; Hongqi Zhang

    1999-01-01

    Photospheric (Fe I lambda5324.19 Ĺ) and chromospheric (Hbeta) magnetic fields of small-scale magnetic structures have been simultaneously observed, using the vector video magnetograph at Huairou Solar Observing Station of Beijing Astronomical Observatory. Center-to-limb observations show that the magnetic structures of small-scale magnetic structures have not changed much when they extend from the solar photosphere to the chromosphere. Solar limb observations

  13. Budgets for Small Scale Catfish Production to Supply a Fee Fishing Operation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Forrest Wynne

    In temperate climates, catfish production and fee fishing occur during the spring and summer. Fee fishing facilities can provide a reliable market outlet to small-scale catfish producers. These operations require large catfish (1 lb., or greater) which are stocked into small fishing ponds. During a 200-day season, a small-scale fee fishing operation may sell 30,000 lbs. of fish, or more.

  14. ITER baffle module small-scale mock-ups: First Wall thermo-mechanical testing results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Severi; P. Chappuis; L. Giancarli; G. Le Marois; Y. Poitevin; M. Rödig; J. F. Salavy; G. Vieider

    1998-01-01

    The EU-Home Team is in charge of the R&D related to the ITER Baffle First Wall. Five small-scale mock-ups, using Be, CFC and W tiles and different armour\\/heat-sink material joints under development, have been fabricated and thermomechanically tested in FE200 (Le Creusot) and JUDITH (Jülich) Electron Beam facilities. The small-scale mock-ups have been submitted to thermo-mechanical fatigue tests (up to

  15. Control system design and testing for a small-scale autonomous helicopter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seongpil Kim; Agus Budiyono; Jang-Ho Lee; DooHyun Kim; Kwang Joon Yoon

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to conduct the design, development and testing of a controller for an autonomous small-scale helicopter. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The hardware in the loop simulation (HILS) platform is developed based on the nonlinear model of JR Voyager G-260 small-scale helicopter. Autonomous controllers are verified using the HILS environment prior to flight experiments. Findings –

  16. Ethnographic Approaches to Understanding Social Sustainability in Small-scale Water Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wutich, A.

    2011-12-01

    Social sustainability is an important, but often neglected, aspect of determining the success of small-scale water systems. This paper reviews ethnographic approaches for understanding how indigenous knowledge enhances social sustainability of small-scale water systems, particularly in small-scale water systems threatened by water scarcity. After reviewing the literature on common-pool and traditional resource management strategies, the paper will focus on the case of a community-managed small-scale water system in Cochabamba, Bolivia. This study uses ethnographic evidence to demonstrate how indigenous institutions can be used to manage a small-scale urban water system sustainably. Several factors were crucial to the institution's success. First, indigenous residents had previous experience with common management of rural irrigation systems which they were able to adapt for use in an urban environment. Second, institutional rules were designed to prioritize the conservation of the water source. Third, indigenous Andean social values of uniformity, regularity, and transparency ensured that community members perceived the system as legitimate and complied with community rules. Fourth, self-governance enabled community members to quickly adapt to changing environmental conditions, such as seasonal scarcity and groundwater overdraft. The paper concludes with a discussion of the promise and limitations of ethnographic approaches and indigenous knowledge for understanding social sustainability in small-scale water systems.

  17. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) program. Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments FY 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven {open_quotes}Vision Industries{close_quotes} that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. These are: (1) Aluminum; (2) Chemical; (3) Forest Products; (4) Glass; (5) Metal Casting; (6) Refineries; and (7) Steel. This report is a compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments on materials.

  18. Machine vision 1992-1996: technology program to promote research and its utilization in industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soini, Antti J.

    1994-10-01

    Machine vision technology has got a strong interest in Finnish research organizations, which is resulting in many innovative products to industry. Despite this end users were very skeptical towards machine vision and its robustness for harsh industrial environments. Therefore Technology Development Centre, TEKES, who funds technology related research and development projects in universities and individual companies, decided to start a national technology program, Machine Vision 1992 - 1996. Led by industry the program boosts research in machine vision technology and seeks to put the research results to work in practical industrial applications. The emphasis is in nationally important, demanding applications. The program will create new industry and business for machine vision producers and encourage the process and manufacturing industry to take advantage of this new technology. So far 60 companies and all major universities and research centers are working on our forty different projects. The key themes that we have are process control, robot vision and quality control.

  19. Small-Scale Bioenergy Alternatives for Industry, Farm, and Institutions : A User`s Perspective.

    SciTech Connect

    Folk, Richard [ed.] [Idaho Univ., Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Forest Products

    1991-12-31

    This report presents research on biomass as an energy source. Topics include: bioenergy development and application; bioenergy combustion technology; and bioenergy from agricultural, forest, and urban resources. There are a total of 57 individual reports included. Individual reports are processed separately for the databases.

  20. Small-Scale Industrial Cogeneration: Design Using Reciprocating Engines and Absorption Chillers

    E-print Network

    Wagner, J. R.

    to be espedially true if the engine is fueled with natural gas. : Such engines generally were designed initially to: burn diesel fuel (i.e., distillate oiU, and have' been converted to natural gas by the addition of :spark plugs and other modifications.... As compared to the diesel engine from which it is derived, a natural gas engine will typically be derated, somewhat less efficient, more expensive to maintain, and more expensive on a $/kW basis. Yet these disadvantages are frequently more than offset...

  1. The Department of Energy`s Solar Industrial Program: 1995 review

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    During 1995, the Department of Energy`s Solar Industrial (SI) Program worked to bring the benefits of solar energy to America`s industrial sector. Scientists and engineers within the program continued the basic research, applied engineering, and economic analyses that have been at the heart of the Program`s success since its inception in 1989. In 1995, all three of the SI Program`s primary areas of research and development--solar detoxification, advanced solar processes, and solar process heat--succeeded in increasing the contribution made by renewable and energy-efficient technologies to American industry`s sustainable energy future. The Solar Detoxification Program develops solar-based pollution control technologies for destroying hazardous environmental contaminants. The Advanced Solar Processes Program investigates industrial uses of highly concentrated solar energy. The Solar Process Heat Program conducts the investigations and analyses that help energy planners determine when solar heating technologies--like those that produce industrial-scale quantities of hot water, hot air, and steam--can be applied cost effectively. The remainder of this report highlights the research and development conducted within in each of these subprograms during 1995.

  2. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments, FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The mission of the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. A fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrates on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support. Assessments of materials needs and opportunities in the process industries are an on-going effort within the program. These assessments are being used for program planning and priority setting, followed by support of work to satisfy those needs. All the industries have identified materials as critical, particularly for high-temperature strength, corrosion resistance, and wear resistance. Also important from the energy efficiency viewpoint are membranes, catalytic membranes, and reactors for separations, both for processing and waste reduction. AIM focuses, therefore, on high-temperature materials, corrosion resistant materials, wear resistant materials, strong polymers, coatings, and membrane materials for industrial applications.

  3. Options on Roles, Organization, and Programs of the Private Industry Council. Private Industry Council Training Series: 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Alliance of Business, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This handbook, developed by the National Alliance of Business, is designed as a tool for Private Industry Councils (PICs) in promoting permanent partnerships between public and private interests in training and employing the disadvantaged. Basic information on roles, organizational issues, and program activities of the PIC are considered in four…

  4. Peculiarities of the optimisation of optical resonators with regular small-scale inhomogeneities of an active medium

    SciTech Connect

    Lobachev, V V; Strakhov, S Yu [D.F. Ustinov 'VOENMEKh' Baltic State Technical University, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2005-10-31

    The peculiarities of parametric optimisation of resonators containing small-scale inhomogeneities are considered. The two most important practical cases are studied in detail: an unstable resonator with small-scale phase inhomogeneities in the active medium and a stable resonator with small-scale amplitude modulations caused by the use of a perforated output mirror. (resonators)

  5. Risk management programs in the chemical industry from Bhopal onward

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Cramer; H. R. Greenberg

    1992-01-01

    Chemical process safety has long been a consideration in industry but the tragedy at Bhopal in late 1984 resulted in significantly increased attention from industry, government, and the public. Whereas Bhopal had a major effect on regulations in the US, two earlier, highly publicized accidents affected regulations in the United Kingdom and Europe. A 1974 cyclohexane explosion at a chemical

  6. A PROGRAM FOR ORGANIZING AND COORDINATING INDUSTRIAL CLINICS

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Bernard J.

    1920-01-01

    To win success the industrial clinic must be neutral ground with domination exercised by neither the employer nor the employees. It is an industrial necessity where both parties must pull together. Further, it must be standardized. Towards this the clinic itself, as a clinic and research center, can aid. The author outlines plans of organization. Imagesp647-a PMID:18010349

  7. Cyber Security Testing and Training Programs for Industrial Control Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Noyes

    2012-01-01

    Service providers rely on industrial control systems (ICS) to manage the flow of water at dams, open breakers on power grids, control ventilation and cooling in nuclear power plants, and more. In today's interconnected environment, this can present a serious cyber security challenge. To combat this growing challenge, government, private industry, and academia are working together to reduce cyber risks.

  8. The use of dried bakery products in a free-choice feeding method for small-scale broiler production.

    PubMed

    Madiya, A T; McCrindle, C M E; Veary, C M; Bisschop, S P R

    2003-12-01

    Waste material from bakeries is an unconventional energy feed source which is available in sufficient quantities for use in small-scale broiler production in South Africa. Small-scale broiler producers do not have access to the computer programs required to balance home-mixed rations. This investigation confirms that the use of dried bakery products (DBP) in a 2-stage, free-choice method can be used to compensate for this lack. A total of 570 day-old male broiler chickens was assigned to 3 feeding treatments: the control group was fed a 2-stage feeding programme using standard commercial starter and grower rations. The 2nd group received a commercial starter ration up to Day 7 and was thereafter given a choice of a commercial starter ration with normal salt content (0.35%) and DBP. The 3rd group was fed a commercial starter ration up to Day 7, then offered a choice of commercial starter ration with a lower salt content (0.1%) and DBP. The low salt alternative was used to test whether the higher salt percentage in DBP influenced the choice of feed by the birds. It was found that the control group consumed significantly more feed (P < 0.05) and was significantly heavier (P < 0.05) than the experimental groups. However, there was no significant difference between the 2 experimental groups, which indicated that salt content did not play a role in the choice of ration. Feed consumption by both experimental groups was about one-third less than the control group, but the profit margin, as calculated using gross margin analysis, was approximately 15 % higher. It was therefore concluded that dried bakery products can be profitably incorporated as an energy feed source, using the free-choice feeding method, in small-scale broiler enterprises. PMID:15038423

  9. National and international collaboration in industrial training programs for Mechatronics students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Maqrashi; A. O. Ojaily

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the industrial training programs for Mechatronics engineering student at Sultan Qaboos University. It presents the objectives of the national and international training programs and discusses the importance of such programs in the development of students ability to gain the required practical experience to prepare them for the market before their graduation. Surveys were conducted for students who

  10. A method proposed for training an artificial neural network used for industrial robot programming by demonstration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Stoica; G. A. Calangiu; F. Sisak; I. Sarkany

    2010-01-01

    Robot programming by demonstration has become a central topic in the field of robotics. Artificial neural networks play an important role in this type of robot programming. Artificial neural networks have a great disadvantage: the network must to be trained with a huge number of data in order to achieve good results. In our case (industrial robot programming by demonstration),

  11. Career Preparation Program Curriculum Guide for: Hospitality/Tourism Industry (Food Services).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria. Curriculum Development Branch.

    This curriculum outline provides secondary and postsecondary instructors with detailed information on student learning outcomes for completion of the food services program requirements in the hospitality/tourism industry. A program overview discusses the aims of education; secondary school philosophy; and career preparation programs and their…

  12. Statewide Clam Industry Task Force addresses research and educational needs New Research Program 1

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Statewide Clam Industry Task Force addresses research and educational needs New Research Program 1 State Clam Task Force 1 Crop Diversification 2 2006 Clam Seed Suppliers 3 2006 Clam Bag Suppliers 4 Research Update 5 CLAMunications 6 USDA Programs 2 Research program to support Florida's clam aquaculture

  13. Incidence of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria spp. in a small-scale mushroom production facility.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Prema; Murugesan, Latha; Knabel, Stephen J; Verghese, Bindhu; Chikthimmah, Naveen; Laborde, Luke F

    2013-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen of significant concern to the agricultural and food processing industry because of its ability to grow and persist in cool and moist environments and its association with listeriosis, a disease with a very high mortality rate. Although there have been no listeriosis outbreaks attributed to fresh mushrooms in the United States, retail surveys and recalls are evidence that L. monocytogenes contamination of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) can occur. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria spp., including L. monocytogenes, in a small-scale mushroom production facility on the campus of the Pennsylvania State University in the United States. Of 184 samples taken from five production zones within the facility, 29 (15.8%) samples were positive for Listeria spp. Among the Listeria spp. isolates, L. innocua was most prevalent (10.3%) followed by L. welshimeri (3.3%), L. monocytogenes (1.6%), and L. grayi (0.5%). L. monocytogenes was recovered only from the phase I raw material composting area. Isolates of L. monocytogenes were confirmed and serotyped by multiplex PCR. The epidemiological relatedness of the three L. monocytogenes isolates to those serotypes or lineages frequently encountered in listeriosis infections was determined by multi-virulence-locus sequence typing using six virulence genes, namely, prfA, inlB, inlC, dal, clpP, and lisR. The phylogenetic positions of the three isolates in the dendrogram prepared with data from other isolates of L. monocytogenes showed that all isolates were grouped with serotype 4a, lineage IIIA. To date, this serotype has rarely been reported in foodborne disease outbreaks. PMID:23575122

  14. A Government/Industry Summary of the Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, Raymond G. (compiler)

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center in 1984 initiated a rotorcraft structural dynamics program, designated DAMVIBS (Design Analysis Methods for VIBrationS), with the objective of establishing the technology base needed by the rotorcraft industry for developing an advanced finite-element-based dynamics design analysis capability for vibrations. An assessment of the program showed that the DAMVIBS Program has resulted in notable technical achievements and major changes in industrial design practice, all of which have significantly advanced the industry's capability to use and rely on finite-element-based dynamics analyses during the design process.

  15. Partnerships between utilities and small-scale providers: Delegated management in Kisumu, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Klaas; Sanga, Anthony

    Increasingly, partnerships between small-scale providers and formal utilities are being promoted as an alternative model of infrastructure development and service provision. This paper analyzes the potential of such a model for bridging the gap in service provision in peri-urban areas. The model, which this article focuses on, is the delegated management model, which has been implemented in Kisumu, Kenya. In this model a formal utility entered into contracts with multiple small-scale providers to distribute water to an informal settlement. In this arrangement, the water utility sells bulk water to the small-scale providers and these then distribute the water to an area covering about 120 connections for each provider. The research finds that the arrangement in Kisumu has met with mixed results. On the one hand, the arrangement led to considerable service expansion and to service improvements for those not connected to the network. Also, the formal utility benefited from the fact that they generated additional revenue by selling bulk water to the small-scale providers. The arrangement has also generated employment for those working for the small-scale providers. On the other hand, experiences so far, show that some challenges need to be addressed before the partnership arrangement becomes truly sustainable. For some providers corruption seems to be a problem as funds have been misappropriated. Also, the utility has not upheld the agreement to transfer all ‘old connections’ to the small-scale providers. A particularly worrying feature is that in low-income areas of Nyalenda, the customers of kiosks run by the small-scale providers pay three times more for their water than households who have an in-house connection.

  16. Unit-Credit Titles under Program Headings, Directory. Technology Education: Vocational Industrial, Industrial Arts, Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg. Curriculum Services Branch.

    This directory lists the unit-credit titles of the technology education courses offered in Manitoba, along with their corresponding department codes and course numbers. Sections A through C list the unit-credit titles of the following vocational-industrial clusters: heavy industrial (agriculture, auto body repair, building construction, building…

  17. 75 FR 3197 - Notice of a Public Meeting on Administration of the Business and Industry Guaranteed Loan Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ...Administration of the Business and Industry Guaranteed Loan Program AGENCY...meeting entitled ``Business and Industry Guaranteed Loan Program National...Agriculture. The purpose of this event is to provide an open forum...delivery of the Business and Industry Guaranteed Loan Program...

  18. Federal legal obstacles and incentives to the development of the small-scale hydroelectric potential of the nineteen Northeastern states. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The main report for which this report is the executive summary, DOE/RA--23-216.00.0-01 (see EAPA 5:3929), was published in revised form in March 1979. Also, since that time, Energy Law Institute has produced detailed legal memoranda on obstacles and incentives for each of the 19 states. This executive summary summarizes the findings and observations of the original report. Specific summaries included are: Federal Jurisdiction Over Small-Scale Hydroelectric Facilities; The FERC; The Regulation of Construction in and the Discharge of Dredged, Fill, and Other Materials into the Waters of the US; The Protection of Fish, Wildlife, and Endangered Species; The Preservation of Historic Places, Archaeological Sites, and Natural Areas; Regulation of the Use of Federal Lands; Federal Dam Construction and Power-Distribution Agencies; Additional Federal Agencies Concerned with Small-Scale Hydroelectric Dams; Federal Tax Devices and Business Structures Affecting Small-Scale Hydroelectric Development; and an Outline of Federal-Assistance programs Available for Small-Scale Hydroelectric Development.

  19. Analytical Methods for Implementing Industrial Load Management Programs

    E-print Network

    Hassig, N.; Chan, M.; Carlson, R.

    1982-01-01

    Many utilities have completed long-term planning studies and have shown that a load management program is cost effective. They are now actively implementing large-scale, system-wide programs such as demand subscription, interruptable rates, and time...

  20. Con Edison Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Program

    E-print Network

    Pospisil, D.

    2011-01-01

    in multi-family buildings of more than 75 units may qualify under the C&I program. ? Does New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) offer similar programs? ? Yes. Use the different programs to your customer?s best advantage...

  1. The French National Energy Conservation Program - The Case of Industry

    E-print Network

    Zyss, J.

    1980-01-01

    France is certainly one of the industrialized countries which has been the most severely affected by the energy crisis. It has thus been necessary since 1974 to plan and execute a bold, far-reaching government policy for energy reconversion...

  2. A Low Cost Energy Management Program at Engelhard Industries Division

    E-print Network

    Brown, T. S.; Michalek, R.; Reiter, S.

    1982-01-01

    in technology related to precious metals and nonmetallic minerals. It manufactures high-performance chemical and precious metals products, including catalysts for the petroleum and automotive industries. Engelhard's energy costs have risen dramatically over...

  3. A survey of small-scale broiler production systems in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Badubi, S S; Ravindran, V; Reid, J

    2004-11-01

    Aspects of husbandry, productivity parameters, diseases, marketing and farmer attitudes in small-scale broiler farms in Botswana were studied using a questionnaire-based survey. The number of broilers per production cycle in small-scale operations ranged from 100 to 2000, with an average of 640. On average, small-scale producers had 4-5 production cycles per annum with an interval of 2-3 weeks between batches. The average marketing age was 48.3 days at a live weight of 1.79 kg and a carcase weight of 1.42 kg. The average feed conversion ratio was estimated to be 2.72 (kg feed/kg live weight) and the average mortality was 9.15%. Overall, the performance indices of broilers under small-scale farm conditions were much poorer than those obtained elsewhere under improved management conditions, but these lower performance levels are suggestive of the potential that exists for further improvement. The survey also identified several areas of concern that constrain the realization of the full potential of this sector. Factors contributing to the poor performance under small-scale farm conditions are complex, but feed supply and quality, chick quality and farmer training appear to be areas for immediate improvement. PMID:15643818

  4. Small scale effects on the mechanical behaviors of protein microtubules based on the nonlocal elasticity theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yuanwen, E-mail: ywgao@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment, Ministry of Education, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment, Ministry of Education, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Lei, Fang-Ming [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment, Ministry of Education, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment, Ministry of Education, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2009-09-25

    Based on the nonlocal elastic theory, small scale effects are considered in the investigation of the mechanical properties of protein microtubules. A new prediction formula for the persistence lengths of microtubules with the consideration of the small scale effect is presented. Subsequently, the buckling of microtubules is studied based on a nonlocal elastic beam model. The predicted results of our model indicate that the length-dependence of persistence length is related not only to the shear terms, but also to the small scale effect. The Eular beam model, which is always considered unable to explain the length-dependence of microtubules, can capture the length-dependence of the persistence length of microtubules with the consideration of the small scale effect. The elastic buckling behaviors of microtubules in viscoelastic surrounding cytoplasm are also considered using the nonlocal Timoshenko beam model in this paper, and the results indicate that the small scale effect of microtubules also plays an important role in the buckling of microtubules.

  5. Comprehensive Approaches to Industrial Energy Efficiency: Examples from the Climate Wise Program

    E-print Network

    Milmoe, P. H.; Winkelman, S. R.; Asrael, J.

    The Climate Wise Program is a partnership initiative sponsored by the U.S. EPA, with technical support from the U.S. DOE, with industry. It is designed to stimulate the voluntary reduction of greenhouse gas emissions among participating...

  6. An investigation of a professional development program using industry partnerships and student achievement

    E-print Network

    Sullivan, Helen Grace

    2008-10-10

    This investigation examined the impact on student achievement of teachers who participated in a professional development program using industry partnerships. One treatment and one non-treatment school in a large urban school district served...

  7. 78 FR 12252 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Public Meeting and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ...Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment, which includes...ASHRAE)/ Illuminating Engineering Society of North America...the following areas: (1) Engineering, (2) energy-use characterization...which contributes to the engineering analysis), and the...

  8. Industrial Energy: Counseling the Marriage Between Energy Users and Efficiency Programs

    E-print Network

    Russell, C.

    2013-01-01

    Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 YOU-TUBE: search ?Energy Pathfinder Investment Calculator? The Industrial Energy Harvest North American Energy Audit Program Best Practices Energy PathFINDER .com Christopher Russell @ENERGYpathfndr...

  9. 78 FR 64024 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. app 2) and implementing regulation 41 CFR part 101-6, announcement is made for the following committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy...

  10. FINS: A Guide to the LaConner School District's Program In Fishing Industry Specialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Paul J.; And Others

    Fishing Industry Specialization, or FINS, is a 2-year alternative education program designed in 1979 by the LaConner (Washington) School District to encourage high school completion by students wanting to enter the fishing industry. With encouragement from the Swinomish Indian Tribe and help from an active citizens advisory board, school officials…

  11. INDUSTRY/UNIVERSITY COOPERATIVE GRADUATE STUDENT RESEARCH PROGRAM REQUEST FOR APPLICATIONS

    E-print Network

    Fork, Richard

    ownership rights within, the proposed partnering company. 4.0 SUBMISSION INSTRUCTIONS ApplicationsINDUSTRY/UNIVERSITY COOPERATIVE GRADUATE STUDENT RESEARCH PROGRAM REQUEST FOR APPLICATIONS 1 in cooperation with an industry partner, under the guidance of their UAH Dissertation or Thesis Advisor

  12. Perceived Effects of Pair Programming in an Industrial Context Jari Vanhanen and Casper Lassenius

    E-print Network

    Vanhanen, Jari

    ) compared to solo programming in a large scale, industrial software development context. We surveyed.g., quality of code and design, knowledge transfer, learning, team work, and work satisfaction [3 a large system in a long project as a full-time job. Experiences of applying PP in the industry have been

  13. 2012/2013 Race Track Industry Program Section A. All students must complete following courses.

    E-print Network

    Guerriero, Vince

    2012/2013 Race Track Industry Program Section A. All students must complete following courses to the Animal Racing Industry 2 units F ________ AN S 270 Introductory Horse Science 3 units F ________ AN S 301 Financial and Economic Strategies 3 units F ________ AN S 340 Race Track Marketing and Media Communication 3

  14. 2014-2015 Race Track Industry Program Section A. All students must complete following courses.

    E-print Network

    Guerriero, Vince

    2014-2015 Race Track Industry Program Section A. All students must complete following courses to the Animal Racing Industry 2 units F ________ AN S 270 Introductory Horse Science 3 units F ________ AN S 301 Financial and Economic Strategies 3 units F ________ AN S 340 Race Track Marketing and Media Communication 3

  15. Progress in Small-scale Studies of Direct Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltzer, E. T.; Brewer, P. G.; Walz, P. M.; White, S. N.

    2002-12-01

    Ocean sequestration of carbon dioxide was first proposed by Marchetti in 1977. The vast size and alkaline capacity of the ocean already exerts a fundamental control on atmospheric CO2 levels, and gas exchange across the air-sea interface of fossil fuel CO2 is now approximately 20 million tons per day globally. Thus direct ocean CO2 injection may be regarded as simply bypassing the atmospheric disposal step with its attendant impact on climate. Beginning in 1997, we have carried out a series of small-scale controlled experimental releases, now ranging from a few hundred meters depth to over 3600m deep, to test geochemical outcomes and biological impacts. These experiments were designed to mimic many of the proposed protocols, including dissolution of a rising bubble, or droplet, plume, formation of a sinking plume, formation and ultimate dissolution of a hydrate, and pooling of CO2 on the ocean floor. By carrying out small-scale experiments, we are able to produce fundamental data on behavior in real dynamic systems, while minimizing biological impacts. We have devised new techniques and procedures for safe handling of multi-liter quantities of liquid CO2 using an ROV, delivering it to the deep-sea and observing its behavior, and for making quantitative measurements. Measurements of CO2 gas, liquid, and hydrate dissolution rates are all consistent with a saturated boundary layer model, with the solubility of CO2 (0.5-1 molar at depth) and the thickness of the boundary layer as primary controls. The rates observed typically fall in the range of a few micromoles/cm2/sec. This allows us to make important predictions of the fate of secondary contaminant species that may be included in industrial systems. However, we have observed significant inconsistencies in the dynamic behavior of liquid CO2 systems, with the occasional abrupt onset of rapid and massive hydrate formation. This stochastic behavior is manifested as a self-generated density driven fluid dynamic instability. Examples include rapid formation of hydrate, with fluid overflow, in a beaker placed on the sea floor, versus quiescent behavior in a repeat experiment; sediment penetration by CO2 with formation of a "frost heave" of hydrate, versus quiescent behavior in an adjoining near-identical study; and rapid formation of hydrate on an inserted electrode tip, versus simple dissolution of CO2 into the water phase in a companion experiment. The characteristic conditions for the abrupt onset of rapid and massive hydrate formation with its attendant instabilities is currently under investigation. We have also observed the formation of plumes of lowered pH around the various experimental sites consistent with the tidal period and velocities. A pH as low as 3.5 was observed for a small protected pocket of seawater exposed to liquid CO2 for 12-15 minutes at 3600m, however the pH quickly returned to the background value of 7.6 a short distance away from the pool. These pH measurements are being reconciled with direct CO2 observations. We anticipate that the pH downstream from a CO2 release will be a complex interplay of the amount released, the exposed area, the bottom current velocity, the extent of turbulent mixing and time. New techniques, including in situ laser Raman spectrometry, have been developed to investigate these processes.

  16. Small-scale plasma, magnetic, and neutral density fluctuations in the nightside Venus atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoegy, W. R.; Brace, L. H.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Russell, C. T.

    1990-01-01

    The evolution of the Venus small-scale waves as they propagate into the nightsite is examined, and the small-scale structures are compared with the waves in the three components of the magnetic field, magnetic dip angle, and neutral density. It is demonstrated that the small-scale fluctuations evolve between the transterminator and antisolar regions. It is shown that atmospheric gravity waves may also be producing some of the fluctuations observed at longer wavelengths. The electron temperature and density are shown to be approximately 180 deg out of phase and exhibiting the highest correlation of any pair of variables. Waves in the electron and neutral densities are found to be correlated moderately on most orbits, while the average electron temperature is higher when the average magnetic field is more horizontal.

  17. African hot spot volcanism: small-scale convection in the upper mantle beneath cratons.

    PubMed

    King, S D; Ritsema, J

    2000-11-10

    Numerical models demonstrate that small-scale convection develops in the upper mantle beneath the transition of thick cratonic lithosphere and thin oceanic lithosphere. These models explain the location and geochemical characteristics of intraplate volcanos on the African and South American plates. They also explain the presence of relatively high seismic shear wave velocities (cold downwellings) in the mantle transition zone beneath the western margin of African cratons and the eastern margin of South American cratons. Small-scale, edge-driven convection is an alternative to plumes for explaining intraplate African and South American hot spot volcanism, and small-scale convection is consistent with mantle downwellings beneath the African and South American lithosphere. PMID:11073447

  18. Risk of Resource Failure and Toolkit Variation in Small-Scale Farmers and Herders

    PubMed Central

    Collard, Mark; Ruttle, April; Buchanan, Briggs; O’Brien, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent work suggests that global variation in toolkit structure among hunter-gatherers is driven by risk of resource failure such that as risk of resource failure increases, toolkits become more diverse and complex. Here we report a study in which we investigated whether the toolkits of small-scale farmers and herders are influenced by risk of resource failure in the same way. In the study, we applied simple linear and multiple regression analysis to data from 45 small-scale food-producing groups to test the risk hypothesis. Our results were not consistent with the hypothesis; none of the risk variables we examined had a significant impact on toolkit diversity or on toolkit complexity. It appears, therefore, that the drivers of toolkit structure differ between hunter-gatherers and small-scale food-producers. PMID:22844421

  19. International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-SettingPrograms

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-02-02

    Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.

  20. The life-cycle of drift-wave turbulence driven by small scale instability

    E-print Network

    Colm Connaughton; Sergey Nazarenko; Brenda Quinn

    2010-12-16

    We demonstrate theoretically and numerically the zonal-flow/drift-wave feedback mechanism for the LH transition in an idealised model of plasma turbulence driven by a small scale instability. Zonal flows are generated by a secondary modulational instability of the modes which are directly driven by the primary instability. The zonal flows then suppress the small scales thereby arresting the energy injection into the system, a process which can be described using nonlocal wave turbulence theory. Finally, the arrest of the energy input results in saturation of the zonal flows at a level which can be estimated from the theory and the system reaches stationarity without damping of the large scales.

  1. Institutional support and in situ conservation in Mexico: biases against small-scale maize farmers in post-NAFTA agricultural policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alder Keleman

    2010-01-01

    One of the major adjustments brought on by the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was a change in the relationship\\u000a between Mexican agricultural support institutions and the small-scale agricultural sector. Post-NAFTA restructuring programs\\u000a sought to correct previous inefficiencies in this sector, but they have also had the effect of marginalizing the producers\\u000a who steward and manage the country’s reserve

  2. Establishment of a Graduate Certificate Program in Biobased Industrial Products – Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Schlup

    2005-11-04

    A certificate of graduate studies in Biobased Industrial Products is to be established at Kansas State University (KSU) along with the development of a similar program at Pittsburg State University, Pittsburg, KS. At KSU, the program of study will be coordinated through the steering committee of the Agricultural Products Utilization Forum (APUF); the certificate of graduate studies will be awarded through the Graduate School of Kansas State University. This certificate will establish an interdisciplinary program of study that will: (1) ensure participating students receive a broad education in several disciplines related to Biobased Industrial Products, (2) provide a documented course of study for students preferring a freestanding certificate program, and (3) provide a paradigm shift in student awareness away from petroleum-based feedstocks to the utilization of renewable resources for fuels and chemical feedstocks. The academic program described herein will accomplish this goal by: (1) providing exposure to several academic disciplines key to Biobased Industrial Products; (2) improving university/industry collaboration through an external advisory board, distance learning opportunities, and student internships; (3) expanding the disciplines represented on the students' supervisory committee; (4) establishing a seminar series on Biobased Industrial Products that draws upon expert speakers representing several disciplines; and (5) increasing collaboration between disciplines. Numerous research programs emphasizing Biobased Industrial Products currently exist at KSU and PSU. The certificate of graduate studies, the emphasis on interdisciplinary collaboration within the students? thesis research, the proposed seminar series, and formation of an industrial advisory board will: (1) provide an interdisciplinary academic experience that spans several departments, four colleges, four research centers, and two universities; (2) tangibly promote collaboration between KSU and PSU; (3) catalyze involvement of plant geneticists with researchers active in the development and utilization of biobased industrial products; and, (4) promote university/industry collaboration.

  3. NASA Propagation Program Status and Propagation Needs of Satcom Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golshan, Nassar

    1996-01-01

    The program objective is to enable the development of new commercial satellite systems and services and to support NASA's programs by providing timely data and models about propagation of satellite radio signals though the intervening environment. Provisions include new services, higher frequencies, higher data rates, different environments (mobile, indoors, fixed), and different orbits (geostationary, low earth orbit).

  4. Teaching Resource Recovery in Industrial Arts. Resource Recovery Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Resource Recovery, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guide, one component of the Resource Recovery Education Kit (See SO 007 866 for a description), contains ideas and activities for teaching about solid waste disposal in secondary level industrial arts classes. Among the course objectives are the following: (1) to understand that litter represents a small but highly visible portion of our…

  5. Integrated architecture for industrial robot programming and control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klas Nilsson; Rolf Johansson

    1999-01-01

    As robot control systems are traditionally closed, it is difficult to add supplementary intelligence. Accordingly, as based on a new notion of user views, a layered system architecture is proposed. Bearing in mind such industrial demands as computing efficiency and simple factory-floor operation, the control layers are parameterized by means of functional operators consisting of pieces of compiled code that

  6. 60 FR 15826 - Federal Prison Industries (FPI) Inmate Work Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1995-03-27

    ...Bureau of Prisons, HOLC Room 754, 320 First Street...component of the Bureau of Prisons, is a wholly-owned...inmates confined in Federal correctional facilities. A proposed...Directors of Federal Prison Industries, Inc. The...Director of the Bureau of Prisons and the Commissioner...inmates confined in Federal correctional facilities. The......

  7. Development of an Industry Based Laser Manufacturing Degree Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judy Donnelly; Nicholas Massa; Karen Wosczyna Birch

    In 2005, Connecticut's Regional Center for Next Generation Manufacturing (RCNGM) surveyed companies representing a cross section of the laser manufacturing industry in New England. A technician competency profile was created as a result of a detailed job skills survey and intensive personal interviews with company personnel. Three Rivers Community College subsequently developed a Laser Manufacturing Option to the Manufacturing Engineering

  8. Freedom of Development for Industry and Consumers. Small Business and the Social Market Economy in the Federal Republic of Germany. Sonderdienst Special Report No. 1. Code No. 79. Q 6016.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Wilhelm; Breuer, Michael

    Small businesses have made a decisive contribution to the reconstruction and development of the German economy and society since World War II. The Federal Republic of Germany considers small-scale industry important and has granted tax relief and initiated a wide range of loan and guarantee programs for them. The Act against Restraints of…

  9. Synthesis of economic criteria in the design of electric utility industrial conservation programs in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper lays out a set of economic criteria to guide the development of electricity conservation programs for industrial customers of the Costa Rican utilities. It puts the problem of utility and other public policy formulation in the industrial conservation field into the context of ongoing economic and trade liberalization in Costa Rica, as well as the financial and political pressures with which the country`s utilities must contend. The need to bolster utility financial performance and the perennial political difficulty of adjusting power rates for inflation and devaluation, not to mention maintaining efficient real levels, puts a premium on controlling the costs of utility conservation programs and increasing the degree of cost recovery over time. Industrial conservation programs in Costa Rica must adopt a certain degree of activation to help overcome serious market failures and imperfections while at the same time avoiding significant distortion of the price signals guiding the ongoing industrial rationalization process and the reactivation of growth.

  10. Career Preparation Program Curriculum Guide for: Hospitality/Tourism Industry (Tourist Services).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria. Curriculum Development Branch.

    This career preparation curriculum outline for the hospitality/tourism industry is intended to provide secondary and postsecondary learning outcomes for completion of program requirements. The guide is organized into four sections. Section one presents an overview of the program, of the philosophy of career education, and of the organization and…

  11. Evaluating Industry-Based Doctoral Research Programs: Perspectives and Outcomes of Australian Cooperative Research Centre Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manathunga, Catherine; Pitt, Rachael; Cox, Laura; Boreham, Paul; Mellick, George; Lant, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Researchers of the future will need to be able to work across the increasingly porous boundaries between university, industry, government and community sectors. Concerns have been raised internationally for several decades about the content and approaches adopted in doctoral programs. Innovative doctoral programs that facilitate students'…

  12. Industrial Education, General Programs. Courseware Evaluation for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Gordon; And Others

    This courseware evaluation rates a set of 25 industrial education general software programs developed by the Iowa Department of Public Instruction. (These programs--not contained in this document--include measurement drill, fraction drill, loan and interest cost analysis, assault vehicle speeds, sun's rays, Ohm's law, concrete calculations, roof…

  13. Industry Advisory Councils of Undergraduate Construction Programs: A Comparative Study of Common Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynds, Toni; Smith, James C.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 13 American Council of Construction Education accredited university programs found that all respondents had an industry advisory council (IAC) as required; most considered IACs to be a burden without commensurate benefit. The few programs that have sought IAC support have added significant value. Others seem reluctant to develop strong…

  14. Industrial Safety. MAS-123. Waste Isolation Division (WID). Management and Supervisor Training (MAST) Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM.

    This learning module, which is part of a management and supervisor training program for managers and supervisors employed at the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Division, is designed to prepare trainees to promote and monitor the industrial safety program at their plant. The following topics are covered in the module's individual sections:…

  15. The ARAMCO Industrial Traiing Centers: Academic Training and College Preparatory Programs: A Descriptive Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ARAMCO Services Co., Houston, TX.

    The report describes the components of the educational program provided by the Industrial Training Centers of the Training and Career Development Organization of ARAMCO (Arabian American Oil Company) in Saudi Arabia. ARAMCO provides in-house academic or job skills training to over 15,000 employees. Characteristics of the company's training program

  16. Douglas County Business and Industry Internship Program. Employer Handbook. Teacher/Counselor Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas Education Service District, Roseburg, OR.

    This packet contains handbooks for vocational education teachers/counselors and for employers, outlining the Douglas County (Oregon) Business and Industry Internship Program. The employer packet describes the internship program, explains the payment plan, describes the application and site identification process, provides a list of suggestions for…

  17. Energy-Efficiency Retrofits in Small-Scale Multifamily Rental Housing: A Business Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeChambeau, Brian

    The goal of this thesis to develop a real estate investment model that creates a financial incentive for property owners to perform energy efficiency retrofits in small multifamily rental housing in southern New England. The medium for this argument is a business plan that is backed by a review of the literature and input from industry experts. In addition to industry expertise, the research covers four main areas: the context of green building, efficient building technologies, precedent programs, and the Providence, RI real estate market for the business plan. The thesis concludes that the model proposed can improve the profitability of real estate investment in small multifamily rental properties, though the extent to which this is possible depends partially on utility-run incentive programs and the capital available to invest in retrofit measures.

  18. Energy Efficiency Programs for Small and Medium Sized Industry

    E-print Network

    Shipley, A. M.; Elliott, R. N.

    and new technology. A firm's business may change during the potential lifetime of an asset, and a short payback period lowers the risk associated with future changes (Hinchy 1991). ENERGY USE AND INDUSTRIAL TRENDS Manufacturers use energy sources... Industrial Energy Consumption (Quads) 1985 1988 1991 1994 Food SIC 20 0.95 J 0.95 1.18 Textiles SIC 22 0.25 0.28 0.27 0.31 Apparel SIC 23 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.06 Lumber SIC 24 0.33 0.4 0.42 0.44 Furniture SIC 25 0.06 0.05 0.07 0.07 Paper SIC 26 2.2 2...

  19. A comparison of Miller and Otto cycle natural gas engines for small scale CHP applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Mikalsen; Y. D. Wang; A. P. Roskilly

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation into the feasibility and potential advantages of a small scale Miller cycle natural gas engine for applications such as domestic combined heat and power systems. The Miller cycle engine is compared to a standard Otto cycle engine using cycle analyses and multidimensional simulation, and basic engine design implications are discussed. It is found that the

  20. Exploring the Importance of Small Scales of Environmental Variability on the Life of Marine

    E-print Network

    Frandsen, Jannette B.

    Exploring the Importance of Small Scales of Environmental Variability on the Life of Marine Organisms Ňscar Guadayol Postdoctoral Researcher Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology Abstract The nature of the aquatic media ensures that marine organisms experience an extremely wide range of environmental

  1. Small-scale Syncline near the Blackbird Cobalt-Copper Mine

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Small-scale syncline in siltite of banded siltite unit of Apple Creek Formation, within a zone of tight, north-plunging chevron folds, exposed on the south-facing slope above the upper part of Little Deer Creek, east of the Blackbird cobalt-copper mine area, in east-central Idaho....

  2. Increased power to heat ratio of small scale CHP plants using biomass fuels and natural gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tuula Savola; Carl-Johan Fogelholm

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a systematic study of process changes for increased power production in 1–20MWe combined heat and power (CHP) plants. The changes are simulated, and their economic feasibility evaluated by using existing small scale CHP case plants. Increasing power production in decentralised CHP plants that operate according to a certain heat demand could reduce the fuel consumption

  3. A comparison of relative toxicity rankings by some small-scale laboratory tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Small-scale laboratory tests for fire toxicity, suitable for use in the average laboratory hood, are needed for screening and ranking materials on the basis of relative toxicity. The performance of wool, cotton, and aromatic polyamide under several test procedures is presented.

  4. Waalbot: An Agile Small-Scale Wall-Climbing Robot Utilizing Dry Elastomer Adhesives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael P. Murphy; Metin Sitti

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a small-scale agile wall-climbing robot, which is able to climb on smooth vertical surfaces using flat adhesive elastomer materials for attachment. Using two actuated legs with rotary motion and two passive revolute joints at each foot, this robot can climb and steer in any orientation. Due to its compact design, a high degree of miniaturization is possible.

  5. Waalbot: An Agile Small-Scale Wall Climbing Robot Utilizing Pressure Sensitive Adhesives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael P. Murphy; William Tso; Michael Tanzini; Metin Sitti

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a small-scale agile wall climb- ing robot able to navigate on smooth surfaces of any orientation, including vertical and inverted surfaces, which uses adhesive elastomer materials for attachment. Using two actuated legs with rotary motion and two passive revolute joints at each foot the robot can climb and steer in any orientation. Due to its compact design,

  6. Thermocapillary migration in small-scale temperature gradients: application to optofluidic drop dispensing

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Thermocapillary migration in small-scale temperature gradients: application to optofluidic drop are interpreted using a simplified model for the temperature gradient at the interface, based on a purely diffusive, three-layer system. Considering the mean temperature gradient, we demonstrate that the classical

  7. Possible Effects of Small-Scale Intermittency in Turbulent Reacting Flows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. Sreenivasan

    2004-01-01

    It is now well established that quantities such as energy dissipation, scalar dissipation and enstrophy possess huge fluctuations in turbulent flows, and that the fluctuations become increasingly stronger with increasing Reynolds number of the flow. The effects of this small-scale “intermittenc” on various aspects of reacting flows have not been addressed fully. This paper draws brief attention to a few

  8. International standards and small-scale farmer behaviors: evidence from Peru

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Lemeilleur

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of food quality standards in international trade is constantly increasing and has a growing influence on developing countries. A wide range of literature in development economics focused on the determinants of the standard adoption and on the debate of whether international standards exclude small-scale farmers from high-value food markets. Otherwise, when exclusion is pointed out, very little is

  9. The role of artisanal and small-scale mining in China's economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Shen; Aaron James Gunson

    2006-01-01

    The last decades have seen increased international attention paid to a number of features of artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM). The beneficial roles of ASM in society and the economy in many countries, however, are often overlooked, while its negative impacts dominate official press coverage and scholarly publications of the sector. Through a review of the available literature and statistics,

  10. Economic responses to the closure of small-scale coal mines in Chongqing, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Andrews-Speed; Guo Ma; Bingjia Shao; Chenglin Liao

    2005-01-01

    In 1998, China launched a programme to close tens of thousands of small-scale coal mines within just three years. Few measures were put in place to mitigate the negative impacts. This paper reports on a study in the Chongqing Municipality of south-west China, with the aims of identifying the economic impacts of the mine closure campaign and examining what factors

  11. A compact soft actuator unit for small scale human friendly robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolaos G. Tsagarakis; Matteo Laffranchi; Bram Vanderborght; Darwin G. Caldwell

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a new compact soft actuation unit intended to be used in multi degree of freedom and small scale robotic systems such as the child humanoid robot “iCub” [1]. Compared to the other existing series elastic linear or rotary implementations the proposed design shows high integration density and wider passive deflection. The miniaturization of the

  12. A Wind Tunnel Investigation of a Small-Scale Tiltrotor Model in Descending Flight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita I. Abrego

    A small-scale tiltrotor model was tested in the 7- by 10-foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center, with the goal of better understanding Vortex Ring State (VRS) effects on tiltrotor aircraft. Test objectives were to obtain performance data of a tiltrotor model over a wide range of descent conditions, to explore the effects of sideslip at these descent conditions,

  13. Local adaptation of the clonal plant Ranunculus reptans to flooding along a small-scale gradient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN P. M. LENSSEN; MARK VAN KLEUNEN; MARKUS FISCHER; J. C. J. M. de Kroon

    2004-01-01

    1 Plant species are known to segregate along small-scale flooding gradients. We tested whether differences in flooding duration can also result in genetic differentiation in the clonal species Ranunculus reptans, which naturally grows in both a lakeside microhabitat and a landside microhabitat with shorter periods of flooding. 2 We compared traits related to fitness, and clonal life-history traits, of 432

  14. Ionospheric response to variable electric elds in small-scale auroral structures

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Ionospheric response to variable electric ®elds in small-scale auroral structures B. S. Lanchester1 is limited. Key words. Auroral ionosphere á Ionosphere- magnetosphere interactions á EISCAT 1 Introduction is essential for interpreting data from platforms travelling at speeds of several km/s. The Freja satellite

  15. "It's Really Making a Difference": How Small-Scale Research Projects Can Enhance Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dexter, Barbara; Seden, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Following an internal evaluation exercise, using Action Research, this paper identifies the positive impact of small-scale research projects on teaching and learning at a single case study UK University. Clear evidence is given of how the projects benefited students and staff, and enhanced institutional culture. Barriers to better practice are…

  16. 36. ECONOMIC PROSPECTS OF SMALL-SCALE TREE FARMS IN BONTOC, SOUTHERN LEYTE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anatolio N. Polinar

    A study was conducted to investigate the economic returns of subsistence farmers from small- scale tree farms in Bontoc Municipality, Southern Leyte, and the reasons that influence attitudes of farmers towards tree domestication. Yemani (Gmelina arborea Roxb.) and big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla king.) are the most commonly planted timber species in Southern Leyte. They are frequently planted as intercrops in

  17. Eddy kinetic energy and small-scale sea level height variability

    E-print Network

    the two are obtained for the long- and short-wave (compared to the grid scale) portions of the ocean power is established between the ocean near-surface geostrophic ki- netic energy and the small-scale variance of its an important dynamical attribute of the ocean, is often used to describe its mesoscale variability, or eddy

  18. small-scale Flame Tests on Fire-Retardant Conveyor Belting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Szymanski; K. J. Mintz

    1986-01-01

    Two small-scale flame tests used for determining the suitability of conveyor belting intended for underground mines, the National Coal Board (NCB) and the modified Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) tests, were ap plied to two series of conveyor belting. The results indicate that the NCB test is on average more severe, but that it has more scatter. The two

  19. Development of an onboard system for flight data collection of a small-scale UAV helicopter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zahari Taha; Y. R. Tang; K. C. Yap

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an onboard system of a small-scale Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) helicopter. Both the hardware and software parts of the system have been developed. In the hardware part, several components are carefully selected or custom made for five separate systems including PC\\/104 computer system, sensor system, telemetry system, power system and bypass circuit system. The

  20. Small-scale entrepreneurs in the urban water and sanitation market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tova Maria Solo

    1999-01-01

    SUMMARY: This paper describes the importance of small-scale private sector or NGO providers of water and sanitation in a great range of urban areas in Africa, Asia and Latin America. It in- cludes many examples of where - contrary to conventional wis- dom - they provide good quality, low-cost services. Without these operations, large sections of the South's urban populations,

  1. Small-scale entrepreneurs in the urban water and sanitation market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tova Maria Solo

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the importance of small-scale private sector or NGO providers of water and sanitation in a great range of urban areas in Africa, Asia and Latin America. It includes many examples of where - contrary to conventional wisdom - they provide good quality, low-cost services. Without these operations, large sections of the South’s urban populations, including tens of

  2. Nanoflares, Spicules, and Other Small-Scale Dynamic Phenomena on the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchuk, James

    2010-01-01

    There is abundant evidence of highly dynamic phenomena occurring on very small scales in the solar atmosphere. For example, the observed pr operties of many coronal loops can only be explained if the loops are bundles of unresolved strands that are heated impulsively by nanoflares. Type II spicules recently discovered by Hinode are an example of small-scale impulsive events occurring in the chromosphere. The exist ence of these and other small-scale phenomena is not surprising given the highly structured nature of the magnetic field that is revealed by photospheric observations. Dynamic phenomena also occur on much lar ger scales, including coronal jets, flares, and CMEs. It is tempting to suggest that these different phenomena are all closely related and represent a continuous distribution of sizes and energies. However, this is a dangerous over simplification in my opinion. While it is tru e that the phenomena all involve "magnetic reconnection" (the changin g of field line connectivity) in some form, how this occurs depends s trongly on the magnetic geometry. A nanoflare resulting from the interaction of tangled magnetic strands within a confined coronal loop is much different from a major flare occurring at the current sheet form ed when a CME rips open an active region. I will review the evidence for ubiquitous small-scale dynamic phenomena on the Sun and discuss wh y different phenomena are not all fundamentally the same.

  3. Vascular plants and small-scale spatial heterogeneity in semi-natural grasslands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aina Pihlgren

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Abiotic factors such as variation in micro topography, soil properties, light and microsite composition can create small-scale heterogeneity and influence plant assemblages. Apart from abiotic factors many biotic sources can increase heterogeneity. Factors such as grazing, ant mounds, spiny and unpalatable plants, trees and shrubs have strong influences on plant communities. Grazing animals can significantly influence grassland heterogeneity by

  4. Simple Assessment Techniques for Soil and Water. Environmental Factors in Small Scale Development Projects. Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coordination in Development, New York, NY.

    This booklet was produced in response to the growing need for reliable environmental assessment techniques that can be applied to small-scale development projects. The suggested techniques emphasize low-technology environmental analysis. Although these techniques may lack precision, they can be extremely valuable in helping to assure the success…

  5. Torsional Alfvén waves in small scale density threads of the solar corona

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Copil; Y. Voitenko; M. Goossens

    2008-01-01

    The density structuring of the solar corona is observed at large scales (loops and funnels), but also at small scales (sub-structures of loops and funnels). Coronal loops consist of thin density threads with sizes down to (and most probably below) the resolution limit. We study properties of torsional Alfvén waves propagating in inhomogeneous cylindrical density threads using the two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic

  6. Economic analysis of small-scale agricultural digesters in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic digestion is a manure treatment option that is gaining popularity throughout the world due to its multiple environmental and economic benefits. However, further research is needed for anaerobic technology to become more readily available, cost effective and manageable for small-scale to m...

  7. Measurement of Small-Scale CMB Anisotropy with the Viper Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, G.; Peterson, J.; Newcomb, M.; Alvarez, D.; Cantalupo, C.; Morgan, D.; Vincent, M.; Miller, K.

    1998-05-01

    Viper is a 2-meter off-axis telescope designed to measure small-scale anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. The spatial sensitivity of this instrument (50 < l < 800) was chosen to provide maximum discrimination between competing cosmological models. We present data taken with a 40 GHz HEMT receiver at Amundsen-Scott Station, Antarctica, and discuss future applications of the instrument.

  8. Treatment of Small Scale Flow Features as Nonlinear Solitary Waves Using Vorticity Confinement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Steinhoff; Meng Fan; Lesong Wang

    2002-01-01

    A new, simple, Eulerian computational method is described that effectively treats complex flows, including small scales of the order of a grid cell. The method, ``Vorticity Confinementˇ±, involves adding a simple, nonlinear term to the discretized Euler equations. The effect of this term is negligible at large scales and the method retains the accuracy of conventional CFD. However, the term

  9. A Small-Scale Concept-Based Laboratory Component: The Best of Both Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halme, Dina Gould; Khodor, Julia; Mitchell, Rudolph; Walker, Graham C.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we describe an exploratory study of a small-scale, concept-driven, voluntary laboratory component of Introductory Biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. We wished to investigate whether students' attitudes toward biology and their understanding of basic biological principles would improve through concept-based…

  10. Development of an optical system for high-speed, small-scale velocity measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. R. Davies; D. J. Chapman; T. A. Vine; W. G. Proud

    2009-01-01

    An optical system was developed to allow the accurate focussing and alignment of small scale samples for velocity analysis with streak photography. Even at low magnifications, the small streak slits required meant that any vibration or instability in the system would greatly reduce the accuracy of the velocity measurements achieved. Therefore, the optical system was designed to reduce the effects

  11. COST EFFECTIVE SMALL SCALE ORC SYSTEMS FOR POWER RECOVERY FROM LOW ENTHALPY GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I K Smith; N Stosic; A Kovacevic; R Langson

    Small scale geothermal power generation has, until recently, been inhibited by the relatively high cost of the power plant. Developments in the design and manufacture of screw machines have made it possible to modify standard mass produced air compressors to act as expanders in place of turbines in ORC units of up to approximately 500kWe output. Such machines have adiabatic

  12. FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF SMALL-SCALE FORESTS IN THE AMU DARYA LOWLANDS OF RURAL UZBEKISTAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN P. A. LAMERS; IHTIYOR BOBOJONOV; ASIA KHAMZINA; JENNIFER S. FRANZ

    2008-01-01

    The establishment of forests on small-scale marginal lands in the Amu Darya Lowlands in Uzbekistan is an alternative use of land abandoned from cropping. Over four consecutive years biomass data were collected from Elaeagnus angustifolia, Ulmus pumila, and Populus euphratica plantings and complemented with data of mature trees (15–20 years) growing naturally on marginal land. These formed the basis for

  13. Efficiency of an unstable resonator with an active medium containing small-scale phase inhomogeneities

    SciTech Connect

    Lobachev, V V; Strakhov, S Yu [Institute of Laser Instruments and Technologies, D F Ustinov 'VOENMEKh' Baltic State Technical University, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2004-01-31

    Properties of an unstable resonator with small-scale periodic inhomogeneities of the refractive index in an active medium are considered. It is shown that the parameters of output radiation depend on the structure of a phase inhomogeneity. The methods for increasing the resonator efficiency are analysed. (resonators. interferometers)

  14. Performance Assessment of Micro and Small-Scale Wind Turbines in Urban Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge L. Acosta; Kevin Combe; Saša Ž Djokic; Ignacio Hernando-Gil

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses some general issues related to the difficulties and uncertainties during the assessment and characterization of micro and small-scale wind-based generation in urban areas. This paper proposes four generic wind turbine models, which could be used for the analysis and selection of optimal wind turbines in target applications, as they accurately represent the range of wind turbines currently

  15. Small-scale precipitation elements in mid-latitude cyclones crossing the California Sierra Nevada Mountains

    E-print Network

    Houze Jr., Robert A.

    and are similar to small-scale precipitation cells embedded in fronts passing over other mountain ranges. Other frontal systems crossing the Sierras have uniform air motions with small vertical velocity variance being carried downstream. Radar data indicate that the turbulence embodied in the cellular motions

  16. Small-Scale Bullying Prevention Discussion Video for Classrooms: A Preliminary Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migliaccio, Todd; Raskauskas, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    Bullying has been shown to be negatively related to both academic performance and attendance among students. The present study examined a small-scale bullying intervention using a video-discussion model. Eighty-one students in grades 4 through 6 completed pre- and posttests examining gains in knowledge of bullying and responses to it. Results…

  17. Small-scale field tests of attract-and-kill stations for pest Tephritid fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field tests were conducted at UF-TREC, Homestead to test efficacy of wax-matrix bait stations and mass trapping for control of the Caribbean fruit fly in a 5 by 30 tree guava planting. Results of the study and the ability to document control using small-scale field tests will be discussed....

  18. HF radar observations of small-scale surface current variability in the Straits of Florida

    E-print Network

    Miami, University of

    HF radar observations of small-scale surface current variability in the Straits of Florida A. B-frequency Wellen radar (WERA), transmitting at 16.045 MHz, was deployed along the eastern Florida Shelf current measurements within the radar footprint along the shelf break at 86-m depth. The shallowest ADCP

  19. SMALL SCALE TURBULENCE AND INSTABILITIES OBSERVED SIMULTANEOUSLY BY RADIOSONDES AND THE MU RADAR

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SMALL SCALE TURBULENCE AND INSTABILITIES OBSERVED SIMULTANEOUSLY BY RADIOSONDES AND THE MU RADAR R in September 2011 for three weeks at Shigaraki MU observatory (34.85N, 136.15E; Japan). The VHF MU radar radiosondes were succesfully launched during the campaign when the radar was operated. Reference [2] showed

  20. Selective harvesting by small-scale sheries: ecosystem analysis of San Miguel Bay, Philippines

    E-print Network

    Pauly, Daniel

    Selective harvesting by small-scale ®sheries: ecosystem analysis of San Miguel Bay, Philippines, Philippines. The estuarine ecosystem therein is described through a mass-balance model that includes 16 analysis of San Miguel Bay, Philippines. Fisheries Research 53: 263-281. #12;Indeed, the problems

  1. Small-scale dispersal and population structure in stream-living brown trout (Salmo trutta) inferred

    E-print Network

    Bernatchez, Louis

    Small-scale dispersal and population structure in stream-living brown trout (Salmo trutta) inferred-scale location change of resident brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a small stream (1500 m). During the first summer pour étudier l'importance des changements d'emplacement ŕ petite échelle de la truite de mer (Salmo

  2. Fuel From Farms: A Guide to Small-Scale Ethanol Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO.

    Ethanol and blends of ethanol and gasoline (such as gasohol) offer a near-term fuel alternative to oil. The focus of this handbook is upon the small-scale production of ethanol using farm crops as the source of raw materials. Provided are chapters on ethanol production procedures, feedstocks, plant design, and financial planning. Also presented…

  3. THE EMERGENCE OF INEQUALITY IN SMALL-SCALE SOCIETIES: SIMPLE SCENARIOS AND AGENT-BASED SIMULATIONS

    E-print Network

    Smith, Eric Alden

    1 THE EMERGENCE OF INEQUALITY IN SMALL-SCALE SOCIETIES: SIMPLE SCENARIOS AND AGENT institutionalized political and economic inequality--for most of our species' history. Non-egalitarian societies on the emergence of inequality, it contains very little formal theory or quantitative modeling. The research

  4. SMALL-SCALE SPATIOTEMPORAL DYNAMICS OF PLANT COVER DURING THE INITIAL PHASE

    E-print Network

    Herben, Tomas

    @natur.cuni.cz, herben@natur.cuni.cz Abstract Permanent plots and repeated mapping of the initial primary succession slow down or divert the successional process. In the youngest successional line, there are species plots with a small-scale monitoring sys- tem were used to study the initial primary succession

  5. Energy output estimation for small-scale wind power generators using Weibull-representative wind data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Naci Celik

    2003-01-01

    Estimation of energy output for small-scale wind power generators is the subject of this article. Monthly wind energy production is estimated using the Weibull-representative wind data for a total of 96 months, from 5 different locations in the world. The Weibull parameters are determined based on the wind distribution statistics calculated from the measured data, using the gamma function. The

  6. DESIGN OF SMALL SCALE GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS FOR UNMANNED-AERIAL VEHICLES

    E-print Network

    Camci, Cengiz

    (emphasize reduced size and use of composite materials) (6) A single stage axial flow turbine design (6DESIGN OF SMALL SCALE GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS FOR UNMANNED-AERIAL VEHICLES (AERSP 597/497-K) SPRING 814 865 9871 cxc11@psu.edu Summary : The proposed course is a three-credit gas turbine design course

  7. Assessing Arsenic Removal by Metal (Hydr)Oxide Adsorptive Media Using Rapid Small Scale Column Tests

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapid small scale column test (RSSCT) was use to evaluate the the performance of eight commercially available adsorptive media for the removal of arsenic. Side-by-side tests were conducted using RSSCTs and pilot/full-scale systems either in the field or in the laboratory. ...

  8. An Algebraic Approach for the MIMO Control of Small Scale Helicopter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agus Budiyono; T. Sudiyanto

    2008-01-01

    The control of small-scale helicopter is a MIMO problem. To use of classical control approach to formally solve a MIMO problem, one needs to come up with multi- dimensional Root Locus diagram to tune the control parameters. The problem with the required dimension of the RL diagram for MIMO design has forced the design procedure of classical approach to be

  9. Small-scale bioenergy projects in rural China: Lessons to be learnt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingyi Han; Arthur P. J. Mol; Yonglong Lu; Lei Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Large amounts of small-scale bioenergy projects were carried out in China's rural areas in light of its national renewable energy policies. These projects applied pyrolysis gasification as the main technology, which turns biomass waste at low costs into biogas. This paper selects seven bioenergy projects in Shandong Province as a case and assesses these projects in terms of economy, technological

  10. Morphodynamics of small-scale superimposed sand waves over migrating dune bed forms

    E-print Network

    Venditti, Jeremy G.

    Morphodynamics of small-scale superimposed sand waves over migrating dune bed forms Jeremy G migrating dunes are examined using data drawn from laboratory experiments. We refer to the superimposed classified as ripples, dunes, or bars. Within the experiments, the sheets formed downstream

  11. Limitations to the small scale yielding approximation for crack tip plasticity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. RICE

    1974-01-01

    SUMMARY Recent finite-element results by S. Cl. Larsson and A. J. Carlsson suggest a limited range of validity to the 'small scale yielding approximation', whereby small crack tip plastic zones are correlated in terms of the elastic stress intensity factor, It is shown with the help of a model for plane strain yielding that their results may be explained by

  12. Analysis of Stability, Response and LQR Controller Design of a Small Scale Helicopter Dynamics

    E-print Network

    Dharmayanda, Hardian Reza; Lee, Young Jae; Sung, Sangkyung

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents how to use feedback controller with helicopter dynamics state space model. A simplified analysis is presented for controller design using LQR of small scale helicopters for axial and forward flights. Our approach is simple and gives the basic understanding about how to develop controller for solving the stability of linear helicopter flight dynamics.

  13. Ionosphere-magnetosphere simulation of small-scale structure and dynamics

    E-print Network

    Lummerzheim, Dirk

    Ionosphere-magnetosphere simulation of small-scale structure and dynamics H. Zhu, A. Otto, D-fluid simulation model of the ionosphere- magnetosphere system. The model considers ionization and recombination and the magnetosphere. The simulation is aimed at modeling fast temporal and small spatial scale ionospheric structures

  14. Investigation of small-scale unintended releases of hydrogen: Buoyancy effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Schefer; W. G. Houf; T. C. Williams

    2008-01-01

    Measurements were performed in small-scale hydrogen leaks to characterize the dimensional properties and flow characteristics of the resulting ignitable hydrogen cloud. The data are intended to provide a technological basis for determining hazardous length scales associated with the formation of ignitable mixtures due to unintended releases. In contrast to a previous study where momentum-dominated releases were considered, the present study

  15. Ecological effects of small-scale cutting of Philippine mangrove forests

    E-print Network

    Walters, Bradley B.

    Ecological effects of small-scale cutting of Philippine mangrove forests Bradley B. Walters of mangrove forests in the Philippines. Information for the study was obtained through the application of extensive bio-ecological assessments of forests and interviews of forest users. Cut mangrove forests were

  16. Small-scale disturbance and regeneration dynamics in a neotropical mangrove forest

    E-print Network

    Battles, John

    Small-scale disturbance and regeneration dynamics in a neotropical mangrove forest RUTH E. SHERMAN of California at Berkeley, 145 Mulford Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Summary 1 Mangrove forests are aected of a 47-km2 intertidal mangrove community in the Dominican Republic, by quantifying the spatial patterns

  17. AN EMBEDDED SYSTEM FOR SMALL-SCALED AUTONOMOUS David Vissi`ere and Nicolas Petit

    E-print Network

    Kalman Filter used for state estimation on a small-scaled helicopter. 1 INTRODUCTION In this paper, we control experi- ments. Reconciliating GPS and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) measurements is a classic have been de- veloped in view of the DARPA Grand Challenge. In this later experiment, several

  18. System identification and attitude control of a small scale unmanned helicopter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caizhi Fan; Baoquan Song; Xuanping Cai; Yunhui Liu

    2009-01-01

    This paper copes with the problem of identifying the attitude dynamics of a small scale helicopter using the frequency sweep technology based on the flight data collected near the hovering condition. The frequency domain responses of a helicopter in the lateral, longitudinal and yaw channels are analysed by the partial coherence method, and the transfer functions are obtained by the

  19. Unsteady aerodynamic forces on small-scale wings: experiments, simulations and models

    E-print Network

    Dabiri, John O.

    for a 3D pitch-up maneuver of a rectangular plate at Re = 300 shows the effect of aspect ratio on vorticalUnsteady aerodynamic forces on small-scale wings: experiments, simulations and models Steven L for the unsteady lift and drag forces on small wings in various modes of flight, and to better understand

  20. Small-scale magnetic buoyancy and magnetic pumping effects in a turbulent convection

    E-print Network

    I. Rogachevskii; N. Kleeorin

    2006-05-18

    We determine the nonlinear drift velocities of the mean magnetic field and nonlinear turbulent magnetic diffusion in a turbulent convection. We show that the nonlinear drift velocities are caused by the three kinds of the inhomogeneities, i.e., inhomogeneous turbulence; the nonuniform fluid density and the nonuniform turbulent heat flux. The inhomogeneous turbulence results in the well-known turbulent diamagnetic and paramagnetic velocities. The nonlinear drift velocities of the mean magnetic field cause the small-scale magnetic buoyancy and magnetic pumping effects in the turbulent convection. These phenomena are different from the large-scale magnetic buoyancy and magnetic pumping effects which are due to the effect of the mean magnetic field on the large-scale density stratified fluid flow. The small-scale magnetic buoyancy and magnetic pumping can be stronger than these large-scale effects when the mean magnetic field is smaller than the equipartition field. We discuss the small-scale magnetic buoyancy and magnetic pumping effects in the context of the solar and stellar turbulent convection. We demonstrate also that the nonlinear turbulent magnetic diffusion in the turbulent convection is anisotropic even for a weak mean magnetic field. In particular, it is enhanced in the radial direction. The magnetic fluctuations due to the small-scale dynamo increase the turbulent magnetic diffusion of the toroidal component of the mean magnetic field, while they do not affect the turbulent magnetic diffusion of the poloidal field.