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1

Small-Scale Industrial Cogeneration: Design Using Reciprocating Engines and Absorption Chillers  

E-print Network

SMALL-SCALE INDUSTRIAL COGENERATION: DESIGN USING RECIPROCATING ENGINES AND ABSORPTION CHILLER Joseph R. Wagner Mechanical Technology Incorporated Latham, ABSTRACT This paper describes a packaged cogeneration system designed for light... industrial applications (i.e., situations where a user wants a maximum of 1 MW of cogenerated electricity). The design employs reci procating engines fueled with natural gas or liquid fuels. Waste heat from the engine exhaust and jacket water is used...

Wagner, J. R.

2

Use of a moss biomonitoring method to compile emission inventories for small-scale industries.  

PubMed

We used a method of detecting small-scale pollution sources (DSSP) that involves measurement of the concentrations of elements in moss tissues, with the following aims: (i) to determine any common qualitative patterns of contaminant emissions for individual industrial sectors, (ii) to compare any such patterns with previously described patterns, and (iii) to compile an inventory of the metals and metalloids emitted by the industries considered. Cluster analysis revealed that there were no common patterns of emission associated with the industrial sectors, probably because of differences in production processes and in the types of fuel and raw materials. However, when these variables were shared by different factories, the concentrations of the elements in moss tissues enabled the factories to be grouped according to their emissions. We compiled a list of the metals and metalloids emitted by the factories under study and found that the DSSP method was satisfactory for this purpose in most cases (53 of 56). The method appears to be a useful tool for compiling contaminant inventories; it may also be useful for determining the efficacy of technical improvements aimed at reducing the industrial emission of contaminants and could be incorporated in environmental monitoring and control programmes. PMID:24853138

Varela, Z; Aboal, J R; Carballeira, A; Real, C; Fernández, J A

2014-06-30

3

Education, Training and Employment in Small-Scale Enterprises: Three Industries in Sao Paulo, Brazil. IIEP Research Report No. 63.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the prophecies forecasting their probable disappearance or annihilation, small-scale enterprises have persisted in the Brazilian industrial structure since 1950. To account for the survival of small firms in Brazil, specifically in the state of Sao Paulo, a study examined 100 small firms in three industrial sectors: clothing, mechanical…

Leite, Elenice M.; Caillods, Francoise

4

Summary Report on FY12 Small-Scale Test Activities High Temperature Electrolysis Program  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a description of the apparatus and the single cell testing results performed at Idaho National Laboratory during January–August 2012. It is an addendum to the Small-Scale Test Report issued in January 2012. The primary program objectives during this time period were associated with design, assembly, and operation of two large experiments: a pressurized test, and a 4 kW test. Consequently, the activities described in this report represent a much smaller effort.

James O'Brien

2012-09-01

5

Exposure to wood dust and endotoxin in small-scale wood industries in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Workers in small-scale wood industries (SSWI) have increased risks of developing asthma and other respiratory diseases. Wood dust and microbial agents have both been suggested to play a role, but few studies have measured endotoxin exposure in SSWI in Africa. We assessed inhalable dust levels in 281 samples from 115 workers and bacterial endotoxins levels in 157 samples from 136 workers from SSWI in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The overall geometric mean of personal exposure was 3.3 mg/m(3); geometric standard deviation (GSD) 2.5; range 0.45-67.0 mg/m(3)) and 91 EU/m(3) (GSD 3.7; range 9-4914.8 EU/m(3)) for wood dust and endotoxins, respectively. Dust and endotoxin levels were weakly correlated (r = 0.44, n = 157, P < 0.0001). Between- and within-worker variances and percentages explained by the differences among job titles and seasons were 0.31 (9%) and 0.35 (30%), respectively, for wood dust exposure, and 0.35 (0%) and 0.35 (38%) for endotoxin exposure. Higher dust and endotoxin exposure levels were observed in the dry compared to the wet season, after correcting for differences in exposure between jobs. Carving and manual cleaning were associated with the highest dust exposures. Sewing seat covers and manual cleaning were associated with the highest endotoxin exposures. Dust and endotoxin exposure levels in SSWI are high and appropriate control measures are necessary. PMID:15114366

Rongo, Larama Mb; Msamanga, Gernard I; Burstyn, Igor; Barten, Françoise; Dolmans, Wil Mv; Heederik, Dick

2004-11-01

6

Occupational exposure and health problems in small-scale industry workers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a situation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Workers in informal small-scale industries (SSI) in developing countries involved in welding, spray painting, woodwork and metalwork are exposed to various hazards with consequent risk to health. Aim To assess occupational exposure and health problems in SSI in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: Focused group discussions (FGD) were conducted among SSI workers. Participants were assessed for exposure to occupational

L. M. B. Rongo; F. J. M. H. Barten; G. I. Msamanga; D. Heederik; W. M. V. Dolmans

2004-01-01

7

Department of Energy Small-Scale Hydropower Program: Feasibility assessment and technology development summary report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes two subprograms under the US Department of Energy's Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program. These subprograms were part of the financial assistance activities and included the Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) feasibility assessments and the technology development projects. The other major subprograms included engineering research and development, legal and institutional aspects, and technology transfer. These other subprograms are covered in their respective summary reports. The problems of energy availability and increasing costs of energy led to a national effort to develop economical and environmental attractive alternative energy resources. One such alternative involved the utilization of existing dams with hydraulic heads of <65 ft and the capacity to generate hydroelectric power of 15 MW or less. Thus, the PRDA program was initiated along with the Technology Development program. The purpose of the PRDA feasibility studies was to encourage development of renewable hydroelectric resources by providing engineering, economic, environmental, safety, and institutional information. Fifty-five feasibility studies were completed under the PRDA. This report briefly summarizes each of those projects. Many of the PRDA projects went on to become technology development projects. 56 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Rinehart, B.N.

1991-06-01

8

Summary of Large-and Small-Scale Unreinforced Masonry Test Program  

SciTech Connect

A five-year, large- and small-scale, static and dynamic experimental research program, in which more than 700 tests were conducted, has demonstrated that unreinforced masonry infills are more ductile and resist lateral loads more effectively than anticipated by conventional code procedures. The tests were conducted both in the laboratory and on existing structures at the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex. The experimental data indicate that the combination of a steel frame and infill material efficiently resists lateral loads--the infilling provides significant lateral stiffness while the surrounding frame adds ductility and confinement to the overall system. The results from approximately 25 moderate- and full-scale tests on infills showed that with simulated seismic loads, the frames confined the masonry, and the load-carrying capacity of the infill was considerably above the load that caused initial cracking. This finding was a significant departure from classical code approaches that assumed first cracking to be failure of an unreinforced masonry wall. The experimental program, performed for the US Department of Energy, consisted of the following large-scale tests on infills: in situ airbag pressure testing, shake-table tests, and the application of quasi-static in-plane and out-of-plane drift loads. This paper provides a summary of the overall experimental methodology and results.

Fricke, K.E.

2002-06-28

9

Occupational noise exposure in small scale hand tools manufacturing (forging) industry (SSI) in Northern India.  

PubMed

Occupational noise has been recognized as hazardous for the human beings. A high noise level in forging shops is considered to lower the labour productivity and cause illness however occupational noise is being accepted as an integral part of the job. The present study has been carried out in 5 small scale hand tool forging units (SSI) of different sizes in Northern India in Punjab. Noise levels at various sections were measured. OSHA norms for hearing conservation has been incorporated which includes an exchange rate of 5 dB (A), criterion level at 90 dB (A), criterion time of 8 h, threshold level=80 dB (A), upper limit=140 dB (A) and with F/S response rate. Equivalent sound pressure level (L(eq)) has been measured in various sections of these plants. Noise at various sections like hammer section, cutting presses, punching, grinding and barrelling process was found to be >90 dB (A), which is greater than OSHA norms. A cross-sectional study on the basis of questionnaire has been carried out. The results of which revealed that 68% of the workers are not wearing ear protective equipments out of these 50% were not provided with PPE by the company. About 95% of the workers were suffering speech interference though high noise annoyance was reported by only 20%. It has been established that the maximum noise exposure is being taken by the workers as they are working more than 8h a day for six days per week. More than 90% workers are working 12 to 24 h over time per week which lead to very high noise exposure i.e. 50 to 80% per week higher than exposure time/week in USA or European countries(15, 16)). PMID:19672017

Singh, Lakhwinder Pal; Bhardwaj, Arvind; Deepak, K K; Bedi, Raman

2009-08-01

10

Learning From Small-Scale Experimental Evaluations of After School Programs. Snapshot Number 8  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Harvard Family Research Project (HFRP) Out-of-School Time Program Evaluation Database contains profiles of out-of-school time (OST) program evaluations. Its purpose is to provide accessible information about previous and current evaluations to support the development of high quality evaluations and programs in the OST field. Types of Programs

Harvard Family Research Project, Harvard University, 2006

2006-01-01

11

Guidelines for Management Consulting Programs for Small-Scale Enterprise. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to assist management consultants in working with small-scale entrepreneurs in developing countries. Addressed in an overview of the small-scale enterprise (SSE) are: the role of the SSE in third world development, problems of SSEs, and target firms. The second chapter deals with various forms of management assistance to…

Vaughan, Gary L.

12

Small Scale Organic Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the advantages of using small scale experimentation in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. Describes small scale filtration techniques as an example of a semi-micro method applied to small quantities of material. (MLH)

Horak, V.; Crist, DeLanson R.

1975-01-01

13

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE PROGRAMS  

E-print Network

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE PROGRAMS The Master of Science in Industrial Engineering (M Systems and Engineering (M.S.M.S.E.), the Doctor of Philosophy in Industrial Engineering, and the Doctor of Philosophy in Systems and Engineering Management programs prepare competent industrial engineers

Gelfond, Michael

14

Involvement of small-scale dairy farms in an industrial supply chain: when production standards meet farm diversity.  

PubMed

In certain contexts, dairy firms are supplied by small-scale family farms. Firms provide a set of technical and economic recommendations meant to help farmers meet their requirements in terms of the quantity and quality of milk collected. This study analyzes how such recommendations may be adopted by studying six farms in Brazil. All farms are beneficiaries of the country's agrarian reforms, but they differ in terms of how they developed their activities, their resources and their milk collection objectives. First, we built a technical and economic benchmark farm based on recommendations from a dairy firm and farmer advisory institutions. Our analysis of the farms' practices and technical and economic results show that none of the farms in the sample apply all of the benchmark recommendations; however, all farms specialized in dairy production observe the main underlying principles with regard to feeding systems and breeding. The decisive factors in whether the benchmark is adopted and successfully implemented are (i) access to the supply chain when a farmer establishes his activity, (ii) a grasp of reproduction and forage production techniques and (iii) an understanding of dairy cattle feed dietary rationing principles. The technical problems observed in some cases impact the farms' dairy performance and cash position; this can lead to a process of disinvestment. This dynamic of farms facing production standards suggests that the diversity of specialized livestock farmers should be taken into account more effectively through advisory approaches that combine basic zootechnical training with assistance in planning farm activities over the short and medium term. PMID:22440036

Bernard, J; Le Gal, P Y; Triomphe, B; Hostiou, N; Moulin, C H

2011-05-01

15

Fit for the task: the future of the small scale domestic repair and maintenance industry in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The poor condition of much of the UK's older housing stock is an important policy issue. Some disrepair arises because owners cannot afford work, because they are not aware of the need for it or because they do not know how to go about organizing it. However, the poor reputation of that sector of the building industry dealing with small

Philip Leather; Susan J. Rolfe

1997-01-01

16

MIT's Industrial Liaison Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Industrial Liaison Program provides efficient and timely access to the research and staff resources of the Institute for the benefit of its members. The industrial liaison officer, professors, directory of current research, publications, symposia, seminars, and foreign programs are described. (MLW)

Bruce, James D.; Tamaribuchi, Kay

1981-01-01

17

The Industrial Electrification Program  

E-print Network

additional areas of research 3. offer their services with respect to analysis of project proposals 4. communicate information back to the com mitte in general research and offer a forum for EPRI to communicate to the steel industry This task force... with this type of information. A conference would f nish the forum for the exchange of info tion relative to emerging technologies. An Industrial User Group will be or anized ? for each particular industry sector selected for the EPRI program. The concept...

Harry, I. L.

1982-01-01

18

Factors affecting the design of a partnership program to facilitate adoption of agricultural practices among small-scale farmers, Mpongwe, Zambia  

E-print Network

, environmentally friendly agricultural practices by the small-scale farmers in Mpongwe District, Zambia. Eleven separate surveys were conducted to gather descriptive information from four groups: 210 small-scale farmers, traditional chiefs, government departments...

Musoma, Henry Kasonde

2002-01-01

19

Small Scale Irrigation Systems: A Training Manual. Planning--Construction--Operation and Maintenance of Small Scale Irrigation Systems. A Two-Week In-Service Training Program for Peace Corps Volunteers. Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-13.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides materials for a two-week inservice training program for Peace Corps volunteers on the planning, construction, and operation and maintenance of small-scale irrigation systems. The workshop is designed to be given by two experienced professionals: one with practical knowledge of irrigation system design, operation, and…

Development Planning and Research Associates, Inc., Manhattan, KS.

20

INDUSTRIAL ASSESSMENT CENTER PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect

Since its establishment in 1990, San Diego State University’s Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) has served close to 400 small and medium-sized manufacturing plants in Southern California. SDSU/IAC’s efforts to transfer state-of-the-art technologies to industry have increased revenues, cultivated creativity, improved efficiencies, and benefited the environment. A substantial benefit from the program has been the ongoing training of engineering faculty and students. During this funding cycle, SDSU/IAC has trained 31 students, 7 of the graduate. A total of 92 assessments and 108 assessment days were completed, resulting in 638 assessment recommendations.

ASFAW BEYENE

2008-09-29

21

Industrial Assessment Center Program  

SciTech Connect

The work described in this report was performed under the direction of the Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) at University of Texas at Arlington. The IAC at The University of Texas at Arlington is managed by Rutgers University under agreement with the United States Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technology, which financially supports the program. The objective of the IAC is to identify, evaluate, and recommend, through analysis of an industrial plant’s operations, opportunities to conserve energy and prevent pollution, thereby reducing the associated costs. IAC team members visit and survey the plant. Based upon observations made in the plant, preventive/corrective actions are recommended. At all times we try to offer specific and quantitative recommendations of cost savings, energy conservation, and pollution prevention to the plants we serve.

Dr. Dereje Agonafer

2007-11-30

22

General patterns of niche construction and the management of ‘wild’ plant and animal resources by small-scale pre-industrial societies  

PubMed Central

Niche construction efforts by small-scale human societies that involve ‘wild’ species of plants and animals are organized into a set of six general categories based on the shared characteristics of the target species and similar patterns of human management and manipulation: (i) general modification of vegetation communities, (ii) broadcast sowing of wild annuals, (iii) transplantation of perennial fruit-bearing species, (iv) in-place encouragement of economically important perennials, (v) transplantation and in-place encouragement of perennial root crops, and (vi) landscape modification to increase prey abundance in specific locations. Case study examples, mostly drawn from North America, are presented for each of the six general categories of human niche construction. These empirically documented categories of ecosystem engineering form the basis for a predictive model that outlines potential general principles and commonalities in how small-scale human societies worldwide have modified and manipulated their ‘natural’ landscapes throughout the Holocene. PMID:21320898

Smith, Bruce D.

2011-01-01

23

SymposiumandIndustrialAffiliatesProgramLightinAction Industrial Affiliates Program  

E-print Network

SymposiumandIndustrialAffiliatesProgramLightinAction #12;Industrial Affiliates Program Friday, 8 Session I Abstract: Recently Additive Manufacturing (AM) has been hailed as the "third industrial revolution" by Economist magazine [April -2012]. Precision of the product manufactured by AM largely depends

Van Stryland, Eric

24

SMALL SCALE ETHANOL DRYING - PHASE II  

EPA Science Inventory

This program exceeded all key milestones. Using cellulose Waste, CMS demonstrated novel ethanol drying membranes via small scale dephlegmation process that yields fuel grade ethanol (FGE) at a lower cost than large switch grass ethanol plants. This success yields positive valu...

25

Accreditation of Industrial Engineering Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guidelines used in the accreditation of industrial engineering programs are discussed. Changes that have taken place in engineering curriculum are described, along with the philosophy of educators in formulating industrial engineering program requirements in the areas of faculty, facilities, curriculum, administration, and scholastic work.…

Brooks, George H.

26

EPRI's Industrial Energy Management Program  

E-print Network

, sewage treatment, waste disposal, and resource recovery/recycling. Electric-based technologies can play major roles in helping to find cost effective solutions to these problems. In the Industrial Program, Environment and Energy Management activities... and other industrial activity effects on our environment. Energy efficiency programs and new electrical processes can playa major role in restoring the environment and in creating a stronger industrial sector in the national economy. Since 1984...

Mergens, E.; Niday, L.

27

AVLIS industrial access program  

SciTech Connect

This document deals with the procurements planned for the construction of an Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) production plant. Several large-scale AVLIS facilities have already been built and tested; a full-scale engineering demonstration facility is currently under construction. The experience gained from these projects provides the procurement basis for the production plant construction and operation. In this document, the status of the AVLIS process procurement is presented from two viewpoints. The AVLIS Production Plant Work Breakdown Structure is referenced at the level of the items to be procured. The availability of suppliers for the items at this level is discussed. In addition, the work that will result from the AVLIS enrichment plant project is broken down by general procurement categories (construction, mechanical equipment, etc.) and the current AVLIS suppliers are listed according to these categories. A large number of companies in all categories are currently providing AVLIS equipment for the Full-Scale Demonstration Facility in Livermore, California. These companies form an existing and expanding supplier network for the AVLIS program. Finally, this document examines the relationship between the AVLIS construction project/operational facility and established commercial suppliers. The goal is to utilize existing industrial capability to meet the needs of the project in a competitive procurement situation. As a result, costs and procurement risks are both reduced because the products provided come from within the AVLIS suppliers' experience base. At the same time, suppliers can benefit by the potential to participate in AVLIS technology spin-off markets. 35 figures.

Not Available

1984-11-15

28

Small-scale Forest Economics, Management and Policy, 3(3): 431-451, 2004 Visions and Realities for a Wik Forestry Industry on Cape York  

E-print Network

for a Wik Forestry Industry on Cape York Peninsula, Australia Tyron J. Venn Risk and Sustainable Management for timber production to contribute to Wik socio-economic objectives. Wik elders have a set of forestry and producing dried and dressed finished products including strip-flooring will best satisfy Wik forestry

Venn, Tyron

29

Small-Scale Farming: A Portrait from Polk County, Oregon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of small-scale farmers in Polk County, Oregon, examined characteristics of, and variations among, small-scale farmers and developed some guidelines for assistance programs targeted for such a group. During the months of May, June, and July of 1978 an average of 4 days a week was spent locating and interviewing 44 small farm operators in…

Young, John A.; Caday, Peter

30

Industry Studies Program: Clipping Service.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Industry Studies Program at Boston University has compiled a collection of news clippings relating to industrial organization. The clippings, obtained from public news sources such as the New York Times and CNN, cover topics such as antitrust, health, telecommunications and finance.

Yi, Rong.

1998-01-01

31

Small-Scale-Field Dynamo  

SciTech Connect

Generation of magnetic field energy, without mean field generation, is studied. Isotropic mirror-symmetric turbulence of a conducting fluid amplifies the energy of small-scale magnetic perturbations if the magnetic Reynolds number is high, and the dimensionality of space {ital d} satisfies 2.103{lt}{ital d}{lt}8.765. The result does not depend on the model of turbulence, incompressibility, and isotropy being the only requirements. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Gruzinov, A.; Cowley, S.; Sudan, R. [Institute for Advanced Study, School of Natural Sciences, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)] [Institute for Advanced Study, School of Natural Sciences, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); [Department of Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, California 90024-1547 (United States); [Laboratory of Plasma Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-7501 (United States)

1996-11-01

32

Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

Gleeson, L.

1991-12-01

33

Accrediting industrial safety training programs  

SciTech Connect

There are job-specific training requirements established by regulations that Impose stringent training requirements on a contractor, for example, the Occupational Safety & Health Act (OSHA). Failure to comply with OSHA training requirements can result in severe penalties being levied against a company. Although an accredited training program is expensive, it is a possible solution for minimizing risks associated with job-specific training requirements for employees. Operating DOE contractors direct approximately 10 percent of the operating funds toward training activities. Training needs for contractors span a broad range, from requirements awareness training for managers, to general training required on a one-time basis for all employees, to highly specialized training programs for employees involved In clean-up operations at hazardous waste sites. With this kind of an investment in training, it is logical to maximize the most return on an investment of training funds and to limit exposure to liability suits whenever possible. This presentation will provide an overview of accredited industrial safety programs. The criteria for accredited industrial safety programs will be defined. The question of whether accredited training programs are necessary will be examined. Finally, advantages and disadvantages will be identified for accrediting industrial safety training programs.

Beitel, L.

1992-12-31

34

Accrediting industrial safety training programs  

SciTech Connect

There are job-specific training requirements established by regulations that Impose stringent training requirements on a contractor, for example, the Occupational Safety Health Act (OSHA). Failure to comply with OSHA training requirements can result in severe penalties being levied against a company. Although an accredited training program is expensive, it is a possible solution for minimizing risks associated with job-specific training requirements for employees. Operating DOE contractors direct approximately 10 percent of the operating funds toward training activities. Training needs for contractors span a broad range, from requirements awareness training for managers, to general training required on a one-time basis for all employees, to highly specialized training programs for employees involved In clean-up operations at hazardous waste sites. With this kind of an investment in training, it is logical to maximize the most return on an investment of training funds and to limit exposure to liability suits whenever possible. This presentation will provide an overview of accredited industrial safety programs. The criteria for accredited industrial safety programs will be defined. The question of whether accredited training programs are necessary will be examined. Finally, advantages and disadvantages will be identified for accrediting industrial safety training programs.

Beitel, L.

1992-01-01

35

MSU Industrial Affiliates Program Guidelines MSU Departments or organizations that are developing industrial affiliates programs  

E-print Network

MSU Industrial Affiliates Program Guidelines MSU Departments or organizations that are developing industrial affiliates programs should use a structure that is best suited for the program and the affiliates be used when affiliates require deliverables. Industrial affiliates subscription agreements must

Lawrence, Rick L.

36

UW Computer Science & Engineering Industrial Affiliates Program  

E-print Network

UW Computer Science & Engineering Industrial Affiliates Program 2011-12 Contributions for the CSE Industrial Affiliates Program are to be used to further the Computer Science & Engineering program with this completed form to: Kay Beck-Benton Industrial Affiliates Program University of Washington Computer Science

Anderson, Richard

37

Canada's Voluntary Industrial Energy Conservation Program  

E-print Network

Industrial Energy Conservation in Canada is organized and promoted through a voluntary program that is administered by industry. Industry is divided into fifteen sectors, each of which is represented by a Voluntary Task Force. Information exchange...

Wolf, C. A., Jr.

1980-01-01

38

Small Scale Marine Fisheries: An Extension Training Manual. TR-30.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed for use in a preservice training program for prospective volunteers whose Peace Corps service will be spent working with small-scale artisanal fishing communities in developing nations. The program consists of 8 weeks of intensive training to develop competencies in marine fisheries technology and fisheries extension work…

Martinson, Steven; And Others

39

Industrial screening programs for workers  

SciTech Connect

Industrial screening efforts to identify classes of workers who are more susceptible to workplace hazards, by virtue of their fertility, genetic, or lifestyle characteristics, represent a relatively new approach to reducing workplace risks. Screening is attractive on cost and effectiveness grounds. It offers the firm an inexpensive alternative to reducing further workplace emissions. It may provide the only acceptable solution where no level of exposure is deemed acceptable for some workers. Screening has, however, already raised some important economic, legal, social, medical, and moral questions. Employers, employees, administrative agencies, and the courts are offering different, often conflicting answers. Ultimately, the acceptability of various screening schemes rests upon judgments about how a society justifies the distribution of risk. The questions that industrial screening programs raise are only partially answered by empirical evidence; the rest is a matter of values. 38 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

Lavine, M.P.

1982-06-01

40

Collaborating To Create a Portfolio Assessment in a Small-Scale Evaluation Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the 1994-95 program year, the staff of Even Start, a family literacy program in Lincoln (Nebraska), and an evaluator collaborated to create a low-stakes, small-scale portfolio assessment to collect information on program impact. The small scale of the evaluation offered opportunities to involve the staff in each step of the portfolio…

Johnson, Robert L.; Bergman, Teresa

41

Energy Programs of the Texas Industrial Commission  

E-print Network

workshops and seminars; an annual Industrial Energy Technology Conference; the coordination of a university program for the training of industrial energy auditors; and organizational assistance in the establishment of regional energy conservation groups...

Heare, J.; dePlante, L. E.

1979-01-01

42

Small scale structure on cosmic strings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current understanding of cosmic string evolution is discussed, and the focus placed on the question of small scale structure on strings, where most of the disagreements lie. A physical picture designed to put the role of the small scale structure into more intuitive terms is presented. In this picture it can be seen how the small scale structure can feed back in a major way on the overall scaling solution. It is also argued that it is easy for small scale numerical errors to feed back in just such a way. The intuitive discussion presented here may form the basis for an analytic treatment of the small scale structure, which argued in any case would be extremely valuable in filling the gaps in the present understanding of cosmic string evolution.

Albrecht, Andreas

1989-01-01

43

Pautas para Programas de Asesoramiento Gestional para Microempresas (Guidelines for Management Consulting Programs for Small-Scale Enterprise). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Manual Series No. M-27.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written in Spanish, this manual is designed to assist management consultants in working with small-scale entrepreneurs in developing countries. Addressed in an overview of the small-scale enterprise (SSE) are the role of the SSE in Third World development, problems of SSEs, and target firms. The second chapter deals with various forms of…

Vaughan, Gary L.

44

Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Energy Projects. Guidelines for Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is the fourth volume in a series of publications that provide information for the planning of environmentally sound small-scale projects. Programs that aim to protect the renewable natural resources that supply most of the energy used in developing nations are suggested. Considerations are made for physical environmental factors as…

Bassan, Elizabeth Ann; Wood, Timothy S., Ed.

45

Small Scale Beekeeping. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to assist Peace Corps volunteers in the development and implementation of small-scale beekeeping programs as a tool for development. Addressed in the individual chapters are bees and humans; project planning; the types and habits of bees; the essence of beekeeping; bee space and beehives; intermediate technology beekeeping;…

Gentry, Curtis

46

Small Scale Charcoal Making: A Manual for Trainers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training program offers skills training in all stages of the development of technologies related to small-scale charcoal production, including the design, construction, operation, maintenance, repair, and evaluation of prototype kilns. The kiln designs are selected to be as consistent as possible with the realities of rural areas in…

Karch, Ed; And Others

47

Small scale bipolar nickel-hydrogen testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, ranging in capacity from 6 to 40 A-hr, have been tested at the NASA Lewis Research Center over the past six years. Small scale tests of 1 A-hr nickel-hydrogen stacks have been initiated as a means of screening design and component variations for bipolar nickel-hydrogen cells and batteries. Four small-scale batteries have been built and tested. Characterization and limited cycle testing were performed to establish the validity of test results in the scaled down hardware. The results show characterization test results to be valid. LEO test results in the small scale hardware have limited value.

Manzo, Michelle A.

1988-01-01

48

The Carlson School Medical Industry Leadership Programs  

E-print Network

industry--from insurance, medical devices, pharmaceuticals, and biotechnology to the delivery of care in Minnesota, which maintains one of the nation's largest concentrations of health care and medical deviceThe Carlson School Medical Industry Leadership Programs Shaping the future of the medical industry

Minnesota, University of

49

Industrial Arts Program Goals and Competencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first section of the manual on secondary level industrial arts goal and competencies concerns the ALIVE (Allied Learning Vocational Exploration) Program, a student-managed, individualized learning program involving art, home economics, and industrial arts in a team instruction approach. It provides goals, competencies, and performance…

1974

50

Oklahoma Industrial Energy Management Program  

E-print Network

State University. The program is funded by the U. S. Department of Energy through the State Energy Conservation Plan. This paper describes the program offerings, impact to date and plans for the future. The program offerings basically include: 1. A...

Turner, W. C.; Webb, R. E.; Phillips, J. M.; Viljoen, T. A.

1979-01-01

51

Industrial Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains vocational education program course standards for exploratory courses, practical arts courses, and job preparatory programs offered at the secondary and postsecondary level as part of the industrial education component in Florida. Curriculum frameworks are provided for 144 programs/clusters; representative topics are as…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Applied Tech., Adult, and Community Education.

52

Oklahoma Industrial Energy Management Program  

E-print Network

, closed circuit television short courses on selected energy management topics, energy auditing, industrial energy audits (through the Oklahoma Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center) , energy and water management research, and two courses currently being...

Turner, W. C.; Estes, C. B.

1982-01-01

53

Electric Utility Industrial Conservation Programs  

E-print Network

The Alliance to Save Energy conducted a study, funded by the John A. Hartford Foundation, of industrial and commercial electricity conservation opportunities in the service territory of Arkansas Power and Light Company (AP&L). The study determined...

Norland, D. L.

1983-01-01

54

Geologic utility of small-scale airphotos  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geologic value of small scale airphotos is emphasized by describing the application of high altitude oblique and 1:120,000 to 1:145,000 scale vertical airphotos to several geologic problems in California. These examples show that small-scale airphotos can be of use to geologists in the following ways: (1) high altitude, high oblique airphotos show vast areas in one view; and (2) vertical airphotos offer the most efficient method of discovering the major topographic features and structural and lithologic characteristics of terrain.

Clark, M. M.

1969-01-01

55

Small-scale solar magnetic fields  

E-print Network

As we resolve ever smaller structures in the solar atmosphere, it has become clear that magnetism is an important component of those small structures. Small-scale magnetism holds the key to many poorly understood facets of solar magnetism on all scales, such as the existence of a local dynamo, chromospheric heating, and flux emergence, to name a few. Here, we review our knowledge of small-scale photospheric fields, with particular emphasis on quiet-sun field, and discuss the implications of several results obtained recently using new instruments, as well as future prospects in this field of research.

A. G. de Wijn; J. O. Stenflo; S. K. Solanki; S. Tsuneta

2008-12-24

56

Ontario's Industrial Energy Services Program  

E-print Network

that represents 47% of the total industrial elec tricity and fuel bill for all of Canada. Ontario's industrial base is highly energy inten sive, and studies indicate that the efficiency/ productivity could be improved by up to 20%. A 20% saving could... and industrial energy fuel consumption for Canada, Ontario and the United States is shown below. 433 CANADA US($)/GJ ONTARIO CANADA U.S.A. OIL #2 3.93 4.87 3.58 OIL #6 2.27 2.49 2.10 N.G. 4.07 3.21 3.88 ELEC 8.33 7.22 14.16 (ALL 1986 DATA...

Ploeger, L. K.

57

IAPSA 2 small-scale system specification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The details of a hardware implementation of a representative small scale flight critical system is described using Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) building block components and simulated sensor/actuator interfaces. The system was used to study application performance and reliability issues during both normal and faulted operation.

Cohen, Gerald C.; Torkelson, Thomas C.

1990-01-01

58

Forging strategic partnerships with industry: The Industrial Fellows Program  

SciTech Connect

Science, technology, and industrial policy are at an important nexus due to long developing trends in the national and international economy and recent events in national security affairs. The research and development assets built by the American taxpayer in response to the Cold War face a quest for relevance in the new era. National competitiveness in international markets has emerged as an important new priority. To better understand the perspective of US industry the management of the Los Alamos National Laboratory has initiated an Industrial Fellows Program which has placed six individuals at US corporations. Their goal is to create strategic partnerships through increased understanding of technical needs of industry and the technical capabilities of the Laboratory.

Adams, K.; Castain, R.; Hynes, M.V.; Sanders, V.; Siemon, R.; Tellier, A.; Tiedman, A.; Umbarger, J.; Wilson, M.

1995-04-01

59

Aeronautics Leadership Program Canada's aerospace industry  

E-print Network

Aeronautics Leadership Program Canada's aerospace industry is one of the largest in the world looking for its new hires to hold university degrees. www.uwindsor.ca/aeronautics The UWindsor Aeronautics of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences #12;Aeronautics Leadership Program We look forward to meeting you

60

New challenges for industrial robotic cell programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial technology trends point to the saturation of the classical markets (like automotive and consumer electronics), followed by a huge development in areas like sensor technology, mechatronics, computers, human-machine interfaces, high-level programming, etc. This configures an opportunity to develop robotics and automation solutions adapted to small and medium enterprises (SME): less expensive, safer, easier to install and program, more flexible

J. Norberto Pires

61

Industrial Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains industrial education courses standards for 183 exploratory courses, practical arts courses, and job preparatory programs offered at the secondary or postsecondary level in Florida. Each program courses standard is composed of two parts. The first part, the curriculum framework, includes four major sections: major…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

62

Energy Industry Powers CTE Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Michael Fields is a recent graduate of Buckeye Union High School in Buckeye, Arizona. Fields is enrolled in the Estrella Mountain Community College (EMCC) Get Into Energy program, which means he is well on his way to a promising career. Specializing in power plant technology, in two years he will earn a certificate that will all but guarantee a…

Khokhar, Amy

2012-01-01

63

Creating Tech Programs Industry Wants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community colleges serve on the front line of workforce development. With their focus on applied science associate degrees and technical certificate programs, they provide students with a high-quality, low-cost education that prepares them for careers in one to two years. And for students who can't take time away from their family or work to…

Demski, Jennifer

2012-01-01

64

Classification of wetlands vegetation using small scale color infrared imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A classification system for Chesapeake Bay wetlands was derived from the correlation of film density classes and actual vegetation classes. The data processing programs used were developed by the Laboratory for the Applications of Remote Sensing. These programs were tested for their value in classifying natural vegetation, using digitized data from small scale aerial photography. Existing imagery and the vegetation map of Farm Creek Marsh were used to determine the optimal number of classes, and to aid in determining if the computer maps were a believable product.

Williamson, F. S. L.

1975-01-01

65

Industrial energy-efficiency-improvement program  

SciTech Connect

Progress made by industry toward attaining the voluntary 1980 energy efficiency improvement targets is reported. The mandatory reporting population has been expanded from ten original industries to include ten additional non-targeted industries and all corporations using over one trillion Btu's annually in any manufacturing industry. The ten most energy intensive industries have been involved in the reporting program since the signing of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act and as industrial energy efficiency improvement overview, based primarily on information from these industries (chemicals and allied products; primary metal industry; petroleum and coal products; stone, clay, and glass products; paper and allied products; food and kindred products; fabricated metal products; transportation equipment; machinery, except electrical; and textile mill products), is presented. Reports from industries, now required to report, are included for rubber and miscellaneous plastics; electrical and electronic equipment; lumber and wood; and tobacco products. Additional data from voluntary submissions are included for American Gas Association; American Hotel and Motel Association; General Telephone and Electronics Corporation; and American Telephone and Telegraph Company. (MCW)

Not Available

1980-12-01

66

China's Energy Management System Program for Industry  

E-print Network

Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 | iipnetwork.org Waste Heat Recovery in Cement – Market Status 4 5 7 15 24 9 12 24 26 739 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Rest of World Americas Europe Mid East Other Asia Pakistan Thailand Japan India China...| iipnetwork.org China’s Energy Management System Program for Industry Bruce Hedman, Yongmiao Yu, Robert Taylor, Zach Friedman Institute for Industrial Productivity May 21 IETC 2014 ESL-IE-14-05-24 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy...

Hedman, B.; Yu, Y.; Friedman, Z.; Taylor, R.

2014-01-01

67

THE DEPARTMENT OF Mechanical & Industrial Engineering's graduate programs ed-  

E-print Network

THE DEPARTMENT OF Mechanical & Industrial Engineering's graduate programs ed- ucate students Mechanical and Industrial Engineering faculty members conduct research in affiliation with vari- ous College I N Industrial Engineering Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering 3131 Seamans Center

Kusiak, Andrew

68

Advanced Manufacturing Office (Formerly Industrial Technologies Program)  

E-print Network

, and out-of-the-autoclave composite manufacturing. Develop and demonstrate pervasive materials technologiesAdvanced Manufacturing Office (Formerly Industrial Technologies Program) Leo Christodoulou Jamie Link EERE Department of Energy Brief to: Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Manufacturing R&D Workshop

69

Career Education: Suggested School-Industry Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document, produced to aid Ohio communities in linking their schools' kindergarten through secondary career education (CE) programs with the needs and interests of local General Motors (GM) plants, defines some central concepts of career education and discusses successful, cooperative interaction between industry and career education. The focus…

Mumford, Donald, Ed.

70

Small Scale Solar PV Overview and Curriculum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this presentation and model curriculum for high school and community college energy technology instructors. The material focuses on the career path for small scale solar PV technicians. It includes information on career outlook, occupational competencies, sample syllabi and curriculum, high school applications and a sample lesson. The document may be downloaded in PDF file format. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2012-10-03

71

Small-scale hydroelectric power in the southeast: new impetus for an old energy source  

SciTech Connect

The Southeastern conference, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power: New Impetus for an Old Energy Source, was convened to provide a forum for state legislators and other interested persons to discuss the problems facing small-scale hydro developers, and to recommend appropriate solutions to resolve those problems. During the two-day meeting state legislators and their staffs, along with dam developers, utility and industry representatives, environmentalists and federal/state officials examined and discussed the problems impeding small-scale hydro development at the state level. Based upon the problem-oriented discussions, alternative policy options were recommended for consideration by the US Department of Energy, state legislatures and the staff of the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). Emphasis was placed on the legal, institutional, environmental and economic barriers at the state level, as well as the federal delays associated with licensing small-scale hydro projects. Whereas other previously held conferences have emphasized the identification and technology of small-scale hydro as an alternative energy source, this conference stressed legislative resolution of the problems and delays in small-scale hydro licensing and development. Panel discussions and workshops are summarized. Papers on the environmental, economic, and legal aspects of small-scale hydropower development are presented. (LCL)

Not Available

1980-06-01

72

Small-scale universality in fluid turbulence.  

PubMed

Turbulent flows in nature and technology possess a range of scales. The largest scales carry the memory of the physical system in which a flow is embedded. One challenge is to unravel the universal statistical properties that all turbulent flows share despite their different large-scale driving mechanisms or their particular flow geometries. In the present work, we study three turbulent flows of systematically increasing complexity. These are homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in a periodic box, turbulent shear flow between two parallel walls, and thermal convection in a closed cylindrical container. They are computed by highly resolved direct numerical simulations of the governing dynamical equations. We use these simulation data to establish two fundamental results: (i) at Reynolds numbers Re ? 10(2) the fluctuations of the velocity derivatives pass through a transition from nearly Gaussian (or slightly sub-Gaussian) to intermittent behavior that is characteristic of fully developed high Reynolds number turbulence, and (ii) beyond the transition point, the statistics of the rate of energy dissipation in all three flows obey the same Reynolds number power laws derived for homogeneous turbulence. These results allow us to claim universality of small scales even at low Reynolds numbers. Our results shed new light on the notion of when the turbulence is fully developed at the small scales without relying on the existence of an extended inertial range. PMID:25024175

Schumacher, Jörg; Scheel, Janet D; Krasnov, Dmitry; Donzis, Diego A; Yakhot, Victor; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R

2014-07-29

73

Small-scale universality in fluid turbulence  

PubMed Central

Turbulent flows in nature and technology possess a range of scales. The largest scales carry the memory of the physical system in which a flow is embedded. One challenge is to unravel the universal statistical properties that all turbulent flows share despite their different large-scale driving mechanisms or their particular flow geometries. In the present work, we study three turbulent flows of systematically increasing complexity. These are homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in a periodic box, turbulent shear flow between two parallel walls, and thermal convection in a closed cylindrical container. They are computed by highly resolved direct numerical simulations of the governing dynamical equations. We use these simulation data to establish two fundamental results: (i) at Reynolds numbers Re ? 102 the fluctuations of the velocity derivatives pass through a transition from nearly Gaussian (or slightly sub-Gaussian) to intermittent behavior that is characteristic of fully developed high Reynolds number turbulence, and (ii) beyond the transition point, the statistics of the rate of energy dissipation in all three flows obey the same Reynolds number power laws derived for homogeneous turbulence. These results allow us to claim universality of small scales even at low Reynolds numbers. Our results shed new light on the notion of when the turbulence is fully developed at the small scales without relying on the existence of an extended inertial range. PMID:25024175

Schumacher, Jörg; Scheel, Janet D.; Krasnov, Dmitry; Donzis, Diego A.; Yakhot, Victor; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

2014-01-01

74

Small-Scale Smart Grid Construction and Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The smart grid (SG) is a commonly used catch-phrase in the energy industry yet there is no universally accepted definition. The objectives and most useful concepts have been investigated extensively in economic, environmental and engineering research by applying statistical knowledge and established theories to develop simulations without constructing physical models. In this study, a small-scale version (SSSG) is constructed to physically represent these ideas so they can be evaluated. Results of construction show data acquisition three times more expensive than the grid itself although mainly due to the incapability to downsize 70% of data acquisition costs to small-scale. Experimentation on the fully assembled grid exposes the limitations of low cost modified sine wave power, significant enough to recommend pure sine wave investment in future SSSG iterations. Findings can be projected to full-size SG at a ratio of 1:10, based on the appliance representing average US household peak daily load. However this exposes disproportionalities in the SSSG compared with previous SG investigations and recommended changes for future iterations are established to remedy this issue. Also discussed are other ideas investigated in the literature and their suitability for SSSG incorporation. It is highly recommended to develop a user-friendly bidirectional charger to more accurately represent vehicle-to-grid (V2G) infrastructure. Smart homes, BEV swap stations and pumped hydroelectric storage can also be researched on future iterations of the SSSG.

Surface, Nicholas James

75

Models of Small-Scale Patchiness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Patchiness is perhaps the most salient characteristic of plankton populations in the ocean. The scale of this heterogeneity spans many orders of magnitude in its spatial extent, ranging from planetary down to microscale. It has been argued that patchiness plays a fundamental role in the functioning of marine ecosystems, insofar as the mean conditions may not reflect the environment to which organisms are adapted. For example, the fact that some abundant predators cannot thrive on the mean concentration of their prey in the ocean implies that they are somehow capable of exploiting small-scale patches of prey whose concentrations are much larger than the mean. Understanding the nature of this patchiness is thus one of the major challenges of oceanographic ecology. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

McGillicuddy Dennis J., Jr.

2001-01-01

76

Practical small-scale explosive seam welding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A small-scale explosive seam welding process has been developed that can significantly contribute to remote metal joining operations under hazardous or inaccessible conditions, such as nuclear reactor repair and assembly of structure in space. This paper describes this explosive seam welding process in terms of joining principles, variables, types of joints created, capabilities, and applications. Very small quantities of explosive in a ribbon configuration are used to create narrow (less than 0.5 inch), long-length, uniform, hermetically sealed joints that exhibit parent metal properties in a wide variety of metals, alloys, and combinations. The practicality of this process has been demonstrated by its current acceptance, as well as its capabilities that are superior in many applications to the universally accepted joining processes, such as mechanical fasteners, fusion and resistance welding, and adhesives.

Bement, L. J.

1983-01-01

77

Universal Nonlinear Small-Scale Dynamo  

E-print Network

We consider astrophysically relevant nonlinear MHD dynamo at large Reynolds numbers (Re). We argue that it is universal in a sense that magnetic energy grows at a rate which is a constant fraction C_E of the total turbulent dissipation rate. On the basis of locality bounds we claim that this "efficiency of small-scale dynamo", C_E, is a true constant for large Re and is determined only by strongly nonlinear dynamics at the equipartition scale. We measured C_E in numerical simulations and observed a value around 0.05 in highest resolution simulations. We address the issue of C_E being small, unlike Kolmogorov constant which is of order unity.

Beresnyak, Andrey

2011-01-01

78

Universal nonlinear small-scale dynamo.  

PubMed

We consider astrophysically relevant nonlinear MHD dynamo at large Reynolds numbers (Re). We argue that it is universal in a sense that magnetic energy grows at a rate which is a constant fraction C(E) of the total turbulent dissipation rate. On the basis of locality bounds we claim that this "efficiency of the small-scale dynamo", C(E), is a true constant for large Re and is determined only by strongly nonlinear dynamics at the equipartition scale. We measured C(E) in numerical simulations and observed a value around 0.05 in the highest resolution simulations. We address the issue of C(E) being small, unlike the Kolmogorov constant which is of order unity. PMID:22400750

Beresnyak, A

2012-01-20

79

Small-Scale Features in Pulsating Aurora  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A field study was conducted from March 12-16, 2002 using a narrow-field intensified CCD camera installed at Churchill, Manitoba. The camera was oriented along the local magnetic zenith where small-scale black auroral forms are often visible. This analysis focuses on such forms occurring within a region of pulsating aurora. The observations show black forms with irregular shape and nonuniform drift with respect to the relatively stationary pulsating patches. The pulsating patches occur within a diffuse auroral background as a modulation of the auroral brightness in a localized region. The images analyzed show a decrease in the brightness of the diffuse background in the region of the pulsating patch at the beginning of the offphase of the modulation. Throughout the off phase the brightness of the diffuse aurora gradually increases back to the average intensity. The time constant for this increase is measured as the first step toward determining the physical process.

Jones, Sarah; Jaynes, Allison N.; Knudsen, David J.; Trondsen, Trond; Lessard, Marc

2011-01-01

80

Emergent properties in small-scale societies.  

PubMed

A multi-agent simulation is used to explore the relationship between the micro and the macro levels in small-scale societies. The simulation demonstrates, using an African hunter-gatherer group (the !Kung san) as a case study, the way in which population stability may arise from culturally framed, micro-level decision making by women about spacing of births. According to the simulation, population stability as an emergent property has different implications, depending on resource density. Data on Australian hunter-gatherer groups are presented that support the implications of the simulation. !Kung san micro-level cultural rules on incestuous marriages are shown to have macro-level consequences in the form of marriages between residential camps. Between-camp marriages have significant implications for access to resources and thereby for population dynamics of the group as a whole. PMID:14761260

Read, Dwight W

2003-01-01

81

A R&D Program for Advanced Industrial Heat Pumps  

E-print Network

The overall goal of the DOE Industrial Heat Pump Program is to foster research and development which will allow more efficient and economical recovery of waste energy in industry. Specifically, the program includes the identification of appropriate...

Hayes, A. J.

82

Iowa Handbook of Basic Computer Programs for Industrial Arts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide contains computer programs, written in BASIC, for use in Iowa secondary school industrial arts programs. The programs were developed in two 2-week workshops by industrial arts teachers who had little or no previous experience with computers; the programs have been classroom tested and refined for publication. The programs are…

Bro, Ronald D., Ed.

83

S C I E N C E Industrial Internship Program  

E-print Network

S C I E N C E Faculty of Industrial Internship Program An Introduction for Students and Employers in the Industrial Internship program (IIP) to get a feel for life in industry. My previous experience was academia, Syncrude Research Department, Edmonton, AB #12;Prospective Students What is the Industrial Internship

Machel, Hans

84

Industrial Technologies Program ORNL-developed cast nickel aluminide rolls  

E-print Network

Industrial Technologies Program ORNL-developed cast nickel aluminide rolls prior to installation, industrial distributed energy, and industrial energy assessments. Technologies developed by ITP scientists Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is the lead DOE Lab for the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP

85

Are Small-scale Fishers Profit Maximizers?: Exploring Fishing Performance of Small-scale Fishers and Factors Determining Catch Rates  

E-print Network

Are Small-scale Fishers Profit Maximizers?: Exploring Fishing Performance of Small-scale Fishers Exploration of the concepts of "profit maximizer" and "skipper effect" was undertaken using empirical data, fisheries management, Yucatan Are Small-scale Fishers Profit Maximizers? : Exploring Fishing Performance

Charles, Anthony

86

Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP) was originated in 1959 by the Army, Navy, and Air Force Ballistic Missile Agencies. Known at that time as IDEP--Interservice Data Exchange Program--its intent was to eliminate duplicate testing of parts and components by disseminating pertinent test data among Department of Defense contractors and various government agencies. In 1966 both the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Canadian Military Electronics Standards Agency (CAMESA) recognized the value of the data provided by the program and became participants. Today, GIDEP provides the interchange of specialized technical data to all the military services, participating government contractors and numerous government agencies such as the Atomic Energy Commission, Federal Aviation Administration, Defense Supply Agency, and the Small Business Administration.

Richards, E. T.

1974-01-01

87

ERHAN KUTANOGLU Graduate Program in Operations Research and Industrial Engineering  

E-print Network

ERHAN KUTANOGLU Graduate Program in Operations Research and Industrial Engineering Department · As a tenured faculty member in the Operations Research and Industrial Engineering Graduate Program, develop School of Engineering Co-Director, Industrial Affiliates Program January 2012 ­ Present Advanced

Kutanoglu, Erhan

88

Health and Safety Management for Small-scale Methane Fermentation Facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we considered health and safety management for small-scale methane fermentation facilities that treat 2-5 ton of biomass daily based on several years operation experience with an approximate capacity of 5 t·d-1. We also took account of existing knowledge, related laws and regulations. There are no qualifications or licenses required for management and operation of small-scale methane fermentation facilities, even though rural sewerage facilities with a relative similar function are required to obtain a legitimate license. Therefore, there are wide variations in health and safety consciousness of the operators of small-scale methane fermentation facilities. The industrial safety and health laws are not applied to the operation of small-scale methane fermentation facilities. However, in order to safely operate a small-scale methane fermentation facility, the occupational safety and health management system that the law recommends should be applied. The aims of this paper are to clarify the risk factors in small-scale methane fermentation facilities and encourage planning, design and operation of facilities based on health and safety management.

Yamaoka, Masaru; Yuyama, Yoshito; Nakamura, Masato; Oritate, Fumiko

89

Hall-magnetohydrodynamic small-scale dynamos.  

PubMed

Magnetic field generation by dynamo action is often studied within the theoretical framework of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). However, for sufficiently diffuse media, the Hall effect may become non-negligible. We present results from three-dimensional simulations of the Hall-MHD equations subjected to random nonhelical forcing. We study the role of the Hall effect in the dynamo efficiency for different values of the Hall parameter. For small values of the Hall parameter, the small-scale dynamo is more efficient, displaying faster growth and saturating at larger amplitudes of the magnetic field. For larger values of the Hall parameter, saturation of the magnetic field is reached at smaller amplitudes than in the MHD case. We also study energy transfer rates among spatial scales and show that the Hall effect produces a reduction of the direct energy cascade at scales larger than the Hall scale, therefore leading to smaller energy dissipation rates. Finally, we present results stemming from simulations at large magnetic Prandtl numbers, which is the relevant regime in the hot and diffuse interstellar medium. In the range of magnetic Prandtl numbers considered, the Hall effect moves the peak of the magnetic energy spectrum as well as other relevant magnetic length scales toward the Hall scale. PMID:21230195

Gómez, Daniel O; Mininni, Pablo D; Dmitruk, Pablo

2010-09-01

90

Small-scale accelerated pavement testing  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a study conducted to explore the use of small-scale models of accelerated pavement testing (APT) devices to evaluate the performance of pavements in conjunction with full-scale tests. The motivation for the study was the availability of a model mobile load simulator (MMLS), which had been built originally to illustrate the operation of the full-scale mobile load simulator (MLS) under design at the time. The scaling requirements will be different depending on whether dynamic (inertia), viscous, or gravity effects are important. One must thus decide which one of these effects controls the behavior to try to reproduce it exactly. In the preliminary tests conducted with the MMLS, emphasis had been placed in reproducing accurately the viscoelastic behavior of the asphalt layer. The possibility of obtaining valid results, even if similitude is not maintained in relation to inertia forces, is explored in this paper. The effects of load frequency or velocity and the effects of layer thicknesses are studied. The total thickness of the model pavement, which must be finite, and its effects on displacements and strains are also considered. It is concluded that even when full similitude is not satisfied it is possible to obtain valid results that can be extrapolated to predict prototype performance if one were interested primarily in the behavior of the asphalt layer. Preliminary analyses should be conducted, however, to guide on the selection of the model dimensions.

Kim, S.M. [Korea Highway Corp., Kyunggi (Korea, Republic of). Highway Research Inst.; Hugo, F. [Univ. of Stellenbosch (South Africa). Inst. for Transport Technology; Roesset, J.M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1998-03-01

91

Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project  

SciTech Connect

This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

Curtis Miller

2009-03-22

92

Galaxy alignment on large and small scales  

E-print Network

Galaxies are not randomly distributed across the universe but showing different kinds of alignment on different scales. On small scales satellite galaxies have a tendency to distribute along the major axis of the central galaxy, with dependence on galaxy properties that both red satellites and centrals have stronger alignment than their blue counterparts. On large scales, it is found that the major axes of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) have correlation up to 30Mpc/h. Using hydro-dynamical simulation with star formation, we investigate the origin of galaxy alignment on different scales. It is found that most red satellite galaxies stay in the inner region of dark matter halo inside which the shape of central galaxy is well aligned with the dark matter distribution. Red centrals have stronger alignment than blue ones as they live in massive haloes and the central galaxy-halo alignment increases with halo mass. On large scales, the alignment of LRGs is also from the galaxy-halo shape correlation, but with some ex...

Kang, X; Wang, Y O; Dutton, A; Macciň, A

2014-01-01

93

The Environmental protection agency industrial technology transfer program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Today TAC consists of a full service information center and five programs, which are: (1) our industrial program; (2) the energy information center; (3) the business and industry extension program; (4) the remote sensing program; and (5) the center for environmental research and development.

Suter, K. H.

1974-01-01

94

75 FR 17305 - National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...has amended National Industrial Security Program Directive...and consistency to the process across the Federal Government...Part 2004, National Industrial Program Directive No...a CSA to administer industrial security on behalf of...contractors, cleared or in process for clearance...

2010-04-06

95

Industry driven engineering management program within a distance learning environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only as given. The Engineering Management Program at Washington State University (USA) is a state-wide program currently serving industries at WSU branch campuses in Tri-Cities, Vancouver, and Spokane, and in-house industry at The Boeing Company, Seattle. There is a constant demand to expand the program to other locations such as local area industries in other cities as well

E. R. Ladd; H. A. Rumsey

1997-01-01

96

Exploring Small-Scale Meat Processing Expansions in Iowa  

E-print Network

Exploring Small-Scale Meat Processing Expansions in Iowa A Technical Report Submitted@iastate.edu #12;2Exploring Small-Scale Meat Processing Expansions in Iowa April 2011 Overview of Findings Iowa is a national leader in both meat animal production and processing. Combined animal production and processing

Debinski, Diane M.

97

Advanced Industrial Materials Program. Annual progress report, FY 1993  

SciTech Connect

Mission of the AIM program is to commercialize new/improved materials and materials processing methods that will improve energy efficiency, productivity, and competitiveness. Program investigators in the DOE national laboratories are working with about 100 companies, including 15 partners in CRDAs. Work is being done on intermetallic alloys, ceramic composites, metal composites, polymers, engineered porous materials, and surface modification. The program supports other efforts in the Office of Industrial Technologies to assist the energy-consuming process industries. The aim of the AIM program is to bring materials from basic research to industrial application to strengthen the competitive position of US industry and save energy.

Stooksbury, F. [comp.

1994-06-01

98

Program Director for the Industry University Cooperative Research Center (I/UCRC) Program, ENG/EEC (Open Until Filled)  

NSF Publications Database

... Education and Centers (EEC), Industry University Cooperative Research Center (I/UCRC) Program ... a Program Director position for the Industry University Cooperative Research Center (I/UCRC) Program ...

99

Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results  

SciTech Connect

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the relevant physical properties projected for actual WTP process streams.

Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

2013-08-01

100

Using DOE Industrial Energy Audit Data for Utility Program Design  

E-print Network

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center Program has offered no-cost energy conservation audits to industrial plants since 1976. The EADC program has maintained a database of detailed plant and audit information...

Glaser, C. J.; Packard, C. P.; Parfomak, P.

101

Big Ideas at a Very Small Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to share a learning-cycle sequence of lessons designed to convey the particulate nature of matter through use of physical models and analogical thinking. This activity was adapted from Conceptual Chemistry, a long-running professional development program for teachers of grades 4-9. Conceptual Chemistry's approach is…

Khourey-Bowers, Claudia

2009-01-01

102

Small-Scale Magnetics Structures in the Sun's Corona Observed by HI-C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some small-scale magnetic structures are indirectly observed via flows in the Sun's Corona. The scales involved require high resolution imaging techniques in order to observe the fine flow structure. Using the observations from NASA's High-resolution Coronal Imager (HI-C) sounding rocket experiment (the highest resolution extreme-ultraviolet imager to date), we are now able to analyze these flows to asses their association with the small-scale coronal magnetic field in an active region. HI-C was launched by NASA on 2012 July 11 to observe fine coronal features at a pixel size of nearly 0.1 arcsec/pixel and has proven to be one of NASA's most successful sounding rocket programs thus far. We used observations from HI-C's central 100x100 arcsec field of view to track small-scale plasma flows.

Douglas, J.; Winebarger, A. R.

2013-12-01

103

A proposed university/industry/government cooperative aero educational program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program is proposed to provide mutual aid between the beleaguered Aero Engineering degree-granting departments in the United States and United States industry/government. It is proposed that any accrued cost differentials be supported by the latter groups, although all programs proposed will provide true mutual assistance. The program suggested is designed to provide assured industrial experience for Aero faculty members, combat engineering obsolescence for industry engineers, provide assured summer work for Aero undergraduates, encourage industry/government input in curriculum and course planning, and funnel significant laboratory devices into the university system.

Brodsky, R. F.

1975-01-01

104

A Small-College Undergraduate Program in Industrial Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a program designed to prepare students to work upon graduation in the industrial chemical field as chief chemists in production plants; in analytical laboratories; or in sales, management, or public relations within chemical firms. Also describes industry-college relationship established to achieve program objectives. (JN)

Jasinski, Jerry P.

1984-01-01

105

Big Ideas at a Very Small Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this article is to share a learning-cycle sequence of lessons designed to convey the particulate nature of matter through use of physical models and analogical thinking. This activity was adapted from Conceptual Chemistry, a long-running professional development program for teachers of grades 4–9. Conceptual Chemistry’s approach is to emphasize broad conceptual understanding, students’ ideas about science, and content-focused literacy skills. As a result of engaging in this series of lessons, students will observe macroscopic properties of matter and begin to develop scientific models to explain the particulate nature of matter.

Claudia Khourey-Bowers

2009-12-01

106

The “We Card” Program: Tobacco Industry “Youth Smoking Prevention” as Industry Self-Preservation  

PubMed Central

The “We Card” program is the most ubiquitous tobacco industry “youth smoking prevention” program in the United States, and its retailer materials have been copied in other countries. The program's effectiveness has been questioned, but no previous studies have examined its development, goals, and uses from the tobacco industry's perspective. On the basis of our analysis of tobacco industry documents released under the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, we concluded that the We Card program was undertaken for 2 primary purposes: to improve the tobacco industry's image and to reduce regulation and the enforcement of existing laws. Policymakers should be cautious about accepting industry self-regulation at face value, both because it redounds to the industry's benefit and because it is ineffective. PMID:20466965

Malone, Ruth E.

2010-01-01

107

The Industry Coupled Case Study Program final report  

SciTech Connect

The Industry Coupled Case Study Program was conceived as a short-term cooperative program between the Federal government and private industry. Federal funds were committed to stimulate geothermal exploration and development between 1977 and 1979, although some work under the program continues into 1982. Federal funding has been phased out and the remaining information developed during the program is being disseminated and reported. This report presents an overview of the program and documents the technical results and open-file data base resulting from the program.

Stringfellow, J. [ed.

1982-10-01

108

The French National Energy Conservation Program - The Case of Industry  

E-print Network

THE FRENCH NATIrnAL ENERGY CONSERVATIrn PROGRAM THE CASE OF INDUSTRY JACQUES ZYSS HEAD OF THE INDUSTRY AND AGRICULTURE DIVISION ENERGY CONSERVATION AGENCY DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRY-FRANCE PARIS, FRANCE France is certainly one... that was characterized by an accelerated renovation of the means of production accompanied by a steady decline in the cost of energy, after allowance for inflation. In the 1960's, french industry went through considerable structural changes and opened itself widely...

Zyss, J.

1980-01-01

109

Investigation of the Feasibility of a Small Scale Transmutation Device.  

E-print Network

??This dissertation presents the design and feasibility of a small-scale, fusion-based transmutation device incorporating a commercially available neutron generator. It also presents the design features… (more)

Sit, Roger Carson

2009-01-01

110

Articulation Work in Small-Scale Offshore Software Development Projects  

E-print Network

Articulation Work in Small-Scale Offshore Software Development Projects Alexander Boden Institute. Such practices can be described as a combination of formal coordination and informal articulation work competencies when neglecting articulation work and hint at mismatches between scientific recommendations

111

Impact of small scale inhomogeneities on observations of standard candles  

E-print Network

We investigate the effect of small scale inhomogeneities on standard candle observations, such as type Ia supernovae (SNe) observations. Existence of the small scale inhomogeneities may cause a tension between SNe observations and other observations with larger diameter sources, such as the cosmic microwave background (CMB) observation. To clarify the impact of the small scale inhomogeneities, we use the Dyer-Roeder approach. We determined the smoothness parameter $\\alpha(z)$ as a function of the redshift $z$ so as to compensate the deviation of cosmological parameters for SNe from those for CMB. The range of the deviation which can be compensated by the smoothness parameter $\\alpha(z)$ satisfying $0\\leq\\alpha(z)\\leq1$ is reported. Our result suggests that the tension may give us the information of the small scale inhomogeneities through the smoothness parameter.

Iwata, Kengo

2014-01-01

112

Impact of small scale inhomogeneities on observations of standard candles  

E-print Network

We investigate the effect of small scale inhomogeneities on standard candle observations, such as type Ia supernovae (SNe) observations. Existence of the small scale inhomogeneities may cause a tension between SNe observations and other observations with larger diameter sources, such as the cosmic microwave background (CMB) observation. To clarify the impact of the small scale inhomogeneities, we use the Dyer-Roeder approach. We determined the smoothness parameter $\\alpha(z)$ as a function of the redshift $z$ so as to compensate the deviation of cosmological parameters for SNe from those for CMB. The range of the deviation which can be compensated by the smoothness parameter $\\alpha(z)$ satisfying $0\\leq\\alpha(z)\\leq1$ is reported. Our result suggests that the tension may give us the information of the small scale inhomogeneities through the smoothness parameter.

Kengo Iwata; Chul-Moon Yoo

2014-09-11

113

A Small-Scale Low-Cost Gas Chromatograph  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The design and application of a small-scale portable gas chromatograph for learning of the basic concepts of chromatography is described. The apparatus consists of two basic separable units, which includes a chromatographic unit and an electronic unit.

Gros, Natasa; Vrtacnik, Margareta

2005-01-01

114

The Physical Character of Small-Scale Interstellar Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of this program was to obtain FUSE observations of the multiple interstellar absorption lines of H2 toward the members of 3 resolvable binary/multiple star systems to explore the physical conditions in known interstellar small-scale structures. Each of the selected systems was meant to address a different aspect of the models for the origin of these structures: 1) The stars HD 32039/40 were meant to probe a temporally varying component which probed a cloud with an inferred size of tens to a few hundreds of AU. The goal was to see if there was any significant H2 associated with this component; 2) The star HD 36408B and its companion HD 36408A (observed as part of FUSE GTO program P119) show significant spatial and temporal (proper motion induced) Na I column variations in a strong, relatively isolated component, as well as a relatively simple component structure. The key goal here was to identify any differences in H2 or C I excitation between the sightlines, and to measure the physical conditions (primarily density and temperature) in the temporally varying component; 3) The stars HD 206267C and HD 206267D are highly reddened sightlines which showed significant variations in K I and molecular absorption lines in multiple velocity components. Coupled with FUSE GTO observations of HD 206267A (program P116), the goal was to study the variations in H2 along sightlines which are significantly more distant, with larger separations, and with greater extinctions than the other selected binary systems.

Lauroesch, James T.

2005-01-01

115

Small-Scale Cannabis Growers in Denmark and Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To compare domestic cannabis cultivation in Denmark and Finland to describe national characteristics in small-scale cannabis growing. Design: A Web survey conducted among small-scale cannabis growers in Denmark (June to November 2008) and Finland (May to June 2009). Participants: Current cannabis growers (Denmark, 401; Finland, 1,054). Measurements: Comparisons in regard to social background, growing history, practices, purposes and motives

Pekka Hakkarainen; Vibeke Asmussen Frank; Jussi Perälä; Helle Vibeke Dahl

2011-01-01

116

Small-scale processing of biomass for biorefinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current fossil-based economy is moving towards a more bio-based economy. To enable this transition, many different processes for biorefinery are being developed. Small-scale biorefinery processes can be beneficial, not only socially and ecologically, but also economically. The main motivation for small-scale biorefinery is local re-use of materials, like water, minerals, organic matter, CO2, and heat. This minimizes costs for

M. E. Bruins; J. P. M. Sanders

2012-01-01

117

Natural Gas Liquefaction Process for Small-scale LNG Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of natural gas liquefaction, the small-scale natural gas liquefier has been attracting more and more attentions home and abroad, thanks to its small volume, mobile transportation, easy start-up and shut-down, as well as skid-mounted package. A study was made to choose the optimum liquefaction process to improve the economy of small-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant. The

Cao Wensheng

2012-01-01

118

The Texas Industrial Energy Conservation Program  

E-print Network

Industry is Texas' largest consumer of energy (46+% of total). With foresight of the escalating cost of energy, it was apparent these additional costs to industry would have two adverse effects. First, the cost of their product to the consumer would...

Waldrop, T.

1982-01-01

119

DOE/Industry Matching Grant Program  

SciTech Connect

For the academic year 2001-2002, the Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences received $50,000 of industrial contributions, matched by a DOE grant of $35,000. We used the combined DOE/Industry Matching Grant of $85,000 toward (a) undergraduate merit scholarships and research support, (b) graduate student support, and (c) partial support of a research scientist.

John C. Lee

2003-09-30

120

Industrial Maintenance. Program CIP: 47.0303 - Industrial Maintenance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

Research and Curriculum Unit, 2009

2009-01-01

121

Pre-Industrial Preparation Program Handbook. Vocational-Technical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed in a workshop by principals, counselors, and teachers, this handbook is designed to serve as a guide for program implementation and to present an orientation to the pre-industrial preparation program. The primary goal of the program is to help academically deprived students improve their basic verbal, scientific, and mathematical skills…

Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

122

Con Edison Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Program  

E-print Network

1 Con Edison Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Program Discussion Overview ? Benefits, Eligibility & Team Members ? Program Components ? Project Incentives & Energy Studies ? Additional Program Attributes, Tools & Resources... ? Process Overview ? FAQ ? Q&A 2 Benefits For the Con Edison Customer ? Reduced Replacement Costs ? Identify EE Opportunities ? Reduced Operating Costs ? Infrastructure/Value Enhancements ? Carbon Footprint Reduction ? Codes/LEED/Energy Star...

Pospisil, D.

2011-01-01

123

A Comparative Study to Determine the Efficacy of Two Industrial Arts Program Approaches Upon Pupils' Attitudes Toward Manufacturing Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experimental study was designed to determine the differences in attitudes toward the manufacturing industry among pupils enrolled in (1) a conventional industrial arts program, (2) an innovative industrial arts program, and (3) a parochial school having no industrial arts program. A self-constructed attitude scale was administered to 128…

Fazzini, Phillip Albert

124

Overview of the US industrial thermal energy storage program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal energy storage can contribute to industrial conservation efforts directed at saving premium (gas and oil) fuels, which is a priority national need. This can be done by using storage to allow the recycling of industrial reject heat to reduce primary energy consumption or to allow alternate fuels to replace gas and oil. Industrial thermal energy storage efforts include three major areas: in-plant reuse of industrial reject heat; external reuse of industrial reject heat for applications in the industrial or buildings sector; and use of alternate fuels to replace gas and oil. The program currently includes engineering field tests in the brick and aluminum industries. In addition, technology transfer activities are underway in the pulp and paper industry.

Olszewski, M.

1981-02-01

125

Industrial Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains vocational education program courses standards (curriculum frameworks and student performance standards) for exploratory courses, practical arts courses, and job preparatory programs offered at the secondary or postsecondary level in Florida. Each program courses standard is composed of two parts: a curriculum framework and…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

126

Industrial cogeneration optimization program. Final report, September 1979  

SciTech Connect

This study program is part of the DOE Integrated Industry Cogeneration Program to optimize, evaluate, and demonstrate cogeneration systems, with direct participation of the industries most affected. One objective is to characterize five major energy-intensive industries with respect to their energy-use profiles. The industries are: petroleum refining and related industries, textile mill products, paper and allied products, chemicals and allied products, and food and kindred products. Another objective is to select optimum cogeneration systems for site-specific reference case plants in terms of maximum energy savings subject to given return on investment hurdle rates. Analyses were made that define the range of optimal cogeneration systems for each reference-case plant considering technology applicability, economic factors, and energy savings by type of fuel. This study also provides guidance to other parts of the program through information developed with regard to component development requirements, institutional and regulatory barriers, as well as fuel use and environmental considerations. (MCW)

Not Available

1980-01-01

127

Program on purification of industrial waste water. Country paper: Ethiopia  

SciTech Connect

The paper as a preliminary country paper for the UNIDO's programe on Industrial waste water purification, which embraces eight countries from Africa, is prepared in such a way that it could serve as source materi al for the programs implementation in the country. The program's main objective being developing the most appropriate and effective means to deal with long term problems associated with generation and treatment of industrial waste water influence, every effort is made to present what ever relevant informations pertaining to the program's objective and goal. To this end, the first chapter delivers general background information about the countries natural resource and the prevailing industrial feature, while the second chapter deliberates on the results of the investigation and evaluation of the selected subsectors and factories from the industrial sector. Finally, an overview of other side factors which could possibly have effects on the project's activity is presented in the third chapter.

Mebratu, D.

1990-09-10

128

32 CFR 2004.20 - National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (NISPOM) [201(a)].  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false National Industrial Security Program Operating...ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL SECURITY PROGRAM DIRECTIVE...Operations § 2004.20 National Industrial Security Program Operating...phases of the contracting process. (b) As a...

2011-07-01

129

32 CFR 2004.20 - National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (NISPOM) [201(a)].  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false National Industrial Security Program Operating...ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL SECURITY PROGRAM DIRECTIVE...Operations § 2004.20 National Industrial Security Program Operating...phases of the contracting process. (b) As a...

2010-07-01

130

Report on Community College Industrial Production Technology Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides an in-depth analysis of the Industrial Production Technology Programs in Illinois, which, according to Illinois Community College Board policy, must be reviewed at least once every five years. The disciplines included in this report are: industrial manufacturing technology, corrosion technology, plastics technology, and…

Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

131

Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP) and NASA Advisories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP) and NASA Advisories policy to practice. The contents include: 1) Purpose of the Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP); 2) NASA and GSFC Documentation; 3) NASA Advisories, differences from GIDEP; 4) GIDEP Distribution by Originator; 5) New Interim GIDEP Policy for Suspect Counterfeits; 6) NASA and Suspect Counterfeits; 7) Threats to GIDEP; and 8) Conclusions and Contact Information.

Sampson, Michael J.

2010-01-01

132

Cartographic research in EREP program for small scale mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab photography is suitable for producing planimetric maps with graphical representation of landform at scales up to 1:100,000. It cannot supply all the detail necessary for maps at this scale, but it may be used to produce a sound framework which can be completed by detail from other sources. Its principal cartographic use is for original mapping of undeveloped areas of the world, but it would also be useful for the revision of existing maps and for monitoring extensive urban changes.

Mott, P. G.; Fullard, H.; Bartholomew, J. C.; Leatherdale, J. D.; Chismon, H. J.; Hall, H. M. (principal investigators)

1975-01-01

133

On the diagnostics of solar small scale magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The model of small scale magnetic fields was proposed. The fields are described by two distribution functions: for unsigned magnetic field and for field vectors directions. The distribution functions were used to derive expressions for elements of the line absorption matrix and to deduce function that characterizes mutual cancellation of magnetic fields. We received the solutions for polarized radiative transfer problem within 3D MHD model of the solar photosphere and determined Stokes profiles parameters for two magnetosensitive lines Fe I ? 525.0 nm and ? 524.7 nm. The Stokes profiles parameters of the lines were used for further test diagnostics of small scale magnetic fields. A regression approach to diagnostics of the magnetic fields was proposed. The correlation between theoretical and reproduced parameters of small scale magnetic fields is greater than 0.95.

Stodilka, M. I.

2015-02-01

134

Industrial Energy Efficiency Programs: Development and Trends  

E-print Network

Industry Report. http://www.cee1.org/ee- pe/2008/us_combo.php. Accessed May 1, 2009. Boston, Mass.: Consortium for Energy Efficiency. 2. Deutsch, Claudia. 2007. ?Companies Giving Green an Office.? The New York Times. July 3, 2007. ESL-IE-10...

Chittum, A.; Kaufman, N.; Elliot, N.

2010-01-01

135

Future Directions for Mechanical, Manufacturing, and Industrial Engineering Technology Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Future Directions for Mechanical, Manufacturing, and Industrial Engineering Technology Programs presents viewpoints on the fields of Mechanical Engineering Technology (MET), Manufacturing Engineering Technology (MfgET), and Industrial Engineering Technology (IET). The authors are highly knowledgeable in their own right. In addition, each sought input from colleagues to gain a broad perspective. Each part begins with an overview of innovations in the field, covering both technical and educational issues. Then the future directions for the educational programs are explored, considering industry needs, curriculum design, laboratory experiences, pedagogy, accreditation, and interfaces with other fields.

Mott, Robert L.

136

MINLP optimisation model for increased power production in small-scale CHP plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we present a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model for increasing the power production in small-scale (1–20MWe) CHP plants based on a steam Rankine process and using biomass fuels. Changes that could increase the power production in these plants are, for instance, a steam reheater, a feed water preheater, a two-stage district heat exchanger, and a fuel

Tuula Savola; Carl-Johan Fogelholm

2007-01-01

137

A continuing program for technology transfer to the apparel industry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A six month program has been carried out to investigate various mechanisms for transferring technology to industry. This program has focused on transfer to the apparel industry through the Apparel Research Foundation. The procedure was to analyze the problem, obtain potentially relevant aerospace technology, and then transfer this technology to the industry organization. This was done in a specific case. Technology was identified relevant to stitchless joining, and this technology was transferred to the Apparel Research Foundation. The feasibility and ground rules for carrying out such activities on a broader scale were established. A specific objective was to transfer new technology from the industry organization to the industry itself. This required the establishment of an application engineering program. Another transfer mechanism tested was publication of solutions to industry problems in a format familiar to the industry. This is to be distinguished from circulating descriptions of new technology. Focus is on the industry problem and the manager is given a formula for solving it that he can follow. It was concluded that this mechanism can complement the problem statement approach to technology transfer. It is useful in achieving transfer when a large amount of application engineering is not necessary. A wide audience is immediately exposed to the technology. On the other hand, the major manufacturing problems which require a sophisticated technical solution integrating many innovations are less likely to be helped.

Clingman, W. H.

1971-01-01

138

Special Issues for Program Design and Evaluation for Industrial Energy Programs  

E-print Network

Designing energy efficiency programs that include serving industrial customers, and evaluating them, carries with it a set of challenges. A summary view from prior efficiency program evaluations will be presented that examines these challenges, how...

Megdal, L.

2007-01-01

139

Material Management Program Can Attract Local Industry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the material management certificate and the associate in applied science degree programs at William Rainey Harper College, Palatine, Illinois. Material management functions include purchasing, production control, inventory control, material handling, warehousing, packaging, computer applications, and transportation. (MF)

Magad, Eugene L.

1978-01-01

140

Ph.D. Program Handbook Industrial & Systems Engineering Department  

E-print Network

Ph.D. Program Handbook Industrial & Systems Engineering Department Wayne State University 4815-8833 http://www.ise.wayne.edu Last Revision: December 17, 2010 Table of Contents Ph.D. Admissions.................................................................................................... 2 General Instructions for Applying to the Ph.D. Program

Berdichevsky, Victor

141

WORK INSTRUCTION PROGRAMS FOR THE FOOD SERVICE INDUSTRY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A PROJECT WAS INITIATED TO DEVELOP EFFICIENT WORK METHODS FOR 100 COMMON TASKS IN THE FOOD SERVICE INDUSTRY AND THEN TO PREPARE PROGRAMED LEARNING "PACKAGES" FOR EACH OF THESE TASKS FOR TRAINING POTENTIAL EMPLOYEES AND EMPLOYEES WITH LOWER LEVELS OF EDUCATION TO HOLD USEFUL JOBS. THE CONCEPT OF PROGRAMED LEARNING PACKAGES FOR FOOD SERVICING WAS…

KONZ, STEPHAN A.; MIDDLETON, RAYMONA

142

Community applications of small-scale solar thermal energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid technological development of small scale solar thermal energy systems (STES) may bring them on line before communities are adequately prepared for them. Information for analyzing and siting STES is presented along with discussions of community applications, regulations, impacts and incentives. By providing this information to community planners, it is hoped that barriers to STES utilization can be anticipated and mitigated.

Baldwin, J. H.; Steinberg, C.; Stea, D.

1981-02-01

143

Small-Scale Cyber Security Competitions Mike O'Leary  

E-print Network

Small-Scale Cyber Security Competitions Mike O'Leary Towson University 16th Colloquium-Scale Cyber Security Competitions CISSE 2012 1 / 25 #12;Regional & National Competitions National Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition (NCCDC) Regional Collegiate Cyber Defense Competitions UCSB Capture the Flag

O'Leary, Michael

144

2010 Thin Film & Small Scale Mechanical Behavior Gordon Research Conference  

SciTech Connect

Over the past decades, it has been well established that the mechanical behavior of materials changes when they are confined geometrically at least in one dimension to small scale. It is the aim of the 2010 Gordon Conference on 'Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior' to discuss cutting-edge research on elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation as well as degradation mechanisms like fracture, fatigue and wear at small scales. As in the past, the conference will benefit from contributions from fundamental studies of physical mechanisms linked to material science and engineering reaching towards application in modern applications ranging from optical and microelectronic devices and nano- or micro-electrical mechanical systems to devices for energy production and storage. The conference will feature entirely new testing methodologies and in situ measurements as well as recent progress in atomistic and micromechanical modeling. Particularly, emerging topics in the area of energy conversion and storage, such as material for batteries will be highlighted. The study of small-scale mechanical phenomena in systems related to energy production, conversion or storage offer an enticing opportunity to materials scientists, who can provide new insight and investigate these phenomena with methods that have not previously been exploited.

Dr. Thomas Balk

2010-07-30

145

DESIGN OF A SMALL ? SCALE SOLAR CHIMNEY FOR SUSTAINABLE POWER  

EPA Science Inventory

After several months of design and testing it has been determined that a small scale solar chimney can be built using nearly any local materials and simple hand tools without needing superior construction knowledge. The biggest obstacle to over come was the weather conditions....

146

A small-scale research platform for intelligent transportation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose and develop a small-scale research platform for intelligent transportation systems. Our platform has four main parts: an arena; an indoor localization system; automated radio controlled (RC) cars; and roadside monitoring facilities. First, to mimic the traffic environments we build an arena with a wooden floor, mock buildings and streets. Second, for the indoor localization system,

Hung Manh La; Ronny Salim Lim; Jianhao Du; Weihua Sheng; Gang Li; Sijian Zhang; Heping Chen

2011-01-01

147

Large and small scale sensitivity analysis of optimum estimation algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the derivation and evaluation of algorithms for error analysis, large and small scale sensitivity of optimum filtering and fixed interval smoothing solutions to linear estimation problems. Model errors as well as ignorance of plant and measurement noise covariance matrices are considered. Results are presented for a simple scalar problem and for the problem of state estimation in

R. Griffin; A. Sage

1968-01-01

148

A Small Scale Experimental Study: Using Animations to Learn Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempts to investigate whether a difference exists between learning vocabulary via animation and via traditional paper-based method. This small scale study was conducted at Karadeniz Technical University in academic year 2009-2010. Two pre-intermediate classes were randomly selected as the experimental group (n = 17), and control group…

Kayaoglu, M. Naci; Dag Akbas, Raside; Ozturk, Zeynep

2011-01-01

149

Investigation in control of small-scale biomass boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses certain specific problems of small-scale biomass combustion control and their investigation. It describes development of an experimental stand based on market available boiler for wooden pellets that has been equipped with special control unit based on a PAC. In the paper is shown elimination of CO peaks appearing after periodical grate sweeping and main effort is focused

Viktor Placek; Bohumil Sulc; Stanislav Vrana; Jan Hrdlicka; Jan Pitela

2011-01-01

150

DISPOSAL OF SMALL-SCALE FISH PROCESSING WASTE THROUGH COMPOSTING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Large catfish processors in the U.S. typically recycle fish waste into fish meal. For small-scale processors or aquaculture research facilities, fish waste disposal can be problematic. We adapted a design developed for composting wastes from Minnesota fishing lodges and tested it for suitability fo...

151

Analysis of Small-Scale Hydraulic Actuation Jicheng Xia  

E-print Network

of force and power while at the same time being relatively light weight compared to the equivalent to an equivalent electromechanical system comprised of off-the-shelf components. Calculation results revealed that high operating pressures are needed for small-scale hydraulics to be lighter than the equivalent

Durfee, William K.

152

Analysis of Small-Scale Hydraulic Systems Jicheng Xia  

E-print Network

system power density was analyzed with simple physics models and com- pared to an equivalent pressures are needed for small-scale hy- draulic power systems to be lighter than the equivalent elec to attain these levels of force and power while at the same time being rel- atively light weight compared

Durfee, William K.

153

Spatial Nonlocality of the Small-scale Solar Dynamo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the nature of the small-scale solar dynamo by tracking magnetic features. We investigate two previously explored categories of the small-scale solar dynamo: shallow and deep. Recent modeling work on the shallow dynamo has produced a number of scenarios for how a strong network concentration can influence the formation and polarity of nearby small-scale magnetic features. These scenarios have measurable signatures, for which we test using magnetograms from the Narrowband Filter Imager (NFI) on board Hinode. We find no statistical tendency for newly formed magnetic features to cluster around or away from network concentrations, nor do we find any statistical relationship between their polarities. We conclude that there is no shallow or "surface" dynamo on the spatial scales observable by Hinode/NFI. In light of these results, we offer a scenario in which the subsurface field in a deep solar dynamo is stretched and distorted via turbulence, allowing the small-scale field to emerge at random locations on the photosphere.

Lamb, D. A.; Howard, T. A.; DeForest, C. E.

2014-06-01

154

Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Forestry Projects. Guidelines for Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual, the third in a series of publications that address community development possibilities in developing nations, provides guidelines for small-scale forestry projects that are integrative and conservation-oriented. Chapters focus on: (1) users and uses (specifying targeted audience and general objectives); (2) planning process (including…

Ffolliott, Peter F.; Thames, John L.

155

Behavioral reliability program for the nuclear industry. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The subject of the study was the development of standards for a behavioral observation program which could be used by the NRC licensed nuclear industry to detect indications of emotional instability in its employees who have access to protected and vital areas. Emphasis was placed on those observable characteristics which could be assessed by supervisors or peers in a work environment. The behavioral reliability program, as was defined in this report, encompasses the concept and basic components of the program, the definition of the behavioral reliability program, the definition of the behavioral reliability criterion, and a set of instructions for the creation and implementation of the program by an individual facility.

Buchanan, J.C.; Davis, S.O.; Dunnette, M.D.; Meyer, P.; Sharac, J.

1981-07-01

156

DOE EM industry programs robotics development  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD&D, as well as testing and evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. OST has organized technology management activities along focus teams for each major problem area. There are currently five focus areas: decontamination and decommissioning, tanks, subsurface contaminants, mixed waste, and plutonium. In addition, OST is pursuing research and development (R&D) that cuts across these focus areas by having applications in two or more focus areas. Currently, there are three cross-cutting programs: the robotics technology development; characterization, monitoring, and sensor technologies; and efficient separations and processing.

Staubly, R.; Kothari, V. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

1997-12-01

157

A study of large scale gust generation in a small scale atmospheric wind tunnel with applications to Micro Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern technology operating in the atmospheric boundary layer can always benefit from more accurate wind tunnel testing. While scaled atmospheric boundary layer tunnels have been well developed, tunnels replicating portions of the atmospheric boundary layer turbulence at full scale are a comparatively new concept. Testing at full-scale Reynolds numbers with full-scale turbulence in an "atmospheric wind tunnel" is sought. Many programs could utilize such a tool including Micro Aerial Vehicle(MAV) development, the wind energy industry, fuel efficient vehicle design, and the study of bird and insect flight, to name just a few. The small scale of MAVs provide the somewhat unique capability of full scale Reynolds number testing in a wind tunnel. However, that same small scale creates interactions under real world flight conditions, atmospheric gusts for example, that lead to a need for testing under more complex flows than the standard uniform flow found in most wind tunnels. It is for these reasons that MAVs are used as the initial testing application for the atmospheric gust tunnel. An analytical model for both discrete gusts and a continuous spectrum of gusts is examined. Then, methods for generating gusts in agreement with that model are investigated. Previously used methods are reviewed and a gust generation apparatus is designed. Expected turbulence and gust characteristics of this apparatus are compared with atmospheric data. The construction of an active "gust generator" for a new atmospheric tunnel is reviewed and the turbulence it generates is measured utilizing single and cross hot wires. Results from this grid are compared to atmospheric turbulence and it is shown that various gust strengths can be produced corresponding to weather ranging from calm to quite gusty. An initial test is performed in the atmospheric wind tunnel whereby the effects of various turbulence conditions on transition and separation on the upper surface of a MAV wing is investigated using the surface oil flow visualization technique.

Roadman, Jason Markos

158

Accounting aspects of the Border Industrialization Program of Mexico  

E-print Network

anies COMPARISON TO G~ ACCOUNTING PRACTICES VI. CONCLUSIONS An Ideal BIP Com an Pros ects for BIP Conclusions BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX A-1: LETTER ACCOMPANYING QUESTIONNAIRE 23 51 56 56 61 63 65 68 APPENDIX A-2: BORDER INDUSTRIALIZATION..., registration and periods granted are cancelled without other punishment. & U. S. Tariff Re lations Pertainin to the BIP The United States government has made no official statement con- cerning the Border Industrialization Program. However, there are two...

Gordon, Carol Ann Conklin

2012-06-07

159

78 FR 54197 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment,'' a program covering certain commercial and industrial equipment (hereafter referred...many types of commercial and industrial equipment, including packaged...ASHRAE)/Illuminating Engineering Society (IES)...

2013-09-03

160

Defense programs industrial partnerships at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy`s Defense Programs face unprecedented challenges of stewardship for an aging nuclear stockpile, cessation of nuclear testing, reduced federal budgets, and a smaller manufacturing complex. Partnerships with industry are essential in developing technology, modernizing the manufacturing complex, and maintaining the safety and reliability of the nation`s nuclear capability. The past decade of federal support for industrial partnerships has promoted benefits to US industrial competitiveness. Recent shifts in government policy have re-emphasized the importance of industrial partnerships in accomplishing agency missions. Nevertheless, abundant opportunities exist for dual-benefit, mission-driven partnerships between the national laboratories and industry. Experience at Los Alamos National Laboratory with this transition is presented.

Freese, K.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Industrial Partnership Office

1996-10-01

161

Tobacco industry sociological programs to influence public beliefs about smoking  

PubMed Central

The multinational tobacco companies responded to arguments about the social costs of smoking and hazards of secondhand smoke by quietly implementing the Social Costs/Social Values project (1979–1989), which relied upon the knowledge and authoritative power of social scientists to construct an alternate cultural repertoire of smoking. Social scientists created and disseminated non-health based, pro-tobacco arguments without fully acknowledging their relationship with the industry. After the U.S. Surgeon General concluded that nicotine was addictive in 1988, the industry responded by forming “Associates for Research in the Science of Enjoyment” (c.1988–1999), whose members toured the world promoting the health benefits of the use of legal substances, including tobacco, for stress relief and relaxation, without acknowledging the industry’s role. In this paper we draw on previously secret tobacco industry documents, now available on the internet to show how both of these programs utilized academic sociologists, political scientists, anthropologists, psychologists, philosophers and economists, and allowed the industry to develop and widely disseminate friendly research through credible channels. Strategies included creating favorable surveys and opinions, infusing them into the lay press and media through press releases, articles and conferences, publishing, promoting and disseminating books, commissioning and placing favorable book reviews, providing media training for book authors and organizing media tours. These programs allowed the tobacco industry to affect public and academic discourse on the social acceptability of smoking. PMID:18164524

Glantz, Stanton; Landman, Anne; Cortese, Daniel K

2008-01-01

162

LLNL Small-Scale Friction sensitivity (BAM) Test  

SciTech Connect

Small-scale safety testing of explosives, propellants and other energetic materials, is done to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli including friction, static spark, and impact. Testing is done to discover potential handling problems for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior, or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing {open_quotes}BAM{close_quotes} Small-Scale Friction Test, and the methods used to determine the friction sensitivity pertinent to handling energetic materials. The accumulated data for the materials tested is not listed here - that information is in a database. Included is, however, a short list of (1) materials that had an unusual response, and (2), a few {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} materials representing the range of typical responses usually seen.

Simpson, L.R.; Foltz, M.F.

1996-06-01

163

Small-scale turbulence in the atmosphere of Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pioneer Venus data on the morphology of the 45 and 65 km altitude scintillation regions were analyzed. A poleward decrease in the 65 km scintillations was detected, together with a peak at 60-70 deg latitude. Poleward increases in refractive index fluctuations and temperature fluctuations from previous observations displayed a peak near 70 deg latitude, with greater turbulence near the pole. The same fluctuations were an order of magnitude lower at 45 km altitude, with turbulence considerably lower than at 60 km. The favorable comparison of the scintillation measurements with the in-situ velocity and temperature measurements validates the radio measurement technique as a probe of small scale turbulence in a planetary atmosphere. Particular success is noted in identification of small scale temperature fluctuations as a result of shear generated turbulence.

Woo, R.; Armstrong, J. W.; Kliore, A. J.

1982-01-01

164

The small-scale clustering properties of dwarf galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two results on the small-scale clustering properties of dwarf galaxies are reported, which were identified in the vicinity of early-type Shapley-Ames galaxies on high-resolution photographic plates. The first result indicates that dwarf galaxies display the same trend of stronger clustering toward earlier morphological type on small scales as their giant counterparts on larger scales. It is suggested that early-type dwarfs can be used as dynamical probes of dark halos around early-type giant galaxies and as tracers of the dynamical evolution of such halos in dense environments. The second result pertains to the trend of increasing early-type dwarf frequency per early-type giant with environment richness previously established for rich groups. It is found that a minimum value of isolated early-type galaxies is approximately 0.25, as compared to a maximum of approximately 8 in rich environments like the Virgo Cluster.

Vader, J. P.; Sandage, Allan

1991-01-01

165

Small Scale Microwave Background Fluctuations from Cosmic Strings  

E-print Network

The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) fluctuations at very small angular scales (less than $10'$) induced by matter sources are computed in a simplified way. The result corrects a previous formula appearing in the literature. The small scale power spectrum from cosmic strings is then calculated by a new analytic method. The result compares extremely well with the spectrum computed by numerical techniques (when the old, incorrect, formula is used). The upper bound on the string parameters derived from OVRO data is re-examined, taking into account the non-Gaussian nature of stringy perturbations on small scales. Assuming a conventional ionization history, the bound is $\\gamma G\\mu < 11\\times 10^{-6}$, where $\\gamma^2$ is the number of horizon lengths of string per horizon volume. Current simulations give $\\gamma^2 = 31\\pm 7$.

Mark Hindmarsh

1993-07-30

166

Observations of Small Scale ISM Structure in Dense Atomic Gas  

E-print Network

We present high resolution (R~170,000) Kitt Peak National Observatory Co'ude Feed telescope observations of the interstellar KI 7698 angstrom line towards 5 multiple star systems with saturated NaI components. We compare the KI absorption line profiles in each of the two (or three) lines of sight in these systems, and find significant differences between the sight-lines in 3 out of the 5 cases. We infer that the small scale structure traced by previous NaI observations is also present in at least some of the components with saturated NaI absorption lines, and thus the small scale structures traced by the neutral species are occurring at some level in clouds of all column densities. We discuss the implications of that conclusion and a potential explanation by density inhomogeneities.

J. T. Lauroesch; David M. Meyer

1999-05-14

167

Streamers generation by small-scale drift-Alfvén waves  

SciTech Connect

Excitation of streamers by modulationally unstable small-scale drift-Alfvén wave (SSDAW) is investigated. It is found that the excitation depends strongly on the propagation direction of the SSDAW, and the ion and electron diamagnetic drift waves are both unstable due to the generation of streamers. It is also shown that zonal flows can be effectively excited by the SSDAW with the propagation direction different from that for streamer excitation.

Zhao, J. S. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yu, M. Y. [Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation and Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China and Institute for Theoretical Physics I, Ruhr University, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

2014-10-15

168

Evolution of Small Scale Magnetic Structures from Sunrise Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of an analysis of small scale magnetic features in the quiet Sun, observed with the Sunrise balloon borne telescope. Our aim is to understand the contribution of different physical processes that drive the evolution of magnetic features in quiet regions of the photosphere. To this end, we study the rearrangement, addition, and removal of magnetic flux through splitting, merging, cancellation, and emergence of magnetic fields.

Anusha, L. S.; Feller, A.; Hirzberger, J.; Solanki, S. K.

2014-10-01

169

On the small-scale structure of solar magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small-scale structure of solar magnetic fields has been studied using simultaneous recordings in the spectral lines Fe i 5250 Ĺ and Fe i 5233 Ĺ, obtained with the Kitt Peak multi-channel magnetograph. We find that more than 90% of the magnetic flux in active regions (excluding the sunspots), observed with a 2.4 by 2.4? aperture, is channelled through narrow

E. N. Frazier; J. O. Stenflo

1972-01-01

170

On the Dynamics of Small-Scale Solar Magnetic Elements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on the dynamics of the small-scale solar magnetic field, based on analysis of very high resolution images of the solar photosphere obtained at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope. The data sets are movies from 1 to 4 hr in length, taken in several wavelength bands with a typical time between frames of 20 s. The primary method of tracking small-scale magnetic elements is with very high contrast images of photospheric bright points, taken through a 12 A bandpass filter centered at 4305 A in the Fraunhofer 'G band.' Previous studies have established that such bright points are unambiguously associated with sites of small-scale magnetic flux in the photosphere, although the details of the mechanism responsible for the brightening of the flux elements remain uncertain. The G band bright points move in the intergranular lanes at speeds from 0.5 to 5 km/s. The motions appear to be constrained to the intergranular lanes and are primarily driven by the evolution of the local granular convection flow field. Continual fragmentation and merging of flux is the fundamental evolutionary mode of small-scale magnetic structures in the solar photosphere. Rotation and folding of chains or groups of bright points are also observed. The timescale for magnetic flux evolution in active region plage is on the order of the correlation time of granulation (typically 6-8 minutes), but significant morphological changes can occur on timescales as short as 100 S. Smaller fragments are occasionally seen to fade beyond observable contrast. The concept of a stable, isolated subarcsecond magnetic 'flux tube' in the solar photosphere is inconsistent with the observations presented here.

Berger, T. E.; Title, A. M.

1996-01-01

171

Small-scale stochastic structure of the solar magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small-scale (?10?) stochastic properties of the solar magnetic field B are analyzed in terms of the two-dimensional model of a fractal Brownian process (the mean square of the difference between\\u000a the field strengths at two points separated by a distance D is proportional to D\\u000a 2H\\u000a ). Digitized solar magnetograms with a 2? resolution are used to determine the

B. A. Ioshpa; V. N. Obridko; V. E. Chertoprud

2007-01-01

172

Interaction of dynamic rupture with small-scale heterogeneities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broadband ground motion simulations, with frequencies up to 10Hz, are important for engineering purposes, in particular for seismic hazard assessment for critical facilities. One problem in such simulations is the generation of high frequency radiation emitted during the dynamic rupture process. Ad-hoc kinematic rupture characterizations can be tweaked through empirical models to radiate over the desired frequency range, but their physical consistency remains questionable. In contrast, for physically self-consistent dynamic rupture modeling, controlled by friction, material parameters and the adopted physical laws, the mechanism that may lead to appropriate high-frequency radiation require heterogeneity in friction, stress, or fault geometry (or even all three quantities) at unknown but small length scales. Dunham at al. (2011) studied dynamic rupture propagation on rough faults in 2D, and described how fault roughness excites high-frequency radiation. In our study, we focus on the interaction of the dynamic rupture with small-scale heterogeneities on planar faults in 3D. We study effects of the interaction of dynamic rupture with 1) small-scale heterogeneities in the medium (that is, randomized 3D wave speed and density variations), and 2) small-scale heterogeneities in the frictional parameters. Our numerical results show significant variations in rupture velocity or peak slip velocity if small-scale heterogeneities are present. This indicates that the dynamic rupture is sensitive to both types of spatial inhomogeneity. At the same time we observe that the resulting near-source seismic wave fields are not very sensitive to these rupture variations, indicating that wavefront healing effects may "simplify" the complex seismic radiation once the waves propagated several wave-lengths away from the fault.

Galis, Martin; Mai, P. Martin

2014-05-01

173

Empirical spatial econometric modelling of small scale neighbourhood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the paper is to model small scale neighbourhood in a house price model by implementing the newest methodology in spatial econometrics. A common problem when modelling house prices is that in practice it is seldom possible to obtain all the desired variables. Especially variables capturing the small scale neighbourhood conditions are hard to find. If there are important explanatory variables missing from the model, the omitted variables are spatially autocorrelated and they are correlated with the explanatory variables included in the model, it can be shown that a spatial Durbin model is motivated. In the empirical application on new house price data from Helsinki in Finland, we find the motivation for a spatial Durbin model, we estimate the model and interpret the estimates for the summary measures of impacts. By the analysis we show that the model structure makes it possible to model and find small scale neighbourhood effects, when we know that they exist, but we are lacking proper variables to measure them.

Gerkman, Linda

2012-07-01

174

Does Small Scale Structure Significantly Affect Cosmological Dynamics?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large-scale homogeneity and isotropy of the Universe is generally thought to imply a well-defined background cosmological model. It may not. Smoothing over structure adds in an extra contribution, transferring power from small scales up to large. Second-order perturbation theory implies that the effect is small, but suggests that formally the perturbation series may not converge. The amplitude of the effect is actually determined by the ratio of the Hubble scales at matter-radiation equality and today—which are entirely unrelated. This implies that a universe with significantly lower temperature today could have significant backreaction from more power on small scales, and so provides the ideal testing ground for understanding backreaction. We investigate this using two different N -body numerical simulations—a 3D Newtonian and a 1D simulation which includes all relevant relativistic effects. We show that while perturbation theory predicts an increasing backreaction as more initial small-scale power is added, in fact the virialization of structure saturates the backreaction effect at the same level independently of the equality scale. This implies that backreaction is a small effect independently of initial conditions. Nevertheless, it may still contribute at the percent level to certain cosmological observables and therefore it cannot be neglected in precision cosmology.

Adamek, Julian; Clarkson, Chris; Durrer, Ruth; Kunz, Martin

2015-02-01

175

DOE EM industry programs robotics development  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD and D, as well as testing and evaluation for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. Robotic systems reduce worker exposure to the absolute minimum, while providing proven, cost-effective, and, for some applications, the only acceptable technique for addressing challenging problems. Development of robotic systems for remote operations occurs in three main categories: tank waste characterization and retrieval; decontamination and dismantlement; and characterization, mapping, and inspection systems. In addition, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has some other projects which fall under the heading of supporting R and D. The central objective of all FETC robotic projects is to make robotic systems more attractive by reducing costs and health risks associated with the deployment of robotic technologies in the cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. This will be accomplished through development of robots that are cheaper, faster, safer, and more reliable, as well as more straightforward to modify/adapt and more intuitive to operate with autonomous capabilities and intelligent controls that prevent accidents and optimize task execution.

Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.

1998-12-31

176

Garnering the Industrial Sector: A Comparison of Cutting Edge Industrial DSM Programs  

E-print Network

operation and minimize disruption to their processes. ? Cost-effectiveness. Customers are lookin~ for options with persistent savings and short payback periods (generally less than two years). ? Capital availability. In addition to needing to plan... and implement programs, pay incentive costs, and hire industry technical experts to assess operations and provide design assistance. These costs need to be balanced against the avoided cost benefits, in order for a program to be cost effective. Utilities...

Kyricopoulos, P. F.; Wikler, G. A.; Faruqui, A.; Wood, B. G.

177

Behavioral reliability program for the nuclear industry. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of the study was the development of standards for a behavioral observation program which could be used by the NRC licensed nuclear industry to detect indications of emotional instability in its employees who have access to protected and vital areas. Emphasis was placed on those observable characteristics which could be assessed by supervisors or peers in a work

J. C. Buchanan; S. O. Davis; M. D. Dunnette; P. Meyer; J. Sharac

1981-01-01

178

DOE's Industrial Assessment Centers (IAC) Program: Results and Benefits  

E-print Network

in the energy efficiency industry. The DOE’s IAC program is an important federal effort which provides a steady stream of top young engineers into energy efficiency careers, helps small/medium sized manufacturers save energy and copes with the enormous recent...

Nimbalker, S.; Martin, M.

179

Program Improvement Project for Industrial Education. Annual Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to improve industrial education programs through the development of minimum uniform quality standards, a project developed a task list, educationally sequenced the identified tasks, and developed a recommended shop layout and equipment list for four occupational areas: diesel repair, appliance repair, office machine repair, and small…

Shaeffer, Bruce W.

180

Industrial Cogeneration Optimization Program: A summary of two studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two industrial cogeneration optimization programs were performed to examine the economic and energy saving impacts of adding cogeneration to site specific plants in the chemical, food, pulp and paper, petroleum refining, and textile industries. Industrial cogeneration is reviewed. The two parallel ICOP studies are described. The five industrial sectors are also described, followed by highlights of each of the site specific case studies. Steam turbine cogeneration systems fired by coal or alternative fuels are generally the most attractive in terms of economic performance and oil/gas savings potential. Of the 15 cogeneration systems selected as optimum in the ICOP studies, 11 were coal or wood fired steam turbines. By contrast, gas turbines, combined cycles, and diesel engines, which are limited to oil or gas firing, are usually less economical.

1981-08-01

181

Risk management programs in the chemical industry from Bhopal onward  

SciTech Connect

Chemical process safety has long been a consideration in industry but the tragedy at Bhopal in late 1984 resulted in significantly increased attention from industry, government, and the public. Whereas Bhopal had a major effect on regulations in the US, two earlier, highly publicized accidents affected regulations in the United Kingdom and Europe. A 1974 cyclohexane explosion at a chemical manufacturing plant in Flixborough, England, caused a number of fatalities, while a 1976 runaway reaction at a chemical works near Sevesco, Italy, contaminated surrounding farmland and water supplies with dioxin. Although the public's interest can be fickle, the residual concern from all these incidents has been sufficient to affect important regulatory and industry initiatives in the US and abroad. The development of the most important of the US initiatives are reviewed here. Common elements in various process safety management programs are noted and the latest regulatory developments reported. Application can be made to the nuclear industry.

Cramer, J.J. (Brown and Root, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)); Greenberg, H.R. (Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., New York, NY (United States))

1992-01-01

182

NASA and CD Radio's TDRSS industrial test program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has embarked on a joint test program with CD Radio Inc. The program will demonstrate spatial diversity techniques in support of industrial development of a new satellite direct broadcast national radio service called Satellite Radio. Satellite Radio will operate in the FCC approved frequency band 2310-2360 MHz which is close to NASA's Tracking and Data Relay System (TDRSS) satellites' high power transmit frequency near 2110 MHz. The cooperative test program in which NASA provides use of a TDRSS satellite and CD Radio provides the measurement equipped vehicle is described as well as its current status. Some initial measurement data are presented.

Briskman, Robert D.; Hollansworth, James E.

1995-01-01

183

Motivational contracting in space programs - Government and industry prospectives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has used incentive-free policies in contracting for Apollo's Saturn Launch vehicle hardware, as well as award-fee contracts for major development and early production programs in the case of the Space Shuttle Program. These programs have evolved to a point at which multiple incentive fees are useful in motivating cost reductions and assuring timely achievement of delivery requirements and flight mission goals. An examination is presently conducted of the relative success of these motivation-oriented techniques, drawing on the comments of both government and industry personnel.

Clough, D. R.

1985-01-01

184

Justified hopes or utopian thinking? The suitability of coffee certification schemes as a business model for small-scale producers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marketing of coffee through group-based, certified market channels is often promoted by governments and donors as a viable business model for poor small-scale farmers. Organic and fairtrade coffees have become very popular among socially, environmentally and health conscious consumers in recent years. While coffee certification programs have been in place for over fifteen years, there are few studies on

Tina Beuchelt; Manfred Zeller; Thomas Oberthur

2009-01-01

185

Industry/University Cooperative Fellowship Supplement to the Industry/University Cooperative Research Center (I/UCRC) Program Solicitation (NSF 01-116)  

NSF Publications Database

... Industry/University Cooperative Research Center Program Industry/University Cooperative Fellowship ... universities and industry. These supplements will provide support for an I/UCRC researcher (faculty ...

186

Handbook for Small-Scale Densified Biomass Fuel (Pellets) Manufacturing for Local Markets.  

SciTech Connect

Wood pellet manufacturing in the Intermountain West is a recently founded and rapidly expanding energy industry for small-scale producers. Within a three-year period, the total number of manufacturers in the region has increased from seven to twelve (Folk et al., 1988). Small-scale industry development is evolving because a supply of raw materials from small and some medium-sized primary and secondary wood processors that has been largely unused. For the residue producer considering pellet fuel manufacturing, the wastewood generated from primary products often carries a cost associated with residue disposal when methods at-e stockpiling, landfilling or incinerating. Regional processors use these methods for a variety of reasons, including the relatively small amounts of residue produced, residue form, mixed residue types, high transportation costs and lack of a local market, convenience and absence of regulation. Direct costs associated with residue disposal include the expenses required to own and operate residue handling equipment, costs for operating and maintaining a combustor and tipping fees charged to accept wood waste at public landfills. Economic and social costs related to environmental concerns may also be incurred to include local air and water quality degradation from open-air combustion and leachate movement into streams and drinking water.

Folk, Richard L.; Govett, Robert L.

1992-07-01

187

Small-scale AFBC-hot air gas turbine power cycle  

SciTech Connect

The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC), the Will-Burt Company (W-B) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have successfully developed and completed pilot plant tests on a small scale atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) system. This system can be used to generate electricity, and/or hot water, steam. Following successful pilot plant operation, commercial demonstration will take place at Cedar Lane Farms (CLF), near Wooster, Ohio. The system demonstration will be completed by the end of 1995. The project is being funded through a cooperative effort between the DOE, EER, W-B, OARDC, CLF and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO). The small scale AFBC, has no internal heat transfer surfaces in the fluid bed proper. Combining the combustor with a hot air gas turbine (HAGT) for electrical power generation, can give a relatively high overall system thermal efficiency. Using a novel method of recovering waste heat from the gas turbine, a gross heat rate of 13,500 Btu/kWhr ({approximately}25% efficiency) can be achieved for a small 1.5 MW, plant. A low technology industrial recuperation type gas turbine is used that operates with an inlet blade temperature of 1450{degrees}F and a compression ratio of 3.9:1. The AFBC-HAGT technology can be used to generate power for remote rural communities to replace diesel generators, or can be used for small industrial co-generation applications.

Ashworth, R.C. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Orrville, OH (United States); Keener, H.M. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Hall, A.W. [Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, WV (United States)

1995-02-01

188

Imaging Medium and Small Scale Ionospheric Electron Density Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade, methods and techniques to image the global, large scale ionospheric electron density have matured to the point where routine 3D images of the global electron density field are now available from a number of research institutions. While a large number of issues remain related to accuracy and limits on spatial and temporal resolution, the overall methodologies and techniques for the assimilation of various data sources and types are fairly well advanced. However, accurate, high resolution imaging of medium scale (~ few kilometers to a few hundred kilometers) and small scale (few meters to kilometers) electron density structures from various sets of observations is an active area of current research, and is the focus of this presentation. Methods and techniques aimed at overcoming challenges in imaging medium scale structures will be discussed. Some of the salient issues include the quantification of relative importance of various data types for a specific structure to be imaged, the impact of the type of basis expansion for representing the structure to be imaged, and the limitations to the accuracy and resolution of the imaged structure. For imaging small scale structures, the focus will be on recent advances in the use of clusters of GPS scintillation receivers and diffraction tomography techniques to retrieve physical information regarding electron density irregularities that cause scintillations. Issues related to required observations for the underlying irregularities will be discussed as well as the applicability of approximations to the electro-magnetic propagation such as a single phase screen and the Rytov approximation. Finally, simulation and experimental results obtained from observations will be presented to illustrate the capabilities and limitations in accuracy and resolution of imaging medium and small scale structures.

Bust, G. S.; Kamalabadi, F.

2012-12-01

189

Analysis of small-scale rotor hover performance data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rotor hover-performance data from a 1/6-scale helicopter rotor are analyzed and the data sets compared for the effects of ambient wind, test stand configuration, differing test facilities, and scaling. The data are also compared to full scale hover data. The data exhibited high scatter, not entirely due to ambient wind conditions. Effects of download on the test stand proved to be the most significant influence on the measured data. Small-scale data correlated resonably well with full scale data; the correlation did not improve with Reynolds number corrections.

Kitaplioglu, Cahit

1990-01-01

190

Development of small scale soft x-ray lasers  

SciTech Connect

At present rapid progress is being made in the application of soft x-ray lasers to fields such as microscopy and microlithography. A critical factor in the range of suitable applications is the scale and hence cost of the soft x-ray lasers. At Princeton, gain at 183{angstrom} has been obtained with relatively low pump laser energies (as low as 6J) in a portable'' small-scale soft x-ray laser system. We will also discuss aspects of data interpretation and pitfalls to be avoided in measurements of gain in such systems. 14 refs., 7 figs.

Kim, D.; Suckewer, S. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab. Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering); Skinner, C.H.; Voorhees, D. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.)

1991-05-01

191

American Chemical Society (ACS) Regional Industrial Innovation Awards Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Chemical Society's (ACS) "Regional Industrial Innovation Awards Program celebrates the successful innovations of industrial chemists and chemical engineers that contribute to the health of their local and regional economy and the corporate leadership for its advancement of a healthy economy." The website illustrates the significance of a nomination and describes the criteria and eligibility for a nominee. Users can find out about the honorees' exciting opportunity to present their innovations at a symposium. Visitors can read synopses of the outstanding developments of past recipients.

192

Industrial pollution prevention programs in selected developing Asian countries  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the information on current activities to promote industrial pollution prevention (P2) in five selected Asian economies including Hong Kong, Republic of Korea, the Philippines, ROC in Taiwan, and Thailand. These activities, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into 6 categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technology development an demonstration, technical assistance, and financial incentives. Although participation is voluntary, these programs are all important at the early stages of P2 promotion and should be useful in informing industries of the benefit of P2 and helping them identify specific P2 measures as viable environmental management alternatives.

Chiu, Shen-yann [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1995-12-31

193

Investigation of the small-scale structure and dynamics of Uranus' atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document constitutes the final technical report of the Uranus Analysis Program. Papers and/or abstracts resulting from this research are presented. The following topics are covered: (1) past and future of radio occultation studies of planetary atmospheres; (2) equatorial waves in the stratosphere of Uranus; (3) the atmosphere of Uranus- results of radio occultation measurements with Voyager 2; (4) Uranus' atmospheric dynamics and circulation; (5) small-scale structure and dynamics in the atmosphere of Uranus; (6) evidence for inertia-gravity waves in the stratosphere of Uranus derived from Voyager 2 radio occultation data; and (7) planetary waves in the equatorial stratosphere of Uranus.

Eshleman, Von R.; Hinson, David P.

1991-01-01

194

MTU MICUP Program and Industrial Technology Recruitment Efforts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation reviews an ongoing community college outreach/recruiting initiative, MICUP delivered at MTU, Houghton Michigan, outlines a BS degree in Industrial Technology program designed for community college transfer students with an AS in approved technical disciplines, and reviews future recruitment and retention initiatives. MICUP is the Michigan College/University Partnership Program, MTU's Unlock Your Future Program, which is funded by the Michigan Department of Labor and Economic Growth, King-Chavez-Parks Initiative. This is a partnership program among MTU, Delta College, Grand Rapids Community College, and Northwestern Michigan College. Candidates who qualify for this program receive a competitive stipend to cover the cost of travel. Participants take a 3-credit MTU summer course at no cost to get a glimpse into what it is like to attend MTU as a full time student before making a huge commitment of time and money. (Cost of textbooks is not included.) Participants live on our campus for six weeks with room and meal plans included. The student participates in an Undergraduate Research Internship in their area of study. MTU's vision is that the Industrial Technology program attractiveness to community college transfer students will add to the overall enrollment and create a more diverse population in the School of Technology while educating a business savvy technical generalist necessary in a competitive global manufacturing market.

Irwin, John

195

Small-scale morphology across the surf zone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Small-scale (< 5 m horizontal length) nearshore morphologic height variations were measured by combining CRAB surveys with bed elevations acquired with a 1 MHz sonic altimeter mounted on the CRAB during the October Phase of the DUCK94 experiment. Bedform plan views were recorded simultaneously using a 500 kHz side-scan sonar mounted on the CRAB. Waves and currents were measured at the same time. Significant temporal and spatial variations in the small-scale morphology were measured in response to changing waves and currents during the 2 weeks examined. Three cases are examined in detail: (1) mild waves and weak longshore currents resulting in wave ripples throughout the study area; (2) storm waves with strong longshore currents resulting in lunate and straight-crested mega-ripples in the trough of the barred beach; and (3) narrow-band, normally incident waves with a strong rip current resulting in a planar bed except in the throat of the rip where mega-ripples were measured. Wavenumber spectra of the bed were generally broad, indicating newly formed ripples coexisted with residual ripples from the past to form complex, multi-scaled ripple patterns.

Thornton, E.B.; Swayne, J.L.; Dingler, J.R.

1998-01-01

196

A small-scale anatomical dosimetry model of the liver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radionuclide therapy is a growing and promising approach for treating and prolonging the lives of patients with cancer. For therapies where high activities are administered, the liver can become a dose-limiting organ; often with a complex, non-uniform activity distribution and resulting non-uniform absorbed-dose distribution. This paper therefore presents a small-scale dosimetry model for various source-target combinations within the human liver microarchitecture. Using Monte Carlo simulations, Medical Internal Radiation Dose formalism-compatible specific absorbed fractions were calculated for monoenergetic electrons; photons; alpha particles; and 125I, 90Y, 211At, 99mTc, 111In, 177Lu, 131I and 18F. S values and the ratio of local absorbed dose to the whole-organ average absorbed dose was calculated, enabling a transformation of dosimetry calculations from macro- to microstructure level. For heterogeneous activity distributions, for example uptake in Kupffer cells of radionuclides emitting low-energy electrons (125I) or high-LET alpha particles (211At) the target absorbed dose for the part of the space of Disse, closest to the source, was more than eight- and five-fold the average absorbed dose to the liver, respectively. With the increasing interest in radionuclide therapy of the liver, the presented model is an applicable tool for small-scale liver dosimetry in order to study detailed dose-effect relationships in the liver.

Stenvall, Anna; Larsson, Erik; Strand, Sven-Erik; Jönsson, Bo-Anders

2014-07-01

197

Small-scale tunnel test for blast performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The data reported here provide a validation of a small-scale tunnel test as a tool to guide the optimization of new explosives for blast performance in tunnels. The small-scale arrangement consisted of a 2-g booster and 10-g sample mounted at the closed end of a 127mm diameter by 4.6-m long steel tube with pressure transducers along its length. The three performance characteristics considered were peak pressure, initial energy release, and impulse. The relative performance from five explosives was compared to that from a 1.16-m diameter by 30-m long tunnel that used 2.27-kg samples. The peak pressure values didn't correlate between the tunnels. Partial impulse for the explosives did rank similarly. The initial energy release was determined from a one-dimensional point-source analysis, which nearly tracked with impulse suggesting additional energy released further down the tunnel for some explosives. This test is a viable tool for optimizing compositional variations for blast performance in target scenarios of similar geometry.

Felts, J. E.; Lee, R. J.

2014-05-01

198

Experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies of small scale combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the demand increased for the development of microdevices such as microsatellites, microaerial vehicles, micro reactors, and micro power generators. To meet those demands the biggest challenge is obtaining stable and complete combustion at relatively small scale. To gain a fundamental understanding of small scale combustion in this thesis, thermal and kinetic coupling between the gas phase and the structure at meso and micro scales were theoretically, experimentally, and numerically studied; new stabilization and instability phenomena were identified; and new theories for the dynamic mechanisms of small scale combustion were developed. The reduction of thermal inertia at small scale significantly reduces the response time of the wall and leads to a strong flame-wall coupling and extension of burning limits. Mesoscale flame propagation and extinction in small quartz tubes were theoretically, experimentally and numerically studied. It was found that wall-flame interaction in mesoscale combustion led to two different flame regimes, a heat-loss dominant fast flame regime and a wall-flame coupling slow flame regime. The nonlinear transition between the two flame regimes was strongly dependent on the channel width and flow velocity. It is concluded that the existence of multiple flame regimes is an inherent phenomenon in mesoscale combustion. In addition, all practical combustors have variable channel width in the direction of flame propagation. Quasi-steady and unsteady propagations of methane and propane-air premixed flames in a mesoscale divergent channel were investigated experimentally and theoretically. The emphasis was the impact of variable cross-section area and the flame-wall coupling on the flame transition between different regimes and the onset of flame instability. For the first time, spinning flames were experimentally observed for both lean and rich methane and propane-air mixtures in a broad range of equivalence ratios. An effective Lewis number to describe the competition between the mass transport in gas phase and the heat conduction in gas and solid phases was defined. Experimental observation and theoretical analysis suggested that the flame-wall coupling significantly increased the effective Lewis number and led to a new mechanism to promote the thermal diffusion instability. Due to the short flow residence time in small scale combustion, reactants, and oxidizers may not be able to be fully premixed before combustion. As such, non-premixed combustion plays an important role. Non-premixed mixing layer combustion within a constrained mesoscale channel was studied. Depending on the flow rate, it was found that there were two different flame regimes, an unsteady bimodal flame regime and a flame street regime with multiple stable triple flamelets. This multiple triple flame structure was identified experimentally for the first time. A scaling analytical model was developed to qualitatively explain the mechanism of flame streets. The effects of flow velocity, wall temperature, and Lewis number on the distance between flamelets and the diffusion flame length were also investigated. The results showed that the occurrence of flame street regimes was a combined effect of heat loss, curvature, diffusion, and dilution. To complete this thesis, experiments were conducted to measure the OH concentration using Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) in a confined mesoscale combustor. Some preliminary results have been obtained for the OH concentration of flamelets in a flame street. When the scale of the micro reactor is further reduced, the rarefied gas effect may become significant. In this thesis, a new concentration slip model to describe the rarefied gas effect on the species transport in microscale chemical reactors was obtained. The present model is general and recovers the existing models in the limiting cases. The analytical results showed the concentration slip was dominated by two different mechanisms, the surface reaction induced concentration slip (RIC) and the temperature slip induced concentrati

Xu, Bo

199

SMALL SCALE FUEL CELL AND REFORMER SYSTEMS FOR REMOTE POWER  

SciTech Connect

New developments in fuel cell technologies offer the promise of clean, reliable affordable power, resulting in reduced environmental impacts and reduced dependence on foreign oil. These developments are of particular interest to the people of Alaska, where many residents live in remote villages, with no roads or electrical grids and a very high cost of energy, where small residential power systems could replace diesel generators. Fuel cells require hydrogen for efficient electrical production, however. Hydrogen purchased through conventional compressed gas suppliers is very expensive and not a viable option for use in remote villages, so hydrogen production is a critical piece of making fuel cells work in these areas. While some have proposed generating hydrogen from renewable resources such as wind, this does not appear to be an economically viable alternative at this time. Hydrogen can also be produced from hydrocarbon feed stocks, in a process known as reforming. This program is interested in testing and evaluating currently available reformers using transportable fuels: methanol, propane, gasoline, and diesel fuels. Of these, diesel fuels are of most interest, since the existing energy infrastructure of rural Alaska is based primarily on diesel fuels, but this is also the most difficult fuel to reform, due to the propensity for coke formation, due to both the high vaporization temperature and to the high sulfur content in these fuels. There are several competing fuel cell technologies being developed in industry today. Prior work at UAF focused on the use of PEM fuel cells and diesel reformers, with significant barriers identified to their use for power in remote areas, including stack lifetime, system efficiency, and cost. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells have demonstrated better stack lifetime and efficiency in demonstrations elsewhere (though cost still remains an issue), and procuring a system for testing was pursued. The primary function of UAF in the fuel cell industry is in the role of third party independent testing. In order for tests to be conducted, hardware must be purchased and delivered. The fuel cell industry is still in a pre-commercial state, however. Commercial products are defined as having a fixed set of specifications, fixed price, fixed delivery date, and a warrantee. Negotiations with fuel cell companies over these issues are often complex, and the results of these discussions often reveal much about the state of development of the technology. This work includes some of the results of these procurement experiments. Fuel cells may one day replace heat engines as the source of electrical power in remote areas. However, the results of this program to date indicate that currently available hardware is not developed sufficiently for these environments, and that significant time and resources will need to be committed for this to occur.

Dennis Witmer

2003-12-01

200

Analysis of industrial pollution prevention programs in selected Asian countries  

SciTech Connect

Industrialization in developing countries is causing increasing environmental damage. Pollution prevention (P2) is an emerging environmental concept that could help developing countries achieve leapfrog goals, bypassing old and pollutive technologies and minimizing traditional control practices. The current P2 promotion activities in Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand are discussed. These programs, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into five categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technical assistance, and financial incentives. All important at the early stages of P2 promotion, these programs should inform industries of the benefits of P2 and help them identify applicable P2 measures. Participation in these programs is voluntary. The limited data indicate that adoption of P2 measures in these countries is not yet widespread. Recommendations for expanding P2 promotion activities include (1) strengthening the design and enforcement of environmental regulations; (2) providing P2 training and education to government workers, nongovernmental organizations and labor unions officials, university faculties, and news media; (3) tracking the progress of P2 programs; (4) implementing selected P2 mandatory measures; (5) identifying cleaner production technologies for use in new facilities; (6) implementing special programs for small and medium enterprises; and (7) expanding P2 promotion to other sectors, such as agriculture and transportation, and encouraging green design and green consumerism.

Chiu, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1995-05-01

201

First NASA/Industry High Speed Research Program Nozzle Symposium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The First High Speed Research (HSR) Nozzle Symposium was hosted by NASA Lewis Research Center on November 17-19, 1992 in Cleveland, Ohio, and was sponsored by the HSR Source Noise Working Group. The purpose of this symposium was to provide a national forum for the government, industry, and university participants in the program to present and discuss important low noise nozzle research results and technology issues related to the development of appropriate nozzles for a commercially viable, environmentally compatible, U.S. High-Speed Civil Transport. The HSR Phase I research program was initiated in FY90 and is approaching the first major milestone (end of FY92) relative to an initial FAR 36 Stage 3 nozzle noise assessment. Significant research results relative to that milestone were presented. The opening session provided a brief overview of the Program and status of the Phase H plan. The next five sessions were technically oriented and highlighted recent significant analytical and experimental accomplishments. The last Session included a panel discussion by the Session Chairs, summarizing the progress seen to date and discussing issues relative to further advances in technology necessary to achieve the Program Goals. Attendance at the Symposium was by invitation only and included only industry, academic, and government participants who are actively involved in the High-Speed Research Program. The technology presented in this meeting is considered commercially sensitive.

Long-Davis, Mary Jo

1999-01-01

202

Providing Utilities with Tools for Industrial Marketing Programs  

E-print Network

to marketing representa tives. The Center for Metals Fabrication is using several tools to tailor marketing programs for 18 electric utilities. CMF provides: o A hotline that customer and utility representatives can use to get advice on implenenting... electrotechnologies. o Publications that address the techni cal and economic factors that are crucial in selecting the appropriate electrotechnologies. o An industrial market profile that indicates the processes used in utility service territories. o...

Cahill, L. E.

203

An Energy Conservation Program in the Food Industry  

E-print Network

, covering a wide range of food products. Maxwell House coffee, Post cereals, Birds Eye frozen vegetables, Jell-O desserts and Kool-Aid powdered drink mixes are some of the more prominent ones. The company also manufactures some food ingredients...AN ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY Carl T. Farner General Foods Corporation White Plains, General Foods Corporation is one of the largest food manufacturing companies in the United States. It's brand names are well known...

Farner, C. T.

204

Software Tools and Training Program: For the Efficient Design and Operation of Industrial Processes  

E-print Network

1 Industrial Energy Technology Conference Software Tools & Training Program: For the Efficient Design and Operation of Industrial Processes Eric Soucy, Director, Industrial Systems Optimization Program, CanmetENERGY Wednesday, May 21...-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 34 Thank you for your time and attention! For further information, please contact: Eric Soucy, Director Industrial Systems Optimization Program CanmetENERGY Natural Resources...

Soucy, E.

2014-01-01

205

Risk management with substitution options: Valuing flexibility in small-scale energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several features of small-scale energy systems make them more easily adapted to a changing operating environment than large centralized designs. This flexibility is often manifested as the ability to substitute inputs. This research explores the value of this substitution flexibility and the marginal value of becoming a "little more flexible" in the context of real project investment in developing countries. The elasticity of substitution is proposed as a stylized measure of flexibility and a choice variable. A flexible alternative (elasticity > 0) can be thought of as holding a fixed-proportions "nflexible" asset plus a sequence of exchange options---the option to move to another feasible "recipe" each period. Substitutability derives value from following a contour of anticipated variations and from responding to new information. Substitutability value, a "cost savings option", increases with elasticity and price risk. However, the required premium to incrementally increase flexibility can in some cases decrease with an increase in risk. Variance is not always a measure of risk. Tools from stochastic dominance are newly applied to real options with convex payoffs to correct some misperceptions and clarify many common modeling situations that meet the criteria for increased variance to imply increased risk. The behavior of the cost savings option is explored subject to a stochastic input price process. At the point where costs are identical for all alternatives, the stochastic process for cost savings becomes deterministic, with savings directly proportional to elasticity of substitution and price variance. The option is also formulated as a derivative security via dynamic programming. The partial differential equation is solved for the special case of Cobb-Douglas (elasticity = 1) (also shown are linear (infinite elasticity), Leontief (elasticity = 0)). Risk aversion is insufficient to prefer a more flexible alternative with the same expected value. Intertemporal links convert the sequence of independent options to a single compound option and require an expansion of the flexibility concept. Additional options increase the value of the project but generally decrease flexibility value. The framework is applied to case study in India: an urban industry electricity strategy decision with reliability risk.

Knapp, Karl Eric

206

Small-scale nonlinear dynamics of K-mouflage theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the small-scale static configurations of K-mouflage models defined by a general function K (? ) of the kinetic terms. The fifth force is screened by the nonlinear K-mouflage mechanism if K'(? ) grows sufficiently fast for large negative ? . In the general nonspherically symmetric case, the fifth force is not aligned with the Newtonian force. For spherically symmetric static matter density profiles, we show that the results depend on the potential function W-(y )=y K'(-y2/2 ) ; i.e., W-(y ) must be monotonically increasing to +? for y ?0 to guarantee the existence of a single solution throughout space for any matter density profile. Small radial perturbations around these static profiles propagate as travelling waves with a velocity greater than the speed of light. Starting from vanishing initial conditions for the scalar field and for a time-dependent matter density corresponding to the formation of an overdensity, we numerically check that the scalar field converges to the static solution. If W- is bounded, for high-density objects there are no static solutions throughout space, but one can still define a static solution restricted to large radii. Our dynamical study shows that the scalar field relaxes to this static solution at large radii, whereas spatial gradients keep growing with time at smaller radii. If W- is not bounded but nonmonotonic, there is an infinite number of discontinuous static solutions. However, the Klein-Gordon equation is no longer a well-defined hyperbolic equation, which leads to complex characteristic speeds and exponential instabilities. Therefore, these discontinuous static solutions are not physical, and these models are not theoretically sound. Such K-mouflage scenarios provide an example of theories that can appear viable at the cosmological level, for the cosmological background and perturbative analysis, while being meaningless at a nonlinear level for small-scale configurations. This shows the importance of small-scale nonlinear analysis of screening models. All healthy K-mouflage models should satisfy K'>0 , and W±(y )=y K'(±y2/2 ) are monotonically increasing to +? when y ?0 .

Brax, Philippe; Valageas, Patrick

2014-12-01

207

Sponsors of CIEEDAC: Environment Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation, Aluminium Industry Association, Canadian Chemical Producers' Association, Canadian Electricity  

E-print Network

Sponsors of CIEEDAC: Environment Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Industry Program to thank the Canadian Steel Producers Association Natural Resources Canada, the Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation, Aluminium Industry Association, Canadian Chemical Producers' Association, Canadian

208

Small-Scale Geothermal Power Plant Field Verification Projects: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

In the spring of 2000, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory issued a Request for Proposal for the construction of small-scale (300 kilowatt [kW] to 1 megawatt [MW]) geothermal power plants in the western United States. Five projects were selected for funding. Of these five, subcontracts have been completed for three, and preliminary design work is being conducted. The three projects currently under contract represent a variety of concepts and locations: a 1-MW evaporatively enhanced, air-cooled binary-cycle plant in Nevada; a 1-MW water-cooled Kalina-cycle plant in New Mexico; and a 750-kW low-temperature flash plant in Utah. All three also incorporate direct heating: onion dehydration, heating for a fish hatchery, and greenhouse heating, respectively. These projects are expected to begin operation between April 2002 and September 2003. In each case, detailed data on performance and costs will be taken over a 3-year period.

Kutscher, C.

2001-07-03

209

The Challenge of Small-Scale Repeats for Indel Discovery  

PubMed Central

Repetitive sequences are abundant in the human genome. Different classes of repetitive DNA sequences, including simple repeats, tandem repeats, segmental duplications, interspersed repeats, and other elements, collectively span more than 50% of the genome. Because repeat sequences occur in the genome at different scales they can cause various types of sequence analysis errors, including in alignment, de novo assembly, and annotation, among others. This mini-review highlights the challenges introduced by small-scale repeat sequences, especially near-identical tandem or closely located repeats and short tandem repeats, for discovering DNA insertion and deletion (indel) mutations from next-generation sequencing data. We also discuss the de Bruijn graph sequence assembly paradigm that is emerging as the most popular and promising approach for detecting indels. The human exome is taken as an example and highlights how these repetitive elements can obscure or introduce errors while detecting these types of mutations. PMID:25674564

Narzisi, Giuseppe; Schatz, Michael C.

2015-01-01

210

Remote plunger removal device for small-scale incremental pressing  

SciTech Connect

Small-scale pressing of high explosives (HE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and elsewhere is routinely performed using pneumatic presses. Blast shields provide protection to the operator during the pressing procedure, but safety of the operator is a concern during removal of the plunger, which is currently performed manually. To minimize this risk, very high tolerances between the plunger and the die are required. These tolerances are often very costly, especially in the case of long, relatively narrow dies. The safety issue is an even greater concern with incremental pressing in which cleaning the die between increments is difficult or impossible. To better protect press operators, a device has been designed and constructed to allow remote plunger removal in a standard HE press. In this report the authors describe this modified press that allows remote removal of the plunger.

Burnside, N.J.; Son, S.F.; Asay, B.W.

1997-09-01

211

Small Scale Response and Modeling of Periodically Forced Turbulence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The response of the small scales of isotropic turbulence to periodic large scale forcing is studied using two-point closures. The frequency response of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate, and the phase shifts between production, energy and dissipation are determined as functions of Reynolds number. It is observed that the amplitude and phase of the dissipation exhibit nontrivial frequency and Reynolds number dependence that reveals a filtering effect of the energy cascade. Perturbation analysis is applied to understand this behavior which is shown to depend on distant interactions between widely separated scales of motion. Finally, the extent to which finite dimensional models (standard two-equation models and various generalizations) can reproduce the observed behavior is discussed.

Bos, Wouter; Clark, Timothy T.; Rubinstein, Robert

2007-01-01

212

Visible light scattering to measure small scale turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laser scattering optical bench using ionized argon laser was set up to study the small scales of turbulence. Scales between 200 and 10 ?m are resolved. The signal being proportional to the Fourier transform of the density fluctuations, heterodyne detection is used to recover its real and imaginary parts. The optical and electronic facilities are described in detail. The minimum density fluctuations for a signal-to-noise ratio greater than 1 is assessed. Using an acoustic wave, the spatial bandpass filter of the Fourier transform is demonstrated. A sample of recorded signals on a turbulent air jet is shown and the dependence of their intensity on the analyzing wave vector is discussed. The frequency spectra are shown to reflect the temperature and the pressure fluctuations. One can thus measure the flow and sound speed.

Antar, G.

2000-01-01

213

Stability of small-scale baryon perturbations during cosmological recombination  

E-print Network

In this paper, we study small-scale fluctuations (baryon pressure sound waves) in the baryon fluid during recombination. In particular, we look at their evolution in the presence of relative velocities between baryons and photons on large scales ($k \\sim 10^{-1} \\ {\\rm Mpc}^{-1}$), which are naturally present during the era of decoupling. Previous work concluded that the fluctuations grow due to an instability of sound waves in a recombining plasma, but that the growth factor is small for typical cosmological models. These analyses model recombination in an inhomogenous universe as a perturbation to the parameters of the homogenous solution. We show that for relevant wavenumbers $k\\gtrsim 10^3\\ {\\rm Mpc}^{-1}$ the dynamics are significantly altered by the transport of both ionizing continuum ($h\

Venumadhav, Tejaswi

2014-01-01

214

LLNL small-scale drop-hammer impact sensitivity test  

SciTech Connect

Small-scale safety testing of explosives and other energetic materials is done to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli including friction, static spark, and impact. This testing is typically done to discover potential handling problems for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing ``ERL Type 12 Drop Weight Impact Sensitivity Apparatus``, or ``Drop Hammer Machine``, and the methods used to determine the impact sensitivity of energetic materials, Also discussed are changes made to both the machine and methods since the inception of impact sensitivity testing at LLNL in 1956. The accumulated data for the materials tested in not listed here, the exception being the discussion of those specific materials (primary calibrants: PETN, RDX, Comp-B3,and TNT; secondary calibrants: K-6, RX-26-AF, and TATB) used to calibrate the machine.

Simpson, L.R.; Foltz, M.F.

1995-01-01

215

Work related injuries in small scale commercial fishing  

PubMed Central

Objective: To describe the epidemiology of work related injury in a group of small scale, independent commercial fishers. Design: Cross sectional survey (baseline instrument of a prospective cohort study). Setting and subjects: Commercial fishers in eastern North Carolina. Results: A cohort of 219 commercial fishers was established and 215 subjects completed an injury questionnaire. The main types of fishing conducted by the cohort were finfishing (159/215) and crabbing (154/215). Of the 215 fishers, 83 reported that they had suffered an injury event in the previous 12 months, a retrospective recall incidence proportion of 38.6 per 100 workers (95% confidence interval 32.1 to 45.1). The 83 injury events resulted in 94 injuries; 47% were penetrating wounds and 24% were strains/sprains. Half of injuries were to the hand/wrist/digits and 13% were to the back. Of the penetrating wounds, 87% were to the hand/wrist/digits, 32% became infected, and 80% were caused by contact with finfish, shellfish, or other marine animal. Of the strains/sprains, 48% were to the back and 26% were to the shoulder. Seventy percent of strains/sprains were caused by moving heavy objects, mainly either while hauling in nets, pots, or lines or loading/unloading the boat. Conclusion: In this group of small scale, independent fishers, the most common reported injuries were penetrating wounds to the hand/wrist/digits from marine animals and strains/sprains to the back while moving heavy objects. PMID:15314048

Marshall, S; Kucera, K; Loomis, D; McDonald, M; Lipscomb, H

2004-01-01

216

Properties of small-scale magnetism of stellar atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic field outside of sunspots is concentrated in the intergranular space, where it forms a delicate filigree of bright ribbons and dots as seen on broad band images of the Sun. We expect this small-scale magnetic field to exhibit a similar behavior in stellar atmospheres. In order to find out more about it, we perform numerical simulations of the surface layers of stellar atmospheres. Here, we report on preliminary results from simulations in the range between 4000 K and 6500 K effective temperature with an initial vertical, homogeneous magnetic field of 50 G strength. We find that the field strength of the strongest magnetic flux concentrations increases with decreasing effective temperature at the height level where the average Rosseland optical depth is one. On the other hand, at the same level, the field is less strong than the thermal equipartition value in the coolest model but assumes superequipartition in the models hotter than 5000 K. While the Wilson depression of the strongest field concentrations is about one pressure scale height in the coolest model, it is more than four times the pressure scale height in the hottest one. We also find that the relative contribution of the bright filigree to the bolometric, vertically directed radiative intensity is most significant for the Teff = 5000 K model (0.6%-0.79%) and least significant for the hottest and coolest models (0.1%-0.46% and 0.14%-0.32%, respectively). This behavior suggests that the effect of the small-scale magnetic field on the photometric variability is more significant for K dwarf stars than for F-type and also M-type stars.

Steiner, Oskar; Salhab, René; Freytag, Bernd; Rajaguru, Paul; Schaffenberger, Werner; Steffen, Matthias

2014-12-01

217

NASA industry education initiative. Education programs report, 1991  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Findings from the initial inventory of education programs show that support for the NASA-Industry Education Initiative (NIEI) appears to be strong among the organizations surveyed. In addition, the range, depth and historical baselines of NIEI education programs are encouraging. It is also apparent that there is a significant level of cooperation between NIEI members and other organizations. Heavily focused towards science, engineering, mathematics and technology achievement, NIEI activities appear to be aligned with national education goals. Three criticisms are revealed: (1) the majority of programs are targeted fairly late in the education cycle; (2) the number of initiatives geared towards adult literacy and adult skills-enhancement appears to be relatively low; (3) the majority of NIEI activities involve traditional education-assistance programs, but the number of critical assessment and systematic reform initiatives is low. Four Working Group recommendations resulted from this activity: (1) NIEI Working Group operations should continue for an indefinite period, with participation open to other like-minded private-sector organization; (2) the report should be periodically updated; (3) an analysis of ongoing education programs should be conducted; (4) American corporations should continue to support education and evaluate in-house programs periodically.

1991-01-01

218

Office of Industrial Technologies: Summary of program results  

SciTech Connect

Working in partnership with industry, the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) is helping reduce industrial energy use, emissions, and waste while boosting productivity. Operating within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE), OIT conducts research, development, demonstration, and technology transfer efforts that are producing substantial, measurable benefits to industry. This document summarizes some of the impacts of OIT`s programs through 1997. OIT tracks energy savings as well as other benefits associated with the successfully commercialized technologies resulting from OIT-supported research partnerships. Specifically, a chart shows current and cumulative energy savings as well as cumulative reductions of various air pollutants including particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}), and the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The bulk of the document consists of four appendices. Appendix 1 describes the technologies currently available commercially, along with their applications and benefits; Appendix 2 describes the OIT-supported emerging technologies that are likely to be commercialized within the next year or two; Appendix 3 describes OIT-sponsored technologies used in commercial applications in the past that are no longer tracked; and Appendix 4 describes the methodology used to assess and track OIT-supported technologies.

NONE

1999-01-01

219

Adult Literacy: Industry-Based Training Programs. Research and Development Series No. 265C.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine industry-based adult literacy programs across the country were studied to identify exemplary training programs and practices that business and industry trainers, planners, and policymakers and individuals in the public education sector alike could replicate in designing adult literacy programs. Training programs offered by the following…

Fields, Ernest L.; And Others

220

AFBC-HAGT, an efficient small scale power plant  

SciTech Connect

A team comprised of the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), the Will-Burt Company, and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC) designed installed and tested a pilot scale atmospheric fluidized (bubbling) bed combustion (AFBC) system to heat hot water. Following testing, a commercial prototype unit was installed at Cedar Lane Farms (CLF), near Wooster, Ohio. The unit was started up in January, 1995, and is currently in operation. It provides hot water for greenhouse heating, requiring about two hours per day of operator attention. The development was funded by the Ohio Coal Development Office, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the team members. Based on the success of the prototype operation a commercial size unit was recently designed for hot water heating use. This small scale AFBC system can be designed not only to produce hot water or steam but also to efficiently generate electricity (60 kWe to 3.5 MWe size range). Most small scale fluidized bed systems use in-bed heat transfer tubes to generate saturated steam which can then be superheated and fed to a steam turbine for electrical power generation. This AFBC has no internal heat transfer surfaces. It can be combined with an air heater that is integrated with a recuperated Hot Air Gas Turbine (HAGT), to yield a more efficient power plant than that possible with small steam plants of comparable size that have optimal gross efficiencies of about 12% (29,060 Btu/kWhr). Depending on ambient air temperature, this AFBC-HAGT power cycle can reach efficiencies of 28% without auxiliary diesel fuel oil firing. The system is ideally suited for rural communities that are not tied into an electric power grid. It is low tech, easy to operate, provides approximately double the efficiency of small steam cycle power plants, and can be used in areas where water is scarce. When firing local coal and/or bio-mass it can be very cost effective compared to diesel power generation.

Ashworth, R.A. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Orrville, OH (United States); Webner, R.L. [Will-Burt Company, Orrville, OH (United States); Keener, H.M. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center

1997-12-31

221

Robust, small-scale cultivation platform for Streptomyces coelicolor  

PubMed Central

Background For fermentation process and strain improvement, where one wants to screen a large number of conditions and strains, robust and scalable high-throughput cultivation systems are crucial. Often, the time lag between bench-scale cultivations to production largely depends on approximate estimation of scalable physiological traits. Microtiter plate (MTP) based screening platforms have lately become an attractive alternative to shake flasks mainly because of the ease of automation. However, there are very few reports on applications for filamentous organisms; as well as efforts towards systematic validation of physiological behavior compared to larger scale are sparse. Moreover, available small-scale screening approaches are typically constrained by evaluating only an end point snapshot of phenotypes. Results To address these issues, we devised a robust, small-scale cultivation platform in the form of MTPs (24-square deepwell) for the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor and compared its performance to that of shake flasks and bench-scale reactors. We observed that re-designing of medium and inoculum preparation recipes resulted in improved reproducibility. Process turnaround time was significantly reduced due to the reduction in number of unit operations from inoculum to cultivation. The incorporation of glass beads (ř 3 mm) in MTPs not only improved the process performance in terms of improved oxygen transfer improving secondary metabolite production, but also helped to transform morphology from pellet to disperse, resulting in enhanced reproducibility. Addition of MOPS into the medium resulted in pH maintenance above 6.50, a crucial parameter towards reproducibility. Moreover, the entire trajectory of the process was analyzed for compatibility with bench-scale reactors. The MTP cultivations were found to behave similar to bench-scale in terms of growth rate, productivity and substrate uptake rate and so was the onset of antibiotic synthesis. Shake flask cultivations however, showed discrepancy with respect to morphology and had considerably reduced volumetric production rates of antibiotics. Conclusion We observed good agreement of the physiological data obtained in the developed MTP platform with bench-scale. Hence, the described MTP-based screening platform has a high potential for investigation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Streptomycetes and other filamentous bacteria and the use may significantly reduce the workload and costs. PMID:22252012

2012-01-01

222

The role of industry in forming a distance learning engineering management program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Engineering Management Program (EMP) at Washington State University (WSU) is a state-wide program currently serving industries at WSU branch campuses in Tri-Cities, Vancouver and Spokane, and in-house industry at The Boeing Company, Seattle. There is a constant demand to expand the program to other locations, such as local-area industries in other cities as well as direct industry sponsorship, with

E. R. Ladd; H. A. Rumsey

1996-01-01

223

The NIST radioactivity measurement assurance program for the radiopharmaceutical industry.  

PubMed

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) maintains a program for the establishment and dissemination of activity measurement standards in nuclear medicine. These standards are disseminated through Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), Calibration Services, radionuclide calibrator settings, and the NIST Radioactivity Measurement Assurance Program (NRMAP, formerly the NEI/NIST MAP). The MAP for the radiopharmaceutical industry is described here. Consolidated results show that, for over 3600 comparisons, 96% of the participants' results differed from that of NIST by less than 10%, with 98% being less than 20%. Individual radionuclide results are presented from 214 to 439 comparisons, per radionuclide, for (67)Ga, (90)Y, (99m)Tc, (99)Mo, (111)In, (125)I, (131)I, and (201)Tl. The percentage of participants results within 10% of NIST ranges from 88% to 98%. PMID:22578995

Cessna, Jeffrey T; Golas, Daniel B

2012-09-01

224

Advanced Turbine Systems Program industrial system concept development  

SciTech Connect

Solar approached Phase II of ATS program with the goal of 50% thermal efficiency. An intercolled and recuperated gas turbine was identified as the ultimate system to meet this goal in a commercial gas turbine environment. With commercial input from detailed market studies and DOE`s ATS program, Solar redefined the company`s proposed ATS to fit both market and sponsor (DOE) requirements. Resulting optimized recuperated gas turbine will be developed in two sizes, 5 and 15 MWe. It will show a thermal efficiency of about 43%, a 23% improvement over current industrial gas turbines. Other ATS goals--emissions, RAMD (reliability, availability, maintainability, durability), cost of power--will be met or exceeded. During FY95, advanced development of key materials, combustion and component technologies proceeded to the point of acceptance for inclusion in ATS Phase III.

Gates, S.

1995-12-31

225

Industrial Rates and Demand-Side Management Programs  

E-print Network

The industrial sector in Texas is large and energy intensive. Industrial sales constitute a major portion of total sales for several utilities in Texas. Industrial demand-side management (DSM) can be used by utilities to provide industrial customers...

Kasprowicz, L. M.; House, R.

226

Small scale flow processes in aqueous heterogeneous porous media  

SciTech Connect

Small scale flow processes in aqueous heterogeneous porous systems have been studied experimentally via novel nonintrusive fluorescence imaging techniques. The techniques involve 3D visualization and quantification of flow fields within a refractive index-matched transparent porous column. The refractive index-matching yields a transparent porous medium, free from any scattering and refraction at the solid-liquid interfaces, as a result allowing direct optical probing at any point within the porous system. By illuminating the porous regions within the column with a planar sheet of laser beam, flow processes through the porous medium can be observed microscopically, and qualitative and quantitative in-pore transport information can be obtained at a good resolution and a good accuracy. A CCD camera is used to record the fluorescent images at every vertical plane location while sweeping back and forth across the column. These digitized flow images are then analyzed and accumulated over a 3D volume within the column. Series of flow experiments in aqueous, refractive index-matched, porous systems packed with natural mineral particles have been performed successfully in these laboratories.

Rashidi, M.; Dickenson, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Programs Directorate

1996-04-01

227

Chiral Extrapolations and the Covariant Small Scale Expansion  

E-print Network

We calculate the nucleon and the delta mass to fourth order in a covariant formulation of the small scale expansion. We analyze lattice data from the MILC collaboration and demonstrate that the available lattice data combined with our knowledge of the physical values for the nucleon and delta masses lead to consistent chiral extrapolation functions for both observables up to fairly large pion masses. This holds in particular for very recent data on the delta mass from the QCDSF collaboration. The resulting pion-nucleon sigma term is sigma_{piN} = 48.9 MeV. This first quantitative analysis of the quark-mass dependence of the structure of the Delta(1232) in full QCD within chiral effective field theory suggests that (the real part of) the nucleon-delta mass-splitting in the chiral limit, Delta_0 = 0.33 GeV, is slightly larger than at the physical point. Further analysis of simultaneous fits to nucleon and delta lattice data are needed for a precision determination of the properties of the first excited state of the nucleon.

Véronique Bernard; Thomas R. Hemmert; Ulf-G. Meißner

2005-07-05

228

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities are phylogenetically clustered at small scales.  

PubMed

Next-generation sequencing technologies with markers covering the full Glomeromycota phylum were used to uncover phylogenetic community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with Festuca brevipila. The study system was a semi-arid grassland with high plant diversity and a steep environmental gradient in pH, C, N, P and soil water content. The AMF community in roots and rhizosphere soil were analyzed separately and consisted of 74 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in total. Community-level variance partitioning showed that the role of environmental factors in determining AM species composition was marginal when controlling for spatial autocorrelation at multiple scales. Instead, phylogenetic distance and spatial distance were major correlates of AMF communities: OTUs that were more closely related (and which therefore may have similar traits) were more likely to co-occur. This pattern was insensitive to phylogenetic sampling breadth. Given the minor effects of the environment, we propose that at small scales closely related AMF positively associate through biotic factors such as plant-AMF filtering and interactions within the soil biota. PMID:24824667

Horn, Sebastian; Caruso, Tancredi; Verbruggen, Erik; Rillig, Matthias C; Hempel, Stefan

2014-11-01

229

Small-scale plasma irregularities in the nightside Venus ionosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The individual volt-ampere curves from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter electron temperature probe showed evidence for small-scale density irregularities, or short-period plasma waves, in regions of the nightside ionosphere where the Orbiter electric field detector observed waves in its 100-Hz channel. A survey of the nightside volt-ampere curves has revealed several hundred examples of such irregularities. The I-V structures correspond to plasma density structure with spatial scale sizes in the range of about 100-2000 m, or alternatively they could be viewed as waves having frequencies extending toward 100 Hz. They are often seen as isolated events, with spatial extent along the orbit frequently less than 80 km. The density irregularities or waves occur in or near prominent gradients in the ambient plasma concentrations both at low altitudes where molecular ions are dominant and at higher altitudes in regions of reduced plasma density where O(+) is the major ion. Electric field 100-Hz bursts occur simultaneously, with the majority of the structured I-V curves providing demonstrative evidence that at least some of the E field signals are produced within the ionosphere.

Grebowsky, J. M.; Curtis, S. A.; Brace, L. H.

1991-01-01

230

Emergence of undulatory magnetic flux tubes by small scale reconnections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With Flare Genesis Experiment (FGE), a balloon borne observatory launched in Antarctica on January 2000, series of high spatial resolution vector magnetograms, Dopplergrams, and H? filtergrams have been obtained in an emerging active region (AR 8844). Previous analyses of this data revealed the occurence of many short-lived and small-scale H ? brightenings called 'Ellerman bombs' (EBs) within the AR. We performed an extrapolation of the field above the photosphere using the linear force-free field approximation. The analysis of the magnetic topology reveals a close connexion between the loci of EBs and the existence of "Bald patches" (BP) regions (BPs are regions where the vector magnetic field is tangential to the photosphere). Some of these EBs/BPs are magnetically connected by low-lying field lines, presenting a serpentine shape. This results leads us to conjecture that arch filament systems and active regions coronal loops do not result from the smooth emergence of large scale ?-loops, but rather from the rise of flat undulatory flux tubes which get released from their photospheric anchorage by reconnection at BPs, which observational signature is Ellerman bombs.

Pariat, E.; Aulanier, G.; Schmieder, B.; Georgoulis, M. K.; Rust, D. M.; Bernasconi, P. N.

2006-01-01

231

Social and Ecological Dynamics of Small-Scale Fisheries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Globalization's reach is rapidly extending to touch some of the most remote communities of the world, but we have yet to understand its scale and impact. On Nicaragua's previously remote Miskitu Coast, the introduction of new markets and global demand for seafood has resulted in changes in fishermen's harvest behavior manifested within the local fishery. Small-scale fisheries are a significant component in sustaining global fish trade, ensuring food security, and alleviating poverty, but because the fishermen are disperse, numerous and located in remote areas, the social and ecological dynamics of the system are poorly understood. Previous work has indicated a decline in fish abundance as a result of connection to markets, yet fishermen's response to this decline and the resulting shift in harvest strategy requires further examination. I identify the ecological and social factors that explain changes in fishermen behavior and use an innovative application of social network analysis to understand these changes. I also use interviews with fishermen and fishery-dependent surveys to measure catch and release behavior and seasonal gear use. Results demonstrate multiple cliques within a community that mitigate the response of fishermen to changes in the fishery. This research applies techniques in social science to address challenges in sustainable management of fisheries. As fisheries managers consider implementing new regulations, such as seasonal restrictions on gear, it is essential to understand not just how this might impact fish abundance, but how and why human systems respond as they do.

Stevens, K.; Kramer, D.; Frank, K.

2012-12-01

232

Shaping mobile belts by small-scale convection.  

PubMed

Mobile belts are long-lived deformation zones composed of an ensemble of crustal fragments, distributed over hundreds of kilometres inside continental convergent margins. The Mediterranean represents a remarkable example of this tectonic setting: the region hosts a diffuse boundary between the Nubia and Eurasia plates comprised of a mosaic of microplates that move and deform independently from the overall plate convergence. Surface expressions of Mediterranean tectonics include deep, subsiding backarc basins, intraplate plateaux and uplifting orogenic belts. Although the kinematics of the area are now fairly well defined, the dynamical origins of many of these active features are controversial and usually attributed to crustal and lithospheric interactions. However, the effects of mantle convection, well established for continental interiors, should be particularly relevant in a mobile belt, and modelling may constrain important parameters such as slab coherence and lithospheric strength. Here we compute global mantle flow on the basis of recent, high-resolution seismic tomography to investigate the role of buoyancy-driven and plate-motion-induced mantle circulation for the Mediterranean. We show that mantle flow provides an explanation for much of the observed dynamic topography and microplate motion in the region. More generally, vigorous small-scale convection in the uppermost mantle may also underpin other complex mobile belts such as the North American Cordillera or the Himalayan-Tibetan collision zone. PMID:20520711

Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W

2010-06-01

233

Numerical Simulation of a Small-Scale Mild Combustor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reports numerical simulations of a small-scale cylindrical combustor operating in the mild combustion regime. Preheated air is supplied by a central nozzle, while the fuel (methane) is injected through 16 holes placed equidistantly in a circumference concentric with the air nozzle. The calculations were carried out using the commercial code Ansys-Fluent. Turbulence was modelled using the realizable k-epsilon model. Two different combustion models were employed, namely the eddy dissipation concept and the joint composition pdf transport model. In both cases, a chemical mechanism comprising 13 transported species and 73 chemical reactions was used, as well as a global single-step reaction. A thorough comparison of the predictions obtained using the pdf transport model and the eddy dissipation concept with detailed experimental data is presented. Both models are able to accurately predict the temperature and the O2 and CO2 molar fractions over most of the combustor, but the temperature field is overestimated in the vicinity of the burner. Discrepancies are found in the prediction of the CO molar fraction, particularly when the eddy dissipation concept is used.

Veríssimo, A.; Oliveira, R.; Coelho, P. J.; Costa, M.

2012-11-01

234

Cyber Security Testing and Training Programs for Industrial Control Systems  

SciTech Connect

Service providers rely on industrial control systems (ICS) to manage the flow of water at dams, open breakers on power grids, control ventilation and cooling in nuclear power plants, and more. In today's interconnected environment, this can present a serious cyber security challenge. To combat this growing challenge, government, private industry, and academia are working together to reduce cyber risks. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a key contributor to the Department of Energy National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program (CSSP), both of which focus on improving the overall security posture of ICS in the national critical infrastructure. In support of the NSTB, INL hosts a dedicated SCADA testing facility which consists of multiple control systems supplied by leading national and international manufacturers. Within the test bed, INL researchers systematically examine control system components and work to identify vulnerabilities. In support of the CSSP, INL develops and conducts training courses which are designed to increase awareness and defensive capabilities for IT/Control System professionals. These trainings vary from web-based cyber security trainings for control systems engineers to more advanced hands-on training that culminates with a Red Team/ Blue Team exercise that is conducted within an actual control systems environment. INL also provides staffing and operational support to the DHS Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) Security Operations Center which responds to and analyzes control systems cyber incidents across the 18 US critical infrastructure sectors.

Daniel Noyes

2012-03-01

235

Relating Computer Science programs to the needs of industry through internships and cooperative programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to discuss some approaches for achieving more meaningful relationships between degree programs at the college level in Computer Science and the needs of industry. Nothing is more encouraging to most students than to know that their academic preparation will enhance their future life styles and future employment opportunities. Also, probably nothing is more depressing

Alton R. Goddard

1974-01-01

236

Plowshare Program - American Atomic Bomb Tests For Industrial Applications  

SciTech Connect

The United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) established the Plowshare Program as a research and development activity to explore the technical and economic feasibility of using nuclear explosives for industrial applications. The reasoning was that the relatively inexpensive energy available from nuclear explosions could prove useful for a wide variety of peaceful purposes. The Plowshare Program began in 1958 and continued through 1975. Between December 1961 and May 1973, the United States conducted 27 Plowshare nuclear explosive tests comprising 35 individual detonations. Conceptually, industrial applications resulting from the use of nuclear explosives could be divided into two broad categories: 1) large-scale excavation and quarrying, where the energy from the explosion was used to break up and/or move rock; and 2) underground engineering, where the energy released from deeply buried nuclear explosives increased the permeability and porosity of the rock by massive breaking and fracturing. Possible excavation applications included: canals, harbors, highway and railroad cuts through mountains, open pit mining, construction of dams, and other quarry and construction-related projects. Underground nuclear explosion applications included: stimulation of natural gas production, preparation of leachable ore bodies for in situ leaching, creation of underground zones of fractured oil shale for in situ retorting, and formation of underground natural gas and petroleum storage reservoirs.

None

2012-04-22

237

78 FR 11996 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Commercial and Industrial Pumps  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Industrial Equipment: Commercial and Industrial Pumps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and...standards for commercial and industrial pumps published on February 1, 2013, is extended...Document relating to commercial and industrial pumps is extended to May 2, 2013....

2013-02-21

238

Assessment of the industrial energy-conservation program. Final report of the Committee on Assessment of the Industrial Energy Conservation Program  

SciTech Connect

Industrial operations in the United States account for some 37% of the nation's consumptions of energy. It has been estimated that this figure will increase to 50% by 1990 unless appropriate industrial energy conservation measures are adopted. However, such measures are difficult to implement in spite of the potential of various existing, emerging, and advanced technologies that can be applied to the problem. Specifically, the application of many industrial energy conservation measures entails high economic, technological, and institutional risks and uncertainties that constrain industries from adopting such measures. Accordingly, in 1975 the federal government started a program designed to mitigate these risks and uncertainties via government-industry partnership arrangements in the interests of national energy conservation. An important element of this program is the Industrial Energy Conservation Program in the Federal Department of Energy (DOE). In June 1980, DOE asked the National Materials Advisory Board, a unit of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, to form a study committee to assess the effectiveness of the Industrial Energy Conservation Program. The committee concluded that federal support embodied in the DOE program, present and planned, is important to conserving additional industrial energy. However, the committee also concluded that the program needs various improvements in project selection and management and in transfer of results to industry. The committee's findings and recommendations and the results of the deliberation of the committee's three panels, a special report on heat and power, and a report on the visit by four members of the committee to Japan are presented.

none,

1982-01-01

239

SUMMER PROGRAM FOR UPDATING THE TECHNICAL COMPETENCY OF TEACHERS OF INDUSTRIAL SUBJECTS. FINAL REPORT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

STUDENTS OF THE INSERVICE PROGRAM WERE 96 INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION TEACHERS FROM THE AREAS OF AUTO AND POWER, DRAFTING, ELECTRONICS, AND METALS WHO WERE SELECTED FROM 576 APPLICANTS. OBJECTIVES WERE TO (1) DEVELOP MODELS FOR INDUSTRY-SCHOOL COOPERATIVE PROGRAMS, (2) INTEGRATE INSTRUCTION ON INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS, CYBERNETICS, AND AUTOMATION INTO THE…

BOHN, RALPH C.

240

Maximizing Energy Savings Reliability in BC Hydro Industrial Demand-side Management Programs  

E-print Network

and compared to BC Hydro's current large industrial DSM incentive program, Power Smart Partners ­ TransmissionMaximizing Energy Savings Reliability in BC Hydro Industrial Demand-side Management Programs Supervisory Committee Maximizing Energy Savings Reliability in BC Hydro Industrial Demand-side Management

Victoria, University of

241

7 CFR 4279.175 - Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program set aside.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program...Industry Loans § 4279.175 Domestic lamb industry adjustment assistance program...in the National Office to fund loans to lamb processors for real estate...

2010-01-01

242

Observation and Analysis of Small-Scale Solar Magnetic Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Properties of small-scale magnetic structures in the photosphere are analyzed in multi-spectral time-series image sets obtained at the 50 cm Swedish Solar Vacuum Telescope (SVST) on the island of La Palma, Spain. Several of the images are among the highest resolution images of the solar photosphere yet obtained. Sub-arcsecond-scale magnetic 'elements' are identified, segmented, and tracked using bright points found in very high spatial resolution G-band 4305 A filtergrams. Simultaneous images including Ca II K-line filtergrams, Fe I 6302 A magnetograms, and 4686 A broadband continuum filtergrams allow cross-wavelength comparison of properties. Angular resolution of the filtergrams is typically 0.25 '' and temporal resolution is in the range of 20-100 sec; magnetogram resolution approaches 0.3'' in some images and is generally below 0.5''. To above an 84% statistical confidence level, G-band bright points occur exclusively at sites of kilogauss, sub-arcsecond, magnetic flux concentrations in the photosphere; magnetic flux concentration is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the occurrence of G-band bright points. The measured distribution of magnetic element diameters in active region network is log-normal with a modal value of 220 km (0.3''). The smallest elements observed are 120 km (0.17'') in diameter; the largest are about 600 km (0.7'') in diameter. The average contrast with respect to quiet Sun of magnetic elements in the G-band is 30%: 2-3 times higher than the average continuum contrast. Magnetic element contrast does not vary with size within the size range of G-band bright point measurements. Average contrast increases with limbward heliocentric angle to a peak of about 80% at ? = /cos? = 0.3; there is evidence of a decrease with further increase in angle. Magnetic elements undergo a continual fragmentation/merging evolution driven by the granular convective flowfield of the photosphere; morphological time scales are on the order of 100 seconds. Velocities of individual elements range from 1-5 km s-1 with an RMS value of 2.4 km s-1. The range of motion is typically on granular and mesogranular scales (1000-2500 km) with an average value of 2100 km. Individual fragments from clusters have a characteristic lifetime on the order of the granulation correlation time (6-8 minutes). The lifetime of clusters associated with persistent sinks in the granular flowfield is on the order of hours. Classical statistical analysis of displacement versus time yields a diffusion coefficient for network magnetic elements of 224.8± 0.2 km s-1. In general, the results are inconsistent with the idea of small-scale magnetic flux in the photosphere being contained in stable, isolated, 'flux tubes' and emphasize the need for better understanding of the formation and the thermal (and? non-thermal) heating of magnetic regions in the photosphere.

Berger, Thomas Edward

1997-05-01

243

WIMP matter power spectra and small scale power generation  

E-print Network

Dark Matter (DM) is generally assumed to be massive, cold and collisionless from the structure formation point of view. A more correct statement however is that DM indeed experiences collisional damping, but on a scale which is supposed to be too small to be relevant for structure formation. The aim of this paper is to present a Cold (although ``collisional'') Dark Matter particle whose matter power spectrum is damped and see whether it is distinguishable from standard candidates. To achieve this purpose, we calculate the collisional damping and free-streaming scales of neutralinos and non conventional candidates (say light particles heavier than ~1 MeV but lighter than O(10) GeV). The latter can be considered as Cold Dark Matter (CDM) particles in the sense that they become non relativistic before their thermal decoupling epoch. Unlike neutralinos, however, their linear matter power spectrum can be damped on scales of ~ 10^3 Msol due to their interactions. Since these scales are of cosmological interest for structure formation, we perform a series of numerical simulations to obtain the corresponding non linear matter power spectra P(k)_{nl} at the present epoch. We show that because of small scale regeneration, they all resemble each other at low redshifts, i.e. become very similar to a typical CDM matter power spectrum on all but the smallest scales. Therefore, even if lensing measurements at redshift below unity were to yield a P(k)_{nl} consistent with CDM models, this would not constitute a sufficiently robust evidence in favour of the neutralino to rule out alternative DM candidates.

C. Boehm; H. Mathis; J. Devriendt; J. Silk

2003-09-24

244

A Small-Scale Tiltrotor Model Operating in Descending Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a rotor s descent velocity in low speed flight approaches the induced wake velocity, a vortex ring is formed around the circumference of the rotor disk causing the flow to become very unsteady. This condition is known as Vortex Ring State (VRS). The aerodynamic Characteristics of edgewise operating rotors in this VRS induced environment have been studied for many years. In the 1960 s, two propellers were tested in vertical or near vertical descent, indicating a loss in thrust in the region of VRS. Thrust fluctuations of both single and tandem rotor configurations while operating in VRS were reported. More recently, the effects of descending flight on a single rotor operating in close proximity to a physical image plane, simulating the effects of a twin rotor tiltrotor system were investigated. Mean rotor thrust reductions and thrust fluctuations were shown in VRS. Results indicated the need to acquire additional data with a two-rotor model and the need to investigate the use of a single rotor/image plane apparatus to identify the characteristics of a two-rotor flowfield. As a result a small-scale tiltrotor model with 2-b1adedy untwisted, teetering rotors was tested at various states of descent and sideslip. Dual-rotor, single-rotor with image plane, and isolated-rotor results were reported, suggesting the single-rotor with image plane configuration may not properly capture the aerodynamic nature of a dual-rotor vehicle. Recommendations included additional testing of a model that better represents the physical characteristics of a tiltrotor aircraft. Specific recommendations for model improvements included using three-bladed rotors, twisted blades, a tiltrotor fuselage and wings.

Abrego, Anita I.; Betzina, Mark D.; Long, Kurtis R.

2002-01-01

245

Potential small-scale development of western oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Several studies have been undertaken in an effort to determine ways to enhance development of western oil shale under current market conditions for energy resources. This study includes a review of the commercial potential of western oil shale products and byproducts, a review of retorting processes, an economic evaluation of a small-scale commercial operation, and a description of the environmental requirements of such an operation. Shale oil used as a blend in conventional asphalt appears to have the most potential for entering today's market. Based on present prices for conventional petroleum, other products from oil shale do not appear competitive at this time or will require considerable marketing to establish a position in the marketplace. Other uses for oil shale and spent shale, such as for sulfur sorbtion, power generation, cement, aggregate, and soil stabilization, are limited economically by transportation costs. The three-state area area consisting of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming seems reasonable for the entry of shale oil-blended asphalt into the commercial market. From a review of retorting technologies and the product characteristics from various retorting processes it was determined that the direct heating Paraho and inclined fluidized-bed processes produce a high proportion of heavy material with a high nitrogen content. The two processes are complementary in that they are each best suited to processing different size ranges of materials. An economic evaluation of a 2000-b/d shale oil facility shows that the operation is potentially viable, if the price obtained for the shale oil residue is in the top range of prices projected for this product. Environmental requirements for building and operating an oil shale processing facility are concerned with permitting, control of emissions and discharges, and monitoring. 62 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

Smith, V.; Renk, R.; Nordin, J.; Chatwin, T.; Harnsberger, M.; Fahy, L.J.; Cha, C.Y.; Smith, E.; Robertson, R.

1989-10-01

246

Estimation of GPS instrumental biases from small scale network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With 4 GPS receivers located in the equatorial anomaly region in southeast China, this paper proposes a grid-based algorithm to determine the GPS satellites and receivers biases, and at the same time to derive the total electron content (TEC) with time resolution of 15 min and spatial resolution of 1° by 3.5° in latitude and longitude. By assuming that the TEC is identical at any point within a given grid block and the biases do not vary within a day, the algorithm arranges unknown biases and TECs with slant path TEC from the 4 receivers’ observations into a set of equations. Then the instrumental biases and the TECs are determined by using the least squares fitting technique. The performance of the method is examined by applying it to the GPS receiver chain observations selected from 16 geomagnetically quiet days in four seasons of 2006. It is found that the fitting agrees with the data very well, with goodness of fit ranging from 0.452 TECU to 1.914 TECU. Having a mean of 0.9 ns, the standard deviations for most of the GPS satellite biases are less than 1.0 ns for the 16 days. The GPS receiver biases are more stable than that of the GPS satellites. The standard deviation in the 4 receiver bias is from 0.370 ns to 0.855 ns, with a mean of 0.5 ns. Moreover, the instrumental biases are highly correlated with those derived from CODE and JPL with independent methods. The typical precision of the derived TEC is 5 TECU by a conservative estimation. These results indicate that the proposed algorithm is valid and qualified for small scale GPS network.

Ma, Guanyi; Gao, Wei; Li, Jinghua; Chen, Yanhong; Shen, Hua

2014-09-01

247

Muscle Sensor Model Using Small Scale Optical Device for Pattern Recognitions  

PubMed Central

A new sensor system for measuring contraction and relaxation of muscles by using a PANDA ring resonator is proposed. The small scale optical device is designed and configured to perform the coupling effects between the changes in optical device phase shift and human facial muscle movement, which can be used to form the relationship between optical phase shift and muscle movement. By using the Optiwave and MATLAB programs, the results obtained have shown that the measurement of the contraction and relaxation of muscles can be obtained after the muscle movements, in which the unique pattern of individual muscle movement from facial expression can be established. The obtained simulation results, that is, interference signal patterns, can be used to form the various pattern recognitions, which are useful for the human machine interface and the human computer interface application and discussed in detail. PMID:24222730

Tamee, Kreangsak; Chaiwong, Khomyuth; Yothapakdee, Kriengsak; Yupapin, Preecha P.

2013-01-01

248

Energy Efficiency Programs for Small and Medium Sized Industry  

E-print Network

Abundant, low-cost energy efficiency opportunities exist in industries with a high representation of small and medium-sized manufacturers. Small industrial facilities with fewer than 250 employees consume 25% of all industrial energy. Designing...

Shipley, A. M.; Elliott, R. N.

249

Industrial Program of Waste Management - Cigeo Project - 13033  

SciTech Connect

The French Planning Act of 28 June 2006 prescribed that a reversible repository in a deep geological formation be chosen as the reference solution for the long-term management of high-level and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste. It also entrusted the responsibility of further studies and design of the repository (named Cigeo) upon the French Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), in order for the review of the creation-license application to start in 2015 and, subject to its approval, the commissioning of the repository to take place in 2025. Andra is responsible for siting, designing, implementing, operating the future geological repository, including operational and long term safety and waste acceptance. Nuclear operators (Electricite de France (EDF), AREVA NC, and the French Commission in charge of Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies (CEA) are technically and financially responsible for the waste they generate, with no limit in time. They provide Andra, on one hand, with waste packages related input data, and on the other hand with their long term industrial experiences of high and intermediate-level long-lived radwaste management and nuclear operation. Andra, EDF, AREVA and CEA established a cooperation agreement for strengthening their collaborations in these fields. Within this agreement Andra and the nuclear operators have defined an industrial program for waste management. This program includes the waste inventory to be taken into account for the design of the Cigeo project and the structural hypothesis underlying its phased development. It schedules the delivery of the different categories of waste and defines associated flows. (authors)

Butez, Marc [Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs - Andra, 1-7, rue Jean Monnet 92298 Chatenay-Malabry (France)] [Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs - Andra, 1-7, rue Jean Monnet 92298 Chatenay-Malabry (France); Bartagnon, Olivier; Gagner, Laurent [AREVA NC Tour AREVA 1 place de la Coupole 92084 Paris La Defense (France)] [AREVA NC Tour AREVA 1 place de la Coupole 92084 Paris La Defense (France); Advocat, Thierry; Sacristan, Pablo [Commissariat a l'energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, CEA-SACLAY 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)] [Commissariat a l'energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, CEA-SACLAY 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Beguin, Stephane [Electricite de France - EDF, Division Combustible Nucleaire, 1, Place Pleyel Site Cap Ampere93282 Saint Denis (France)] [Electricite de France - EDF, Division Combustible Nucleaire, 1, Place Pleyel Site Cap Ampere93282 Saint Denis (France)

2013-07-01

250

The NASA/industry Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) Program: A government overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LaRC, under the Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) Program, set out in 1984 to establish the technology base needed by the rotorcraft industry for developing an advanced finite-element-based dynamics design analysis capability for vibrations. Considerable work was performed by the industry participants in the program since that time. Because the DAMVIBS Program is being phased out, a government/industry assessment of the program was made to identify those accomplishments and contributions which may be ascribed to the program. The purpose is to provide an overview of the program and its accomplishments and contributions from the perspective of the government sponsoring organization.

Kvaternik, Raymond G.

1992-01-01

251

The NASA/industry Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) program: A government overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA-Langley, under the Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) Program, set out in 1984 to establish the technology base needed by the rotorcraft industry for developing an advanced finite-element-based dynamics design analysis capability for vibrations. Considerable work has been done by the industry participants in the program since that time. Because the DAMVIBS Program is being phased out, a government/industry assessment of the program has been made to identify those accomplishments and contributions which may be ascribed to the program. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the program and its accomplishments and contributions from the perspective of the government sponsoring organization.

Kvaternik, Raymond G.

1993-01-01

252

Integrated bioenergy conversion concepts for small scale gasification power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal and biological gasification are promising technologies for addressing the emerging concerns in biomass-based renewable energy, environmental protection and waste management. However, technical barriers such as feedstock quality limitations, tars, and high NOx emissions from biogas fueled engines impact their full utilization and make them suffer at the small scale from the need to purify the raw gas for most downstream processes, including power generation other than direct boiler use. The two separate gasification technologies may be integrated to better address the issues of power generation and waste management and to complement some of each technologies' limitations. This research project investigated the technical feasibility of an integrated thermal and biological gasification concept for parameters critical to appropriately matching an anaerobic digester with a biomass gasifier. Specific studies investigated the thermal gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks in four fixed-bed gasification experiments: (1) updraft gasification of rice hull, (2) indirect-heated gasification of rice hull, (3) updraft gasification of Athel wood, and (4) downdraft gasification of Athel and Eucalyptus woods. The effects of tars and other components of producer gas on anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperature of 36°C and the biodegradation potentials and soil carbon mineralization of gasification tars during short-term aerobic incubation at 27.5°C were also examined. Experiments brought out the ranges in performance and quality and quantity of gasification products under different operating conditions and showed that within the conditions considered in the study, these gasification products did not adversely impact the overall digester performance. Short-term aerobic incubation demonstrated variable impacts on carbon mineralization depending on tar and soil conditions. Although tars exhibited low biodegradation indices, degradation may be improved if the microorganisms used to deal with tars are selected and pre-conditioned to the tar environment. Overall, the results provided a basis for operational and design strategy for a combined gasification system but further study is recommended such as determination of the impacts in terms of emissions, power, efficiency and costs associated with the use of producer gas-enriched biogas taking advantage of hydrogen enrichment to reduce NOx and other pollutants in reciprocating engines and other energy conversion systems.

Aldas, Rizaldo Elauria

253

Experiments for comparison of small scale rainfall simulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small scale portable rainfall simulators are an essential tool in research of recent process dynamics of soil erosion. Such rainfall simulators differ in design, rainfall intensities, rain spectra etc., impeding comparison of the results. Due to different research questions a standardisation of rainfall simulation is not in sight. Nevertheless, the data become progressively important for soil erosion modelling and therefore the basis for decision-makers in application-oriented erosion protection. The project aims at providing a criteria catalogue for estimation of the different simulators as well as the comparability of the results and a uniform calibration procedure for generated rainfall. Within the project "Comparability of simulation results of different rainfall simulators as input data for soil erosion modelling (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - DFG, Project No. Ri 835/6-1)" many rainfall simulators used by European research groups were compared. The artificially generated rainfall of the rainfall simulators at the Universities Basel, La Rioja, Malaga, Trier, Tübingen, Valencia, Wageningen, Zaragoza and at different Spanish CSIC-institutes (Almeria, Cordoba, Granada, Murcia, Zaragoza) were measured with the same methods (Laser Precipitation Monitor for drop spectra and rain collectors for spatial distribution). The data are very beneficial for improvements of simulators and comparison of simulators and results. Furthermore, they can be used for comparative studies with natural rainfall spectra. A broad range of rainfall data was measured (e.g. intensity: 30 - 149 mmh-1, Christiansen Coefficient for spatial rainfall distribution 61 - 98 %, mean drop diameter 0.375 - 5.0 mm, mean kinetic energy expenditure 25 - 1322 J m-2 h-1, mean kinetic energy per unit area and unit depth of rainfall 4 - 14 J m-2 mm-1). Similarities among the simulators could be found e.g. concerning drop size distributions (maximum drop numbers are reached within the two smallest drop classes < 1 mm) and low fall velocities of bigger drops due to a general physical restriction. The comparison provides a good data base for improvements and a consistent picture of the parameters of the simulators. To assess the influence of rainfall simulator type and plot dimensions on runoff and erosion, rainfall simulators from Freiberg, Tübingen, Trier, Valencia, Zaragoza, Basel and Wageningen were compared on a prepared bare fallow field during the Rainfall Simulator Workshop in Trier (Germany). The results show a clear and consistent relationship in runoff, erosion and infiltration behaviour of the different used rainfall simulators. With all the devices total soil loss was measurable, but different plot sizes, intensities and kinetic energies of the simulated rainfall caused differences in soil loss and runoff quantities per unit of area. Regarding course characteristics over runs, similarities could be observed especially in runoff behaviour.

Iserloh, T.; Ries, J. B.

2012-04-01

254

Small-scale Geothermal Power Plants Using Hot Spring Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The installed capacity of the geothermal power plants has been summed up to be about 515MW in Japan. However, the electricity generated by the geothermal resources only contributes to 0.2% of the whole electricity supply. After the catastrophic earthquake and tsunami devastated the Pacific coast of north-eastern Japan on Friday, March 11, 2011, the Japanese government is encouraging the increase of the renewable energy supply including the geothermal. It needs, however, more than 10 years to construct the geothermal power plant with more than 10MW capacity since the commencement of the development. Adding the problem of the long lead time, high temperature fluid is mainly observed in the national parks and the high quality of the geothermal resources is limited. On the other hand hot springs are often found. The utilisation of the low temperature hot water becomes worthy of notice. The low temperature hot water is traditionally used for bathing and there are many hot springs in Japan. Some of the springs have enough temperature and enthalpy to turn the geothermal turbine but a new technology of the binary power generation makes the lower temp fluid to generate electricity. Large power generators with the binary technology are already installed in many geothermal fields in the world. In the recent days small-scale geothermal binary generators with several tens to hundreds kW capacity are developed, which are originally used by the waste heat energy in an iron factory and so on. The newly developed binary unit is compact suitable for the installation in a Japanese inn but there are the restrictions for the temperature of the hot water and the working fluid. The binary power unit using alternatives for chlorofluorocarbon as the working fluid is relatively free from the restriction. KOBELCO, a company of the Kobe Steel Group, designed and developed the binary power unit with an alternative for chlorofluorocarbon. The unit has a 70 MW class electric generator. Three units have been installed in Obama Hot Spring area, Nagasaki Prefecture, where about 15,000 tonnes of hot water are produced in a day and more than 35% of the hot water flow directly to the sea. Another demonstration experiments are also conducted in several hot spring areas. In this study we will review several examples to utilise low temperature hot springs in Japan. Binary Power Unit at Obama (Fujino, 2013)

Tosha, T.; Osato, K.; Kiuchi, T.; Miida, H.; Okumura, T.; Nakashima, H.

2013-12-01

255

Small-scale chromospheric jets above a sunspot light bridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The chromosphere above sunspot umbrae and penumbrae shows several different types of fast dynamic events such as running penumbral waves, umbral flashes, and penumbral microjets. Aims: The aim of this paper is to identify the physical driver responsible for the dynamic and small-scale chromospheric jets above a sunspot light bridge. Methods: High-resolution broadband filtergrams of active region NOAA 11271 in Ca ii H and G band were obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode. We identified the jets in the Ca ii H images using a semi-automatic routine and determined their length and orientation. We applied local correlation tracking (LCT) to the G-band images to obtain the photospheric horizontal velocity field. The magnetic field topology was derived from a Milne-Eddington inversion of a simultaneous scan with the Spectropolarimeter. Results: The chromospheric jets consist of a bright, triangular-shaped blob that lies on the light bridge, while the apex of this blob extends into a spike-like structure that is bright against the dark umbral background. Most of the jets have apparent lengths of less than 1000 km and about 30% of the jets have lengths between 1000-1600 km. The jets are oriented within ±35° to the normal of the spine of the light bridge. Most of them are clustered near the central part of the light bridge within a 2'' area. The jets are seen to move rapidly along the light bridge and many of them cannot be identified in successive images taken with a 2 min cadence. The jets are primarily located on one side of the light bridge and are directed into the umbral core. The Stokes profiles at or close to the location of the blobs on the LB exhibit both a significant net circular polarization and multiple components, including opposite-polarity lobes. The magnetic field diverges from the light bridge towards the umbral cores that it separates. The LCT reveals that in the photosphere there is a predominantly uni-directional flow with speeds of 100-150 m s-1 along the light bridge. This unidirectional flow is interrupted by a patch of weak or very small motions on the light bridge which also moves along the light bridge. Conclusions: The dynamic short-lived chromospheric jets above the LB seem to be guided by the magnetic field lines. Reconnection events are a likely trigger for such phenomenon since they occur at locations where the magnetic field changes orientation sharply and where we also observe isolated patches of opposite-polarity magnetic components. We find no clear relation between the jets and the photospheric flow pattern.

Louis, Rohan E.; Beck, Christian; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi

2014-07-01

256

Observation and Analysis of Small-scale Solar Magnetic Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar magnetic flux elements on spatial scales below 350 km (0\\arcsec.5) are analyzed using G-Band 4305 Angstroms, Ca II K-line, and 4686 Angstroms continuum filtegrams as well as Fe I 6302 Angstroms and 5250 Angstroms magnetograms acquired nearly simultaneously at the Swedish Solar Vacuum Telescope on La Palma. Spatial resolution is below 0\\arcsec.3 in the majority of images. Phase-diversity image restoration is applied to yield a 180 frame (78 minute) image set in which nearly every frame exhibits 0\\arcsec.2 spatial resolution. Image processing algorithms are developed which successfully segment the magnetic elements from the surrounding granulation for analysis. The FWHM of magnetic elements demarcated by G-band bright points in disk-center plage is log-normally distributed with a modal value of 220 km and an average value of 250 km. Average disk center contrast of magnetic elements in the G-band is 31% with maximum values frequently exceeding 70% relative to the quiet-Sun average. Simulataneous 4686 Angstroms continuum contrast is 2 to 3 times lower. The average G-band contrast of magnetic elements shows no size dependency over a range of 150---600 km in diameter. G-band bright points occur without exception on sites of isolated magnetic flux concentrations or peninsular concentrations extending from larger concentrations of flux; isolated magnetic flux concentrations are found without associated G-band bright points. Magnetic elements demarcated by G-band bright points occupy no more than 1---2% of plage and active network regions by area at any one time. Magnetic elements move in the intergranular flowfield at speeds from 0.5 to 5 km sec(-1) . The RMS speed is 2.4 km sec(-1) over an average range of 2100 km (3\\arcsec). Continual fragmentation and merging of magnetic elements is the normal evolutionary mode for small-scale magnetic elements. The time scale for the dynamics is approximately 6--8 minutes, but significant morphological changes occur on time scales as short as 100 seconds. Analysis of the tracks of individual elements yields a diffusion coefficient of 224.8+/-0.2 {km}(2{sec}(-1)) . Indications of anomolous diffusivity consistent with diffusion on a fractal geometry are found. This research was supported by the SOI-MDI NASA contract NAG5-3077 at Stanford University and NASA contract NAS8-39747 and independent research funds at Lockheed-Martin.

Berger, T.

1996-05-01

257

The Industries of the Future Program: What's in it for Texas Industries?  

E-print Network

Department of Energy's Industries of the Future. At the federal level, there are nine Industries of the Future: refining, chemicals, aluminum, steel, metal casting, glass, mining, agriculture, and forest products. These industries were selected because...

Ferland, K. A.

258

77 FR 22612 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program  

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Entering Industry: A Case Study of Links between a School Vocational Program and the Building and Construction Industry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies have tracked youth transition beyond the immediate post-school period or have looked at the longer-term outcomes of post-school programs. This study reports the findings of a case study investigating links between an industry-specific school vocational education and training (VET) program and subsequent work transitions to the building…

Taylor, Anthea

2004-01-01

279

SMALL SCALE WASTE-TO-ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES Claudine Ellyin  

E-print Network

and industrial wastes (e.g., hospital waste and sludge cake from wastewater treatment plants), it was concluded that reported co-combusting sludge cake (from wastewater treatment plants) 25% are of low capacity, ranging from to thermal treatment, the materials are shredded in a high-torque, low-rpm shredder and ferrous metals

280

Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Livestock Projects. Guidelines for Planning Series Number 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document was developed in response to the need for simplified technical information for planning environmentally sound small-scale projects in third world countries. It is aimed specifically at those who are planning or managing small-scale livestock projects in less-developed areas of the tropics and sub-tropics. The guidelines included in…

Jacobs, Linda

281

Use of Small-scale Disturbances to Establish Native Plants in an Abandoned Agricultural Field  

E-print Network

18 Use of Small-scale Disturbances to Establish Native Plants in an Abandoned Agricultural Field to become more abundant. We evaluated whether small-scale disturbances in an abandoned agricultural field species in abandoned agri- cultural oldfields because of the aggressive growth of the exotic, perennial

Meyer, Gretchen A.

282

The characteristics of sharp (small-scale) boundaries of solar wind plasma and magnetic field structures  

E-print Network

The characteristics of sharp (small-scale) boundaries of solar wind plasma and magnetic field investigate properties of large (>20%) and sharp (solar wind ion flux changes using INTERBALL-1 are the boundaries of small-scale and mid- dle-scale solar wind structures. We describe the behavior of the solar

Richardson, John

283

Cultivation of maize landraces by small-scale shade coffee farmers in western El Salvador  

E-print Network

Cultivation of maize landraces by small-scale shade coffee farmers in western El Salvador Meryl 2011 Received in revised form 23 April 2012 Accepted 17 May 2012 Keywords: Coffee Maize Central America of research on other productive areas man- aged by small-scale coffee farmers such as subsistence maize

Vermont, University of

284

Small-Scale and Niche Market Pork Production Conference Proceedings of  

E-print Network

Small-Scale and Niche Market Pork Production Conference 1 Proceedings of: Small ­Scale and Niche Market Pork Production Conference Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center (TAREC) Suffolk, VA October 26 ­ 27, 2012 Table of Contents Corporate and small-scale and niche market pork production

Liskiewicz, Maciej

285

Testing of pyrolysis oil emulsions in small scale boiler pumps: preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of Pyrolysis Oil (PO, also called Bio Crude Oil) in small scale domestic oil boilers represents a very interesting potential market. However, it is well known that the corrosive and aggressive characteristics of PO (compared to those of Light Fuel Oil, LFO) makes very difficult its use, expecially in small scale systems. Metallic components are subject to fast

David Chiaramonti

286

SMALL-SCALE DISTRIBUTION OF WINTERING TERRESTRIAL SNAILS IN FOREST SITE: RELATION TO HABITAT CONDITIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of our study was to as- sess the small scale distribution (up to several m 2 ) of hibernating forest-dwelling snails in relation to small-scale environmental factors, like litter com- position, soil temperature and humidity or vegeta- tion cover. The study was conducted in the \\

Krystyna SZYBIAK

2009-01-01

287

A Systematic Computational Procedure for Assessing Small-Scale Cogeneration Application Schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As known the small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) technology is used in the context of distributed generation (DG). The heat produced from a small-scale CHP system may also be used for cooling purposes (trigeneration) in combination with absorption chillers. In the liberalized energy market, besides their technical adequacy, the CHP systems must prove their economic attractiveness. In this paper

Panagiotis A. Katsigiannis; Demetrios P. Papadopoulos

2007-01-01

288

Experiment in Materials Processing Engineering Education: The Industrial Internship Program. Interim Report on Task "A".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem of productivity and its impact on manufacturing engineering is the main focus of a program designed to develop a university-industry relationship that will provide professional training to students and input into the manufacturing industry. The current status of existing university-industry interaction at the foreign and domestic…

Weinmann, K. J.; And Others

289

University-Industry Cooperative Research Programs in the Mathematical Sciences  

NSF Publications Database

The Division of Mathematical Sciences (DMS) supports this relationship through the university-industry postdoctoral research fellowships, university-industry senior research fellowships, industry-based graduate research assistantships, and industry-based graduate cooperative fellowships described in this solicitation. More comprehensive information on NSF Award Conditions is contained in the NSF Grant Policy Manual (GPM) Chapter II, available electronically on the NSF Website at http://www....

290

Michigan reconsiders subsidy programs for the film industry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hollywood on the dole: Draw the curtain on filmmaker subsidieshttp://www.economist.com/blogs/democracyinamerica/2011/03/hollywood_doleSenate approves $50M cap on NM film subsidieshttp://www.businessweek.com/ap/financialnews/D9M0DCRO2.htmLights. Camera. Stop the film subsidies action.http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/editorial_opinion/oped/articles/2011/02/19/lights_camera_stop_the_film_subsidies_action/Hollywood's disc problem: Video nastyhttp://www.economist.com/node/18388998Michigan Movie Magazinehttp://www.michiganmoviemagazine.biz/Amidst many programs designed to deal with the fiscal realities of tightening state budgets, some policymakers and legislators are reconsidering the practice of offering subsidies to film production companies. Recently, the state of Michigan has been contemplating abolishing their 42% tax credit for film production; effectively rolling back what are unlimited industry rebates to an annual cap of $25 million. Michigan's new governor, Rick Snyder, proposed the cut in his most recent budget proposal, and some have responded quite negatively to this proposal. A number of prominent local personages have spoken out against the cut, including best-selling author Mitch Albom, who pointed out in a committee hearing last week that the film and television business in the state grew from $2 million in $225 million in two years. Currently there are 43 studios with pending applications to film in Michigan, and the Michigan Film Office cannot approve them until a final decision is reached by the legislature, which may not come until late May. Nationwide, there is significant debate about the true long term benefits of such subsidies, and other states (such as New Mexico) are also considering gradually reducing or eliminating these tax benefits entirely.The first link will take interested parties to a piece from Fortune, which describes the proposed program to scale back subsidies for film production companies in the Wolverine State. The second link leads to a recent piece from The Economist which argues against providing subsidies to such endeavors. The third link will take visitors to an article from last week's Bloomberg Businessweek which reports on New Mexico's recent decision to cap film production studies. Moving on, the fourth link will take users to a Boston Globe editorial by Professor Peter Enrich in which he argues for an end to film production subsidies in Massachusetts. The fifth link leads to a piece from The Economist which talks about how the movie industry itself should focus more on digital distribution, rather than to continue to rely on their work renting film to cinema chains and shipping DVDs and such to retailers and the remaining rental outlets. The final link will take visitors to the online home of the Michigan Movie Magazine, which provides industry news about film productions and related matters in the state.

Grinnell, Max

2011-03-26

291

THE PARTNERSHIP VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROJECT, A NEW PROGRAM IN INDUSTRIAL-TECHNICAL EDUCATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PROPOSED PROGRAM TO IMPROVE INDUSTRIAL-TECHNICAL EDUCATION WILL FUNCTION ON THREE LEVELS--UNIVERSITY, COMMUNITY COLLEGE, AND HIGH SCHOOL. IN GRADES 9 AND 10, THE PROGRAM WILL CONSIST OF A STUDY OF AMERICAN INDUSTRY. IN GRADES 11 AND 12, THERE WILL BE A 2-YEAR SEQUENCE OF FOUR MAJOR COURSES IN ENGLISH, SCIENCE, MATHEMATICS, AND…

MINELLI, ERNEST L.

292

Tools for Schools. Defense Industrial Reserve Loan Program. Public Law 93-155, 93rd Congress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure describes the "Tools for Schools" Loan Program and includes guidelines for preparation of an application for a loan of industrial manufacturing equipment from the Defense Industrial Reserve (DIR). The first section is in question-and-answer form and describes the program through which equipment from DIR may be loaned to any nonprofit…

Defense Logistics Agency (DOD), Memphis, TN.

293

Apiculture de Petite Eschelle (Small Scale Beekeeping). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Manual Series No. M-26.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This French-language manual is designed to assist Peace Corps volunteers in French-speaking countries in the implementation of small-scale beekeeping programs as a tool for development. Addressed in the individual chapters are bees and humans; project planning; the types and habits of bees; the essence of beekeeping; bee space and beehives;…

Gentry, Curtis

294

La Apaicultura de Pequena Escala (Small Scale Beekeeping). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Manual Series No. M-25.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Spanish-language manual is designed to assist Peace Corps volunteers in Spanish-speaking countries in the implementation of small-scale beekeeping programs as a tool for development. Addressed in the individual chapters are bees and humans; project planning; the types and habits of bees; the essence of beekeeping; bee space and beehives;…

Gentry, Curtis

295

The Department of Energy`s Solar Industrial Program: 1994 review  

SciTech Connect

This is a report on DOE`s Solar Industrial Program. The topics of the report include an overview of the program, it`s participants and it`s objectives; solar detoxification--using solar energy to destroy environmental contaminants in air, water, and soil; solar process heat--generating industrial quantities of hot water, steam, and hot air from solar energy; and advanced processes--using concentrated solar energy to manufacture high-technology materials and develop new industrial processes.

NONE

1995-03-01

296

Industrial Energy: Counseling the Marriage Between Energy Users and Efficiency Programs  

E-print Network

Industrial Energy: Counseling the Marriage Between Energy Users and Efficiency Programs Christopher Russell, C.E.M., C.R.M Principal, Energy Pathfinder Management Consulting, LLC Visiting Fellow, American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy...INDUSTRIAL ENERGY: Counseling the Marriage Between Energy Users and Efficiency Programs Christopher Russell, Principal Energy PathFINDER .com (443) 636-7746 ESL-IE-13-05-04 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology...

Russell, C.

2013-01-01

297

Determination of elements for Industrial Hygiene and Safety Engineering programs at the Masters level  

E-print Network

DETERMINATION OF ELEMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE AND SAFETY ENGINEERING PROGRAMS AT THE MASTERS LEVEL A Thesis by JAMES EDWARD DUKE JR. Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene DETERMINATION OF ELEMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE AND SAFETY ENGINEERING PROGRAM% AT THE MASTERS LEVEL A Thesis by JAMES EDWARD DUKE JR. Submitted to Texas...

Duke, James Edward

1992-01-01

298

Summary of the Mid-Atlantic conference on small-scale hydropower in the Mid-Atlantic states: resolution of the barriers impeding its development  

SciTech Connect

The workshop was conducted to bring together interested persons to examine and discuss the major problems associated with small-scale hydroelectric dam development in the Mid-Atlantic region. The conference opened with an introductory panel which outlined the objectives and the materials available to conference participants. Two of the workshops discussed problems and policy responses raised by state and Federal regulation. The other two workshops concerned economic issues confronting small-scale hydro development and the operation and usefulness of the systems dynamics model under development by the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth. Various Federal and state programs designed to stimulate small-scale hydro development were discussed. A plenary session completed the workshops.

Not Available

1980-05-01

299

Profile of the chemicals industry in California: Californiaindustries of the future program  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) established the Industries of the Future (IOF) program to increase energy efficiency, reduce waste production and to improve competitiveness, currently focusing on nine sectors. The IOF is a partnership strategy involving industry, the research community and the government, working together to identify technology needs, promote industrial partnerships and implement joint measures with all partners involved. The State Industries of the Future (SIOF) program delivers the accomplishments of the national Industries of the Future strategy to the local level, to expand the technology opportunities to a larger number of partners and reach smaller businesses and manufacturers that were not initially involved in the IOF effort. The state programs bring together industry, academia, and state agencies to address the important issues confronting industry in the state. These public-private coalitions facilitate industry solutions locally and enhance economic development. California has started a State Industries of the Future effort, in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy. The California Energy Commission (CEC) is leading the SIOF program in California, as part of many other programs to improve the energy efficiency and performance of industries in California. The California State IOF program aims to build a network of participants from industry, academia and government in four selected industrial sectors as a basis for the development of a strategic partnership for industrial energy efficient technology in the state. In California the IOF effort focuses petroleum refining, chemical processing, food processing and electronics. As part of this effort, the SIOF program will develop roadmaps for technology development for the selected sectors. On the basis of the roadmap, the program will develop successful projects with co-funding from state and federal government, and promote industry-specific energy-efficiency. An important element of the SIOF-program is the preparation of R&D roadmaps for each of the selected industries. The roadmap will help to identify priority needs for the participating industries to meet their energy challenges. The roadmap effort builds on the roadmaps developed by DOE, and on the conditions specific for the industry in California. Key to the successful preparation of a roadmap in the selected industries is the development of a profile of the industries. The profile provides a basis for the participants in the roadmap-effort, especially as the structure of the industries in California can be different than in the nation. The sector profiles describe the current economic and energy situation of these industries in California, the processes and energy uses, and the potential future developments in each industry. The profiles are an integral part of the roadmap, to help working group partners to evaluate the industry's R&D needs for their industry in California. In this report, we focus on the chemicals industry. The industry is an important economic factor in the state, providing over 82,300 jobs directly, and more in indirect employment. Value of shipments in 2001 was just under $25.7 Billion, or 6% of all manufacturing in California. There are over 1,500 chemical plants in California, of which 52% are pharmaceutical companies. Many companies operate chemical plants in California. The industry consumes 8% of the electricity and 5% of the natural gas in California. In this report, we start with a description of the chemical industry in the United States and California. This is followed by a discussion of the energy consumption and energy intensity of the Californian chemical industry. Chapter 3 focuses on the main sub-sectors. For each of the sub-sectors a general process description is provided in Chapter 4. Based on this analysis, in Chapter 5, we discuss potential technology developments that can contribute to further improving the energy efficiency in chemical plants, with a focus on the situation in California.

Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst

2004-06-01

300

Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments, FY 1995  

SciTech Connect

In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This report contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Subject areas covered are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

NONE

1996-04-01

301

Waste treatment and biogas quality in small-scale agricultural digesters.  

PubMed

Seven low-cost digesters in Costa Rica were studied to determine the potential of these systems to treat animal wastewater and produce renewable energy. The effluent water has a significantly lower oxygen demand (COD decreased from 2,968 mg/L to 472 mg/L) and higher dissolved nutrient concentration (NH(4)-N increased by 78.3% to 82.2mg/L) than the influent water, which increases the usefulness of the effluent as an organic fertilizer and decreases its organic loading on surface waters. On average, methane constituted 66% of the produced biogas, which is consistent with industrial digesters. Through principle component analysis, COD, turbidity, NH(4)-N, TKN, and pH were determined to be the most useful parameters to characterize wastewater. The results suggest that the systems have the ability to withstand fluctuations in the influent water quality. This study revealed that small-scale agricultural digesters can produce methane at concentrations useful for cooking, while improving the quality of the livestock wastewater. PMID:18036816

Lansing, Stephanie; Botero, Raúl Botero; Martin, Jay F

2008-09-01

302

Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion for small scale market sectors. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to demonstrate and promote the commercialization of coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) systems, with limestone addition for SO{sub 2} emissions control and a baghouse for particulate emissions control. This AFBC system was targeted for small scale industrial-commercial-institutional space and process heat applications. A cost effective and environmentally acceptable AFBC technology in this size range would displace a considerable amount of gas/oil with coal while resulting in significant total cost savings to the owner/operators. In the Proof-of-Concept Phase, a 2.2 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr unit was installed and successfully operated at Cedar Lane Farms (CLF), a commercial nursery in Ohio. The heat from the fluidized bed was used to heat hot water which was recirculated through greenhouses for cool weather heating. The system was designed to be fully automated with minimal operator attention required. The AFBC system installed at CLF was an improved design that incorporated flyash/sorbent reinjection and an underbed feed system to improve limestone utilization. With these additions it was possible to lower the Ca/S ratio from {approximately} 3.0 to 2.0, and still maintain an SO{sub 2} emissions level of 1.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu when burning the same high sulfur Ohio coal tested at OARDC.

Ashworth, R.A.; Plessinger, D.A.; Sommer, T.M. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Orville, OH (United States); Keener, H.M. [Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, OH (United States); Webner, R.L. [Will-Burt Co., Orrville, OH (United States)

1997-03-31

303

Satellite observations of the small-scale cyclonic eddies in the western South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution ocean color observation offers an opportunity to investigate the oceanic small-scale processes. In this study, The Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) daily 300 m data are used to study small-scale processes in the western South China Sea. It is indicated that the cyclonic eddies with horizontal scales of the order of 10 km are frequently observed during upwelling season of each year over 2004-2009. These small-scale eddies are generated in the vicinity of the southern front of the cold tongue, and then propagate eastward with a speed of approximately 12 cm s-1. This propagation speed is consistent with the velocity of the western boundary current. As a result, the small-scale eddies keep rotating high levels of the phytoplankton away from the coastal areas, resulting in the accumulation of phytoplankton in the interior of the eddies. The generation of the small-scale eddies may be associated with strengthening of the relative movement between the rotation speed of the anticylconic mesoscale eddies and the offshore transport. With the increases of the normalized rotation speed of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies relative to the offshore transport, the offshore current become meander under the impacts of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies. The meandered cold tongue and instability front may stimulate the generation of the small-scale eddies. Unidirectional uniform wind along cold tongue may also contribute to the formation of the small-scale eddies.

Liu, F.; Tang, S.; Chen, C.

2014-09-01

304

Satellite observations of the small-scale cyclonic eddies in the western South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution ocean color observations offer an opportunity to investigate the oceanic small-scale processes. In this study, the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) daily 300 m data were used to study small-scale processes in the western South China Sea. It is indicated that the cyclonic eddies with horizontal scales of 10 km are frequently observed during the upwelling season of each year over the 2004-2009 period. These small-scale eddies were generated in the vicinity of the southern front of the cold tongue, and then propagated eastward with a speed of approximately 12 cm s-1. This propagation speed was consistent with the velocity of the western boundary current. As a result, the small-scale eddies kept the high levels of phytoplankton rotating away from the coastal areas, resulting in the accumulation of phytoplankton in the interior of the eddies. The generation of the small-scale eddies may be associated with strengthening of the relative movement between the rotation speed of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies and the offshore transport. With the increases of the normalized rotation speed of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies relative to the offshore transport, the offshore current became a meander under the impacts of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies. The meandered cold tongue and instability front may stimulate the generation of the small-scale eddies. Unidirectional uniform wind along the cold tongue may also contribute to the formation of the small-scale eddies.

Liu, F.; Tang, S.; Chen, C.

2015-01-01

305

Small scale wind tunnel model investigation of hybrid high lift systems combining upper surface blowing with the internally blown flap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A small-scale wind tunnel test of a two engine hybrid model with upper surface blowing on a simulated expandable duct internally blown flap was accomplished in a two phase program. The low wing Phase I model utilized 0.126c radius Jacobs/Hurkamp flaps and 0.337c radius Coanda flaps. The high wing Phase II model was utilized for continued studies on the Jacobs/Hurkamp flap. Principal study areas included: basic data both engines operative and with an engine out, control flap utilization, horizontal tail effectiveness, spoiler effectiveness, USB nacelle deflector study and USB/IBF pressure ratio effects.

Waites, W. L.; Chin, Y. T.

1974-01-01

306

Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project. Pennsylvania Hydroelectric Development Corporation Flat Rock Dam: Project summary report  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

Gleeson, L.

1991-12-01

307

Binary Quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Evidence for Excess Clustering on Small Scales  

E-print Network

We present a sample of 218 new quasar pairs with proper transverse separations R_prop 3 Mpc/h quasar correlation function, extrapolated down as a power law to the separations probed by our binaries. The excess grows to ~ 30 at R_prop ~ 10 kpc/h, and provides compelling evidence that the quasar autocorrelation function gets progressively steeper on sub-Mpc scales. This small scale excess can likely be attributed to dissipative interaction events which trigger quasar activity in rich environments. Recent small scale measurements of galaxy clustering and quasar-galaxy clustering are reviewed and discussed in relation to our measurement of small scale quasar clustering.

Hennawi, J F; Oguri, M; Inada, N; Richards, G T; Pindor, B; Schneider, D P; Becker, R H; Gregg, M D; Hall, P B; Johnston, D E; Fan, X; Burles, S; Schlegel, D J; Gunn, J E; Lupton, R; Bahcall, Neta A; Brunner, R J; Brinkmann, J; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Strauss, Michael A.; Oguri, Masamune; Inada, Naohisa; Richards, Gordon T.; Pindor, Bartosz; Schneider, Donald P.; Becker, Robert H.; Gregg, Michael D.; Hall, Patrick B.; Johnston, David E.; Fan, Xiaohui; Burles, Scott; Schlegel, David J.; Gunn, James E.; Lupton, Robert; Bahcall, Neta A.; Brunner, Robert J.; Brinkman, Jon

2006-01-01

308

Markets for small-scale, advanced coal-combustion technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the potential of using US-developed advanced coal technologies (ACTs) for small combustors in foreign markets; in particular, the market potentials of the member countries of the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) were determined. First, the United States and those OECD countries with very low energy demands were eliminated. The remaining 15 countries were characterized on the basis of eight factors that would influence their decision to use US ACTs: energy plan and situation, dependence on oil and gas imports, experience with coal, residential/commercial energy demand, industrial energy demand, trade relationship with the United States, level of domestic competition with US ACT manufacturers, and environmental pressure to use advanced technology. Each country was rated high, medium-high, low-medium, or low on each factor, based on statistical and other data. The ratings were then used to group the countries in terms of their relative market potential (good, good but with impediments, or limited). The best potential markets appear to be Spain, Italy, turkey, Greece, and Canada. 25 refs., 1 fig., 37 tabs.

Placet, M.; Kenkeremath, L.D.; Streets, D.G.; Dials, G.E.; Kern, D.M.; Nehring, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.

1988-12-01

309

The Department of Energy`s Solar Industrial Program: 1995 review  

SciTech Connect

During 1995, the Department of Energy`s Solar Industrial (SI) Program worked to bring the benefits of solar energy to America`s industrial sector. Scientists and engineers within the program continued the basic research, applied engineering, and economic analyses that have been at the heart of the Program`s success since its inception in 1989. In 1995, all three of the SI Program`s primary areas of research and development--solar detoxification, advanced solar processes, and solar process heat--succeeded in increasing the contribution made by renewable and energy-efficient technologies to American industry`s sustainable energy future. The Solar Detoxification Program develops solar-based pollution control technologies for destroying hazardous environmental contaminants. The Advanced Solar Processes Program investigates industrial uses of highly concentrated solar energy. The Solar Process Heat Program conducts the investigations and analyses that help energy planners determine when solar heating technologies--like those that produce industrial-scale quantities of hot water, hot air, and steam--can be applied cost effectively. The remainder of this report highlights the research and development conducted within in each of these subprograms during 1995.

NONE

1996-04-01

310

Manufacturing improvement team programs in the semiconductor industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing numbers of semiconductor manufacturers are implementing improvement programs at their manufacturing sites (fabs). Yet despite their rising popularity, little attention has focused on the impact of a program's design on its overall effectiveness. This research examines the improvement programs established at ten fabs. A categorization scheme classifies programs according to their use of one of three types of teams:

Diane E. Bailey

1997-01-01

311

NSLS Industrial User Enhancement Plan The overall goal of this plan for enhancing the NSLS Industrial Users' Program is to encourage greater  

E-print Network

NSLS Industrial User Enhancement Plan The overall goal of this plan for enhancing the NSLS Industrial Users' Program is to encourage greater use of synchrotron tools by industry researchers, improve access to NSLS beamlines by industrial researchers, and facilitate research collaborations

Ohta, Shigemi

312

Expanding the Industrial Assessment Center Program: Building an Industrial Efficiency Workforce  

E-print Network

broader sense on the larger energy efficiency community, which requires energy efficiency experts for energy modeling, audit services, research and development, education, and policy. ESL-IE-09-05-40 Proceedings of the Thirty-First Industrial... be spread geographically to cover the needs of industry across the nation, and each CoE would develop internal expertise most relevant to the primary industries in their region. In addition to guiding the satellite centers, the CoE's would typically...

Trombley, D.; Elliott, R. N.; Chittum, A.

313

Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments, FY 1997  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. A fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrates on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support. Assessments of materials needs and opportunities in the process industries are an on-going effort within the program. These assessments are being used for program planning and priority setting, followed by support of work to satisfy those needs. All the industries have identified materials as critical, particularly for high-temperature strength, corrosion resistance, and wear resistance. Also important from the energy efficiency viewpoint are membranes, catalytic membranes, and reactors for separations, both for processing and waste reduction. AIM focuses, therefore, on high-temperature materials, corrosion resistant materials, wear resistant materials, strong polymers, coatings, and membrane materials for industrial applications.

NONE

1998-05-01

314

Small-scale mechanical characterization of viscoelastic adhesive systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aero engine hot end components are often covered with ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs). Laser drilling in the TBC coated components can be a source of service life TBC degradation and spallation. The present study aims to understand the mechanisms of TBC delamination and develop techniques to drill holes without damaging the TBC, Nimonic 263 workpieces coated with TBC are used in the experiments. Microwave non-destructive testing (NDT) is employed to monitor the integrity of the coating /substrate interfaces of the post-laser drilled materials. A numerical modelling technique is used to investigate the role of melt ejection on TBC delamination. The model accounts for the vapour and the assist gas flow effects in the process. Broadly, melt ejection induced mechanical stresses for the TBC coating / bond coating and thermal effects for the bond coating / substrate interfaces are found the key delamination mechanisms. Experiments are carried out to validate the findings from the model. Various techniques that enable laser drilling without damaging the TBC are demonstrated. Twin jet assisted acute angle laser drilling is one successful technique that has been analysed using the melt ejection simulation. Optimisation of the twin jet assisted acute angle laser drilling process parameters is carried out using Design of Experiments (DoE) and statistical modelling approaches. Finally, an industrial case study to develop a high speed, high quality laser drilling system for combustor cans is described. Holes are drilled by percussion and trepan drilling in TBC coated and uncoated Haynes 230 workpieces. The production rate of percussion drilling is significantly higher than the trepan drilling, however metallurgical hole quality and reproducibility is poor. A number of process parameters are investigated to improve these characteristics. Gas type and gas pressure effects on various characteristics of the inclined laser drilled holes are investigated through theoretical and experimental work.

Shean, T. A. V.

315

Mechanical Behavior of Small-Scale Channels in Acid-etched Fractures  

E-print Network

are assigned a conductivity because of small-scale roughness features using a correlation obtained from laboratory measurements of acid fracture conductivity as a function of closure stress. The overall conductivity of the fracture is then obtained...

Deng, Jiayao

2011-02-22

316

Small scale hydroelectric power potential in Nevada: a preliminary reconnaissance survey  

SciTech Connect

This preliminary reconnaissance survey is intended to: develop a first estimate as to the potential number, location and characteristics of small-scale (50 kW to 15 MW) hydroelectric sites in Nevada; provide a compilation of various Federal and state laws and regulations, including tax and financing regulations, that affect small-scale hydroelectric development and provide information on sources of small-scale hydroelectric generation hardware and consultants/ contractors who do small scale hydroelectric work. The entire survey has been conducted in the office working with various available data bases. The site survey and site evaluation methods used are described, and data are tabulated on the flow, power potential, predicted capital expenditures required, etc. for 61 potential sites with measured flows and for 77 sites with derived flows. A map showing potential site locations is included. (LCL)

Cochran, G.F.; Fordham, J.W.; Richard, K.; Loux, R.

1981-04-01

317

Small-scale hydroelectric power in the Pacific Northwest: new impetus for an old energy source  

SciTech Connect

Energy supply is one of the most important issues facing Northwestern legislators today. To meet the challenge, state legislatures must address the development of alternative energy sources. The Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Policy Project of the National Conference of State Legislators (NCSL) was designed to assist state legislators in looking at the benefits of one alternative, small-scale hydro. Because of the need for state legislative support in the development of small-scale hydroelectric, NCSL, as part of its contract with the Department of Energy, conducted the following conference on small-scale hydro in the Pacific Northwest. The conference was designed to identify state obstacles to development and to explore options for change available to policymakers. A summary of the conference proceedings is presented.

Not Available

1980-07-01

318

Thermal design of humidification dehumidification systems for affordable and small-scale desalination  

E-print Network

The humidification dehumidification (HDH) technology is a carrier-gas-based thermal desalination technique ideal for application in a small-scale system but, currently, has a high cost of water production (about 30 $/mł ...

Govindan, Prakash Narayan

2012-01-01

319

Radiation and dissipation of internal waves generated by geostrophic motions impinging on small-scale topography  

E-print Network

Observations and inverse models suggest that small-scale turbulent mixing is enhanced in the Southern Ocean in regions above rough topography. The enhancement extends 1 km above the topography suggesting that mixing is ...

Nikurashin, Maxim (Maxim Anatolevich)

2009-01-01

320

Nonlinear Generation of shear flows and large scale magnetic fields by small scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EGU2009-233 Nonlinear Generation of shear flows and large scale magnetic fields by small scale turbulence in the ionosphere by G. Aburjania Contact: George Aburjania, g.aburjania@gmail.com,aburj@mymail.ge

Aburjania, G.

2009-04-01

321

Statewide Clam Industry Task Force addresses research and educational needs New Research Program 1  

E-print Network

Statewide Clam Industry Task Force addresses research and educational needs New Research Program 1 State Clam Task Force 1 Crop Diversification 2 2006 Clam Seed Suppliers 3 2006 Clam Bag Suppliers 4 Research Update 5 CLAMunications 6 USDA Programs 2 Research program to support Florida's clam aquaculture

Florida, University of

322

Career Preparation Program Curriculum Guide for: Hospitality/Tourism Industry (Food Services).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum outline provides secondary and postsecondary instructors with detailed information on student learning outcomes for completion of the food services program requirements in the hospitality/tourism industry. A program overview discusses the aims of education; secondary school philosophy; and career preparation programs and their…

British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria. Curriculum Development Branch.

323

Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Maryland  

SciTech Connect

The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level in Maryland are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The dual regulatory system is examined with the aim of creating a more orderly understanding of the vagaries of the system, focusing on the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. In Maryland, by common law rule, title to all navigable waters and to the soil below the high-water mark of those waters is vested in the state as successor to the Lord Proprietary who had received it by grant from the Crown. Rights to non-navigable water, public trust doctrine, and eminent domain are also discussed. Direct and indirect regulations, continuing obligations, loan programs, and regional organizations are described in additional sections.

None,

1980-05-01

324

Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Bio-Based and Fossil Fuels  

SciTech Connect

Technology Management, Inc. (TMI) of Cleveland, Ohio, has completed the project entitled â??Small Scale SOFC Demonstration using Bio-based and Fossil Fuels.â?ť Under this program, two 1-kW systems were engineered as technology demonstrators of an advanced technology that can operate on either traditional hydrocarbon fuels or renewable biofuels. The systems were demonstrated at Patterson's Fruit Farm of Chesterland, OH and were open to the public during the first quarter of 2012. As a result of the demonstration, TMI received quantitative feedback on operation of the systems as well as qualitative assessments from customers. Based on the test results, TMI believes that > 30% net electrical efficiency at 1 kW on both traditional and renewable fuels with a reasonable entry price is obtainable. The demonstration and analysis provide the confidence that a 1 kW entry-level system offers a viable value proposition, but additional modifications are warranted to reduce sound and increase reliability before full commercial acceptance.

Michael Petrik; Robert Ruhl

2012-03-31

325

Small-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Cesium and Technetium from Hanford Tank 241-AN-103  

SciTech Connect

The pretreatment process for BNFL, Inc.'s Hanford River Protection Project is to provide decontaminated low activity waste and concentrated eluate streams for vitrification into low activity and high level waste glass, respectively. The pretreatment includes sludge washing, filtration, precipitation, and ion exchange processes to remove entrained solids, cesium, transuranics, technetium, and strontium. The ion exchange removal of cesium (Cs) and technetium (Tc) ions is accomplished by using SuperLig 644, and 639 resins from IBC Advanced Technologies, American Fork, Utah. The resins were shown to selectively remove cesium and technetium (as pertechnetate), from alkaline salt solutions. The efficiency of ion exchange column loading and elution is a complex function involving feed compositions, equilibrium and kinetic behavior of ion exchange resins, diffusion, and the ionic strength and pH of the aqueous solution. A previous experimental program completed at the Savannah River Technology Center demonstrated the conceptualized flow sheet parameters with a similar Hanford tank sample (241-AW-101). Those experiments included determination of Cs and Tc batch distribution coefficients by SuperLig 644 and 639 resins and demonstration of small-scale column breakthrough and elution. The experimental findings were used in support of preliminary design bases and pretreatment flow sheet development by BNFL, Inc.

Hassan, N.M.

2000-07-27

326

Graduate Programs in Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering The industrial and manufacturing (IME) department at WSU  

E-print Network

systems, ergonomics/human factors, or manufacturing systems engineering. In order to be admitted to the Ph. Ergonomics/Human Factors. Emphases include industrial ergonomics; bio-mechanics; human-machine systems; occupational safety and other industrial hygiene issues; and ergonomics and human factors issues in aviation

327

Review of a State Industrial Efficiency Program: Texas Industries of the Future  

E-print Network

. Some of the accomplishments are noted below: • 59 out of the top 195 or 30 % of the largest industrial sites have staff that attended Texas IOF events. The goal was to reach 25 % of the largest industrial plants in Texas. • Best Practice trainings...

Ferland, K.

2008-01-01

328

Unit-Credit Titles under Program Headings, Directory. Technology Education: Vocational Industrial, Industrial Arts, Home Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory lists the unit-credit titles of the technology education courses offered in Manitoba, along with their corresponding department codes and course numbers. Sections A through C list the unit-credit titles of the following vocational-industrial clusters: heavy industrial (agriculture, auto body repair, building construction, building…

Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg. Curriculum Services Branch.

329

Surgical-site infection surveillance at a small-scale community hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveillance of surgical-site infection (SSI) is becoming more important given the current situation of increasing antibiotic resistance by microorganisms. It may be difficult to carry out SSI surveillance at small-scale community hospitals because of small staff numbers. We examined whether SSI surveillance could be carried out with a system we devised. Furthermore, we investigated the SSI rateat our small-scale community

Takashi Saito; Yoji Aoki; Kazuo Ebara; Shunichi Hirai; Yasuhiro Kitamura; Yosinobu Kasaoka; Yoshihiro Mori; Yoshitsugu Iinuma; Satoshi Ichiyama; Fumikazu Kohi

2005-01-01

330

Spatio-Temporal Fusion for Small-scale Primary Detection in Cognitive Radio Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cognitive radio networks (CRNs), detecting small-scale primary devices---such as wireless microphones (WMs)---is a challenging, but very important, problem that has not yet been addressed well. We identify the data-fusion range as a key factor that enables effective cooperative sensing for detection of small-scale primary devices. In particular, we derive a closed-form expression for the optimal data-fusion range that minimizes

Alexander W. Min; Xinyu Zhang; Kang G. Shin

2010-01-01

331

Spatio-Temporal Fusion for Small-scale Primary Detection in Cognitive Radio Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cognitive radio networks (CRNs), detecting small- scale primary devices—such as wireless microphones (WMs)— is a challenging, but very important, problem that has not yet been addressed well. We identify the data-fusion range as a key factor that enables effective cooperative sensing for detection of small-scale primary devices. In particular, we derive a closed-form expression for the optimal data-fusion range

Alexander W. Min; Xinyu Zhang; Kang G. Shin

2010-01-01

332

Off-design simulation and mathematical modeling of small-scale CHP plants at part loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work a mathematical model of combined heat and power (CHP) plants at part loads was developed on the basis of off-design simulations of four existing small-scale (1–20MWe) CHP plants. The deregulation of the electricity market and the regional availability of biofuels have given new opportunities for small-scale CHP plants. These plants are often operated for long time periods

Tuula Savola; Ilkka Keppo

2005-01-01

333

Extreme sensitivity of the YORP effect to small-scale topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation recoil (YORP) torques are shown to be extremely sensitive to small-scale surface topography, using numerical simulations. Starting from a set of “base objects” representative of the near-Earth object population, random realizations of three types of small-scale topography are added: Gaussian surface fluctuations, craters, and boulders. For each, the expected relative errors in the spin and obliquity components of the

Thomas S. Statler

2009-01-01

334

Study on Ice Storage Characteristics of a Small-scale Storage Tank Filled with Ice Balls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently cool-thermal storage device is mainly used in large-scale air-conditioning system. The one adapted to small-scale air-conditioning system is still under developing. This paper introduces a set of residential central air-conditioning system, which is a small-scale ice storage air-conditioning system. Its advantage is depeaking the electricity grid load. Through theoretical calculation and experimental results of the heat transfer between the

Wang Jin; Wang Suying; Zhou Youtao

2010-01-01

335

Fish passage experience at small-scale hydro-electric power plants in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are more than 1,700 small-scale hydro-electric power stations in France today, which can be found on the majority of\\u000a rivers with migratory species in them. This article gives an overview of the different types of fish facilities in use at\\u000a these small-scale hydro plants. The relative advantages and drawbacks of each type of fish pass are discussed, with reference

Michel Larinier

2008-01-01

336

Fatigue of Small-Scale Metal Materials: From Micro to Nano-Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work considers currently-developed fatigue testing techniques and evaluation methods for the small-scale metal materials.\\u000a Then, a number of studies on fatigue damage behavior and fatigue properties are presented and highlighted as a function of\\u000a the length scales. The relationship between length-scale-dependent microstructure evolution and fatigue behavior is addressed\\u000a to understand fatigue damage mechanisms at small scales. Finally, the perspectives

G. P. Zhang; Z. G. Wang

337

Analytical Methods for Implementing Industrial Load Management Programs  

E-print Network

Many utilities have completed long-term planning studies and have shown that a load management program is cost effective. They are now actively implementing large-scale, system-wide programs such as demand subscription, interruptable rates, and time...

Hassig, N.; Chan, M.; Carlson, R.

1982-01-01

338

Industrial Arts Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains vocational education program courses standards for exploratory courses, practical arts courses, and job preparatory programs offered at the secondary or postsecondary level. Each program standard is composed of two parts: a curriculum framework and student performance standards. The curriculum framework includes four major…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

339

A Low Cost Energy Management Program at Engelhard Industries Division  

E-print Network

in technology related to precious metals and nonmetallic minerals. It manufactures high-performance chemical and precious metals products, including catalysts for the petroleum and automotive industries. Engelhard's energy costs have risen dramatically over...

Brown, T. S.; Michalek, R.; Reiter, S.

1982-01-01

340

Demonstration and theoretical basis of energy-efficient high recovery small-scale brackish reverse osmosis system.  

E-print Network

??An innovative small-scale reverse osmosis (RO) system was developed for energy-efficient brackish desalination at high-recovery. The small-scale RO system used such features as closed (pressurized)… (more)

Schuetze, Bryan David 1958-

2013-01-01

341

Program on purification of industrial waste water. Country paper: Botswana  

SciTech Connect

Botswana is a landlocked country which straddles the Tropic of Capricorn in the center of the Southern African plateau. The total land area of the country is 582,000 sq km and the population is about 1.3 million inhabitants. The climate is mainly arid or semi-arid. Most rivers are ephemeral and the water supply comes mainly from several thousand boreholes. A few dams have also been constructed to satisfy the ever increasing need for water in the urban areas, industrial as well as irrigation uses. Water is a very scarce commodity in Botswana and it has to be very well protected from any kind of pollution. This need is emphasized by the fact that a lot of wastewater is being generated due to rapid rate of industrialization because of favorable economic situation for the past few years. The main industries are at present mining and livestock industries. Besides tanning, metal plating, dairy and chemical industries, breweries are also causing pollution problems as well as oils and chemicals used in industries, garages and agriculture.

Magibisela, F.

1990-09-11

342

PROCEEDINGS: INDUSTRY BRIEFING ON EPA LIME/LIMESTONE WET SCRUBBING TEST PROGRAMS AUGUST 1978  

EPA Science Inventory

The proceedings document presentations made during the August 29, 1978 industry briefing conference which dealt with the status of EPA/IERL-RTP's flue gas desulfurization (FGD) research, development, and application programs. Subjects considered included: lime/limestone scrubbing...

343

78 FR 41333 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Public Meeting and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EERE-2013-BT-STD-0022] RIN 1904-AD00 Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial...Machines AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department...Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,...

2013-07-10

344

78 FR 72077 - Energy Efficiency Program for Industrial Equipment: Final Determination Classifying UL...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy [Docket...EERE-2013-BT-DET-0017] Energy Efficiency Program for Industrial Equipment...Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,...

2013-12-02

345

School Shops. Layouts, Justifications, Equipment for Trade and Industrial Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggestions for school shops are presented in three general areas--(1) planning, (2) layouts, and (3) tools and equipment. Within the planning area, two types of shop programs are discussed--(1) industrial arts education, and (2) trade and industrial education. Layouts and floor plans are provided for the following shops: auto mechanics, building…

Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson.

346

FINS: A Guide to the LaConner School District's Program In Fishing Industry Specialization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fishing Industry Specialization, or FINS, is a 2-year alternative education program designed in 1979 by the LaConner (Washington) School District to encourage high school completion by students wanting to enter the fishing industry. With encouragement from the Swinomish Indian Tribe and help from an active citizens advisory board, school officials…

Avery, Paul J.; And Others

347

INDUSTRY/UNIVERSITY COOPERATIVE GRADUATE STUDENT RESEARCH PROGRAM REQUEST FOR APPLICATIONS  

E-print Network

ownership rights within, the proposed partnering company. 4.0 SUBMISSION INSTRUCTIONS ApplicationsINDUSTRY/UNIVERSITY COOPERATIVE GRADUATE STUDENT RESEARCH PROGRAM REQUEST FOR APPLICATIONS 1 in cooperation with an industry partner, under the guidance of their UAH Dissertation or Thesis Advisor

Fork, Richard

348

Faculty for Factory: A University-Industry Link Program in Jordan  

E-print Network

Faculty for Factory: A University- Industry Link Program in Jordan Yousef Al Abdallat and Tarek A. Tutunji University of Jordan, Jordan Philadelphia University, Jordan Mechatronics REM 2012 Nov 21-23, 2012 the universities and the industry Faculty For Factory #12;Outline · Higher Education in Jordan · Mechatronics

349

Incidence of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria spp. in a small-scale mushroom production facility.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen of significant concern to the agricultural and food processing industry because of its ability to grow and persist in cool and moist environments and its association with listeriosis, a disease with a very high mortality rate. Although there have been no listeriosis outbreaks attributed to fresh mushrooms in the United States, retail surveys and recalls are evidence that L. monocytogenes contamination of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) can occur. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria spp., including L. monocytogenes, in a small-scale mushroom production facility on the campus of the Pennsylvania State University in the United States. Of 184 samples taken from five production zones within the facility, 29 (15.8%) samples were positive for Listeria spp. Among the Listeria spp. isolates, L. innocua was most prevalent (10.3%) followed by L. welshimeri (3.3%), L. monocytogenes (1.6%), and L. grayi (0.5%). L. monocytogenes was recovered only from the phase I raw material composting area. Isolates of L. monocytogenes were confirmed and serotyped by multiplex PCR. The epidemiological relatedness of the three L. monocytogenes isolates to those serotypes or lineages frequently encountered in listeriosis infections was determined by multi-virulence-locus sequence typing using six virulence genes, namely, prfA, inlB, inlC, dal, clpP, and lisR. The phylogenetic positions of the three isolates in the dendrogram prepared with data from other isolates of L. monocytogenes showed that all isolates were grouped with serotype 4a, lineage IIIA. To date, this serotype has rarely been reported in foodborne disease outbreaks. PMID:23575122

Viswanath, Prema; Murugesan, Latha; Knabel, Stephen J; Verghese, Bindhu; Chikthimmah, Naveen; Laborde, Luke F

2013-04-01

350

Operation of a Joint Utility/Industry Ambient Air Monitoring Program in the Houston Area  

E-print Network

OPERATION OF A JOINT UTILITY/INDUSTRY AMBIENT AIR MONITORING PROGRAM IN THE HOUSTON AREA JOHN A. KUSH Senior Environmental Specialist Houston Lighting -& Power Company Houston, Texas ABSTRACT The Houston Regional Monitoring Corporation... regarding particular air quality issues, it was recognized a cooperative effort of industry in Houston to implement a comprehensive regional air monitoring program was the most cost effective manner to provide participating firms with accurate ambient...

Kush, J. A.

351

The use of dried bakery products in a free-choice feeding method for small-scale broiler production.  

PubMed

Waste material from bakeries is an unconventional energy feed source which is available in sufficient quantities for use in small-scale broiler production in South Africa. Small-scale broiler producers do not have access to the computer programs required to balance home-mixed rations. This investigation confirms that the use of dried bakery products (DBP) in a 2-stage, free-choice method can be used to compensate for this lack. A total of 570 day-old male broiler chickens was assigned to 3 feeding treatments: the control group was fed a 2-stage feeding programme using standard commercial starter and grower rations. The 2nd group received a commercial starter ration up to Day 7 and was thereafter given a choice of a commercial starter ration with normal salt content (0.35%) and DBP. The 3rd group was fed a commercial starter ration up to Day 7, then offered a choice of commercial starter ration with a lower salt content (0.1%) and DBP. The low salt alternative was used to test whether the higher salt percentage in DBP influenced the choice of feed by the birds. It was found that the control group consumed significantly more feed (P < 0.05) and was significantly heavier (P < 0.05) than the experimental groups. However, there was no significant difference between the 2 experimental groups, which indicated that salt content did not play a role in the choice of ration. Feed consumption by both experimental groups was about one-third less than the control group, but the profit margin, as calculated using gross margin analysis, was approximately 15 % higher. It was therefore concluded that dried bakery products can be profitably incorporated as an energy feed source, using the free-choice feeding method, in small-scale broiler enterprises. PMID:15038423

Madiya, A T; McCrindle, C M E; Veary, C M; Bisschop, S P R

2003-12-01

352

The combined effect of plate motions and small-scale convection on mantle stirring efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth's mantle convection generates large scale, vigorous motions often thought to be the primary mechanism of mantle mixing. However, additional thermal instabilities may progressively develop below the lithospheric plates, leading to smaller scale convective motions. While there is a growing body of evidence supporting the presence of small-scale convective motions in the Earth's mantle, little is known about its contribution to the stirring of mantle heterogeneities. We therefore investigated the influence of small-scale convection on mantle stirring efficiency using numerical models of infinite Prandtl number convection with imposed surface ridge motion. We measured stirring efficiency using Finite Time Lyapunov Exponents, and we systematically varied the aspect ratio of the convective domain, and the plate Péclet number, Pe, which expresses the ridge half-spreading rate. For moderate Pe numbers, small-scale convection is well developed. However, at larger Pe numbers the development of small-scale convection is gradually inhibited. Mantle motion is closely related to its stirring efficiency. The coupled contribution of small scale convection and plate-driven flow to the efficiency of stirring leads to a non-monotone relationship between ridge spreading rates and mantle stirring efficiency, a more complex relationship than previously considered. Stirring efficiency first decreases with increasing ridge spreading rate until small-scale convection ceases completely. Beyond this point, a further increase in ridge spreading rate progressively enhances stirring efficiency via pure plate-driven flow. Our results indicate that: (i) both small scale convection and large scale flow contribute significantly to mantle stirring efficiency, (ii) mantle stirring efficiency may spatially vary significantly due to the local magnitude of plate velocity and plate age, (iii) the relationship between mantle stirring efficiency and large scale convective motions may be more complex than previously thought. These experiments provide an alternative to the interpretation of MORB isotopic variability, and may reconcile the apparent discrepancy of slow spreading ridges associated with small isotopic variability, as observed, for example, along the South West Indian Ridge.

samuel, H.; King, S. D.

2013-12-01

353

International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-SettingPrograms  

SciTech Connect

Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.

Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

2008-02-02

354

NASA Propagation Program Status and Propagation Needs of Satcom Industry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The program objective is to enable the development of new commercial satellite systems and services and to support NASA's programs by providing timely data and models about propagation of satellite radio signals though the intervening environment. Provisions include new services, higher frequencies, higher data rates, different environments (mobile, indoors, fixed), and different orbits (geostationary, low earth orbit).

Golshan, Nassar

1996-01-01

355

Teaching Resource Recovery in Industrial Arts. Resource Recovery Education Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, one component of the Resource Recovery Education Kit (See SO 007 866 for a description), contains ideas and activities for teaching about solid waste disposal in secondary level industrial arts classes. Among the course objectives are the following: (1) to understand that litter represents a small but highly visible portion of our…

National Center for Resource Recovery, Inc., Washington, DC.

356

Small scale effects on the mechanical behaviors of protein microtubules based on the nonlocal elasticity theory  

SciTech Connect

Based on the nonlocal elastic theory, small scale effects are considered in the investigation of the mechanical properties of protein microtubules. A new prediction formula for the persistence lengths of microtubules with the consideration of the small scale effect is presented. Subsequently, the buckling of microtubules is studied based on a nonlocal elastic beam model. The predicted results of our model indicate that the length-dependence of persistence length is related not only to the shear terms, but also to the small scale effect. The Eular beam model, which is always considered unable to explain the length-dependence of microtubules, can capture the length-dependence of the persistence length of microtubules with the consideration of the small scale effect. The elastic buckling behaviors of microtubules in viscoelastic surrounding cytoplasm are also considered using the nonlocal Timoshenko beam model in this paper, and the results indicate that the small scale effect of microtubules also plays an important role in the buckling of microtubules.

Gao, Yuanwen, E-mail: ywgao@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment, Ministry of Education, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment, Ministry of Education, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Lei, Fang-Ming [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment, Ministry of Education, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment, Ministry of Education, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

2009-09-25

357

Combine Effects of Plate Motions and Small-Scale Convection on Mantle Stirring Efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Convection in Earth's mantle generates large scale, vigorous motions often thought to be the primary mechanism of mantle stirring. However additional thermal instabilities may progressively develop below lithospheric plates, leading to smaller scale convective motions. While there is growing evidence supporting the presence of small-scale convection in Earth's mantle, little is known of its contribution to the mixing of mantle heterogeneities. We have thus investigated the influence of small-scale convection on mantle stirring efficiency using 2D numerical modeling of infinite Prandtl number convection with imposed surface plate motion and temperature and pressure dependent rheology. We measure stirring efficiency using Finite Time Lyapunov Exponents (FTLE) and we vary systematically the Peclet number, Pe, defined as the ratio of the advection time scale based on surface plate velocity to a characteristic diffusion time. Our computational domain has an aspect ratio of 1:3. For moderate Pe, small-scale convection is well developed, leading to efficient stirring. However large Pe numbers do not allow the development of small-scale convection and result in significantly lower stirring efficiency, although plate motions are faster. This indicates that (i) small-scale convection contributes significantly to mantle stirring efficiency, (ii) mantle stirring efficiency many spatially vary significantly due to the local magnitude of plate velocity and (iii) the relationship between mantle stirring efficiency and large-scale convective motions may be more complex than previously thought.

King, S.; Samuel, H.

2012-04-01

358

Synthesis of economic criteria in the design of electric utility industrial conservation programs in Costa Rica  

SciTech Connect

This paper lays out a set of economic criteria to guide the development of electricity conservation programs for industrial customers of the Costa Rican utilities. It puts the problem of utility and other public policy formulation in the industrial conservation field into the context of ongoing economic and trade liberalization in Costa Rica, as well as the financial and political pressures with which the country`s utilities must contend. The need to bolster utility financial performance and the perennial political difficulty of adjusting power rates for inflation and devaluation, not to mention maintaining efficient real levels, puts a premium on controlling the costs of utility conservation programs and increasing the degree of cost recovery over time. Industrial conservation programs in Costa Rica must adopt a certain degree of activation to help overcome serious market failures and imperfections while at the same time avoiding significant distortion of the price signals guiding the ongoing industrial rationalization process and the reactivation of growth.

Fisher, S.C.

1995-12-31

359

School-to-Work: A Business and Industry Program for Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Teacher Externship in Business and Industry summer program that provided teachers with first-hand experience of what today's work world is all about. Notes that teachers indicated the program would help them to prepare their students for the world of work. (SR)

Luft, Vernon D.

1997-01-01

360

Developing an Industry-Education Community: The United Auto Workers/General Motors Quality Educator Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we review the evolution of the Quality Educator Program (QEP), a program sponsored by the United Auto Workers (UAW)/General Motors (GM) that employs school teachers, administrators, and college and university faculty each summer in GM assembly plants. The QEP provides educators and those in industry the unique opportunity to interact…

Jacobson, Stephen; Walline, James

2010-01-01

361

Educating the Employed Disadvantaged for Upgrading. A Report on Remedial Education Programs in the Paper Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study to determine the impact of adult basic education programs on the upward mobility of disadvantaged workers is presented. The paper industry was chosen for case analysis because of the nature of the upgrading problems, the vast adjustments required by the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the fact that these ABE programs have been operational…

Rowan, Richard L.; Northrup, Herbert R.

362

General Safety Manual for Vocational-Technical Education and Industrial Arts Programs. Bulletin No. 1674.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to offer suggestions for teaching safety in Louisiana industrial arts and vocational education programs. The suggestions and information presented are intended for use in an ongoing safety program, not a short unit presented at the beginning of the school year. Following an introduction in unit 1, the material has been…

Dennis, Bill; Poston, David

363

Programming the American Aerospace Industry, 1954-1964: The Business Structures of Technical Transactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Program management swept through American industry in the 1950s and 1960s. The movement was championed by a new breed of program managers dedicated to the science of creating new technological systems. Their work was multidisciplinary but uni-motivational; they borrowed and experimented with any technique that served a technological system and its time economy. That in itself was not new. Thomas

Glenn E. Bugos

364

Career Preparation Program Curriculum Guide for: Hospitality/Tourism Industry (Tourist Services).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This career preparation curriculum outline for the hospitality/tourism industry is intended to provide secondary and postsecondary learning outcomes for completion of program requirements. The guide is organized into four sections. Section one presents an overview of the program, of the philosophy of career education, and of the organization and…

British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria. Curriculum Development Branch.

365

Utility energy conservation programs for the pulp and paper industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy conservation has been alive and well in the pulp and paper industry for many years. In the early 70s and 80s, each paper mill or organization worked independently to reduce their total energy consumption. Now in the 1990s, federal and state legislation (i.e. State of Minnesota Omnibus Energy Bill) make it advantageous for pulp and paper mills to share

P. L. Jackson; W. L. Bundschuh; M. D. Weaver; J. R. Thompson

1994-01-01

366

Reducing cosmological small scale structure via a large dark matter-neutrino interaction: constraints and consequences  

E-print Network

Cold dark matter explains a wide range of data on cosmological scales. However, there has been a steady accumulation of evidence for discrepancies between simulations and observations at scales smaller than galaxy clusters. Solutions to these small scale structure problems may indicate that simulations need to improve how they include feedback from baryonic matter, or may imply that dark matter properties differ from the standard cold, noninteracting scenario. One promising way to affect structure formation on small scales is a relatively strong coupling of dark matter to neutrinos. We construct an experimentally viable, simple, renormalizable, model with new interactions between neutrinos and dark matter. We show that addressing the small scale structure problems requires dark matter with a mass that is tens of MeV, and a present-day density determined by an initial particle-antiparticle asymmetry in the dark sector. Generating a sufficiently large dark matter-neutrino coupling requires a new heavy neutrino ...

Bertoni, Bridget; McKeen, David; Nelson, Ann E

2014-01-01

367

Transverse wave propagation in viscoelastic single-walled carbon nanotubes with small scale and surface effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general governing equation of transverse wave motion in a viscoelastic single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) adhered by surface material is formulated on the basis of the nonlocal elasticity theory and the Kelvin model. The properties of transverse wave propagation in the SWCNT are investigated. The explicit expressions are derived for the frequency and phase velocity of the wave motion. The small scale and surface effects and the influences of structural damping on the properties of wave propagation are elucidated. It is concluded that the frequency and phase velocity of transverse wave propagation in the viscoelastic SWCNT are related to the small scale, surface elasticity, residual surface tension, and structural damping. The small scale and surface effects and the impact of structural damping on the properties of transverse wave propagation are dependent upon the wave number and tube diameter.

Pang, M.; Zhang, Y. Q.; Chen, W. Q.

2015-01-01

368

AICD -- Advanced Industrial Concepts Division Biological and Chemical Technologies Research Program. 1993 Annual summary report  

SciTech Connect

The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1993 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1993 (ASR 93) contains the following: A program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives), program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1993, detailed descriptions of individual projects, a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work, patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

Petersen, G.; Bair, K.; Ross, J. [eds.

1994-03-01

369

(Technical and engineering support for the Office of Industrial Programs)  

SciTech Connect

As of April 19, 1991, technical, operational and analytic support and assistance to the offices and divisions of the Office of Renewable Energy, under contract DE-AC01-86CE30844 was completed. The overall work effort, initiated February 20, 1986, was characterized by timely, comprehensive, high quality, professional responsiveness to a broad range of renewable energy program operational support requirements. These are no instances of failure to respond, nor unacceptable response, during the five-year period. The technology program areas covered are Solar Buildings Technology, Wind Energy Technology, Photovoltaic Energy Technology, Geothermal Energy Technology, Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology, Solar Thermal Technology, Hydropower Energy Technology, Ocean Energy Technology, and Electric Energy Systems and Energy Storage. The analytical and managerial support provided to the office and staff of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Renewable Energy enabled a comprehensive evaluation of program and policy alternatives, and the selection and execution of appropriate courses of action from amongst those alternatives. Largely through these means the Office has been able to maintain continuity and a meaningful program thrust through the vacillations of policies and budgets that it has experienced over that it has experienced over the past five years. Appended are summaries of support activities within each of the individual technology program areas, as well as a complete listing of all project deliverables and due-dates for each submittal under the contract.

Not Available

1991-01-01

370

Small-scale biological, physical and chemical signals in the sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plankton operate at low to intermediate Reynolds numbers, generating watery signals that can be attenuated by viscosity and confused with small-scale turbulence. Yet messages are created, transmitted, perceived and recognized. These messages guide essential survival tasks of aquatic micro crustaceans. Cues created include those of escaping prey, lunging predators, attractive mates, and appropriate hosts. In this presentation, I describe some unusual and some typical examples of small-scale biological-physical-chemical signals in the sea that help to maintain the integrity of our aquatic ecosystems.

Yen, Jeannette

2010-11-01

371

An Evaluation of a Training Program in Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the extent to which the Analytic Trouble Shooting Program (ATS) trained troubleshooters in an automobile assembly plant (1) to use information about a problem to determine the cause of that problem and (2) to anticipate and prevent problems. Troubleshooters in two specific departments were general foremen, foremen, process…

White, Stroller Tod

372

Greenhouse Gas Programs, Energy Efficiency, and the Industrial Sector  

E-print Network

Enterprise Energy Efficiency. Small and medium-sized manufacturers need to be more aware of the opportunity for energy- efficiency improvements. According to a National Small Business Association survey, 40 percent of small businesses are still... reduction requirements for utilities; efficiency standards for buildings and appliances; flexible, market- based emissions cap and trade programs for 2 IAC assessments for small and medium enterprises...

Zhou, A.; Tutterow, V.; Harris, J.

373

Freedom of Development for Industry and Consumers. Small Business and the Social Market Economy in the Federal Republic of Germany. Sonderdienst Special Report No. 1. Code No. 79. Q 6016.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Small businesses have made a decisive contribution to the reconstruction and development of the German economy and society since World War II. The Federal Republic of Germany considers small-scale industry important and has granted tax relief and initiated a wide range of loan and guarantee programs for them. The Act against Restraints of…

Lange, Wilhelm; Breuer, Michael

374

Energy-Efficiency Retrofits in Small-Scale Multifamily Rental Housing: A Business Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this thesis to develop a real estate investment model that creates a financial incentive for property owners to perform energy efficiency retrofits in small multifamily rental housing in southern New England. The medium for this argument is a business plan that is backed by a review of the literature and input from industry experts. In addition to industry expertise, the research covers four main areas: the context of green building, efficient building technologies, precedent programs, and the Providence, RI real estate market for the business plan. The thesis concludes that the model proposed can improve the profitability of real estate investment in small multifamily rental properties, though the extent to which this is possible depends partially on utility-run incentive programs and the capital available to invest in retrofit measures.

DeChambeau, Brian

375

Commercial and Industrial Energy Conservation Programs in Illinois  

E-print Network

-one Class A audits were conducted during petroleum fuels." 1979. Assistance is prpvided through the dissemination of 2) INR completed 30 boiler efficiency checks and a i information about, advice on, and demonstration of boiler efficiency workbook... by the end of 1979. i , 0" conservation practices, fuel switching opportunities INR developed a manual for a waste heat recover1 and renewable energy sources. Primary attention is program during 1979. I given to citizens, businesses and institutions most...

Thomas, S. K.

1980-01-01

376

Advanced sensor development program for the pulp and paper industry  

SciTech Connect

This report describes experimental and theoretical studies toward development of a remote sensing technique for non-intrusive temperature measurement based on optical spectroscopic analysis of recovery boiler. The overall objectives were (a) construction of a fiber-optic system for measurement of spectroscopic emission intensities at several wavelengths and (b) development of a computer program relating these intensities to temperatures of the emitting species. The emitting species for temperature measurements in flames can be either naturally occurring free radicals (OH, CH, C{sub 2}) or atoms which, in turn, can be either naturally occurring or seeded into flames. Sodium atoms, the obvious emitters in recovery boilers, are not promising as thermometric species because of their high concentration. At high concentrations, strong self-absorption results cause optical depths to be much smaller than the sampling depths desired for recovery boilers. An experimental program was, therefore, undertaken with the objective of identification and spectroscopic detection and measurement of other naturally occurring thermometric species. The program consisted of several laboratory studies and four field trips to different recovery boilers. 19 refs., 43 figs., 8 tabs.

Allen, J.D.; Charagundla, S.R.; Macek, A.; Semerjian, H.G.; Whetstone, J.R.

1990-10-01

377

Research and development separation technology: The DOE Industrial Energy Conservation Program  

SciTech Connect

This brochure summarizes the Office of Industrial Programs' RandD efforts in the advancement of separation technology. The purpose of this brochure is to provide interested parties with information on federal industrial energy conservation activities in separation technology. The brochure is comprised of the following sections: Separation Technology, summarizes the current state of separation technology and its uses. Potential Energy Savings, discusses the potential for industrial energy conservation through the implementation of advanced separation processes. Office of Industrial Programs' RandD Efforts in Separation Technology Development, describes the separation RandD projects conducted by IP. RandD Data Base, lists contractor, principal investigator, and location of each separation-related RandD effort sponsored by IP.

Not Available

1987-07-01

378

Industrial Energy-Efficiency Improvement Program. Annual report to the Congress and the President 1979  

SciTech Connect

The industrial energy efficiency improvement program to accelerate market penetration of new and emerging industrial technologies and practices which will improve energy efficiency; encourage substitution of more plentiful domestic fuels; and enhance recovery of energy and materials from industrial waste streams is described. The role of research, development, and demonstration; technology implementation; the reporting program; and progress are covered. Specific reports from the chemicals and allied products; primary metals; petroleum and coal products; stone, clay, and glass, paper and allied products; food and kindred products; fabricated metals; transportation equipment; machinery (except electrical); textile mill products; rubber and miscellaneous plastics; electrical and electronic equipment; lumber and wood; and tobacco products are discussed. Additional data from voluntary submissions, a summary on progress in the utilization of recovered materials, and an analysis of industrial fuel mix are briefly presented. (MCW)

Not Available

1980-12-01

379

Industry programs of the Geochemical and Environmental Research Group (GERG) of Texas A&M University  

SciTech Connect

The Geochemical and Environmental Research Group (GERG) formally established by the Texas A&M University System Board of Regents in 1987, is a cross-disciplinary R&D center for conducting research in the areas of petroleum geochemistry, ecology, environmental chemistry and oceanography. GERG is a self-supporting research center with >$10 million annual funding derived from the private sector ({approximately}35% of revenues) and federal agencies. GERG`s main offices are located in College Station, Texas. For its global projects, GERG has region offices in Houston, Washington, D.C., Malaysia and Moscow. GERG conducts both private and consortium programs for private industry (mainly major oil companies) in the areas of surface geochemical exploration (SGE); oil/source rock regional and well-specific studies; site surveys, environmental assessment; oil spill fate and effects; and physical oceanography studies. An example of a large industry program that GERG is currently conducting is a west African expedition using its research vessel the R/V POWELL. Programs being undertaken for industry include a number of consortium surface geochemical exploration coring programs. These SGE programs are designed to correlate geochemical anomalies with subsurface features identified by geophysical surveys in the survey areas. GERG is a world-leader in offshore SGE programs having conducted many programs for most major oil companies. In addition to the SGE programs, sedimentology/geotechnical, paleontological, physical oceanographic and engineering site surveys will also be conducted in west Africa.

Brooks, J.M.; Sassen, R.; Kennicutt, M.C. II [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others

1995-08-01

380

The NASA/industry design analysis methods for vibrations (DAMVIBS) program: Accomplishments and contributions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA Langley-sponsored rotorcraft structural dynamics program, known as Design Analysis Methods for VIBrationS (DAMVIBS), has been under development since 1984. The objective of this program was to establish the technology base needed by the industry to develop an advanced finite-element-based dynamics design analysis capability for vibrations. Under the program, teams from the four major helicopter manufacturers have formed finite-element models, conducted ground vibration tests, made test/analysis comparisons of both metal and composite airframes, performed 'difficult components' studies on airframes to identify components which need more complete finite-element representation for improved correlation, and evaluated industry codes for computing coupled rotor-airframe vibrations. Studies aimed at establishing the role that structural optimization can play in airframe vibrations design work have also been initiated. Five government/industry meetings were held in connection with these activities during the course of the program. Because the DAMVIBS Program is coming to an end, the fifth meeting included a brief assessment of the program and its benefits to the industry.

Kvaternik, Raymond G.

1991-01-01

381

78 FR 79423 - Energy Efficiency Program for Industrial Equipment: Petition of CSA Group for Classification as a...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EERE-2013-BT-DET-0053] Energy Efficiency Program for Industrial Equipment: Petition of CSA Group for...1st Floor, Building 4, Qilai Industrial City, 889 Yishan Road, Shanghai...contains copies of: the Canadian Engineering Standards Association Charter,...

2013-12-30

382

DESIGN OF RAPID SMALL-SCALE ADSORPTION TESTS FOR A CONSTANT DIFFUSIVITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The rapid small-scale column test (RSSCT), a physical model of a fixed bed, was developed and evaluated experimentally to simulate full-scale adsorber performance. The RSSCT can simulate months of full-scale adsorber operation in several days; however, some isotherms and kinetic ...

383

A Small-Scale Concept-Based Laboratory Component: The Best of Both Worlds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we describe an exploratory study of a small-scale, concept-driven, voluntary laboratory component of Introductory Biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. We wished to investigate whether students' attitudes toward biology and their understanding of basic biological principles would improve through concept-based…

Halme, Dina Gould; Khodor, Julia; Mitchell, Rudolph; Walker, Graham C.

2006-01-01

384

A comparison of relative toxicity rankings by some small-scale laboratory tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small-scale laboratory tests for fire toxicity, suitable for use in the average laboratory hood, are needed for screening and ranking materials on the basis of relative toxicity. The performance of wool, cotton, and aromatic polyamide under several test procedures is presented.

Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

1977-01-01

385

Small-scale response of plant species to land-use intensification1 ric Fdoroff  

E-print Network

1 Small-scale response of plant species to land-use intensification1 2 Ă?ric FĂ©doroff a , Jean by land-use and landscape heterogeneity and can be used as16 indicators of environmental change. At small and by diaspores from the surroundings. Thus they18 reflect the influence of both land-use type and land-use

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

386

Optimization strategy for a small-scale reverse osmosis water desalination system based on solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimization strategy for the design and operation of a small-scale solar-powered reverse osmosis desalination system is presented. It has been analyzed and optimized with regard to power needs and energy consumption. Both quantities scale linearly with the concentration of the total dissolved salt (TDS) concentration in the feed solution. The desalination of brackish water at a TDS value of

H. M. Laborde; K. B. França; H. Neff; A. M. N. Lima

2001-01-01

387

Detection of Small-Scale Primary Users in Cognitive Radio Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cognitive radio networks (CRNs), detecting small- scale primary devices, such as wireless microphones, is a challenging, but very important, problem that has not yet been addressed well. Recently, cooperative sensing and sensing scheduling have been advocated as an effective MAC (medium access control) layer approach to detecting large-scale primary signals. However, it is unclear whether and how they can

Alexander W. Min; Xinyu Zhang; Kang G. Shin

2011-01-01

388

ORIGINAL PAPER Causes for the small scale variability of nitrate concentration  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Causes for the small scale variability of nitrate concentration in seepage water-Verlag France 2012 Abstract & Context In N-saturated forests nitrate concentrations in seepage water (NO3 Ă? of net N mineralization in the organic layer is decisive for the nitrate production in the soil. Roots

Boyer, Edmond

389

Using Small-Scale Randomized Controlled Trials to Evaluate the Efficacy of New Curricular Materials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can researchers in K-12 contexts stay true to the principles of rigorous evaluation designs within the constraints of classroom settings and limited funding? This paper explores this question by presenting a small-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) designed to test the efficacy of curricular supplemental materials on epigenetics. The…

Drits-Esser, Dina; Bass, Kristin M.; Stark, Louisa A.

2014-01-01

390

Design of Small Scale Anaerobic Digesters for Application in Rural Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high incidence of upper respiratory diseases, contamination of waterways due to pathogens and nutrients from human and animal wastes, unsustainable deforestation, gender disparities in burden of disease due to unequal exposure to indoor air pollutants, and carbon black emissions from the burning of solid fuels are interrelated problems in many developing countries. Small scale anaerobic digestion provides a means

Laurel Erika Rowse

2011-01-01

391

Visualization of individual DNA molecules in a small-scale coating flow  

E-print Network

Visualization of individual DNA molecules in a small- scale coating flow Rajat Duggal and Matteo polymer solutions in simple flows by visualizing directly polymer molecules DNA in simple shear and extension. Visualizing directly polymer molecules in free surface flows would promote similar progress

Natelson, Douglas

392

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Experimental Simulation of Ducted Fan Acoustics at Very Small Scale  

E-print Network

-definition stereolithography and high-performance, compact DC brushless motors used in model aircraft. The 70-mm ducted fanAmerican Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Experimental Simulation of Ducted Fan of ducted fans using small-scale components (approximately 1/38th scale). Enabling technologies include high

Papamoschou, Dimitri

393

Nanoflares, Spicules, and Other Small-Scale Dynamic Phenomena on the Sun  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is abundant evidence of highly dynamic phenomena occurring on very small scales in the solar atmosphere. For example, the observed pr operties of many coronal loops can only be explained if the loops are bundles of unresolved strands that are heated impulsively by nanoflares. Type II spicules recently discovered by Hinode are an example of small-scale impulsive events occurring in the chromosphere. The exist ence of these and other small-scale phenomena is not surprising given the highly structured nature of the magnetic field that is revealed by photospheric observations. Dynamic phenomena also occur on much lar ger scales, including coronal jets, flares, and CMEs. It is tempting to suggest that these different phenomena are all closely related and represent a continuous distribution of sizes and energies. However, this is a dangerous over simplification in my opinion. While it is tru e that the phenomena all involve "magnetic reconnection" (the changin g of field line connectivity) in some form, how this occurs depends s trongly on the magnetic geometry. A nanoflare resulting from the interaction of tangled magnetic strands within a confined coronal loop is much different from a major flare occurring at the current sheet form ed when a CME rips open an active region. I will review the evidence for ubiquitous small-scale dynamic phenomena on the Sun and discuss wh y different phenomena are not all fundamentally the same.

Klimchuk, James

2010-01-01

394

FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF SMALL-SCALE FORESTS IN THE AMU DARYA LOWLANDS OF RURAL UZBEKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The establishment of forests on small-scale marginal lands in the Amu Darya Lowlands in Uzbekistan is an alternative use of land abandoned from cropping. Over four consecutive years biomass data were collected from Elaeagnus angustifolia, Ulmus pumila, and Populus euphratica plantings and complemented with data of mature trees (15–20 years) growing naturally on marginal land. These formed the basis for

JOHN P. A. LAMERS; IHTIYOR BOBOJONOV; ASIA KHAMZINA; JENNIFER S. FRANZ

2008-01-01

395

A low cost automatic control system for conductivity of small scale wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a design for a low cost 2-electrodes conductivity control system for small scale wastewater treatment system, such as that from etching process of printed circuit board. It involves the design of a conductivity sensing probe, its associated control circuitry and an actuation mechanism. The conductivity sensor applies a direct current to two electrodes and measures the potential

A. S. M. Napi; Lee Yoot Khuan; M. F. Abdullah; N. K. Madzhi

2009-01-01

396

Small-scale medical waste incinerators – experiences and trials in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formal waste management services are not accessible for the majority of primary healthcare clinics on the African continent, and affordable and practicable technology solutions are required in the developing country context. In response, a protocol was established for the first quantitative and qualitative evaluation of relatively low cost small-scale incinerators for use at rural primary healthcare clinics. The protocol comprised

David E. C.. Rogers; Alan C. Brent

2006-01-01

397

Small-scale Syncline near the Blackbird Cobalt-Copper Mine  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Small-scale syncline in siltite of banded siltite unit of Apple Creek Formation, within a zone of tight, north-plunging chevron folds, exposed on the south-facing slope above the upper part of Little Deer Creek, east of the Blackbird cobalt-copper mine area, in east-central Idaho....

398

ORIGINAL PAPER Small-scale gold mining erodes fish assemblage structure  

E-print Network

operations, as the alluvial gold deposits are mined by washing the soils adjacent to the streams with highORIGINAL PAPER Small-scale gold mining erodes fish assemblage structure in small neotropical+Business Media B.V. 2011 Abstract The current gold rush experienced by the Guiana shield is profoundly dis

Grenouillet, Gael

399

HF radar observations of small-scale surface current variability in the Straits of Florida  

E-print Network

HF radar observations of small-scale surface current variability in the Straits of Florida A. B-frequency Wellen radar (WERA), transmitting at 16.045 MHz, was deployed along the eastern Florida Shelf current measurements within the radar footprint along the shelf break at 86-m depth. The shallowest ADCP

Miami, University of

400

SMALL SCALE TURBULENCE AND INSTABILITIES OBSERVED SIMULTANEOUSLY BY RADIOSONDES AND THE MU RADAR  

E-print Network

SMALL SCALE TURBULENCE AND INSTABILITIES OBSERVED SIMULTANEOUSLY BY RADIOSONDES AND THE MU RADAR R in September 2011 for three weeks at Shigaraki MU observatory (34.85N, 136.15E; Japan). The VHF MU radar radiosondes were succesfully launched during the campaign when the radar was operated. Reference [2] showed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

401

REGULAR ARTICLE Small-scale variability in water storage and plant available  

E-print Network

variability in soil properties by roots foraging for water. Keywords Karst . Soil water storage capacity. RootREGULAR ARTICLE Small-scale variability in water storage and plant available water in shallow in water storage and plant access to water in the rocky soils of a karst savanna dominated by Ashe juniper

Schwinning, Susan - Department of Biology, Texas State University

402

Small-scale field tests of attract-and-kill stations for pest Tephritid fruit flies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field tests were conducted at UF-TREC, Homestead to test efficacy of wax-matrix bait stations and mass trapping for control of the Caribbean fruit fly in a 5 by 30 tree guava planting. Results of the study and the ability to document control using small-scale field tests will be discussed....

403

The role of artisanal and small-scale mining in China's economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last decades have seen increased international attention paid to a number of features of artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM). The beneficial roles of ASM in society and the economy in many countries, however, are often overlooked, while its negative impacts dominate official press coverage and scholarly publications of the sector. Through a review of the available literature and statistics,

Lei Shen; Aaron James Gunson

2006-01-01

404

Joint multi-scale statistics of longitudinal and transversal increments in small-scale wake turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyse the relationship of longitudinal and transversal increment statistics measured in isotropic small-scale turbulence. This is done by means of the theory of Markov processes leading to a phenomenological Fokker Planck equation for the two increments from which a generalized Kármán equation is derived. We discuss in detail the analysis and show that the estimated equation can describe the

M. Siefert; J. Peinke

2006-01-01

405

FPGA Implementation of Closed-Loop Control System for Small-Scale Robot  

E-print Network

FPGA Implementation of Closed-Loop Control System for Small-Scale Robot Wei Zhao, Byung Hwa Kim@cs.umn.edu Abstract-- Small robots can be beneficial to important applica- tions such as civilian search and rescue and lower power dis- sipation. This project investigates an FPGA-based PID motion control system for small

Voyles, Richard

406

A Study of Maximum Power Point Tracking in Novel Small-Scale Photovoltaic LED Lighting Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

While most of the current maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms for large photovoltaic systems are complicated and inefficient, this paper proposes a novel method of MPPT specially used in small-scale photovoltaic LED lighting systems. The proposed algorithm is based on the improved research on the characteristics of the PV array in novel lighting systems. The proposed method in the

Xiaojin Wu; Zhiqiang Cheng; Xueye Wei

2009-01-01

407

Small scale biomass heating systems: Standards, quality labelling and market driving factors – An EU outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study a comparative evaluation of several existing quality labels and standards for small scale biomass heating systems (BHS) and the biomass fuels they use was performed. With the introduction of pellet fuels, biomass heating technology achieved enough maturity to successfully compete with oil\\/gas heating devices in terms of ease of use, utilization of energy and pollutant emissions.From

V. K. Verma; S. Bram; J. De Ruyck

2009-01-01

408

Small-scale disturbance and regeneration dynamics in a neotropical mangrove forest  

E-print Network

Small-scale disturbance and regeneration dynamics in a neotropical mangrove forest RUTH E. SHERMAN of California at Berkeley, 145 Mulford Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Summary 1 Mangrove forests are aected of a 47-km2 intertidal mangrove community in the Dominican Republic, by quantifying the spatial patterns

Battles, John

409

Ecological effects of small-scale cutting of Philippine mangrove forests  

E-print Network

Ecological effects of small-scale cutting of Philippine mangrove forests Bradley B. Walters of mangrove forests in the Philippines. Information for the study was obtained through the application of extensive bio-ecological assessments of forests and interviews of forest users. Cut mangrove forests were

Walters, Bradley B.

410

Use of Small-Scale Artificial Archaeological Sites in the Teaching of Archaeology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By using small-scale artificially created archaeologic sites, a teacher can provide students with a time-efficient approach in which to master some basic archaeological techniques. In an artificially created setting, the students can become familiar with conditions they might meet in the field. In a short period of time, students may be exposed to…

Deutsch, Warren N.

411

Descriptive Assessment of Traditional and Small-Scale Fisheries and Prospective ACLs  

E-print Network

Descriptive Assessment of Traditional and Small- Scale Fisheries and Prospective ACLs of such fisheries should sector-specific allowable catch limits (ACLs) or other allocation-based strategies and participants in question #12;Rationale (continued) · At present, it does not appear likely that ACLs

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

412

Detecting small-scale genotypeenvironment interactions in apomictic dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) populations  

E-print Network

Detecting small-scale genotype­environment interactions in apomictic dandelion (Taraxacum O L O G Y 1667 Keywords: apomictic; dandelion; disturbance; local adaptation; microsatellites species). Here, we tested for G · E in asexual dandelions (Taraxacum officinale) by subjecting six

Vellend, Mark

413

"It's Really Making a Difference": How Small-Scale Research Projects Can Enhance Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following an internal evaluation exercise, using Action Research, this paper identifies the positive impact of small-scale research projects on teaching and learning at a single case study UK University. Clear evidence is given of how the projects benefited students and staff, and enhanced institutional culture. Barriers to better practice are…

Dexter, Barbara; Seden, Roy

2012-01-01

414

Small-scale spatial patterns determine ecological relationships: an experimental example using nectar production rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structuring of populations at small scales has important consequences for ecological relationships and may contribute to the maintenance of genetic diversity within populations. As an example we tested the effects of variation in nectar production rates (NPR) on pollinator visitation in experimental populations of Echium vulgare with different spatial arrangements. Bumblebees discriminate between groups of plants with different NPRs

Peter G. L. Klinkhamer; Tom J. de Jong; Lucas A. Linnebank

2001-01-01

415

Morphodynamics of small-scale superimposed sand waves over migrating dune bed forms  

E-print Network

Morphodynamics of small-scale superimposed sand waves over migrating dune bed forms Jeremy G migrating dunes are examined using data drawn from laboratory experiments. We refer to the superimposed classified as ripples, dunes, or bars. Within the experiments, the sheets formed downstream

Venditti, Jeremy G.

416

Assessment of battery energy storage systems for small-scale renewable energy integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Battery energy storage systems (BESS) will most likely play an important role in enabling integration of small-scale renewable energy sources, from residential and smaller commercial enterprises, into the electricity networks. With benefits ranging from greater use of cleaner energy sources to potential cost savings, battery energy storage systems can ensure security and continuity of supply. This paper assesses battery storage

Niraj Garimella; Nirmal-Kumar C. Nair

2009-01-01

417

Battery energy storage systems: Assessment for small-scale renewable energy integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns arising due to the variability and intermittency of renewable energy sources while integrating with the power grid can be mitigated to an extent by incorporating a storage element within the renewable energy harnessing system. Thus, battery energy storage systems (BESS) are likely to have a significant impact in the small-scale integration of renewable energy sources into commercial building and

Nirmal-Kumar C. Nair; Niraj Garimella

2010-01-01

418

Small-scale entrepreneurs in the urban water and sanitation market  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: This paper describes the importance of small-scale private sector or NGO providers of water and sanitation in a great range of urban areas in Africa, Asia and Latin America. It in- cludes many examples of where - contrary to conventional wis- dom - they provide good quality, low-cost services. Without these operations, large sections of the South's urban populations,

Tova Maria Solo

1999-01-01

419

Design of a small-scale in situ iron fertilization experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors consider the design of an in situ enrichment experiment to test the hypothesis that Fe deficiency limits primary productivity in some regions of the ocean. A small-scale experiment would be preferable for logistical reasons, but the chief practical difficulty is that the patch of enriched water will fragment or streak severely. This problem is made tractable by adding

ANDREW WATSON; PETER LISS; ROBERT DUCE

1991-01-01

420

The treatment of domestic wastewater using small-scale vermicompost filter beds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to quantify the effect of filter bed depth and solid waste inputs on the performance of small-scale vermicompost filter beds that treat the soluble contaminants within domestic wastewater. The study also aims to identify environmental conditions within the filters by quantifying the oxygen content and pH of wastewater held within it. Vermicompost is being

M Taylor; W. P Clarke; P. F Greenfield

2003-01-01

421

BEYOND THE RISK FACTOR: BANK LENDING TO SMALL-SCALE PEASANT FARMS IN NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Availability of credit has been identified as a major constraint to agricultural development in peasant economies. Small-scale farmers dominate the agricultural sectors of these countries. Whilst there are often considerable opportunities to increase production and farm incomes by adopting new technology this potential can only be realized if farmers can gain access to funds to finance the additional inputs that

S. O. Olubiyo; G. P. Hill

2003-01-01

422

THE EMERGENCE OF INEQUALITY IN SMALL-SCALE SOCIETIES: SIMPLE SCENARIOS AND AGENT-BASED SIMULATIONS  

E-print Network

1 THE EMERGENCE OF INEQUALITY IN SMALL-SCALE SOCIETIES: SIMPLE SCENARIOS AND AGENT institutionalized political and economic inequality--for most of our species' history. Non-egalitarian societies on the emergence of inequality, it contains very little formal theory or quantitative modeling. The research

Smith, Eric Alden

423

Small-scale, hydrogen-oxidizing-denitrifying bioreactor for treatment of nitrate-contaminated drinking water  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nitrate removal by hydrogen-coupled denitrification was examined using flow-through, packed-bed bioreactors to develop a small-scale, cost effective system for treating nitrate-contaminated drinking-water supplies. Nitrate removal was accomplished using a Rhodocyclus sp., strain HOD 5, isolated fro...

424

Assessing Arsenic Removal by Metal (Hydr)Oxide Adsorptive Media Using Rapid Small Scale Column Tests  

EPA Science Inventory

The rapid small scale column test (RSSCT) was use to evaluate the the performance of eight commercially available adsorptive media for the removal of arsenic. Side-by-side tests were conducted using RSSCTs and pilot/full-scale systems either in the field or in the laboratory. ...

425

A rapid, small-scale sedimentation method to predict breadmaking quality of hard winter wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Breeders and processors are always looking for rapid and accurate methods to evaluate wheat quality. A rapid small-scale hybrid sedimentation method was developed for predicting breadmaking quality of breeders samples by combining the sodium dodecyl-sulfate (SDS) sedimentation method (AACC 56-70) an...

426

Evaluation of external heat loss from a small-scale expander used in organic Rankine cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the scaling down of the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), the engine shaft power is not only determined by the enthalpy drop in the expansion process but also the external heat loss from the expander. Theoretical and experimental support in evaluating small-scale expander heat loss is rare. This paper presents a quantitative study on the convection, radiation, and conduction heat

Jing Li; Gang Pei; Yunzhu Li; Jie Ji

2011-01-01

427

Vulnerability and household livelihoods in small scale fishing areas in Africa: An asset-based approach  

E-print Network

of the extent, nature, causes and dynamics of poverty in fishery- dependent communities (McFadyen and Corcoran vulnerability to poverty and livelihood choices in small-scale fishing areas. The use of an asset-based vulnerability framework allows to decompose poverty, and hence identify different poverty profiles

Krivobokova, Tatyana

428

A study of the educational outcomes of the teacher-in-industry program  

E-print Network

of the educational outcomes of the internships based on teacher beliefs which has been conducted to date. P m erview Teacher-in-Industry In the Teacher-in-Industry Program, secondary science, mathematics and technology-related teachers serve summer internships... learning situations (Johnson 8c Johnson, 1986; Kagan, 1985). The desired educational outcomes of teacher internships are stressed in the science, technology and society literature. The Board of the National Science 20 Teachers Association (NSTA, 1984...

Metcalf, Teri Flynn

1991-01-01

429

Formal methods for industrial applications: specifying and programming the steam boiler control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book, with the CD-ROM included, is the documentation of a unique collaborative effort in evaluating formal methods for usage under industrial constraints: the major techniques for formally supported specification, design, and verification of large programs and complex systems are applied to a non-trivial and non-academic problem which is typical for industrial informal requirements specifications.The 21 papers included in the

Jean-Raymond Abrial; Egon Börger; Hans Langmaack

1996-01-01

430

Design for energy efficiency: Energy efficient industrialized housing research program. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Since 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy has sponsored the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing research program (EEIH) to improve the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers share responsibility for this program: The Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. Additional funding is provided through the participation of private industry, state governments and utilities. The program is guided by a steering committee comprised of industry and government representatives. This report summarizes Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 activities and progress, and proposed activities for FY 1991 in Task 2.1 Design for Energy Efficiency. This task establishes a vision of energy conservation opportunities in critical regions, market segments, climate zones and manufacturing strategies significant to industrialized housing in the 21st Century. In early FY 1990, four problem statements were developed to define future housing demand scenarios inclusive of issues of energy efficiency, housing design and manufacturing. Literature surveys were completed to assess seven areas of influence for industrialized housing and energy conservation in the future. Fifty-five future trends were identified in computing and design process; manufacturing process; construction materials, components and systems; energy and environment; demographic context; economic context; and planning policy and regulatory context.

Kellett, R.; Berg, R.; Paz, A.; Brown, G.Z.

1991-03-01

431

Detection of transgenes in local maize varieties of small-scale farmers in eastern cape, South Africa.  

PubMed

Small-scale subsistence farmers in South Africa have been introduced to genetically modified (GM) crops for more than a decade. Little is known about i) the extent of transgene introgression into locally recycled seed, ii) what short and long-term ecological and socioeconomic impacts such mixing of seeds might have, iii) how the farmers perceive GM crops, and iv) to what degree approval conditions are followed and controlled. This study conducted in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, aims primarily at addressing the first of these issues. We analysed for transgenes in 796 individual maize plants (leaves) and 20 seed batches collected in a village where GM insect resistant maize was previously promoted and grown as part of an governmental agricultural development program over a seven year period (2001-2008). Additionally, we surveyed the varieties of maize grown and the farmers' practices of recycling and sharing of seed in the same community (26 farmers were interviewed). Recycling and sharing of seeds were common in the community and may contribute to spread and persistence of transgenes in maize on a local or regional level. By analysing DNA we found that the commonly used transgene promoter p35s occurred in one of the 796 leaf samples (0.0013%) and in five of the 20 seed samples (25%). Three of the 20 seed samples (15%) included herbicide tolerant maize (NK603) intentionally grown by the farmers from seed bought from local seed retailers or acquired through a currently running agricultural development program. The two remaining positive seed samples (10%) included genes for insect resistance (from MON810). In both cases the farmers were unaware of the transgenes present. In conclusion, we demonstrate that transgenes are mixed into seed storages of small-scale farming communities where recycling and sharing of seeds are common, i.e. spread beyond the control of the formal seed system. PMID:25551616

Iversen, Marianne; Grřnsberg, Idun M; van den Berg, Johnnie; Fischer, Klara; Aheto, Denis Worlanyo; Břhn, Thomas

2014-01-01

432

Detection of Transgenes in Local Maize Varieties of Small-Scale Farmers in Eastern Cape, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Small-scale subsistence farmers in South Africa have been introduced to genetically modified (GM) crops for more than a decade. Little is known about i) the extent of transgene introgression into locally recycled seed, ii) what short and long-term ecological and socioeconomic impacts such mixing of seeds might have, iii) how the farmers perceive GM crops, and iv) to what degree approval conditions are followed and controlled. This study conducted in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, aims primarily at addressing the first of these issues. We analysed for transgenes in 796 individual maize plants (leaves) and 20 seed batches collected in a village where GM insect resistant maize was previously promoted and grown as part of an governmental agricultural development program over a seven year period (2001–2008). Additionally, we surveyed the varieties of maize grown and the farmers’ practices of recycling and sharing of seed in the same community (26 farmers were interviewed). Recycling and sharing of seeds were common in the community and may contribute to spread and persistence of transgenes in maize on a local or regional level. By analysing DNA we found that the commonly used transgene promoter p35s occurred in one of the 796 leaf samples (0.0013%) and in five of the 20 seed samples (25%). Three of the 20 seed samples (15%) included herbicide tolerant maize (NK603) intentionally grown by the farmers from seed bought from local seed retailers or acquired through a currently running agricultural development program. The two remaining positive seed samples (10%) included genes for insect resistance (from MON810). In both cases the farmers were unaware of the transgenes present. In conclusion, we demonstrate that transgenes are mixed into seed storages of small-scale farming communities where recycling and sharing of seeds are common, i.e. spread beyond the control of the formal seed system. PMID:25551616

Iversen, Marianne; Grřnsberg, Idun M.; van den Berg, Johnnie; Fischer, Klara; Aheto, Denis Worlanyo; Břhn, Thomas

2014-01-01

433

The performance of industrial sector voluntary climate programs: Climate Wise and 1605(b)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corporate voluntary climate programs have had limited evaluation. The self-selection of participants—an essential element of such initiatives—poses challenges to researchers because the decision to participate may not be random and may be correlated with outcomes. This study aims to gage the environmental effectiveness of the industrial sector elements of two early voluntary climate change programs with established track records, the

William A. Pizer; Richard Morgenstern; Jhih-Shyang Shih

2011-01-01

434

LEAD-BASED PAINT ABATEMENT RESEARCH PROGRAM (INDUSTRIAL MULTIMEDIA BRANCH, SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL's Industrial Multimedia Branch's lead-based paint abatement research program is nearly completed and encompasses many research efforts to find less costly and more effective ways to remove lead paint from interior and exterior painted surfaces. The first of three projects ...

435

Industrial Arts--Woods and Wood Technology: A Curriculum Guide for Intermediate and Secondary Level Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The curriculum outline is designed to aid the instructor in developing a more complete course of study in woods and wood technology for intermediate and secondary school students. The guide is introduced by a discussion of objectives fundamental to a sound program of industrial arts education, followed by an outline and objectives for the content…

Missouri Council for Industrial Arts Education.

436

Developing an Industry-Education Community: The United Auto Workers/General Motors Quality Educator Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the evolution of the Quality Educator Program (QEP), sponsored by the United Auto Workers at General Motors (GM), which employs teachers, school administrators, and college faculty each summer at GM assembly plants. Participation in QEP allows educators and those in industry to interact and demonstrates quality networks in practice. (SLD)

Jacobson, Stephen L.; Walline, James

1995-01-01

437

The Hazards of Training: Attrition and Retention in Construction Industry Apprenticeship Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of 12,715 construction industry apprentices, 39% graduated, 47% canceled, and 14% were still enrolled. Completion was more likely in programs sponsored jointly by employers and unions. Women and ethnic/racial minorities had lower completion rates than men and whites. Duration of apprenticeship increased with the unemployment rate. (Contains 18…

Bilginsoy, Cihan

2003-01-01

438

Joint Labor-Management Programs in the Auto Industry and the Shaping of Human Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The joint labor-management model of providing human services to American automobile workers has supplied, and continues to offer, approaches that address shared interests. Human service programs negotiated by the United Auto Workers and the “Big Three” American automakers created precedents for other industries and developed patterns for services in the workplace that linked employee benefits with broader labor-management goals. The

Lawrence S. Root; Kenneth K. Dickinson

2009-01-01

439

Pareto Front Genetic Programming Parameter Selection Based on Design of Experiments and Industrial Data  

E-print Network

Pareto Front Genetic Programming Parameter Selection Based on Design of Experiments and Industrial with acceptable prediction error. A generic methodology based on statistical design of experiments is proposed, determination of the significant inputs by fractional factorial design of experiments, approaching the optimum

Fernandez, Thomas

440

Sponsorship of physical activity programs by the sweetened beverages industry: public health or public relations?  

PubMed

The growing evidence on the association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, obesity and other chronic diseases has highlighted the need to implement policy actions that go beyond programs exclusively focused on individual responsibility. In order to protect their commercial goals in Latin America, the sugar-sweetened beverage industry practices intense lobbying at high government levels in several countries across the region. This strategy is accompanied by corporate social responsibility programs that fund initiatives promoting physical activity. These efforts, although appearing altruistic, are intended to improve the industry's public image and increase political influence in order to block regulations counter to their interests. If this industry wants to contribute to human well being, as it has publicly stated, it should avoid blocking legislative actions intended to regulate the marketing, advertising and sale of their products. PMID:21225220

Gómez, Luis; Jacoby, Enrique; Ibarra, Lorena; Lucumí, Diego; Hernandez, Alexandra; Parra, Diana; Florindo, Alex; Hallal, Pedro

2011-04-01

441

Environmental impact assessment of cottage industries of Kashmir, India.  

PubMed

Our objective was to carry out environmental impact assessment of small scale industries in Kashmir (India). A prepared questionnaire was circulated among the workers, owners and residents to assess the pros and cons of the small scale industries in Kashmir. The study revealed that most of the small scale industries in Kashmir valley have an impact on the quality of the environment and may cause discomfort to the people living very close to these industries. It has been observed that small scale industries lack efficient waste management system. However, the generated wastes from these units may be used effectively, as a raw material in various ways when managed properly and may minimize the impact on the quality of the environment and may also contribute in improving the economy of the State. The proliferation of small scale industries has caused an irreversible damage to the agricultural land of the area studied. PMID:23029939

Wani, Khursheed Ahmad; Jaiswal, Y K

2011-07-01

442

Magnetic field tunable small-scale mechanical properties of nickel single crystals measured by nanoindentation technique.  

PubMed

Nano- and micromagnetic materials have been extensively employed in micro-functional devices. However, measuring small-scale mechanical and magnetomechanical properties is challenging, which restricts the design of new products and the performance of smart devices. A new magnetomechanical nanoindentation technique is developed and tested on a nickel single crystal in the absence and presence of a saturated magnetic field. Small-scale parameters such as Young's modulus, indentation hardness, and plastic index are dependent on the applied magnetic field, which differ greatly from their macroscale counterparts. Possible mechanisms that induced 31% increase in modulus and 7% reduction in hardness (i.e., the flexomagnetic effect and the interaction between dislocations and magnetic field, respectively) are analyzed and discussed. Results could be useful in the microminiaturization of applications, such as tunable mechanical resonators and magnetic field sensors. PMID:24695002

Zhou, Hao; Pei, Yongmao; Fang, Daining

2014-01-01

443

Prevalence of small-scale jets from the networks of the solar transition region and chromosphere.  

PubMed

As the interface between the Sun's photosphere and corona, the chromosphere and transition region play a key role in the formation and acceleration of the solar wind. Observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph reveal the prevalence of intermittent small-scale jets with speeds of 80 to 250 kilometers per second from the narrow bright network lanes of this interface region. These jets have lifetimes of 20 to 80 seconds and widths of ?300 kilometers. They originate from small-scale bright regions, often preceded by footpoint brightenings and accompanied by transverse waves with amplitudes of ~20 kilometers per second. Many jets reach temperatures of at least ~10(5) kelvin and constitute an important element of the transition region structures. They are likely an intermittent but persistent source of mass and energy for the solar wind. PMID:25324395

Tian, H; DeLuca, E E; Cranmer, S R; De Pontieu, B; Peter, H; Martínez-Sykora, J; Golub, L; McKillop, S; Reeves, K K; Miralles, M P; McCauley, P; Saar, S; Testa, P; Weber, M; Murphy, N; Lemen, J; Title, A; Boerner, P; Hurlburt, N; Tarbell, T D; Wuelser, J P; Kleint, L; Kankelborg, C; Jaeggli, S; Carlsson, M; Hansteen, V; McIntosh, S W

2014-10-17

444

Transient small-scale structure in the main auroral emission at Jupiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

main auroral emission at Jupiter results from the ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling current system associated with the corotation breakdown of iogenic plasma in the current sheet. The morphology and brightness of the main auroral emission are generally suggested to be stable during time intervals of the order of an hour. Here we reveal a transient small-scale structure in the main emission that is characterized by a localized brightness enhancement close to noon local time. The evolution of this small-scale structure is investigated in both hemispheres on the basis of far UV images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope between 1997 and 2007. Our observations indicate that the transient feature vary within a few tens of minutes. As one plausible explanation based on Galileo observations, we suggest that the localized enhancement of the field-aligned currents associated with the transient structure is due to the shear induced by intermittent inward plasma flow near noon in the equatorial plane.

Palmaerts, B.; Radioti, A.; Grodent, D.; Chané, E.; Bonfond, B.

2014-12-01

445

Magnetic Field Tunable Small-scale Mechanical Properties of Nickel Single Crystals Measured by Nanoindentation Technique  

PubMed Central

Nano- and micromagnetic materials have been extensively employed in micro-functional devices. However, measuring small-scale mechanical and magnetomechanical properties is challenging, which restricts the design of new products and the performance of smart devices. A new magnetomechanical nanoindentation technique is developed and tested on a nickel single crystal in the absence and presence of a saturated magnetic field. Small-scale parameters such as Young's modulus, indentation hardness, and plastic index are dependent on the applied magnetic field, which differ greatly from their macroscale counterparts. Possible mechanisms that induced 31% increase in modulus and 7% reduction in hardness (i.e., the flexomagnetic effect and the interaction between dislocations and magnetic field, respectively) are analyzed and discussed. Results could be useful in the microminiaturization of applications, such as tunable mechanical resonators and magnetic field sensors. PMID:24695002

Zhou, Hao; Pei, Yongmao; Fang, Daining

2014-01-01

446

Small-scale disequilibrium in a magmatic inclusion and its more silicic host  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation of small-scale isotopic, compositional, and mineralogical variation across the interface of a basaltic-andesite inclusion and its dacitic host from Cerro-Chascon, a Holocene dome in northern Chile, is discussed. Serial sectioning across the interface of the inclusion and its host dacite, complemented by microdrill sampling and detailed microprobe work, has enabled an examination of the scale of mixing and chemical disequilibrium. The composition of the inclusion is found to be relatively homogeneous; the dacite host is heterogeneous on a small scale; the isotopic composition in the marginal zone shows the highest Sr-87/Sr-86 and lowest Nd-143/Nd-144; the large plagioclase crystals in the inclusions and host are xenocrystic. These differences are reconciled with a model of magma evolution in a crustal magma chamber.

Davidson, Jon P.; Holden, Peter; Halliday, Alex N.; De Silva, Shanaka L.

1990-01-01

447

Use of plastic construction materials in small-scale fuel alcohol production  

SciTech Connect

Several general designs for small-scale fuel alcohol plants that have been published primarily use conventional materials of construction (steel, copper, etc.). A fuel alcohol plant owned by Dixie Fuels, Inc. Valley Park, Mississippi, and a farm-scale alcohol plant being developed by the Tennessee Valley Authority have incorporated plastic materials in several areas of their plants; results have been excellent in terms of reduced materials, labor, and operating costs. However, plastics were not used in the distillation step. This work investigated the suitability of small-scale distillation equipment made entirely or partially from plastics. A low-cost alcohol distillation system can be constructed using chlorinated poly(viny chloride) (CPVC) pipe or poly(vinly chloride) (PVC) plastic pipe for the column and heat-exchanger shells. Although pipe made from CPVC is preferred, schedule 80 PVC pipe can be used if external supports are used to provide rigidity. 3 figures, 1 table. (DP)

Lightsey, G.R.; Kadir, O.

1982-01-01

448

Social welfare as small-scale help: evolutionary psychology and the deservingness heuristic.  

PubMed

Public opinion concerning social welfare is largely driven by perceptions of recipient deservingness. Extant research has argued that this heuristic is learned from a variety of cultural, institutional, and ideological sources. The present article provides evidence supporting a different view: that the deservingness heuristic is rooted in psychological categories that evolved over the course of human evolution to regulate small-scale exchanges of help. To test predictions made on the basis of this view, a method designed to measure social categorization is embedded in nationally representative surveys conducted in different countries. Across the national- and individual-level differences that extant research has used to explain the heuristic, people categorize welfare recipients on the basis of whether they are lazy or unlucky. This mode of categorization furthermore induces people to think about large-scale welfare politics as its presumed ancestral equivalent: small-scale help giving. The general implications for research on heuristics are discussed. PMID:22375300

Petersen, Michael Bang

2012-01-01

449

Several small-scale vector array performance analysis and simulation of DOA estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To research the application and estimate performance in some small-scale vector sensor array by traditional direction of arrival estimate , we derivate the time delay expression of four small-scale non-uniform vector sensor array, the array direction vector is given, and the MUSIC algorithm is applied successfully to non-uniform vector array for direction of arrival(DOA) estimate, select the better performance of each array element setting method, and compare of beam forming, the probability of success and the mean square error, this shows that the performance of line array is best, followed by L-array and circular array, the performance of cross-array is worst.

Mei, Yinzhen

2011-10-01

450

Initial Market Assessment for Small-Scale Biomass-Based CHP  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to reexamine the energy generation market opportunities for biomass CHP applications smaller than 20 MW. This paper provides an overview of the benefits of and challenges for biomass CHP in terms of policy, including a discussion of the drivers behind, and constraints on, the biomass CHP market. The report provides a summary discussion of the available biomass supply types and technologies that could be used to feed the market. Two primary markets are outlined--rural/agricultural and urban--for small-scale biomass CHP, and illustrate the primary intersections of supply and demand for those markets. The paper concludes by summarizing the potential markets and suggests next steps for identifying and utilizing small-scale biomass.

Brown, E.; Mann, M.

2008-01-01

451

Arc characteristics in small-scale DC plasma arc furnaces using graphite cathodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of electric arcs using graphite cathodes operating in small-scale DC transferred-arc furnaces and an in-flight plasma reactor have heen investigated. The variation oh arc voltage with arc length at currents up to 1.5 kA has been studied. These characteristics are relevant to the engineering design and evaluation of DC plasma furnaces and reactors for the development of chemical

R. Knight; M. J. Murawa; N. M. Girgis; K. J. Reide

1990-01-01

452

A partnership approach for Electronic Data Capture in small-scale clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amid researchers’ growing need for study data management, the CTSA-funded Institute for Translational Health Sciences developed an approach to combine technical and scientific resources with small-scale clinical trials researchers in order to make Electronic Data Capture more efficient. In a 2-year qualitative evaluation we found that the importance of ease of use and training materials outweighed number of features and

Joshua D. Franklin; Alicia Guidry; James F. Brinkley

453

Application of selective non-catalytic reduction of NO x in small-scale combustion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selective non-catalytic reduction of NOx has been studied experimentally employing commercial grade urea in a pilot-scale diesel-fired tunnel furnace at 3–4% excess oxygen level and with low ppm of baseline NOx ranging from 65 to 75ppm within the investigated temperature range. The furnace simulated the thermal behavior of small-scale combustion systems such as small capacity boilers, water heaters, oil

Khandoker Abul Hossain; Mohammad Nazri Mohd Jaafar; Azeman Mustafa; Kiran Babu Appalanidu; Farid Nasir Ani

2004-01-01

454

Application of selective non-catalytic reduction of NOx in small-scale combustion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selective non-catalytic reduction of NOx has been studied experimentally employing commercial grade urea in a pilot-scale diesel-fired tunnel furnace at 3-4% excess oxygen level and with low ppm of baseline NOx ranging from 65 to 75 ppm within the investigated temperature range. The furnace simulated the thermal behavior of small-scale combustion systems such as small capacity boilers, water heaters,

Khandoker Abul Hossain; Mohammad Nazri Mohd Jaafar; Azeman Mustafa; Kiran Babu Appalanidu; Farid Nasir Ani

2004-01-01

455

A Physical-Experimental Model for Small-Scale Basaltic Vulcanian Eruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last period of its summer 2001 flank activity Mt. Etna produced ash explosions not common at this basaltic volcano. The explosions took place at a new vent at 2550 m.a.s.l. and followed Strombolian and effusive activity. At first the ash erupted as a continuous, pulsing plume a few km high, occasionally undergoing small-scale, partial collapses. Afterward the frequency

P. Scarlato; J. Taddeucci; O. Spieler; B. Kennedy; D. B. Dingwell; M. Pompilio

2003-01-01

456

Asymmetric small-scale distribution and allelopathy: Interaction between Rumex obtusifolius L. and meadow species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of small-scale distribution may allow allelopathic interaction among plant species to be distinguished from competitive interaction. If all environmental factors except slope are uniform, allelopathy produces spatial asymmetry in the association with a hypothetical receptor species and the corresponding hypothetical emitter species in the neighborhood of the latter. The interaction betweenRumex obtusifolius and the meadow speciesLolium perenne, Poa pratensis,

A. Carballeira; E. Carral; M. J. Reigosa

1988-01-01

457

Healing small-scale fisheries by facilitating complex socio-ecological systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current global fisheries crises have immense implications for the health and viability of animal populations, as well\\u000a as the ecosystems and habitats that support this biodiversity. These crises have provoked a wide variety of management solutions\\u000a and alternatives that are closely aligned with other small-scale resource extraction conservation approaches, but have been\\u000a analyzed separately from the common-pool resource management

Timothy R. McClanahan; Juan Carlos Castilla; Alan T. White; Omar Defeo

2009-01-01

458

OmniVoice: a mobile voice solution for small-scale enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of providing mobility support for Voice-over-IP (VoIP) traffic in small-scale enterprises. There is considerable interest in providing on-the-go support for VoIP through the use of WiFi-enabled smart phones. However, existing solutions either do not support client mobility or require client modifications, making them difficult to deploy in practice. In this paper, we present OmniVoice, an 802.11

Nabeel Ahmed; Srinivasan Keshav; Konstantina Papagiannaki

2011-01-01

459

Characteristics of small-scale heterogeneity in light availability within a Miscanthus sinensis canopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the small-scale variations in light and space availability, photon flux density (PFD) at 20 cm aboveground was\\u000a measured at 2 cm intervals along each of four 160 cm horizontal transects under an overcast sky condition in aMiscanthus sinensis Anderss grass canopy. Two characteristics were identified for the variation patterns of PFD penetration along transects;\\u000a the predominant variations of

Yanhong Tang; Izumi Washitani

1995-01-01

460

Parametric studies of a small-scale supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parametric studies of the gain and the power of a small scale supersonic chemical oxygen- iodine laser are presented. The laser is of 5 cm long active medium, and utilizes a simple sparger-type O2(1(Delta) ) chemical generator and a medium size pumping system. A grid nozzle is used for iodine injection and supersonic expansion. 45 W of CW laser emission

Salman Rosenwaks; B. D. Barmashenko; A. Elior; E. Lebiush; I. Blyvas

1995-01-01

461

Small-scale, hydrogen-oxidizing-denitrifying bioreactor for treatment of nitrate-contaminated drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate removal by hydrogen-coupled denitrification was examined using flow-through, packed-bed bioreactors to develop a small-scale, cost effective system for treating nitrate-contaminated drinking-water supplies. Nitrate removal was accomplished using a Rhodocyclus sp., strain HOD 5, isolated from a sole-source drinking-water aquifer. The autotrophic capacity of the purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacterium made it particularly adept for this purpose. Initial tests used a

Richard L. Smith; Seanne P. Buckwalter; Deborah A. Repert; Daniel N. Miller

2005-01-01

462

Natural Resource Conservation and Technical Efficiency from Small-scale Farmers in Central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimates a stochastic production frontier to measure technical efficiency (TE) using farm-level survey data for a random sample of small-scale farmers in Central Chile. Socioeconomic and productive information was collected in season 2005\\/06 through a survey of 319 farmers in the Province of Linares. An important issue in the paper is the effect of adoption of soil and

Roberto Jara-Rojas; Boris E. Bravo-Ureta; Victor H. Moreira; Jose Diaz

2012-01-01

463

Design and development of an automatic small-scale house for teaching domotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design and development characteristics of an automatic small-scale house (1:12). Several installations are controlled: seven light points, five plugs, heating in one room, technical alarms, intruder alarms, two garden irrigation areas, one blind and communications. The architecture of the centralised domotics system is based on a programmable logic controller Simatic S7-200, and on a tactile operator

Felipe Mateos; Víctor M. González; Reyes Poo; Marta García; Rosana Olaiz

2001-01-01

464

Small-Scale Heterogeneity in Deep-Sea Nematode Communities around Biogenic Structures  

PubMed Central

The unexpected high species richness of deep-sea sediments gives rise to the questions, which processes produce and maintain diversity in the deep sea, and at what spatial scales do these processes operate? The idea of a small-scale habitat structure at the deep-sea floor provides the background for this study. At small scales biogenic structures create a heterogeneous environment that influences the structure of the surrounding communities and the dynamics of the meiobenthic populations. As an example for biogenic structures, small deep-sea sponges (Tentorium semisuberites Schmidt 1870) and their sedimentary environment were investigated for small-scale distribution patterns of benthic deep-sea nematodes. Sampling was carried out with the remotely operated vehicle Victor 6000 at the Arctic deep-sea observatory HAUSGARTEN. In order to investigate nematode community patterns sediment cores around three small sponges and corresponding control cores were analysed. A total of approx. 5800 nematodes were identified. The comparison of the nematode communities from sponge and control samples indicated an influence of the biogenic structure “sponge” on diversity patterns and habitat heterogeneity. The increased number of nematode species and functional groups found in the sediments around the sponges suggest that on a small scale the sponge acts as a gradient and creates a more divers habitat structure. The nematode community from the sponge sediments shows a greater taxonomic variance and species richness together with lower relative abundances of the species compared to those from control sediments. Obviously, the more homogeneous habitat conditions of the control sediments offer less micro-habitats than the sediments around the sponges. This seems to reduce the number of functional groups and species coexisting in the control sediments. PMID:22216193

Hasemann, Christiane; Soltwedel, Thomas

2011-01-01

465

A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SMALL-SCALE SAFETY TESTING SYSTEMS AT LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-scale sensitivity testing is important for determining material response to various stimuli including impact, friction, and static spark. These tests, briefly described below, provide parameters for safety in handling. ERL Type 12 drop hammer equipment at LLNL, shown in Figure 1, was used to determine the impact sensitivity. The equipment includes a 2.5-kg drop weight, a striker (upper anvil, 2.5

2008-01-01

466

An exergy analysis of small-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) liquefaction processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four processes for small-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) production are evaluated. These include a single-stage mixed refrigerant (SMR), a two-stage expander nitrogen refrigerant and two open-loop expander processes. Steady-state simulations were undertaken to ensure that each process was compared on an identical basis, was fully optimised and was in agreement with published results. Composite curves for the feed and recycle

C. W. Remeljej; A. F. A. Hoadley

2006-01-01

467

Parameter comparison of two small-scale natural gas liquefaction processes in skid-mounted packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two typical types of small-scale natural gas liquefaction process in skid-mounted package were designed and simulated. The key parameters of the two processes were compared, and the matching of the heating and cooling curves in heat exchangers was also analyzed. The results show that the N2–CH4 expander cycle precedes the mixed-refrigerant cycle on the premise of lacking propane pre-cooling. Large

Wen-sheng Cao; Xue-sheng Lu; Wen-sheng Lin; An-zhong Gu

2006-01-01

468

SMALL SCALE SURFACE DEFORMATION MONITORING IN MINING REGIONS USING DIFFERENTIAL RADAR INTERFEROMETRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) to deformation monitoring encounters problems due to noise in the interferometric phase measurement, caused by a number of decorrelation factors. These factors dramatically reduce the capabilities of radar interferometry in many applications, and, in particular, compromise detection and analysis of small-scale deformations. A methodology for assessing the ability of InSAR to monitor

Ireneusz Baran; Mike P. Stewart

2003-01-01

469

Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package. Appendix A  

SciTech Connect

This appendix provides the data for Alternate HTM Flowsheet 1 (No Reductant Addition, Nitric Acid) melter feed preparation activities in both the laboratory and small-scale testing. The first section provides an outline of this appendix. The melter feed preparation data are presented in the next two main sections, laboratory welter feed preparation data and small-scale melter feed preparation data. Section 3.0 provides the laboratory data which is discussed in the main body of the Small-Scale High Temperature-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package, milestone C95-02.02Y. Section 3.1 gives the flowsheet in outline form as used in the laboratory-scale tests. This section also includes the ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` which gives a chronological account of the test in terms of time, temperature, slurry pH, and specific observations about slurry appearance, acid addition rates, and samples taken. The ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` provides a road map to the reader by which all the activity and data from the laboratory can be easily accessed. A summary of analytical data is presented next, section 3.2, which covers starting materials and progresses to the analysis of the melter feed. The next section, 3.3, characterizes the off-gas generation that occurs during the slurry processing. The following section, 3.4, provides the rheology data gathered including gram waste oxide loading information for the various slurries tested. The final section, 3.5. includes data from standard crucible redox testing. Section 4.0 provides the small-scale data tn parallel form to section 3.0. Section 5.0 concludes with the references for this appendix.

Smith, G.L.

1996-03-01

470

Performance evaluation of V2X communications in practical small-scale fading models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the simulation performances of vehicle-to-anything (V2X) communications based on the IEEE 802.11p wireless access in vehicular environments (WAVE) system in practical small-scale fading models. The main contributions of this paper are as follows. First, we modify the experimental fading models reported by Georgia Institute of Technology to be applied to the computer simulation of V2X communications. Second,

Jeong-Wook Seo; Kyung Won Park; Wongi Jeon; Jaemin Kwak; Dong Ku Kim

2009-01-01

471

Brightness and size of small-scale solar magnetic flux concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new 1 m Swedish Solar Telescope SST on La Palma allows to observe inter-granular G-band bright points (igBP) in solar active regions at an unprecedented spatial resolution. The igBP are reasonably assumed to be small-scale magnetic flux-concentrations. A sample of more than 1500 igBP shows tight relations of diameter and brightness in the G-band and in the continuum; it

E. Wiehr; B. Bovelet; J. Hirzberger

2004-01-01

472

Transient small-scale structure in the main auroral emission at Jupiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main auroral emission at Jupiter is associated with the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling current system generated by the corotation breakdown of Iogenic plasma in the current sheet. The morphology and brightness of the main auroral emission are generally suggested to be stable during time intervals of the order of an hour. Here we identify for the first time a small-scale dynamic feature whose brightness is growing or decreasing over timescales of an hour. An example of this transient feature is given in Figure 1 which shows four polar projections of FUV images of the north pole of Jupiter obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. The brightness of the transient feature indicated by the yellow arrows continuously increases during the 30-minute observation. The dynamic evolution of this small-scale structure is investigated in both hemispheres on the basis of HST observations between 1997 and 2007. A statistical analysis reveals the properties of this small-scale structure whose equatorial source region is fixed in magnetic local time, around noon. Additionally, we present global MHD simulations of the Jovian magnetosphere for different solar wind conditions, using the model developed by Chané et al. (2013) [1]. The model predicts the formation of a localized small-scale feature around noon in the auroral region, compatible with the observed transient auroral structure. According to the simulations, a negative plasma radial velocity region is created in the current sheet close to magnetic noon. We suggest that the shearing motions occurring at the boundary of this region lead to a localized enhancement of the upward field aligned current density.

Palmaerts, B.; Radioti, A.; Grodent, D.; Chané, E.; Bonfond, B.

2014-04-01

473

Pesticide safety training and practices in women working in small-scale agriculture in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesUnregulated use of pesticides continues in developing countries in the presence of illiteracy and limited safety training and practices. This paper describes training and safety practices when mixing and spraying pesticides, and acetylcholinesterase levels among women farmers in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.MethodsA cross-sectional study conducted in women working in small-scale agriculture in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in 2006 assessed pesticide training

S. Naidoo; H.-A. Rother; A. Burdorf; R. N. Naidoo; H. Kromhout

2010-01-01

474

Universal power management IC for small-scale energy harvesting with adaptive impedance matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a universal power management IC for small-scale energy harvesting with adaptive impedance matching. A non-inverting buck-boost converter is adopted to accommodate a wide input voltage range from different energy sources and varying environmental conditions. The circuit dynamically performs the resistive matching to harvest the maximum power. The circuit is fabricated in 0.18-?m CMOS. Simulation and

Na Kong; T. Shaver Deyerle; Dong Sam Ha

2011-01-01

475

Small-scale primordial magnetic fields and anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that small-scale magnetic fields present before recombination induce baryonic density inhomogeneities of appreciable magnitude. The presence of such inhomogeneities changes the ionization history of the Universe, which in turn decreases the angular scale of the Doppler peaks and increases Silk damping by photon diffusion. This unique signature could be used to (dis)prove the existence of primordial magnetic fields of strength as small as B ? 10{sup ?11} Gauss by cosmic microwave background observations.

Jedamzik, Karsten [Laboratoire de Univers et Particules, UMR5299-CNRS, Université de Montpellier II, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Abel, Tom, E-mail: karsten.jedamzik@um2.fr, E-mail: tabel@slac.stanford.edu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC/Stanford University, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

2013-10-01

476

Design of a Small Scale High Temperature Gas Loop for Process Heat Exchanger Design Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

We designed a small scale gas loop that can simulate reference operating conditions, that is, a temperature up to 950 deg C and a pressure up to 6 MPa. Main objective of the loop is to screen the candidate process-heat-exchanger designs of a very small capacity of 10 â 20 kW. We arranged the components of a primary gas loop

Hong SungDeok; Oh DongSeok; Lee WonJae; Chang JongHwa

2006-01-01

477

Proceedings of a Topical Meeting On Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings describe the workshop of the Topical Meeting on Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects. The projects covered include binary power plants, rotary separator, screw expander power plants, modular wellhead power plants, inflow turbines, and the EPRI hybrid power system. Active projects versus geothermal power projects were described. In addition, a simple approach to estimating effects of fluid deliverability on geothermal power cost is described starting on page 119. (DJE-2005)

None

1986-02-12

478

Pitfalls in Small-Scale Species-Area Sampling and Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of the dependency of species richness (S) on area (A), the so-called species-area relationships (SARs), are widespread approaches to characterize and compare biodiversity patterns.\\u000a This article highlights – with a focus on small-scale SARs of plants in continuous ecosystems – how inappropriate sampling\\u000a methods or theoretical misconceptions can create artifacts and thus may lead to wrong conclusions. Most of

Jürgen Dengler

2008-01-01

479

Turbulent small-scale neutral and ion density fluctuations as measured during MAC/Epsilon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the MAC/Epsilon campaign (Fall 1987, from Andoya, Northern Norway, 69 N, 16 E) a total of four altitude profiles of neutral gas number densities and six profiles of ion number densities were measured with high spatial resolution in the height range from 60 to 120 km. First results of these rocket-borne experiments are presented with emphasis on small scale turbulent density variations and related turbulent parameter as structure function constants and energy dissipation rates.

Luebken, F.-J.; Hillert, W.; Vonzahn, U.; Blix, T. A.; Thrane, E. V.

1989-01-01

480

Analysis and modeling of spatial correlation structure in small-scale rainfall in Central Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial correlation structure in small-scale rainfall is analyzed based on a dense cluster of raingauges in Central Oklahoma. This cluster, called the EVAC PicoNet, consists of 53 gauges installed in 25 measurement stations covering an area of about 3km by 3km. Two raingauges are placed in 24 stations and five in the central station. Three aspects of the estimated spatial

Grzegorz J. Ciach; Witold F. Krajewski

2006-01-01

481

Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package. Appendix B  

SciTech Connect

This appendix provides the data for Alternate HTM Flowsheet 2 (Glycolic Acid) melter feed preparation activities in both the laboratory- and small-scale testing. The first section provides an outline of this appendix. The melter feed preparation data are presented in the next two main sections, laboratory melter feed preparation data and small-scale melter feed preparation data. Section 3.0 provides the laboratory data which is discussed in the main body of the Small-Scale High Temperature-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package, milestone C95-02.02Y. Section 3.1 gives the flowsheet in outline form as used in the laboratory-scale tests. This section also includes the ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` which gives A chronological account of the test in terms of time, temperature, slurry pH, and specific observations about slurry appearance, acid addition rates, and samples taken. The ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` provides a road map to the reader by which all the activity and data from the laboratory can be easily accessed. A summary of analytical data is presented next, section 3.2, which covers starting materials and progresses to the analysis of the melter feed. The next section, 3.3, characterizes the off-gas generation that occurs during the slurry processing. The following section, 3.4, provides the rheology data gathered including gram waste oxide loading information for the various slurries tested. The final section, 3.5, includes data from standard crucible redox testing. Section 4.0 provides the small-scale data in parallel form to section 3.0. Section 5.0 concludes with the references for this appendix.

NONE

1996-03-01

482

Fuelwood procurement for an industrial power plant: a case study of Dow Corning's program  

SciTech Connect

Dow Corning Corporation has developed effective procedures for meeting the fuelwood requirements of a 22.4 megawatt steam and electricity cogenerating power plant. The fuelwood procurement program of Dow Corning's Natural Resources Department involves special arrangements with private landowners, logging and hauling producers, and waste wood suppliers. The program's success is attributable to a favorable location, adequate allowance for advance planning, effective public relations, and flexible management. The program is significant because it demonstrates that industrial fuelwood requirements can be met and that improved production from nonindustrial private forests can be relied upon as a major source of fuelwood. 7 references, 7 figures.

Folger, A.G.; Sworden, P.G.; Bond, C.T.

1984-08-01

483

Why do large and small scales couple in a turbulent boundary layer?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Correlation measurement, which is not definitive, suggests that large and small scales in a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) couple. A TBL is modeled as a jungle of interacting nonlinear oscillators to explore the origin of the coupling. These oscillators have the inherent property of self-sustainability, disturbance rejection, and of self-referential phase reset whereby several oscillators can phase align (or have constant phase difference between them) when an ``external'' impulse is applied. Consequently, these properties of a TBL are accounted for: self-sustainability, return of the wake component after a disturbance is removed, and the formation of the 18o large structures, which are composed of a sequential train of hairpin vortices. The nonlinear ordinary differential equations of the oscillators are solved using an analog circuit for rapid solution. The post-bifurcation limit cycles are determined. A small scale and a large scale are akin to two different oscillators. The state variables from the two disparate interacting oscillators are shown to couple and the small scales appear at certain regions of the phase of the large scale. The coupling is a consequence of the nonlinear oscillatory behavior. Although state planes exist where the disparate scales appear de-superposed, all scales in a TBL are in fact coupled and they cannot be monochromatically isolated.

Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.

2011-11-01

484

Experimental Approach for Deep Proteome Measurements from Small-Scale Microbial Biomass Samples.  

SciTech Connect

Many methods of microbial proteome characterizations require large quantities of cellular biomass (> 1-2 g) for sample preparation and protein identification. Our experimental approach differs from traditional techniques by providing the ability to identify the proteomic state of a microbe from a few milligrams of starting cellular material. The small-scale, guanidine-lysis method minimizes sample loss by achieving cellular lysis and protein digestion in a single tube experiment. For this experimental approach, the freshwater microbe Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and the purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA0010 were used as model organisms for technology development and evaluation. A 2-D LC-MS/MS comparison between a standard sonication lysis method and the small-scale guanidine-lysis techniques demonstrates that the guanidine-lysis method is more efficient with smaller sample amounts of cell pellet (i.e. down to 1 mg). The described methodology would enable deep proteome measurements from a few milliliters of confluent bacterial cultures. We also report a new protocol for efficient lysis from small amounts of natural biofilm samples for deep proteome measurements, which should greatly enhance the emerging field of microbial community proteomics. This straightforward sample boiling protocol is complementary to the small-scale guanidine-lysis technique, is amenable for small sample quantities, and requires no special reagents that might complicate the MS measurements.

Thompson, Melissa R [ORNL; Chourey, Karuna [ORNL; Froelich, Jennifer M. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Erickson, Brian K [ORNL; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL

2008-01-01

485

2012 THIN FILM AND SMALL SCALE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR GRS/GRC, JULY 21-27, 2012  

SciTech Connect

The mechanical behavior of materials with small dimension(s) is of both fundamental scientific interest and technological relevance. The size effects and novel properties that arise from changes in deformation mechanism have important implications for modern technologies such as thin films for microelectronics and MEMS devices, thermal and tribological coatings, materials for energy production and advanced batteries, etc. The overarching goal of the 2012 Gordon Research Conference on "Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior" is to discuss recent studies and future opportunities regarding elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation, as well as degradation and failure mechanisms such as fatigue, fracture and wear. Specific topics of interest include, but are not limited to: fundamental studies of physical mechanisms governing small-scale mechanical behavior; advances in test techniques for materials at small length scales, such as nanotribology and high-temperature nanoindentation; in-situ mechanical testing and characterization; nanomechanics of battery materials, such as swelling-induced phenomena and chemomechanical behavior; flexible electronics; mechanical properties of graphene and carbon-based materials; mechanical behavior of small-scale biological structures and biomimetic materials. Both experimental and computational work will be included in the oral and poster presentations at this Conference.

Balk, Thomas

2012-07-27

486

Small Scale Pressure-Balanced Structures Driven by Slow-mode Waves in the Solar Wind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work aims to reveal the dependence of the properties of small-scale PBSs on the background magnetic field (B0) direction and thus to corroborate the in situ mechanism that forms them. We analyze the plasma and magnetic field data obtained by WIND in the quiet fast solar wind at 1 AU. By wavelet cross-coherence analysis, we obtain the correlation coefficients and phase angle between the thermal pressure Pth and the magnetic pressure PB, distributing against the temporal scale and the angle ?xB between B0 and GSE-x. We note that the angle coverage of a PBS decreases with shorter temporal scale, but the occurrence of the PBSs is independent of ?xB. Suspecting that the isolated small PBSs are formed by compressive waves in situ, we continue this study by testing the wave mode forming a small-scale PBS with B0 quasi-parallel to GSE-x. We use the proton velocity distribution functions to reveal the proton temperature anisotropy T? /T?. Besides, minimum variance analysis is applied to find the magnetic field minimum variance vector BN as wave vector k. We also study the time variation of the cross-helicity sigma_c and compressibility Cp, and compare with that from the numerical predictions for slow-mode waves. Finally, short time small-scale PBS is proved to be driven by oblique slow-mode waves in the solar wind.

Yao, S.; Tu, C.; He, J.; Wang, L.; Marsch, E.

2013-12-01

487

An Attempt of Formalizing the Selection Parameters for Settlements Generalization in Small-Scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper covers one of the most important problems concerning context-sensitive settlement selection for the purpose of the small-scale maps. So far, no formal parameters for small-scale settlements generalization have been specified, hence the problem seems to be an important and innovative challenge. It is also crucial from the practical point of view as it is necessary to develop appropriate generalization algorithms for the purpose of the General Geographic Objects Database generalization which is the essential Spatial Data Infrastructure component in Poland. The author proposes and verifies quantitative generalization parameters for the purpose of the settlement selection process in small-scale maps. The selection of settlements was carried out in two research areas - in Lower Silesia and ?ód? Province. Based on the conducted analysis appropriate contextual-sensitive settlements selection parameters have been defined. Particular effort has been made to develop a methodology of quantitative settlements selection which would be useful in the automation processes and that would make it possible to keep specifics of generalized objects unchanged.

Karsznia, Izabela

2014-12-01

488

Low cost, small scale processing technologies for production applications in various environments: Mass produced factories  

SciTech Connect

The requirements for chemical and food production technologies will change in the future as a result of shorter time to market and increasing market volatility. Especially the rising use of renewable resources will require the implementation of flexible and fast to install small-scale production technologies. The increasing number of necessary apparatuses and their distributed operation, however, will constitute major challenges, both economically and procedurally. The proposed solution to face the economic challenge is modularization and standardization. For food production, dewatering represents a key issue. Thus, biomass processing should first be divided into small-scale water separation steps and then into further large-scale processing steps. As dewatering usually happens thermally and heat exchangers often benefit from the economies of scale, heat supply and energy consumption or heat transfer with little capital investment are further issues. Therefore, temperature levels should be decreased and the use of solar heat increased. For the production of biofuels and chemicals from biomass, process integration and process simplification are proposed to improve the efficacy of production equipment and processes. Choosing raw materials with molecular structures, similar to the desired chemical building block, will lower the need for heat exchange and make small-scale manufacturing of fuels and chemicals possible.

Bramsiepe, C; Sievers, S; Seifert, T; Stefanidis, G D; Vlachos, Dion G.; Schnitzer, H; Muster, B; Brunner, C; Sanders, J P.M.; Bruins, M E; Schembecker, G

2012-01-01

489

Mixing at mid-ocean ridges controlled by small-scale convection and plate motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceanic lavas are thought to be derived from different sources within the Earth’s mantle, each with a distinct composition. Large-scale plate motions provide the primary mechanism for mixing these sources, yet the geochemical signature of lavas erupted at different mid-ocean ridges can still vary significantly. Geochemical variability is low where plate spreading rates are high, consistent with plate-scale mixing. However, slow-spreading centres, such as the Southwest Indian Ridge in the Indian Ocean, are also geochemically homogeneous, which is inconsistent with plate-scale mixing. Here we use numerical simulations of mantle flow to study mantle mixing at mid-ocean ridges, under conditions with variable plate length and spreading rate. Our simulations reveal that small-scale convection in the mantle contributes significantly to mantle mixing at slow spreading rates; faster plate velocities and smaller plates inhibit small-scale convection. We conclude that whereas fast-spreading ridge lavas are well mixed by plate-scale flow, slow-spreading ridge lavas are mixed by small-scale convection.

Samuel, Henri; King, Scott D.

2014-08-01

490

Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program, a government-industry research partnership  

SciTech Connect

The 21st Century Truck Program has been established as a government-industry research partnership to support the development and implementation of commercially viable technologies that will dramatically cut fuel use and emissions of commercial trucks and buses while enhancing their safety and affordability as well as maintaining or enhancing performance. The innovations resulting from this program will reduce dependence on foreign oil, improve our nation's air quality, provide advanced technology for military vehicles, and enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. truck and bus industry while ensuring safe and affordable freight and bus transportation for the nation's economy. This Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program has been prepared to guide the development of the technical advancements that will enable the needed improvements in commercial truck fuel economy, emissions, and safety.

None

2000-12-01

491

Performing impact evaluations in industrial retrofit: The Energy Savings Plan Program  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Savings Plan (ESP) is Bonneville Power Administration's retrofit program for the industrial sector. The program pays incentives for energy conservation measures involving electrical energy efficiency improvements in manufacturing, processing, and refining industries. This paper will describe the ESP program, recount the techniques selected to evaluate the retrofits, and report the findings from five ESP project impact evaluations completed to date. The impact evaluations provide a framework for assessing the energy saving achieved by the provides implemented under the ESP. In addition to energy savings, the evaluations assess process changes, net utility impacts, levelized costs, and free ridership.'' The five ESP projects evaluated include: a waste heat recovery system for a food processing blancher, an energy management control system used to upgrade refrigeration, a variable speed drive for a fan motor in a lumber mill, a sludge screw press for waste water treatment, and replacement of rod anodes with blades anodes in mercury cells in an electrochemical plant.

Riewer, S. (USDOE Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)); Spanner, G.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1991-08-01

492

Performing impact evaluations in industrial retrofit: The Energy Savings Plan Program  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Savings Plan (ESP) is Bonneville Power Administration`s retrofit program for the industrial sector. The program pays incentives for energy conservation measures involving electrical energy efficiency improvements in manufacturing, processing, and refining industries. This paper will describe the ESP program, recount the techniques selected to evaluate the retrofits, and report the findings from five ESP project impact evaluations completed to date. The impact evaluations provide a framework for assessing the energy saving achieved by the provides implemented under the ESP. In addition to energy savings, the evaluations assess process changes, net utility impacts, levelized costs, and ``free ridership.`` The five ESP projects evaluated include: a waste heat recovery system for a food processing blancher, an energy management control system used to upgrade refrigeration, a variable speed drive for a fan motor in a lumber mill, a sludge screw press for waste water treatment, and replacement of rod anodes with blades anodes in mercury cells in an electrochemical plant.

Riewer, S. [USDOE Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States); Spanner, G.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1991-08-01

493

How Can Petrobras Biocombustíveis Engage Small-Scale Farmers While Promoting Sustainability in Brazil?s Biodiesel Programme?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our research indicates that Petrobras Biocombustíveis can help alleviate poverty among small-scale family farmers by enhancing stakeholder integration into the Brazilian biodiesel programme. This corroborates numerous studies pointing out the importance of stakeholder networks (Rowley, 1997; Roloff, 2008), which can be particularly significant in programmes that aim to incorporate small-scale farmers into internationally driven markets. Petrobras Biocombustíveis needs to improve

Clovis Zapata; Diego Vazquez-Brust; José Plaza-Úbeda

2010-01-01

494

Industry  

SciTech Connect

This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

2007-12-01

495

Determining erosion relevant soil characteristics with a small-scale rainfall simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of soil erosion models is of great importance in soil and water conservation. Routine application of these models on the regional scale is not at least limited by the high parameter demands. Although the EROSION 3D simulation model is operating with a comparable low number of parameters, some of the model input variables could only be determined by rainfall simulation experiments. The existing data base of EROSION 3D was created in the mid 90s based on large-scale rainfall simulation experiments on 22x2m sized experimental plots. Up to now this data base does not cover all soil and field conditions adequately. Therefore a new campaign of experiments would be essential to produce additional information especially with respect to the effects of new soil management practices (e.g. long time conservation tillage, non tillage). The rainfall simulator used in the actual campaign consists of 30 identic modules, which are equipped with oscillating rainfall nozzles. Veejet 80/100 (Spraying Systems Co., Wheaton, IL) are used in order to ensure best possible comparability to natural rainfalls with respect to raindrop size distribution and momentum transfer. Central objectives of the small-scale rainfall simulator are - effectively application - provision of comparable results to large-scale rainfall simulation experiments. A crucial problem in using the small scale simulator is the restriction on rather small volume rates of surface runoff. Under this conditions soil detachment is governed by raindrop impact. Thus impact of surface runoff on particle detachment cannot be reproduced adequately by a small-scale rainfall simulator With this problem in mind this paper presents an enhanced small-scale simulator which allows a virtual multiplication of the plot length by feeding additional s