Science.gov

Sample records for programa barrio adentro

  1. La Pedagogia en el Barrio. (The Pedagogy in the Barrio)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Roberto Perez

    1977-01-01

    The article, written in Spanish, gives examples of the Barrio Education Project's work in San Antonio and poses some serious questions about the importance of Spanish for the Hispanic community. Illiteracy, or "functional illiteracy" is a growing problem in the U.S. among all sectors of the population--English- and Spanish-speaking. (Author/NQ)

  2. Tradition in the Barrio. Level Seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Elvira

    The stories in this book tell about the life of more traditional Mexican Americans in "barrios" (neighborhoods). Their customs are a mixture of Spanish, Indian, and Catholic influences. Part I, "Tradition in the Barrio", deals primarily with cultural and family relationships. It covers the large Mexican family, the male roles of father, eldest…

  3. Tradition in the Barrio. Level Seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Elvira

    The stories in this book tell about the life of more traditional Mexican Americans in "barrios" (neighborhoods). Their customs are a mixture of Spanish, Indian, and Catholic influences. Part I, "Tradition in the Barrio", deals primarily with cultural and family relationships. It covers the large Mexican family, the male roles of father, eldest…

  4. The Self Inside and Out: Authenticity and Disability in "Mar adentro" and "Yo, tambien"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Cordero, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Spanish filmmakers Alejandro Amenabar, Antonio Naharro, and Alvaro Pastor have recently focused on disability and personal identity by presenting the disabled subject in the foreground and by posing an array of ethical questions. This essay explores representations of disability as they appear in "Mar adentro" and "Yo, tambien"…

  5. The Self Inside and Out: Authenticity and Disability in "Mar adentro" and "Yo, tambien"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Cordero, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Spanish filmmakers Alejandro Amenabar, Antonio Naharro, and Alvaro Pastor have recently focused on disability and personal identity by presenting the disabled subject in the foreground and by posing an array of ethical questions. This essay explores representations of disability as they appear in "Mar adentro" and "Yo, tambien"…

  6. Learning: Intellectual Imperialism from Barrio to Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Woodrow W., Jr.

    The research for this paper was concentrated in a poor barrio in Bogota, Columbia. The Paper discussed learning in a poor urban community using the ethnographic example of a small community to illustrate the larger socio-political impact of the implication of the United States' policy and position for Colombia. The account is considered to be…

  7. The Barrio Endowment to American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lint, Robert G.

    The emergence in Chicano poetry of the language experiments and folk wisdom of the oral traditions of barrio cuentos, corridos, dichos, and actos reveals that this literature is neither fleeting nor novel. Jose Montoya's "Resonant Valley" exemplifies the Chicano's preservation of ancient wisdom and practice in new formal experiments and…

  8. A Further Look at "Culture of Poverty": Ten Caracas Barrios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Audrey James

    1975-01-01

    Interviews in 10 squatter settlements in Caracas challenge Oscar Lewis'"culture of poverty" theory by showing marked differences among barrio residents reflecting variations in occupations, education, employment, and use of credit. (Author)

  9. 78 FR 57406 - Approval of Barrios Measurement Services LLC, as a Commercial Gauger

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Approval of Barrios Measurement Services LLC, as a Commercial... approval of Barrios Measurement Services LLC, as a commercial gauger. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given, pursuant to CBP regulations, that Barrios Measurement Services LLC, has been approved to gauge...

  10. Chicano Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in the Barrio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasso, Ricardo

    Conducted in January 1977, the community survey examined alcohol abuse and alcoholism among Chicanos in the barrios. Data were obtained from 160 respondents (119 females and 41 males) from 3 geographic areas in San Antonio: the Special Impact Area of Casa Del Sol (an alcoholism program) and the cities of San Antonio and Alamo Heights. Information…

  11. Behavior Modification in the Treatment and Prevention of Inter-Barrio Gang Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Alan

    A nomothetic assessment of the drive-by shooting in inter-barrio gang violence was conducted. Available data on drive-by shootings were organized using the model of behavioral assessment suggested by Kanfer and Saslow (1969). The model included seven areas of analysis: initial assessment, clarification of the problem, motivation, development,…

  12. Community Arts Programs: Cohesion and Difference Case Studies. Henry Street Settlement and El Museo del Barrio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiebert-Gruen, Cathleen

    2009-01-01

    A comparative case study of two cultural institutions, Henry Street Settlement and El Museo del Barrio, founded almost eighty years apart, were involved in social justice causes and community arts. Although both of these institutions participated in the political activism of their time, they also demonstrated an important adaptability. They were…

  13. Comprehensive Education Bolivarian-Style: The Alternative School in Barrio Pueblo Nuevo, Venezuela

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Mike

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author traces revolutionary developments in an alternative school in Barrio Pueblo Nuevo, Mérida, in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, a school that caters for students between 4 and 14. He begins by recounting some fieldwork done at the school on his behalf by Edward Ellis in 2010. He goes on to discuss a video made at…

  14. Chicano Children and Their Outdoor Environment: Barrio, Housing Project & Rural Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrasco, Frank F.; And Others

    The study examined the experiences in the physical and social outdoor environment of low-income Chicano children living in an urban barrio, an urban housing project, and a rural setting. Subjects were 3 to 12 years of age, of any ethnic group, and of both sexes. Infants (those younger than 3 years) and adults (those older than 12 years) were coded…

  15. Programa De Educacion Interamericana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station.

    PROGRAMA DE EDUCACION INTERAMERICANA is a project of Texas A&M University in liaison with the Bryan Independent School District. The objectives of the program are to improve the knowledge and understanding of Texas teachers and students about other American cultures. Study teams of educators research and, in midsummer, travel to selected…

  16. Care and survival of Mexican American women with node negative breast cancer: historical cohort evidence of health insurance and barrio advantages.

    PubMed

    Richter, Nancy L; Gorey, Kevin M; Haji-Jama, Sundus; Luginaah, Isaac N

    2015-06-01

    We hypothesized 3-way ethnicity by barrio by health insurance interactions such that the advantages of having adequate health insurance were greatest among Mexican American (MA) women who lived in barrios. Barrios were neighborhoods with relatively high concentrations of MAs (60% or more). Data were analyzed for 194 MA and 2,846 non-Hispanic white women diagnosed with, very treatable, node negative breast cancer in California between 1996 and 2000 and followed until 2011. Significant interactions were observed such that the protective effects of Medicare or private health insurance on radiation therapy access and long term survival were largest for MA women who resided in MA barrios, neighborhoods that also tended to be extremely poor. These paradoxical findings are consistent with the theory that more facilitative social and economic capital available to MA women in barrios enables them to better absorb the indirect and direct, but uncovered, costs of breast cancer care. PMID:24155037

  17. Care and Survival of Mexican American Women with Node Negative Breast Cancer: Historical Cohort Evidence of Health Insurance and Barrio Advantages

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Nancy L.; Haji-Jama, Sundus; Luginaah, Isaac N.

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized 3-way ethnicity by barrio by health insurance interactions such that the advantages of having adequate health insurance were greatest among Mexican American (MA) women who lived in barrios. Barrios were neighborhoods with relatively high concentrations of MAs (60 % or more). Data were analyzed for 194 MA and 2,846 non-Hispanic white women diagnosed with, very treatable, node negative breast cancer in California between 1996 and 2000 and followed until 2011. Significant interactions were observed such that the protective effects of Medicare or private health insurance on radiation therapy access and long term survival were largest for MA women who resided in MA barrios, neighborhoods that also tended to be extremely poor. These paradoxical findings are consistent with the theory that more facilitative social and economic capital available to MA women in barrios enables them to better absorb the indirect and direct, but uncovered, costs of breast cancer care. PMID:24155037

  18. El barrio de la Chueca of Madrid, Spain: an emerging epicenter of the global LGBT civil rights movement.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Omar; Dodge, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine and deconstruct the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) barrio (community) of Chueca in Madrid, Spain, from political and sociological perspectives. First, we develop a critical framework for understanding the historical, political, social, cultural, and economic changes that took place in Spain after Franco's death in relation to LGBT issues. Ethnographic research was conducted from May to July 2007 in the Spanish cities of Madrid, Barcelona, and Ibiza, and focused primarily on the community of Chueca. A social constructionist perspective was used to examine sociocultural issues in this ethnosexual community through an in-depth study of the dynamics of this barrio. The theoretical framework of intersectionality and the constitutive relations among social identities is exemplified in Chueca. Hence, individuals in Chueca and their intersectionality perspective reveal that their identities influence and shape their beliefs about gender and symbols. We describe how Chueca reflects recent progressive changes in LGBT-related laws and statutes drafted by the federal government and how these have influenced the high level of societal acceptance toward intimate same-sex relationships in Spain. Additionally, we exemplify and present Chueca as an enclave that has been affected by the globalization of the private market, "gay" identity, and enterprise, having a direct effect on cultural norms and social behaviors. Last, we examine the current state of the Chueca community relative to other developing LGBT Latino/a communities in the United States. PMID:20390991

  19. Líneas Vitales: Programas y servicios del NCI

    Cancer.gov

    Artículos y videos sobre los programas y servicios del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer de la serie educativa Líneas Vitales del NCI, la cual está dirigida especialmente a poblaciones multiculturales.

  20. Content Analysis Schedule for Bilingual Education Programs: Programa en Dos Lenguas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludanyi, R. P.; Shore, Marietta Saravia

    This content analysis schedule for the "Programa en Dos Lenguas" of Fort Worth, Texas, presents information on the history, funding, and scope of the project. Included are sociolinguistic process variables such as the native and dominant languages of students and their interaction. Information is provided on staff selection and the linguistic…

  1. BSSDATA - um programa otimizado para filtragem de dados em radioastronomia solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinon, A. R. F.; Sawant, H. S.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Stephany, S.; Preto, A. J.; Dobrowolski, K. M.

    2003-08-01

    A partir de 1998, entrou em operação regular no INPE, em São José dos Campos, o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS). O BSS é dedicado às observações de explosões solares decimétricas com alta resolução temporal e espectral, com a principal finalidade de investigar fenômenos associados com a liberação de energia dos "flares" solares. Entre os anos de 1999 e 2002, foram catalogadas, aproximadamente 340 explosões solares classificadas em 8 tipos distintos, de acordo com suas características morfológicas. Na análise detalhada de cada tipo, ou grupo, de explosões solares deve-se considerar a variação do fluxo do sol calmo ("background"), em função da freqüência e a variação temporal, além da complexidade das explosões e estruturas finas registradas superpostas ao fundo variável. Com o intuito de realizar tal análise foi desenvolvido o programa BSSData. Este programa, desenvolvido em linguagem C++, é constituído de várias ferramentas que auxiliam no tratamento e análise dos dados registrados pelo BSS. Neste trabalho iremos abordar as ferramentas referentes à filtragem do ruído de fundo. As rotinas do BSSData para filtragem de ruído foram testadas nos diversos grupos de explosões solares ("dots", "fibra", "lace", "patch", "spikes", "tipo III" e "zebra") alcançando um bom resultado na diminuição do ruído de fundo e obtendo, em conseqüência, dados onde o sinal torna-se mais homogêneo ressaltando as áreas onde existem explosões solares e tornando mais precisas as determinações dos parâmetros observacionais de cada explosão. Estes resultados serão apresentados e discutidos.

  2. [Programa de saúde: a case of book censorship during the Brazilian military dictatorship].

    PubMed

    Reimão, Sandra

    2013-11-30

    Some documents produced by the government during the Brazilian military dictatorship have been made available for reference, including censors' reports on television and radio programs, plays, films, songs, advertisements and printed matter. Of the 500 or so reports on books, there is one that vetoes Programa de saúde: projetos e temas de higiene e saúde, an educational work that proposed actions to help students understand their sanitary conditions and acquire knowledge about health and health-promoting habits in this area. The argument for vetoing it was that the information could fall into the hands of poorly trained teachers, who could distort its content, causing serious damage to Brazilian youth. In this report we see evidence of the obscurantist, elitist posture adopted by the Department of Censorship of Public Entertainment, which aimed to restrict the circulation of information and curb debate. PMID:24346208

  3. Un programa innovador busca ayudar a las personas que cuidan a pacientes con cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre un programa educativo del City of Hope Cancer Center que ofrece a los profesionales de salud la información y las herramientas necesarias para ayudar a los familiares a saber cómo cuidarse a si mismos y a sus seres queridos con cáncer.

  4. Healthy Start Programa Madrina: A Promotora Home Visiting Outreach and Education Program to Improve Perinatal Health among Latina Pregnant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bill, Debra E.; Hock-Long, Linda; Mesure, Maryann; Bryer, Pamela; Zambrano, Neydary

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of Healthy Start Programa Madrina (HSPM), a home visiting promotora outreach and education program for Latina pregnant women and to present the 10-year findings of the program (1996-2005). Perinatal health disparities continue to persist among low-income…

  5. A comprehensive smoking cessation program for the San Francisco Bay Area Latino community: Programa Latino Para Dejar de Fumar.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Stable, E J; Marín, B V; Marín, G

    1993-01-01

    Background. Prevalence of cigarette smoking among Latinos compared to whites is higher among men (30.9% versus 27.9%), but lower among women (16.3% versus 23.5%). More acculturated Latina women, however, smoke more. Compared to other smokers, Latinos report consuming about half the average number of cigarettes per day. Up to a quarter of Latino smokers of less than 10 cigarettes per day may be underreporting consumption. The association between smoking and depression has also been found in Latinos. Program Goals. The Programa Latino Para Dejar de Fumar (Programa) goals are: 1) to evaluate attitudinal, behavioral, and cultural differences between Latino and white smokers; 2) to integrate these findings into a comprehensive, culturally-appropriate smoking cessation intervention; and 3) to implement the intervention in a defined community in order to decrease cigarette smoking prevalence, increase behaviors that may lead smokers to quit, and promote a nonsmoking environment. Program Components. Heightened concern about health effects of smoking, the importance of social smoking, and the influence of the family on behavior are integrated in the Programa components: 1) the promotion of a full-color, Spanish-language, self-help, smoking cessation guide (Guia), distributed at no charge; 2) an anti-smoking, Spanish-language, electronic media campaign; 3) community involvement; 4) quit smoking contests; 5) smoking cessation, individual, telephone consultations (consultas); and 6) collaboration with health care personnel. Results. Effectiveness of the Programa is being evaluated by annual, cross-sectional, random digit dialing telephone surveys compared to two baseline surveys. After 19 months of intervention, the proportion who had heard of the Programa increased from 18.5% to 44.0%, and over one third of less acculturated smokers had the Guia. Future directions will emphasize smoking prevention among youth, prevention of relapse among quitters, and depression prevention. PMID:10146254

  6. Confronting Health Disparities: Latin American Social Medicine in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Mantini-Briggs, Clara

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We explored the emergence and effectiveness of Venezuela's Misión Barrio Adentro, “Inside the Neighborhood Mission,” a program designed to improve access to health care among underserved residents of the country, hoping to draw lessons to apply to future attempts to address acute health disparities. Methods. We conducted our study in 3 capital-region neighborhoods, 2 small cities, and 2 rural areas, combining systematic observations with interviews of 221 residents, 41 health professionals, and 28 government officials. We surveyed 177 female and 91 male heads of household. Results. Interviews suggested that Misión Barrio Adentro emerged from creative interactions between policymakers, clinicians, community workers, and residents, adopting flexible, problem-solving strategies. In addition, data indicated that egalitarian physician–patient relationships and the direct involvement of local health committees overcame distrust and generated popular support for the program. Media and opposition antagonism complicated physicians’ lives and clinical practices but heightened the program's visibility. Conclusions. Top-down and bottom-up efforts are less effective than “horizontal” collaborations between professionals and residents in underserved communities. Direct, local involvement can generate creative and dynamic efforts to address acute health disparities in these areas. PMID:19150916

  7. Barrio School: White School in a Brown Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahab, Zaher

    As an agent of the sociocultural system, the school is a formal means of cultural transmission, conveying values, skills, attitudes, cognitive skills, and behavior patterns necessary for membership in society and survival of the sociocultural system. For Mexican Americans and other immigrants, the school also has the responsibility of…

  8. In the Barrios: Latinos and the Underclass Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Joan, Ed.; Pinderhughes, Raquel, Ed.

    This book includes nine articles that broaden current debates on the American urban "underclass" by assessing the circumstances of inner-city Latino communities. An introduction provides background information on the U.S. Latino population and addresses factors related to urban poverty and to the "underclass" debate, including economic…

  9. Designing a behavioral program for a barrio in Tegucigalpa, Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Harold L.

    1994-01-01

    Health in Housing initiated a behavioral program of education and skills training for children and adults in a community of 30,000 persons living in substandard conditions in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. To measure achievement in the long-range project, 21 families of Flor del Campo participated in a preliminary three-part survey of their (a) health, (b) housing and the environment, and (c) family history. Doctors, designers, and educators worked with Honduran personnel in the first survey. Following functional analyses of the home and surrounding environment and the physical status of the individuals living there, procedures provide the family with treatment and training for home and environment improvement. Graphic, verbal, and numerical data, incorporated into a master computerized system, record events of each family member: training programs experienced, health care delivery courses taken, medical treatments, growth of children, literacy changes, educational courses completed, kinds and amounts of foods eaten, household and building materials purchased. Ongoing functional analysis and a long-range evaluation are made of the progress of each participating individual in a family. Teams revisit each house to observe and record any changes in the physical and environmental facility and the health and life-styles, and to report any indications of new health problems or recurrences. PMID:16812727

  10. BUDDA (Bulge/Disk Decomposition Analysis) - um novo programa para análise estrutural de galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.; Dos Anjos, S.

    2003-08-01

    Tem sido prática comum nos últimos anos estudar a distribuição de luminosidade em galáxias fazendo uso da informação contida em toda a imagem da galáxia, já que esta técnica tem se mostrado muito mais confiável do que o simples ajuste de perfis radiais de luminosidade. Através destes estudos bidimensionais, melhores resultados tem sido obtidos na análise e.g. do Plano Fundamental, de correlações entre os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias, de sub-estruturas como barras e anéis nucleares etc. Apresentamos um novo código bidimensional, o BUDDA, de análise estrutural de galáxias, que será disponibilizado para a comunidade. Desenvolvido por nós, o código determina os parâmetros estruturais de galáxias de forma prática e robusta, e pode ser aplicado genericamente em qualquer estudo sobre a formação, evolução e estrutura de galáxias. O programa ainda permite a avaliação direta de sub-estruturas, através de imagens residuais que são obtidas ao se subtrair, das imagens originais, bojo e disco sintéticos que melhor representam essas componentes da galáxia sob consideração. Será apresentada a forma de utilização do código, bem como séries de testes que atestam a sua funcionalidade. Além disso, os resultados da aplicação do código em uma amostra de 51 galáxias serão expostos como exemplo prático, e do seu enorme potencial de uso.

  11. Vigilando la Calidad del Agua de los Grandes Rios de la Nacion: El Programa NASQAN del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.; Rivera, M.C., (translator); Munoz, A.

    1998-01-01

    La Oficina del Estudio Geologico de los Estados Unidos (U.S. Geological Survey, 0 USGS) ha monitoreado la calidad del agua de la cuenca del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte) desde 1995 como parte de la rediseiiada Red Nacional para Contabilizar la Calidad del Agua de los Rios (National Stream Quality Accounting Network, o NASOAN) (Hooper and others, 1997). EI programa NASOAN fue diseiiado para caracterizar las concentraciones y el transporte de sedimento y constituyentes quimicos seleccionados, encontrados en los grandes rios de los Estados Unidos - incluyendo el Misisipi, el Colorado y el Columbia, ademas del Rio Grande. En estas cuatro cuencas, el USGS opera actualmente (1998) una red de 40 puntos de muestreo pertenecientes a NASOAN, con un enfasis en cuantificar el flujo en masa (la cantidad de material que pasa por la estacion, expresado en toneladas por dial para cada constituyente. Aplicacando un enfoque consistente, basado en la cuantificacion de flujos en la cuenca del Rio Grande, el programa NASOAN esta generando la informacion necesaria para identificar fuentes regionales de diversos contaminantes, incluyendo sustancias qui micas agricolas y trazas elementos en la cuenca. EI efecto de las grandes reservas en el Rio Grande se puede observar segun los flujos de constituyentes discurren a 10 largo del rio. EI analisis de los flujos de constituyentes a escala de la cuenca proveera los medios para evaluar la influencia de la actividad humana sobre las condiciones de calidad del agua del Rio Grande.

  12. Programa Geração Biz, Mozambique: how did this adolescent health initiative grow from a pilot to a national programme, and what did it achieve?

    PubMed

    Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Gibbs, Susannah; Badiani, Rita; Quinhas, Fernandes; Svanemyr, Joar

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent sexual and reproductive health gained particular traction in Mozambique following the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development leading to the inception of Programa Geração Biz (PGB), a multi-sectoral initiative that was piloted starting in 1999 and fully scaled-up to all provinces by 2007. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to gather information on PGB and analyzed how it planned and managed the scale-up effort using the WHO-ExpandNet framework. PGB's activities comprised a clear and credible innovation. Appropriate resource and user organizations further facilitated national scale-up. Challenges relating to the complex nature of the multi-sectoral approach and resistance due to norms about adolescent sexual and reproductive health hindered scaling-up in some geographic areas. The national government exhibited commitment and ownership to PGB through budgetary support and integration into multiple policies. This study adds to the documentation of successful scaling-up strategies that can provide guidance for policy makers and programme managers. PMID:25971669

  13. EL PROGRAMA CITI: UNA ALTERNATIVA PARA LA CAPACITACIÓN EN ÉTICA DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN EN AMÉRICA LATINA

    PubMed Central

    Litewka, Sergio; Goodman, Kenneth; Braunschweiger, y Paul

    2011-01-01

    El Programa CITI (Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative) es un curso basado en Internet y desarrollado por voluntarios, que brinda material educacional sobre protección de sujetos humanos en investigaciones biomédicas y de conducta, buenas prácticas clínicas, conducta responsable de la investigación y trato humanitario a animales de laboratorio. Es un esfuerzo conjunto del Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center y la Universidad de Miami. Con la colaboración de expertos locales, gran parte del contenido se ha adaptado para América Latina, se ha traducido al español y portugués y se han establecido acuerdos de colaboración con instituciones especializadas en bioética en Chile, Brasil, Costa Rica y Perú. Los autores presentan una metodología accesible para la capacitación en ética de la investigación y una justificación de su uso y difusión en América Latina PMID:21687817

  14. An assessment of Spain's Programa AGUA and its implications for sustainable water management in the province of Almería, southeast Spain.

    PubMed

    Downward, Stuart R; Taylor, Ros

    2007-01-01

    Spain's Programa AGUA was proposed in 2004 as a replacement for the Spanish National Hydrological Plan and represented a fundamental policy shift in national water management from large inter-basin water transfers to a commitment to desalination. Twenty-one desalination facilities are planned for six provinces on the Spanish Mediterranean coast to supplement their water needs. These include the province of Almería that for the last 30 years has endured a net water abstraction overdraft leading to serious reservoir depletion and groundwater imbalances. Rising water use is a result of increasing demand to support irrigated agriculture (e.g. greenhouse horticulture) and for domestic needs (e.g. rapid urban growth and tourism development), which has led observers to question Almería's long-term water sustainability. Desalinated water alone is unlikely to be sufficient to make up these water deficits and water-users will have to accept a move to full-price water recovery by 2010 under the European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive of which Spain is a signatory. Anticipated water efficiencies resulting from higher water tariffs, increasing water reuse and water infrastructure improvements (including inter-basin transfers), in conjunction with increasing use of desalinated water, are expected to address the province's current water overdraft. However, Almería will need to balance its planned initiatives against long-term estimates of projected agricultural and domestic development and the environmental consequences of adopting a desalination-supported water future. PMID:16574308

  15. Efecto del Programa de Entrenamiento “Manejo del Dolor” en la Documentación de Enfermería en el Expediente Electrónico

    PubMed Central

    Monsiváis, María Guadalupe Moreno; Guzmán, Ma. Guadalupe Interial; Flores, Paz Francisco Sauceda; Arreola, Leticia Vázquez

    2012-01-01

    Resumen En el presente trabajo se muestra la importancia de entrenar al personal de enfermería para mejorar la documentación en el expediente electrónico. Se eligió el manejo del dolor por ser un área prioritaria; una alta proporción de pacientes en período post operatorio cursa con dolor, por lo tanto, la documentación debe ser útil para la toma de decisiones clínicas. Se implementó un programa de entrenamiento denominado “Manejo del Dolor” dirigido al personal de enfermería. Se utilizó la tecnología de la información como herramienta para fortalecer el conocimiento con base en la revisión sistemática de la literatura; el personal de enfermería participante seleccionó la mejor evidencia; posteriormente se trabajó en la transferencia de este conocimiento a la práctica a través del diseño de un protocolo para el manejo del dolor. Se concluye que el conocimiento del manejo del dolor es fundamental para que enfermería documente con mayor precisión sus intervenciones. PMID:24199106

  16. Inclusion of Visually Impaired in the School Programme Scheduled Visit of the Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MAST). (Breton Title: Inclusão de Deficientes Visuais no Programa de Visita Escolar Programada do Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MAST).) Inclusión de Discapacitados Visuales en el Programa Escolar Programado del Museo de Astronomía y Ciencias Afines (MAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira Gonçalves, Carla; da Conceição Barbosa-Lima, Maria

    2013-07-01

    Inclusive Education in Brazil, contemplated in the 1988 Constitution and in the Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Education (9.394/96) highlights the importance and urgency of promoting inclusive education as a formative element of nationality. Inclusive Education refers to all people who are struggling in school. Inclusion should be in all educational institutions (formal and informal). Our goal in the graduation final task was to report the experience of mediation to visually impaired students of the Instituto Benjamin Constant (IBC) at the Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MAST), and also suggest some modifications and present new proposals for the School Visit Program (VEP) through a specially constructed apparatus, where the sky can be sensed near the latitude of Rio de Janeiro. A educação inclusiva no Brasil, contemplada na Constituição de 1988 e a Lei de Diretrizes e Bases da Educação Nacional (9.394/96), destaca a importância e urgência de se promover a inclusão escolar como elemento formador da nacionalidade. A educação inclusiva diz respeito a todas as pessoas que enfrentam dificuldades na escola. A inclusão deve estar em todas as instituições educacionais (formais e não formais). Nosso objetivo, no trabalho de final de curso de licenciatura, foi apresentar o relato de experiência de mediação aos alunos deficientes visuais do Instituto Benjamin Constant (IBC) no Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MAST), as modificações e novas propostas para o Programa de Visita Escolar Programada (VEP) através de um aparelho especialmente construído onde se pode perceber o céu na latitude próxima a do Rio de Janeiro. La educación inclusiva en el Brasil, contemplada en la Constitución de 1988 y en la Ley de Directrices y Bases de la Educación Nacional (9.394/96), destaca la importancia y la urgencia de promover la inclusión escolar como elemento formador de la nacionalidad. La educación inclusiva se refiere a todas las personas que enfrentan dificultades en la escuela. La inclusión debe estar en todas las instituciones educacionales (formales o no). Nuestro objetivo en el trabajo de final de curso de licenciatura, fue el de presentar un relato de la experiencia de mediación a los alumnos con deficiencias visuales del Instituto Benjamin Constant (IBC) en el Museo de Astronomía y Ciencias Afines (MAST) y las modificaciones y nuevas propuestas para el Programa de Visita Escolar Programada (VEP) a través de un aparato especialmente construido con el cual se puede percibir el cielo en una latitud próxima a la de Rio de Janeiro.

  17. El Barrio's "We Are Watching You" Campaign: On the Politics of Inclusion in a Latinized Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davila, Arlene

    2005-01-01

    The way in which economic and cultural trends have led cultural institutions to go away from grassroots constituencies toward better ones and multiple debates within the world of U.S. Latino/a culture and the arts is described. The debate over the El Museo, which in the larger context affected the categorization, promotion and exhibition of Latin…

  18. From Barrios to Yale: The Role of Parenting Strategies in Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceballo, Rosario

    2004-01-01

    This study relies on qualitative methods to investigate the role of parents and home characteristics in the academic success of Latino/a students from impoverished, immigrant families. The primary goal is to identify parenting practices that contribute to the academic achievement of poor Latino students. Ten first-generation, U.S.-born, Latino…

  19. Out of the Barrio: Toward a New Politics of Hispanic Assimilation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Linda

    Ultimately, Hispanic Americans will choose whether they wish to become part of the larger American society, or remain separate from it, but public policy can and does influence that choice. Chapters 1 and 2 show how public policy in the form of two federal laws, the Bilingual Education Act and the Voting Rights Act, encouraged Hispanics to reject…

  20. Barrios and Burbs: Residential Context and Health-Risk Behaviors among Angeleno Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Reanne; Cerda, Magdalena; Rendon, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The increasing size of the Latino immigrant population in the United States underscores the need for a more complete understanding of the role that social context plays in influencing the health of immigrants and their children. This analysis explores the possibility that residential location influences the health-risk behaviors of Latino youth in…

  1. Student Assessment of Interinstitutional Interdisciplinary Barrio Primary Care-Mental Health Training Program Over Three Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curiel, Herman; And Others

    Trainees in the Consortium Training Program included residents in psychiatry, pediatrics, and internal medicine; medical students; interns in psychology; and graduate students in social work and nursing. Training involved supervised direct patient contacts in an interdisciplinary setting and weekly half-day seminars (consisting of 90-minute…

  2. Tiene Arte Valor Afuera Del Barrio: The Murals of East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holscher, Louis M.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the themes of the murals and explores the possible uses that the murals in Los Angeles have for the outsider, the non-Chicano, for those who have only a little understanding or awareness of the Chicano community. (Author/AM)

  3. Host Selection of Potential West Nile Virus Vectors in Puerto Barrios, Guatemala, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Kading, Rebekah C.; Reiche, Ana Silvia Gonzalez; Morales-Betoulle, Maria Eugenia; Komar, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The selection of vertebrate hosts by Culex mosquitoes relative to West Nile virus (WNV) transmission in neotropical countries such as Guatemala is not described. This study determined the feeding patterns of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus and estimated the relative contribution of two common and frequently infected wild bird species, Turdus grayi and Quiscalus mexicanus, to WNV transmission. Engorged mosquitoes were collected from rural and urban habitats after the dry and wet seasons in the Department of Izabal in 2007. Host selection by Cx. nigripalpus varied significantly between urban and rural habitats. Both Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus fed predominantly on chickens and other domestic animals. Blood meals from wild birds were rare, accounting for 1.1% of blood meals identified from Cx. quinquefasciatus and 6.5% of blood meals from Cx. nigripalpus. Transmission of WNV by these two mosquito species may be dampened by extensive feeding on reservoir-incompetent hosts. PMID:23208881

  4. Analisis del contenido curricular de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia para la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico: 1993-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila Montanez, Melissa

    Esta investigacion de naturaleza cualitativa se ocupo de realizar un analisis de contenido documental de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia de la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico del periodo 1993-2012. Los documentos analizados fueron: Guia Curricular, 1995; Marco Curricular, 2003; Estandares de Excelencia, 1996, 2000 y Estandares de Contenido y Expectativas de Grado, 2007. Se indago si hubo cambios en significados en los Componentes Estructurales: Naturaleza de la ciencia, Paradigmas para la ensenanza de la ciencia, Funcion del curriculo formal, Mision de la ensenanza de la ciencia; Contenidos, destrezas y competencias, Estrategias de ensenanza y Evaluacion/Assessment del aprendizaje. El analisis sugiere que no hubo cambios sustanciales en los significados de los Componentes Estructurales. Los documentos estudiados muestran mayormente caracteristicas similares, aunque los documentos mas recientes eran mas descriptivos, explicativos y especificos.

  5. [Ascertaining a Venezuelan oil town's health conditions].

    PubMed

    Mijares-Seminario, Rodrigo; Hernández, Leicy

    2013-01-01

    Objective Analysing health conditions in the town of Carirubana in Falcón State, Venezuela, as a prior study to the construction of a gas conditioning plant there. Methods This study formed part of a field research project which involved consulting primary and secondary sources. The former consisted of evaluating public and private health-centres and those in the Barrio Adentro system; the aforementioned health centres' medical staff were interviewed to determine current health-disease status and the factors determining health for the town being studied. Likewise, both situations (health-disease and factors determining health) were evaluated and analysed in the secondary sources at national, state and municipal level. Results Deficits were observed at national level regarding public health infrastructure; there were 1.3 beds per thousand inhabitants, this being less than half that recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) (i.e. three to four beds per thousand inhabitants). State and municipal cancer mortality rates were relatively stable over a four-year period (2001-2004). Conclusions The mortality rate in Carirubana was characteristic of a low-income area. The poverty and pollution directly produced by the oil refining plants were the key determinants for this town's morbidity and mortality rates. PMID:25124249

  6. Experiencias sobre el impacto del Programa de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial en el ámbito de la salud mental y la investigación conductual

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Liliana Mondragón

    2012-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es presentar el impacto y la integración que los conocimientos adquiridos en el Programa Internacional de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial de la Universidad de Chile han tenido en mi experiencia profesional, en el ámbito de la investigación psicosocial en un Instituto de Salud de México. Para este objetivo, expondré tres áreas en las cuales se ha podido evidenciar tal impacto: trabajo en los comités de ética, desarrollo de programas de académicos en bioética e investigación y publicación sobre ética y bioética. El motivo que me llevó a incursionar en el Programa fue que su enseñanza vincula la investigación psicosocial con la ética y la bioética, lo cual me permitió dirigir este tipo de reflexión hacia problemas como violencia, suicidio, adicciones, depresión y salud mental, y a nuevos campos como los estudios comunitarios, con poblaciones en riesgo o vulnerables, en los cuales las diversas implicaciones son difíciles de indagar. PMID:22754085

  7. Experiencias sobre el impacto del Programa de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial en el ámbito de la salud mental y la investigación conductual.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Liliana Mondragón

    2012-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es presentar el impacto y la integración que los conocimientos adquiridos en el Programa Internacional de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial de la Universidad de Chile han tenido en mi experiencia profesional, en el ámbito de la investigación psicosocial en un Instituto de Salud de México. Para este objetivo, expondré tres áreas en las cuales se ha podido evidenciar tal impacto: trabajo en los comités de ética, desarrollo de programas de académicos en bioética e investigación y publicación sobre ética y bioética. El motivo que me llevó a incursionar en el Programa fue que su enseñanza vincula la investigación psicosocial con la ética y la bioética, lo cual me permitió dirigir este tipo de reflexión hacia problemas como violencia, suicidio, adicciones, depresión y salud mental, y a nuevos campos como los estudios comunitarios, con poblaciones en riesgo o vulnerables, en los cuales las diversas implicaciones son difíciles de indagar. PMID:22754085

  8. A comparison of the migration process to an urban barrio and to a rural community: two case studies.

    PubMed

    Flinn, W L; Cartano, D G

    1970-01-01

    The results of 2 case studies on migration in Colombia are outlined and compared. The 1st study examines inmigration to a shantytown, El Carmen, in Bogota. The 2nd study involves inmigration to a community in the eastern interior of Colombia, Granada. Migrants' motives, paths of migration, and personal characteristics are examined, suggesting hypotheses for future studies. Economic reasons were most often listed as motives for moving by both the residents of Granada and El Carmen. The type of economic motives varied greatly between the 2 communities. Reasons such as "looking for land," "establishing a business," or "to find a better life" ranked high in importance among Granada residents. These motives, along with the flight from violence, indicate that the independence provided by land and small business affords the inmigrants to Granada a certain security. Inmigrants to El Carmen were seeking employment. Only 34% of the migrants to El Carmen made 1 or more moves before settling in Bogota. 90% of the rural to rural migrants made 1 or more stops before moving to Granada. 68% of the migrants to El Carmen were born within 100 miles of Bogota while only 18% of the migrants to Granada were born within a 100 mile radius of the community. The usual pattern of the migrant to Granada was to move to a neighboring village, town, or city regardless of whether it was closer to Granada or not. The majority of inmigrants to Granada moved from distances greater than 100 miles. Over 70% of the inmigrants were born in towns and villages of more than 2000 population. If a nucleus of 10,000 inhabitants or more are considered urban, then 46% of the rural to rural migrants resided in urban areas prior to moving to Granada. This suggests that a sizable proportion of the migration to Granada is really urban to rural frontier. Studies done in Colombia and Brazil indicate that migrants to rural areas have a lower educational level than migrants to urban areas. Data from El Carmen and Granada gives similar results. 20% of the migrant residents of El Carmen have a primary school education (5 years) compared with only 7% of the inmigrants to Granada. 81% of the migrant residents of El Carmen were in their teens, 20s, and 30s at the time of migration, while only 52% of the inmigrants to Granada were in the same category. Approximately 56% of the inmigrants to Granada were in the occupational categories of farm owner operator and farm renter or laborer as compared to only approximately 40% of the inmigrants to El Carmen. The data indicate that a majority of the shantytown inmigrants come directly from small communities and travel short distances to Bogota. This is consistent with other findings of rural to urban migration. It is hypothesized that the socioeconomic level of migrants in a certain migratory stream is related to the perceived opportunity in the receiving area. PMID:12313171

  9. Teachers' Memories of Schooling: The Sociocultural Injuries and the Mis-Education of Mexican Teachers in the Barrio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldana, Lilliana P.

    2013-01-01

    Relying on life history and memory as methodology, this essay unearths the memories of schooling of five Mexican American teachers at a dual-language school in San Antonio, locating their memories of trauma within the history of language oppression and cultural exclusion in U.S. public schools. In re(membering) their schooling experiences as…

  10. Teachers' Memories of Schooling: The Sociocultural Injuries and the Mis-Education of Mexican Teachers in the Barrio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldana, Lilliana P.

    2013-01-01

    Relying on life history and memory as methodology, this essay unearths the memories of schooling of five Mexican American teachers at a dual-language school in San Antonio, locating their memories of trauma within the history of language oppression and cultural exclusion in U.S. public schools. In re(membering) their schooling experiences as…

  11. Problems and Issues in Implementing an Interdisciplinary Training Program in a Primary Care - Mental Health Barrio Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curiel, Herman; Gomez, Efrain A.

    Program trainees of an interinstitutional interdisciplinary primary care-mental health training program, implemented in Houston, Texas, included residents in psychiatry, pediatrics, internal medicine, and family practice; medical students; and graduate students in psychology, social work and nursing. A combination of field practicum and didactic…

  12. Status of ITEP decaborane ion source programa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulevoy, T. V.; Petrenko, S. V.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Seleznev, D. N.; Koshelev, V. A.; Kozlov, A. V.; Stasevich, Yu. B.; Sitnikov, A. L.; Shamailov, I. M.; Pershin, V. I.; Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B. M.; Gushenets, V. I.; Oks, E. M.; Poole, H. P.; Masunov, E. S.; Polozov, S. M.

    2008-02-01

    The joint research and development program is continued to develop steady-state ion source of decaborane beam for ion implantation industry. Both Freeman and Bernas ion sources for decaborane ion beam generation were investigated. Decaborane negative ion beam as well as positive ion beam were generated and delivered to the output of mass separator. Experimental results obtained in ITEP are presented.

  13. Divulgación del Programa Consolider-GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Zelmanovitch, N.; Mass Hesse, M.; Alfaro, E.

    2013-05-01

    The Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) is the biggest telescope of its class in the world. The CONSOLIDER INGENIO 2010-GTC project, First Science with the GTC: Spanish Astron- omy on the Forefront of the European Astronomy, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, MICINN (now the Ministry of Economy and competitiveness, MINECO) has used the GTC to: (i) obtain leading science with its data, (ii) increase the involvement of the Spanish astronomical community in developing astronomical instrumentation, (iii) get an important Spanish participation in the new extremely large telescopes generation (ELTs), and (iv) make outreach and communicating to the society the main results. The project CONSOLIDER INGENIO 2010-GTC is structured and defined by objectives: 1) GTC: To optimize the GTC and its instruments; 2) SCIENCE: To develop leading science with the GTC; 3) E-ELT: To take advantage of the technological experience obtained with the GTC for the new generation of giant telescopes; 4) INSTRUMENTATION: To promote the Spanish participation in the new instrument developments for the GTC, VLT and the future ELTs; 5) EDUCATION: International School for Advanced Instrumentation (IScAI); and 6) OUTREACH: Outreach and communication of the project scientific results. This poster resumes five years of science communication around the Consolider-GTC project.

  14. Programa Actual 1991 (Current Programme 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard Van Leer Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands).

    This annual report for the Bernard van Leer Foundation describes the foundation's activities during 1990. The foundation seeks to promote the development of human resources in communities with social, economic, and cultural problems, focusing its efforts on the needs of young children. The first part of the publication contains a general…

  15. Se pone en marcha el programa NCORP

    Cancer.gov

    El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) ha otorgado 53 subvenciones nuevas de 5 años a investigadores de todo el país para realizar estudios clínicos multicéntricos e investigaciones sobre la prestación de cuidados oncológicos en sus comunidades.

  16. Caste, Collusion, and Conflict: An Ethnographic Study of Factors Affecting the Dropout Rate of Mexican Origin Students in a Barrio Elementary School in Chicago.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosales-Kufrin, Rosario S.

    A multidimensional perspective is provided of the achievement and educational experiences elementary school students of Mexican origin in a major northern city. To deepen understanding of the complex interplay of factors that ultimately cause many of these students to become educational casualties, traditional research methods of ethnography were…

  17. El enfoque de sistemas en programas de seguridad cuarentenaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a globalized world, the application of phytosanitary measures for quarantine by the producing countries is becoming more important as it facilitates access to key export markets for fruits and vegetables. Some of the problems currently encountered with quarantine treatments include, among others...

  18. Managing Your Reading Program--A Total System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hales, Carma M.; Jones, Maurine E.

    This guide provides specific information on designing and implementing a reading program. The guide is divided into the following six parts: (1) "Planning for Instruction," including sections on setting ideal goals, establishing a "reality base," and organizing a work flow; (2) "Content Organization," including sections on the structure of…

  19. Voluntarios Educationales: Un Manual para Coordinatores de Programas de Voluntarios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recruitment Leadership and Training Inst., Philadelphia, PA.

    The coordinator's handbook provides a basic outline for establishing or improving volunteer programs; it is primarily directed toward assisting fledgling programs. The handbook defines a school volunteer program as an organization of persons who work in schools under the professional personnel's direction, strengthing the school program or…

  20. Developing a Community through Its Marketplace. Partnership Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Manuel Alcazar

    1999-01-01

    A partnership of nongovernmental organizations developed a model of integrated community development centers (CDICs) to address the lack of services and affordable basic necessities in poor barrios surrounding many Latin American cities. A CDIC in a Guayaquil (Ecuador) barrio provides wholesale goods and credit to barrio shopkeepers and…

  1. Folleto Para el Estudiante: Programa Escolar de Educacion Ecologica. (Student Handbook: Environmental Education Outdoor School Program).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Barbara County Schools, CA.

    The Spanish language version of the student handbook was developed for use with Spanish speaking students who intend to particpate in the Environmental Education Outdoor School Program in Santa Barbara County, California. After the form for the student to complete with personal information, i.e., name, school, etc., the handbook begins with a…

  2. Watershed Stewardship Education Program--A Multidisciplinary Extension Education Program for Oregon's Watershed Councils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Flaxen D. L.; Godwin, Derek; Cloughesy, Mike; Nierenberg, Tara

    2003-01-01

    The Watershed Stewardship Education Program (WSEP) is a multidisciplinary Oregon Extension designed to help watershed councils, landowners, and others work effectively together on water management. Components include practical, easy-to-use educational materials, training in effective collaboration, a Master Watershed Stewards program, and advanced…

  3. Profesionalismo: Un estudio fenomenologico sobre experiencias de universitarios en programas de salud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Ortiz, Wilma J.

    Some studies suggest that, upon admission, medicine programs students display eagerness for community service, aspirations to be useful, and to contribute to society's well-being. Those same studies reflect that qualities of idealism, moral nature, and internal motivation, suffer a subsequent diminishing. The researchers inferred that the main reason for this process of change in the mood and disposition of these future physicians lies in the modeling they receive from medical professionals throughout clinical learning activities, by way of behavior and relationships exhibited during daily interaction with peers, patients and the students themselves. This phenomenological study used a cross-sectional sample to explore the experiences of future health workers as they went through didactic and clinical phases of their training curriculum. The study employed semi-structured interviews and reflective journals to explore those experiences and to discover the meanings ascribed by the participants. The analysis revealed that the students defined "professionalism" in terms of scientific knowledge, commitment, respect for human dignity, comradeship, courtesy, empathy, integrity, altruism, motivation. They also described their feelings as they went through the didactic and clinical experiences, and recognized as very important the extracurricular activities of community service, describing them as useful opportunities which contributed to understand their work in terms of a mission dedicated to the achievement of the social benefit. From their individual perspectives, the clinical environment could, in general, be described as congruent with those characteristics of professionalism. During the study we had the opportunity to share, in a little deeper way, the environment... the world... of this small group of young students as we went on trying to decipher their feelings and thoughts. At the end, we realized the richness of their sensibilities, we perceived the intensity of their moral and ethical convictions, we were able to understand their concerns, worries, struggles and efforts. This life event had profound and significant repercussions in our personal and professional life. As a result, and from now on, we will no longer look at our young scholars and apprentices without imagining a noble spirit, with goals which at times could seem unattainable... without completely visualizing or conceiving real hope for a better country.

  4. Programa de lengua espanola: Guia para el profesor, 2 (Spanish Language Program: Teacher's Guide 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Emiliano; And Others

    This teacher's guide is designed for use with "La Ciudad" and "Otros Amigos, Otras Culturas," two textbooks in the second part of the Spanish language series of readers. It contains lesson plans to enable the teacher to make better use of the texts and includes illustrations taken from each of the books themselves. (SK)

  5. Alcohol Medical Scholars Program--A Mentorship Program for Improving Medical Education regarding Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Karin J.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Hernandez-Avila, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    The Alcohol Medical Scholars Program (AMSP) is designed to improve medical education related to substance use disorders (SUDs) through mentorship of junior, full-time academic faculty from medical schools across the United States. Scholarship focuses on literature review and synthesis, lecture development and delivery, increasing SUD education in…

  6. Efectos academicos de programas extracurriculares (Academic Effects of After-School Programs). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumow, Lee

    The current emphasis on performance standards and testing has led schools to look to the after-school hours as time that can be spent developing children's academic skills. This Spanish-language digest describes types of after-school programs and discusses recent research on who participates and the effects of participation on children's school…

  7. (Re)-Constructing Citizenship: The Programa Integrar of the Brazilian Metalworkers' Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Maria Clara Bueno; Hannah, Janet

    2002-01-01

    Discusses an initiative by the Brazilian Metalworkers Union that integrates vocational training with the construction of a new citizenship. Claims this initiative transcends traditional Latin American adult education models of human resource training and popular education. Stresses the program is an example of integrated education and training for…

  8. Evaluation of Distance Education Components of e-MBA Program--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunes, Ali; Altintas, Tugba

    2013-01-01

    By 2008-2009 educational year, distance education e-MBA Program have been added to Graduate School of Social Sciences of Istanbul Aydin University. The distance education components that were used included asynchronous education, synchronous education, exams, the learning management system-web site and a remote live-support desk. At the end of the…

  9. "Teachers Teaching Teachers" Revisited: The Bay Area Foreign Language Program--A Model that Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haro, Maria-Paz; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes the California Foreign Language Project (CFLP) and, more specifically, the Bay Area Foreign Language Program (BAFLP). BAFLP and its teacher-leaders aim to implement communication-based foreign language instruction and to develop a sense of collegiality; also, to identify and develop effective strategies to address the challenge of…

  10. The CAMPARE Program:A New Model Promoting Minority Participation in Astronomy Research and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Alexander L.; Impey, C. D.; Bieging, J. H.; Phillips, C. B.; Tieu, J.; Povich, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    The California-Arizona Minority Partnership for Astronomy Research and Education (CAMPARE) program represents a new and innovative kind of research program for undergraduates: one that can effectively carry out the goal of recruiting qualified minority and female students to participate in Astronomy and Planetary Science research opportunities, while mentoring them in a way to maximize the chance that these students will persist in obtaining their undergraduate degrees in STEM fields, and potentially go on to obtain their PhDs or pursue careers in those fields. The members of CAMPARE comprise a network of comprehensive universities and community colleges in Southern California and Arizona (most of which are minority serving institutions), and four major research institutions (University of Arizona Steward Observatory, the SETI Institute, and JPL/Caltech). Most undergraduate research programs focus on a single research institution. By having multiple institutions, we significantly broaden the opportunities for students, both in terms of breadth of research topics and geographical location.

  11. Activist Teacher Leadership: A Case Study of a Programa CRIAR Bilingual Teacher Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Deborah; Rangel, Virginia Snodgrass; Gonzales, Richard M.; Morales, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    This case study on nine bilingual teachers in Texas during their first year in a graduate education program examines both the development of critical consciousness among the educators and the ways in which critical consciousness shapes how these teachers come to understand their roles as teachers and leaders of a sociopolitically marginalized…

  12. Arte: Un Programa Creativo Para Ninos Pre-Escolares (Art: A Creative Curriculum for Early Childhood).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creative Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Written in Spanish and focusing on art activities for early childhood education, this manual provides guidelines for Spanish-speaking teachers of preschool and primary school children. The content of the manual is oriented to the learning styles and special interests of Spanish-speaking children. Part One defines artistic activity in the preschool…

  13. Alcohol Medical Scholars Program--A Mentorship Program for Improving Medical Education regarding Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Karin J.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Hernandez-Avila, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    The Alcohol Medical Scholars Program (AMSP) is designed to improve medical education related to substance use disorders (SUDs) through mentorship of junior, full-time academic faculty from medical schools across the United States. Scholarship focuses on literature review and synthesis, lecture development and delivery, increasing SUD education in…

  14. Theory to Practice: Developmental Mathematics Program--A Model for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez Mireles, Selina

    2010-01-01

    The Developmental Mathematics Program (DMP) at Texas State University-San Marcos in central Texas has undergone systemic, significant changes over the past ten years. These changes primarily resulted from the alignment to the American Mathematical Association of Two-Year Colleges' (AMATYC) Crossroads in Mathematics: Standards for Introductory…

  15. Nevada Even Start Family Literacy Program = Programa de alfabetizacion familiar Even Start de Nevada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada State Dept. of Education, Carson City.

    Two pamphlets (one in English and one in Spanish) describe the Nevada Even Start (NEST) program, a home-based system designed to help parents become full partners in the education of their children and to help children and parents reach their full potential as learners. The pamphlets note that the program intends to break the cycle of…

  16. Activist Teacher Leadership: A Case Study of a Programa CRIAR Bilingual Teacher Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Deborah; Rangel, Virginia Snodgrass; Gonzales, Richard M.; Morales, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    This case study on nine bilingual teachers in Texas during their first year in a graduate education program examines both the development of critical consciousness among the educators and the ways in which critical consciousness shapes how these teachers come to understand their roles as teachers and leaders of a sociopolitically marginalized…

  17. Evaluation of Distance Education Components of e-MBA Program--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunes, Ali; Altintas, Tugba

    2013-01-01

    By 2008-2009 educational year, distance education e-MBA Program have been added to Graduate School of Social Sciences of Istanbul Aydin University. The distance education components that were used included asynchronous education, synchronous education, exams, the learning management system-web site and a remote live-support desk. At the end of the…

  18. Ambientes de lenguaje y alfabetizacion en programas preescolares (Language and Literacy Environments in Preschools). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Catherine E.; Burns, M. Susan; Griffin, Peg

    Because of the variation in support for literacy development in different homes, many children need high-quality preschool and school environments and excellent primary instruction to be sure of reading success. This Spanish-language Digest discusses the research on preschool literacy environments and their contributions to reading skills…

  19. Alternatives for Rural Youth: Three Village-Level Case Studies in the Philippines. A Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Gelia T.; And Others

    Case studies of three Philippine villages were undertaken to find the impact of schools on youths (both in and out of school), parents, graduates, and community. Educational alternatives included the barrio high school (general academic/college preparatory), pilot barrio development school (secondary school for youths who intend to stay in the…

  20. Substance Abuse in the Rio Grande Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavaleta, Anthony N.

    1979-01-01

    In the Mexican American barrios of Texas' Lower Rio Grande Valley, existence is complicated by the interactive forces of culture, society, and economy. These three factors act in unison to create an etiology of alcohol and drug use and abuse which is poorly understood by persons outside the barrio's grasp. (Author/NQ)

  1. Alternatives for Rural Youth: Three Village-Level Case Studies in the Philippines. A Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Gelia T.; And Others

    Case studies of three Philippine villages were undertaken to find the impact of schools on youths (both in and out of school), parents, graduates, and community. Educational alternatives included the barrio high school (general academic/college preparatory), pilot barrio development school (secondary school for youths who intend to stay in the…

  2. "Discovering the Cell": An Educational Game about Cell and Molecular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, Carolina N.; Alves, Gutemberg G.; Cardona, Tania da S.; Melim, Leandra M. C.; Luz, Mauricio R. M. P.; Araujo-Jorge, Tania C.; Henriques-Pons, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The role of games within education becomes clearer as students become more active and are able to take decisions, solve problems and react to the results of those decisions. The educational board game "Discovering the Cell" ("Celula Adentro"), is based on problem-solving learning. This investigative game attempts to stimulate reasoning and…

  3. "Discovering the Cell": An Educational Game about Cell and Molecular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, Carolina N.; Alves, Gutemberg G.; Cardona, Tania da S.; Melim, Leandra M. C.; Luz, Mauricio R. M. P.; Araujo-Jorge, Tania C.; Henriques-Pons, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The role of games within education becomes clearer as students become more active and are able to take decisions, solve problems and react to the results of those decisions. The educational board game "Discovering the Cell" ("Celula Adentro"), is based on problem-solving learning. This investigative game attempts to stimulate reasoning and…

  4. Schoolwide Programs: Parents' Guide & Capacity-Building Materials = Programas Schoolwide: Una Guia para Padres y Materias de Capacitacion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WestEd, San Francisco, CA.

    The reauthorization of Title I (Improving America's Schools Act--IASA) made the Schoolwide Program (Schoolwide) a major strategy for schools with high poverty rates and stressed the importance of parent involvement. This guide was developed to provide professional development and parent education on Schoolwide implementation in California. The…

  5. Educacion Ambiental en las Escuelas: Creando una Programa que Funcione! (Environmental Education in the Schools: Creating a Program That Works!).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy A.; Wood, David

    This book is a manual that enables teachers to formulate an effective program of environmental education across multiple grade levels and cultural settings. A section provides tips for using the book, followed by nine chapters dealing with different aspects of developing and implementing an environmental education program. Chapter 1 presents a…

  6. Programa Academico de Dominio de Ingles Como Lengua Extranjera (Academic Program in English as a Foreign Language).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores Revilla, Maria Teresa; Zoreda, Margaret Lee; Vivaldo Lima, Javier; Blanco Lopez, Guadalupe; Caballero Robles, Teresita del Rosario; Mercau Appiani, Virginia

    The guide presents the newly-developed curriculum of the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana at Iztapalapa (Mexico) for its program in English as a foreign language. An introductory section provides background information on the initiative to design a new curriculum. The second section presents the principles on which the curriculum and its methods…

  7. Conexiones: Guia para Padres y Estudiantes. Directorio de Servicios y Programas de Educacion Especial de las Escuelas Publicas de Boston.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celuzza, Paul W., Ed.; Clayton, Shelley Bakst, Ed.

    Intended for handicapped students and their parents, the booklet presents a guide in Spanish to special education services in the Boston public schools. Chapter 766, the Massachusetts law guaranteeing free appropriate public education to every child, is focused on. Section 1 discusses such evaluation aspects as early childhood screening, referral,…

  8. Extended Automatic Pointing Assistive Program--A Pointing Assistance Program to Help People with Developmental Disabilities Improve Their Pointing Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Li, Chia-Chun; Shih, Ching-Tien; Lin, Kun-Tsan; Lo, Ching-Shui

    2010-01-01

    The latest research adopted software technology to improve pointing performance is through an Automatic Pointing Assistive Program (APAP). However, APAP has some limitations. This study evaluated whether two children with developmental disabilities would be able to improve their pointing performance through an Extended Automatic Pointing Assistive…

  9. Conexiones: Guia para Padres y Estudiantes. Directorio de Servicios y Programas de Educacion Especial de las Escuelas Publicas de Boston.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celuzza, Paul W., Ed.; Clayton, Shelley Bakst, Ed.

    Intended for handicapped students and their parents, the booklet presents a guide in Spanish to special education services in the Boston public schools. Chapter 766, the Massachusetts law guaranteeing free appropriate public education to every child, is focused on. Section 1 discusses such evaluation aspects as early childhood screening, referral,…

  10. Development and Evaluation of an Interactive Computer-Assisted Learning Program--A Novel Approach to Teaching Gynaecological Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jha, Vikram; Widdowson, Shelley; Duffy, Sean

    2002-01-01

    Discusses computer-assisted learning (CAL) in medical education and describes the development of an interactive CAL program on CD-ROM, combining video, illustrations, and three-dimensional images, to enhance understanding of vaginal hysterectomy in terms of the anatomy and steps of the surgical procedure. (Author/LRW)

  11. National Migrant Education Program: Reading Skills--English (Programa Nacional de Educacion Migrante: Destrezas de Lectura--Espanol).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    Used as an integral part of the migrant student skills system operated by the Migrant Student Record Transfer System (MSRTS), the reading skills list contains a catalog of reading skills typical of the K-12 grade range. This catalog includes a sample of the MSRTS transmittal record which permits teachers to report the reading skills being worked…

  12. Exploring the Investment: Four Universities' Experiences with the Spencer Foundation's Research Training Grant Program--A Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Anna; Pallas, Aaron; Peterson, Penelope

    2008-01-01

    Background: This article serves as a conclusion to a TCR special issue devoted to understanding the impact of the Spencer Foundation's Research Training Grant (RTG) initiative. We examine four case reports prepared by scholars at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the University of Pennsylvania, the University of California at Los Angeles…

  13. The Mentor Apprentice Program--A Modest Proposal for Alleviating the Scarcity of Clinical Researchers in Dentistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neidle, Enid A.

    1985-01-01

    The acute deficiency in the number of clinical dental faculty who are trained to do high-quality research is discussed. There is a paucity of role models for research in dental schools. Students at dental schools have no opportunity to gain first hand knowledge of how dentist-scientists function. (MLW)

  14. Aportes del Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas (ABP) en la ensenanza de la Fisiologia Animal en un programa de Zootecnia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinartz-Estrada, Monica

    Based on difficulties observed on the subject of technical-scientific conceptualization and the integration of theory and practice in learning animal physiology for students in the Animal Science program at the National University of Colombia in Medellin, this research paper proposes a problem-based learning strategy founded on the method of Problem Based Learning (PBL), applied specifically to the issues of thermoregulation and physiological stress in domestic animals. In this case study, a sample size of eight students was presented with a pedagogical problem during the first session that would then be solved during the course. In order to evaluate the process, three surveys were conducted called Level Test Formulations (NF) performed at different times of the trial: one before beginning the topic (NF 1), one after three theoretical classes had been given and before beginning the fieldwork (NF 2), and another one after the end of the process (NF 3). Finally, individual interviews were conducted with each student to know the students' perceptions regarding the method. The information obtained was subjected to a qualitative analysis and categorization, using the QDA Miner program which reviewed and coded texts from the surveys and individual interviews, supplemented in turn, by field observation, analyzing the conceptual change, the theory-practice relationship and the correlation between the variables and categories established. Among the main results obtained, it should be noted that following the implementation of PBL in this Animal Physiology course, support for conceptual change was demonstrated and the formulated problem served as a connector between theory and practice. Moreover, there was a fusion of prior knowledge with newly acquired knowledge, meaningful learning, improvement in the level of conceptualization and an increase in the scientificness of definitions; it also led to problem-solving and overcoming epistemological obstacles such as multidisciplinarity and nonlinearity. As a result of this research, it is recommended that this method be evaluated in other topics related to Animal Physiology, in other sciences, in larger sample sizes, as well as to address the issue of evaluation applied directly to this method. Key words: Problem Based Learning (PBL), conceptual change, integration of theory and practice, significatif learning, animal physiology, thermoregulation, physiological stress.

  15. El programa de estudios: Naturaleza, objectivos, planeamiento, aplicacion y evaluacion (Curriculum: Its Nature, Objectives, Planning, Application, and Evaluation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Maria L., Comp.

    A proposal is advanced to the Latin American nations by the Department of Educational Affairs, Organization of American States (OAS), for a joint program of enacting educational reform. As mediator, the OAS recommends as an initial step the distribution of various publications offering information on actual educational programs currently in…

  16. Extended Automatic Pointing Assistive Program--A Pointing Assistance Program to Help People with Developmental Disabilities Improve Their Pointing Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Li, Chia-Chun; Shih, Ching-Tien; Lin, Kun-Tsan; Lo, Ching-Shui

    2010-01-01

    The latest research adopted software technology to improve pointing performance is through an Automatic Pointing Assistive Program (APAP). However, APAP has some limitations. This study evaluated whether two children with developmental disabilities would be able to improve their pointing performance through an Extended Automatic Pointing Assistive…

  17. Broadening Student Learning Experiences via a Novel Cross-Disciplinary Art and Anatomy Education Program--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speed, Caroline J.; Kleiner, Adina; Macaulay, Janet O.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored student learning and engagement in a novel cross-disciplinary education program, in particular whether medical students learning experiences can be enhanced through interaction and exchange of knowledge with students of varying disciplines. The program, entitled AnaRtomy, studies the historical relationship between art and…

  18. Tennessee's Regents Online Degree Program--A Success Story: An Interview with Dr. Robbie Melton, Associate Vice Chancellor for RODP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMoulin, Donald F.

    2005-01-01

    As one of the nation's top virtual university systems, the Tennessee Board of Regents' Online Degree Programs (RODP) has a great story to tell. And at Tennessee Tech University, Kevin Liska and students in the Business-Media Center specialize in telling great stories through technology. Together, the two groups will soon release marketing…

  19. Una Guia Para Los Tutores del Programa de Alfabetizacion en Espanol (Guide for Spanish Literacy Program Tutors).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schildgen, Emilia G., Comp.

    Ideas and guidance for literacy program tutors are offered. This guide presents the characteristics of an adult learner, in contrast to a student from elementary or high school, and describes how the relationship between the tutor and the student should be established and maintained. Goals should be set up at the beginning of the program, keeping…

  20. Escaparate. Programa de lectura y ensenanza del lenguaje, Unidad C (Show Window. Reading and Language Learning Program, Unit C).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Stories in Spanish about aspects of the history, culture, and daily life of Mexican Americans are included in this reading book developed by Edgewood School District Bilingual Program in San Antonio, Texas, for students in grade four through secondary school. "Escaparate" is the third of eight units being developed in this reading and language…

  1. A Community "Fully Alive."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferre, Isolina

    1998-01-01

    Describes the efforts of the Missionary Servants of the Most Blessed Trinity's barrio residents to protect, represent, and help its troubled youth in Puerto Rico. Discusses various projects and activities created to involve youngsters in the community parish. (YKH)

  2. 6. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST TO REAR OF HOUSES FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST TO REAR OF HOUSES FROM SOUTH OF 432-436 SOUTH CONVENT AVE. TO OTHER SIDE OF BLOCK. - Barrio Libre, West Kennedy & West Seventeenth Streets, Meyer & Convent Avenues, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  3. 3. GENERAL STREET VIEW LOOKING WEST ON KENNEDY FROM JUST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL STREET VIEW LOOKING WEST ON KENNEDY FROM JUST SOUTH OF SOUTH CONVENT AVE. AND WEST KENNEDY ST. - Barrio Libre, West Kennedy & West Seventeenth Streets, Meyer & Convent Avenues, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  4. 1. GENERAL STREET VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON CONVENT AVE. FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL STREET VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON CONVENT AVE. FROM INTERSECTION OF SOUTH CONVENT AVE. AND WEST KENNEDY ST. - Barrio Libre, West Kennedy & West Seventeenth Streets, Meyer & Convent Avenues, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  5. 2. GENERAL STREET VIEW LOOKING WEST ON KENNEDY ST. FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL STREET VIEW LOOKING WEST ON KENNEDY ST. FROM INTERSECTION OF SOUTH CONVENT AVE. AND WEST KENNEDY ST. - Barrio Libre, West Kennedy & West Seventeenth Streets, Meyer & Convent Avenues, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  6. Accessing Programs for Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers with Disabilities: A Parent's Guide = Programas para Infantes y Ninos Pre-escolares con Discapacidades: Guia para Padres de Familia. Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupper, Lisa, Ed.

    This parent's guide (presented in both English and Spanish) is intended to help families access services for young children with special needs. It is presented in the form of questions and answers arranged in three parts. Part I presents 12 questions and answers about early intervention services for infants and toddlers (ages birth through 2…

  7. PROGRAMA PARA LA VERIFICACIN DE LA TECNOLOGIA AMBIENTAL/ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION PROGRAM (ETV) (EPA/600/F-98/015A)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A travs de su historia, la Agencia de Proteccin del Medio Ambiente estadounidense (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA) ha evaluado distintas tecnologas para determinar su efectividad en el monitoreo, la prevencin, el control, y la limpieza de la contaminacin ambiental. Sin...

  8. The Role of Discussion Boards in a University Blended Learning Program (El papel de los foros de discusión en un programa universitario de aprendizaje mixto)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González Moreno, Rosa Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Discussion boards as tools in blended "English language" learning programs have unique characteristics when compared to other synchronous and asynchronous communication tools that are different. Therefore, it is important to investigate the way they operate, their role within a given program and the students', teachers' and…

  9. Experiencias de Vida de la Mujer Adulta: Estudio de Caso de Lideres en Desarrollo del Programa de Administracion y Supervision Educativa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales-Roman, Gildrette M.

    2012-01-01

    Since the twentieth century to present, the role of women in society has undergone fundamental changes. Women, today, has assumed many different task and new roles, becoming part of professional workforce and increasing level of education by aspiring a higher education gaining access to leadership positions. The purpose of this qualitative…

  10. Guia Legal para Ciudadanos Envejeciente: Leyes y Programas Afectando los Ciudadanos Envejeciente de Kansas. (Legal Guide for Senior Citizens: Laws and Programs Affecting Kansas Senior Citizens).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollinger, Judith A.

    This booklet, translated into Spanish, is intended to inform (not advise) older Kansans about eligibility requirements and benefits provided by state and federal programs. Financial assistance programs discussed are Social Security, railroad retirements, veterans' benefits, unrestricted general assistance, Employee Retirement Income Security Act,…

  11. Piscicultura. Productor Comercial de Peces. Guia Tecnica. Documento de trabajo, Programa de Educacion Agricola (Fish Farming. Commercial Fish Producer. Technical Guide. Curriculum Document, Agriculture Education Program).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Area for Vocational and Technical Education.

    This curriculum guide begins with an introduction, course description, and description of the occupation of commercial fish farmer. A course outline covers five units: starting a business, establishing the fish farm, managing the enterprise, harvesting the fish, and administering the business. For each unit, the following are provided: terminal…

  12. El Programa de Educacion a Distancia de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) (The Distance Education Program at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM)).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manilla, Jose Manuel Alvarez

    1996-01-01

    Describes the development of a distance education program at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) which will meet several needs: lifelong learning; adult education; service to remote populations; and continuing education for faculty in remote campuses. Provision of large-scale education depends on addressing issues dealing with…

  13. A Parent's Guide to Infant/Toddler Programs = Guia para los padres sobre los programas de cuidado infantil de 0-3 anos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Dombro, Amy Laura; Colker, Laura J.

    Information on how warm and responsive care can help shape infants' and toddlers' development and their ability to learn can be reassuring for concerned parents. This guide, in English and Spanish versions, presents quality child care as a partnership between the child caregiver and the parents with the primary goal of benefiting the child. The…

  14. Programa de fortalecimiento de capacidades: reflections on a case study of community-based teacher education set in rural northern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsop, Steve; Ames, Patricia; Arroyo, Graciela Cordero; Dippo, Don

    2010-12-01

    This article explores distinctive features of a 5-year international education development project set in rural northern Peru (PROMEB, the Proyecto de Mejoramiento de la Educación Básica). Grounded within a partnership between teacher educators from Peru, Mexico and Canada, and rural Peruvian teachers, students and their communities, we offer reflections on a teacher education initiative which sought to support action-orientated inquiries as a mechanism for school/community development. Set against a background of poverty, hunger, isolation and an "educational crisis", we outline our pedagogy and describe two projects. We then reflect on the influences of our engagements and on associated tensions and ambiguities in our methods. We hope that such discussions might offer insights for others involved in international school/community development projects of this type.

  15. Estilo de Liderazgo de Maestros y Maestras de Salud Escolar del Nivel Secundario en la Implantacion del Programa de Educacion en Salud Escolar en Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosario Arroyo, Luis Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Health education school programs have a planned activity structure that focus on developing awareness on the need of keeping an adequate integral health, through the teaching and learning processes within an appropriate methodological context that promotes students full development. It is expected that school health teachers are effective leaders;…

  16. Como Puede Mejorar el Programa de Educacion Migrante con el Poder e Influencia de los Padres. Parent Power in the Migrant Education Program: How to Make a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

    The bilingual (English-Spanish) handbook explains the established rights that parents with children enrolled in the Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title I Migrant Education Program have and presents ways in which parents can use these rights to help ensure that their children receive a quality education. Chapters discuss: (1) content of…

  17. The Marriott Foundation's "Bridges...from School to Work" Program--A Framework for Successful Employment Outcomes for People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Mark R.; Tilson, George P., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The Marriott Foundation's "Bridges" program is a transitional model designed to help people with disabilities find employment by matching skills with employer needs and creating a welcoming environment. Competitive paid work experience has a significant effect on vocational outcomes, and lasting relationships grow from complementary needs. (SK)

  18. La preparacion del maestro y la interaccion entre maestro y nino en programas preescolares (Teacher Preparation and Teacher-Child Interaction in Preschools). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontos, Susan; Wilcox-Herzog, Amanda

    It is generally agreed that because so much basic early learning occurs through interactive experiences when children are very young, the quality of teacher-child interactions contributes substantially to effects of group care and preschool education on children. Thus it is important to know if specialized teacher education in early childhood…

  19. Programa de Fortalecimiento de Capacidades: Reflections on a Case Study of Community-Based Teacher Education Set in Rural Northern Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsop, Steve; Ames, Patricia; Arroyo, Graciela Cordero; Dippo, Don

    2010-01-01

    This article explores distinctive features of a 5-year international education development project set in rural northern Peru (PROMEB, the "Proyecto de Mejoramiento de la Educacion Basica"). Grounded within a partnership between teacher educators from Peru, Mexico and Canada, and rural Peruvian teachers, students and their communities, we offer…

  20. Natural killer activity and its changes among participants in a smoking cessation intervention program--a prospective pilot study of 6 months' duration.

    PubMed

    Ioka, A; Nakamura, M; Shirokawa, N; Kinoshita, T; Masui, S; Imai, K; Nakachi, K; Oshima, A

    2001-09-01

    We examined the effect of smoking cessation on natural killer (NK) activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes in terms of a prospective study of 27 Japanese subjects who participated in a smoking cessation intervention program. This program was delivered by means of group-counseling offering 7 sessions of about 2 hours over 6 months to help smokers to discontinue the habit. Thirteen subjects ceased smoking (quitters), while 14 continued to smoke (cigarette smokers). NK activity before the intervention was correlated positively with age (correlation coefficient=0.46, P<0.05). NK activity remained almost constant among quitters, comparing the activity before and after the intervention, while it decreased among cigarette smokers although it was not statistically significant. In the subgroup analysis, NK activity increased among those aged less than 65 years, or urine cotinine levels over 800 ng/ml before the intervention, especially among quitters, but there were no statistical significances. Multiple regression analysis showed changes in NK activity were correlated significantly only with age (standard regression coefficient=-0.44, P<0.05). These findings suggest that smoking cessation intervention programs might have been more effective for younger than elder subjects in consideration of NK activity. PMID:11579933

  1. Guia Legal para Ciudadanos Envejeciente: Leyes y Programas Afectando los Ciudadanos Envejeciente de Kansas. (Legal Guide for Senior Citizens: Laws and Programs Affecting Kansas Senior Citizens).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollinger, Judith A.

    This booklet, translated into Spanish, is intended to inform (not advise) older Kansans about eligibility requirements and benefits provided by state and federal programs. Financial assistance programs discussed are Social Security, railroad retirements, veterans' benefits, unrestricted general assistance, Employee Retirement Income Security Act,…

  2. La participacion de padres y madres en programas de desarrollo infantil temprano (Participation of Fathers and Mothers in Early Childhood Development Programs).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno Garcia, Teresa, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This Spanish- and Portuguese-language bulletin presents articles covering child development programs with varying degrees of parent involvement. As explained in the bulletin's opening editorial, the articles focus on the keys to good parenting, influences such as the programs environmental context, goals and methods on the degree and manner of…

  3. Programa de Fortalecimiento de Capacidades: Reflections on a Case Study of Community-Based Teacher Education Set in Rural Northern Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsop, Steve; Ames, Patricia; Arroyo, Graciela Cordero; Dippo, Don

    2010-01-01

    This article explores distinctive features of a 5-year international education development project set in rural northern Peru (PROMEB, the "Proyecto de Mejoramiento de la Educacion Basica"). Grounded within a partnership between teacher educators from Peru, Mexico and Canada, and rural Peruvian teachers, students and their communities, we offer…

  4. Estilo de Liderazgo de Maestros y Maestras de Salud Escolar del Nivel Secundario en la Implantacion del Programa de Educacion en Salud Escolar en Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosario Arroyo, Luis Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Health education school programs have a planned activity structure that focus on developing awareness on the need of keeping an adequate integral health, through the teaching and learning processes within an appropriate methodological context that promotes students full development. It is expected that school health teachers are effective leaders;…

  5. Differences in Achievement between Students Enrolled in a Transitional, Early Exit Bilingual Program and in a Dual Language: Two-Way Immersion Bilingual Program--A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nascimento, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    The current pilot study compares the overall academic achievement in the area of language arts literacy among elementary bilingual students enrolled in either a Dual Language: Two-Way Immersion program or in an Early Exit, Transitional Bilingual program in a large urban public school district. By analyzing the results of curriculum based measures…

  6. Manual Laboratorio de Microbiologia. Documento de trabajo Programa de Educacion en Ocupaciones de Salud (Microbiology Laboratory Manual. Curriculum Document. Program of Education in Health Occupations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Area for Vocational and Technical Education.

    This laboratory manual on microbiology begins with an introduction relating the study of microorganisms to health occupations education and stressing the importance of teaching critical thinking. The introduction is followed by general instructions for the use of the manual and an illustration of hand washing procedures. The 13 laboratory…

  7. Piscicultura. Productor Comercial de Peces. Guia Tecnica. Documento de trabajo, Programa de Educacion Agricola (Fish Farming. Commercial Fish Producer. Technical Guide. Curriculum Document, Agriculture Education Program).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Area for Vocational and Technical Education.

    This curriculum guide begins with an introduction, course description, and description of the occupation of commercial fish farmer. A course outline covers five units: starting a business, establishing the fish farm, managing the enterprise, harvesting the fish, and administering the business. For each unit, the following are provided: terminal…

  8. Alfabetizacion y Postalfabetizacion en America Latina: Perfiles de Projectos y Programas Vigentes (Literacy Programs in Latin America and the Caribbean: Profiles of Existing Programs and Projects).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beca, Carlos E.; And Others

    The principal aspects that characterize the illiteracy problem in 14 Latin American and Caribbean countries and the achievements of 22 currently established literacy programs were determined through a 1981 UNESCO study. The purpose of this study was to obtain data useful in the planning of future literacy programs. Section one identifies…

  9. Reading through ESP in an Undergraduate Law Program (Lectura a través de inglés con propósitos específicos en un programa de derecho de pregrado)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias Rodríguez, Gladis Leonor

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study conducted among a group of law students in fift h-level English at a Colombian private university, which analyzed the effects of applying reading through English for Specific Purposes under the criteria of the communicative approach. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, the students'…

  10. Personal de enfermería asume diversas funciones con expansión de programas de gestión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre los profesionales de enfermería oncológica que ayudan a los pacientes durante todas las etapas de la atención oncológica, desde los exámenes de detección y el diagnóstico, hasta el tratamiento y la supervivencia.

  11. La investigacion sobre la calidad de los programas para ninos de hasta dos anos de edad (Research on Quality in Infant-Toddler Programs). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    Concern about the quality of infant-toddler care programs has grown recently in response to two factors. The first is the need of employed parents for such care, and the second is research emphasizing the importance of brain development in the early years. This Spanish-language Digest introduces some of the many issues related to the quality of…

  12. El Programa de Educacion a Distancia de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) (The Distance Education Program at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM)).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manilla, Jose Manuel Alvarez

    1996-01-01

    Describes the development of a distance education program at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) which will meet several needs: lifelong learning; adult education; service to remote populations; and continuing education for faculty in remote campuses. Provision of large-scale education depends on addressing issues dealing with…

  13. Manual Laboratorio de Microbiologia. Documento de trabajo Programa de Educacion en Ocupaciones de Salud (Microbiology Laboratory Manual. Curriculum Document. Program of Education in Health Occupations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Area for Vocational and Technical Education.

    This laboratory manual on microbiology begins with an introduction relating the study of microorganisms to health occupations education and stressing the importance of teaching critical thinking. The introduction is followed by general instructions for the use of the manual and an illustration of hand washing procedures. The 13 laboratory…

  14. Experiencias de Vida de la Mujer Adulta: Estudio de Caso de Lideres en Desarrollo del Programa de Administracion y Supervision Educativa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales-Roman, Gildrette M.

    2012-01-01

    Since the twentieth century to present, the role of women in society has undergone fundamental changes. Women, today, has assumed many different task and new roles, becoming part of professional workforce and increasing level of education by aspiring a higher education gaining access to leadership positions. The purpose of this qualitative…

  15. Water-gas dynamics and coastal land subsidence over Chioggia Mare field, northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teatini, Pietro; Baú, Domenico; Gambolati, Giuseppe

    2000-09-01

    A major development programme comprising 15 gas fields of the northern Adriatic Sea has recently been submitted to the Ministry of the Environment, VIA Committee for the assessment of the environmental impact, by ENI-Agip, the Italian national oil company. One of the largest reservoirs is Chioggia Mare, located about 10 km offshore of the Venetian littoral, with a burial depth of 1000-1400 m. The planned gas production from this field is expected to impact the shoreline stability with a potential threat to the city of Venice, 25 km northwest of the center of Chioggia Mare. To evaluate the risk of anthropogenic land subsidence due to gas withdrawal, a numerical model was developed that predicts the compaction of both the gas-bearing formations and the lateral/bottom aquifer (water drive) during a 13-year producing and a 12-year post-production period, and the transference of the deep compaction to the ground surface. To address the uncertainty of a few important hydromechanical parameters, several scenarios are simulated and the most pessimistic predictions obtained. The modeling results show that at most 1 cm of land subsidence over 25 years may be expected at the city of Chioggia, whereas Venice is not subject to settlement. If aquifer drawdown is mediated by water injection, land subsidence is arrested 5 km offshore, with the Chioggia littoral zone experiencing a rebound of 0.6-0.7 cm. Résumé. Un important programme de développement portant sur 15 gisements de gaz du nord de l'Adriatique a été récemment soumis au Comité VIA pour l'évaluation de l'impact sur l'environnement du Ministère de l'Environnement, par la société ENI-Agip, la compagnie nationale pétrolière italienne. L'un des plus importants réservoirs est celui de Chioggia Mare, situé à environ 10 km au large du littoral vénitien, à une profondeur de 1000 à 1400 m. La production de gaz prévue pour ce gisement laisse envisager un impact sur la stabilité du trait de côte, avec une menace potentielle pour la ville de Venise, à 25 km au nord-ouest du centre de Chioggia Mare. Afin d'évaluer le risque de subsidence du sol provoquée par les prélèvements de gaz, un modèle numérique a été développé pour prévoir la compaction des formations réservoirs de gaz en même temps que celle de l'aquifère latéral et sous-jacent, par effet de drainance, sur une période de 13 ans de production, suivie de 12 ans, et pour prévoir le transfert de la compaction profonde jusqu'à la surface du sol. Afin de prendre en compte l'incertitude sur un petit nombre de paramètres hydromécaniques importants, plusieurs scénarios ont été simulés et les prévisions les plus pessimistes ont été obtenues. Les résultats de la modélisation montrent qu'on doit s'attendre, au cours des 25 ans, au plus à une subsidence du sol de 1 cm à Chioggia, tandis que Venise ne subira aucun effet. Si la baisse de l'aquifère est compensée par une injection d'eau, la subsidence du sol s'arrêtera à 5 km au large et la zone côtière de Chioggia subira un effet de 0,6 à 0,7 cm. Resumen. Recientemente, la compañía nacional italiana del petróleo, ENI-Agip, ha enviado al Ministerio de Medio Ambiente de Italia (Comité VIA) un gran programa de desarrollo de 15 campos de gas en el norte del Mar Adriático para la evaluación de su impacto medioambiental. Una de las reservas principales de gas se halla en el mar de Chioggia, a unos 10 km mar adentro de la costa veneciana, a una profundidad de entre 1.000 y 1.400 m. Se espera que la producción en este campo produzca un impacto en la estabilidad de la línea de costa, y que suponga una amenaza potencial para la ciudad de Venecia, situada a 25 km al noroeste de la explotación. Se desarrolló un modelo numérico para evaluar el riesgo de subsidencia debido a la extracción de gas a lo largo de los 13 años de producción y del período post-productivo de 12 años. Sus predicciones indican que se causará la compactación tanto de la formación que contiene el gas como del acuífero inferior y lateral. Además, esta compactación en profundidad tendrá un efecto en superficie. Con el objeto de estudiar la incertidumbre de unos pocos parámetros hidromecánicos fundamentales, se simularon diversos escenarios y se obtuvieron las predicciones más pesimistas. Los resultados numéricos muestran que, como máximo, se puede esperar una subsidencia de 1 cm en la ciudad de Chioggia al cabo de 25 años, mientras que no afectará a la ciudad de Venecia. Si se contrarresta el descenso de los niveles mediante inyecció de agua, se podrá limitar la subsidencia a un radio de 5 km mar adentro y propiciar un aumento de 0,6 a 0,7 cm en la costa de Chioggia.

  16. Spatializing Sexuality in Jaime Hernandez's "Locas"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jessica E.

    2009-01-01

    Focusing on Jaime Hernandez's "Locas: The Maggie and Hopey Stories," part of the "Love and Rockets" comic series, I argue that the graphic landscape of this understudied comic offers an illustration of the theories of space in relation to race, gender, and sexuality that have been critical to understandings of Chicana sexuality. Set in a barrio…

  17. Placas and Murals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romotsky, Jerry; Romotsky, Sally

    1974-01-01

    Presented examples of graffiti as seen in the barrios of East Los Angeles that told of the past and demonstrated how graffiti could be used in a positive fashion reflecting the positive aspirations, interests, and identities of the residents. (Author/RK)

  18. Tlaltelolco: The Grammatical-Rhetorical Indios of Colonial Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The force of the grammar-rhetoric-composition program at the Colegio de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco, a sixteenth-century institution of higher education for sons of the indigenous elite located in one of two large barrios in the valley of Mexico, is measured. Tlaltelolco is a composition-rhetoric site designed for those perceived as needing…

  19. Schools, Communities, and Democracy: The Nicaragua BASE Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgerton, David C.

    2005-01-01

    The 1990 election of Dona Violeta Barrios de Chamorro as President of Nicaragua marked the end of the Sandinista era and the return of U.S. foreign assistance the following year. Education was prominent in the U.S. assistance package. Since early 1994, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Mission to Nicaragua has funded a…

  20. Chicana Adolescents: Bitches, 'Ho's, and Schoolgirls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Lisa C.

    "Westhills" is a multiethnic coastal community in San Diego County, California, in which Mexican Americans comprise approximately 22 percent of the population. This book reports ethnographic research on a group of working-class Chicana adolescents in one Westhills barrio and their problems, school experiences, immersion in two conflicting…

  1. Alone You Are Nobody, Together We Float: The Manuela Ramos Movement. Quality/Calidad/Qualite Number 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogow, Debbie

    The Manuela Ramos Movement began in the 1970s when seven women in Lima, Peru, started meeting each Tuesday to reconsider their assumptions about everyday life. By 1980, the group formed a nongovernmental organization whose strategy was to train women community leaders in Lima's barrios through workshops focusing on the following themes: identity…

  2. Mexican American Youth of the Southwest Borderlands: Perceptions of Ethnicity, Acculturation, and Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holleran, Lori K.

    2003-01-01

    A study examined young Mexican Americans' perspectives concerning their own ethnicity. Observations and focus groups with 30 Mexican American youths from a Southwest barrio indicate that respondents used racial terms to understand acculturation differences. Intense negative feelings were expressed about less- acculturated, Spanish-speaking…

  3. Theoretical versus Grass-Roots Development of a Community Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escandon, Socorro

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine Bracht, Kingbury, and Rissel's five-stage community development model as applied to a grass-roots community action group. The sample consisted of low-income, predominantly Hispanic women in a community action group in a Southwestern barrio, some of whom were experiencing domestic violence. The…

  4. Minneapolis Multi-Ethnic Curriculum Project--Acculturation Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skjervold, Christian K.; And Others

    The student booklet presents short case studies illustrating the acculturation unit of the Minneapolis Multi-Ethnic Curriculum Project for secondary schools. It is presented in nine chapters. Chapter I provides background information on immigration and points out ways acculturation takes place. Chapter II, "Barrio Boy," tells of life in a Mexican…

  5. Success Patterns of Mexican Americans in Tucson, Arizona: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilcott, John H.

    Personal narratives were analyzed to determine if a pattern would emerge in the lives of Tucson, Arizona's successful Mexican American adults who had grown up in a traditional barrio without benefit of inherited wealth. Participants in the study were nominated as successful by their peers. Nominees who agreed to participate were given a life…

  6. The Development of La Raza Community Leadership and Its Impact on Social Problems -- A Causal Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Felix G.

    The paper introduces a 3-level paradigm for community assessment. First, Raza communities are conceptualized as belonging to three phases--culturally homogeneous, culturally in transition, and culturally heterogeneous. Each phase is determined by the proximity of the cities'"barrios" to the home country (Mexico, Puerto Rico, Central America) and…

  7. The Social Significance and Value Dimension of Current Mexican American Dialectal Spanish. A Glossary for the Human Service Professions. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Ernesto; Cerda, Gilberto

    Results of a study documenting the Mexican American's unique Spanish dialectal expressions used in the barrios of San Antonio, Texas, and its surrounding areas are presented. The expressions included are those which were not recorded in the "Diccionario de la Real Academia Espanola" (19th Edition) or which were recorded therein but with different…

  8. Dolor y Iluminacion: Working with Teenage Hitmen in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zea, Consuelo

    1996-01-01

    A 4-day adventure ropes course with 20 Colombian adolescents who belonged to gangs that worked for drug traffickers produced noticeable changes in their attitudes and behavior. As a result, two of them left their barrio in search of a better life, and two began work as gardeners in a public park. (TD)

  9. Tagging along with the Urban Poor in Colombia 1973-1983. A Contribution to the Chapala Workshop 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasco, Carlos E.

    The history of an urban squatter settlement in Bogota, Colombia, and the author's experiences with its residents in the last ten years are summarized. Topics covered include the unfriendly relationship between the government and squatter settlements; the history of the relationship between the government and this particular barrio; the demography…

  10. Attitudes of Elderly Hispanic Americans in Kalamazoo County toward Nursing Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, George

    Eighteen diverse Hispanic Americans aged 60 and over residing in Kalamazoo County, Michigan, a non-barrio environment, were questioned to ascertain the attitudes of elderly Hispanic Americans in the county toward nursing homes. A bilingual questionnaire, consisting of 17 questions, was used to collect demographic information, determine opinions of…

  11. Photocopy of photograph (original 35 millimeter negative in possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original 35 millimeter negative in possession of Luis Pumarada, San German, Puerto Rico). Luis Pumarada, Photographer, September 4, 1989. PUENTE RIO HONDO, VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST. - Puente Rio Hondo, Spanning Hondo River on PR Road 156, Barrio Rio Hondo, Comerio, Comerio Municipio, PR

  12. Photocopy of photograph (original 35 millimeter negative in possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original 35 millimeter negative in possession of Luis Pumarada, San German, Puerto Rico). Luis Pumarada, Photographer, September 4, 1989. PUENTE RIO HONDO, DOMED PLATE DECK FROM BELOW. - Puente Rio Hondo, Spanning Hondo River on PR Road 156, Barrio Rio Hondo, Comerio, Comerio Municipio, PR

  13. Photocopy of photograph (original 35 millimeter negative in possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original 35 millimeter negative in possession of Luis Pumarada, San German, Puerto Rico). Luis Pumarada, Photographer, September 4, 1989. PUENTE RIO HONDO, VIEW OF SOUTH ABUTMENT. - Puente Rio Hondo, Spanning Hondo River on PR Road 156, Barrio Rio Hondo, Comerio, Comerio Municipio, PR

  14. Cause or Consequence?: Suburbanization and Crime in U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jargowsky, Paul A.; Park, Yoonhwan

    2009-01-01

    Inner-city crime is a motivating factor for middle-class flight. Therefore, crime is a cause of suburbanization. Movement of the middle and upper classes to the suburbs, in turn, isolates the poor in central-city ghettos and barrios. Sociologists and criminologists have argued that the concentration of poverty creates an environment within which…

  15. Old Heads Tell Their Stories: From Street Gangs to Street Organizations in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotherton, David C.

    It has been the contention of researchers that the "old heads" (identified by Anderson in 1990 and Wilson in 1987) of the ghettos and barrios of America have voluntarily or involuntarily left the community, leaving behind new generations of youth without adult role models and legitimate social controllers. This absence of an adult strata of…

  16. Eligiendo un Programa: Guia para los padres de infantes y pre-escolares con incapacidades visuales (Selecting a Program: A Guide for Parents of Infants & Preschoolers with Visual Impairments).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Deborah; McCann, Mary Ellen

    Translated into Spanish, this booklet is intended for parents of infants and preschoolers with visual impairments or blindness. The guide focuses on the parent's role in selecting an appropriate program and helping the child make a positive transition into the program. The first section looks at feelings about transitions and positive steps…

  17. Our Roots Feed Our Future: 30th Anniversary Conference of the Cornell Migrant Program. Presentations (May 22, 2002) = Nuestras raices nutren nuestro futuro: Conferencia del 30mo aniversario del Programa para Emigrantes de Cornell. Presentaciones (22 mayo 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Ithaca. Coll. of Human Ecology at Cornell Univ.

    Presented in English and Spanish, this publication compiles 13 presentations at a conference celebrating the 30th anniversary of the Cornell Migrant Program. The entries examine experiences of migrant workers and children related to immigrating, finding work, enduring discrimination and police harassment, switching schools frequently, suffering…

  18. Contributions of a Social Justice Language Teacher Education Perspective to Professional Development Programs in Colombia (Contribuciones de una perspectiva de justicia social para la formación de docentes de lenguas a los programas de desarrollo profesional en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra Piedrahita, Ana María

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the social justice language teacher education perspective and how it can help language teachers to develop a political view of their work and effect change inside and outside their particular school contexts. To do this, she briefly analyzes various professional development programs for teachers of English in…

  19. Un Programa Personalizado De Lectura En Un Aula Primaria: Reporte De Un Modelo Comprobado (A Personalized Program of Reading in a First Grade Classroom: Report From a Proven Model.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendenhall, Susie B.; And Others

    This document written in Spanish describes a personalized reading program and discusses the results of its implementation. The focus of this approach to reading is based on the individual child and his feelings. This model personalizes the child's reading material in the classroom. In personalizing the reading material, the child's attitudes…

  20. Yo Puedo Leer: Un Programa Personalizado de Lectura en un Aula Primaria: Reporte de un Modelo Comprobado (I Can Read: A Personalized Reading Program in a Primary Classroom: A Report on a Verified Model).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendenhall, Susie B.; Sledjeski, Stephen

    This monograph discusses an investigation carried out in a school which has implemented an experimental reading program. Achievement, self-esteem, and social acceptance gains and their interrelations were investigated. Treatment groups (experimental and control) were the three independent variables providing a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design. Data were…

  1. Pautas para Programas de Asesoramiento Gestional para Microempresas (Guidelines for Management Consulting Programs for Small-Scale Enterprise). Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Manual Series No. M-27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Gary L.

    Written in Spanish, this manual is designed to assist management consultants in working with small-scale entrepreneurs in developing countries. Addressed in an overview of the small-scale enterprise (SSE) are the role of the SSE in Third World development, problems of SSEs, and target firms. The second chapter deals with various forms of…

  2. Head Start Program Performance Standards on Services for Children with Disabilities (45-CFR 1308) [and] Normas de Ejecucion del Programa Head Start Sobre Servicios para Ninos con Discapacidades (45-CFR 1308).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    This document consolidates, clarifies, and updates federal regulations on Head Start services for children with disabilities. The regulations are designed to complement the Head Start Program Performance Standards governing services to all enrolled children. Specifically, these regulations require Head Start programs to: (1) design comprehensive…

  3. Opportunities at Independent Colleges and Universities in New York State through the Higher Education Opportunity Program = Oportunidades en los colegios y universidades independientes en el Estado de Nueva York a traves de los programas de oportunidad en educacion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany.

    Information on programs that address special needs of students from disadvantaged backgrounds who attend private colleges and universities in New York State is provided in separate English and Spanish reports. The Higher Education Opportunity Program (HEOP) provides supportive services and financial aid. Information is provided on: eligibility for…

  4. Opportunities at Independent Colleges and Universities in New York State through the Higher Education Opportunity Program = Las Oportunidades en las Instituciones Independendientes de Nivel Universitario en el Estado de Nueva York a traves de los Programas de Oportunidades Educativas Universitarias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Higher Education Opportunity Programs.

    A guide to the opportunities at private colleges and universities in New York State through the Higher Education Opportunity Program (HEOP) is presented. The HEOP is designed to meet the special needs of students from disadvantaged backgrounds through screening, testing, counseling, tutoring, teaching, and financial assistance. Generally, students…

  5. John Tracy Clinic: Programa de Ensenanza por Correspondencia para Los Padres de Ninos Sordo-Ciegos de Edad Preescolar (John Tracy Clinic Correspondence Learning Program for Parents of Preschool Deaf-Blind Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thielman, Virginia B.; And Others

    Written in Spanish, the document contains a correspondence learning program for parents of deaf blind preschoolers. An introductory section gives preliminary instructions, an introduction to sign language, and a list of resources for deaf blind children. Twelve lessons follow with information on: the parent's role in teaching the child, visual…

  6. Coping with Social Change: Programs That Work. Proceedings of a Conference (Acapulco, Mexico, June 1989) = Como enfrentarse al cambio social: programas eficaces. Actas de uno Conferencia (Acapulco, Mexico, Junio de 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Irene, Ed.

    Written in English and Spanish, this document contains the proceedings of the 14th International Congress of Gerontology on concerns about the impact of rapid social change on the well-being of older women and families in Latin American and the Caribbean and about effective programs that address the needs of the older populations. The first…

  7. Designing Proficiency Tests to Accredit Previous Knowledge in American and British Literature in a Bilingual Education Program (Diseño de exámenes de suficiencia para acreditar el conocimiento previo en literatura americana y británica en un programa de educación bilingüe)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    León Chica, César Julio; D'Costa Martínez, Catalina; Franco Jácome, Gisela

    2010-01-01

    This article aims at identifying the kind of American and British literature tests that can be designed to allow students who enter a bilingual education program at a private university in Colombia to have their previous knowledge in these two subjects accredited through a proficiency test. Students' needs, opinions, beliefs, existing…

  8. La Exploracion Del Contexto Social y Sus Efectos en el Programa de Espanol en Mexico Rural. (Exploring the Social Context Affecting a Pre-School Spanish Program in Rural Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finegold, Lynda

    A major stumbling block for the implementation of Mexico's Global Development Plan has been the country's large rural population of Indians. One government strategy to integrate this sector into the mainstream of society has been to teach Spanish, the official language, as a second language, while at the same time fostering ethnic pride. The…

  9. The Impact of a Professional Development Program on English Language Teachers' Classroom Performance (El impacto de un programa de desarrollo profesional en el desempeño en clase de profesores de lengua inglesa)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giraldo, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the findings of an action research study on a professional development program and its impact on the classroom performance of in-service English teachers who worked at a language institute of a Colombian state university. Questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, class observations, and a researcher's journal were used as…

  10. El Odio Se Cura: Un Programa Nacional para la Prevencion de los Crimenes de Odio para las Escuelas Intermedias (Healing the Hate: A National Crime Prevention Curriculum for Middle Schools).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Karen A.; Brilliant, Kelly J.

    Designed for use in middle schools and youth organizations, this curriculum, in Spanish, deals with the extent of hate crime in the United States and presents strategies for reducing hate crimes among our youth. This flexible nine-unit curriculum is based on the principles that violence and prejudice are learned and therefore preventable, and that…

  11. Radio Nutricion: A Program for Nutrition Education with the Hispanic Community. Service Provider's Guide = Radio Nutricion: Un Programa de Educacion para la Nutricion para la Comunidad Hispana. Guia del Proveeidor de Servicios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Farmworker Opportunity Program, Arlington, VA.

    The set of materials was designed to provide nutrition instruction to Spanish-speaking farm workers using radio broadcasts. It includes audiocassette tapes of four novellas (mini-dramas) on nutrition-related topics (diabetes, heart disease and high blood pressure, pregnancy, smart shopping), talk shows on the same topics, a public service…

  12. Students' Perceptions of the Impact of CLIL in a Mexican BA Program (Percepciones de los estudiantes sobre el impacto de la enseñanza de contenido-lengua integrados en un programa de pregrado en México)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asomoza, Alejandra Nuñez

    2015-01-01

    Content and language integrated learning is an innovative pedagogical approach used in educational institutions worldwide. This study considers information and experiences from various settings in order to explore content and language integrated learning within the Mexican context. This study reports the perceptions of students in a BA program.…

  13. Preparacion e Iniciacion de la Lectura en Espanol para Maestros de Programas Bilingues. Serie Tierra de Encanto (Preparation and Initiation of Reading in Spanish for Teachers of Bilingual Programs. Land of Enchantment Series).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque.

    Part of the "Land of Enchantment" series of instructional materials, this very detailed teaching manual is designed to help teachers in bilingual programs prepare students to read Spanish. It contains suggestions for developing reading readiness skills and ways to teach a basic 30-word reading vocabulary. The reading program follows five steps:…

  14. Presentaciones escolares. Serie de programas para conmemorar acontecimientos de valor cultural para el mexico americano (School Assembly Presentations. Series of Programs to Commemorate Events of Cultural Value to the Mexican American).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarreal, Abelardo; And Others

    This material consists of a series of cultural presentations designed for elementary school assemblies or special programs. The activities are intended to strengthen Mexican-American children's awareness of their cultural heritage. Program scripts, poems, songs, historical narratives and skits are included to illustrate and celebrate Mexican and…

  15. Autobiographies: A Way to Explore Student-Teachers' Beliefs in a Teacher Education Program (Autobiografías: una forma de explorar las creencias de docentes en formación en un programa de Licenciatura en Inglés)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durán Narváez, Norma Constanza; Lastra Ramírez, Sandra Patricia; Morales Vasco, Adriana María

    2013-01-01

    Autobiographies depict with words life stories, personal experiences, and perceptions that allow researchers to deeply understand the way people see life, reflect, and construct meaning out of experiences. This article aims at describing the contributions of autobiographies as valuable resources in qualitative research when exploring people's…

  16. Evaluacion de Programas de Alfabetizacion. Consulta Tecnica Regional (Maracaibo, Venezuela, 30 Noviembre-6 Diciembre 1987) Informe Final. (Evaluation of Literacy Programs. Regional Technical Meeting (Maracaibo, Venezuela, November 30-December 6, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    The objectives of this seminar were to identify problems in evaluating literacy programs and to design a working strategy to confront them. Four presentations included national case studies from Brazil, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Venezuela. Central questions asked concerned who and what were evaluated and how were the results to be used. In Brazil,…

  17. PROGRAMA PARA LA VERIFICACION DE LA TECNOLOGIA AMBIENTAL - CULTIVANDO ASOCIACIONES PARA EL INCREMENTO DE LAS SELECCIONES DE TECNOLOGIAS AMBIENTALES A LOS SECTORES PUBLICO Y PRIVADO EN LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS Y EN EL EXTERIOR (EPA/600/F-97/005A)

    EPA Science Inventory

    La meta del ETV es verificar, a travs de una
    evaluacin de informacin objectiva y de calidad, las caracteristicas del desempeo de tecnologas
    comerciales ambientales. As el ETV proporciona a
    los compradores y los licenciadores potenciales una valoracin imparcial y creble d...

  18. Oral Testimony from the Hispanic Community of Greater Boston; Programa Para el Desarrollo de un Curriculo Universitario en Estudios Etnicos Puertorriquenos y Cubanos (Program for the Development of a University Curriculum in Puerto Rican and Cuban Ethnic Studies).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Robert J., Ed.

    The oral testimony presented in this document was designed to supplement materials, strategies, and recommendations contained in "Guidelines for the Development of a Program in Puerto Rican and Cuban Ethnic Heritage Studies at the Post-Secondary Level" (Curry College, 1976). Part 1, "The Hispanic Media," consists of interviews with various…

  19. Yo Puedo Leer: Un Programa Personalizado de Lectura en un Aula Primaria: Reporte de un Modelo Comprobado (I Can Read: A Personalized Reading Program in a Primary Classroom: A Report on a Verified Model).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendenhall, Susie B.; Sledjeski, Stephen

    This monograph discusses an investigation carried out in a school which has implemented an experimental reading program. Achievement, self-esteem, and social acceptance gains and their interrelations were investigated. Treatment groups (experimental and control) were the three independent variables providing a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design. Data were…

  20. Algunos Criterios para Evaluar Programas de Educacion Superior a Nivel de Posgrado: El Caso Particular de la Administracion Publica (Some Criteria to Evaluate Higher Education Programs at the Graduate Level: The Special Case of Public Administration).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    Intended as a contribution to a workshop discussion on program evaluation in higher education, the paper covers five major evaluation issues. First, it deals with evaluation concepts, explaining the purposes of evaluation; pertinent terms; and the sources of evaluation in public health procedures, the scientific method, the systems approach, and…

  1. Programa Estrategico do desenvolvimento 1968-70: Area Estrategica IX. Infra-estructura Social. Educacao e Recursos Humanos, 1 e 2 (Strategic Development Program 1968-1970: Strategic Area IX. Education and Human Resources, Volumes 1 & 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazil.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a two volume work dealing with education and human resources as part of the Brazilian Government's Strategic Development Program 1968-70. It offers an integral view of education as an instrument of social transformation and an exposition of the quantitative and…

  2. Programas de Educacion Inicial en America Latina y los Curriculos Nacionales en el siglo XXI. [Latin American Early Childhood Educational Programs and National Curriculum in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peralta, Maria Victoria

    2003-01-01

    Describes the history of early childhood education in Chile and recent educational reforms. Offers an overview of the Chilean Early Childhood Education program and discusses the new national curriculum and issues arising from its implementation. Describes methods taken to help implement the new curriculum nationwide and to assist teachers in…

  3. Mision Informacion: Entrevista a Empleados en el Lugar donde Trabajan; Observar a Obreros mientras Trabajan; Programa sobre Experiencia Laboral (Mission Information: Worksite Interview, Shadow Community Workers, Work Experience Program). CHOICE (Challenging Options in Career Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam and Northern Westchester Counties Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Yorktown Heights, NY.

    The work-study guide is the third volume in the advanced level of a career education curriculum for elementary-secondary migrant children. Complementing the secondary level job information text and a workbook about decision making and self-awareness, the work-study guide is designed to accompany work exploration and experience programs. It…

  4. Radio Nutricion: A Program for Nutrition Education with the Hispanic Community. Service Provider's Guide = Radio Nutricion: Un Programa de Educacion para la Nutricion para la Comunidad Hispana. Guia del Proveeidor de Servicios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Farmworker Opportunity Program, Arlington, VA.

    The set of materials was designed to provide nutrition instruction to Spanish-speaking farm workers using radio broadcasts. It includes audiocassette tapes of four novellas (mini-dramas) on nutrition-related topics (diabetes, heart disease and high blood pressure, pregnancy, smart shopping), talk shows on the same topics, a public service…

  5. Photocopy of drawing (this photograph is an 8" x 10" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (this photograph is an 8" x 10" enlargement from a 4" x 5" negative; November 1993 revision of a November 10, 1973 as-built drawing by F. Marquez, in possession of the Highway System Administration Office of the Puerto Rico Highway and Transportation Authority). BRIDGE OVER HONDO RIVER ROUTE NO. 156 K.M. 28.9, COMERIO, P.R. - Puente Rio Hondo, Spanning Hondo River on PR Road 156, Barrio Rio Hondo, Comerio, Comerio Municipio, PR

  6. Energia Renovable para Centros de Salud Rurales (Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics)

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, T.; Olson, K.

    1999-07-28

    Esta es la primera de una serie de guias de aplicaciones que el Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL esta comisionando para acoplar sistemas comerciales renovables con aplicaciones rurales, incluyendo agua, escuelas rurales y micro empresas. La guia esta complementada por las actividades de desarrollo del Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL, proyectos pilotos internacionales y programas de visitas profesionales.

  7. [Influence of socio-cultural context on risk perception and negotiation of protection among poor homosexual males on the Peruvian coast].

    PubMed

    Salazar, Ximena; Cáceres, Carlos; Maiorana, André; Rosasco, Ana M; Kegeles, Susan; Coates, Thomas

    2006-10-01

    This paper focuses on risk, conceived not as an individual action, but considering its social dimension, analyzing the various forms in the socio-cultural context related to internalized homophobia and hegemonic gender norms that allow barriers to be constructed in risk perception. Such barriers hinder negotiation and protection among homosexual men that have adopted a female gender identity, living in low-income barrios of Lima and Trujillo, Peru. Risk perception is analyzed on the socio-cultural plane, allowing one to explain the limited negotiating capacity of this population, even though they have extensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS and its consequences. PMID:16951881

  8. Risk factors perceived predictive of ISA spread in Chile: applications to decision support.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, L; Antognoli, M; Lara Fica, M; Ibarra, R; Mancilla, J; Sandoval Del Valle, O; Enriquez Sais, R; Perez, A; Aguilar, D; Madrid, E; Bustos, P; Clement, A; Godoy, M G; Johnson, C; Remmenga, M

    2014-11-01

    Aquaculture is anticipated to be a critical element in future solutions to global food shortage. However, diseases can impede industry efficiency and sustainability. Consequently, diseases can and have led to dramatic re-structuring in industry or regulatory practices. The emergence of infectious salmon anemia (ISA) in Chile is one such example. As in other countries, many mitigations were instituted universally, and many incurred considerable costs as they introduced a new layer of coordination of farming activities of marine sites within common geographic areas (termed 'neighborhoods' or 'barrios'). The aggregate response led to a strong reduction in ISA incidence and impact. However, the relative value of individual mitigations is less clear, especially where response policies were universally applied and retrospective analyses are missing 'controls' (i.e., areas where a mitigation was not applied). Further, re-focusing policies around disease prevention following resolution of an outbreak is important to renew sustainable production; though, again, field data to guide this shift in purpose are often lacking. Expert panels can offer timely decision support in the absence of empirical data. We convened a panel of fish health experts to weight risk factors predictive of ISA virus (ISAV) introduction or spread between Atlantic salmon barrios in Chile. Barrios, rather than sites, were the unit of interest because many of the new mitigations operate at this level and few available studies examine their efficacy. Panelists identified barrio processing plant biosecurity, fallowing strategies, adult live fish transfers, fish and site density, smolt quality, hydrographic connection with other neighborhoods, presence of sea lice (Caligus rogercresseyi), and harvest vessel biosecurity as factors with the greatest predictive strength for ISAV virulent genotype ('HPR-deleted') occurrence. Fewer factors were considered predictive of ISAV HPR0 genotype ('HPR0') occurrence, with greatest strengths assigned to fish and site density, adult live fish transfers, and smolt facility HPR0 status. Field validation based on ISAV and risk factor occurrence after panel completion generally supports expert estimates, and highlights a few factors (e.g., broodstock HPR0 status) less conclusive in the original study. Results inform legislation, industry best management practices and surveillance design. PMID:25304178

  9. Indigenous Students' Attitudes towards Learning English through a Virtual Program: A Study in a Colombian Public University (Actitudes de estudiantes indígenas frente al aprendizaje de inglés a través de un programa virtual: un estudio en una universidad pública colombiana)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuasialpud Canchala, Ruth Elena

    2010-01-01

    This article reports an exploratory study carried out at a public university in Bogotá, Colombia, with two indigenous students who took a level I virtual English-course during the second term of 2008 and the first term of 2009. The aim was to analyse their attitudes towards the learning of English through the virtual modality. Interviews,…

  10. Viviremos! On the Road to Healthy Living: A Bilingual Curriculum on AIDS and HIV Prevention for Migrant Students (Grades 6-12) = El Camino Hacia la Salud: Un Programa de Estudio Bilingue sobre la Prevencion del SIDA y del VIH para Estudiantes Migrantes (Grados 6-12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VAMOS (Villarreal Analytical Management and Organizational Services), San Marcos, TX.

    This curriculum provides the basic information everyone needs to avoid HIV infection, but was specifically designed for Latino farmworker students in grades 6-7. The student materials are written in Spanish and English and may be used with older student or young adults, or in English-as-a-second-language courses. An introduction provides…

  11. The Articulation of Formative Research and Classrooms Projects in the Language and Culture Class in an Undergraduate English Teaching Program (Articulación de Prácticas de Investigación Formativa con los Proyectos de Aula de las Clases de Lengua y Cultura Anglófona en un Programa de Licenciatura en Lengua Extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marroquín, Paula Ramírez

    2015-01-01

    This article shows the results of a research project which searched to answer how to articulate formative research with classroom projects in an undergraduate English teaching program. To accomplish the purpose of this paper, the document will focus on the two specific objectives of this qualitative research: document revision, and knowing about…

  12. Para Candidatos en Programas de Centros de Cuidado y Educacion Infantil con Ninos de Edad Pre-escolar: Asociado en Desarrollo Infantil Sistema de Evaluacion y Normas de Competencia CDA (Preschool Caregivers in Center-Based Programs: The Child Development Associate Assessment System and Competency Standards).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, Washington, DC.

    This Spanish-language booklet outlines the requirements of the Child Development Associate (CDA) credential for preschool teachers or caregivers who work in center-based preschool day care programs. Part 1 provides an overview of the CDA credentialing system and the various options, settings, standards, and stages of the CDA assessment system.…

  13. Para Candidatos en Programas de Centros de Cuidado y Educacion Infantil con Bebes y "Toddlers": Asociado en Desarrollo Infantil Sistema de Evaluacion y Normas de Competencia CDA (Infant/Toddler Caregivers in Center-Based Programs: The Child Development Associate Assessment System and Competency Standards).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, Washington, DC.

    This Spanish-language booklet outlines the requirements of the Child Development Associate (CDA) credential for caregivers working in center-based infant and toddler day care programs. Part 1 provides an overview of the CDA credentialing system and the various options, settings, standards, and stages of the CDA assessment system. Part 2 explains…

  14. An Exploration of EFL Teachers' Awareness of the Sources of Pedagogical Knowledge in a Teacher Education Program (Una exploración del nivel de conciencia de docentes de inglés como lengua extranjera respecto a las fuentes del conocimiento pedagógico en un programa de formación de docentes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macías, Diego Fernando

    2013-01-01

    This project set out to investigate the extent to which the sources of English as a foreign language teachers' pedagogical knowledge are acknowledged and addressed in a teacher education program in a public university in Colombia. It involved the participation of teacher educators and novice teachers as well as the analysis of documents. This…

  15. Artesanias Mexico - Americanas. Programa Piloto de Entrenamiento Para El Asociado Bilingue y Bicultural En El Desarrollo del Nino: Guia XIII [Arts and Crafts of Mexico and the Americas. Pilot Program for the Training of Bilingual and Bicultural Teachers for the Cognitive Development of the Child: Guide XIII].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Celis, Margarita

    This Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, the thirteenth in a series of 16, provides creative experiences with arts and crafts for young children. Designed for preschool teachers and paraprofessional trainees, the Spanish text offers a variety of craft activities. A list of materials necessary, step-by-step directions and…

  16. What Providers Should Know about Child Care Assistance for Families: A Targeted Effort to Reach Hispanic Families and Providers = Lo que Deben Saber los Proveedores Sobre el Programa de Ayuda de Cuidado Infantil para las Familias: Un Esfuerzo Especial para Alcanzar Familias y Proveedores Hispanos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Bureau, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Federal and State governments can help families pay for child care. The families one serves may be eligible for this assistance, and one may receive this funding for services one provides, thus becoming a "participating provider." This paper provides answers to the following questions: (1) How can parents receive child care assistance?; (2) How do…

  17. Nutriendo la Promesa: Materiales Para la Aplicacion de las Normas de Ejecucion del Programa Head Start. Guia Para la Utilizacion de los Materiales [y] Transparencias (Nurturing the Promise: Set of Training Materials on the Head Start Program Performance Standards. User's Guide [and] Set of Transparencies).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Services, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Since 1975, the Head Start Program Performance Standards have defined the services that local programs are required to provide to enrolled children and families. With revisions effective in 1998, the Program Performance Standards translate the Head Start vision into quality practices implemented at the local level. This document is comprised of a…

  18. Novice Non-Native English Teachers' Reflections on Their Teacher Education Programmes and Their First Years of Teaching (Reflexiones de profesores novatos y no nativos del inglés sobre sus programas de formación y sus primeros años de instrucción)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akcan, Sumru

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates novice non-native English teachers' opinions about the effectiveness of their teacher education programme and the challenges during their initial years of teaching. The results of a survey administered to fifty-five novice teachers and follow-up interviews identify strengths and weaknesses in their teacher education…

  19. "On Air": Participation in an Online Radio Show to Foster Speaking Confidence. A Cooperative Learning-Based Strategies Study ("Al aire": participación en un programa de radio en línea para fomentar la confianza al hablar. Un estudio basado en estrategias de aprendizaje cooperativo)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemos Tello, Nubia Consuelo

    2012-01-01

    The daily observation of class sessions has enabled me to recognize that students possess a feeling of self-distrust in oral activities. For this reason, I designed a study carried out with a group of twelve eighth graders. This article illustrates an action research project conducted to enhance students' confidence when speaking on an online…

  20. Juegos - Cuentos - Cantos - Y - Rimas. Programa Piloto de Entrenamiento Para El Asociado Bilinque y Bicultural En El Desarrollo del Nino: Guia XII [Games - Stories - Songs -And - Rhymes. Pilot Program for the Training of Bilingual and Bicultural Teachers for the Cognitive Development of the Child: Guide XII].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Celis, Margarita

    This Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, the twelfth in a series of 16, is designed for preschool teachers and paraprofessional trainees and contains (in four separate sections) games, stories, songs and rhymes in Spanish that can be used in a bilingual, multicultural classroom setting. The module, written in Spanish, offers…

  1. Juegos - Cuentos - Cantos - Y - Rimas. Programa Piloto de Entrenamiento Para El Asociado Bilinque y Bicultural En El Desarrollo del Nino: Guia XII [Games - Stories - Songs -And - Rhymes. Pilot Program for the Training of Bilingual and Bicultural Teachers for the Cognitive Development of the Child: Guide XII].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Celis, Margarita

    This Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, the twelfth in a series of 16, is designed for preschool teachers and paraprofessional trainees and contains (in four separate sections) games, stories, songs and rhymes in Spanish that can be used in a bilingual, multicultural classroom setting. The module, written in Spanish, offers…

  2. The Impact of a Teacher Development Program for Strategic Reading on EFL Teachers' Instructional Practice (El impacto de un programa de desarrollo profesional en lectura estratégica en la práctica instruccional de docentes de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khonamri, Fatemeh; Salimi, Mahin

    2010-01-01

    Research on teacher development has been the focus of attention in recent decades. The overall aim of this study was to explore the impact of reading strategy training on high school teachers' reading instructional practices. The study was conducted in the EFL context of Iran. To meet this aim, four EFL high school teachers voluntarily took…

  3. Artesanias Mexico - Americanas. Programa Piloto de Entrenamiento Para El Asociado Bilingue y Bicultural En El Desarrollo del Nino: Guia XIII [Arts and Crafts of Mexico and the Americas. Pilot Program for the Training of Bilingual and Bicultural Teachers for the Cognitive Development of the Child: Guide XIII].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Celis, Margarita

    This Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, the thirteenth in a series of 16, provides creative experiences with arts and crafts for young children. Designed for preschool teachers and paraprofessional trainees, the Spanish text offers a variety of craft activities. A list of materials necessary, step-by-step directions and…

  4. Viviremos! On the Road to Healthy Living: A Bilingual Curriculum on AIDS and HIV Prevention for Migrant Students (Grades 6-12) = El Camino Hacia la Salud: Un Programa de Estudio Bilingue sobre la Prevencion del SIDA y del VIH para Estudiantes Migrantes (Grados 6-12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VAMOS (Villarreal Analytical Management and Organizational Services), San Marcos, TX.

    This curriculum provides the basic information everyone needs to avoid HIV infection, but was specifically designed for Latino farmworker students in grades 6-7. The student materials are written in Spanish and English and may be used with older student or young adults, or in English-as-a-second-language courses. An introduction provides…

  5. Deterministini? ir geostatistini? interpoliavimo metod? taikymas Žem?s paviršiui modeliuoti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nareiko, Viktor; Ruzgien?, Birut?; ?selis, Adomas

    2010-01-01

    Analizuojamas Žem?s paviršiaus trimatis modeliavimas pagal geodezinius ir fotogrametrinius matavimo duomenis, taikant tiesin?, svorin? ir Kriging interpoliavimo metodus. Interpoliavimo algoritmai pertvarkyti ir pritaikyti MATLAB paketo vykdomajam kodui. Sudarytoji programa Geo3D skirta erdviniams duomenims vaizduoti pagal geodezinius ir fotogrametrinius duomenis. Geo3D programa sudaryti trima?iai Žem?s paviršiaus modeliai ?vertinti bei palyginti su modeliais, sukurtais reljefo vaizdavimo programa WinSurf.

  6. Hilots make the family planning scene.

    PubMed

    1974-10-01

    A hilot (birth attendant), Aling Melchora, of Roxas, Oriental Mindora, who does motivation work in family planning is typical of hilots who are found in every barrio throughout the Philippines. She is 58 years old and has been a hilot for more than 30 years. She learned birth attendance in a training course at the Pandacan Puericulture Center in 1940. She averages 3 deliveries a month and 8 IUD acceptances a month. The hilots are a possible strong force in family planning motivation because of their influence and the respect with which people in the community regard them. They are older, experienced, always available, and charge very reasonable rates for services highly trained clinic staff would balk at doing. The Institute of Maternal and Child Health (IMCH) has trained 400 such hilots to do motivation work in family planning. It is noted that in the Philippines, the hilot may yet provide the key to reach the people in the barrios, which is the most important and challenging task for the national program on family planning. PMID:12306912

  7. Introducing DNA concepts to Swiss high school students based on a Brazilian educational game.

    PubMed

    da S Cardona, Tânia; Spiegel, Carolina N; Alves, Gutemberg G; Ducommun, Jacques; Henriques-Pons, Andrea; Araújo-Jorge, Tania C

    2007-11-01

    Subjects such as techniques for genetic diagnosis, cloning, sequencing, and gene therapy are now part of our lives and raise important questions about ethics, future medical diagnosis, and such. Students from different countries observe this explosion of biotechnological applications regardless of their social, academic, or cultural backgrounds, although they are not usually familiar with their theoretical genetic bases. To introduce some molecular biology concepts for high school students, we developed a new problem for the Brazilian board game "Discovering the cell" ("Célula Adentro©" in Portuguese), a pedagogic tool based on inquiry-, cooperative-, and problem-based learning. This problem (Case) is based on the forensic DNA, which represents an interesting theme for students, as it recurrently appears on newspapers and television series. In this work, we tested this game with secondary students and teachers from Switzerland. Our results indicate that the game "Discovering the cell" is well accepted by both students and teachers and may represent a good pedagogical approach to help teaching complex themes in molecular biology, even with students from different socioeconomical, cultural, and academic backgrounds. PMID:21591137

  8. Ten Ways Hispanics and Latinos Can Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... la diabetes tipo 2 El Programa Nacional de Educación sobre la Diabetes (NDEP, por sus siglas en ... http://ndep.nih.gov. El Programa Nacional de Educación sobre la Diabetes (NDEP) del Departamento de Salud ...

  9. Performance of ESPs operating downstream from spray-drying desulphurisation units

    SciTech Connect

    Ollero, P.; Canadas, L.; Salvador, L.

    1995-06-01

    This paper summarizes data from a Spray Dryer/ESP pilot plant located at the Los Barrios Coal Power Plant (Cadiz, Spain). A series of tests has been conducted to evaluate the performance of an existing ESP operating downstream from a spray dryer in a retrofit application. A factorial design of experiments with two SO{sub 2} levels, two flyash load levels, three Ca/S ratios and three sulfur removal efficiencies, was run during a six-month experimental programme. A global and a field-by-field analysis of the performance of the pilot ESP has shown that the desulphurisation unit enhances ESP efficiency and reduces the emission level. No evidence of electrical dust reentrainment has been found.

  10. Post-Mass Drug Administration Transmission Assessment Survey for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in La Ciénaga, Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Noland, Gregory S; Blount, Stephen; Gonzalez, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    The Dominican Republic is one of four remaining countries in the Americas with lymphatic filariasis (LF). Annual mass drug administration (MDA) with albendazole and diethylcarbamazine was conducted in La Ciénaga, an impoverished urban barrio in Santo Domingo, from 2004 to 2006. Eight years after the last MDA, a transmission assessment survey (TAS) was conducted in November-December 2014 to determine if LF transmission remains absent. Of 815 first and second grade primary school students (mean age: 6.51 years; range 5-9) tested by immunochromatographic test (ICT), zero (0.0%) were positive. This is below the TAS critical cutoff of nine, indicating that the area "passed" TAS and that transmission remains interrupted in La Ciénaga. Importantly, this also provides evidence that three rounds of effective (> 65% coverage) MDA, likely aided by environmental improvements and periodic school-based albendazole monotherapy MDA, achieved interruption of LF transmission from a relatively low-transmission setting. PMID:26503279

  11. [Collective action around drinking water in two mid-sized cities in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Trevino Carrillo, A H

    1998-01-01

    The efforts by residents of marginal neighborhoods of two medium-sized Mexican cities to obtain potable water and sewer services were compared in order to determine the forms of organization and social relations involved. The two cities, Queretaro and Celaya, are located in different states but share the same river basin. The organizational structures of the municipal water services and their relationships to the state government, the local political structures and practices, and the patterns of conflict resolution differed greatly in the two cities. The study describes the public water services, the social demand for water, the characteristics of the barrio organizations and mobilizations, and the relevant city officials in both study sites. The focus then shifts to theoretical discussion regarding collective actions and social movements and the new area of research constituted by citizen mobilizations to demand services. PMID:12295017

  12. Incipient colonisation of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the city of Resistencia, province of Chaco, Argentina (2010-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Szelag, Enrique Alejandro; Parras, Matías Ariel; Fabiani, Mariela; Rosa, Juan Ramón; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis was recorded for the first time in Argentina in 2004, in the province of Formosa. In the following years, the vector spread to the south and west in the country and was recorded in the province of Chaco in 2010. From November 2010-May 2012, captures of Phlebotominae were made in the city of Resistencia and its surroundings, to monitor the spread and possible colonisation of Lu. longipalpis in the province of Chaco. In this monitoring, Lu. longipalpis was absent in urban sampling sites and its presence was restricted to Barrio de los Pescadores. This suggests that the incipient colonisation observed in 2010 was not followed by continuous installation of vector populations and expansion of their spatial distribution as in other urban centres of Argentina. PMID:25075787

  13. [Coproantigens detection for the diagnosis of canine Echinococcosis in the border area of La Quiaca-Villazón].

    PubMed

    Casas, Natalia; Costas Otero, Sergio; Céspedes, Graciela; Sosa, Sonia; Santillán, Graciela

    2013-01-01

    Cystic Echinococcosis is a major public health issue. Immunodiagnostic techniques based on the identification of parasite antigens in dog dry faeces have been developed as alternatives for the surveillance of canine Echinococcosis. The environmental conditions favouring the parasite cycle were met in the border of La Quiaca-Villazón, given the presence of definitive (dog) and intermediate hosts (sheep and goats). The most important activity in La Puna is sheep and goat rearing; slaughtering is carried out almost exclusively in the field by sheep's owners, and preventive health measures do not apply. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of dogs parasitized by Echinococcus granulosus in this border region. A hundred and sixty eight (168) stool specimens were collected during 2006. La Quiaca samples were taken from the following selected areas: the semi-rural area of Barrios, the rural areas of Santa Catalina, Yavi Chico, El Portillo, Pumahuasi and Cara Cara and the urban area of La Quiaca; selected urban areas in Villazón and the semi-rural area of Ojo de Agua, Lampaya and Matancillas. The samples were analyzed by copro-ELISA -Western blot test. The cities of San Francisco and Barrios had a prevalence of 14.3% and 6.7%, respectively. A prevalence of 3.4% was observed in the urban area of Villazón, which indicates that dogs become infected in the rural areas and bring the risk into the city. Lampaya showed a prevalence of 30%. These findings suggest the need to implement strategies for the control of hydatidosis, both in urban and rural areas to avoid the increase and spread of Echinococcosis in the region. PMID:24165137

  14. Subtle genetic connectivity between Mexican Caribbean and south-western Gulf of Mexico reefs: the case of the bicolor damselfish, Stegastes partitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villegas Sánchez, C. A.; Pérez España, H.; Rivera Madrid, R.; Salas Monreal, D.; Arias González, J. E.

    2014-03-01

    Efficient reef management strategies rely on detailed knowledge of biological exchange dynamics. At present, available connectivity information on Mexican Atlantic reefs is scarce, particularly concerning the Veracruz Reef System (VRS), which is located in the south-western Gulf of Mexico. This study used a hierarchically nested sampling design to evaluate the levels of genetic connectivity both within and between the Mexican Caribbean (MC) and VRS reef regions; all of the studied reefs are marine protected areas. Microsatellites were used as genetic markers, and bicolor damselfish ( Stegastes partitus) recruits were used as a biological model. The paired genetic differentiation index between regions ( Fst (ENA) = 0.008) was lower than the global index ( Fst (ENA) = 0.027), suggesting that the stronger restrictions to gene flow may be located inside the regions rather than between them. The AMOVA results supported this explanation, as the differences were only non-significant between regions. In the VRS, Santiaguillo reef was associated with low genetic connectivity levels, whilst within the MC region the group formed by Chinchorro Bank and Cozumel exhibited a restriction to gene flow with Puerto Morelos, their northernmost reef. Despite their spatial separation, reefs from different regions (Puerto Morelos and Anegada de Adentro) showed the lowest, albeit significant, genetic difference, meaning that a subtle genetic connectivity exists at the regional scale. The detected composite flow pattern is likely related to self-recruitment and cohesive dispersal processes interacting with current patterns, which may favour genetic connections under specific conditions. The results presented here suggest that coral reef management in the Mexican Atlantic Ocean should consider large scale measures in addition to appropriate local actions to protect reef fish populations.

  15. Toward a Better Implementation of the Audio-Lingual Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdman, Albert

    1970-01-01

    Revised version of a paper presented at the Fifth Symposium of the PILEI, Programa Interamericano de Linguistica y Ensenanza de Idiomas (Inter-American Program on Linguistics and Foreign Language Instruction), Sao Paolo, Brazil, January 11, 1969. (DS)

  16. Advances In very high resolution satellite imagery analysis for Monitoring human settlements

    SciTech Connect

    Vatsavai, Raju; Cheriyadat, Anil M; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2014-01-01

    The high rate of urbanization, political conflicts and ensuing internal displacement of population, and increased poverty in the 20th century has resulted in rapid increase of informal settlements. These unplanned, unauthorized, and/or unstructured homes, known as informal settlements, shantytowns, barrios, or slums, pose several challenges to the nations, as these settlements are often located in most hazardous regions and lack basic services. Though several World Bank and United Nations sponsored studies stress the importance of poverty maps in designing better policies and interventions, mapping slums of the world is a daunting and challenging task. In this paper, we summarize our ongoing research on settlement mapping through the utilization of Very high resolution (VHR) remote sensing imagery. Most existing approaches used to classify VHR images are single instance (or pixel-based) learning algorithms, which are inadequate for analyzing VHR imagery, as single pixels do not contain sufficient contextual information (see Figure 1). However, much needed spatial contextual information can be captured via feature extraction and/or through newer machine learning algorithms in order to extract complex spatial patterns that distinguish informal settlements from formal ones. In recent years, we made significant progress in advancing the state of art in both directions. This paper summarizes these results.

  17. Philippines: rural electrification. Project impact evaluation report No. 15

    SciTech Connect

    Mandel, D.H.; Allgeier, P.F.; Wasserman, G.; Hickey, G.; Salazar, R.

    1980-12-01

    AID's overall evaluation of its Philippine Rural Electrification (RE) program, consisting of eight successive projects, had limited effect on the rural poor and the economic development process. This program began in 1965 and has since energized 844 (59% of the national total) Philippine municipalities, 9088 (27%) barrios, 1,159,434 (20%) households, and 101 new cooperatives; resulting in a change of schedule for total national energization from 1980 to 1987. To improve the productive capacity of the poor, cooperatives were organized and lent funds to extend electrical power into their areas. Many of the poor, however, could not afford its installation, continued use, or more than one or two light bulbs a month. Community lighting, such as street-lighting, indirectly helped the poor in various ways, such as by providing greater personal security. Those with sufficient financial resources or skills were able to use the electricity for entrepreneurial activities. RE impact upon development occurred in areas with a concentrated population, available technical skills and capital, and access to large and diverse markets. Active promotion of electricity-dependent investments and projects also increased program impact.

  18. Physicochemical characterization of Spanish fly ashes

    SciTech Connect

    Querol, X.; Umana, J.C.; Alastuey, A.; Bertrana, C.; Lopez-Soler, A.; Plana, F.

    1999-12-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained from the physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterization of 14 fly ash samples. Major features that influence the utilization of each fly ash for zeolite synthesis are evidenced, and several fly ash types were selected as potential high-quality starting material for zeolite synthesis and ceramic applications. The main parameters influencing this selection were relatively small grain size; high Al and Si contents; high glass content; low CaO, S, and Fe contents; and relatively low heavy metal concentration. The Compostilla and Cou He fly ashes have high potential applications because of the low content of major impurities (such as Ca, Fe, and S) and the low content of soluble hazardous elements. The Espiel, Escucha, Los Barrios, As Pontes, Soto de Ribera, Meirama, Narcea, and Teruel fly ashes have important application potential, but this potential is slightly limited by the intermediate content of nonreactive impurities, such as Fe and Ca. The La Robla fly ash is of moderate interest, since the relatively high Ca and Fe oxide contents may reduce its potential applications. Finally, the Puertollano fly ash also has limited application because of the very high concentration of some heavy metals such as As, Cd, Ge, Hg, Pb, and Zn. From a mineralogical point of view, the Compostilla, Espiel, and Soto de Ribera fly ashes show the highest aluminum-silicate glass content and, consequently, the highest industrial application potential.

  19. Environmental justice and healthy communities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The environmental justice movement has come a long way since its birth a decade ago in rural and mostly African American Warren County, North Carolina. The selection of Warren County for a PCB landfill, they brought national attention to waste facility siting inequities and galvanized African American church and civil rights leaders` support for environmental justice. The demonstrations also put {open_quotes}environmental racism{close_quotes} on the map and challenged the myth that African Americans are not concerned about or involved in environmental issues. Grassroots groups, after decades of struggle, have grown to become the core of the multi-issue, multiracial, and multi-regional environmental justice movement. Diverse community-based groups have begun to organize and link their struggles to issues of civil and human rights, land rights and sovereignty, cultural survival , racial and social justice, and sustainable development. The impetus for getting environmental justice on the nations`s agenda has come from an alliance of grassroots activists, civil rights leaders, and a few academicians who questioned the foundation of the current environmental protection paradigm--where communities of color receive unequal protection. Whether urban ghettos and barrios, rural {open_quotes}poverty pockets,{close_quotes} Native American reservations, or communities in the Third World, grassroots groups are demanding an end to unjust and nonsustainable environmental and development policies.

  20. Natural family planning works in a Bukidnon town.

    PubMed

    Toledo, R

    1983-01-01

    Natural family planning is being actively promoted in a pineapple plantation of the Philippine Packing Corporation (PPC) located in northern Bukidnon province. Prospective acceptors attend 4 seminars which cover sex education and instruction on natural family planning methods. The goal of the program is family life and marriage enrichment rather than family size limitation. Thus, there is no target number of acceptors. Early acceptors used the basal body temperature method, but this was subsequently replaced by the sympto-thermal method. Participants report that the close observation of physical changes required by the natural family planning method has enabled them to be more aware of their bodies and more appreciative of themselves. Laypersons work closely with acceptor couples. There are 6 fulltime grassroots motivators and 23 camp motivators. Affiliated with the Family Life Commission of the Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines, the program is also supported by the Phillips Memorial Hospital and is part of the PPC's barrio assistance program. The corporation actively supports self-help projects in the plantation areas. PMID:12265792

  1. Tão perto de casa, tão longe de nós: etnografia das novas margens no centro da urbe

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Por Luís

    2011-01-01

    Philippe Bourgois é, desde 2007, “Richard Perry University professor” no Departamento de Antropologia e de Medicina Familiar e de Práticas Comunitárias na Universidade da Pensilvânia. Esteve durante largos anos ligado ao Departamento de Antropologia, História e Medicina Social da Universidade da Califórnia, São Francisco. A publicação, em 1995, de In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio1 projectaria o seu nome muito para além dos Estados Unidos: uma etnografia no coração porto-riquenho do Harlem, em torno dos actores e dos ambientes da venda de crack. Seguir-se-ia um longo trabalho de terreno em acampamentos de dependentes de heroína em São Francisco, orientando o seu trabalho para as formas mais radicais da pobreza e da marginalidade nos EUA. É deste trabalho de terreno que sai o seu último livro, Righteous Dopefiend2. Em Junho de 2007 esteve em Lisboa para participar na 3.a edição do “Ethnografeast”. Foi então que aproveitámos a oportunidade para ouvir um percurso invulgar contado pelo próprio: uma longa conversa no Hotel Zurique, cujo nome só vem ao caso por evocar o país onde passou uma parte da infância. PMID:22013286

  2. Investigating fluvial features with electrical resistivity imaging and ground-penetrating radar: The Guadalquivir River terrace (Jaen, Southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, J.; Martínez, J.; Hidalgo, M. C.

    2013-09-01

    A geophysical survey has been conducted on the lowest terrace levels and the present day floodplain of the current course of the Guadalquivir River, passing through the province of Jaen (Spain), using two techniques: electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Three areas have been selected. In one of these sectors (Los Barrios) there is an old quarry where there are excellent outcrops that allow for the calibration of the survey techniques. Facies associations on these outcrops are typical of meandering rivers with sequences of channel fills, lateral accretion of point-bars and floodplain facies. The usefulness of the two methods is analysed and compared as a support for stratigraphic and sedimentological studies. The geometry and lithofacies of subsurface deposits were characterised using ERI and compared with field observations. A total of 5 electrical resistivity imaging profiles were obtained. The changes in electric resistivity highlight granulometric differences in terrace sediments. This technique can thus be used to identify the morphology of these bodies, the lithofacies (silt, sand or gravel) and buried channel pattern. In addition, 16 GPR profiles using 100 and 250 MHz antennas were acquired, indicating terrace morphology and the filling of the sedimentary bodies in a more detailed manner than in ERI. The study thus allows for inferring the existence of channel migration, the lateral accretion of point bars and the presence of vertical accretion deposits attributable to the floodplains.

  3. Food frequency intakes and sociodemographic factors of elderly Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, A M; Young, E A; Martin, H W; Hazuda, H P

    1990-12-01

    A food frequency survey of 254 low-income, elderly (aged 60 to 96), free-living Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites was conducted as part of a larger study of the adjustment and health of older persons residing in a San Antonio barrio. Weekly intakes of selected foods were determined using the food frequency questionnaire from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used t-tests to determine significance of difference in frequency of food consumption by ethnicity. The variance in consumption of selected foods was estimated with multiple regression analysis for the independent variables marital status, age, sex, education level, income, birthplace, and ethnicity. Ethnicity was the major variable influencing food intake. There were significant differences (p less than or equal to .05) between ethnic groups: Mexican Americans consumed eggs, poultry, legumes, organ meats, avocados/olives, flour tortillas, and sugar more frequently than non-Hispanic whites; they also used saturated fats in cooking more frequently than non-Hispanic whites; and they consumed skim milk, ice cream/ice milk, beef, all fruits or juices, all vegetables, breads, and oil/margarine less frequently than non-Hispanic whites. The results suggest that ethnicity plays a major role in predicting dietary patterns. PMID:2131339

  4. PubMed

    Fernandes, Por Luís

    2009-01-01

    Philippe Bourgois é, desde 2007, "Richard Perry University professor" no Departamento de Antropologia e de Medicina Familiar e de Práticas Comunitárias na Universidade da Pensilvânia. Esteve durante largos anos ligado ao Departamento de Antropologia, História e Medicina Social da Universidade da Califórnia, São Francisco. A publicação, em 1995, de In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio(1) projectaria o seu nome muito para além dos Estados Unidos: uma etnografia no coração porto-riquenho do Harlem, em torno dos actores e dos ambientes da venda de crack. Seguir-se-ia um longo trabalho de terreno em acampamentos de dependentes de heroína em São Francisco, orientando o seu trabalho para as formas mais radicais da pobreza e da marginalidade nos EUA. É deste trabalho de terreno que sai o seu último livro, Righteous Dopefiend(2). Em Junho de 2007 esteve em Lisboa para participar na 3.(a) edição do "Ethnografeast". Foi então que aproveitámos a oportunidade para ouvir um percurso invulgar contado pelo próprio: uma longa conversa no Hotel Zurique, cujo nome só vem ao caso por evocar o país onde passou uma parte da infância. PMID:22013286

  5. A model-based analysis of SO2 and NO2 dynamics from coal-fired power plants under representative synoptic circulation types over the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Víctor; Pay, María T; Baldasano, José M

    2016-01-15

    Emissions of SO2 and NO2 from coal-fired power plants are a significant source of air pollution. In order to typify the power plants' plumes dynamics and quantify their contribution to air quality, a comprehensive characterisation of seven coal-fired power plant plumes has been performed under six representative circulation types (CTs) identified by means of a synoptic classification over the Iberian Peninsula. The emission and the transport of SO2 and NO2 have been simulated with the CALIOPE air quality forecasting system that couples the HERMES emission model for Spain and WRF and CMAQ models. For the facilities located in continental and Atlantic areas (As Pontes, Aboño, and Compostilla) the synoptic advection controls pollutant transport, however for power plants located along the Mediterranean or over complex-terrains (Guardo, Andorra, Carboneras, and Los Barrios), plume dynamics are driven by a combination of synoptic and mesoscale mountain-valley and sea-land breezes. The contribution of power plants to surface concentration occurs mainly close to the source (<20 km) related to a fumigation process when the emission injection takes place within the planetary boundary layer reaching up to 55 μg SO2 m(-3) and 32 μg NO2 m(-3). However, the SO2 and NO2 plumes can reach long distances (>250 km from the sources) especially for CTs characterised by Atlantic advection. PMID:26433330

  6. West Nile Virus Ecology in a Tropical Ecosystem in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Betoulle, Maria E.; Komar, Nicholas; Panella, Nicholas A.; Alvarez, Danilo; López, María R.; Betoulle, Jean-Luc; Sosa, Silvia M.; Müller, María L.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Lanciotti, Robert S.; Johnson, Barbara W.; Powers, Ann M.; Cordón-Rosales, Celia

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus ecology has yet to be rigorously investigated in the Caribbean Basin. We identified a transmission focus in Puerto Barrios, Guatemala, and established systematic monitoring of avian abundance and infection, seroconversions in domestic poultry, and viral infections in mosquitoes. West Nile virus transmission was detected annually between May and October from 2005 to 2008. High temperature and low rainfall enhanced the probability of chicken seroconversions, which occurred in both urban and rural sites. West Nile virus was isolated from Culex quinquefasciatus and to a lesser extent, from Culex mollis/Culex inflictus, but not from the most abundant Culex mosquito, Culex nigripalpus. A calculation that combined avian abundance, seroprevalence, and vertebrate reservoir competence suggested that great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus) is the major amplifying host in this ecosystem. West Nile virus transmission reached moderate levels in sentinel chickens during 2007, but less than that observed during outbreaks of human disease attributed to West Nile virus in the United States. PMID:23149586

  7. Dawn: Misión a los asteroides - Duration: 3 minutes, 14 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    La nave espacial de la NASA Dawn es la primera en orbitar un objeto en el cinturón de asteroides principal. Acompaña al científico de la NASA y director del programa, Tony Carro, y averigua qué esp...

  8. MSW Time to Tumor Model and Supporting Documentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The multistage Weibull (MSW) time-to-tumor model and related documentation were developed principally (but not exclusively) for conducting time-to-tumor analyses to support risk assessments under the IRIS program>. These programs and related docum...

  9. Learning Outcomes and School Cost-Effectiveness in Mexico: The PARE Program. Policy Research Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acevedo, Gladys Lopez

    This paper examines the impact on student learning of the Programa para Abatir el Rezago Educativo (PARE), which aimed to improve the quality and efficiency of primary education in four Mexican states by increasing school resources. PARE was implemented in the states of Oaxaca, Guerrero, Chiapas, and Hidalgo, which have the highest incidence of…

  10. The Mother and Infant Home Visiting Program Evaluation: Early Findings on the Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program. A Report to Congress. OPRE Report 2015-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalopoulos, Charles; Lee, Helen; Duggan, Anne; Lundquist, Erika; Tso, Ada; Crowne, Sarah Shea; Burrell, Lori; Somers, Jennifer; Filene, Jill H.; Knox, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    "The Mother and Infant Home Visiting Program Evaluation: Early Findings on the Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program--A Report to Congress" presents the first findings from the Mother and Infant Home Visiting Program Evaluation (MIHOPE), the legislatively mandated national evaluation of the Maternal, Infant, and…

  11. Internalizing the Crisis of Cotton: Organizing Small Farmers in Eastern Paraguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, David; Borda, Dionisio

    1988-01-01

    Describes history, organizational problems and activities of Paraguay's Asociacion de Agricultores de Alto Parana (ASAGRAPA) and Programa de Ayuda Cristiana (PAC), farmer organizations. Details how cotton production losses forced farmers to invent new, varied markets, turning subsistence crops (peanuts, corn, and rice) into cash crops, while…

  12. Intercultural Education Series. Selected Latin American Literature for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Earl, Ed.

    The appearance of this collection of readings partially fulfills one of Programa de Educacion Interamericana's objectives described in SO 001 424: that of helping our students become better acquainted with the literature of Latin America. This volume was not prepared for just literature or Spanish classes; the introductions and the works cover a…

  13. DIETARY PROTEIN LEVELS FOR BEEF CATTLE DIETS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Este trabajo resalta programas actuales de investigacion que evaluan las concentraciones de fuetes de proteina para rumiantes durante diversas fases de crecimiento. Par becerros recien recibidos parece que el nivel optimo de urea en concentrado de recepcion, a base de grano procesado, es aproximada...

  14. Aspectos generales de la Red Nacional de Estudios Clínicos del NCI

    Cancer.gov

    Reseña general sobre la estructura organizativa de la Red Nacional de Estudios Clínicos del NCI, así como un resumen de los cambios que se están llevando a cabo y una sinopsis de cómo estos cambios se basan en el éxito del programa de Grupos Cooperativos.

  15. Listening to Students: How I Came to Love My Low-Residency Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwood, Megan

    2009-01-01

    Finding an academic program that caters to children's literature is hard. Many people consider children's literature no more sophisticated than its audience--an arena for those who cannot hack it either as writers or as teachers of adult literature. This author, however, found a new program--a "low residency program"--at Hamline University in St.…

  16. Challenges of Bilingualism in Higher Education: The Experience of the Languages Department at the Universidad Central in Bogotá, Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granados Beltrán, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Many of the actions of Colombia's National Programme for the Development of Foreign Languages (Programa Nacional de Desarrollo de Lenguas Extranjeras--PNDLE) have been carried out in elementary and secondary education, but there is not much information about its impact in institutions of higher education. The aim of this article is to present the…

  17. Memoria de la XXII Reunion Ordinaria de la Asamblea General de la ANUIES (Report of the 22nd Meeting of the General Assembly of the National Association of Universities and Institutions of Higher Education) (22nd, Manzanillo, Colima, Mexico, October 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revista de la Educacion Superior, 1986

    1986-01-01

    This serial issue is entirely devoted to the proceedings of the 1986 meeting of the "Asociacion Nacional de Universidades e Institutos de Ensenanza Superior (ANUIES)." Major attention is given to the "Programa Integral Para el Desarrollo de la Educacion Superior (PROIDES)," i.e. a comprehensive program for the development of higher education in…

  18. Support that Can't Support: My Induction Program Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    The author is part of the Beginning Teacher Support and Assessment (BTSA) induction program--a California state program that is meant to offer support to new teachers as they exit the credential program and begin a job in a district. More than 80% of new teachers across the United States participate in some kind of induction program. At least 30…

  19. Decentralization and Educational Performance: Evidence from the PROHECO Community School Program in Rural Honduras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Gropello, Emanuela; Marshall, Jeffery H.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effectiveness of the Programa Hondureno de Educacion Comunitaria (PROHECO) community school program in rural Honduras. The data include standardized tests and extensive information on school, teacher, classroom and community features for 120 rural schools drawn from 15 states. Using academic achievement decompositions we find that…

  20. English Language Teaching in Public Primary Schools in Mexico: The Practices and Challenges of Implementing a National Language Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramírez Romero, José Luis; Sayer, Peter; Pamplón Irigoyen, Elva Nora

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 15?years, many state governments in Mexico have initiated local programs to introduce English at the primary school level. In 2009, the Mexican Ministry of Education formalized the "Programa Nacional de Inglés en Educación Básica" (PNIEB) as part of the national curriculum, based on the argument that increasing the number…

  1. Computer Virus Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajala, Judith B.

    2004-01-01

    A computer virus is a program--a piece of executable code--that has the unique ability to replicate. Like biological viruses, computer viruses can spread quickly and are often difficult to eradicate. They can attach themselves to just about any type of file, and are spread by replicating and being sent from one individual to another. Simply having…

  2. Listening to Students: How I Came to Love My Low-Residency Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwood, Megan

    2009-01-01

    Finding an academic program that caters to children's literature is hard. Many people consider children's literature no more sophisticated than its audience--an arena for those who cannot hack it either as writers or as teachers of adult literature. This author, however, found a new program--a "low residency program"--at Hamline University in St.…

  3. Shifting Pedagogies through Distributed Leadership: Mentoring Chilean Early Childhood Educators in Literacy Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Michael; Han, Jinghe; Woodrow, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The potential of a sociocultural approach for empowering early childhood educators cannot be presumed, and its impact on leadership strategies and literacy teaching may be open to question. This paper reports on research into a professional learning program, the "Programa Futuro Infantil Hoy", developed and implemented by a team of Australian…

  4. Gifted Education Moves Ahead in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Debra M.; Saenz, Janet

    1990-01-01

    This article examines the role of the University of the Americas in establishing public school programs for gifted children in Mexico, developing a teacher education program called Programa Latinoamericano Universitario para ninos Sobredotados (PLUS), sponsoring conferences, and producing television programs. (JDD)

  5. Expanding Global Language Education in Public Primary Schools: The National English Programme in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the recent national programme of English language instruction in the Mexican public primary schools, called the "Programa Nacional de Inglés en Educación Básica" (PNIEB). The programme, initiated in 2009 by the Ministry of Education as part of the national curriculum, represents the largest expansion of English…

  6. Estación Astronómica Antártica José L. Sérsic: reporte 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recabarren, P.; Mosconi, M.; Lazarte, G.; Cavarra, M.; Daguerre, F.

    Se presenta el estado de avance de los programas de observación en desarrollo en la estación ``J.~L.~SERSIC'', en Base Belgrano, a los 78 grados de latitud Sur. Se comentan algunas soluciones a los problemas que impone el riguroso ambiente polar en cuanto al funcionamiento y operación de los equipos.

  7. University of Idaho's FCS Extension Educators Develop Leaders to Serve in Public Office

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Katie; Cummins, Melissa; Hansen, Lyle; Petty, Barbara; Tifft, Kathee; Laumatia, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In order to meet clientele needs and strengthen family and consumer sciences (FCS) programming, University of Idaho Extension educators expanded their roles through the Horizons program--a community leadership program, funded by the Northwest Area Foundation, aimed at reducing poverty in small rural and reservation communities. This study measured…

  8. Nurturing the Seventh Generation: A Three-Year Ethnographic Study of Native Americans Who Would Be Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Patricia T.; Klug, Beverly J.

    The Knight Scholars Program--a collaborative project between Heritage College (Washington), three local school districts, and one tribal school--aimed to increase the number of Native American teachers in Washington. The project sought to develop programs to facilitate the teacher preparation of Native American instructional aides and to assist…

  9. Intercultural Education Series. The Americas and Self-Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Earl, Ed.; Dean, Frances, Ed.

    This is the final monograph in the Programa de Educacion Interamericana resource series on Latin America: SO 001 424 through SO 001 428. Two main sections are contained here: 1) philosophical and methodological approaches to the problems of teaching the social studies, and 2) ammunition in knowing the Americas so they can be taught better. The…

  10. Child Psychiatry Takes to the Streets: A Developmental Partnership between a University Institute and Children and Adolescents from the Streets of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scivoletto, Sandra; da Silva, Thiago Fernando; Rosenheck, Robert Alan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: High levels of domestic violence, mental illness, and alienation from authorities are associated with high incidence of children/adolescents living on the streets in low and middle income countries. The Equilibrium Project (Programa Equilibrio) was created to facilitate social reintegration through a virtual partnership between an…

  11. Computer Virus Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajala, Judith B.

    2004-01-01

    A computer virus is a program--a piece of executable code--that has the unique ability to replicate. Like biological viruses, computer viruses can spread quickly and are often difficult to eradicate. They can attach themselves to just about any type of file, and are spread by replicating and being sent from one individual to another. Simply having…

  12. The Full-Time School Program in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zermeño, Marcela Georgina Gómez; Fahara, Manuel Flores; de la Garza, Lorena Alemán

    2014-01-01

    The Full-time Schools Program in Mexico ("Programa Escuelas de Tiempo Completo," PETC), began in the 2007-2008 school year with the aim of improving the learning opportunities of basic education students by extending the school day to eight hours a day, in order to offer an innovative and flexible pedagogical proposal that includes six…

  13. Computer Series, 112.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birk, James P., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Four microcomputer applications are presented including: "Computer Simulated Process of 'Lead Optimization': A Student-Interactive Program,""A PROLOG Program for the Generation of Molecular Formulas,""Determination of Inflection Points from Experimental Data," and "LAOCOON PC: NMR Simulation on a Personal Computer." Software, availability,…

  14. University of Idaho's FCS Extension Educators Develop Leaders to Serve in Public Office

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Katie; Cummins, Melissa; Hansen, Lyle; Petty, Barbara; Tifft, Kathee; Laumatia, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In order to meet clientele needs and strengthen family and consumer sciences (FCS) programming, University of Idaho Extension educators expanded their roles through the Horizons program--a community leadership program, funded by the Northwest Area Foundation, aimed at reducing poverty in small rural and reservation communities. This study measured…

  15. Building Migratory Bridges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Michael; Doss, Laurie K.

    2007-01-01

    The Building Migratory Bridges (BOMB) program--a collaboration between the Marvel wood School and Audubon Sharon in Connecticut and Conservation Research Education Action (CR EA), a U.S. not-for-profit in Panama--uses nontropical migratory bird research in the United States and Panama to demonstrate how negative environmental impacts in one…

  16. Building Migratory Bridges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Michael; Doss, Laurie K.

    2007-01-01

    The Building Migratory Bridges (BOMB) program--a collaboration between the Marvel wood School and Audubon Sharon in Connecticut and Conservation Research Education Action (CR EA), a U.S. not-for-profit in Panama--uses nontropical migratory bird research in the United States and Panama to demonstrate how negative environmental impacts in one…

  17. 76 FR 21405 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Network Centric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... February 2, 2005 (70 FR 5486). The last notification was filed with the Department on December 20, 2010. A... pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act February 1, 2011 (76 FR 5610). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil... TURKEY; Terrestar Networks, Inc,. Reston, VA; ] ABG SPIN S.A., Warsaw, POLAND; AMPER Programas...

  18. Effectiveness of an Intervention Program for Improving School Atmosphere: Some Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, A. M.; Rivas, M. T.; Trianes, M. V.

    2006-01-01

    This work describes the results of the "Programa de Desarrollo Social y Afectivo" [Social and Affective Development Program] (Trianes & Munoz, 1994; Trianes, 1996), under way during four years at a public school in a disadvantaged area Malaga, earmarked for special educational resources. The intervention is meant to improve classroom and school…

  19. Child Psychiatry Takes to the Streets: A Developmental Partnership between a University Institute and Children and Adolescents from the Streets of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scivoletto, Sandra; da Silva, Thiago Fernando; Rosenheck, Robert Alan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: High levels of domestic violence, mental illness, and alienation from authorities are associated with high incidence of children/adolescents living on the streets in low and middle income countries. The Equilibrium Project (Programa Equilibrio) was created to facilitate social reintegration through a virtual partnership between an…

  20. Centros oncológicos designados por el NCI

    Cancer.gov

    El programa de centros oncológicos designados por el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) reconoce a los centros de todo el país que cumplen con rigurosos criterios para participar en proyectos avanzados de primer nivel para la investigación multidisciplinaria del cáncer.

  1. Shifting Pedagogies through Distributed Leadership: Mentoring Chilean Early Childhood Educators in Literacy Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Michael; Han, Jinghe; Woodrow, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The potential of a sociocultural approach for empowering early childhood educators cannot be presumed, and its impact on leadership strategies and literacy teaching may be open to question. This paper reports on research into a professional learning program, the "Programa Futuro Infantil Hoy", developed and implemented by a team of Australian…

  2. The Better Early Childhood Development Program: An Innovative Brazilian Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Alessandra; Ramires, Vera Regina; Paiva, Maria da Graca Gomes; Almeida, Leila

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the pioneering experience of the Programa Primeira Infancia Melhor (the Better Early Childhood Development Program), also known as "PIM" that has been developed since 2003 in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. PIM's goal is to "provide guidance to families, based on their own culture and experiences, to allow them to…

  3. The Effective Research-Based Characteristics of Professional Development of the National Science Foundation's GK-12 Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormas, Peter C.; Barufaldi, James P.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the effective research-based characteristics of professional development (ERBCPD) of the National Science Foundation's GK-12 Program--a program which partners institutions of higher education with local school districts and places science, technology, engineering, and mathematics graduates in the K-12 classroom with…

  4. Vouchers for Private Schooling in Colombia: Evidence from a Randomized Natural Experiment. NBER Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angrist, Joshua D.; Bettinger, Eric; Bloom, Erik; King, Elizabeth; Kremer, Michael

    This paper examines the impact of Colombia's Programa de Ampliacion de Cobertura de la Educacion Secundaria (PACES), which provided over 125,000 poor students with private secondary school vouchers, many of which were awarded by lottery. Researchers surveyed lottery winners and losers to compare educational and other outcomes. Results showed no…

  5. Intercultural Education Series. An Introduction to Selected Latin American Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubert, Frank W. R.; And Others

    This is the first publication in a series developed by the Programa de Educacion Interamericana designed to enrich and strengthen the knowledge and understanding of Texas teachers and students in the field of intercultural education, with particular reference to Mexico and the republics of Central and South America. The project hopes to produce a…

  6. Intercultural Education Series. Some Perspectives on Inter-America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Armond, Louis; And Others

    This publication of the Programa de Educacion Interamericana builds upon the overall cultural base on Latin America presented for the teacher in SO 001 424 by providing additional information for understanding past and present events. It also presents, in general view, the development of music, literature, and art. A third dimension is introduced,…

  7. Decentralization and Educational Performance: Evidence from the PROHECO Community School Program in Rural Honduras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Gropello, Emanuela; Marshall, Jeffery H.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effectiveness of the Programa Hondureno de Educacion Comunitaria (PROHECO) community school program in rural Honduras. The data include standardized tests and extensive information on school, teacher, classroom and community features for 120 rural schools drawn from 15 states. Using academic achievement decompositions we find that…

  8. Memoria de la XXII Reunion Ordinaria de la Asamblea General de la ANUIES (Report of the 22nd Meeting of the General Assembly of the National Association of Universities and Institutions of Higher Education) (22nd, Manzanillo, Colima, Mexico, October 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revista de la Educacion Superior, 1986

    1986-01-01

    This serial issue is entirely devoted to the proceedings of the 1986 meeting of the "Asociacion Nacional de Universidades e Institutos de Ensenanza Superior (ANUIES)." Major attention is given to the "Programa Integral Para el Desarrollo de la Educacion Superior (PROIDES)," i.e. a comprehensive program for the development of higher education in…

  9. How Patronage Politics Undermines Parental Participation and Accountability: Community-Managed Schools in Honduras and Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altschuler, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article shows how patronage politics affects a popular international education model: community-managed schools (CMS). Focusing on Honduras's CMS initiative, PROHECO (Programa Hondureno de Educacion Comunitaria), I demonstrate how patronage can undermine CMS accountability. Whereas supporters argue that CMS increases accountability, partisan…

  10. The Effective Research-Based Characteristics of Professional Development of the National Science Foundation's GK-12 Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormas, Peter C.; Barufaldi, James P.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the effective research-based characteristics of professional development (ERBCPD) of the National Science Foundation's GK-12 Program--a program which partners institutions of higher education with local school districts and places science, technology, engineering, and mathematics graduates in the K-12 classroom with…

  11. Se evitaron casi 800 000 muertes por descenso del tabaquismo

    Cancer.gov

    Programas y estrategias de control del tabaco del siglo XX fueron responsables de la prevención de más de 795 000 muertes por cáncer de pulmón en Estados Unidos de 1975 al 2000. Si todo el tabaquismo en este país hubiera cesado después de la publicación d

  12. Learning as a Dissonant Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutnowski, Martin

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author recounts his experience teaching MU-241, Music Harmony and Counterpoint, which is a capstone course for the music electronics program--a two-year associate of arts and sciences degree--at Queensborough Community College, City University of New York. The class, a difficult one, combines harmony, counterpoint, and piano,…

  13. Parental Empowerment in Mexico: Randomized Experiment of the "Apoyos a La Gestion Escolar (Age)" Program in Rural Primary Schools in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gertler, Paul; Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Rodriguez-Oreggia, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Previous evaluations from Mexico are limited. The urban school-based management program, Programa Escuelas de Calidad (PEC), was analyzed using panel data regression analysis and propensity score matching. Participation in PEC is found to lead to decreases in dropout, failure and repetition rates. An evaluation of the rural parental empowerment…

  14. Who Benefits from School-Based Management in Mexico?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimers, Fernando; Cardenas, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    In this article the authors examine evidence pertaining to the implementation of a national programme of school-based decentralization, the Quality Schools Programme ("Programa de Escuelas de Calidad"). The main argument of this article is that high levels of inequality in the institutional capacity of different schools and in the financial…

  15. Learning as a Dissonant Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutnowski, Martin

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author recounts his experience teaching MU-241, Music Harmony and Counterpoint, which is a capstone course for the music electronics program--a two-year associate of arts and sciences degree--at Queensborough Community College, City University of New York. The class, a difficult one, combines harmony, counterpoint, and piano,…

  16. Effectiveness of an Intervention Program for Improving School Atmosphere: Some Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, A. M.; Rivas, M. T.; Trianes, M. V.

    2006-01-01

    This work describes the results of the "Programa de Desarrollo Social y Afectivo" [Social and Affective Development Program] (Trianes & Munoz, 1994; Trianes, 1996), under way during four years at a public school in a disadvantaged area Malaga, earmarked for special educational resources. The intervention is meant to improve classroom and school…

  17. Spanish? What Spanish? The Search for a 'Caribbean Standard.'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, C.

    1978-01-01

    Variations in lexicon, phonology, morphology, and syntax of Spanish as spoken in Venezuela, Cuba, Mexico, and Castile have led to a diversity in the types of Spanish taught in Caribbean schools. The Programa Interamericano de Linguistica y Ensenanza de Idiomas is conducting a survey which will provide authoritative standards for Spanish teachers.…

  18. Youth with Disabilities in Work-Based Learning Programs: Factors that Influence Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Linda; Mooney, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a research study on the quality of the learning experiences of youth with disabilities who participated in Wisconsin's Youth Apprenticeship (YA) Program--a rigorous two-year work-based learning program for high school juniors and seniors. The researchers identify key factors that enhance the capacity of youth…

  19. Red Cooperativa de Tejido Humano del NCI

    Cancer.gov

    Bioespecímenes de calidad son un recurso de investigación oncológica. Uno de los programas de bioespecímenes que han operado por más tiempo es la Red Cooperativa de Tejido Humano, ara descubrimientos básicos e investigación inicial de transferencia.

  20. Capacitación del personal y de los pacientes en torno a los cuidados terminales

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre programas innovadores de base científica para ayudar a médicos y pacientes a hablar sobre la transición de un tratamiento activo para el cáncer a los cuidados en la etapa final de la vida.

  1. Jugando en el Pidi: Active Learning, Early Child Development and Interactive Radio Instruction. Supporting Caregivers, Parents, and Young Children. LearnTech Case Study Series, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Andrea; Crespo, Cecilia

    In 1993, Bolivia was selected as a site to pilot an interactive radio instruction (IRI) project that would provide practical support to adult caregivers and children around early childhood development. Through linkages with health and education networks, PIDI (Programa Integral de Desarrollo Infantil) provided young children under the age of six…

  2. The Spanish external quality assessment scheme for lead in blood.

    PubMed

    Marcuello, D

    1996-01-01

    In 1985 the Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo (INSHT) established the "Programa Interlaboratorios de Control de Calidad de Plomo en Sangre (PICC-PbS)". The operation of this scheme is explained, criteria for evaluation of laboratory performance are defined and some results obtained are reviewed. PMID:8913047

  3. Computer Series, 112.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birk, James P., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Four microcomputer applications are presented including: "Computer Simulated Process of 'Lead Optimization': A Student-Interactive Program,""A PROLOG Program for the Generation of Molecular Formulas,""Determination of Inflection Points from Experimental Data," and "LAOCOON PC: NMR Simulation on a Personal Computer." Software, availability,…

  4. How Patronage Politics Undermines Parental Participation and Accountability: Community-Managed Schools in Honduras and Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altschuler, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article shows how patronage politics affects a popular international education model: community-managed schools (CMS). Focusing on Honduras's CMS initiative, PROHECO (Programa Hondureno de Educacion Comunitaria), I demonstrate how patronage can undermine CMS accountability. Whereas supporters argue that CMS increases accountability, partisan…

  5. Characteristics and Determinants of Teacher-Designed Pay for Performance Plans: Evidence from Texas' Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) Program. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In "Characteristics and Determinants of Teacher-Designed Pay for Performance Plans: Evidence from Texas' Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) Program"--a paper presented at the February 2008 National Center on Performance Incentives research to policy conference--Lori Taylor, Matthew Springer, and Mark Ehlert describe the teacher pay for…

  6. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Izaga, Marta; Andía Muñoz, Virginia; Demon, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la población saharaui residente en los campamentos de Tinduf (Argelia) se considera vulnerable desde el punto de vista nutricional.Objetivos: evaluar los hábitos dietéticos de un grupo de mujeres emigrantes saharauis con el fin de obtener datos para diseñar un programa de educación nutricional (EN) destinado a mujeres residentes en los campamentos.Métodos: la información sobre hábitos dietéticos se registró a través de historias dietéticas. Los resultados de ingesta de macro y micronutrientes se compararon con los rangos aceptables de distribución y los requerimientos medios estimados. También se recogieron datos demográficos, socioeconómicos y sobre salud. Análisis estadístico: SPSS vs 22.0. A partir de los datos obtenidos y de la revisión de los programas de salud llevados a cabo en campamentos y de otros programas de EN se diseñó un programa específico.Resultados: la alimentación en campamentos se caracterizó por ser deficitaria en energía y por un bajo consumo de fibra (6,1 [2,8] g/día), de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (6,9 [2,9]% del valor calórico total) y de la mayoría de los micronutrientes. El aumento en la disponibilidad de alimentos tras emigrar a España incrementó la ingesta calórica, pero la dieta siguió siendo inadecuada. El programa de EN diseñado se basó en la formación de formadoras. En este manuscrito se proporciona información detallada sobre la organización y el material a emplear en esta intervención educativa.Discusión y conclusión: la alimentación de las mujeres saharauis en campamentos y tras emigrar a España fue inadecuada, lo que corrobora que la aculturación puede estar asociada a cambios no saludables. Cabe esperar que el programa de EN diseñado contribuya a mejorar su bienestar nutricional. PMID:27019252

  7. Enantiospecific adsorption of cysteine on a chiral Au34 cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jesús Pelayo, José; Valencia, Israel; Díaz, Gabriela; López-Lozano, Xóchitl; Garzón, Ignacio L.

    2015-12-01

    The interaction of biological molecules like chiral amino acids with chiral metal clusters is becoming an interesting and active field of research because of its potential impact in, for example, chiral molecular recognition phenomena. In particular, the enantiospecific adsorption (EA) of cysteine (Cys) on a chiral Au55 cluster was theoretically predicted a few years ago. In this work, we present theoretical results, based on density functional theory, of the EA of non-zwitterionic cysteine interacting with the C3-Au34 chiral cluster, which has been experimentally detected in gas phase, using trapped ion electron diffraction. Our results show that, indeed, the adsorption energy of the amino acid depends on which enantiomers participate in the formation Cys-Au34 chiral complex. EA was obtained in the adsorption modes where both the thiol, and the thiol-amino functional groups of Cys are adsorbed on low-coordinated sites of the metal cluster surface. Similarly to what was obtained for the Cys-Au55 chiral complex, in the present work, it is found that the EA is originated from the different strength and location of the bond between the COOH functional group and surface Au atoms of the Au34 chiral cluster. Calculations of the vibrational spectrum for the different Cys-Au34 diastereomeric complexes predict the existence of a vibro-enantiospecific effect, indicating that the vibrational frequencies of the adsorbed amino acid depend on its handedness. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic Cluster Collisions (7th International Symposium)", edited by G. Delgado Barrio, A. Solov'Yov, P. Villarreal, R. Prosmiti.

  8. The HO2 + (H2O)n + O3 reaction: an overview and recent developments*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viegas, Luís P.; Varandas, António J. C.

    2016-03-01

    The present work is concerned with the reaction of the hydroperoxyl radical with ozone, which is key in the atmosphere. We first give a brief overview which emphasizes theoretical work developed at the authors' Group, considering not only the naked reaction (n = 0) but also the reaction with one water molecule added to the reactants (n = 1). Aiming at a broad and contextual understanding of the role of water, we have also very recently published the results of the investigation considering the addition of water dimers (n = 2) and trimers (n = 3) to the reactants. Such results are also succinctly addressed before we present our latest and unpublished research endeavors. These consist of two items: the first one addresses a new mechanistic pathway for hydrogen-abstraction in n = 2-4 cases, in which we observe a Grotthuss-like hydrogen shuttling mechanism that interconverts covalent and hydrogen bonds (water molecules are no longer spectators); the second addresses our exploratory calculations of the HO2 + O3 reaction inside a (H2O)20 water cage, where we strive to give a detailed insight of the molecular processes behind the uptake of gas-phase molecules by a water droplet. Supplementary material in the form of one zip file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2016-60733-5Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic Cluster Collisions (7th International Symposium)", edited by Gerardo Delgado Barrio, Andrey Solov'Yov, Pablo Villarreal, Rita Prosmiti.

  9. CALPHAD Modeling of Phase Diagram Boundaries for Binary 2-Amino-2-Methyl-1,3-Propanediol [AMPL] and Tris(hydroxymethyl) Aminomethane [TRIS] system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekala, Prathyusha

    The phase diagram assessment of binary AMPL-TRIS system was calculated using the CALPHAD approach. Thermo-Calc, TCC software was used to fit the experimental phase diagram data by simultaneous optimization of thermodynamic properties of pure components and phase equilibria data available in the literature, and also calculated in the present work. The measured interaction parameters for low temperature alpha and beta solid solution phases are relatively small and are assumed to be ideal. Preliminary calculation of AMPL-TRIS phase diagram showed complete solid solubility of the high temperature gamma and gamma-prime phases, as reported by Barrio et al. (1994). In the next iteration, we calculated AMPL-TRIS phase diagram using heat capacity data and found that it was in good agreement with the current experimental phase diagram developed by V. Kamisetty (2010). In final calculations, the Parrot module of Thermo-Calc program was used to obtain an optimized phase diagram. The calculated phase corroborates well with V. Kamisetty data. Two eutectoids, one at ~21 mol.% TRIS at 85oC, the other at ~60 mol. % TRIS at 104oC, and one peritectic at 55 mol.% TRIS at 127oC were calculated. The maximum solubility of TRIS in AMPL is 10 mol.%, and that of AMPL in TRIS is 18 mol.% at 85oC. An important feature of this phase diagram is the presence of gamma and gamma-prime phases above 110oC. Details of the methodology and calculations are shown in this thesis.

  10. Stochastic undersampling steepens auditory threshold/duration functions: implications for understanding auditory deafferentation and aging

    PubMed Central

    Marmel, Frédéric; Rodríguez-Mendoza, Medardo A.; Lopez-Poveda, Enrique A.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known that some listeners experience hearing difficulties out of proportion with their audiometric losses. Notably, some older adults as well as auditory neuropathy patients have temporal-processing and speech-in-noise intelligibility deficits not accountable for by elevated audiometric thresholds. The study of these hearing deficits has been revitalized by recent studies that show that auditory deafferentation comes with aging and can occur even in the absence of an audiometric loss. The present study builds on the stochastic undersampling principle proposed by Lopez-Poveda and Barrios (2013) to account for the perceptual effects of auditory deafferentation. Auditory threshold/duration functions were measured for broadband noises that were stochastically undersampled to various different degrees. Stimuli with and without undersampling were equated for overall energy in order to focus on the changes that undersampling elicited on the stimulus waveforms, and not on its effects on the overall stimulus energy. Stochastic undersampling impaired the detection of short sounds (<20 ms). The detection of long sounds (>50 ms) did not change or improved, depending on the degree of undersampling. The results for short sounds show that stochastic undersampling, and hence presumably deafferentation, can account for the steeper threshold/duration functions observed in auditory neuropathy patients and older adults with (near) normal audiometry. This suggests that deafferentation might be diagnosed using pure-tone audiometry with short tones. It further suggests that the auditory system of audiometrically normal older listeners might not be “slower than normal”, as is commonly thought, but simply less well afferented. Finally, the results for both short and long sounds support the probabilistic theories of detectability that challenge the idea that auditory threshold occurs by integration of sound energy over time. PMID:26029098

  11. Stochastic undersampling steepens auditory threshold/duration functions: implications for understanding auditory deafferentation and aging.

    PubMed

    Marmel, Frédéric; Rodríguez-Mendoza, Medardo A; Lopez-Poveda, Enrique A

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known that some listeners experience hearing difficulties out of proportion with their audiometric losses. Notably, some older adults as well as auditory neuropathy patients have temporal-processing and speech-in-noise intelligibility deficits not accountable for by elevated audiometric thresholds. The study of these hearing deficits has been revitalized by recent studies that show that auditory deafferentation comes with aging and can occur even in the absence of an audiometric loss. The present study builds on the stochastic undersampling principle proposed by Lopez-Poveda and Barrios (2013) to account for the perceptual effects of auditory deafferentation. Auditory threshold/duration functions were measured for broadband noises that were stochastically undersampled to various different degrees. Stimuli with and without undersampling were equated for overall energy in order to focus on the changes that undersampling elicited on the stimulus waveforms, and not on its effects on the overall stimulus energy. Stochastic undersampling impaired the detection of short sounds (<20 ms). The detection of long sounds (>50 ms) did not change or improved, depending on the degree of undersampling. The results for short sounds show that stochastic undersampling, and hence presumably deafferentation, can account for the steeper threshold/duration functions observed in auditory neuropathy patients and older adults with (near) normal audiometry. This suggests that deafferentation might be diagnosed using pure-tone audiometry with short tones. It further suggests that the auditory system of audiometrically normal older listeners might not be "slower than normal", as is commonly thought, but simply less well afferented. Finally, the results for both short and long sounds support the probabilistic theories of detectability that challenge the idea that auditory threshold occurs by integration of sound energy over time. PMID:26029098

  12. Electron impact ionization cross sections of beryllium-tungsten clusters*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukuba, Ivan; Kaiser, Alexander; Huber, Stefan E.; Urban, Jan; Probst, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We report calculated electron impact ionization cross sections (EICSs) of beryllium-tungsten clusters, BenW with n = 1,...,12, from the ionization threshold to 10 keV using the Deutsch-Märk (DM) and the binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) formalisms. The positions of the maxima of DM and BEB cross sections are mostly close to each other. The DM cross sections are more sensitive with respect to the cluster size. For the clusters smaller than Be4W they yield smaller cross sections than BEB and vice versa larger cross sections than BEB for clusters larger than Be6W. The maximum cross section values for the singlet-spin groundstate clusters range from 7.0 × 10-16 cm2 at 28 eV (BeW) to 54.2 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (Be12W) for the DM cross sections and from 13.5 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (BeW) to 38.9 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (Be12W) for the BEB cross sections. Differences of the EICSs in different isomers and between singlet and triplet states are also explored. Both the DM and BEB cross sections could be fitted perfectly to a simple expression used in modeling and simulation codes in the framework of nuclear fusion research. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic Cluster Collisions (7th International Symposium)", edited by Gerardo Delgado Barrio, Andrey Solov'Yov, Pablo Villarreal, Rita Prosmiti.Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2015-60583-7

  13. Land use, population dynamics, and land-cover change in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter B in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gould, William A.; Martinuzzi, Sebastián; Pares-Ramos, Isabel K.; Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed current and historic land use and land cover in the Luquillo Mountains and surrounding area in eastern Puerto Rico, including four small subwatersheds that are study watersheds of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program. This region occupies an area of 1,616 square kilometers, about 18 percent of the total land in Puerto Rico. Closed forests occupy about 37 percent of the area, woodlands and shrublands 7 percent, nonforest vegetation 43 percent, urban development 10 percent, and water and natural barrens total less than 2 percent. The area has been classified into three main land-use categories by integrating recent census information (population density per barrio in the year 2000) with satellite image analyses (degree of developed area versus natural land cover). Urban land use (in this analysis, land with more than 20 percent developed cover within a 1-square-kilometer area and population density greater than 500 people per square kilometer) covered 16 percent of eastern Puerto Rico. Suburban land use (more than 80 percent natural land cover, more than 500 people per square kilometer, and primarily residential) covers 50 percent of the area. Rural land use (more than 80 percent natural land cover, less than 500 people per square kilometer, and primarily active or abandoned agricultural, wetland, steep slope, or protected conservation areas) covered 34 percent of the area. Our analysis of land-cover change indicates that in the 1990s, forest cover increased at the expense of woodlands and grasslands. Urban development increased by 16 percent during that time. The most pronounced change in the last seven decades has been the shift from a nonforested to a forested landscape and the intensification of the ring of urbanization that surrounds the long-protected Luquillo Experimental Forest.

  14. Ligand-induced conformational transitions and secondary-structure composition of chicken liver pyruvate carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    McGurk, Karen S.; Spivey, H. Olin

    1979-01-01

    Apparent conformational transitions induced in chicken liver pyruvate carboxylase by substrates, KHCO3 and MgATP, and the allosteric effector, acetyl-CoA, were studied by using the fluorescent probe, 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulphonic acid and c.d. Fluorescence measurements were made with both conventional and stopped-flow spectrophotometers. Additions of acetyl-CoA and/or ATP to the enzyme-probe solutions quenched fluorescence of the probe by the following cumulative amounts regardless of the sequence of additions: acetyl-CoA, 10–13%; ATP, 21–24%; acetyl-CoA plus ATP, about 35%. Additions of KHCO3 had no effect on the fluorescence. The rates of quenching by acetyl-CoA and MgATP (in the presence of acetyl-CoA) were too rapid to measure by stopped-flow kinetic methods, but kinetics of the MgATP effect (in the absence of acetyl-CoA) indicate three unimolecular transitions after the association step. The negligible effect of the probe on enzyme catalytic activity, a preservation of the near-u.v. c.d. effect of MgATP and acetyl-CoA in the presence of the probe and no observable unimolecular transitions after binding of the probe to the enzyme indicate that the probe had no deleterious effect on the enzyme. In contrast with results with 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulphonic acid, fluorescence of the ?-derivative of acetyl-CoA or ATP [fluorescent analogues; Secrist, Barrio, Leonard & Weber (1972) Biochemistry 11, 3499–3506] was not changed when either one was added to the enzyme. Secondary-structure composition of chicken liver pyruvate carboxylase estimated from the far-u.v. c.d. spectrum of the enzyme is 27% helix, 7% ?-pleated sheet and 66% other structural types. PMID:435260

  15. Comparative cytogenetics of Physalaemus albifrons and Physalaemus cuvieri species groups (Anura, Leptodactylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vittorazzi, Stenio Eder; Quinderé*, Yeda Rumi Serra Douglas; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria; Tomatis, Cristian; Baldo, Diego; Lima, Janaina Reis Ferreira; Ferro, Juan Martín; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Recently, Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824) was relocated from the Physalaemus cuvieri group to the same group as Physalaemus biligonigerus (Cope, 1861), Physalaemus marmoratus (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862) and Physalaemus santafecinus Barrio, 1965. To contribute to the analysis of this proposition, we studied the karyotypes of Physalaemus albifrons, Physalaemus santafecinus and three species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus was found to be very similar to those of Physalaemus biligonigerus and Physalaemus marmoratus, which were previously described. A remarkable characteristic that these three species share is a conspicuous C-band that extends from the pericentromeric region almost to the telomere in the short arm of chromosome 3. This characteristic is not present in the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype and could be a synapomorphy of Physalaemus biligonigerus, Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus santafecinus. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus is also similar to those of Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus biligonigerus owing to the presence of several terminal C-bands and the distal localization of the NOR in a small metacentric chromosome. In contrast, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has no terminal C-bands and its NOR is located interstitially in the long arm of submetacentric chromosome 8. The NOR-bearing chromosome of Physalaemus albifrons very closely resembles those found in Physalaemus albonotatus (Steindachner, 1864), Physalaemus cuqui Lobo, 1993 and some populations of Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826. Additionally, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has an interstitial C-band in chromosome 5 that has been exclusively observed in species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. Therefore, we were not able to identify any chromosomal feature that supports the reallocation of Physalaemus albifrons. PMID:25147623

  16. Scale-Up, Retention and HIV/STI Prevalence Trends among Female Sex Workers Attending VICITS Clinics in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Miranda, Sonia; Jacobson, Jerry O.; Loya-Montiel, Itzel; Mendizabal-Burastero, Ricardo; Galindo-Arandi, César; Flores, Carlos; Chen, Sanny Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background Since 2007, Guatemala integrated STI clinical service with an HIV prevention model into four existing public health clinics to prevent HIV infection, known as the VICITS strategy. We present the first assessment of VICITS scale-up, retention, HIV and STI prevalence trends, and risk factors associated with HIV infection among Female Sex Workers (FSW) attending VICITS clinics in Guatemala. Methods Demographic, behavioral and clinical data were collected using a standardized form. Data was analyzed by year and health center. HIV and STI prevalence were estimated from routine visits. Retention was estimated as the percent of new users attending VICITS clinics who returned for at least one follow-up visit to any VICITS clinic within 12 months. Separate multivariate logistic regression models were conducted to investigate factors associated with HIV infection and program retention. Results During 2007–2011 5,682 FSW visited a VICITS clinic for the first-time. HIV prevalence varied from 0.4% to 5.8%, and chlamydia prevalence from 0% to 14.3%, across sites. Attending the Puerto Barrios clinic, having a current syphilis infection, working primarily on the street, and using the telephone or internet to contact clients were associated with HIV infection. The number of FSW accessing VICITS annually increased from 556 to 2,557 (361%) during the period. In 2011 retention varied across locations from 7.7% to 42.7%. Factors negatively impacting retention included current HIV diagnosis, having practiced sex work in another country, being born in Honduras, and attending Marco Antonio Foundation or Quetzaltenango clinic sites. Systematic time trends did not emerge, however 2008 and 2010 were characterized by reduced retention. Conclusions Our data show local differences in HIV prevalence and clinic attendance that can be used to prioritize prevention activities targeting FSW in Guatemala. VICITS achieved rapid scale-up; however, a better understanding of the causes of low return rates is urgently needed. PMID:25167141

  17. From surfaces to magnetic properties: special section dedicated to Juan Rojo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascaraque, A.; Rodríguez de la Fuente, O.; González-Barrio, Miguel A.

    2013-12-01

    Surface physics and magnetism, in particular the connection between surface defects, reduced dimensionality or size, crystal structure, electronic density of states and the mechanical and magnetic properties of solids, were always at the core of Juan Rojo's scientific interest and output. Both fields seem to meet at the nanoscale, a privileged playing field which is ideal for testing theoretical concepts, exploring new physics or probing a wealth of new, stunning and unheard-of applications. Upon reducing size or dimensionality, either in bulk systems or in thin films, surfaces and surface effects are telling. Thus, for instance, an ultra-thin coating can make nanoparticles of non-magnetic materials exhibit magnetic behaviour; or atomic steps can modify the local mechanical properties of a metallic single crystal. In this special section there are eight invited papers by disciples and close collaborators of Juan Rojo, that cover an ample spectrum of the above mentioned topics. The first paper, by Palacio et al, investigates the temperature and oxygen partial pressure conditions for FeO mono- and bi-layer growth on Ru(0001). The following paper, by Cortés-Gil et al, reports on the dramatic change in the electric resistivity of the manganite perovskite (La0.5Ca0.5)z MnO3 as a function of Ca content, an effect related to the removal of a charge-ordered state and a magnetic transition. Baeza et al study biomaterials for bone cancer treatment and skeletal reinforcing, as well as targeted magnetic nanoparticles used for intracell hyperthermia in cancer therapies. In the following paper, Marcano et al, assisted by a multi-technique approach, revisit the extraordinarily rich magnetic phase diagram of the Kondo system CeNi1- x Cux down to 100 mK temperatures. The magnetic field dependence of the martensitic transition temperature of the meta-magnetic shape memory alloy Ni50Mn34.5In15.5 in a crystalline and amorphous phase, in fields up to 13 T, is the subject of the paper by Barandiarán et al. In the following paper, Crespo et al review the effect of organic and inorganic coatings on magnetic nanoparticles, showing that the coating can tune the magnetic properties of metallic and oxide nano-sized particles. Barja et al report on ordered magnetic ion structures formed by evaporation of Mn and Fe on self-assembled layers of tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) molecules on Cu(111). Finally, Rodríguez de la Fuente et al investigate the role of surface defects on the physico-chemical properties of metals and oxides in a variety of scenarios, showing how the surface controls the mechanical properties probed at the nanoscale or the chemical reactivity. Acknowledgments The editors are grateful to all the invited contributors to this special section of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter . We also thank the staff of IOP Publishing for handling the administrative matters and the refereeing process, and for their patience and helpful disposition. From surfaces to magnetic properties contents From surfaces to magnetic properties: special section dedicated to Juan RojoA Mascaraque, O Rodríguez de la Fuente and Miguel A González-Barrio Juan Rojo: the surface science and science politics maker in SpainA Mascaraque, O Rodríguez de la Fuente, Miguel A González-Barrio, Javier Solana, Luis Oro and Ana Crespo Initial stages of FeO growth on Ru(0001)I Palacio, M Monti, J F Marco, K F McCarty and J de la Figuera Surprising resistivity decrease in manganites with constant electronic densityR Cortés-Gil, M L Ruiz-González, J M Alonso, J L Martínez, A Hernando, M Vallet-Regí, and J M González-Calbet Thermoseeds for interstitial magnetic hyperthermia: from bioceramics to nanoparticlesA Baeza, D Arcos and M Vallet-Regí Revisited magnetic phase diagram for CeNi1-xCux system: spin-glass in the weak interaction limitN Marcano, J I Espeso and J C Gómez Sal Magnetic field and atomic order effect on the martensitic transformation of a metamagnetic alloyJ M Barandiaran, V A Chernenko, E Cesari, D Salas, J Gutierrez and P Lazpita Magnetism in nanoparticles: tuning properties with coatingsPatricia Crespo, Patricia de la Presa, Pilar Marín, Marta Multigner, José María Alonso, Guillermo Rivero, Félix Yndurain, José María González-Calbet and Antonio Hernando Ordered arrays of metal-organic magnets at surfacesSara Barja, Daniel Stradi, Bogdana Borca, Manuela Garnica, Cristina Díaz, Josefa M Rodriguez-García, Manuel Alcamí, Amadeo L Vázquez de Parga, Fernando Martín and Rodolfo Miranda Surface defects and their influence on surface propertiesO Rodríguez de la Fuente, M A González-Barrio, V Navarro, B M Pabón, I Palacio and A Mascaraque

  18. Eight years of bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Exebio, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta la experiencia que significó el paso por el Programa Internacional de Formación en Ética de la investigación biomédica y psicosocial del Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética de la Universidad de Chile (2003–2004) y algunas reflexiones respecto de la integración de lo aprendido en mi posterior labor en comités de ética y programas académicos de ética de investigación. Asimismo, en la elaboración de regulaciones que permitan una mejor evaluación ética y científica. PMID:23172984

  19. [An automated registry program for nosocomial infections].

    PubMed

    Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Polanco-González, Carlos; Samaniego-Mendoza, José Lino; Buhse, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Las infecciones nosocomiales presentan un gran reto para la medicina hospitalaria, en general, y para las Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos, en particular. Su elevada prevalencia, la gran morbilidad y mortalidad asociadas, el incremento de la estancia hospitalaria y, en consecuencia, los costos de la atención médica han hecho que los programas de vigilancia, control y prevención de infecciones nosocomiales sean una parte toral de los protocolos de seguridad para el paciente y un indicador de calidad de la atención médica. PMID:25643679

  20. Localizador de Servicios de Apoyo - Instituto Nacional del Cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    HealthCare.gov es el primer centro de datos de alternativas de cobertura médica del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos de EE. UU. que combina los programas públicos (ej. Medicare, Medicaid) con la información de más de 1 000 planes de seguros privados. El usuario puede buscar en Internet las opciones de cobertura médica específicas a su situación y a su comunidad local. Igualmente, Healthcare.gov tiene información sobre la reforma sanitaria Affordable Care Act.

  1. Field Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freifeld, Lorri

    2012-01-01

    Many employees claim they learn best while doing, so they prefer to dive right in and learn as they go when they get a new job or take on new responsibilities. But the most successful and quickest learning on the job takes place when there is a formal on-the-job training (OJT) program--a fact many organizations and managers fail to take into…

  2. Erratum: Attenuation measurements show that the presence of a TachoSil surgical patch will not compromise target irradiation in intra-operative electron radiation therapy or high-dose-rate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Sarmento, Sandra; Costa, Filipa; Pereira, Alexandre; Lencart, Joana; Dias, Anabela; Cunha, Luís; Sousa, Olga; Silva, José Pedro; Santos, Lúcio

    2015-01-01

    After publication of this study [1], the authors noticed that the funding was incorrectly acknowledged. The correct Acknowledgements section can be found below: “This work was partly funded by Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT), in the framework of the project PTDC/SAU-ENB/117631/2010, which is cofinanced by FEDER, through Programa Operacional Fatores de Competitividade - COMPETE of QREN (reference FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-021141).” PMID:26670669

  3. Field Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freifeld, Lorri

    2012-01-01

    Many employees claim they learn best while doing, so they prefer to dive right in and learn as they go when they get a new job or take on new responsibilities. But the most successful and quickest learning on the job takes place when there is a formal on-the-job training (OJT) program--a fact many organizations and managers fail to take into…

  4. La doctora Amelie Ramírez y la investigación de desigualdades de salud por cáncer en la comunidad la

    Cancer.gov

    La doctora Ramírez es la investigadora principal de Redes en Acción, un centro del programa de redes comunitarias subvencionado por el NCI que se propone reducir la incidencia del cáncer en la comunidad latina a través de una red nacional de grupos comunitarios, investigadores, agencias de salud gubernamentales y la población en general.

  5. Se evitaron casi 800 000 muertes por descenso del tabaquismo

    Cancer.gov

    Programas y estrategias de control del tabaco del siglo XX fueron responsables de la prevención de más de 795 000 muertes por cáncer de pulmón en Estados Unidos de 1975 al 2000. Si todo el tabaquismo en este país hubiera cesado después de la publicación d

  6. Formal caregivers of older adults: reflection about their practice

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Marina Picazzio Perez; Barros, Juliana de Oliveira; de Almeida, Maria Helena Morgani; Mângia, Elisabete Ferreira; Lancman, Selma

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand the job function of caregivers of older adults and contribute to the debate on the consolidation of this professional practice. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES This is a descriptive, qualitative, and exploratory study. Four focal group sessions were performed in 2011 with 11 elderly companions, formal caregivers of older adults in the Programa Acompanhante de Idosos (Program for Caregivers of Older Adults), Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. These sessions, guided by a semi-structured script, were audio-recorded and fully transcribed. Data were analyzed using the Content Analysis technique, Thematic Modality. RESULTS In view of considering the caregivers of older adults as a new category of workers, it was difficult to define their duties. The elderly companions themselves as well as the care receivers, their families, and the professionals that comprised the team were unclear about their duties. The professional practice of these formal caregivers has been built on the basis of constant discussions and negotiations among them and other team members in Programa Acompanhante de Idosos during daily work. This was achieved via a recognition process of their job functions and by setting apart other workers’ exclusive responsibilities. CONCLUSIONS The delimitation of specific job functions for elderly companions is currently one of the greatest challenges faced by these workers to develop and consolidate their professional role as well as improve Programa Acompanhante de Idosos. PMID:25372163

  7. Remotely sensed forest phenology and its relation with Nephropathia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrios, J. M.

    2010-05-01

    J.M. Barrios1, W.W. Verstraeten1, P. Maes2, J. Clement2, J-M. Aerts1, S. Amirpour1, J. Wambacq2, K. Lagrou3, M. Van Ranst2, D. Berckmans1, P. Coppin1 1. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Biosystems Departement, M3-BIORES, Willem de Croylaan 34, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium 2. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Laboratory of Clinical Virology, Hantavirus Reference Center, Rega Institute, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium 3. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Department of Experimental Laboratory Medicine, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium Nephropathia epidemica (NE), a mild form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, is a zoonotic disease caused by a Hanta virus called Puumala virus in Europe. Concern about this disease has increased in recent years due to the increase in the amount of reported cases. In 2005, 2007 and 2008 the number of infected cases surpassed 300 cases per 100000 inhabitants in Belgium, which was never observed before. NE incidence is closely related to environmental conditions. The main role in the virus transmission mechanism is played by the red bank vole (Myodes glareolus), a rodent species that is native in West European broad-leaved forests (BLF) and acts as the virus reservoir. Although the link between vegetation and NE in Belgium has been underlined repeatedly in recent research works, so far little has been done towards the exploration of remote sensing techniques for analyzing vegetation systems as an input in early warning systems. This study aims at determining whether observed NE occurrence pattern in Belgium can be connected to specific trends in BLF phenology parameters. Hence, phenology information was derived from time series of the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) for the period 2000-2008 in 10 major BLF in southern Belgium. EVI values were calculated from the MOD09A1 dataset which provides an estimate of the surface spectral reflectance for bands 1-7 at 500 m resolution every 8 days. Based on our preliminary results, it is concluded that one of the most remarkable phenomena taking place in BLF is the gradual increase in length of the growing season in the 2000-2007 period. This is supported by international literature. Increasing growing seasons might contribute to an increase in the availability of resources to sustain large rodent populations and in the prolongation of optimal conditions for breeding. For most of the sampled sites, the years preceding peaks in NE cases (2005, 2008) were characterised by a late end of the growing season which coincides with warmer fall seasons. This research is part of a larger effort that aims at the incorporation of remotely sensed data in the prediction and monitoring of epidemiologic diseases.

  8. Environmental pesticide exposure in Honduras following hurricane Mitch.

    PubMed Central

    Balluz, L.; Moll, D.; Diaz Martinez, M. G.; Merida Colindres, J. E.; Malilay, J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether environmental contamination occurred in the wake of hurricane Mitch (30-31 October 1998), we conducted a population-based cross-sectional household survey in the barrio of Istoca, Department of Choluteca, Honduras. The goals were to evaluate chemical contamination of potable water and the extent of human exposure to chemicals as a result of extensive flooding. METHODS: The survey consisted of an environmental exposure assessment, which included assaying water and soil samples for contaminants, and taking blood and urine samples from 45 adolescents aged 15-18 years. We also made a subjective questionnaire assessment of 155 households. FINDINGS: There was significant contamination of the soil in Istoca, but no water contamination in the aftermath of hurricane Mitch. The soil levels of chlopyrifos and parathion were 30- and 1000-times higher, respectively, than the Environmental Data Quality Level. However, the most striking finding was the detection of elevated levels of chlorinated and organophosphate pesticides in adolescents. Toxicological analyses of serum specimens showed that 51% of the samples had elevated levels of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (p,p-DDE) (range, 1.16-96.9 ng/ml) (US reference mean = 3.5 ng/ml) in adults). Dieldrin levels > 0.2 ng/ml were also present in 23% of the serum specimens (serum levels of this analyte in US adolescents are < 0.2 ng/ml). Of 43 urine samples analysed for organophosphate metabolites, 18.6% contained diethyl phosphate (DEP) at levels which were greater that the reference mean of 6.45 micrograms/g creatinine. We also detected elevated levels of p-nitrophenol (p-NP) and of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCPY) in 91% and 42% of the samples, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The elevated levels of chlorinated pesticides were surprising, since although these substances were banned in Honduras 15 years ago it appears that they are still being used in the country. Moreover, elevated levels of organophosphates were detected in the study adolescents even three weeks after the hurricane. Since these chemicals are usually cleared from the body quickly, our data suggest that the adolescents face an ongoing threat from pesticide exposure. PMID:11357206

  9. Stabilization and rovibronic spectra of the T-shaped and linear ground-state conformers of a weakly bound rare-gas-homonuclear dihalogen complex: He...Br2.

    PubMed

    Boucher, David S; Strasfeld, David B; Loomis, Richard A; Herbert, John M; Ray, Sara E; McCoy, Anne B

    2005-09-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence spectra of Br(2) entrained in a He supersonic expansion have been recorded in the Br(2) B-X, 8-0, 12-0, and 21-0 spectral regions at varying downstream distances, and thus different temperature regimes. Features associated with transitions of the T-shaped and linear He...Br(2)(X,nu(") = 0) complexes are identified. The changes in the relative intensities of the T-shaped and linear features with cooling in the expansion indicate that the linear conformer is energetically more stable than the T-shaped conformer. A He + Br(2)(X,nu(") = 0) ab initio potential-energy surface, computed at the coupled cluster level of theory with a large, flexible basis set, is used to calculate the binding energies of the two conformers, 15.8 and 16.5 cm(-1) for the T-shaped and linear complexes, respectively. This potential and an excited-state potential [M. P. de Lara-Castells, A. A. Buchachenko, G. Delgado-Barrio, and P. Villareal, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 2182 (2004)] are used to calculate the excitation spectra of He...(79)Br(2)(X,nu(") = 0) in the Br(2) B-X, 12-0 region. The calculated spectra are used to make spectral assignments and to determine the energies of the excited-state intermolecular vibrational levels accessed in the observed transitions. Temperature-dependent laser-induced fluorescence spectra and a simple thermodynamic model [D. S. Boucher, J. P. Darr, M. D. Bradke, R. A. Loomis, and A. B. McCoy, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6, 5275 (2004)] are used to estimate that the linear conformer is 0.4(2) cm(-1) more strongly bound than the T-shaped conformer. Two-laser action spectroscopy experiments reveal that the binding energy of the linear He...(79)Br(2)(X,nu(") = 0) conformer is 17.0(8) cm(-1), and that of the T-shaped He...(79)Br(2)(X,nu(") = 0) conformer is then 16.6(8) cm(-1), in good agreement with the calculated values. PMID:16178602

  10. Introduccion a la hidraulica de aguas subterraneas : un texto programado para auto-ensenanza

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Gordon D.

    1987-01-01

    Este ' texto programado esta diseflado para ayudarle a comprender la teoria de la hidniulica de aguas subterraneas por medio de la auto-enseflanza. La instrucci6n programada es un enfoque a una materia, un metodo de aprender;que no elimina el esfuerzo mental del proceso de aprendizaje. Algunas secciones de este programa necesitan solamente ser leidas; otras tendrian que ser elaboradas con lapiz y papel. Algunas preguntas pueden ser contestadas directamente; otras requieren calculos. A medida que se avanza en el texto, tendra que consultar frecuentemente textos o referencias sobre matematicas, mecanica de fluidos e hidrologia. En cada una de las ocho partes del texto, inicie el programa de instrucci6n leyendo la Secci6n 1. Elija una respuesta a la pregunta al final de la secci6n y dirijase a la nueva secci6n indicada al lado de la respuesta escogida. Si su respuesta fue correcta, pase a la secci6n que contiene materia nueva y otra pregunta, y proceda tal como en la Secci6n 1. Si su respuesta no fue correcta, dirijase a la secci6n que contiene explicaciones adicionales sobre el tema anterior y que le indica volver a la pregunta inicial e intentar de nuevo. En este caso, valdra Ia pena repasar el material de la secci6n anterior. Continue de esta man era en el programa hasta que llegue a Ia secci6n que indica el final de la parte. Observe que aunque las secciones estan en orden numerico en cada una de las ocho partes, por lo general, usted no procedeni en secuencia numerica (Secci6n 1 ala Secci6n 2, etc.) de principia a fin.

  11. Identificabilidade e estabilidade dos parâmetros no método Grade of Membership (GoM): considerações metodológicas e práticas

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho; Caetano, André Junqueira; Machado, Carla Jorge; Brondízio, Eduardo Sonewend

    2011-01-01

    O método Grade of Membership (GoM) tem sido cada vez mais utilizado por demógrafos brasileiros e tem a vantagem de possuir um parâmetro que mensura a heterogeneidade individual, com base nas correlações não-observáveis entre as categorias de resposta das variáveis de interesse, gerando um medida do grau de pertencimento de cada indivíduo a perfis extremos. Alguns autores, contudo, chamam atenção para questões importantes na calibragem dos modelos finais que utilizam o programa GoM versão 3.4, como o problema de identificabilidade – soluções múltiplas para parâmetros estimados. Neste artigo, é sugerido um procedimento capaz de identificar um modelo final com solução única que descreva os tipos puros mais fidedignos à base de dados, em uma tentativa de otimização. Para ilustrar esse processo, utilizou-se uma base de dados correspondente a um levantamento econômico e sociodemográfico de uma população de pequenos agricultores residentes ao longo da Rodovia Transamazônica, no Estado do Pará. Também identificou-se a existência de instabilidade nos parâmetros estimados pelo programa GoM 3.4, sendo proposto um método de estabilização de seus valores. Com esses procedimentos combinados, os usuários do programa GoM 3.4 poderão descrever sua base de dados de forma mais adequada e responder às críticas sobre questões de identificabilidade e estabilidade dos modelos resultantes. Essas soluções empíricas são relevantes por afetarem cálculos de prevalência e de incidência de eventos de interesse, além de trazerem consequências importantes sobre o ponto e o momento corretos para intervenções de políticas públicas ou de planejamento prospectivo em análises de projeção. PMID:21709732

  12. On telescópio remoto do Observatório Abrahão de Moraes - Obelix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neres, N. L.; Raffaelli, J. C.; Medina Tanco, G. A.; Horvath, J. E.; Maluhy, R.; Martins, A.; Orselli, M. I. V.

    2003-08-01

    Foi desenvolvido um telescópio totalmente automático situado no Observatório Abrahão de Moraes, em Valinhos-SP, que possibilita observações remotas via Internet tanto para fins profissionais como didáticos. Usando um programa navegador da WWW, o observador tem acesso a páginas interativas que permitem não só apontar o telescópio e receber as imagens, como também controlar a abertura e o fechamento da cúpula, monitorar temperatura, umidade e orvalho e receber imagens das câmaras de segurança. O fechamento da cúpula é feito automaticamente em caso de perigo de condensação. O sistema consiste de uma câmara Apogee, uma roda de filtros SBIG modelo CFW-8 com filtros RGB e um telescópio Meade. A observação remota é feita usando programas comerciais da área. Uma caixa de controle com lógica programável controla o movimento da cúpula e a energização do telescópio. Um software em LabView adquire os dados da estação meteorológica, que inclui um sensor de chuva desenvolvido no IAG, e apresenta seus valores atuais e históricos. Usando uma facilidade do próprio LabView, a saída desse software é exportada para a Internet. Um programa em C disponibiliza as imagens das câmaras de segurança usando uma placa de captura de vídeo e um seqüencial de vídeo que foi adaptado para ser controlado pelo PC. O sistema completo já se encontra operacional.

  13. Descripción de la zona de alta difusión en un modelo bidimensional para hojas de corriente

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero, M. F.; Paola, C. A.; Platzeck, A. M.

    Los modelos bidimensionales para describir hojas de corriente de alta simetría no suministran una descripción detallada de las regiones donde la difusión es considerablemente importante. Tal es el caso de los modelos desarrollados en la década del '60 por Sweet, Parker, Petschek y Sonnerup. En esta comunicación presentamos una solución de las ecuaciones MHD en el entorno del origen, construyendo series bidimensionales para todas las magnitudes físicas involucradas. Valiéndonos de la alta simetría y de las características del problema, logramos reducir el número de coeficientes a calcular. Utilizamos un programa autoconsistente para extender el cálculo a regiones vecinas con difusión moderada o despreciable.

  14. Learning qualitative aspects of the ethics of biomedical and psychosocial research program of the Interdisciplinary Center for Studies on Bioethics, University of Chile1

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo reflexiona sobre la experiencia de 10 años en procesos de aprendizaje grupal y adquisición de competencias, de los participantes en el Programa de Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial del Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética de la Universidad de Chile, Fogarty Grant R25TW6056. Considera el papel de la bioética en la formación en su carácter transdisciplinario. PMID:22833694

  15. Cooperative project between government and the private sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorton, Lewis

    1996-02-01

    The intricacies and the size of the healthcare enterprise in the United States means that extraordinary measures are needed to encourage the industry to move forward in some coherent manner. The Department of Commerce, through its Advanced Technology Program, has formed cooperative partnerships with industry to develop infrastructure, implementation efforts and applications. This paper will discuss the largest of the current programs in the infrastructure layer, the Healthcare Information Infrastructure Technology program--a joint venture organized by HOST involving 5 major companies and many healthcare providers.

  16. La energia geotermica en la actualidad: Geothermal Today (Spanish version - 2003)

    SciTech Connect

    2003-09-01

    Por encargo del Secretario Abraham, la Oficina de Eficiencia Energética y Energía Renovable suministra el liderazgo a nivel nacional para impulsar las tecnologías de eficiencia energética y energía renovables, para saltar por encima de las limitaciones del status quo, y para alcanzar beneficios ambientales notables. El Programa de Tecnologías Geotérmicas, parte crítica de nuestro esfuerzo conjunto, está avanzando a grandes zancadas para aumentar la viabilidad y el despliegue de electricidad ...

  17. Primeros resultados sobre el estudio de oscilaciones no radiales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córsico, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    En el Observatorio de La Plata se ha comenzado a elaborar un código de pulsaciones el cual resuelve el problema de las oscilaciones no radiales en el caso adiabático. Dicho código está basado en la técnica de diferencias finitas ampliamente usado en cálculos de estructura y evolución estelar. En este trabajo se presentan los primeros resultados encontrados aplicando el código mencionado al caso de una polítropa de índice n=3. Se presentan los valores de las autofrecuencias y las autofunciones para diferentes modos de pulsación de dicha configuración politrópica. En un futuro próximo, se aplicará este programa al estudio de las pulsaciones no radiales de estrellas enanas blancas.

  18. G2 Flywheel Module Operated at 41,000 rpm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Ralph H.; McLallin, Kerry L.

    2005-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center s Flywheel Development Team designed, built, and successfully operated the new G2 flywheel to 41,000 rpm on September 2, 2004. This work was supported by the Aerospace Flywheel Technology Program--a NASA Office of Aerospace Technology ETC Program funded by the Energetics Project. The work was performed by a team of civil servants, contractors, and grantees managed by Glenn s Electrical Systems Development Branch, Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch, and Space Power & Propulsion Test Engineering Branch. The G2 flywheel was designed to be a low-cost modular testbed for flywheel system integration and component demonstrations.

  19. Binarias en cúmulos abiertos: ?`Qué hay de nuevo?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levato, H.

    Las herramientas modernas para detectar duplicidad han jugado un papel fundamental en el resurgimiento del estudio de la binaridad en cúmulos abiertos. El fracaso de las teorías de bifurcación para explicar la formación de estrellas dobles ha puesto en consideración los encuentros de estrellas en cúmulos para formar binarias. Existen muchas pruebas empíricas que pueden realizarse para verificar las creencias actuales. En esta revisión del tema se hace un breve resumen de la historia del problema y se analiza el conocimiento actual. Se proponen las investigaciones y programas que darían lugar a la comprobación de las predicciones que surgen de considerar que las binarias en cúmulos se forman por encuentros.

  20. Income transfer policies and the impacts on the immunization of children: the Bolsa Família Program.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Mônica Viegas; Chein, Flávia; Souza, Laetícia Rodrigues de; Puig-Junoy, Jaume

    2012-07-01

    This paper investigates the impact of the Bolsa Família Program on the immunization of children from 0 to 6 years of age in Brazil and its regions. The Bolsa Família program is a conditional cash transfer program. One of its conditionalities is the compliance of children with the immunization schedule ordered by the Ministry of Health. The evaluation was performed using the Propensity Score Matching technique. We used data from a survey conducted in 2005 evaluating the program - Pesquisa de Avaliação de Impacto do Programa Bolsa Família. The main findings suggest that the Bolsa Família Program does not affect the immunization status of children. PMID:22729265

  1. Groundwater-flow modeling in the Yucatan karstic aquifer, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Herrera, Roger; Sánchez-y-Pinto, Ismael; Gamboa-Vargas, José

    2002-09-01

    The current conceptual model of the unconfined karstic aquifer in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, is that a fresh-water lens floats above denser saline water that penetrates more than 40 km inland. The transmissivity of the aquifer is very high so the hydraulic gradient is very low, ranging from 7-10 mm/km through most of the northern part of the peninsula. The computer modeling program AQUIFER was used to investigate the regional groundwater flow in the aquifer. The karstified zone was modeled using the assumption that it acts hydraulically similar to a granular, porous medium. As part of the calibration, the following hypotheses were tested: (1) karstic features play an important role in the groundwater-flow system; (2) a ring or belt of sinkholes in the area is a manifestation of a zone of high transmissivity that facilitates the channeling of groundwater toward the Gulf of Mexico; and (3) the geologic features in the southern part of Yucatan influence the groundwater-flow system. The model shows that the Sierrita de Ticul fault, in the southwestern part of the study area, acts as a flow barrier and head values decline toward the northeast. The modeling also shows that the regional flow-system dynamics have not been altered despite the large number of pumping wells because the volume of water pumped is small compared with the volume of recharge, and the well-developed karst system of the region has a very high hydraulic conductivity. Résumé. Le modèle conceptuel classique de l'aquifère karstique libre de la péninsule du Yucatan (Mexique) consiste en une lentille d'eau douce flottant sur une eau salée plus dense qui pénètre à plus de 40 km à l'intérieur des terres. La transmissivité de l'aquifère est très élevée, en sorte que le gradient hydraulique est très faible, compris entre 7 et 10 mm/km dans la plus grande partie du nord de la péninsule. Le modèle AQUIFER a été utilisé pour explorer les écoulements souterrains régionaux dans cet aquifère. La zone karstifiée a été modélisée en posant l'hypothèse qu'il fonctionne hydrauliquement comme un milieu poreux granulaire. Au cours de la calibration, les hypothèses suivantes ont été testées: (1) les phénomènes karstiques jouent un rôle important dans le système aquifère, (2) un anneau ou une ceinture de dépressions dans la région est la manifestation d'une zone à forte transmissivité qui permet l'écoulement en conduits de l'eau souterraine en direction du Golfe du Mexique, et (3) la situation géologique dans la partie sud du Yucatan détermine les écoulements souterrains. Le modèle montre que la faille de la Sierrita de Ticul, dans la partie sud-ouest de la région étudiée, joue le rôle de barrière et que les valeurs de la piézométrie décroissent en direction du nord-est. La modélisation montre également que la dynamique du système aquifère à l'échelle régionale n'a pas été modifiée malgré le grand nombre de puits de pompage, parce que le volume pompé est faible en comparaison du volume de recharge; en outre, le réseau karstique très bien développé dans cette région possède une très forte conductivité hydraulique. Resumen. El modelo conceptual actual del acuífero cárstico no confinado de la Península de Yucatán (México) es el de un lentejón de agua dulce flotando sobre agua salada, más densa, la cual penetra más de 40 kilómetros tierra adentro. Debido a la alta conductividad hidráulica del acuífero, existe un gradiente hidráulico muy bajo cuyo rango está entre 7 y 10 milímetros por kilómetro en la porción norte de la península. Se utilizó el código AQUIFER para investigar el sistema de flujo de las aguas subterráneas a escala regional en el acuífero. La zona carstificada se modeló suponiendo que actúa hidráulicamente como un medio poroso granular. Como parte de la calibración, se probaron las siguientes hipótesis: (1) las características cársticas desempeñan un papel importante en el sistema de flujo de agua subterránea (2) un anillo o cinturón de sumideros en el área es una manifestación de una zona de alta transmisividad que conduce las aguas subterráneas hacia el Golfo de México y (3) las propiedades geológicas de la porción sur de Yucatán influyen en el sistema de flujo de agua subterránea. El modelo demostró que la falla de la Sierrita de Ticul, situada en el sudoeste de la zona de estudio, actúa como una barrera al flujo, y que los niveles piezométricos disminuyen hacia el nordeste. La modelación también mostró que la dinámica del sistema de flujo regional no ha sido alterada a pesar de la gran cantidad de captaciones, ya que el volumen extraído es pequeño en comparación con la recarga al acuífero además, el sistema cárstico de la región, bien desarrollado, posee una conductividad hidráulica muy elevada.

  2. [Barriers and Facilitators in the Recruitment and Retention of Heterosexual Couples for Preventive Interventions.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Hernández, Alberto L; Perez-Jimenez, David

    2010-01-01

    El Reclutamiento y la Retención (R&R) de participantes es fundamental para el éxito de estudios y para el desarrollo de intervenciones preventivas. El R&R de participantes determina la validez y efectividad de estos programas. En este trabajo examinamos algunos de los factores que facilitan y dificultan el R&R en los proyectos preventivos y ofrecemos algunas alternativas para mejorar los índices de R&R. Realizamos dos estudios, en el primero administramos el Instrumento de Informatión, Motivatión y Conductas-Español (IIMC-E) a un grupo de 26 parejas heterosexuales (52 participantes). En el segundo, entrevistamos a 5 parejas VIH discordantes (10 participantes). Encontramos que el 75% de los/las participantes indicó que su trabajo era una de las principales barreras que dificultan la asistencia a las actividades. Otras barreras son las responsabilidades laborales y familiares. Encontramos que la principal barrera fue el miedo a la revelación del estado serlógico. Los principales facilitadores del R&R son la coordinación adecuada y el seguimiento telefónico ofrecido por parte del personal del proyecto. Concluimos que en el desarrollo e implantación de programas de prevención el investigador/a debe tomar en cuenta la adaptación de aspectos logísticos como la disponibilidad y las necesidades particulares de los/las participantes. PMID:23264700

  3. Development of quality control procedures for mass produced and released Bactrocera Philippinensis (Diptera: Tephritidae) for sterile insect technique programs

    SciTech Connect

    Resilva, S.; Obra, G.; Zamora, N.; Gaitan, E.

    2007-03-15

    Quality control procedures for Bactrocera philippinensis Drew and Hancock 1994 (Diptera: Tephritidae) used in sterile insect technique (SIT) programs were established in the mass rearing facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. Basic studies on pupal irradiation, holding/packaging systems, shipping procedures, longevity, sterility studies, and pupal eye color determination in relation to physiological development at different temperature regimes were investigated. These studies will provide baseline data for the development of quality control protocols for an expansion of B. philippinensis field programs with an SIT component in the future. (author) [Spanish] Los procedimientos de control de calidad para Bactrocera philippinensis Drew y Hancock 1994 (Diptera: Tephritidae) usados en programas de la tecnica de insecto esteril (TIE) fueron establecidos en la facilidad de cria en masa del Instituto Filipino de Investigacion Nuclear. Estudios basicos sobre la irradiacion de las pupas, sistemas de almacenaje/empaque, procedimientos del envio, longevidad, estudios de esterilidad y la determinacion del color de ojo de la pupa en relacion con el desarrollo fisiologico en regimenes diferentes de temperatura fueron investigados. Estos estudios proveeran una linea de informacion basica para el desarrollo de protocolos de control de calidad para una expansion de los programas de campo para B. philippinensis con un componente de TIS en el futuro. (author)

  4. [The academization of primary care].

    PubMed

    Hamui-Sutton, Liz; Halabe-Cherem, José

    2016-01-01

    La educación médica transcurre en un campo complejo donde confluyen las escuelas y facultades de medicina con el Sistema Nacional de Salud (SNS). Los médicos que atienden a los pacientes en las clínicas y hospitales al mismo tiempo fungen como profesores de los alumnos de pregrado y posgrado, combinando sus actividades asistenciales con las académicas, lo que implica una tensión más o menos resuelta en la práctica diaria. De esta manera, en algunos hospitales se privilegia la enseñanza y en otros, la labor asistencial. Los médicos en formación deben cumplir con un programa académico prescrito por la universidad que deviene en un programa operativo cuando es compatibilizado con las tareas y ritmos de la dinámica hospitalaria. Se planean clases teóricas, rotaciones en los distintos servicios, sesiones generales y específicas, y los estudiantes se incorporan al orden jerárquico de la clínica desarrollando el aprendizaje situado. PMID:26927637

  5. Inauguração do Telescópio SOAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, João

    2004-04-01

    A comunidade astronômica brasileira de há muito almeja ter a sua disposição um instrumento científico com o qual possa fazer pesquisa de vanguarda e manter a competitividade científica a nível internacional. Hoje este sonho se torna uma realidade. O Brasil tem tido uma política de pesquisa e de pós-graduação bem sucedida. Estamos formando 7000 doutores por ano e produzimos 1,5% da ciência mundial. Nosso desafio, hoje, é associar a esta capacidade de gerar conhecimento também a capacidade de usar o conhecimento em beneficio da sociedade. A Astronomia não é exceção. Temos 7 programas de pós-graduação em nível de doutorado e 11 em nível de mestrado. O telescópio SOAR será o principal instrumento que sustentará estes programas nas próximas décadas. A inauguração do telescópio SOAR simboliza de forma concreta e decidida o apoio do MCT, do CNPq e da FAPESP para o financiamento à pesquisa básica em nosso país. O Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, criado a cerca de 20 anos pelo CNPq, a par do Laboratório Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, são até hoje, os únicos laboratórios nacionais do Brasil e ambos voltados basicamente ao avanço do conhecimento. Os vinte anos de existência do LNA foram decisivos para a estruturação da comunidade astronômica no Brasil e para a construção das parcerias como o SOAR.

  6. Measurement and evaluation of national family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, W P

    1967-03-01

    RESUMEN: En los últimos quince años diez paises han inaugurado programas nacionales de planeamiento familiar: India, Pakistán, Corea del Sur, Taiwan, Turquía, Malasia, Ceilán, Túez, la República Arabe Unida, y Marruecos. Otros paises, incluyendo Tailandia, Hong Kong, Singapur, Kenya, Barbados, Trinidad y los Estados Unidos, apoyan y/o estimulan actividades de planeamiento familiar. En la mayor parte de los casos la razón fundamental del programa ha sido que si la tasa de crecimiento poblacional disminuyera, aumentaría la tasa de crecimiento económico.Las metas de largo alcance, expresadas típicamente en términos de reducir las tasa.de de natalidad o de crecimiento, tienen su ejemplo en el propósito de Pakistán de reducir su tasa de crecimiento a 26 para 1970; el de Corea de reducir su tasa de natalidad a 20 para 1971; y el de India de reducir su tasa de natalidad a 25 para 1973.Los objectivos intermedios, que cubren diversos aspectos del pro grama, incluyen metas específicas para un determinado mes a año, considerando personal, la adquisición de anticonceptivos, y el número de usarios por método. Las metas específicas anuales de aceptantes de dispositivos intrauterinos (IUD), para Taiwán, Corea, Túnez, Pakistán e India, son comunes, tanto por la naturaleza del artefacto, como por la facilidad de medición de los que continúan utilizándolos. El programa de evaluación en Taiwán, que trata de medir por diversos medios los efectos inmediatos, mediatos y de largo plazo del programa de planeamiento familiar sirve de modelo. El propósito de la evaiuación de un programa de planeamiento familiar es contribuir a la efectividad y eficiencia del programa, midiendo y analizando su progreso. Las áreas a medir pueden ser clasificadas como- (1) conocimiento acerca de; (2) actitudes hacia; (3) práctica de control de natalidad; y (4) nivel de fecundidad.Un buen sistema de evaluación debería incluir: A. Un buen conjunto de estadísticas de servicio presentadas en formularios estandarizados, en las siguienies formas: 1. Informes nensuales por áreas administrativas, sobre los actuales servicios de planeamiento familiar proporcionados en la actualidad, de carácter permanente o de larga duración (al presente, esterilización y IUD de acuerdo a las siguientes características del receptor: residencia, edad, paridad (número de hijos vivos por sexo), y donde se enteró del programa, si es posible "clase";(probablemente educación de la madre, pero posiblemente ocupación del esposo, ingreso, o equivalente); prácticas anticonceptivas anteriores; intervalo; y deseo de tener más hijos. En un programa grande estos datos pueden obtenerse en base a una muestra. 2. Informes mensuales sobre la distribución de suministros anticonceptivos (condones, píldoras, sustancias efervescentes, etc.), los primeros suministros deben ir acompañados de un registro de las características del recipiente, como anteriormente; los suministros subsecuentes se regietrarán sólo en volumen bruto. Esto también se aplicará al ritmo, donde éste método se enseñe a un número considerable de mujeres. 3. Informes regulares sobre las actividades de planeamiento familiar de médicos privados, como una estimación del efecto catalítico del programa del gobierno sobre ci sector privado. 4. Datos generates mensuales, ppr áreas admirtistrativas importantes, sabre: visitas domiciliarias, reuniones, cuñas radiates y televisadas, avisos en los periódicos y personal que trabaja. 5. Para propósitos de seguimiento una entrevi eta de campo cada 6 a 12 meses a cada N mujer de las listas para (1) y (2) arriba, en un total de 300 o 400, para conocer las tasas de continuación y las razones de abandono (ej: desea otro hijo, insatisfecha can ci método, otras). Las mue.stras podrían ser de 300 cada una, con una supuesta experiencia de 6, 12, 18 y 24 meses. B. Un buen conjunto de datos sobre costa (datos sobre cotos actulaes atribuíbles directamente al programa de planeamiento familiar) fraccionados par áreas principales y cinco a seis categorías de costos importantes tales coma: adminietración, personal de campo, publicidad, suministros, etc. C. Un buen conjunto de dates globales sobre la distribución de los suministros comerciales que puedan llegar tan cerca como sea posible del último consumidor, to cual significa probablemente obtener información de los mayoristas. D. Una encuesta de conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas (KAP) para una evaluación general cada dos años. Las preguntas básicas (además de las antes mencionadas y estatus marital y étnico cuando sea pertinente) son: actitud hacia e interés por la anticoncepción, número de niños por sexo, deseo de tener más hijos, prácticas anticonceptivas, experiencia sobre abortos, tal vez historia de embarazo (especialmente si esta producirá una tasa de fecundidad válida), aprobación del programa gubernamental (para uso politico), y si está actualmente embarazada (la única y mejor pregunta cuya respuesta habla del efecto sobre la tasa de natalidad). Administrativamente, la responsabilidad por la evalucion debe estar cerca al director, se debe tomar provisiones para obtener informes regulares (meneulaes) y especiales dirigidos a preguntar sobre política. El corolario es que el jefe de evaluación debe tener la confianza del director y debe estar al día en cuanto a las decisiones sabre la politics a seguir. Su trabajo consiste en extractar los aspectos principales que funcionan bien y los no operantes. En cuanto a costos, la evaluación debe hacerse sobre no más del 10 par ciento del costa del programa en paises pequeños (de menos de 30 milliones) y sabre no más del 5 per ciento en paises más grandes.Para medir en que forma el programa satisface el criterio final-la magnitud en que cambia la fecundidad-se debe realizar un trabajo más elaborado en el centro (Universidades, Consejos de población, etc.) para desarrollar una forma (a formas) segura de traducir las estadísticas de servicio en práticas y tal vez aún datos sobre suministro comercial en datos sabre tasas de natalidad. Esto incluye, par ejemplo, los esfuerzos para consolidar observaciones coma "cinco años-mujer de usa de IUD, a 400 condones equivalen a la prevención de un nacimiento," y esfuerzos como los de Pakistán de calcular tasas coma "años de protección de una pareja contra el embarazo."In the belief that a decrease in the rate of population growth will increase economic development, more than ten countries have inaugurated family planning programs in the past fifteen years. To provide a model for measuring the immediate, intermediate, and long-term effects of any such program, the authors use the Taiwan evaluation.The model suggests that a good system of evaluation should include monthly statistics on (1) participants, who are grouped by characteristics; (2) the distribution of supplies, reported at first by the characteristics of recipients, but after by gross volume only; (3) family planning activities of private physicians to measure the catalytic effect on the private sector; (4) new contacts and amount of advertising in mass media; (5) costs broken down by areas and by cost categories; and (6) distribution of commercial supplies. In addition, the program should conduct 300-400 interviews every 6-12 months to learn the rates of continuation and the rates and reasons for discontinuation. Finally, a KAP survey should be conducted every two years.The administration of the evaluation should be close to the director for policy decisions and for the ultimate work of evaluation-the finding of new ways to measure the main goal of change in fertility by the translation of statistics on Services provided and commercial supplies into birth rate data. PMID:21279762

  7. Liquefaction during the 1977 San Juan Province, Argentina earthquake (Ms = 7.4)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Youd, T.L.; Keefer, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    Liquefaction effects generated by the 1977 San Juan Province, Argentina, earthquake (Ms = 7.4) are described. The larger and more abundant effects were concentrated in the 60-km long band of the lowlands in the Valle del Bermejo and in an equally long band along the Rio San Juan in the Valle de Tulum. Fissures in the Valle del Bermejo were up to several hundred meters long and up to several meters wide. Sand deposits, from boils that erupted through the fissures, covered areas up to tens of square meters. Fissures generally parallelled nearby stream channels. Because the Valle del Bermejo is undeveloped, these large features caused no damage. Liquefaction in the Valle del Tulum caused important or unusual damage at several localities, including the following five sites: (1) At the Barrio Justo P. Castro, a subdivision of Caucete, liquefaction of subsurface sediments decoupled overlying, unliquefied stiff sediments, producing a form of ground failure called "ground oscillation". The associated differential ground movements pulled apart houses and pavements in extension, while shearing curbs and buckling canal linings in compression at the same locality. (2) At the Escuela Normal, in Caucete, the roof of a 30-m long single-story classroom building shifted westward relative to the foundation. That displacement fractured and tilted columns supporting the roof. The foundation was fractured at several places, leaving open cracks, as wide as 15 mm. The cumulative width of the open cracks was 48 mm, an amount roughly equivalent to the 63 mm of offset between the roof and foundation at the east end of the building. The ground and foundation beneath the building extended (or spread) laterally opening cracks and lengthening the foundation while the roof remained in place. (3) The most spectacular damage to structures at the community of San Martin was the tilting of a 6-m high water tower and the toppling of a nearby pump house into a 1-m deep crater. Similarly, a small crater developed beneath a hand-pump in an open area and a large, 6-m diameter crater formed nearby. The following sequence of events created the craters and toppled the pump structures: During the earthquake, ground shaking generated excess pore pressures which were dissipated by upward flow of groundwater. Free drainage was restricted by an impermeable plastic-silt layer. Water apparently accumulated below the plastic-silt layer and then burst to the surface through several holes and cracks, including holes around well casings. (4) At the San Isidro winery, nine storage tanks tilted 2 to 5??. Five reinforced-concrete tanks were dismantled but four steel tanks were repaired by placing new footings and jacking the structures into an upright position. (5) At Escuela J.J. Pasos, differential settlement beneath building fractured several columns and walls. The largest settlements were about 60 mm and the maximum settlement of footings supporting columns was about 40 mm. In spite of the damage, the buildings were in no danger of collapse. ?? 1994.

  8. Walking through volcanic mud: the 2,100 year-old Acahualinca footprints (Nicaragua) II: the Acahualinca people, environmental conditions and motivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich; Rausch, Juanita; Kutterolf, Steffen; Freundt, Armin

    2010-10-01

    We analyzed bare human footprints in Holocene tuff preserved in two pits in the Acahualinca barrio in the northern outskirts of Managua (Nicaragua). Lithology, volcanology, and age of the deposits are discussed in a companion paper (Schmincke et al. Bull Volcanol doi: 10.1007/s00445-008-0235-9 , 2008). The footprint layer occurs within a series of rapidly accumulated basaltic-andesitic tephra that is regionally correlated to the Masaya Triple Layer Tephra. The people were probably trying to escape from a powerful volcanic eruption at Masaya Caldera 20 km farther south that occurred at 2.1 ka BP. We subdivided the swath of footprints, up to 5.6 m wide, in the northern pit (Pit I) into (1) a central group of footprints made by about six individuals, the total number being difficult to determine because people walked in each other’s footsteps one behind the other and (2) two marginal groups on either side of the central group with more widely spaced tracks. The western band comprises tracks of three adjacent individuals and an isolated single footprint farther out. The eastern marginal area comprises an inner band of deep footprints made by three individuals and, farther out, three clearly separated individuals. We estimate the total number of people as 15-16. In the southern narrow and smaller pit (Pit II), we recognize tracks of ca. 12 individuals, no doubt made by the same group. The group represented in both pits probably comprised male and female adults, teenagers and children based on differences in length of footprints and of strides and depth of footprints made in the soft wet ash. The smallest footprints (probably made by children) occur in the central group, where protection was most effective. The footprint layer is composed of a lower 5-15-cm thick, coarse-grained vesicle tuff capped by a medium to fine-grained tuff up to 3 cm thick. The surface on which the people walked was muddy, and the soft ash was squeezed up on the sides of the foot imprints and between toes. Especially, deep footprints are mainly due to local thickening of the water-rich ash, multiple track use, and differences in weight of individuals. The excellent preservation of the footprints, ubiquitous mudcracks, sharp and well-preserved squeeze-ups along the margins of the tracks and toe imprints, and the absence of raindrop impressions all suggest that the eruption occurred during the dry season. The people walked at a brisk pace, as judged from the tight orientation of the swath and the length of the strides. The directions of a major erosional channel in the overlying deposits that probably debouched into Lake Managua and the band of footprints are strictly parallel, indicating that people walked together in stride along the eastern margin of a channel straight toward the lake shore, possibly a site with huts and/or boats for protection and/or escape.

  9. PREFACE: Special issue: Proceedings of the Joint 19th AIRAPT and 41st EHPRG International Conference on High Pressure Science and Technology (Bordeaux, 7--11 July 2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demazeau, Gérard

    2004-04-01

    This volume is the outcome of a three-day meeting held 7-10 August, 2004 in St Adèle, Québec honouring Michael F Thorpe, Foundation Professor of Physics, Chemistry and Biophysics at Arizona State University. Michael Thorpe has made many important contributions to condensed matter physics, broadly defined. From the famous Weaire and Thorpe Hamiltonian in 1971 [1] to rigidity percolation theory [2] and flexibility in proteins [3], he has always provided highly original solutions to difficult problems. He has also demonstrated an uncommon gift for selecting and solving problems of remarkably broad significance (for example, rigidity theory is now a powerful tool in glasses, microelectronics and proteins). Throughout his career, Mike has also made a point of establishing contact with scientists from all disciplines and origins, organizing tens of conferences and maintaining a very active visitor's program both at Michigan State University, where he spent 25 years, and, now, at Arizona State University, where he moved a year ago. It is therefore not surprising that the participants, all with scientific or personal links with Mike, usually both, came from Europe, Asia and North America to celebrate the 60th birthday of an eminent physicist and friend. Reflecting the impact of Mike's work across the traditional scientific boundaries, the meeting included contributions ranging from studies of concrete by Ed Garboczi (NIST), a hybrid VCA/CPA treatment of the Hubbard model presented by Sir Roger Elliott (Oxford) to the assembly process of viral capsids by Brandon Hespenheide (ASU). Especially memorable talks were given by Rafael Barrio (with his photogenic striped imperial fish), Alex Kolobov (presenting impressive scientific results using equally impressive computer graphics), and Dick Zallen, for a remarkably good `roast' of the honoree and work with his daughter (a molecular biologist) on biophysics. The meeting had an unusual warmth befitting the birthday celebration, and was also by any measure a scientific success, with innumerable questions and discussions among this diverse group, and the scholarly contributions in this volume. We thank the participants, and Dr Richard Palmer, the Publisher of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter and his staff for working to make this volume appear very quickly, thereby increasing the value of the papers to the community. We would also thank the Office of the vice-president for research at Université de Montréal, the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Arizona State University, the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Ohio University and the Canada Research Chair Program for financial assistance that made the meeting more enjoyable. We were both pleased to be part of this delightful occasion, and wish to take this last opportunity to wish Mike a happy birthday, and urge him to even greater achievements in coming years. Bibliography [1] Weaire D and Thorpe M F 1971 Electronic Properties of an Amorphous Solid: I. A Simple Tight Binding Theory Phys. Rev. B 4 2508--20 [2] Thorpe M F 1983 Continuous Deformations in Random Networks J. Non-Cryst. Solids 57 355-70 [3] Jacobs D J, Rader A J, Kuhn L A and Thorpe M F 2001 Protein Flexibilty Predictions using Graph Theory Proteins 44 150-65

  10. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Molina Recio, Guillermo; Moreno Rojas, Rafael; García Rodríguez, María; Vaquero Abellán, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: un gran número de encuestas nutricionales en Perú han identificado la magnitud y la ubicación de los diferentes tipos de desnutrición, siendo la forma crónica la más prevalente. Sin embargo, aunque las tasas pueden considerarse alarmantes (aún más en las zonas rurales), sólo un trabajo contiene información sobre las características de la ingesta, usando recordatorios de 24 horas (R24). Es decir, se carece de otros sistemas de estudio centrados en conocer las características gastronómicas de sus regiones y la biodisponibilidad de los alimentos, con el fin de localizar el origen de esta situación en cada área y proponer soluciones verdaderamente eficaces y eficientes.Objetivo: determinar el valor nutricional de los platos principales consumidos por los residentes de un barrio pobre de la Amazonía Peruana, para identificar las causas de la pérdida de un estado nutricional saludable.Métodos: noventa y ocho participantes completaron tres R24. Basándonos en estos datos, se seleccionaron los 25 platos más comúnmente consumidos y evaluamos su composición nutricional. Tomamos nota de las recetas, pesos y medidas caseras. Además, se observó la preparación y cocción. La composición nutricional media de cada plato se calculó por 100 g utilizando el software Nutriplato 4.6. También se calcularon lasganancias o pérdidas derivadas de los tratamientos culinarios.Resultados: dentro de los platos basados en la leche, el de más alta densidad de energía es el mingado de arroz. En el grupo de los pescados, la mayor cantidad de energía es aportada por el pescado frito, mientras que en las recetas a base de carne, las más energéticas son el tallarín con pollo, la res asada y el cerdo frito. Como platos preparados, el juane tiene la más alta densidad de energía de todas las recetas. Dentro de las guarniciones, aquellas que utilizan los plátanos como el ingrediente principal, el plátano frito y el madurito, son las más energéticas. Las grasas son más elevadas en los platos fritos y son estos platos los que más contribuyen al porcentaje total de grasa consumida. Lo mismo ocurre en las guarniciones, donde 100 g de plátano frito o madurito contienen más del 70% de la dosis diaria recomendada. La res asada y el juane tienen el nivel más alto de sodio.Conclusiones: si se desea ofrecer platos más saludables, es necesario cambiar algunos hábitos alimenticios, lo que supone reducir el consumo de alimentos fritos porque probablemente está relacionado con la obesidad y otras enfermedades crónicas cardiovasculares. También se debe reducir la ingesta de sodio. Dos alimentos que podrían ser importantes son la menudencia de pollo, rica en vitaminas del grupo B y baja en grasas, y el frijol hervido, rico en proteínas vegetales, que con platos de arroz, omnipresentes en esta área, incrementaría el valor biológico de las proteínas ingeridas. PMID:27019248

  11. Educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH: un diagnóstico para América Latina y el Caribe

    PubMed Central

    DeMaria, Lisa M.; Galárraga, Omar; Campero, Lourdes; Walker, Dilys M.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Objetivo Mostrar, a través de un diagnóstico en América Latina y el Caribe, el panorama legislativo y curricular sobre sexualidad y prevención contra el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) en el ámbito escolar, contrastándolo con los comportamientos sexuales reportados en encuestas demográficas y de salud. Métodos En mayo de 2008 se realizó, con el apoyo del Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas (UNFPA), una encuesta a informantes clave en 34 países de la Región. El cuestionario autoaplicado solicitó información sustantiva de agentes de las diferentes partes interesadas, como ministerios de educación y de salud, sobre los programas de prevención contra el VIH/Sida que se están aplicando en las escuelas. Resultados Respondieron a la encuesta 27 países que representan 95,5% de la población objetivo (6 a 18 años de edad). La mayoría de los países informó tener al menos un libro de texto o un capítulo específico para enseñar los temas de educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH. En la escuela secundaria se cubren la mayor parte de los temas pertinentes relevantes para la educación sobre sexualidad, pero no todos. Por ejemplo, el problema de la discriminación por orientación o preferencia sexual no se incluye en los programas escolares. Conclusiones El material educativo sobre sexualidad debe ser revisado y actualizado periódicamente de modo que refleje los avances en los temas y en la forma de tratar los contenidos. En cada país el currículo debe abordar el tema del respeto a la diversidad sobre orientación, preferencia e identidad sexuales, y en particular el manejo apropiado de la educación para prevenir infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres. Los esfuerzos de evaluación de la efectividad de los programas deben contemplar desenlaces tales como marcadores biológicos (incidencia y prevalencia de ITS y embarazo) y no únicamente indicadores de conocimiento y comportamiento sexual auto-reportado. PMID:20107702

  12. Recent KBO (Pluto/Charon and beyond, including Quaoar) Occultation Observations by the Williams College Team as part of the Williams-MIT Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Babcock, B. A.; Davis, A. B.; Pandey, S.; Lu, M.; Rogosinski, Z.; Person, M. J.; Bosh, A. S.; Zangari, A. M.; Zuluaga, C. A.; Gulbis, A. S.; Naranjo, O.; Navas, G.; Zerpa, L.; Villarreal, J.; Rojo, P.; Förster, F.; Servajean, E.

    2013-10-01

    The Williams College-MIT collaboration has observed numerous occultations of stars by Pluto/Charon and other Kuiper-belt objects (www.stellaroccultations.info), since its establishment three decades ago with an attempted discovery of Neptune's rings in 1983. In this paper, we describe several recent occultation observations, both successful and (for reasons of path uncertainties and/or weather) unsuccessful. Light curves made or arranged by Williams College faculty and students were used together with light curves by MIT colleagues and others to study Pluto's atmosphere and Charon's size, to discover one of the highest-known solar-system albedos (KBO 55636), and to attempt to study 1000-km-diameter Quaoar. Observations discussed include light curves for KBO 55636 on 9 October 2009 from Hawaii; Pluto on 3/4 July 2010 from Chile, 22 May 2011 from Williamstown, Massachusetts, 23 June 2011 from Hawaii (in support of SOFIA observations of Pluto's atmosphere, discussed in an article in press in AJ and of the pair of Pluto/Charon occultations of the same star), and 4 May 2013 (Bosh et al., this conference) and 15 July 2013 from Williamstown; Charon on 15 June 2013 from Williamstown; Quaoar from a picket fence ranging from Chile through Venezuela (with a detection there) to Massachusetts on July 8/9 and in South Africa on 12 July 2013. This work was supported in part by NASA Planetary Astronomy grants NNX08AO50G and NNH11ZDA001N to Williams College, NNX10AB27G to MIT, and USRA grant #8500-98-003 to Lowell Observatory. We thank Steven P. Souza at Williams; Steven Levine at Lowell Obs.; Jennifer G. Winters (GSU) in Chile; Richard Rojas/Jorge Moreno in Venezuela; Scott Sheppard; Federica Bianco; David Osip; and others. ZR (Vassar '14) was a Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium Summer Fellow at Williams College, supported by an NSF/REU grant to the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium. ES: partial support from Programa Nacional de Becas de Postgrado (CONICYT Grant 21110496). FF: support from FONDECYT through grant 3110042 and by the Millennium Center for Supernova Science, grant P10-064-F. funded by Programa Bicentenario de Ciencia y Tecnología de CONICYT and Programa Iniciativa Científíca Milenio de MIDEPLAN.

  13. La implantacion del enfoque constructivista en el aula de ciencia: Estudio de caso multiple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo Betancourt, Luz I.

    Esta investigacion estudia la implantacion del enfoque constructivista en tres aulas de ciencia del contexto puertorriqueno. Se auscultaron las practicas educativas que utilizan maestras consideradas constructivistas y la correspondencia de sus practicas educativas con los elementos esenciales de la didactica que proponen los teoricos de los planteamientos constructivistas. Se ausculto, ademas, a que vision del enfoque constructivista responden las expresiones de las maestras acerca de su practica educativa y como compara con su quehacer, a la luz de los elementos esenciales de las visiones constructivistas piagetiana, social y radical. Se utilizo el diseno de estudio descriptivo de caso multiple. El estudio se baso en entrevistas a profundidad, revision de documentos y observacion no participativa a la sala de clases. El contexto fueron tres escuelas publicas de la Region Educativa de San Juan, una elemental, una intermedia y una superior. Los resultados confirmaron que la transicion hacia el enfoque constructivista es un proceso que toma tiempo, dedicacion y la participacion en adiestramientos y readiestramientos acerca del nuevo enfoque. Las maestras coinciden en la mayoria de las practicas educativas que utilizan para implantar el enfoque constructivista de ensenanza y difieren en algunas debido, probablemente, a que han tenido que adaptarlas a los correspondientes niveles de ensenanza: elemental, intermedio y superior. Dos de las maestras planifican por conceptos generadores, mientras que una de ellas planifica siguiendo la guia que recibe del Departamento de Educacion. Difieren ademas, en el enfasis que confieren al inquirir cientifico. Con relacion a la correspondencia entre la vision manifestada por las maestras a la luz de las visiones piagetiana, social y radical, aparentemente, las preguntas del protocolo de entrevistas no lograron evocar la informacion con suficiente profundidad, por lo que la investigadora tuvo que inferir las visiones de las participantes basado en lo que estas manifestaron en su practica didactica. Dos maestras coinciden en una vision constructivista social de la construccion del conocimiento, del aprendizaje y de los metodos didacticos. La otra manifesto una vision constructivista piagetiana en el aprendizaje, los metodos didacticos y en la construccion del conocimiento. Se espera que este trabajo, ademas de promover los estudios de caso sobre el enfoque constructivista de ensenanza en el contexto puertorriqueno, sirva para que los maestros, que estan transformando su enfoque educativo de uno tradicional a uno constructivista, tengan una vision mas clara de la implantacion de este enfoque. Se espera ademas que sirva para que el Departamento de Educacion y sus programas de adiestramiento y readiestramiento en servicio, asi como las universidades y sus programas de preparacion de maestros, tomen en cuenta los resultados y recomendaciones de este estudio al revisar sus programas.

  14. [An updated checklist of Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) from the Colombian Andean coffee-growing region].

    PubMed

    Contreras-Gutiérrez, María Angélica; Vélez, Iván Darío; Porter, Charles; Uribe, Sandra Inés

    2014-01-01

    An updated list of phlebotomine sand flies species in coffee growing areas in the Colombian Andean region is presented. Fifty three species were reported from 12 departments. In addition, species distribution in the region was derived from specimens obtained during intensive field work in five departments, from previously published studies and from the taxonomic revision of specimens in the entomological collection of the Programa de Estudio y Control de Enfermedades Tropicales (PECET). The list includes the genera Brumptomyia (2 species), Lutzomyia (50 species) and Warileya (1 species). The updated list contains eleven new records in the region under study, including Lutzomyia panamensis , a species of medical importance not recorded previously in this zone. Eighteen of the species are considered to be anthropophilic, and many of them have been implicated in the transmission of leishmaniasis. PMID:25504134

  15. El círculo meridiano automático de San Fernando - San Juan. Sus primeros pasos en el hemisferio sur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallamaci, C. C.; Muiños, J. L.; Gallego, M.; Pérez, J. A.; Marmolejo, L.; Navarro, J. L.; Sedeño, J.; Vallejos, M.; Belizón, F.

    Se informa sobre el estado actual del Círculo Meridiano Automático de San Fernando-San Juan. El instrumento (Grubb-Parson, de 178mm de abertura y 2665 mm de distancia focal) es gemelo del que se encuentra en las Islas Canarias, y fue instalado durante los meses de julio y agosto de 1996 en la estación astronómica ``Dr. C.U.Cesco" (El Leoncito, Barreal), a unos 200 km de distancia de la ciudad de San Juan, merced a un Convenio de Cooperación Científica, firmado en 1994 entre el ROA (España) y el OAFA (Argentina). En la actualidad se está llevando a cabo un programa de prueba cuyos resultados preliminares muestran que el telescopio está en buenas condiciones para observar estrellas de hasta magnitud aproximada 14.5, con buenos errores de observación (<0.12" en ascensión recta y declinación).

  16. El Planetario Móvil de la Municipalidad de la ciudad de Córdoba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, F. E.; Campos, M.; Goldes, G. V.; Carranza, G. J.; Romero, R.; Juri, H. O.

    Se describen las características y operatoria del nuevo Planetario Móvil. Se trata de un equipamiento de propiedad de la Municipalidad de la Ciudad de Córdoba que es operado por personal y en el predio de la Universidad, en virtud de un convenio suscripto entre ambas instituciones. El planetario consta de una cúpula inflable y de un proyector con programas alternativos que incluyen temas de astronomía, geografía, biología y medio ambiente, entre otros. En la actualidad opera en las instalaciones del Pabellón Argentina de la Ciudad Universitaria y recibe delegaciones escolares de todo el territorio provincial. El Planetario Móvil es parte de un proyecto más amplio de divulgación científica en el cual interactúan la Universidad y el Municipio.

  17. Digitalización de diapositivas del Sol en H ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missio, H.; Montenegro, C.; Montenegro, R.

    El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido el de obtener imágenes digitalizadas de las diapositivas tomadas del Sol en luz de hidrógeno de la línea correspondiente a H?, y de esta manera llegar a convertir las mismas a un archivo digital para poder ser tratadas luego por computadora y poder contabilizar con exactitud, mediante un programa adecuado para tal fin, las zonas activas del Sol en la imagen digitalizada. En principio, para llegar a esto se pensó en la utilización de medios accesibles, y como detector se utilizó un fototransistor ubicado dentro de un soporte rectangular sobre dos ejes de desplazamiento X e Y. Se han obtenido con este procedimiento imágenes de buena calidad, construídas a partir de tres datos digitalizados en cada barrido que aportan la posición X e Y y la intensidad del pixel en ese punto indicada en 255 tonos de grises.

  18. Software Junctus: Joining Sign Language and Alphabetical Writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentini, Carla Beatris; Bisol, Cláudia A.; Dalla Santa, Cristiane

    The authors’ aim is to describe the workshops developed to test the use of an authorship program that allows the simultaneous use of sign language and alphabetical writing. The workshops were prepared and conducted by a Computer Science undergraduate, with the support of the Program of Students’ Integration and Mediation (Programa de Integração e Mediação do Acadêmico - PIMA) at the University of Caxias do Sul. Two sign language interpreters, two deaf students and one hearing student, who also teach at a special school for the deaf, participated in the workshops. The main characteristics of the software and the development of the workshops are presented with examples of educational projects created during their development. Possible improvements are also outlined.

  19. Test bench for PAUCam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce, R.; Cardiel-Sas, L.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Castilla, J.; de Vicente, J.; Díaz, C.; García, J.; Gaweda, J.; Jiménez, J.; Madrid, F.; Maiorino, M.; Sánchez, E.; Sevilla, I.; Troyano, I.

    2011-11-01

    PAU (Physics of the Accelerating Universe), was born as a collaboration project between several Spanish research centers(CIEMAT/IFAE/IEEC-CSIC/UAM) under the Programa Consolider Ingenio 2010. PAU's objective is to make a photometric galaxy survey optimized for Dark Energy studies. The project is building a wide field camera (18 CCDs) with a narrow band filter set, ranging between 4500 and 8500 Angstroms, and wide band filter set. As a previous step, detectors and filters must be tested and certificated, including the quantum efficiency, noise levels and transmittance. To carry out this task, we have prepared two test benches: one of them is at IFAE/IEEC-CSIC (Barcelona) and the other at CIEMAT (Madrid). Our poster describes the test benches' design and present some preliminary results we have obtained with our testing design.

  20. Abundancias químicas de las estrellas CP del grupo HgMn ? Leporis y 53 Tauri. II. Boro, Berilio, Carbono, Magnesio, Aluminio y Silicio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López García, Z.; Malaroda, S. M.; Faraggiana, R.

    Se determinan las abundancias químicas de los elementos más livianos presentes en dos estrellas CP del grupo HgMn, ? Lep y 53 Tau, utilizando espectros IUE de alta resolución y técnicas de cálculo de espectros sintéticos. Para el cálculo de las líneas se utiliza la lista mas completa de datos atómicos disponible y el programa SYNTHE. Para el cálculo de la abundancia de un elemento se comparan, para cada imagen, los perfiles observados del mayor número de líneas presentes con los perfiles calculados obtenidos por variación de las abundancias iniciales, reteniendo la abundancia para la cual el acuerdo entre las líneas observadas y calculadas es considerado visualmente el mejor. Los resultados obtenidos son comparados con los estimados por la teoría de la difusión.

  1. Navigator Approach to Improve Quality of Care for Vulnerable Populations in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rebeca; Ferreira-Pinto, João; Loza, Oralia

    2015-01-01

    For nearly 30 years, Programa Compañeros Inc (Compañeros) has worked in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, to ensure that vulnerable populations can exercise their rights to receive HIV and substance abuse prevention and treatment services. Compañeros staff has worked to ameliorate the negative results that limit access to care to the most vulnerable individuals: those who are poor, homeless, sex workers, addicted, and others whose life context put them at greater risk for being infected with HIV. With support from the MAC AIDS Foundation, Compañeros has expanded its capacity to deliver services to persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and to HIV-vulnerable populations. This short communication describes findings from an internal evaluation conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the MAC AIDS-funded navigator-based program implemented at Compañeros. PMID:26242198

  2. 2D THD and 3D TEHD analysis of large spindle supported thrust bearings with pins and double layer system used in the three gorges hydroelectric generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, B.; Wu, Z. D.; Wu, J. L.; Wang, L. Q.

    2012-11-01

    A 2D THD model and a 3DTEHD model for large spindle supported thrust bearings were set up and used to analyze the lubrication performance of the Three Gorges test thrust beating withpins and double layer system developed by Alstom Power. The finite difference method was employed to solve the THD model, and the thermal-elasticdeformations in the pad and runner were obtained by the finite element software ANSYS11.0. The data transfer between the THD model and ANSYS11.0 was carried out automatically by an interface program.A detailed comparison between the experimental results and numerical predictions by the two different modelsset up in this paper was carried out. Poor agreement has been found between the theoretical results obtained by 2D THD model and experimental data, while 3D TEHD provides fairly good agreement, confirming the importance of thermal effects and thermal-elastic deformations in both pad and runner.

  3. The Effective Research-Based Characteristics of Professional Development of the National Science Foundation's GK-12 Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormas, Peter C.; Barufaldi, James P.

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates the effective research-based characteristics of professional development (ERBCPD) of the National Science Foundation's GK-12 Program—a program which partners institutions of higher education with local school districts and places science, technology, engineering, and mathematics graduates in the K-12 classroom with teachers. Final evaluations of 26 GK-12 sites were analyzed with a priori and emergent content analyses, which included rigorous inter- and intra-reliability testing. The results of the a priori analysis demonstrated that the GK-12 program incorporates all ERBCPD, but to drastically varying degrees (76-5%). The a priori characteristics that appeared most often were "Treats Fellows as professionals," and "Professional development is on-going." The two emergent characteristics included "Improves communication skills" and "Has real world application."

  4. Curva de rotación de la Galaxia Eso 321-25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, R.; Carranza, G.; Ahumada, J.; Arreguine, V.

    Se presenta la curva de rotación de esta galaxia, generada a partir de espectros obtenidos con el Espectrógrafo Multifunción del telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre. El análisis de las curvas de velocidad radial obtenidas muestra que el núcleo no coincide con el centro de simetría de las mismas, lo que es consistente con el aspecto morfológico exhibido por la galaxia en imágenes de banda ancha. En estas últimas, el núcleo muestra una estructura peculiar y no coincidiría con el centro geométrico del disco aparente. Los flujos relativos de líneas (H? /[NII]? 6583 y [SII]? 6731/? 6716) indicarían niveles de excitación y densidad electrónica normales en regiones HII, aún en la zona nuclear. Este trabajo forma parte de un programa de estudio de cinemática, excitación y densidad electrónica del gas ionizado en galaxias peculiares del Atlas de Galaxias Australes de Sérsic.

  5. Ten years of "CHOICES" in Portugal: four generations, a real resilient opportunity.

    PubMed

    de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Simões, Celeste; Figueira, Isa; Calado, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    "Escolhas" ("Choices") is a Portuguese programme that aims to promote children and youth social inclusion in deprived socioeconomic contexts. The present study aims to identify internal and external resources perceived by children and adolescents that participated in the programme, to understand the impact in life contexts, and to identify the resources nominated by their family, project professionals and partners. A qualitative method was used in order to analyze 365 discourses from four different groups: children and adolescents (149), family (40), project professionals (126) and project partners (50). The model used was Benard's Conceptual Model for Resilience and Youth Development. The conclusions highlight the success and relevance of Programa Escolhas ("CHOICES") regarding the children and the adolescents and their families, by promoting social inclusion in deprived socioeconomic contexts. PMID:25585487

  6. Amplificadores en bandas para receptores de uso radioastronómicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bava, A. J.; Sanz, A. J.

    Está en curso de realización en el IAR un cabezal de receptor, en la frecuencia de 3.3 GHz. Este receptor, conjuntamente con los sistemas de procesamientos actuales del IAR y con los futuros proyectos de procesamientos, permitirán las observaciones de las líneas de la molécula de CH, de gran interés astrofísico, y las observaciones en el continuo que complementarán las realizadas en 1420 MHz. En este trabajo, se presentan el diseño de los amplificadores de bajo ruido, que van a conformar las primeras etapas del receptor de 3.3 GHz. El desarrollo de los mismos se realizó teniendo en cuenta que la temperatura del sistema, según consideraciones observacionales, deberá ser de 60oK. Por tal motivo se realizó un diseño de bajo ruido utilizando como elemento activo un HEMT. Tanto los métodos de diseño, como el circuito final, fueron realizados y comprobados con programas de simulación, permitiendo de esta forma obtener el amplificador deseado.

  7. [Regulation of continuing medical education].

    PubMed

    Lifhshitz, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Dentro de las etapas de la educación médica, sin duda la de educación continua es la más larga pues dura aproximadamente 30 años, aunque curiosamente es la que menos regulación tiene. Todas las etapas anteriores (pre-médica, licenciatura, posgrado) tienen su regulación por parte de escuelas y facultades de medicina, pero la educación continua suele ser de menor interés para estas entidades, que la abordan acaso de manera muy parcial y esporádica y no como un verdadero continuum de la educación que impartieron, aun cuando toda la formación por más excelsa que haya sido se puede malograr si no tiene mantenimiento. Pocas escuelas tienen un programa para que sus egresados se mantengan permanentemente actualizados y aptos. PMID:26581527

  8. Autoguía para el telescopio 2,15 mts de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aballay, J. A.; Casagrande, A. R.; Pereyra, P. F.; Marún, A. H.

    Se está desarrollando un sistema de autoguía para el telescopio de 2,15 mts. El mismo se realizará aprovechando el Offset Guider. Al ocular móvil de éste se vinculará alguna cámara digital (ST4-ST7-CH250) para lograr la visión del objeto. El funcionamiento del equipo será el siguiente: primero, dadas las coordenadas del objeto a observar, se tomarán las coordenadas del telescopio para que, a través de una base de datos, se determine un campo de objetos que sirvan para la cámara de visión, luego, la PC obtendrá el offset entre la estrella de observación y la estrella seleccionada como guía, este valor será trasladado a los motores que posicionarán en forma automática el ocular. Una vez que la estrella es visualizada en la cámara (monitor de PC ) se correrá el programa que guiará el telescopio automáticamente.

  9. [Toward a New Immunization Schedule in Spain, 2016 (Part 1)].

    PubMed

    Limia-Sánchez, Aurora; Andreu, María Mar; Torres de Mier, María de Viarce; Navarro-Alonso, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The immunization Schedule is a dynamic public health tool that has incorporated different changes over the years influenced by the epidemiologic situation and the scientific evidence. The Immunization Advisory Committee [Ponencia de Programa y Registro de Vacunaciones], as the Interterritorial Council scientific and technical advisory body, carries out assessments of different programmes and vaccines and proposes changes that after approval will be introduced in the Regions schedule. This article is divided into two parts presenting the rationale followed to propose a new schedule for the immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B and invasive disease by Haemophilus influenzae type b. This first part is focused in the reasoning to undertake the assessment, the review of the immunization policy and the impact of immunization in Spain, as well as a review of the immunization schedules in similar countries. PMID:26960253

  10. Sistema Planeta-Satélite. Simulación orbital y potenciales gravitatorios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, C.; Carrillo, M.

    Se presenta un programa (desarrollado en Quick Basic 4.5) que simula, en tres dimensiones, el movimiento orbital de un satélite (o luna) alrededor de un planeta, al tiempo que calcula y grafica, en un plano, el potencial gravitatorio del sistema en función de la distancia al planeta. Para la simulación orbital, se emplea la matriz de transformación entre el sistema del planeta y el plano orbital. Para el cálculo y graficación del potencial se aplica un desarrollo en serie hasta el segundo orden, que da cuenta del efecto de achatamiento de los polos, en caso de que éste exista. Las longitudes de los ejes del planeta, la masa de éste y del satélite, sus tamaños aparentes, y los parámetros orbitales son introducidos por el usuario.

  11. Using OpenEHR in SICTI an electronic health record system for critical medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filgueira, R.; Odriazola, A.; Simini, F.

    2007-11-01

    SICTI is a software tool for registering health records in critical medicine environments. Version 1.0 has been in use since 2003. The Biomedical Engineering Group (Núcleo de Ingeniería Biomédica), with support from the Technological Development Programme (Programa de Desarrollo Tecnológico), decided to develop a new version, to provide an aid for more critical medicine processes, based on a framework which would make the application domain change oriented. The team analyzed three alternatives: to develop an original product based on new research, to base the development on OpenEHR framework, or to use HL7 RIM as the reference model for SICTI. The team opted for OpenEHR. This work describes the use of OpenEHR, its strong and weak points, and states future work perspectives.

  12. PubMed

    Litewka, Sergio; Goodman, Kenneth; Braunschweiger, Y Paul

    2008-01-01

    El Programa CITI (Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative) es un curso basado en Internet y desarrollado por voluntarios, que brinda material educacional sobre protección de sujetos humanos en investigaciones biomédicas y de conducta, buenas prácticas clínicas, conducta responsable de la investigación y trato humanitario a animales de laboratorio. Es un esfuerzo conjunto del Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center y la Universidad de Miami.Con la colaboración de expertos locales, gran parte del contenido se ha adaptado para América Latina, se ha traducido al español y portugués y se han establecido acuerdos de colaboración con instituciones especializadas en bioética en Chile, Brasil, Costa Rica y Perú. Los autores presentan una metodología accesible para la capacitación en ética de la investigación y una justificación de su uso y difusión en América Latina. PMID:21687817

  13. Barreras y Facilitadores en el Reclutamiento y la Retención de Parejas Heterosexuales en Intervenciones Preventivas en VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Hernández, Alberto L.; Perez-Jimenez, David

    2012-01-01

    Compendio El Reclutamiento y la Retención (R&R) de participantes es fundamental para el éxito de estudios y para el desarrollo de intervenciones preventivas. El R&R de participantes determina la validez y efectividad de estos programas. En este trabajo examinamos algunos de los factores que facilitan y dificultan el R&R en los proyectos preventivos y ofrecemos algunas alternativas para mejorar los índices de R&R. Realizamos dos estudios, en el primero administramos el Instrumento de Informatión, Motivatión y Conductas-Español (IIMC-E) a un grupo de 26 parejas heterosexuales (52 participantes). En el segundo, entrevistamos a 5 parejas VIH discordantes (10 participantes). Encontramos que el 75% de los/las participantes indicó que su trabajo era una de las principales barreras que dificultan la asistencia a las actividades. Otras barreras son las responsabilidades laborales y familiares. Encontramos que la principal barrera fue el miedo a la revelación del estado serlógico. Los principales facilitadores del R&R son la coordinación adecuada y el seguimiento telefónico ofrecido por parte del personal del proyecto. Concluimos que en el desarrollo e implantación de programas de prevención el investigador/a debe tomar en cuenta la adaptación de aspectos logísticos como la disponibilidad y las necesidades particulares de los/las participantes. PMID:23264700

  14. Efectos combinados de la ampliación de la atención primaria de salud y de las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo sobre la mortalidad infantil en Brasil, 1998–2010*

    PubMed Central

    Guanais, Frederico C.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Examiné los efectos combinados del acceso a la atención primaria mediante el Programa de Salud Familiar (PSF) y las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo del Programa Bolsa Familia (PBF) sobre la mortalidad infantil posneonatal (MIPN) en Brasil. Métodos. Empleé un análisis ecológico longitudinal usando datos en panel de 4 583 municipios brasileños de 1998 al 2010, con 54 253 observaciones en total. Estimé modelos de regresión de efectos fijos por mínimos cuadrados ordinarios, con la tasa de MIPN como la variable dependiente y el PSF, el PBF y sus interacciones como las principales variables independientes de interés. Resultados. La asociación de una mayor cobertura del PSF con una menor tasa de MIPN se volvió más fuerte conforme aumentaba la cobertura del PBF. En los promedios de todas las demás variables, cuando la cobertura de PBF era 25%, la MIPN predicha fue 5,24 (intervalo de confianza [IC] de 95% = 4,95, 5,53) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 3,54 (IC de 95% = 2,77, 4,31) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Cuando la cobertura del PBF era de 60%, la MIPN predicha fue 4,65 (IC de 95% = 4,36, 4,94) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 1,38 (IC de 95% = 0,88, 1,89) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Conclusiones. El efecto del PSF depende de la ampliación del PBF. Para las poblaciones empobrecidas y subatendidas, la combinación de intervenciones tanto del lado de la oferta como del lado de la demanda podría ser necesaria para mejorar los resultados en salud.

  15. On Ensino de Astronomia nas Cidades de Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, R. Z.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2007-08-01

    Apesar da astronomia ser um dos temas indicados pelos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais, observa-se que poucas mudanças ocorreram desde a implementação do mesmo em sala de aula. A presente pesquisa diz respeito sobre como os tópicos de astronomia estão sendo abordados pelos professores no ensino médio. Optou-se por aplicar um questionário com os professores que ministram a disciplina de física. Os mesmos trabalham em escolas estaduais situadas nas cidades de Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra, ambas subordinadas a Diretoria de Ensino de Mauá, no Estado de São Paulo. O questionário foi aplicado durante o 2° semestre de 2006. Até o momento os resultados são preliminares. Dos 82,0% dos professores que responderam ao questionário no município de Rio Grande da Serra, 66,7% não aplicaram nenhum tópico de astronomia, 77,8% não utilizaram qualquer tipo de programa computacional, 66,7% não utilizaram laboratório, que 77,8% nunca levaram os alunos a museus e ou planetários e que 66,7% não indicaram qualquer tipo de revista ou livro sobre astronomia aos seus alunos. No município de Ribeirão Pires, 53,3% dos professores responderam ao questionário, destes 75,0% não aplicaram nenhum tópico de astronomia, 93,8% não utilizaram qualquer tipo de programa computacional, 75,0% não utilizaram laboratório, 81,3% nunca levaram os alunos a museus e ou planetário e 56,3% não indicaram qualquer tipo de revista ou livro sobre astronomia ao seus alunos. Apesar da maioria dos professores reconhecerem que o conteúdo de astronomia influi na formação do jovem, os mesmos não incluem o tema em seus planejamentos escolares.

  16. OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

  17. Projeto do sistema anti-ressonante da fiação dos transdutores para o detector Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, S. J.., Jr.; Melo, J. L.

    2003-08-01

    O detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg está sendo projetado e construído pelo grupo Gráviton. Sua construção está ocorrendo no Laboratório de Estado Sólido e Baixas Temperaturas (LESBT) da Universidade de São Paulo, na cidade de São Paulo. Esse detector possui uma massa ressonante esférica de cobre-alumínio, com 65 cm de diâmetro, pesando aproximadamente 1150 Kg, suspensa por um sistema de isolamento vibracional, que se encontra em fase de testes preliminares. A real eficácia desse sistema, entretanto, só poderá ser comprovada quando o detector estiver aparelhado com, pelo menos, um transdutor eletromecânico de altíssima sensibilidade acoplado à massa ressonante. Neste momento, não só este sistema de isolamento vibracional será posto em teste, como o do projeto da fiação que transporta os sinais de microondas até os transdutores e destes para a pré-amplificação. Apesar dessa fiação ter sido projetada para não apresentar nenhum contato com a superfície esférica da antena, de maneira a não haver nenhuma transmissão de ruído vibracional do laboratório para esta, deve-se minimizar o ruído microfônico produzido nessa fiação por oscilações mecânicas, uma vez que ela não utiliza nenhum sistema de isolamento vibracional. Com o intuito de resolver este problema, projetamos uma estrutura, formada por pequenos cilindros conectados por barras, a qual não terá nenhuma ressonância mecânica na faixa de freqüências de interesse para detecção (3000 - 3400 Hz). Desta forma, as vibrações nessa faixa não serão amplificadas. O projeto foi feito usando iterativamente, de maneira a otimizar os resultados obtidos, o programa de elementos finitos Msc/Nastran. Através de simulações feitas neste programa, determinamos os parâmetros geométricos ideais a serem utilizados, os quais proporcionam a maior região espectral de interesse livre de ressonâncias.

  18. Comportamiento del Helio en estrellas químicamente peculiares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaroda, S. M.; López García, Z.; Leone, F.; Catalano, F.

    Las estrellas químicamente peculiares (CP) se caracterizan por tener deficiencias y sobreabundancias de algunos elementos químicos de hasta 106 veces la abundancia solar. Además presentan variaciones en las líneas espectrales. Se piensa que ello se debe a que los campos magnéticos presentes en este tipo de estrellas son principalmente dipolares, con un eje de simetría diferente del eje de rotación. La distribución de los elementos sobreabundantes y deficientes no es homogénea sobre la superficie estelar y las variaciones observadas serían una consecuencia directa de la rotación estelar. Entre los elementos con abundancia anómala se encuentra el Helio, cuyas líneas tienen intensidades que no son consistentes con una abundancia normal, que no puede ser determinada del modo usual, o sea, considerando una atmósfera con composición solar. Con el fin de determinar la abundancia de este elemento, se inició un estudio de estrellas anómalas de Helio, Hew y He strong. Además se determinarán las abundancias de otros elementos anómalos como ser el Si, Cr, Mg, Mn y Fe. Las mismas se determinan del modo tradicional, o sea: a) medida de los anchos equivalentes de las líneas de los distintos elementos analizados; b) adopción de la temperatura efectiva, gravedad y abundancia del Helio; c) cálculo del modelo de atmósfera d) comparación con las observaciones y reinicio de un proceso iterativo hasta lograr un acuerdo entre todos los parámetros analizados. Las observaciones se llevaron a cabo en el Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito. Se observaron setenta y ocho estrellas anómalas de Helio. En este momento se está procediendo a calcular las abundancias correspondientes a los distintos elementos químicos. Para ello se hace uso de los modelos de Kurucz, ATLAS9. Los cálculos NLTE de las líneas de Helio se llevan a cabo con el programa MULTI y se compararán con los realizados con el programa WIDTH9 de Kurucz (LTE), con el objeto de resaltar la importancia de los efectos NLTE.

  19. Modelagem do vento e da fotosfera de AG Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groh, J. H.; Damineli, A.

    2003-08-01

    A trajetória evolutiva das estrelas de alta massa depende fortemente de suas taxas de perda de massa. Apesar do rápido progresso no estudo destas estrelas, a taxa de perda de massa e outros parâmetros físicos básicos, como a temperatura superficial e a velocidade terminal do vento ainda não estão bem determinados. Isto ocorre devido à presença de ventos irregulares, rápidos e fortes ao redor destas estrelas, tornando a interpretação dos seus espectros uma tarefa difícil. Assim, a modelagem do vento e da fotosfera dessas estrelas está sendo cada vez mais usada para obter tais parâmetros a partir dos espectros. O aumento da taxa de perda de massa durante a fase LBV (Variáveis Luminosas Azuis), comparado com outros tipos de estrelas, tem sido atribuído a instabilidades do tipo S Doradus. Dispomos de uma base de dados espectroscópicos cobrindo 22 anos de observações de AG Carinae, incluindo um ciclo S Doradus completo, com espectros CCD em alta resolução na faixa óptica e infravermelha. Utilizamos o programa desenvolvido por Schmutz (1997) para uma análise preliminar desse ciclo, obtendo a taxa de perda de massa a partir da linha do Ha. Não existe uma correlação clara da taxa de perda de massa com mudanças da temperatura efetiva, do raio da estrela e do fluxo na banda V. A estrela atingiu seu mínimo fotométrico (raio mínimo) em 1990 e o máximo fotométrico (raio máximo) em 1995, enquanto que o fluxo máximo da linha do Ha ocorreu em 1996. Além disso a taxa de perda de massa não segue esse ciclo, contrariamente às idéias correntes. Para fazer um modelo mais realista estamos usando o programa CMFGEN (Hillier & Miller), que trata a fotosfera e o vento estelar de forma consistente, considerando a radiação fora do equilíbrio termodinâmico (NLTE) e com blanketting total de linhas. Simulamos o espectro de AG Carinae em duas épocas extremas do ciclo S Dor para testar os resultados obtidos com o modelo mais simplificado.

  20. Sterile insect technique: A model for dose optimisation for improved sterile insect quality

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, A.

    2007-03-15

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly pest control technique with application in the area-wide integrated control of key pests, including the suppression or elimination of introduced populations and the exclusion of new introductions. Reproductive sterility is normally induced by ionizing radiation, a convenient and consistent method that maintains a reasonable degree of competitiveness in the released insects. The cost and effectiveness of a control program integrating the SIT depend on the balance between sterility and competitiveness, but it appears that current operational programs with an SIT component are not achieving an appropriate balance. In this paper we discuss optimization of the sterilization process and present a simple model and procedure for determining the optimum dose. (author) [Spanish] La tecnica de insecto esteril (TIE) es una tecnologia de control de plagas favorable para el medio ambiente con una aplicacion de un control integrado de plagas claves para toda la area, incluyendo la supresion o eliminacion de poblaciones introducidas y la exclusion de nuevas introducciones. La esterilidad reproductiva es normalmente inducida por radiacion ionizada, un metodo conveniente y consistente que mantiene un grado razonable para la capacidad de competencia en insectos liberados. El costo y la eficacia de un programa de control que incluye TIE dependen en tener un balance entre la esterilidad y la capacidad para competir, pero parece que los programas operacionales corrientes con TIS como un componente no estan logrando el tener un balance apropiado. En esta publicacion, nosotros discutimos la optimizacion del proceso de esterilizacion y presentamos un modelo y procedimiento sencillos para determinar la dosis optima. (author)

  1. Acceptability of an Embodied Conversational Agent-based Computer Application for Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Kristen J.; Vázquez-Otero, Coralia; Bredice, Marissa; Meade, Cathy D.; Chaet, Alexis; Rivera, Maria I.; Arroyo, Gloria; Proctor, Sara K.; Barnes, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    There are few Spanish language interactive, technology-driven health education programs. Objectives of this feasibility study were to: 1) learn more about computer and technology usage among Hispanic women living in a rural community; and 2) evaluate acceptability of the concept of using an embodied conversational agent (ECA) computer application among this population. A survey about computer usage history and interest in computers was administered to a convenience sample of 26 women. A sample video prototype of a hospital discharge ECA was administered followed by questions to gauge opinion about the ECA. Data indicate women exhibited both a high level of computer experience and enthusiasm for the ECA. Feedback from community is essential to ensure equity in state of the art dissemination of health information. Hay algunos programas interactivos en español que usan la tecnología para educar sobre la salud. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: 1) aprender más sobre el uso de computadoras y tecnología entre mujeres Hispanas que viven en comunidades rurales y 2) evaluar la aceptabilidad del concepto de usar un programa de computadora utilizando un agente de conversación encarnado (ECA) en esta población. Se administro una encuesta sobre el historial de uso y del interés de aprender sobre computadoras fue a 26 mujeres por muestreo de conveniencia. Un ejemplo del prototipo ECA en forma de video de un alta hospitalaria fue administrado y fue seguido por preguntas sobre la opinión que tenían del ECA. Los datos indican que las mujeres mostraron un alto nivel de experiencia con las computadoras y un alto nivel de entusiasmo sobre el ECA. La retroalimentación de la comunidad es esencial para asegurar equidad en la diseminación de información sobre la salud con tecnología de punta. PMID:26671558

  2. Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-01-01

    The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households’ ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. El Impacto de los Pagos por Servicios Ambientales y Áreas Protegidas sobre la Subsistencia Local y la Conservación del Bosque en el Norte de Camboya Resumen Los impactos potenciales de los pagos por servicios ambientales (PSA) y áreas protegidas (APs) sobre los resultados ambientales y las subsistencias locales en los países en desarrollo son polémicos y se han debatido ampliamente. La evidencia disponible es escasa; ha habido pocas evaluaciones rigurosas de los impactos ambientales y sociales de las APs y particularmente los PSA. Medimos el impacto sobre los bosques y el bienestar humano en tres diferentes programas de PSA que se llevan a cabo dentro de dos APs en el norte de Camboya usando un panel de aldeas de intervención y controles emparejados. Tanto los PSA como las APs brindaron resultados ambientales adicionales en relación a los contrafácticos, esto quiere decir que redujeron las tasas de deforestación significativamente en relación a los controles. Las áreas protegidas incrementaron el acceso seguro a los recursos del suelo y el bosque para las viviendas locales, beneficiando a los usuarios de los recursos del bosque pero restringiendo la habilidad de las viviendas para expandirse y diversificar su agricultura. Los impactos de los pagos por servicios ambientales sobre el bienestar de las viviendas estuvieron relacionados con la magnitud de los pagos proporcionados. Los dos programas de PSA de mayor paga y con conexión al mercado tuvieron impactos positivos significativos, mientras que un programa de menor paga con el objetivo de proteger a la biodiversidad no tuvo un efecto detectable sobre las viviendas, a pesar de sus resultados ambientales positivos. Las viviendas que se inscribieron a los programas de PSA con mayor paga, sin embargo, necesitaban típicamente más bienes capitales, por lo que eran menos pobres y tenían mayor seguridad alimentaria que otros aldeanos. Por esto, mientras los impactos de las APs sobre el bienestar de las viviendas fueron limitados en general y variaron dependiendo de las estrategias de subsistencia, los programas de PSA tuvieron impactos positivos significativos sobre las viviendas para aquellos que podían costear participar. Nuestros resultados son congruentes con las teorías de que los PSA, cuando se designan apropiadamente, pueden ser una herramienta poderosa y novedosa para obtener objetivos de conservación mientras se beneficia a la gente local. PMID:25492724

  3. Quality control method to measure predator evasion in wild and mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrichs, M.; Wornoayporn, V.; Hendrichs, J.

    2007-03-15

    Sterile male insects, mass-reared and released as part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, must survive long enough in the field to mature sexually and compete effectively with wild males for wild females. An often reported problem in Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) SIT programs is that numbers of released sterile males decrease rapidly in the field for various reasons, including losses to different types of predators. This is a serious issue in view that most operational programs release sterile flies at an age when they are still immature. Previous field and field-cage tests have confirmed that flies of laboratory strains are less able to evade predators than wild flies. Such tests involve, however, considerable manipulation and observation of predators and are therefore not suitable for routine measurements of predator evasion. Here we describe a simple quality control method with aspirators to measure agility in medflies and show that this parameter is related to the capacity of flies to evade predators. Although further standardization of the test is necessary to allow more accurate inter-strain comparisons, results confirm the relevance of measuring predator evasion in mass-reared medfly strains. Besides being a measure of this sterile male quality parameter, the described method could be used for the systematic selection of strains with a higher capacity for predator evasion. (author) [Spanish] Insectos machos esteriles criados en forma masiva para ser liberados en programas que utilizan la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE), tienen que tener la capacidad de sobrevivir en el campo el tiempo necesario para poder madurar sexualmente y competir efectivamente con los machos silvestres por hembras silvestres. Un problema frecuentemente reportado por dichos programas de la mosca del Mediterraneo, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), es que el numero de machos esteriles de laboratorio liberados en el campo, decrecen rapidamente por varias razones, incluyendo perdidas debidas a diferentes tipos de depredadores. Estudios anteriores conducidos en el campo, y en jaulas de campo, han confirmado que las cepas de machos de laboratorio tienen menos capacidad de evadir depredadores que los machos silvestres. Estos estudios involucran, sin embargo, una considerable cantidad de manipulacion y observacion de depredadores, por lo que no son adecuados para ser usados como medidas rutinarias en los programas de cria masiva. Aqui describimos un metodo sencillo de control de calidad usando aspiradores para medir agilidad en la mosca del Mediterraneo y mostramos que este parametro esta relacionado a la capacidad de la moscas a evadir a depredadores. Aunque aun es necesario refinar la estandarizacion de este metodo para permitir la comparacion entre cepas, los resultados confirman la importancia de tener un metodo rutinario para medir la capacidad de evasion de depredadores en cepas de cria de laboratorio de la mosca del Mediterraneo. Ademas de medir este parametro de control de calidad de los machos esteriles, el metodo descrito podria tambien ser usado para la seleccion sistematica de cepas con una mayor capacidad de evasion de depredadores. (author)

  4. Quality management systems for fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile insect technique

    SciTech Connect

    Caceres, C.; Robinson, A.; Shelly, T.; Hendrichs, J.

    2007-03-15

    The papers presented in this issue are focused on developing and validating procedures to improve the overall quality of sterile fruit flies for use in area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. The group was coordinated and partially funded by the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, under a five-year Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Quality Assurance in Mass-Reared and Released Fruit Flies for Use in SIT Programmes'. Participants in the CRP from 16 countries came from both basic and applied fields of expertise to ensure that appropriate and relevant procedures were developed. A variety of studies was undertaken to develop protocols to assess strain compatibility and to improve colonization procedures and strain management. Specific studies addressed issues related to insect nutrition, irradiation protocols, field dispersal and survival, field cage behavior assessments, and enhancement of mating competitiveness. The main objective was to increase the efficiency of operational fruit fly programs using sterile insects and to reduce their cost. Many of the protocols developed or improved during the CRP will be incorporated into the international quality control manual for sterile tephritid fruit flies, standardizing key components of the production, sterilization, shipment, handling, and release of sterile insects. (author) [Spanish] Los articulos presentados en este numero se enfocan en el desarrollo y la validacion de procedimientos para mejorar la calidad total de moscas de las frutas esteriles para su uso en programas de manejo integrado de plagas en donde la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE) es uno de los componentes clave. El grupo fue coordinado y parcialmente financiado por la Division Conjunta de Tecnicas Nucleares para la Alimentacion y la Agricultura de la FAO/OIEA, Viena, Austria, por un periodo de cinco anos bajo el proyecto de Investigacion Coordinada (PIC) sobre 'el Aseguramiento de la Calidad de Moscas de las Frutas Criadas y Liberadas para su Uso en Programas de TIE'. Los participantes en el PIC representan 16 paises con experiencia en campos de investigacion basica y aplicada. Para asegurar que los procedimientos desarrollados fueran apropiados y pertinentes, se realizaron una variedad de estudios para el desarrollo de protocolos para evaluar la compatibilidad y para mejorar los procedimientos de colonizacion y manejo de cepas salvajes. Estudios especificos trataron asuntos relacionados con la nutricion de insectos, los protocolos de irradiacion, la dispersion y supervivencia en el campo, evaluacion del comportamiento en jaulas de campo, y el mejoramiento de la competitividad sexual. Los objetivos fundamentales fueron el aumentar la eficiencia y reducir los costos de los programas operacionales de control de moscas de las frutas donde TIE es utilizada. Muchos de los protocolos desarrollados o mejorados durante el PIC seran incorporados en el Manual Internacional de Control de Calidad para Moscas Estriles de la familia Tephritidae, para estandarizar componentes claves como la produccion, esterilizacion, envio, manejo y liberacion de insectos esteriles. (author)

  5. Astronomy in Science Textbooks: An Analysis of Pnld 2008. (Spanish Title: Astronomía en los Libros de Ciencia: un Análisis del Pnld 2008.) Astronomia Nos Livros Didáticos de Ciências: Uma Análise do Pnld 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Patrícia; Quintanilha Vaz de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    The importance of the textbooks in classrooms is revealed when studies are pointing that these pedagogical sources are, most of the times, the only source used by the elementary school teachers when preparing their Science lessons. When we analyzed the Astronomy contents in the textbooks approved by the Brazilian Textbook Program 2008 and which, in theory, are the best available in the Brazilian editorial market, we examined some categories in the 2008 Textbook Guide. This research characterizes the frequency of Astronomical contents appearing in the texts, in the pictures, and in the hands-on activities. Additionally, it describes some misconceptions and presents additional information on the collections. La importancia de los libros de texto en las aulas se pone de manifiesto cuando los estudios indican que este recurso educativo es a menudo la única fuente de consulta utilizada por el profesor de ciencias de la escuela primaria para preparar sus lecciones. Cuando analizamos el contenido presente en los libros de texto de astronomía aprobados por el Programa Nacional de Libros de Texto de 2008 y que, en teoría, son los mejores libros disponibles en el mercado editorial brasileño, buscamos examinar algunas categorías que figuran en los libros de texto de la Guía de Libros Didácticos de 2008. El estudio caracteriza la frecuencia del contenido de Astronomía en el texto, en las figuras, y en las actividades de experimentación. También describe algunos errores conceptuales y presenta un conjunto de información adicional sobre las colecciones. A importância dos livros didáticos nas salas de aula revela-se quando estudos apontam que este recurso pedagógico é, muitas vezes, a única fonte de consulta utilizada pelo professor de Ciências do ensino fundamental para a preparação de suas aulas. Quando analisamos os conteúdos de Astronomia presentes nos livros didáticos aprovados no Programa Nacional do Livro Didático de 2008 e que, teoricamente, são os melhores livros disponíveis no mercado editorial brasileiro, buscamos esquadrinhar algumas categorias constantes no Guia de Livros Didáticos de 2008. A pesquisa caracteriza a freqüência do conteúdo de Astronomia no texto, nas figuras e nas atividades de experimentação. Além disso, descreve alguns erros conceituais e apresenta um conjunto de informações adicionais sobre as coleções.

  6. La salud en personas con discapacidad intelectual en España: estudio europeo POMONA-II

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Leal, Rafael; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Gutiérrez-Colosía, Mencía Ruiz; Nadal, Margarida; Novell-Alsina, Ramón; Martorell, Almudena; González-Gordón, Rodrigo G.; Mérida-Gutiérrez, M. Reyes; Ángel, Silvia; Milagrosa-Tejonero, Luisa; Rodríguez, Alicia; García-Gutiérrez, Juan C.; Pérez-Vicente, Amado; García-Ibáñez, José; Aguilera-Inés, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Introducción Estudios internacionales demuestran que existe un patrón diferenciado de salud y una disparidad en la atención sanitaria entre personas con discapacidad intelectual (DI) y población general. Objetivo Obtener datos sobre el estado de salud de las personas con DI y compararlos con datos de población general. Pacientes y métodos Se utilizó el conjunto de indicadores de salud P15 en una muestra de 111 sujetos con DI. Los datos de salud encontrados se compararon según el tipo de residencia de los sujetos y se utilizó la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2006 para comparar estos datos con los de la población general. Resultados La muestra con DI presentó 25 veces más casos de epilepsia y el doble de obesidad. Un 20% presentó dolor bucal, y existió una alta presencia de problemas sensoriales, de movilidad y psicosis. Sin embargo, encontramos una baja presencia de patologías como la diabetes, la hipertensión, la osteoartritis y la osteoporosis. También presentaron una menor participación en programas de prevención y promoción de la salud, un mayor número de ingresos hospitalarios y un uso menor de los servicios de urgencia. Conclusiones El patrón de salud de las personas con DI difiere del de la población general, y éstas realizan un uso distinto de los servicios sanitarios. Es importante el desarrollo de programas de promoción de salud y de formación profesional específicamente diseñados para la atención de personas con DI, así como la implementación de encuestas de salud que incluyan datos sobre esta población. PMID:21948011

  7. Invertebrate fauna associated with Torpedograss, Panicum repens (Cyperales: Poaceae), in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, and prospects for biological control

    SciTech Connect

    Cuda, J.P.; Dunford, J.C.; Leavengood, J.M. Jr.

    2007-03-15

    Torpedograss, Panicum repens L., is an adventive, rhizomatous grass species that has become an invasive weed of terrestrial, wetland, and aquatic environments in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Until recently, strategies for controlling torpedograss in the USA have focused almost exclusively on mechanical and chemical methods, either alone or in combination, with varied results. A survey of the arthropods and nematodes currently associated with the plant in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, was conducted as part of a feasibility study to determine whether torpedograss is an appropriate target for a classical biological control program. Overall, approximately 4,000 arthropods and 400 nematode specimens were collected. Sweep, clipped vegetation, and soil core samples were dominated by representatives of the arthropod orders Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Acari. Lesion nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus were commonly associated with the roots of torpedograss. None of the organisms collected were torpedograss specialists. Although classical biological control of torpedograss is feasible based on the extent of the infestation, economic losses, resistance to conventional controls, and the report of a potentially host specific natural enemy in India, the botanical position of this grass weed will require a formal risk assessment before proceeding with a classical biological control program. (author) [Spanish] La conota, Panicum repens L., es una especie foranea de pasto que produce rizomas que ha convertido en ser una maleza invasora de ambientes terrestres, pantanosos y acuaticos en regiones tropicales y subtropicales en todo el mundo. Hasta hace un tiempo reciente, las estrategias para controlar conota en los EEUU eran enfocadas casi exclusivamente en los metodos mecanicos y quimicos, solos o en combinacion, con resultados variables. Un muestreo de los artropodos y nematodos asociados corrientemente con esta planta en el Lago de Okeechobee, Florida, fue realizado como parte de un estudio de factibilidad para determinar si conota es una candidata apropiada para un programa de control biologico clasico. En general, especimenes de aproximadamente unos 4,000 artropodos y unos 400 nematodos fueron recolectados. Muestras recolectadas pasando una red sobre vegetacion mezclada, cortando la vegetacion y tomando centros del suelo fueron dominados por representantes de artropodos de los ordenes de Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, y Acari. Nematodos en el genero Pratylenchus, que causan lesiones sobre tejido, fueron asociados regularmente con las raices de conota. Ninguno de los organismos recolectados eran especialistas sobre conota. Aunque el control biologico clasico de la conota es factible basado sobre la magnitud de la infestacion, las perdidas economicas, la resistencia hacia los metodos de control convencionales y el informe en la India de un posible enemigo natural especifico a esta planta, la posicion botanica de este pasto maleza requiere una evaluacion de riesgo economico formal antes de continuar con un programa de control biologico clasico. (author)

  8. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Delgado Floody, Pedro; Caamaño Navarrete, Felipe; Osorio Poblete, Aldo; Jerez Mayorga, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la obesidad mórbida disminuye considerablemente la esperanza y la calidad de vida.Objetivo: el objetivo del estudio fue determinar los efectos del ejercicio físico con apoyo multidisciplinar sobre el estado nutricional, la capacidad cardiorrespiratoria y la presión arterial de obesos mórbidos candidatos a cirugía a bariátrica.Material y métodos: doce mujeres y un hombre entre 18 y 60 años candidatos a cirugía bariátrica, 10 con obesidad mórbida y 3 con obesidad y comorbilidades, fueron sometidos a un programa de ejercicio físico con educación nutricional y apoyo psicológico durante 5 meses. Peso corporal, índice de masa corporal (IMC), contorno de cintura (CC), capacidad cardiorrespiratoria, presión arterial sistólica y diastólica fueron evaluados antes y posterior a la intervención.Resultados: el promedio de edad de los participantes de la investigación fue de 49,92 años, el de altura fue 1,62 m. Todas las variables de estudio mejoraron significativamente (p < 0,05): peso (p = 0,000), IMC (p = 0,000), CC (p = 0,005), capacidad cardiorrespiratoria (p = 0,009), presión sistólica (p = 0,006) y presión arterial diastólica (p = 0,010). La capacidad cardiorrespiratoria aumentó un 9,17%, la presión arterial diastólica y sistólica disminuyeron 5,16% y 7,68% respectivamente. El IMC disminuyó un 8,39% y el CC un 6,63%. Conclusiones: el programa mejoró los niveles de presión arterial sistólica y diastólica y la capacidad cardiorrespiratoria, esto se vio complementado por la pérdida de peso significativa en los participantes de esta investigación. El ejercicio físico con apoyo multidisciplinar demuestra beneficios para el tratamiento preoperatorio produciendo adaptaciones favorables en los factores de riesgo cardiovascular. PMID:27019243

  9. Development of a sharp interface model that simulates coastal aquifer flow with the coupled use of GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemitzi, Alexandra; Tolikas, Demetrios

    A simulation program, which works seamlessly with GIS and simulates flows in coastal aquifers, is presented in the present paper. The model is based on the Galerkin finite element discretization scheme and it simulates both steady and transient freshwater and saltwater flow, assuming that the two fluids are separated by a sharp interface. The model has been verified in simple cases where analytical solutions exist. The simulation program works as a tool of the GIS program, which is the main database that stores and manages all the necessary data. The combined use of the simulation and the GIS program forms an integrated management tool offering a simpler way of simulating and studying saline intrusion in coastal aquifers. Application of the model to the Yermasogia aquifer illustrates the coupled use of modeling and GIS techniques for the examination of regional coastal aquifer systems. Pour étudier un système aquifère côtier, nous avons développé un modèle aux éléments finis en quasi 3-D qui simule les écoulements d'eau douce et d'eau salée en régime aussi bien permanent que transitoire. Les équations qui les régissent sont discrétisées par un schéma de discrétisation de Garlekin aux éléments finis. Le modèle a été vérifié dans des cas simples où il existe des solutions analytiques. Toutes les données nécessaires sont introduites et gérées grâce à un logiciel de gestion de SIG. Le programme de simulation est utilisé comme un outil du logiciel de SIG, constituant ainsi un outil de gestion intégrée dont le but est de simuler et d'étudier l'intrusion saline dans les aquifères côtiers. L'application du modèle à l'aquifère de Yermasogia illustre l'utilisation couplée de la modélisation et des techniques de SIG pour l'étude des systèmes aquifères côtiers régionaux. Se ha desarrollado un modelo casi tridimensional de elementos finitos para simular el flujo de agua dulce y salada, tanto en régimen estacionario como en transitorio, en sistemas acuíferos costeros, bajo la hipótesis de separación por medio de una interfaz abrupta. Las ecuaciones del modelo han sido discretizadas mediante un esquema de Galerkin de discretización en elementos finitos. El modelo ha sido verificado en casos sencillos para los que existe solución analítica. Todos los datos necesarios se introducen y gestionan con un Sistema de Información Geográfica [SIG] por ordenador. El programa de simulación forma parte del programa de SIG, constituyendo una herramienta integrada de gestión para estudiar la intrusión salina en acuíferos costeros. La aplicación del modelo al acuífero de Yermasogia ilustra el uso acoplado de las técnicas de modelación y de SIG con el fin de examinar sistemas acuíferos costeros a escala regional.

  10. Tendências de teses e dissertações sobre ensino de astronomia no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Megid Neto, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia. Teve por objetivo identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. O procedimento inicial consistiu de um levantamento bibliográfico junto ao Centro de Documentação em Ensino de Ciências (CEDOC) da Faculdade de Educação da UNICAMP e ao Banco de Teses da CAPES disponível na Internet. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: instituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Deste conjunto de pesquisas, 13 (81,3%) delas foram defendidas a partir da segunda metade dos anos 90, indicando uma preocupação mais recente com temas relativos ao ensino de Astronomia no conjunto da produção acadêmica em programas de pós-graduação no Brasil. Verificou-se que 43,7% dos trabalhos foram produzidas na USP e 18,8% na UNICAMP. Quanto ao nível escolar abrangido nos estudos, predominaram os estudos direcionados ao Ensino Fundamental de 5a a 8a séries (62,5%). No que diz respeito ao foco temático das pesquisas, as principais tendências voltaram-se: 56,3% para Conteúdo e Método; 43,8% para Concepções do Professor; 37,5% para Currículo e Programas; 37,5% para Recursos Didáticos. Quanto ao gênero de trabalho acadêmico, verificou-se que 43,8% são de Pesquisa Experimental e 31,3% de Pesquisa de Análise de Conteúdo. Estudos de revisão bibliográfica como este visam colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica em determinada área, traçando algumas de suas tendências. Ao mesmo tempo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as suas contribuições para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  11. Cómo aumentar la actividad física de los niños durante el período del recreo en las escuelas

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, David

    2014-01-01

    Objetivos. Analizamos si la participación de las escuelas en el Programa de Mejoramiento del Recreo (PMR) en la primavera del año 2011 estuvo asociada a tasas más altas de actividad física intensa en los niños. Métodos. En el PMR, un coordinador dirige a los niños para que practiquen juegos adecuados para la edad a fin de aumentar su nivel de actividad física. Durante el recreo en 25 escuelas primarias públicas de la ciudad de Nueva York (15 participantes en el PMR, 10 no participantes en el PMR) los investigadores observaron algunas áreas predeterminadas (n = 1 339 observaciones) y registraron el número de niños que estaban sedentarios, caminando o muy activos. Resultados. Tras el análisis estadístico con múltiples variables se encontró que la participación en el PMR era una variable predictiva significativa (P = 0,027) de la tasa de actividad física intensa (porcentaje de niños muy activos en las áreas de observación) cuyas medias de los mínimos cuadrados fueron de 41% en las escuelas participantes en el PMR y de 27% en escuelas no participantes en el PMR. En las escuelas participantes en el PMR se siguió registrando una tasa significativamente superior incluso cuando el coordinador de juegos no estaba en el área de observación, lo que sugiere un cambio en la cultura del recreo en las escuelas que participan en este programa. Conclusiones. La tasa de actividad física intensa en las escuelas participantes en el PMR fue 14 puntos porcentuales (o 52%) superior a la tasa registrada en las escuelas no participantes en el PMR. Esta intervención de bajo costo podría ser un agregado valioso a las herramientas para combatir la obesidad infantil y podría valer la pena reproducirla en otros sitios. PMID:24899455

  12. EDITORIAL: Special Issue: CAMOP MOLEC XV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-01-01

    The advances in recent years in the field of molecular dynamics are numerous and impressive. In sophisticated experimental and theoretical studies it is nowadays possible to steer chemical reactions with quantum-number-prepared molecules, to study reaction products fully state-specifically, and to derive accurate potential energy surfaces with the goal of determining the pathways along which molecular interaction can take place. Both experimental and theoretical techniques have rapidly improved, and our understanding of the dynamical nature of chemical processes is continuously growing. In this special issue of CAMOP/Physica Scripta we have tried to present a snapshot of the state-of-the-art in the field of molecular dynamics. It contains a collection of papers submitted in association with the most recent MOLEC meeting (MOLEC XV) held in September 2004 in Nunspeet, The Netherlands. This biannual meeting started in 1976 in Trento and was subsequently organized in Brandbjerg Højskole (Denmark, 1978), Oxford (UK, 1980), Nijmegen (The Netherlands, 1982), Jerusalem (Israel, 1984), Aussois (France, 1986), Assissi (Italy, 1988), Bernkastel-Kues (Germany, 1990), Prague (Czech Republic, 1992), Salamanca (Spain, 1994), Nyborg Strand (Denmark, 1996), Bristol (UK, 1998), Jerusalem (Israel, 2000) and Istanbul (Turkey, 2002). Within the philosophy of CAMOP we have asked invited speakers to report on outstanding problems in their particular field. This comprises discussion of open questions, important applications, new theoretical and experimental approaches and also predictions of future developments. A good comment, in addition to being an authoritative contribution of an acknowledged expert, should also be readable by the non-expert and we have taken special care that the work presented here is introduced in an understandable way and has been placed within the context of accessible literature for the interested reader. The sequence of 16 papers that is presented in this issue is arranged according to three main topics that form a focus within the field and can be roughly summarized as induced chemical (intermolecular) dynamics, molecular spectroscopy/theory, and photo-induced uni-molecular (intramolecular) dynamics. The issue opens with a contribution by the MOLEC XV award winner Levine and his co-workers (the paper by Kornweitz et al) in which they speculate on the possibility of probing electronic rearrangement in a chemical collision using light emitted during the very collision. Banares and co-workers continue with an overview on what is and what is not understood about the dynamics of the `most simple reaction' H + H2 and prospects for future research of this prototypic system are presented. The effect of molecular structure on chemical dynamics is discussed by Pearce \\etal on the example of HCl originating from Cl atoms reacting with different organic ethers. Stereodynamical effects are discussed by Cappelletti and co-workers starting from collisional alignment in supersonic seeded molecular beams with applications ranging from (in)elastic events to selective surface scattering experiments. A laboratory controlled study of chemical reactions under interstellar conditions using temperature variable multi-electrode traps is reviewed by Gerlich and Smith. Eritt \\etal discuss a technique capable of studying the interaction of electrons with size selected molecular ions and results are presented for the electron detachment of Cn- and Aln-clusters. Ultrafast dynamical events at a conical intersection are discussed in a theoretical study by Burghardt et al and the experimental tools to study electron dynamics are presented by Vrakking in a contribution on direct and indirect methods to generate attoseconds. In four spectroscopic and theoretical contributions the latest findings are presented in interpreting and understanding complicated molecular spectra. Meerts and Smit introduce a powerful numerical assign and analysis method based upon genetic algorithms and its performance is demonstrated on the example of dense spectra of (complexed) aromatic species. Interaction potential surface calculations of rare gasses with halogens in van der Waals complexes are described by Delgado-Barrio and co-workers, and Tennyson discusses new theoretical techniques based on the use of the variational principle to guide the spectral assignment of complicated water spectra, e.g. at very high temperatures. Finally, Okumura and co-workers present NIR spectra of NO3 and in combination with new calculations these shed light on how to interpret vibronic couplings in this interesting system. The last section of this issue comprises fragmentation and photo-dissociation studies. Rubio-Lago et al discuss methods to produce high-density spin polarized hydrogen following photodissociation experiments. The photodissociation of HCl and Cl2 is taken as an example by Balint-Kurti et al to demonstrate how amplitudes and phases of the photofragmentation matrix elements are derived from experimental measurements. Directional dynamics in photodissociation processes and the derivation of molecular frame properties are discussed in detail by Van den Brom et al using laboratory oriented molecules. And the issue closes with a contribution by Chambreau et al on different reaction mechanisms in the photodissociation of formaldehyde into H2 and CO. Coming to the end of this editorial, we wish to thank all the authors who participated with their contributions in this issue. It shows what is possible nowadays in the field of molecular dynamics and where things are heading in the near future. We thank Physica Scripta for providing us with the platform for this Special Issue, and we wish you, dear reader, many new insights! Steven Solte, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands Harold Linnartz, Leiden Observatory, The Netherlands

  13. Source apportionment to PM10 and PM2.5 at multiple sites in the Bay of Gibraltar (S Spain) by PMF: estimate of shipping emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandolfi, M.; Gonzalez-Castanedo, Y.; Alastuey, A.; Pey, J.; Querol, X.; de La Rosa, J. D.

    2009-04-01

    The recognized adverse health effect of the PM10 and PM2.5 particles leads to an increasing demand of a more efficient control of pollutant emissions especially in industrial and/or urban sites. The degree with which the control of the emissions can be accomplished depends on the identification of the pollutant sources and the estimation of their contribution. The chemical speciation of ambient PM coupled with receptor modelling can be considered as a powerful tool to estimate origin of the sources and their contribution to the PM10 and PM2.5 fractions. This work aims to evaluate the effect on air quality of the anthropogenic activities performed in one of the most important industrial estates of Southern Spain located in the Bay of Gibraltar. The area under study is characterized by the presence of metallurgy industries and oil refineries around which four urban agglomerates are located, namely: Los Barrios (36°11'7.39"N, 5°29'33.89"O), La Linea (36° 9'40.24"N, 5°20'53.72"O), Algeciras (36°7'47.21"N, 5°26'51.71"O) y Puente Mayorga (36°10'54.60"N, 5°23'8.32"O). Traffic is consequently another important source of pollutants in the considered area together with an intense shipping activity. The estimation of the pollutant sources and their contribution was obtained by applying the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model to the PM10 and PM2.5 levels and chemical speciation data simultaneously obtained in the four urban agglomerates during a period of 4 years (March 2003 - December 2007). Given the small size of the area under study, the PM data collected in all the four stations was simultaneously introduced within the PMF model. This procedure allowed the PMF to use a higher number of data rather than using the 4 database separately, thus improving the performances of the model. Following this procedure a total of 567 and 341 samples for the PM10 and PM2.5 fractions respectively were introduced within the PMF. Moreover, before running the model, a detailed inspection of the database was performed in order to look for the possible presence of weaker data such as contaminated data, below detection limit data, missing data etc. This procedure is important in order to improve the performances of the model, reducing the error associated with the calculated sources contributions. In the present work seven sources were obtained in both PM10 and PM2.5 fractions, namely: crustal (traced by Al, Ca, K, Ti, Fe, Rb, Sr), marine (traced by Na, Cl, Mg), industrial (Cr, Mn, P, Zn, Fe, As, Ni, Pb), oil combustion (traced by V, Ni y La from both oil refinery and shipping emissions), traffic (OC+EC, Cu, Sn, Sb), secondary sulphate (SO4= and NH4+), ammonium nitrate in PM2.5 (traced by NO3- and NH4+) and sodium nitrate in PM10 (Na and NO3-). In PM10 fraction the main contributing sources in all stations were secondary sulphate (19-22% of PM10 mass), sodium nitrate (15-21%) and crustal (14-23%) followed by traffic (10-21%), marine (10-17%), oil combustion (6-9%) and industrial (1-5%). The main contributing sources in PM2.5 were regional sulphate (28-34%), ammonium nitrate and traffic (10-15%), crustal (8-18%), oil combustion and marine (8-10%), and industrial (2-7%). Further information on source contributions and locations were obtained by coupling PMF with wind direction data which show two privileged mean wind directions in the considered area: SSE-ESE (75% of occurrence) and W-NW (80% of occurrence). In this work wind data was used to separately evaluate the contributions from shipping and oil refinery which were not separated by the PMF model mainly as a consequence of the similarity in the fingerprints of these two sources. Acknowledgements This work was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (GRACCIE-SCD2007-00067), Ministry of the Environment (CALIOPE, Ref.: 441-2006-3-12.1), and the Junta of Andalucía.

  14. Precise U-Pb dating of Cenozoic tropical reef carbonates: Linking the evolution of Cenozoic Caribbean reef carbonates to climatic and environmental changes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva-Tamayo, J. C.; Ducea, M.; Cardona, A.; Montes, C.; Rincon, D.; Machado, A.; Flores, A.; Sial, A.; Pardo, A.; Niño, H.; Ramirez, V.; Jaramillo, C.; Zapata, P.; Barrios, L.; Rosero, S.; Bayona, G.; Zapata, V.

    2012-04-01

    Coral reefs are very diverse and productive ecosystems; and have long been the base of the economic activity of several countries along the tropics. Because coral reefs are very sensitive to environmental changes and their adaptation to changing stressing conditions is very slow, the combination of current rapid environmental changes and the additional stresses created by growing human populations (i.e. rapid anthropogenic CO2 additions to the atmosphere),plus the economic and coastal development may become a lethal synergy. The ongoing acidification of modern oceans is a major issue of concern because it may have serious consequences for the survival of shelly marine invertebrates as the 21st century progresses. Ocean Acidification (OA) is now being driven by rapid CO2 release to the atmosphere. Although evidences of the devastating effects of oceanic acidification in the marine biota are provided by the decreased rate of coral skeleton production and the reduced ability of algae and free-swimming zooplankton to maintain protective shells, among others, predicting the effects of oceanic acidification on the future oceans (2050-2100) has remained rather difficult because the atmospheric CO2 sequestration by the global oceans occurs in geologic time scales. Important changes in the atmospheric pCO2 and major climatic/environmental events seem to have controlled the evolution of the Cenozoic equatorial-tropical carbonates r1-10. Rapid additions of green house gases to the atmosphere occurred during the Paleocene-Eocene transition and would have promoted several other events of global warming until the early Oligocene (i.e. the Eocene thermal maximum). These periods of high greenhouse gases concentrations would have also resulted on OA, affecting the reef carbonate ecology and tropical carbonate budgets. Relating temporal variations in the Cenozoic reef carbonate structure, ecology and factory is vital to help understanding and predicting the future effects of the rapid anthropogenic CO2 release to the atmosphere on reef areas. Here we report precise U-Pb ages of several Cenozoic Caribbean-tropical reef carbonate successions along the SE Circum-Caribbean Region from which major temporal variations in the reef carbonate factories, structure and ecology are related to major climate/environmental changes. Calcareous algae are the principal calcifying reef builders along the SE Circum-Caribbean during the Paleocene-middle Oligocene interval, a period of predominant high atmospheric pCO2 and OA. Calcareous algae persisted as the main calcifying reef builders until the late Oligocene when atmospheric pCO2 levels dropped, allowing the onset of global icehouse conditions and the appearance of corals as the main calcifying reef builders along the SE Circum-Caribbean. Coral reefs would have dominated until the middle Miocene, when a new period of calcareous algae reefs occurred along the Caribbean, coinciding with the Miocene thermal optimum in mid-latitude areas (i.e. the Mediterranean). Coral reef carbonates dominated since the Pliocene. From the data presented here we suggest that calcareous algae dominated were the main calcifying reef builders during periods of warm temperatures and pronounced environmental change in the tropical seas (i.e. OA). Corals would have conversely dominated as main calcifying reef builders during periods of optimal tropical climatic/environmental conditions. Comparisons between this geologic conditions and data for the period 1984-2006 in the Caribbean11 suggest that the transition from corals towards calcareous algae is repeating again. 1.Zachos et al., Science Mag. 292 (2001) 2.Zachos et al., Science Mag. 308 (2005) 3.Haug et al., Geology 29 (2001) 4.Jain and Collins, Marine Micropaleo. 62 (2007) 5.Merinco et al., Nature 452 (2008) 6.O'Dea et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 104 (2007) 7.Jhonson et al., Palaios 24(2009) 8.Pagani et al., Nature 460 (2007) 9.Cohen et al., Journ. Geolog. Society 164 (2009) 10.Klauss et al.., Gelogy 39 (2011) 11.Barrios, MSc Thesys, Invemar (2006)

  15. PREFACE: 4th National Meeting in Chaos, Complex System and Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raúl Hernández Montoya, Alejandro; Hernández Lemus, Enrique; Rubén Luévano Enríquez, José; Rodríguez Achach, Manuel Enrique; Vargas Madrazo, Carlos Ernesto

    2013-12-01

    The fourth edition of the National Meeting on Chaos, Complex Systems and Time Series (NMCCSTS4), or in Spanish 4a. Reunión Nacional de Caos, Sistemas Complejos y Series de Tiempo, was held from 29 November to 2 December 2011 in the University of Veracruz (Universidad Veracruzana), Campus Xalapa, at Xalapa Veracruz, México, in the beautiful House of the Lake (Casa del Lago), a late XIX century former textile factory situated in the edge of an also ancient former dam, currently a park containing three small lakes, very emblematic of Xalapa, City, the capital of the state of Veracruz, México. The previous editions of this meeting, were held in Mérida (2006), Pachuca (2008) and Puebla (2009). A clear uptrend is observed in the number of participants in this academic event from all Universities of México and abroad, going from about 15 participants in the first meeting to more than 90 in the last one. On this occasion, about 90 participants from three countries attended our event, where 29 papers (10 master lectures from top recognized national and international leaders in the fields of complexity, and 19 invited papers), one course for students and 42 posters were presented. A look at the scientific program of the NMCCSTS4, allows us to appreciate the wide range of topics and recent advances that were covered during our event; topics and recent results in the areas of biology, econophysics, sociophysics, genomics and bioinformatics, complex networks, thermodynamics, etc, were presented and discussed rigorously in a friendly, dynamical and informal atmosphere. Also, on this occasion, we celebrated Professor Miguel Angel Jiménez Montaño, for his very distinguished academic career throughout more that 50 years and as a founding member of the Faculty of Physics and AI of University of Veracruz. Prizes were awarded for the best poster presentations. The winner was Porfirio Toledo, from Faculty of Mathematics, University of Veracruz (Game theory to characterize solutions of a discrete-time Hamilton--Jacobi equation). The present volume contains a rigorous selection of the lectures presented at the NMCCSTS4. All papers were peer reviewed and we consider the high quality and the wide range of topics covered here displays the high level that the community of complexity sciences is reaching in our country. We would like to thank all of the speakers, participants and the members of the Organizing Committee, also we would like to express our gratitude to all students and support personal involved with the logistic and technical aspects of the organization of our event. This IV edition of the National Meeting on Caos, Complex System and Time Series was sponsored by the following organizations and institutions, we warmly thank all of them: Universidad Veracruzana, IF-BUAP, UAM Azcapotzalco, INMEGEN, Conacyt (155492), all them from México and the Ministero degli Affari Esteri (MAE) from Italy. A R Hernández Montoya University of Veracruz M E Rodríguez Achach University of Veracruz E Hernández Lemus National Institute of Genomic Medicine J R Luévano Enríquez Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco C E Vargas Madrazo University of Veracruz Organizing Committee José Luis Carrillo Estrada Instituto de Física, Benemerita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, carrillo@sirio.ifuap.buap.mx José Rubén Luévano Enríquez Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, jrle@correo.azc.uam.mx Enrique Hernández Lemus National Institute of Genomic Medicine, ehernandez@inmegen.gob.mx Alejandro Raúl Hernández Montoya University of Veracruz, alhernandez@uv.mx Norma Bagatella Flores University of Veracruz, nbagatella@uv.mx Adrian Arturo Huerta Hernández University of Veracruz, adhuerta@uv.mx Manuel Enrique Rodríguez Achach University of Veracruz, manurodriguez@uv.mx Carlos Ernesto Vargas Madrazo University of Veracruz, cavargas@uv.mx Sol Haret Baez Barrios University of Veracruz, arbaez@uv.mx Héctor Francisco Coronel Brizio University of Veracruz, hcoronel@uv.mx Sergio Adrian Lerma Hernández University of Veracruz, slerma@uv.mx Rodrígo Huerta Quintanilla CINVESTAV U. Mérida, rhuerta@mda.cinvestav.mx

  16. Ground-Water Resource Assessment in the Rio Grande de Manati Alluvial Plain, Rio Arriba Saliente Area, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres-Gonzalez, Sigfredo; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Warne, Andrew G.

    2002-01-01

    The alluvial aquifer within a 160-acre area of the Rio Grande de Manati alluvial plain was investigated to evaluate its potential as a water-supply source for the Barrios Rio Arriba Saliente and Pugnado Afuera, municipio of Manati, Puerto Rico. Analysis of well boring samples and the results of electric resistivity surveys indicate that the average thickness of the unconsolidated alluvial deposits in the study area is about 100 to 110 feet. The alluvium is a mixture of sand and gravel, which generally has a porosity of 0.2 to 0.35. Short-duration pump tests in small-diameter piezometers indicate that the alluvial aquifer has a hydraulic conductivity of about 200 feet per day and a transmissivity of about 7,900 feet squared per day. Analyses of water levels in piezometers, combined with stage measurements at a series of surveyed reference points along the Rio Grande de Manati channel, indicate that the water-table gradient in the alluvial aquifer is about 0.001, and that ground-water flow is generally from south to north, in the general direction of river flow. The water-table data indicate that the Rio Grande de Manati is the principal source of ground-water recharge to the alluvial aquifer in the study area. Because base flow for the Rio Grande de Manati is usually greater than 44 cubic feet per second, a continuous withdrawal rate of 0.5 to 1.0 cubic foot per second (225 to 450 gallons per minute) from a production well is possible. Chemical analysis of a ground-water sample indicates that the alluvial aquifer water meets U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary standards for selected constituents. Bacteriological analysis of ground-water samples indicates that the ground water contains little or no fecal coliform or fecal streptococcus bacteria. Although long-term data from upstream of the study area indicate high levels of fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus prior to 1996, bacteriological analyses of Rio Grande de Manati water samples obtained during the present study indicate that fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus concentrations are within the standards for surface water intended for use (or with the potential for use) as a raw source of public water supply in Puerto Rico. If a production well were constructed in the study area, it would be located close to the river channel (within 500 to 800 feet). Pumping from the porous and permeable alluvial aquifer close to the river channel could substantially enhance recharge from the Rio Grande de Manati channel to the aquifer. Enhanced recharge could shorten travel times for ground water in the aquifer, which might not allow sufficient time to attenuate bacteria and viruses. Travel times for bacteria moving from the river channel to a hypothetical production well were estimated using the numerical transport model MODFLOW/MT3DMS with an uncalibrated model of the alluvial aquifer. The model assumes a well pumping at 1 cubic foot per second. The transport of particles from the river to the well is most sensitive to the porosity of the aquifer and the pumping rate of the well. Sensitivity analysis indicates that a decrease in pumpage will increase the time of travel for particles to move from the river to the pumping well. The model indicates that the leading edge of a plume would reach the production well in about 40 days assuming a porosity of 0.20, 60 days assuming a porosity of 0.275, and about 70 days assuming a porosity of 0.35. If the well were moved 50 feet further from the river, the leading edge of the plume would reach the well in about 50 days assuming a porosity of 0.20 and about 70 days assuming a porosity of 0.275. These estimates are considered worse case estimates because no decay rate was included in the simulation, and because the hypothetical well was located in the center of the alluvial plain rather than further eastward, away from the river channel.

  17. Observações no âmbito dos "additional programs" do satélite COROT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janot Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    O satélite Fraco-europeu COROT fará fotometria de altissima precisão (pretende-se atingir uma parte em um milhão), grande campo (3x3 graus) e por longos períodos, de duas regiões pré-determinadas do céu, com 10 graus de raio. Suas finalidades básicas serão estudos em sismologia estelar e a procura de exoplanetas. A comunidade astronômica brasileira participará dessa missão espacial, com direitos iguais aos dos parceiros europeus. Isso se deve a que o satélite utilizará a estação de recepção de dados de Natal (INPE), 5 a 6 brasileiros participarão das equipes de software e cientistas do país atuarão na fase de pré-lançamento. Apresentamos nesta comunicação sugestões para a preparação de propostas de observações com COROT, no âmbito dos Programas Adicionais, que contemplam outros projetos que não de sismologia ou exoplanetas. As últimas definições técnicas e decisões tomadas na 4th Corot Week de junho último serão igualmente apresentadas, em particular quanto às regiões de observação escolhidas e quanto aos procedimentos a seguir para se propor observações.

  18. Antarctic Drilling Recovers Stratigraphic Records From the Continental Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, David; Florindo, Fabio; Talarico, Franco; Levy, Richard; Kuhn, Gerhard; Naish, Tim; Niessen, Frank; Powell, Ross; Pyne, Alex; Wilson, Gary

    2009-03-01

    The Antarctic Geological Drilling (ANDRILL) program—a collaboration between Germany, Italy, New Zealand, and the United States that is one of the larger programs endorsed by the International Polar Year (IPY; http://www.ipy.org)-successfully completed the drilling phase of the Southern McMurdo Sound (SMS) Project in December 2007. This second drill core of the program's campaign in the western Ross Sea, Antarctica, complements the results of the first drilling season [Naish et al., 2007] by penetrating deeper into the stratigraphic section in the Victoria Land Basin and extending the recovered time interval back to approximately 20 million years ago. The primary objectives of ANDRILL (http://www.andrill.org/) were to recover stratigraphic records from the Antarctic continental margin that document key steps in Antarctica’s Cenozoic (0- to 65-million-year-old) climatic and glacial history, and in the tectonic evolution of the Transantarctic Mountains and the West Antarctic Rift System [Harwood et al., 2006]. These two ANDRILL stratigraphic drill cores are guiding the understanding of the speed, size, and frequency of the past 20 million years of glacial and interglacial changes in the Antarctic region. The drill cores will help to establish, through their correlation to existing records and their integration with climate and ice sheet models, how these local changes relate to regional and global events.

  19. Free access to hypertension and diabetes medicines among the elderly: a reality yet to be constructed.

    PubMed

    Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Facchini, Luiz Augusto; Piccini, Roberto Xavier; Tomasi, Elaine; Thumé, Elaine; da Silveira, Denise Silva; Rodrigues, Maria Aparecida; Domingues, Marlos Rodrigues; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso

    2010-06-01

    The study evaluated free access to hypertension and diabetes medicines and the reasons reported for lack of access. The sample included 4,003 elderly people living in Primary Care Unit coverage areas from 41 Southern and Northeastern Brazilian cities. Free access was higher in the Northeast (62.4%). The strategy of the Family Health Program (Programa Saúde da Família - PSF) was more effective in providing access than the traditional model, with higher results in the Northeast (61.2%) than in the South (39.6%). Around 20% of medicines included in the Hypertension and Diabetes Program and 26% of those included in the National Essential Medicines List (RENAME) were paid out of pocket. In the Northeast, 25% of insulin and 32% of oral antidiabetics were paid out of pocket. Unavailability in the public sector and a lack of money determined the lack of access. Although the PSF, Hypertension and Diabetes Program and RENAME expanded free access, supplies were insufficient. A greater connection between programs and a clear definition of responsibilities can improve medicine acquisition process, increasing the effectiveness of pharmaceutical assistance. PMID:20657981

  20. Promoting cultural humility during labor and birth: putting theory into action during PRONTO obstetric and neonatal emergency training.

    PubMed

    Fahey, Jenifer O; Cohen, Susanna R; Holme, Francesca; Buttrick, Elizabeth S; Dettinger, Julia C; Kestler, Edgar; Walker, Dilys M

    2013-01-01

    Maternal and neonatal mortality in Northern Guatemala, a region with a high percentage of indigenous people, is disproportionately high. Initiatives to improve quality of care at local health facilities equipped for births, and increasing the number of births attended at these facilities will help address this problem. PRONTO (Programa de Rescate Obstétrico y Neonatal: Tratamiento Óptimo y Oportuno) is a low-tech, high-fidelity, simulation-based, provider-to-provider training in the management of obstetric and neonatal emergencies. This program has been successfully tested and implemented in Mexico. PRONTO will now be implemented in Guatemala as part of an initiative to decrease maternal and perinatal mortality. Guatemalan health authorities have requested that the training include training on cultural humility and humanized birth. This article describes the process of curricular adaptation to satisfy this request. The PRONTO team adapted the existing program through 4 steps: (a) analysis of the problem and context through a review of qualitative data and stakeholder interviews, (b) literature review and adoption of a theoretical framework regarding cultural humility and adult learning, (c) adaptation of the curriculum and design of new activities and simulations, and (d) implementation of adapted and expanded curriculum and further refinement in response to participant response. PMID:23360940

  1. Modos de produccion cientifica: Culturas y metodologias de investigacion en la Universidad de Cadiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Ramos, Ana M.

    2004-12-01

    Este trabajo de investigacion supone un modelo teorico de caracter aplicado, que proporciona la oportunidad de evaluar la produccion cientifica de los investigadores. Se encuadra dentro de la tradiccion de la estadistica aplicada y la sociologia del conocimiento. Atiende especialmente a dos conjuntos de temas de interes, por una parte, las caracteristicas principales que determinan el nivel y tipo de produccion academica producida por las unidades de investigacion y por los propios investigadores; por otra, la utilizacion que se hace de los metodos y tecnicas de investigacion puesto que de ello tambien depende el modo de produccion cientifica. Los puntos novedosos de esta tesis son: la medicion cuantitativa del objeto de estudio, la suma de los productos y las condiciones externas a la produccion del conocimiento mas otros elementos internos como las caracteristicas de los investigadores y la metodologia utilizada para desarrollar sus trabajos; y, finalmente, el uso de las nuevas tecnologias. El aprovechamiento de los recursos estadisticos y las fuentes de informacion secundarias se complementan con el diseno propio de una encuesta donde se implementa las caracteristicas descritas en un capitulo anterior sobre los metodos cientificos mas idoneos descritos en los principales manuales y articulos cientificos desde distintas disciplinas de conocimiento. Dicha encuesta ha sido desarrollada como un programa propio y en base a los mas innovadores usos de la tecnologia en la metodologia de encuestas.

  2. The Future of Vertical Lift: initial insights for aircraft capability and medical planning.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Nathaniel D; Fulton, Lawrence V; Mitchell, Robert; Pollard, Wayne; Wierschem, David; Wilson, Ronald

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Army continues to evaluate capabilities associated with the Future of Vertical Lift (FVL) program-a futures program (with a time horizon of 15 years and beyond) intended to replace the current helicopter fleet. As part of the FVL study, we investigated required capabilities for future aeromedical evacuation platforms. This study presents two significant capability findings associated with the future aeromedical evacuation platform and one doctrinal finding associated with medical planning for future brigade operations. The three results follow: (1) Given simplifying assumptions and constraints for a scenario where a future brigade is operating in a 300 x 300 km2, the zero-risk aircraft ground speed required for the FVL platform is 350 nautical miles per hour (knots); (2) Given these same assumptions and constraints with the future brigade projecting power in a circle of radius 150 km, the zero-risk ground speed required for the FVL platform is 260 knots; and (3) Given uncertain casualty locations associated with future brigade stability and support operations, colocating aeromedical evacuation assets and surgical elements mathematically optimizes the 60-minute set covering problem. PMID:22808896

  3. Implementation of several mathematical algorithms to breast tissue density classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana, C.; Redondo, M.; Tirao, G.

    2014-02-01

    The accuracy of mammographic abnormality detection methods is strongly dependent on breast tissue characteristics, where a dense breast tissue can hide lesions causing cancer to be detected at later stages. In addition, breast tissue density is widely accepted to be an important risk indicator for the development of breast cancer. This paper presents the implementation and the performance of different mathematical algorithms designed to standardize the categorization of mammographic images, according to the American College of Radiology classifications. These mathematical techniques are based on intrinsic properties calculations and on comparison with an ideal homogeneous image (joint entropy, mutual information, normalized cross correlation and index Q) as categorization parameters. The algorithms evaluation was performed on 100 cases of the mammographic data sets provided by the Ministerio de Salud de la Provincia de Córdoba, Argentina—Programa de Prevención del Cáncer de Mama (Department of Public Health, Córdoba, Argentina, Breast Cancer Prevention Program). The obtained breast classifications were compared with the expert medical diagnostics, showing a good performance. The implemented algorithms revealed a high potentiality to classify breasts into tissue density categories.

  4. Plan for a groundwater monitoring network in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Shiang-Kueen

    In Taiwan, rapid economic growth, rising standards of living, and an altered societal structure have in recent years put severe demands on water supplies. Because of its stable quantity and quality, groundwater has long been a reliable source of water for domestic, agricultural, and industrial users, but the establishment of a management program that integrates groundwater and surface-water use has been hampered by the lack of groundwater data. In 1992, the Department of Water Resources (DWR) initiated a program entitled "Groundwater Monitoring Network Plan in Taiwan." Under this program, basic groundwater data, including water-level and water-quality data, are being collected, and a reliable database is being established for the purpose of managing total water resources. This paper introduces the goals, implementation stages, and scope of that plan. The plan calls for constructing 517 hydrogeologic survey stations and 990 groundwater monitoring wells within 17 years. Under this program, water-level fluctuations are continuously monitored, whereas water-quality samples are taken for analysis only at the initial drilling stage and, subsequently, at the time when a monitoring well is being serviced. In 1996, the DWR and the Water Resources Planning Commission were merged to form today's Water Resources Bureau. Résumé A Taïwan, l'expansion économique rapide, l'amélioration des conditions de vie et la transformation de la structure sociale ont provoqué, ces dernières années, une très forte demande en eau. Du fait de sa constance en qualité et en quantité, l'eau souterraine a longtemps été considérée comme une ressource en eau sûre pour les usages domestiques, agricoles et industriels. Mais la mise en place d'un programme de gestion intégrant les utilisations d'eaux souterraines et de surface a été gênée par l'absence de données sur les eaux souterraines. En 1992, le Département des Ressources en Eau a lancé le programme "Plan pour un réseau de suivi des eaux souterraines à Taïwan". D'après ce programme, les données de base concernant les eaux souterraines, comprenant les mesures de niveau et les données de qualité, ont été acquises ; une base de données sûre est en cours d'élaboration, dans le but de gérer l'ensemble des ressources en eau. Cet article présente les buts, les stades de développement et une vue d'ensemble de ce plan. Le plan impose la mise en place de 517 stations de mesures hydrogéologiques et de 990 piézomètres en 17 ans. Selon ce programme, les variations du niveau des nappes doivent être suivies en continu, tandis que des échantillons pour la qualité de l'eau seront prélevés pour analyses uniquement au cours de la phase de foration, puis au moment de la mise en service des piézomètres. En 1996, le Département des Ressources en Eau et la Commission de Planification des Ressources en Eau ont été réunis pour former l'actuel Bureau des Ressources en Eau. Resumen En Taiwan, el rápido crecimiento económico, el aumento en el nivel de vida y los cambios sociales en los últimos años han resultado en un aumento en la demanda de agua. Por su estabilidad en términos de cantidad y calidad, las aguas subterráneas han sido durante años la fuente de agua para usos domésticos, agrícolas e industriales. En los últimos años, sin embargo, el establecimiento de un programa de gestión conjunta de aguas superficiales y subterráneas se ha visto comprometido por la falta de datos correspondientes a estas últimas. En 1992, el Departamento de Recursos de Agua (DWR) inició un programa titulado "Plan de Red de Control de Aguas Subterráneas en Taiwan". Bajo este programa, se están recogiendo datos básicos, incluyendo niveles piezométricos y datos de calidad, y se está construyendo una base de datos con el propósito de gestionar los recursos de agua totales. Este artículo presenta el marco, los objetivos y el estado de implantación del plan, que pretende la construcción de 517 estaciones de medida hidrogeológicas y 990 pozos de observación durante un periodo de 17 años. Bajo este programa, los niveles de agua se miden continuamente, mientras que las muestras para análisis de calidad se toman sólo durante la perforación y cuando el pozo está en servicio. En 1996, el DWR y la Comisión de Planificación de los Recursos de Agua se unieron para formar la actual Oficina de Recursos de Agua.5

  5. Lessons from scaling up a depression treatment program in primary care in Chile.

    PubMed

    Araya, Ricardo; Alvarado, Rubén; Sepúlveda, Rodrigo; Rojas, Graciela

    2012-09-01

    In Chile, the National Depression Detection and Treatment Program (Programa Nacional de Diagnóstico y Tratamiento de la Depresión, PNDTD) in primary care is a rare example of an evidence-based mental health program that was scaled up to the national level in a low- or middle-income country. This retrospective qualitative study aimed to better understand how policymakers made the decision to scale up mental health services to the national level, and to explore the elements, contexts, and processes that facilitated the decision to implement and sustain PNDTD. In-depth semistructured interviews with six key informants selected through intentional sampling were conducted in August-December 2008. Interviewees were senior officers at the Ministry of Health who were directly involved in the decision to scale up the program. Results yielded four elements pivotal to the decisionmaking process: scientific evidence, teamwork and leadership, strategic alliances, and program institutionalization. Each element contributed to building consensus, securing funding, attracting resources, and gaining lasting support from policymakers. Additionally, a review of available documentation led the authors to consider sociopolitical context and use of the media to be important factors. While research evidence for the effectiveness of mental health services in the primary care setting continues to accumulate, low- and middle-income countries should get started on the lengthy process of scaling up by incorporating the elements that led to decisionmaking and implementation of the PNDTD in Chile. PMID:23183564

  6. Impacto del Seguro Popular en el gasto catastrófico y de bolsillo en el México rural y urbano, 2005–2008

    PubMed Central

    Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón; Galárraga, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo Estimar el efecto del Seguro Popular (SP) sobre la incidencia del gasto catastrófico en salud (GCS) y sobre el gasto de bolsillo en salud (GBS) en el mediano plazo. Material y métodos Con base en la Encuesta de Evaluación del Seguro Popular (2005–2008), se analizaron los resultados del efecto del SP en la cohorte rural para dos años de seguimiento (2006 y 2008) y en la cohorte urbana para un año (2008). Resultados A nivel conglomerado no se detectaron efectos del SP. A nivel hogar se encontró que el SP tiene un efecto protector en el GCS y en el GBS en consulta externa y hospitalización en zonas rurales; y efectos significativos en la reducción de GBS en consulta externa en zonas urbanas. Conclusiones El SP se muestra como un programa efectivo para proteger a los hogares contra gastos de bolsillo por motivos de salud en el mediano plazo. PMID:22282205

  7. Differentiation syndrome in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline chemotherapy: characteristics, outcome, and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Montesinos, Pau; Bergua, Juan M; Vellenga, Edo; Rayón, Chelo; Parody, Ricardo; de la Serna, Javier; León, Angel; Esteve, Jordi; Milone, Gustavo; Debén, Guillermo; Rivas, Concha; González, Marcos; Tormo, Mar; Díaz-Mediavilla, Joaquín; González, Jose D; Negri, Silvia; Amutio, Elena; Brunet, Salut; Lowenberg, Bob; Sanz, Miguel A

    2009-01-22

    Differentiation syndrome (DS) can be a life-threatening complication in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) undergoing induction therapy with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Detailed knowledge about DS has remained limited. We present an analysis of the incidence, characteristics, prognostic factors, and outcome of 739 APL patients treated with ATRA plus idarubicin in 2 consecutive trials (Programa Español de Tratamientos en Hematología [PETHEMA] LPA96 and LPA99). Overall, 183 patients (24.8%) experienced DS, 93 with a severe form (12.6%) and 90 with a moderate form (12.2%). Severe but not moderate DS was associated with an increase in mortality. A bimodal incidence of DS was observed, with peaks occurring in the first and third weeks after the start of ATRA therapy. A multivariate analysis indicated that a WBC count greater than 5 x 10(9)/L and an abnormal serum creatinine level correlated with an increased risk of developing severe DS. Patients receiving systematic prednisone prophylaxis (LPA99 trial) in contrast to those receiving selective prophylaxis with dexamethasone (LPA96 trial) had a lower incidence of severe DS. Patients developing severe DS showed a reduced 7-year relapse-free survival in the LPA96 trial (60% vs 85%, P = .003), but this difference was not apparent in the LPA99 trial (86% vs 88%). PMID:18945964

  8. The Differentiation Syndrome in Patients with Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: Experience of the Pethema Group and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Montesinos, Pau; Sanz, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    Differentiation syndrome (DS), formerly known as retinoic acid syndrome, is the main life-threatening complication of therapy with differentiating agents (all-trans retinoic acid [ATRA] or arsenic trioxide [ATO]) in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). The differentiation of leukemic blasts and promyelocytes induced by ATRA and/or ATO may lead to cellular migration, endothelial activation, and release of interleukins and vascular factors responsible of tissue damage. Roughly one quarter of patients with APL undergoing induction therapy will develop the DS, characterized by unexplained fever, acute respiratory distress with interstitial pulmonary infiltrates, and/or a vascular capillary leak syndrome leading to acute renal failure. Although the development of the DS, particularly of the severe form, is still associated with a significant increase in morbidity and mortality during induction, the early administration of high-dose dexamethasone at the onset of the first symptoms seems likely to have dramatically reduced the mortality rate of this complication. In this article, we will review the clinical features, incidence, prognostic factors, management, and outcome of the DS reported in the scientific literature. We will make focus in the experience of the three consecutive Programa Español de Tratamientos en Hematología trials (PETHEMA LPA96, LPA99, and LPA2005), in which more than one thousand patients were treated with ATRA plus idarubicin for induction. PMID:22220256

  9. Smoldering multiple myeloma requiring treatment: time for a new definition?

    PubMed

    Dispenzieri, Angela; Stewart, A Keith; Chanan-Khan, Asher; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Kyle, Robert A; Fonseca, Rafael; Kapoor, Prashant; Bergsagel, P Leif; McCurdy, Arleigh; Gertz, Morie A; Lacy, Martha Q; Lust, John A; Russell, Stephen J; Zeldenrust, Steven R; Reeder, Craig; Roy, Vivek; Buadi, Francis; Dingli, David; Hayman, Suzanne R; Leung, Nelson; Lin, Yi; Mikhael, Joseph; Kumar, Shaji K

    2013-12-19

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) bridges the gap between monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (a mostly premalignant disorder) and active multiple myeloma (MM). Until recently, no interventional study in patients with SMM showed improved overall survival (OS) with therapy as compared with observation. A report from the PETHEMA-GEM (Programa Español de Tratamientos en Hematologica) group described both fewer myeloma-related events and better OS among patients with high-risk SMM who were treated with lenalidomide and dexamethasone. This unique study prompted us to review current knowledge about SMM and address the following questions: (1) Are there patients currently defined as SMM who should be treated routinely? (2) Should the definitions of SMM and MM be reconsidered? (3) Has the time come when not treating is more dangerous than treating? (4) Could unintended medical harm result from overzealous intervention? Our conclusion is that those patients with the highest-risk SMM (extreme bone marrow plasmacytosis, extremely abnormal serum immunoglobulin free light chain ratio, and multiple bone lesions detected only by modern imaging) should be reclassified as active MM so that they can receive MM-appropriate therapy and the paradigm of careful observation for patients with SMM can be preserved. PMID:24144641

  10. Smoldering multiple myeloma requiring treatment: time for a new definition?

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, A. Keith; Chanan-Khan, Asher; Rajkumar, S. Vincent; Kyle, Robert A.; Fonseca, Rafael; Kapoor, Prashant; Bergsagel, P. Leif; McCurdy, Arleigh; Gertz, Morie A.; Lacy, Martha Q.; Lust, John A.; Russell, Stephen J.; Zeldenrust, Steven R.; Reeder, Craig; Roy, Vivek; Buadi, Francis; Dingli, David; Hayman, Suzanne R.; Leung, Nelson; Lin, Yi; Mikhael, Joseph; Kumar, Shaji K.

    2013-01-01

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) bridges the gap between monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (a mostly premalignant disorder) and active multiple myeloma (MM). Until recently, no interventional study in patients with SMM showed improved overall survival (OS) with therapy as compared with observation. A report from the PETHEMA-GEM (Programa Español de Tratamientos en Hematologica) group described both fewer myeloma-related events and better OS among patients with high-risk SMM who were treated with lenalidomide and dexamethasone. This unique study prompted us to review current knowledge about SMM and address the following questions: (1) Are there patients currently defined as SMM who should be treated routinely? (2) Should the definitions of SMM and MM be reconsidered? (3) Has the time come when not treating is more dangerous than treating? (4) Could unintended medical harm result from overzealous intervention? Our conclusion is that those patients with the highest-risk SMM (extreme bone marrow plasmacytosis, extremely abnormal serum immunoglobulin free light chain ratio, and multiple bone lesions detected only by modern imaging) should be reclassified as active MM so that they can receive MM-appropriate therapy and the paradigm of careful observation for patients with SMM can be preserved. PMID:24144641

  11. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in a non-endemic country: epidemiological and clinical profile.

    PubMed

    Salvador, F; Treviño, B; Sulleiro, E; Pou, D; Sánchez-Montalvá, A; Cabezos, J; Soriano, A; Serre, N; Gómez I Prat, J; Pahissa, A; Molina, I

    2014-07-01

    Chagas disease has been increasingly diagnosed in non-endemic countries. This is a prospective observational study performed at the Tropical Medicine Units of the International Health Program of the Catalan Health Institute, Barcelona (PROgrama de Salud Internacional del Instituto Catalán de la Salud, PROSICS Barcelona, Spain), that includes all patients with Chagas disease who attended from June 2007 to May 2012. Clinical and epidemiological data were collected. Overall, 1274 patients were included, the mean age of the patients was 37.7 years, 67.5% were women and 97% came from Bolivia. Thirteen patients had immunosuppressive conditions. The prevalence of cardiac involvement was 16.9%, lower than in previous studies performed in endemic areas (20-60%). Cardiac alterations were found in 33.8% of symptomatic and 14.1% of asymptomatic patients. The prevalence of digestive involvement was 14.8%. The rate of digestive involvement is very different among previous studies because of different diagnostic tools and strategies used. Barium enema alterations were found in 21.4% of symptomatic and 10.3% of asymptomatic patients, and oesophageal alterations were found in 3.7% of symptomatic and in 2.3% of asymptomatic patients. As shown in previous studies, Chagas disease in non-endemic countries affects younger patients and has lower morbidity. PMID:24329884

  12. Factors associated with obesity in brazilian children enrolled in the school health program: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Honório, Renata Félix; Costa Monteiro Hadler, Maria Claret

    2014-01-01

    Case-control studies evaluating the factors associated with childhood obesity are scarce in Brazil. We aimed to analyze the factors associated with obesity in Brazilian schoolchildren enrolled in the School Health Program.A case-control study was conducted on 80 schoolchildren aged 7 to 9 years, 40 of them obese and 40 of normal weight according to the cut-off points established by the World Health Organization (2007). Weight, height and waist circumference were obtained. Socioeconomic, demographic, health, eating behavior and lifestyle data were collected by applying a questionnaire to the person responsible and by determining his/her nutritional status. A binary unconditional logistic regression model (univariate and multivariate) was used for data analysis. The prevalence of obesity was 7.21%. The final model showed that duration of breast-feeding ? 6 months of age (OR 5.3; 95% CI: 1.3-22.1), excess weight of the person responsible (OR 7.1; 95% CI: 1.2-40.2), a sedentary level of physical activity (OR 4.1; 95% CI: 1.1- 15.5), and fast chewing (OR 7.4; 95% CI: 2.1-26.9) were significantly associated with childhood obesity. The factors associated with obesity in schoolchildren were duration of breast-feeding ? 6 months, persons responsible with excess weight, and sedentary children who chew fast. The present study contributes information to be used for the health actions planned by the School Health Program. PMID:25238827

  13. Preliminar results of paleontological salvage at Belo Monte Powerplant construction.

    PubMed

    Tomassi, Hz; Almeida, Cm; Ferreira, Bc; Brito, Mb; Barberi, M; Rodrigues, Gc; Teixeira, Sp; Capuzzo, Jp; Gama-Júnior, Jm; Santos, Mgkg

    2015-08-01

    In this paper some preliminary fossil specimens are presented. They represent a collection sampled by Belo Monte's Programa de Salvamento do Patrimônio Paleontológico (PSPP), which includes unprecedented invertebrate fauna and fossil vertebrates from Pitinga, Jatapu, Manacapuru, Maecuru e Alter do Chão formations from Amazonas basin, Brazil. The Belo Monte paleontological salvage was able to recover 495 microfossil samples and 1744 macrofossil samples on 30 months of sampling activities, and it is still ongoing. The macrofossils identified are possible plant remains, ichnofossils, graptolites, brachiopods, molluscs, athropods, Agnatha, palynomorphs (miosphores, acritarchs, algae cysts, fungi spores and unidentified types) and unidentified fossils. However, deep scientific research is not part of the scope of the program, and this collection must be further studied by researchers who visit Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, where the fossils will be housed. More material will be collected until the end of the program. The collection sampled allows a mosaic composition with the necessary elements to assign, in later papers, taxonomic features which may lead to accurate species identification and palaeoenvironmental interpretations. PMID:26691100

  14. Mexican-US cooperation on renewable energy programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddle, D. B.

    1991-04-01

    I traveled to Mexico on April 1 with Pete Smith and Chris Rovero of Oak Ridge Associated Universities on a mission sponsored by the Agency for International Development (AID) to initiate a technical support project with Mexican government and private institutions. We met with officials of AID; the Programa Nacional de Solidaridad; the Laboratorio de Energia Solar; Instituto Investigaciones de Electricidad; Comision Federal de Electricidad; Compania de Luz y Fuerza del Centro; and several private firms to discuss the terms of support. An AIDE Memoire was drafted outlining the scope of future assistance. I traveled to San Jose, Cost Rica on April 7, 1991. There I met with Carlos Rodriguez, manager of Cooperativa Electrica de San Carlos, and Federico Baltodano, the director of BEL Ingenieria to discuss the San Lorenzo hydroelectric project. Details of an engineering and financial analysis outlining the costs and benefits of adding daily pondage to the project were discussed, as was the project development schedule and other issues. I returned to Oak Ridge on April 9, 1991.

  15. Religiosidade, juventude e sexualidade: entre a autonomia e a rigidez1

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves da; Santos, Alessandro Oliveira; Licciardi, Daniele Carli; Paiva, Vera; Parker, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Esse artigo descreve como jovens religiosos e autoridades religiosas de sua comunidade compreendem a sexualidade, considerando suas experiências pessoais e como membros de comunidades religiosas. A análise pretende contribuir para que políticas públicas dedicadas à promoção da saúde sexual da juventude considerem a religiosidade, no contexto de um estado laico e da promoção do direito à prevenção. Foram realizadas 26 entrevistas abertas e semidirigidas em diferentes comunidades da região metropolitana da cidade de São Paulo (comunidades católicas, da umbanda, do candomblé e de diferentes denominações evangélicas) sobre iniciação sexual, casamento, gravidez, contracepção e prevenção das DST/Aids, homossexualidade, aborto e direitos humanos. Observou-se como jovens e autoridades religiosas convivem com a tensão entre tradição e modernidade e os distintos discursos sobre a sexualidade. Como sujeitos religiosos (do discurso religioso) e sujeitos sexuais (de discursos sobre sexualidade), devem ser incorporados pelos programas como sujeitos de direito nos termos de sua religiosidade. PMID:21886456

  16. REFORZANDO LAS CAPACIDADES EN INVESTIGACIÓN EN INFORMÁTICA PARA LA SALUD GLOBAL EN LA REGIÓN ANDINA A TRAVÉS DE LA COLABORACIÓN INTERNACIONAL

    PubMed Central

    Curioso, Walter H.; García, Patricia J.; Castillo, Greta M.; Blas, Magaly M.; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Zimic, Mirko

    2011-01-01

    RESUMEN Para mejorar la salud global y bienestar de una población se requiere de recursos humanos capacitados, no solo en el campo de la medicina y salud, sino también en el campo de la informática. Desafortunadamente, los programas de entrenamiento e investigación en informática biomédica en países en desarrollo son escasos y poco documentados. El objetivo del presente trabajo es reportar los resultados del primer Taller Internacional de Expertos en Informática para la región andina que se llevó a cabo en marzo de 2010 en Lima y que incluye la descripción de nueve casos de estudio procedentes de instituciones de América Latina. En el taller participaron 23 expertos latinoamericanos, quienes discutieron la necesidad de entrenamiento e investigación multidisciplinaria en informática biomédica en áreas prioritarias para América Latina. Además, se estableció la Red QUIPU debido a la necesidad de ampliar y consolidar una red de investigación y entrenamiento a nivel regional y global. PMID:21152740

  17. The evaluation of a clinical development unit leadership preparation program by focus group interviews - part I: positive aspects.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Jennifer; Parsons, Myra

    2002-10-01

    In 1996, in Western Sydney, Australia, the Area Health Service and the University of Western Sydney entered a strategic alliance to develop a nursing research culture in the health services. One of the strategies implemented to achieve this was the establishment of a network of research-receptive environments known as Clinical Development Units (CDUs). At the time, however, evidence suggested that research receptivity will only develop in units where the leadership style is permissive and participatory; evidence also suggested that the successful establishment of CDUs hinged critically on the effective management of CDU leadership stressors. In light of this, it was agreed to conduct a CDU Leadership Preparation Program in Western Sydney. The aim of the program was to equip CDU leaders with the participatory leadership skills required to develop and manage their units. It was anticipated that the acquisition of these leadership skills would, in turn, help them minimise the leadership stressors to which they could expect to become subject. This paper provides details of the first CDU leadership preparation course: how participants were selected, the aims of the course and its content. It focuses, however, on a discussion of the positive evaluative data harvested through 2 focus group interviews which were conducted 5 months following participants' successful completion of the program.A second paper focuses on the more negative evaluative data, 2 themes which unexpectedly emerged during data analysis and how the current program has been modified in light of this data. PMID:12384033

  18. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Ritchey-Chretien UNAM212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Galan, M. J.

    1987-05-01

    El telescopio UNAM2l2 fue inaugurado hace siete años y concebido para trabajar en las razones focales: f/7.5, F/13.5, F/27 y F/98. El diseño Ritchey-Chretién corresponde a la razón focal F/7.5 y el foco primario (F/2.286) no se consideró como utilizable para fotografía directa. En el Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM, se diseñó y construyó un sistema corrector de campo para la razón focal F/7.5, que actualmente está en funcionamiento. Dentro de un programa de colaboración en diseflo y evaluación de sistemas ópticos, entre el Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias y el Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM, decidimos intentar el diseño de una correctora de campo para el foco primario del t?lescopio UNAM212 bajo la consideración de que no son insalvables los problemas que implicaría su instalación y de que es muy posible que, en un futuro relativamente cercano, podamom tener un detector bidimenmional tipo Mepsicrón cuya área sensible haga tentadora la idea de construir la cámara directa para foco primario

  19. Improvement of the cruise performances of a wing by means of aerodynamic optimization. Validation with a Far-Field method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Varona, J.; Ponsin Roca, J.

    2015-06-01

    Under a contract with AIRBUS MILITARY (AI-M), an exercise to analyze the potential of optimization techniques to improve the wing performances at cruise conditions has been carried out by using an in-house design code. The original wing was provided by AI-M and several constraints were posed for the redesign. To maximize the aerodynamic efficiency at cruise, optimizations were performed using the design techniques developed internally at INTA under a research program (Programa de Termofluidodinámica). The code is a gradient-based optimizaa tion code, which uses classical finite differences approach for gradient computations. Several techniques for search direction computation are implemented for unconstrained and constrained problems. Techniques for geometry modifications are based on different approaches which include perturbation functions for the thickness and/or mean line distributions and others by Bézier curves fitting of certain degree. It is very e important to afford a real design which involves several constraints that reduce significantly the feasible design space. And the assessment of the code is needed in order to check the capabilities and the possible drawbacks. Lessons learnt will help in the development of future enhancements. In addition, the validation of the results was done using also the well-known TAU flow solver and a far-field drag method in order to determine accurately the improvement in terms of drag counts.

  20. Extreme Windstorms and Related Impacts on Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Ordóñez, Paulina; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Karremann, Melanie K.; Trigo, Isabel F.

    2014-05-01

    Extreme windstorms are one of the major natural catastrophes in the mid latitudes, one of the most costly natural hazards in Europe and are responsible for substantial economic damages and even fatalities. During the recent winters, the Iberian Peninsula was hit by severe (wind) storms such as Klaus (January 2009), Xynthia (February 2010) and Gong (January 2013) which exhibited uncommon characteristics. They were all explosive extratropical cyclones formed over the mid-Atlantic, travelling then eastwards at lower latitudes than usual along the edge of the dominant North Atlantic storm track. In this work we present a windstorm catalogue for the Iberian Peninsula, where the characteristics of the potentially more destructive windstorms for the 1979-2012 period are identified. For this purpose, the potential impact of high winds over the Iberian Peninsula is assessed by using a daily damage index based on maximum wind speeds that exceeds the local 98th percentile threshold. Then, the characteristics of extratropical cyclones associated with these events are analyzed. Results indicate that these are fast moving, intense cyclones, typically located near the northwestern tip of the Iberian Peninsula. This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER- 019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010). A. M. Ramos was also supported by a FCT postdoctoral Grant (FCT/DFRH/SFRH/BPD/84328/2012).

  1. Evaluation on the effectiveness of actions for controlling infestation by rodents in Campo Limpo region, Sao Paulo Municipality, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Masi, Eduardo; Vilaça, Pedro José; Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe

    2009-08-01

    Rodents are responsible for the transmission of more than 60 diseases both to human beings and to domestic animals. The increase in rodent infestation in a given area brings several health problems to the nearby population. Thus, when infestation increases, it is time to take intervention measures. Although many countries have implemented programs aimed at controlling rodent infestation, literature on studies evaluating the effectiveness of intervention measures in urban areas is scarce. Aimed at contributing to the understanding of rodents' population dynamics in urban areas, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the control methods proposed by "Programa de Vigilancia e Controle de Roedores do Municipio de Sao Paulo" (Program for Rodents Surveillance and Control in Sao Paulo Municipality), conducted on Jardim Comercial District. As a first step, a survey to assess infestation rates was conducted in 1529 dwellings located in the area studied. After that, a chemical control upon rodents was accomplished in every dwelling infested. One week and six months after completion of control measures, a new evaluation on infestation rates was carried out, in order to verify the effectiveness of the procedures taken and to estimate the re-infestation capacity. Initial infestation rate was 40.0%, and the final infestation rate, 14.4%. Therefore, the effectiveness of the control methods utilized was 63.8%. It can thus be concluded that the control methods applied were quite effective. PMID:20183196

  2. [The registered nurse and the battle against tuberculosis in Brazil: 1961-1966].

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Hercília Regina do Amaral; de Almeida Filho, Antonio José; Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco; Lourenço, Lucia Helena Silva Corrêa

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the circumstances that promoted the implementation of the new Program for Action Against Tuberculosis in Brazil (Programa de Ação na Luta contra a Tuberculose no Brasil) and discuss the strategies used by registered nurses from the Santa Maria State Hospital, Guanabara State, to adjust nursing care to the new program against tuberculosis. This was performed through document research, interviews, and statements from nurses working at the time of the reorganization. Documents were analyzed based on the concepts of habitus, field, and symbolic power by Pierre Bourdieu, and included written and oral documents as well as secondary sources. The reorganization of the nursing service was performed under the leadership of a nurse whose symbolic capital assigned power and prestige to implement the necessary changes. It is concluded that the work of that nurse made it possible to implement the new program and contributed to establishing the position and importance of the registered nurse in providing care to individuals with tuberculosis, for prevention and cure. PMID:20085168

  3. PubMed

    Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves da; Santos, Alessandro Oliveira; Licciardi, Daniele Carli; Paiva, Vera; Parker, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Esse artigo descreve como jovens religiosos e autoridades religiosas de sua comunidade compreendem a sexualidade, considerando suas experiências pessoais e como membros de comunidades religiosas. A análise pretende contribuir para que políticas públicas dedicadas à promoção da saúde sexual da juventude considerem a religiosidade, no contexto de um estado laico e da promoção do direito à prevenção. Foram realizadas 26 entrevistas abertas e semidirigidas em diferentes comunidades da região metropolitana da cidade de São Paulo (comunidades católicas, da umbanda, do candomblé e de diferentes denominações evangélicas) sobre iniciação sexual, casamento, gravidez, contracepção e prevenção das DST/Aids, homossexualidade, aborto e direitos humanos. Observou-se como jovens e autoridades religiosas convivem com a tensão entre tradição e modernidade e os distintos discursos sobre a sexualidade. Como sujeitos religiosos (do discurso religioso) e sujeitos sexuais (de discursos sobre sexualidade), devem ser incorporados pelos programas como sujeitos de direito nos termos de sua religiosidade. PMID:21886456

  4. Controle orbital de satélites artificiais com propulsão e uso de gravidade lunar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, K. S.; de Almeida Prado, A. F. B.

    2003-08-01

    A redução do custo de combustível de uma manobra é atualmente a grande prioridade de todos os programas espaciais existentes no mundo. As manobras assistidas pela gravidade são uma ótima forma de se contornar o problema pois proporcionam economias com vasto impacto no custo final da missão. Neste trabalho é feito um estudo particular do controle orbital de um satélite artificial da Terra usando a gravidade da Lua. O objetivo é estudar uma técnica econômica para uma mudança de plano de um satélite que está em órbita em volta da Terra. A idéia principal desta abordagem é enviar primeiramente o veículo espacial em direção à Lua usando uma manobra mono-impulsiva para que assim o campo gravitacional da Lua possa fazer a mudança de plano desejada (sem custo de combustível) e só então retornar o veículo aos valores iniciais de semi-eixo e excentricidade usando uma manobra bi-impulsiva tipo Hohmann. Para tanto, é assumido que a espaçonave inicia em uma órbita circular coplanar à órbita da lua em torno da Terra e a meta é colocá-la em uma órbita similar que difere da órbita inicial somente pela inclinação. São usadas equações analíticas baseadas na abordagem Patched Conics para se calcular a variação na velocidade, momento angular, energia e inclinação do veículo espacial que realiza esta manobra. Várias simulações são feitas para se avaliar as economias de combustível envolvidas.

  5. On Ensino de Astronomia: Desafios para Implantação

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, R. Z.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    Em 2002 o ensino de Astronomia foi proposto como um dos temas estruturadores pelos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e sugerido como facilitador para que o aluno compreendesse a Física como construção humana e parte do seu mundo vivencial, mas raramente seus conceitos foram ensinados. A presente pesquisa discute dois aspectos relacionados à abordagem de Astronomia. O primeiro aspecto é se ela está sendo abordada pelos professores do Ensino Médio e o segundo, aborda a maneira como ela está sendo ensinada. Optou-se pela aplicação de um questionário a partir do 2° semestre de 2006 e durante o ano de 2007 com professores que ministram a disciplina de Física, os quais trabalham em escolas estaduais em Rio Grande da Serra, Ribeirão Pires e Mauá no estado São Paulo. Dos 66,2% dos professores que responderam ao questionário nos municípios de Rio Grande da Serra, Ribeirão Pires e Mauá, 57,4% não aplicaram nenhum tópico de astronomia, 70,2% não utilizaram laboratório, 89,4% não utilizaram qualquer tipo de programa computacional, 83,0% nunca fizeram visitas com alunos a museus e planetários e 38,3% não indicaram qualquer tipo de livro ou revista referente à astronomia aos seus alunos. Mesmo considerando a Astronomia um conteúdo potencialmente significativo, esta não fez parte dos planejamentos escolares. Portanto são necessárias propostas que visem estratégias para a educação continuada dos professores como, por exemplo, cursos específicos sobre o ensino em Astronomia.

  6. Australia's 'fourth hurdle' drug review comparing costs and benefits holds lessons for the United States.

    PubMed

    Lopert, Ruth; Elshaug, Adam G

    2013-04-01

    Two decades ago Australia introduced an assessment of value as a prerequisite for adding new medicines to its national drug formulary. Australia's program--a "fourth hurdle" process after a drug is assessed for safety, efficacy, and quality--stands in stark contrast to the situation in the United States, where comparing the clinical and economic value of a proposed new drug to those of existing ones only rarely plays a role in the drug coverage determination process. This article describes the role that Australia's Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee, a statutory independent expert committee, plays in determining which new drugs the government will help pay for in the nation's pharmaceutical benefit program. The program does not directly control drug prices or ration prescription drugs-policy options that are widely opposed in the United States. Australia's program supports patients' access to important, innovative medications deemed to be cost-effective. The US system could benefit if policy makers examined Australia's experience and adopted a comparative clinical and value review suited to the US political and economic landscape. PMID:23569059

  7. Increased of Brazilian productivity in the slaughterhouse sector: a review.

    PubMed

    Buzanello, Márcia Rosângela; Moro, Antônio Renato Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Due to Brazil is a tropical country has activities in occupational exposure to cold restricted to few sectors especially the meatpacking industry. Taking into account that the country in 2010, was again the largest exporter of poultry meat in the world and consequently employing a large number of workers for their slaughter and processing. The search for greater productivity can result in an increase in work rate, as indicated in this sector as monotonous, repetitive and uncomfortable. According the Programa de Frigorífico it was found that within six years, about 20% of the six thousand workers in a slaughterhouse in southern Brazil, received welfare benefits due to musculoskeletal diseases. Adding to this, the lack of parameters for the Brazilian standardization concerning occupational activities carried out in cold. Although several epidemiological studies point to the cold as a risk factor for occurrence or aggravation of musculoskeletal disorders, research in this field is still limited and often contradictory conclusions. This article aims to review developments concerning the poultry industry and the fridge in Brazil, as well as raising the question about the increased productivity of the slaughterhouse, since it has already shown a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders related to work. PMID:22317580

  8. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Balán, Iván C; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María M

    2011-03-01

    El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

  9. The impact of a nutritional intervention on the nutritional status and anthropometric profile of participants in the health Gym Programme in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Deus, Raquel Mendonça; Mingoti, Sueli Aparecida; Jaime, Patrícia Constante; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of an intervention implemented under the Programa Academia da Saúde (Health Gym Programme) of Belo Horizonte, MG on the nutritional status and anthropometric profile of participants. Intervention study involving participants in the Health Gym Programme which encompasses group food and nutrition education activities over a period of 11 months combined with regular physical activity. Impact was assessed by comparing nutritional and anthropometric indicators in women participants who were divided into two groups according to their participation rate in the intervention. A total of 124 women were evaluated, results showed an increase in the number of daily meals (p<0.001) among all participants. Participants whose participation rate was less than 50% (n = 61) reduced their daily consumption of sugary soft drinks (p = 0.03), while those whose participation rate was 50% and over (n = 63) reduced daily per capita intake of oil (p = 0.01) and sugar (p = 0.002), increased their consumption of fruit (p = 0. 004), and milk and dairy products (p = 0.02), and also experienced weight loss (-1.3 ± 3.9kg; p = 0.02). The findings show the importance of combining nutritional interventions with physical activity to ensure positive impacts on the nutritional status and anthropometric profile of participants in the Health Gym Programme. PMID:26060972

  10. PROQUAD: accreditation program of the Brazilian society for clinical densitometry.

    PubMed

    Eis, S R

    1999-01-01

    In 1996, the Brazilian Society for Clinical Densitometry (SBDens) developed an accreditation program to be applied to all densitometry centers, under the supervision of the certified physicians from SBDens. This program is named Programa Nacional de Qualidade em Densitometria (PROQUAD) and was developed to verify at least three aspects of the bone densitometry practice: the functioning of equipment, the methods used by technicians in performing the scans, and how the physicians are analyzing the scans and interpreting the results. From the 360 certified physicians who are members of SBDens, nearly one-third are participating in this program. The final purpose of PROQUAD is to provide approved centers with a seal, to be stamped on their examinations. The seal will signify to referring physicians, and the community, which centers are working under high standards of quality. It has been 2 yr since PROQUAD was established, and the data obtained confirm the improvement of quality in the practice of densitometry in Brazil. Any input from other societies that could improve PROQUAD is welcomed. Ensuring good densitometry practices is a goal for which all densitometry societies must strive. PMID:10677800

  11. Como os Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo obtém Conhecimentos Astronômicos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2005-08-01

    Atualmente vivencia-se um mundo globalizado onde os computadores e a internet permitiram um acesso rápido e seguro a todo tipo de informação e conhecimento. O presente trabalho visa analisar a maneira pela qual alunos de segundo grau da rede estadual da cidade de São Paulo obtiveram, caso tenham, conhecimentos básicos de astronomia quanto aos fenômenos celestes que os rodeiam, tais como a sucessão dos dias e das estações do ano, além de questioná~los sobre fatos genéricos tais como: o que vem a ser o Sol, o Big Bang, o que ocasionou a extinção dos dinossauros. Para tanto foi elaborado um formulário constando de questões de múltipla escolha, o qual foi aplicado no primeiro colegial diurno da Escola Estadual Guilherme de Almeida. Num espaço amostral de 44 alunos constatou-se que 41% dos alunos adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola e 59% através da mídia em geral. Neste mesmo espaço amostral apenas 11% dos alunos usaram computadores na escola, 41% na residência, 5% no trabalho e 43% não utilizaram. O presente estudo revelou também que para 50% dos alunos o professor jamais utilizou um programa de computador a respeito de astronomia ou fez alguma apresentação sobre o tema. Embora em sua fase inicial este estudo revela claramente que a maioria dos alunos não obtém na escola seus conhecimentos astronômicos, estes provém de fontes não especificamente didático-pedagógicas tais como filmes e revistas populares que não raramente geram conhecimentos incompletos e em muitos casos inclusive falhos.

  12. Aceptabilidad del diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV entre hombres gay y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires

    PubMed Central

    Balán, Iván C.; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén O.; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria; Ávila, María M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen El uso del diagnóstico rápido para HIV en Argentina, así como otros países de Latinoamérica, ha sido limitado hasta el momento. Este trabajo reporta los resultados provenientes de un estudio cualitativo realizado entre hombres gays y otros hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (G&HSH) de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo principal del mismo fue conocer las ventajas y desventajas que los hombres G&HSH perciben en relación al diagnóstico rápido casero para HIV. Se realizaron ocho grupos focales con 73 participantes en los cuales se discutió acerca de las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los diagnósticos rápidos. Las respuestas fueron codificadas utilizando un programa para análisis de datos cualitativos (NVivo) y analizadas temáticamente. Los participantes describieron numerosas ventajas sobre el uso del diagnóstico rápido casero, aunque algunos reportaron importantes preocupaciones dentro de las cuales se destaca la posibilidad de impulsos suicidas si alguien recibe un resultado positivo estando solo. En términos generales se observó una gran aceptabilidad para el uso del diagnóstico rápido si el mismo es realizado por personal de salud en lugares acondicionados para este fin. PMID:25284951

  13. Los plaguicidas y la contaminacion del medio ambiente Venezolano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; Stickel, W.H.

    1972-01-01

    RESUMEN DE RECOMENDACIONES Recomendaciones para el Programa de Investigacion: 1. Establecer un sistema de muestreo biologico para detectar los niveles tendencias de los productos quimicos toxicos en un peque?o numero de si tios representativos. 2. Mantener continua vigilancia de la contaminacion ambiental, mediante la seleccion acertadamente dirigida de las zonas afectadas y de las fuentes de contaminacion. 3. Realizar estudios acerca de las poblaciones de animales silvestres, y del exito de los procesos reproductivos de las especies o grupos clayes de animales que se consideran mas gravemente afectados. 4. Preparar recomendaciones para una accion gubernamental de proteccion al hombre, a la fauna silvestre y al medio ambiente. Recomendaciones para la Accion Administrativa: 1. Establecer limites a la tolerancia de los residuos de plaguicidas en los alimentos. Constituye una medida clave para disminuir la contaminacion ambiental. 2. Establecer normas de calidad del agua para las corrientes, represas, la gos y otros cuerpos. Es la segunda medida clave para reducir la contaminacion del ambiente 3. Exigir un tratamiento adecuado de los efluentes industriales, especialmente antes de que se construyan las nuevas plantas. 4. Exigir a los agricultores que en el uso de plaguicidas sigan los consejos tecnicos autorizados y negar a los vendedores el derecho a recomendar productos por su cuenta. 5. Tomar medidas para recoger y eliminar los recipientes y sobrantes de los plaguicidas.

  14. Availability, prices and affordability of the World Health Organization’s essential medicines for children in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several World Health Organization (WHO) initiatives aim to improve the accessibility of safe and effective medicines for children. A first step in achieving this goal is to obtain a baseline measure of access to essential medicines. The objective of this project was to measure the availability, prices, and affordability of children’s medicines in Guatemala. Methods An adaption of the standardized methodology developed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International (HAI) was used to conduct a cross sectional survey to collect data on availability and final patient prices of medicines in public and private sector medicine outlets during April and May of 2010. Results A subset of the public sector, Programa de Accesibilidad a los Medicamentos (PROAM), had the lowest average availability (25%) compared to the private sector (35%). In the private sector, highest and lowest priced medicines were 22.7 and 10.7 times more expensive than their international reference price comparison. Treatments were generally unaffordable, costing as much as 15 days wages for a course of ceftriaxone. Conclusions Analysis of the procurement, supply and distribution of specific medicines is needed to determine reasons for lack of availability. Improvements to accessibility could be made by developing an essential medicines list for children and including these medicines in national purchasing lists. PMID:22747646

  15. PREFACE: Dynamics of low-dimensional systems Dynamics of low-dimensional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernasconi, M.; Miret-Artés, S.; Toennies, J. P.

    2012-03-01

    With the development of techniques for high-resolution inelastic helium atom scattering (HAS), electron scattering (EELS) and neutron spin echo spectroscopy, it has become possible, within approximately the last thirty years, to measure the dispersion curves of surface phonons in insulators, semiconductors and metals. In recent years, the advent of new experimental techniques such as 3He spin-echo spectroscopy, scanning inelastic electron tunnel spectroscopy, inelastic x-ray scattering spectroscopy and inelastic photoemission have extended surface phonon spectroscopy to a variety of systems. These include ultra-thin metal films, adsorbates at surface and elementary processes where surface phonons play an important role. Other important directions have been actively pursued in the past decade: the dynamics of stepped surfaces and clusters grown on metal surfaces, due to their relevance in many dynamical and chemical processes at surfaces, including heterogeneous catalysis; clusters; diffusion etc. The role of surface effects in these processes has been conjectured since the early days of surface dynamics, although only now is the availability of ab initio approaches providing those conjectures with a microscopic basis. Last but not least, the investigation of non-adiabatic effects, originating for instance from the hybridization (avoided crossing) of the surface phonons branches with the quasi 1D electron-hole excitation branch, is also a challenging new direction. Furthermore, other elementary oscillations such as surface plasmons are being actively investigated. The aforementioned experimental breakthroughs have been accompanied by advances in the theoretical study of atom-surface interaction. In particular, in the past decade first principles calculations based on density functional perturbation theory have boosted the theoretical study of the dynamics of low-dimensional systems. Phonon dispersion relations of clean surfaces, the dynamics of adsorbates, and the vibrational spectra of clusters and carbon-based nanostructures, just to name a few of the low-dimensional systems addressed in this special issue, can be both accurately computed from first principles and measured experimentally. Even less computationally demanding semi-empirical simulations based on tight-binding or continuum models play a crucial role in assessing, for instance, the interplay between morphology, defects and the elastic properties of low-dimensional systems. The impressive amount of work and progress achieved in the past decade within the general theory and spectroscopy of the dynamics of low-dimensional systems is marked by several relevant trends that are exemplified by the contributions gathered together in this special issue. They span a wide spectrum of experimental and theoretical methods applied to the study of the dynamical properties of low-dimensional systems and new emerging phenomena at the nanoscale, such as the peculiar optical properties of ring shaped quantum dots, plasmon dynamics in metallic nanoclusters and the relaxation dynamics of nanomagnets. This issue is dedicated to our esteemed colleague Giorgio Benedek on the occasion of his 70th birthday. It collects together a number of papers written by authors from all over the world with a recognized reputation in the above mentioned fields where Giorgio Benedek has made important and fundamental contributions. Dynamics of low-dimensional systems contents Narratives Giorgio Benedek: an extraordinary universal scientist M Bernasconi, S Miret-Artés and J P Toennies Helium and carbon: two friends for life Giorgio Benedek Special Issue Papers Temperature dependence in atom-surface scattering Eli Pollak and J R Manson Density functional study of the decomposition pathways of SiH3 and GeH3 at the Si(100) and Ge(100) surfaces M Ceriotti, F Montalenti and M Bernasconi Comparative study of vibrations in submonolayer structures of potassium on Pt(111) G G Rusina, S V Eremeev, S D Borisova and E V Chulkov Surface phonons on Pb(111) I Yu Sklyadneva, R Heid, K-P Bohnen, P M Echenique and E V Chulkov Using evidence from nanocavities to assess the vibrational properties of external surfaces G F Cerofolini, F Corni, S Frabboni, G Ottaviani, E Romano, R Tonini and D Narducci Magnetic properties and relaxation dynamics of a frustrated Ni7 molecular nanomagnet E Garlatti, S Carretta, M Affronte, E C Sañudo, G Amoretti and P Santini A theoretical study of rotational and translational diffusion dynamics of molecules with a six-fold point symmetry adsorbed on a hexagonal lattice by neutron scattering I Calvo-Almazán, S Miret-Artés and P Fouquet Vibrational dynamics and surface structure of Bi(111) from helium atom scattering measurements M Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber, A Tamtögl, P Kraus, K H Rieder and W E Ernst Double and triple ionization of silver clusters by electron impactAvik Halder, Anthony Liang, Chunrong Yin and Vitaly V Kresin Scattering of O2 from a graphite surface W W Hayes, Junepyo Oh, Takahiro Kondo, Keitaro Arakawa, Yoshihiko Saito, Junji Nakamura and J R Manson Zero-phonon lines of systems with different dimensions and unconventional vibronic interactions V Hizhnyakov A kinetic Monte Carlo approach to investigate antibiotic translocation through bacterial porins Matteo Ceccarelli, Attilio V Vargiu and Paolo Ruggerone Quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects in surface diffusion of interacting adsorbates H C Peñate-Rodrìguez, R Martìnez-Casado, G Rojas-Lorenzo, A S Sanz and S Miret-Artés Weakly bound finite systems: (4He)N-Rb2(3?u), clustering structures from a quantum Monte Carlo approach D López-Durán, R Rodrìguez-Cantano, T González-Lezana, G Delgado-Barrio, P Villarreal, E Yurtsever and F A Gianturco Multiphonon atom-surface scattering from corrugated surfaces: derivation of the inelastic scattering spectrum for diffraction statesBranko Gumhalter Probing the non-pairwise interactions between CO molecules moving on a Cu(111) surfacePepijn R Kole, Holly Hedgeland, Andrew P Jardine, William Allison, John Ellis and Gil Alexandrowicz Fast emission dynamics in droplet epitaxy GaAs ring-disk nanostructures integrated on SiL Cavigli, S Bietti, M Abbarchi, C Somaschini, A Vinattieri, M Gurioli, A Fedorov, G Isella, E Grilli and S Sanguinetti Assessing the composition of hetero-epitaxial islands via morphological analysis: an analytical model matching GeSi/Si(001) dataR Gatti, F Pezzoli, F Boioli, F Montalenti and Leo Miglio Carbon sp chains in graphene nanoholesIvano E Castelli, Nicola Ferri, Giovanni Onida and Nicola Manini Elastic fields and moduli in defected grapheneRiccardo Dettori, Emiliano Cadelano and Luciano Colombo Tuning the plasmon energy of palladium-hydrogen systems by varying the hydrogen concentrationV M Silkin, R Dìez Muiño, I P Chernov, E V Chulkov and P M Echenique Plasmon tsunamis on metallic nanoclustersA A Lucas and M Sunjic Ab initio characterization of graphene nanoribbons and their polymer precursorsRengin Peköz, Xinliang Feng and Davide Donadio First-principles phonon calculations of Fe4+ impurity in SrTiO3E Blokhin, E A Kotomin and J Maier Phonon dispersion of quasi-freestanding graphene on Pt(111)Antonio Politano, Antonio Raimondo Marino and Gennaro Chiarello Vibrations of Au13 and FeAu12 nanoparticles and the limits of the Debye temperature conceptGhazal Shafai, Marisol Alcántara Ortigoza and Talat S Rahman Triple quantum dots as charge rectifiers M Busl and G Platero

  16. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

    PubMed Central

    MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin infectarse por el VIH (sólo un doble negativo tuvo un amplio conocimiento sobre la hepatitis C). Estas intencionalidades no son mutuamente excluyentes. La presencia de varias refuerza la puesta en práctica a diario de comportamientos que pueden ayudar al que se inyecta a mantenerse libre de infecciones durante años. Algunas prácticas que hemos identificado se implementan en grupo y se comunican de UDI a UDI, de esta manera se extienden entre algunas redes sociales de UDI. Conclusiones Los UDI que permanecen sin infectarse planean e implementan estrategias de prevención en circunstancias donde otros UDI aplican prácticas de riesgo. El mantenimiento de la no infección no es, por lo tanto, un resultado del azar, sino más bien el resultado del esfuerzo (agencia) de los UDI. Investigar y extender estas estrategias y tácticas a través de programas de prevención podría contribuir a la prevención del VIH y el VHC. PMID:21915175

  17. [Injecting without getting infected: injectors' strategies to prevent HIV and HCV.

    PubMed

    Mateu-Gelabert, P; Friedman, S; Sandoval, M

    2007-10-01

    OBJETIVO: Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. MATERIAL Y M#ENTITYSTARTX000E9;TODOS: Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. RESULTADOS: La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin infectarse por el VIH (sólo un doble negativo tuvo un amplio conocimiento sobre la hepatitis C). Estas intencionalidades no son mutuamente excluyentes. La presencia de varias refuerza la puesta en práctica a diario de comportamientos que pueden ayudar al que se inyecta a mantenerse libre de infecciones durante años. Algunas prácticas que hemos identificado se implementan en grupo y se comunican de UDI a UDI, de esta manera se extienden entre algunas redes sociales de UDI. CONCLUSIONES: Los UDI que permanecen sin infectarse planean e implementan estrategias de prevención en circunstancias donde otros UDI aplican prácticas de riesgo. El mantenimiento de la no infección no es, por lo tanto, un resultado del azar, sino más bien el resultado del esfuerzo (agencia) de los UDI. Investigar y extender estas estrategias y tácticas a través de programas de prevención podría contribuir a la prevención del VIH y el VHC. PMID:21915175

  18. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Aguilar Cordero, María José; Rodríguez Blanquet, Raquel; Sánchez García, Juan Carlos; Sánchez López, Antonio Manuel; Baena García, Laura; López Contreras, Gracia

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el entrenamiento mediante ejercicio físico moderado durante el periodo de gestación aporta beneficios tanto a la mujer embarazada como al feto. Los trabajos de investigación consultados vinculan la actividad física con una reducción del número de cesáreas, de partos instrumentados y con un parto más fisiológico. Previene igualmente la ganancia excesiva de peso de la mujer, disminuye el riesgo de diabetes gestacional y de hipertensión arterial.Objetivo: el objetivo de esta investigación es conocer si un programa de ejercicio físico de carácter moderado con el método Study Water Exercise Pregnant (SWEP), realizado en un medio acuático, contribuye a obtener unos resultados más favorables en la etapa perinatal, tanto para la mujer como para el bebé.Material y métodos: el diseño que se llevará a cabo es un ensayo clínico aleatorizado. La muestra estará constituida por 364 gestantes, obtenida de un universo total de 6.579 partos acontecidos en Granada (España) durante el año 2014. Dicha muestra se ha dividido en dos grupos, uno de intervención y otro de control. La actividad se realizará en las instalaciones deportivas acuáticas de la Facultad de Ciencias del Deporte de la Universidad de Granada, que cuentan con dos vasos adecuados a nuestros objetivos, uno polivalente de 25 metros y otro de enseñanza de 12,5 metros.  Resultados: el programa de ejercicios diseñado específicamente para el proyecto denominado SWEP, abarca desde la 20 hasta la 37 semana de gestación (SG) y consta de tres sesiones semanales, con una duración de 60 minutos cada una. Las sesiones incluirán tres fases: fase de calentamiento, fase principal en la que el ejercicio se divide en una parte aeróbica y otra de ejercicios de fuerza y resistencia y una final con estiramientos y relajación. Las variables que se van a estudiar son las siguientes: a) maternas: peso, IMC, tensión arterial, test de O´Sullivan, aparición de depresión postparto, nivel de autopercepción de salud, calidad del sueño y esfuerzo percibido durante la actividad física; b) fetales: peso, test de Apgar, perímetro cefálico y SG (semana de gestación al nacimiento); c) periparto: tiempos de dilatación, expulsivo y alumbramiento, tipo de parto, presencia de episiotomía, tipo de alimentación que recibe el RN y tiempo de lactancia materna exclusiva; y d) descriptivas: edad, profesión, nivel de estudios, tipo de ejercicio físico realizado previamente y FO (fórmula obstétrica).Conclusión: con la actividad física acuática moderada, por parte de la embarazada (método SWEP), se pretenden mejorar las variables arriba indicadas. PMID:27019255

  19. Linking Indices for Biodiversity Monitoring to Extinction Risk Theory

    PubMed Central

    Mccarthy, Michael A; Moore, Alana L; Krauss, Jochen; Morgan, John W; Clements, Christopher F

    2014-01-01

    Biodiversity indices often combine data from different species when used in monitoring programs. Heuristic properties can suggest preferred indices, but we lack objective ways to discriminate between indices with similar heuristics. Biodiversity indices can be evaluated by determining how well they reflect management objectives that a monitoring program aims to support. For example, the Convention on Biological Diversity requires reporting about extinction rates, so simple indices that reflect extinction risk would be valuable. We developed 3 biodiversity indices that are based on simple models of population viability that relate extinction risk to abundance. We based the first index on the geometric mean abundance of species and the second on a more general power mean. In a third index, we integrated the geometric mean abundance and trend. These indices require the same data as previous indices, but they also relate directly to extinction risk. Field data for butterflies and woodland plants and experimental studies of protozoan communities show that the indices correlate with local extinction rates. Applying the index based on the geometric mean to global data on changes in avian abundance suggested that the average extinction probability of birds has increased approximately 1% from 1970 to 2009. Conectando Índices para el Monitoreo de la Biodiversidad con la Teoría de Riesgo de Extinción Resumen Los índices de biodiversidad combinan frecuentemente los datos de diferentes especies cuando se usan en los programas de monitoreo. Las propiedades heurísticas pueden sugerir índices preferidos, pero carecemos de medios objetivos para discriminar a los índices con propiedades heurísticas similares. Los índices de biodiversidad pueden evaluarse al determinar qué tan bien reflejan los objetivos de manejo que un programa de monitoreo busca apoyar. Por ejemplo, la Convención sobre la Diversidad Biológica requiere reportar las tasas de extinción, así que los índices que reflejan el riesgo de extinción serían valiosos. Desarrollamos 3 índices de biodiversidad que se basan en modelos sencillos de viabilidad de población y que relacionan el riesgo de extinción con la abundancia. Basamos el primer índice en la media geométrica de la abundancia de especies, y el segundo en una media de poder más general. En el tercer índice integramos la media geométrica y la tendencia. Estos índices requieren los mismos datos que índices previos, pero también se relacionan directamente con el riesgo de extinción. La información de campo sobre mariposas y plantas de bosque, y los estudios experimentales de comunidades protozoarias, muestran que los índices se correlacionan con las tasas locales de extinción. Al aplicar el índice basado en la media geométrica sobre los datos globales de los cambios en la abundancia de aves, sugirió que la probabilidad de extinción promedio de aves ha incrementado aproximadamente 1% desde 1970 hasta 2009. Palabras Clave Índice de biodiversidad, media geométrica, medida de la biodiversidad, riesgo de extinción PMID:24820139

  20. Difficulties of First Years Elementary School Teachers with the Teaching of Astronomy. (Breton Title: Dificuldades de Professores dos Anos Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental em Relação ao Ensino da Astronomia. ) Dificultades de LOS Profesores de los Primeros Años de la Escuela Primaria en Relación a la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo; Nardi, Roberto

    2005-12-01

    This paper reports Primary School teachers' discourses analysis about their difficulties related to the teaching of Astronomy. It reports partial data of a master's level research carried out in the last two years, named "An exploratory study for inserting Astronomy in primary school teachers' education" (LANGHI, 2004). The study took into consideration students' and teachers' common sense conceptions about astronomical phenomena, conceptual mistakes in textbooks, and Astronomy's suggestions given by the PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais - The Brazilian National Curriculum Standards). The paper aims to characterize teachers' difficulties, in order to provide subsides to the implementation of an initial or continuing education program. This study is justified by the fact that courses plans like these only will be adapted to the teacher's (and students') reality, if there is a primary investigation about what the teachers really need to know about Astronomy. This fact was possible here by the enunciations interpretation of a teachers' sample using semi-structured interviews, according to discourse analysis procedures. The research outcomes show difficulties related to factors like: those of personal order, methodological, on teacher's formation, educational infrastructure and other related to information sources for educators. Este artigo, que relata as dificuldades de professores em relação ao ensino da Astronomia, faz parte de um estudo exploratório para a inserção da Astronomia na formação de professores dos anos iniciais do Ensino Fundamental. Esse estudo leva em consideração as concepções alternativas de alunos e professores sobre fenômenos astronômicos, os erros conceituais em livros didáticos e as sugestões de conteúdos de Astronomia constantes nos PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais). Caracterizar as dificuldades dos professores é a questão central deste texto, apontando para o objetivo de contribuir com subsídios para um futuro programa de formação continuada neste tema. O estudo se justifica mediante o fato de que planejamentos de cursos como estes só se adequarão à realidade do professor (e do aluno) se houver uma investigação antecipada sobre o que os docentes precisam saber e saber fazer a respeito da Astronomia, o que se concretizou em nosso caso pela interpretação dos discursos de uma amostra de professores coletados através de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, utilizando para interpretação os princípios e métodos da análise do discurso em sua linha francesa. Os resultados da pesquisa indicaram dificuldades de ordem pessoal, metodológica, de formação, de infra-estrutura e outras relacionadas às fontes de informações para docentes. Este artículo que relata las dificultades de los profesores en relación a la enseñanza da laAstronomía es parte de un estudio preliminar para la implantación dela Astrnomía enla formación de profesores de ls primeros años del ciclo primario.El estudio considera las concepciones alternativas de alumnos y profesores respecto a los fenómenos astronómicos, los errores conceptuales en los libros didácticos y las sugerencias de contenidos de Astronomía que constan en los Parámetros Curriculares Nacionales del Brasil. Caracterizar las dificultades de los profesores constituye la cuestión central de este texto, apuntando para el objetivo de contribuir para un futuro programa de educación contínua en este tema. El estudio se justifica mediante el hecho que la planificación de cursos de este tipo solo se adecuarán a la realidade del profesor (y del alumno) si existe una investigación anterior a respecto de lo que los docentes precisan saber y saber realizar en Astronomía, lo cual se concretó en nuestro caso por medio de la interpretación de los discursos de una muestra de profesores obtenidos através de entrevistas semiestructuradas, utilizand para esta interpretación los principios y métodos de análisis del discurso en su línea francesa. Los resultados mostraron dificultades de orden personal, metodológica, formativa, de infraestructura y otras relacionadas a las fuentes de información para los docentes.

  1. Earth and Heavens: Two Separate Universes? (Spanish Title: Tierra y Cielos: ¿Dos Universos Separados?) Terra e Céus: Dois Universos Separados?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrascosa, Jaime; Gil-Pérez, Daniel; Solbes, Jordi; Vilches, Amparo

    2005-12-01

    The study of gravitation constitutes an exceptional occasion to show the richness and complexity of science and technology, contemplating, among other things: the problematic situations which are at the heart of the scientific knowledge, the difficulties encountered in the construction of knowledge and, especially, the necessity of overcoming "common-sense evidence" that proclaimed the existence of an insurmountable barrier between Earth and Heavens, hindering scientific development during many centuries. In this paper we present a program of activities to orient the study of Gravitation atUpperHigh School, favoring students' participation in the reconstruction of this first scientific revolution and giving them the opportunity to see the importance of Astronomy both in the history of science and today. El estudio de la gravitación constituye una ocasión excepcional para mostrar la ciencia y la tecnología en toda su riqueza y complejidad, considerando, entre otros aspectos:

  2. Las situaciones problemáticas relevantes que llevaron a la construcción de los conocimientos,
  3. las dificultades de todo tipo con las que hubo que enfrentarse y, muy en particular,
  4. la necesidad de superar las "evidencias de sentido común" que establecían una supuesta barrera infranqueable entre la Tierray los Cielos y que obstaculizaron durante siglos el desarrollo científico.
  5. En este trabajo presentamos un programa de actividades para el estudio de la gravitación en la secundaria superior, orientado a favorecer la participación de los estudiantes, en alguna medida, en la reconstrucción de este proceso que constituyó la denominada primera gran revolución científica y asomándonos al estudio de una de las ciencias más antiguas, la Astronomía, que hoy sigue despertando gran interés. O estudo da gravitação constitui uma ocasião excepcional para mostrar a ciência e a tecnologia em toda sua riqueza e complexidade, considerando, entre outros aspectos: as situações problemáticas relevantes que levaram à construção dos conhecimentos, as dificuldades de todo tipo que se teve que enfrentar nessa construção e, muito em particular,a necessidade de se superar as "evidências do senso comum" que estabeleciam uma suposta barreira intransponível entre a Terra e os Céus e que foram um obstáculo durante séculos para o desenvolvimento científico. Neste trabalho apresentamos um programa de atividades para o estudo da gravitação nos últimos anos do ensino médio, orientado a favorecer a participação dos estudantes, em alguma medida, na reconstrução deste processo que constituiu a denominada primeira grande revolução científica e a nos aproximarmos do estudo de uma das ciências mais antigas, a Astronomia, que hoje continua despertando grande interesse.

  6. SU-E-J-273: Simulation of the Radiation Response of Hypoxic Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Espinoza, I; Peschke, P; Karger, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In radiotherapy, it is important to predict the response of tumour to irradiation prior to the treatment. Mathematical modelling of tumour control probability (TCP) based on the dose distribution, medical imaging and other biological information may help to improve this prediction and to optimize the treatment plan. The aim of this work is to develop an image based 3D multiscale radiobiological model, which describes the growth and the response to radiotherapy of hypoxic tumors. Methods: The computer model is based on voxels, containing tumour, normal (including capillary) and dead cells. Killing of tumour cells due to irradiation is calculated by the Linear Quadratic Model (extended for hypoxia), and the proliferation and resorption of cells are modelled by exponential laws. The initial shape of the tumours is taken from CT images and the initial vascular and cell density information from PET and/or MR images. Including the fractionation regime and the physical dose distribution of the radiation treatment, the model simulates the spatial-temporal evolution of the tumor. Additionally, the dose distribution may be biologically optimized. Results: The model describes the appearance of hypoxia during tumour growth and the reoxygenation processes during radiotherapy. Among other parameters, the TCP is calculated for different dose distributions. The results are in accordance with published results. Conclusion: The simulation model may contribute to the understanding of the influence of biological parameters on tumor response during treatment, and specifically on TCP. It may be used to implement dose-painting approaches. Experimental and clinical validation is needed. This study is supported by a grant from the Ministry of Education of Chile, Programa Mece Educacion Superior (2)

  7. Operational forecasting of daily temperatures in the Valencia Region. Part I: maximum temperatures in summer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, I.; Estrela, M.

    2009-09-01

    Extreme temperature events have a great impact on human society. Knowledge of summer maximum temperatures is very useful for both the general public and organisations whose workers have to operate in the open, e.g. railways, roadways, tourism, etc. Moreover, summer maximum daily temperatures are considered a parameter of interest and concern since persistent heat-waves can affect areas as diverse as public health, energy consumption, etc. Thus, an accurate forecasting of these temperatures could help to predict heat-wave conditions and permit the implementation of strategies aimed at minimizing the negative effects that high temperatures have on human health. The aim of this work is to evaluate the skill of the RAMS model in determining daily maximum temperatures during summer over the Valencia Region. For this, we have used the real-time configuration of this model currently running at the CEAM Foundation. To carry out the model verification process, we have analysed not only the global behaviour of the model for the whole Valencia Region, but also its behaviour for the individual stations distributed within this area. The study has been performed for the summer forecast period of 1 June - 30 September, 2007. The results obtained are encouraging and indicate a good agreement between the observed and simulated maximum temperatures. Moreover, the model captures quite well the temperatures in the extreme heat episodes. Acknowledgement. This work was supported by "GRACCIE" (CSD2007-00067, Programa Consolider-Ingenio 2010), by the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, contract number CGL2005-03386/CLI, and by the Regional Government of Valencia Conselleria de Sanitat, contract "Simulación de las olas de calor e invasiones de frío y su regionalización en la Comunidad Valenciana" ("Heat wave and cold invasion simulation and their regionalization at Valencia Region"). The CEAM Foundation is supported by the Generalitat Valenciana and BANCAIXA (Valencia, Spain).

  8. Operational forecasting of daily temperatures in the Valencia Region. Part II: minimum temperatures in winter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, I.; Estrela, M.

    2009-09-01

    Extreme temperature events have a great impact on human society. Knowledge of minimum temperatures during winter is very useful for both the general public and organisations whose workers have to operate in the open, e.g. railways, roadways, tourism, etc. Moreover, winter minimum temperatures are considered a parameter of interest and concern since persistent cold-waves can affect areas as diverse as public health, energy consumption, etc. Thus, an accurate forecasting of these temperatures could help to predict cold-wave conditions and permit the implementation of strategies aimed at minimizing the negative effects that low temperatures have on human health. The aim of this work is to evaluate the skill of the RAMS model in determining daily minimum temperatures during winter over the Valencia Region. For this, we have used the real-time configuration of this model currently running at the CEAM Foundation. To carry out the model verification process, we have analysed not only the global behaviour of the model for the whole Valencia Region, but also its behaviour for the individual stations distributed within this area. The study has been performed for the winter forecast period from 1 December 2007 - 31 March 2008. The results obtained are encouraging and indicate a good agreement between the observed and simulated minimum temperatures. Moreover, the model captures quite well the temperatures in the extreme cold episodes. Acknowledgement. This work was supported by "GRACCIE" (CSD2007-00067, Programa Consolider-Ingenio 2010), by the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, contract number CGL2005-03386/CLI, and by the Regional Government of Valencia Conselleria de Sanitat, contract "Simulación de las olas de calor e invasiones de frío y su regionalización en la Comunidad Valenciana" ("Heat wave and cold invasion simulation and their regionalization at Valencia Region"). The CEAM Foundation is supported by the Generalitat Valenciana and BANCAIXA (Valencia, Spain).

  9. Genetic parameters for growth, reproductive and maternal traits in a multibreed meat sheep population

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The genetic parameters for growth, reproductive and maternal traits in a multibreed meat sheep population were estimated by applying the Average Information Restricted Maximum Likelihood method to an animal model. Data from a flock supported by the Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Caprinos e Ovinos de Corte (GENECOC) were used. The traits studied included birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), slaughter weight (SW), yearling weight (YW), weight gain from birth to weaning (GBW), weight gain from weaning to slaughter (GWS), weight gain from weaning to yearling (GWY), age at first lambing (AFL), lambing interval (LI), gestation length (GL), lambing date (LD - number of days between the start of breeding season and lambing), litter weight at birth (LWB) and litter weight at weaning (LWW). The direct heritabilities were 0.35, 0.81, 0.65, 0.49, 0.20, 0.15 and 0.39 for BW, WW, SW, YW, GBW, GWS and GWY, respectively, and 0.04, 0.06, 0.10, 0.05, 0.15 and 0.11 for AFL, LI, GL, LD, LWB and LWW, respectively. Positive genetic correlations were observed among body weights. In contrast, there was a negative genetic correlation between GBW and GWS (-0.49) and GBW and GWY (-0.56). Positive genetic correlations were observed between AFL and LI, LI and GL, and LWB and LWW. These results indicate a strong maternal influence in this herd and the presence of sufficient genetic variation to allow mass selection for growth traits. Additive effects were of little importance for reproductive traits, and other strategies are necessary to improve the performance of these animals. PMID:21637451

  10. Estereotipos Sexuales y su Relación con Conductas Sexuales Riesgosas1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Orengo-Aguayo, Rosaura E.

    2012-01-01

    Resumen Los estereotipos sexuales son creencias generalmente aceptadas y poco cuestionadas que podrían contribuir a cómo los hombres y las mujeres debemos expresar nuestra sexualidad. Los objetivos de este estudio eran identificar cuántos hombres y mujeres heterosexuales en Puerto Rico endosaban ciertos estereotipos acerca de la sexualidad masculina y femenina y explorar la relación entre el endoso de estos estereotipos sexuales y las actitudes hacia el condón masculino y su uso en relaciones sexuales vaginales Llevamos a cabo un estudio descriptivo-correlacional mediante el cual le administramos dos escalas, una sobre sexualidad masculina y otra sobre sexualidad femenina a un grupo de 429 personas heterosexuales. Encontramos que los hombres endosaron estereotipos sexuales masculinos y femeninos más que las mujeres y que estos tienden a tener una visión más conservadora respecto a la sexualidad femenina que la que tienen sobre su propia sexualidad. Las mujeres, por otra parte, tienden a ver su propia sexualidad y la sexualidad masculina en términos menos estereotipados y más equitativos. También encontramos que a mayor endoso de creencias tradicionales sobre la sexualidad masculina y femenina, peor la actitud hacia el uso del condón masculino. Sin embargo, el endosar estereotipos sexuales masculinos y/o femeninos no se relacionó con el uso del condón. Estos hallazgos contradicen la literatura que sugiere que estos estereotipos sexuales y de género resultan en conductas sexuales de alto riesgo, lo cual tiene implicaciones importantes para el desarrollo e implementación de programas de prevención. PMID:24575164

  11. Development, genetic and cytogenetic analyses of genetic sexing strains of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anastrepha ludens is among the pests that have a major impact on México's economy because it attacks fruits as citrus and mangoes. The Mexican Federal government uses integrated pest management to control A. ludens through the Programa Nacional Moscas de la Fruta [National Fruit Fly Program, SAGARPA-SENASICA]. One of the main components of this program is the sterile insect technique (SIT), which is used to control field populations of the pest by releasing sterile flies. Results To increase the efficiency of this technique, we have developed a genetic sexing strain (GSS) in which the sexing mechanism is based on a pupal colour dimorphism (brown-black) and is the result of a reciprocal translocation between the Y chromosome and the autosome bearing the black pupae (bp) locus. Ten strains producing wild-type (brown pupae) males and mutant (black pupae) females were isolated. Subsequent evaluations for several generations were performed in most of these strains. The translocation strain named Tapachula-7 showed minimal effect on survival and the best genetic stability of all ten strains. Genetic and cytogenetic analyses were performed using mitotic and polytene chromosomes and we succeeded to characterize the chromosomal structure of this reciprocal translocation and map the autosome breakpoint, despite the fact that the Y chromosome is not visible in polytene nuclei following standard staining. Conclusions We show that mitotic and polytene chromosomes can be used in cytogenetic analyses towards the development of genetic control methods in this pest species. The present work is the first report of the construction of GSS of Anastrepha ludens, with potential use in a future Moscafrut operational program. PMID:25472896

  12. Combined Use of Polar and Geostationary Satellite Sensors For Aerosol Characterization Over The Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, M. J.; Cervino, M.; Levizzani, V.; Silva, A. M.

    Aerosol particles play an important role in the Earth's climate due to their direct and indirect interaction with the atmosphere. Monitoring of the optical properties of atmospheric aerosol is thus crucial for a radiative forcing quantification at the lo- cal, regional and global scales. Ground-based measurements provide accurate aerosol properties. However, given the strong spatial and temporal variability of tropospheric aerosols ground measurements cannot cover the global scale. On the other hand, satellite-based algorithms for aerosol retrievals presently do not match the accuracy of ground-based results. Most satellite algorithms are based on a single sensor, thus often suffering from specific limitations (poor spatial or spectral resolution, long re- visitation time, poor cloud mask). A method to exploit the synergy between the polar orbiting Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) onboard ERS-2 and the METEOSAT geostationary system was proposed (Costa et al., 2001), aiming at increasing the accuracy of the aerosol charac- terization and monitoring of the optical thickness. A validation of the algorithm is done by comparing satellite retrievals with results obtained via independent space-time co- located ground-based measurements from AERONET (Aerosol Robotic NETwork) and from other state of the art algorithms that make use of satellite measurements such as the MODIS official aerosol product. Results of the ongoing validation are pre- sented for relevant transport events of desert dust and biomass burning aerosol over the Atlantic and Indian Oceans during year 2000. References: Costa,M.J., M.Cervino, E.Cattani, F.Torricella, V.Levizzani, and A.M.Silva, 2001: "Aerosol characterization and optical thickness retrievals using GOME and METEOSAT satellite data". Meteor. Atmos. Phys., (in press). Acknowledgements: METEOSAT imagery was kindly made available by EUMET- SAT. We thank the AERONET investigators and their staff for establishing and main- taining the sites used in this investigation. MJC was financially supported by the Sub- programa Ciência e Tecnologia do Segundo Quadro Comunitário de Apoio.

  13. Impact of a low-technology simulation-based obstetric and newborn care training scheme on non-emergency delivery practices in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Anna; Kestler, Edgar; Dettinger, Julia C.; Zelek, Sarah; Holme, Francesca; Walker, Dilys

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of a low-technology simulation-based training scheme for obstetric and perinatal emergency management (PRONTO; Programa de Rescate Obstétrico y Neonatal: Tratamiento Óptimo y Oportuno) on non-emergency delivery practices at primary level clinics in Guatemala. Methods A paired cross-sectional birth observation study was conducted with a convenience sample of 18 clinics (nine pairs of intervention and control clinics) from June 28 to August 7, 2013. Outcomes included implementation of practices known to decrease maternal and/or neonatal mortality and improve patient care. Results Overall, 25 and 17 births occurred in intervention and control clinics, respectively. Active management of the third stage of labor was appropriately performed by 20 (83%) of 24 intervention teams versus 7 (50%) of 14 control teams (P = 0.015). Intervention teams implemented more practices to decrease neonatal mortality than did control teams (P < 0.001). Intervention teams ensured patient privacy in 23 (92%) of 25 births versus 11 (65%) of 17 births for control teams (P = 0.014). All 15 applicable intervention teams kept patients informed versus 6 (55%) of 11 control teams (P = 0.001). Differences were also noted in teamwork; in particular, skill-based tools were used more often at intervention sites than control sites (P = 0.012). Conclusion Use of PRONTO enhanced non-emergency delivery care by increasing evidence-based practice, patient-centered care, and teamwork. PMID:26797198

  14. Seasonal precipitation extreme indices in mainland Portugal: trends and variability in the period 1941-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santo, Fátima E.; Ramos, Alexandre M.; de Lima, M. Isabel P.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2013-04-01

    Changes in the precipitation regimes are expected to be accompanied by variations in the occurrence of extreme events, which in turn could be related to low frequency variability. The impact on the society and environment requires that the regional specificities are understood. For mainland Portugal, this work reports the results of the analysis of trends in selected precipitation indices calculated from daily precipitation data from 57 meteorological stations, recorded in the period 1941-2007; additionally we have also investigated the correlations between these indices and several modes of low frequency variability over the area. We focus on exploring regional differences and seasonal variations in the intensity, frequency and duration of extreme precipitation events. The precipitation indices were assessed at the seasonal scale and calculated at both the station and regional scales. Results sometimes highlight marked changes in seasonal precipitation and show that: i) trends in spring and autumn have opposite signals: statistically significant drying trends in the spring are accompanied by a reduction in precipitation extremes; in autumn, wetting trends are detected for all precipitation indices, although overall they are not significant at the 5% level; ii) there seems to be a tendency for a reduction in the duration of the rainy season; iii) the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the mode of variability that has the highest influence on precipitation extremes over mainland Portugal, particularly in the winter and autumn, and is one of the most important teleconnection patterns in all seasons. This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) through project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010).

  15. The Associations of Maternal Weight Change with Breastfeeding, Diet and Physical Activity During the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    López-Olmedo, Nancy; Hernández-Cordero, Sonia; Neufeld, Lynnette M; García-Guerra, Armando; Mejía-Rodríguez, Fabiola; Méndez Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio

    2016-02-01

    Objective To determine the association between breastfeeding practices, diet and physical activity and maternal postpartum weight. Methods This was a secondary data analysis of a randomized community trial on beneficiaries of the Programa de Desarrollo Humano Oportunidades, recently renamed Prospera (n = 314 pregnant women), without any diseases that could affect body weight. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine the association between postpartum weight change and changes in diet, physical activity and type of breastfeeding. Results The mean postpartum weight change from the first to the third month was 0.6 ± 2.2 kg. Women who breastfed exclusively for 3 months had a 4.1 (SE = 1.9) kg weight reduction in comparison with women who did not provide exclusive breastfeeding or who discontinued breastfeeding before 3 months (p = 0.04). There was no association between postpartum weight change and physical activity (p = 0.24) or energy intake (p = 0.06). Conclusions Exclusive breastfeeding was associated with maternal postpartum weight reduction. These results reinforce the World Health Organization recommendation of exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life in order to reduce the risk of weight retention or weight gain in postpartum women. It has been well established that exclusive breastfeeding is beneficial for both infants and mothers, but promoting breastfeeding as a strategy to promote postpartum weight loss is of paramount importance, especially in countries like Mexico where excessive weight in women of reproductive age is a public health problem. PMID:26525558

  16. Simulação de ejeções de massa coronal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsini, M. A.; Silva, A. V. R.

    2003-08-01

    Ejeções de massa coronal (EMC) são bolhas gigantes de gás permeadas por campos magnéticos que são ejetadas do Sol durante um período de várias horas. Caso estas ejeções atinjam a Terra, geralmente, causam uma série de distúrbios às comunicações de longa distância e navegação, além de danos a satélites e transformadores. Portanto, é desejável que sejamos capazes de prever quando estas ejeções atingirão a Terra. Para tanto, é necessário um bom entendimento dos mecanismos causadores das ejeções e, principalmente, de como se dá a propagação das EMC e sua interação com o vento solar que permeia o meio interplanetário. Nesse sentido foi desenvolvido um programa computacional para resolver as equações MHD (Magneto-Hidro-Dinâmica) que regem a evolução das EMC. Primeiramente foram estabelecidas as condições necessárias para descrever o vento solar, no estado estacionário, que permeia todo o meio interplanetário. Num primeiro momento, resolveu-se o sistema de equações para o caso do vento isotérmico, conhecida como a solução de Parker, a fim de testarmos o modelo. Então, foi considerado o caso do vento solar com temperatura variável no meio interplanetário. Este resultado foi utilizado como a base de nosso sistema em seu instante inicial. Posteriormente foram feitas as considerações necessárias para descrever a propagação da Ejeção de Massa Coronal. As EMC foram simuladas como um aumento de densidade e temperatura local na coroa solar. A órbita e a posição da Terra foram incluídas no sistema. Os dados gerados possibilitaram uma análise da evolução da EMC pelo meio interplanetário até encontrar-se com a Terra. Os perfis de densidade e temperatura a 1 Unidade Astronômica são comparados com os dados de satélites reportados na literatura.

  17. Access to and utilization of prenatal care services in the Unified Health System of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Leal, Maria do Carmo; Hartz, Zulmira Maria de Araujo; Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos; Vettore, Marcelo Vianna

    2013-12-01

    Prenatal care consists of practices considered to be effective for the reduction of adverse perinatal outcomes. However, studies have demonstrated inequities in pregnant women's access to prenatal care, with worse outcomes among those with lower socioeconomic status. The objective of this study is to evaluate access to and utilization of prenatal services in the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS - Unified Health System) in the city of Rio de Janeiro and to verify its association with the characteristics of pregnant women and health services. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2007-2008, using interviews and the analysis of prenatal care cards of 2.353 pregnant women attending low risk prenatal care services of the SUS. A descriptive analysis of the reasons mentioned by women for the late start of prenatal care and hierarchical logistic regression for the identification of the factors associated with prenatal care use were performed. The absence of a diagnosis of pregnancy and poor access to services were the reasons most often reported for the late start of prenatal care. Earlier access was found among white pregnant women, who had a higher level of education, were primiparous and lived with a partner. The late start of prenatal care was the factor most associated with the inadequate number of consultations, also observed in pregnant adolescents. Black women had a lower level of adequacy of tests performed as well as a lower overall adequacy of prenatal care, considering the Programa de Humanização do Pré-Natal e Nascimento (PHPN - Prenatal and Delivery Humanization Program) recommendations. Strategies for the identification of pregnant women at a higher reproductive risk, reduction in organizational barriers to services and increase in access to family planning and early diagnosis of pregnancy should be prioritized. PMID:24896600

  18. Phase II trial to assess the safety and efficacy of clofarabine in combination with low-dose cytarabine in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cuadrón, David; Montesinos, Pau; Oriol, Albert; Salamero, Olga; Vidriales, Belén; Bergua, Juan; Herrera, Pilar; Vives, Susanna; Sanz, Jaime; Carpio, Cecilia; Rodríguez-Veiga, Rebeca; Moscardó, Federico; Sanz, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that clofarabine plus low-dose cytarabine (LDAC) could induce roughly 60 % of complete remissions (CR) with acceptable toxicity and induction mortality in elderly acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients not suitable for intensive chemotherapy. The Programa Español de Tratamientos en Hematología group conducted a trial for patients diagnosed with untreated AML aged 60 years and older, using the combination of clofarabine (20 mg/m(2)?×?5 days) plus low-dose cytarabine (20 mg/m(2)?×?14 days). The protocol was flexible regarding the use of antifungal and antibacterial prophylaxis, and outpatient induction therapy was allowed. Although the planned recruitment goal was 75 patients, only 11 patients were enrolled (median age, 74 years) after observing high toxicity and unacceptable mortality (46 and 73 % at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively). The response assessment showed three CR (27 %), three resistant diseases (27 %), and five induction deaths (46 %). Induction was administered in an outpatient modality in five patients, while antifungal and antibacterial prophylaxis was not given in seven and five patients, respectively. In our context, induction therapy with the combination of clofarabine (20 mg/m(2)) plus LDAC was associated with high toxicity and unacceptable mortality in elderly AML patients, leading to the early interruption of the trial. Tight patients' clinical monitoring, follow-up, and intensive supportive care seem crucial to achieve at least acceptable clinical outcomes in elderly AML patients receiving clofarabine plus LDAC. This trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as no. NCT01193400. PMID:24081577

  19. Improving the effectiveness of impact assessment pertaining to Indigenous peoples in the Brazilian environmental licensing procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, Philippe; Vanclay, Frank; Langdon, Esther Jean; Arts, Jos

    2014-04-01

    The number of environmental licence applications for projects affecting Indigenous peoples in Brazil has increased since the implementation of a major infrastructure program (Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento) in 2007. This increase has caused problems for Brazilian agencies involved in environmental licensing procedures (IBAMA, FUNAI and others). We analyze the Brazilian environmental licensing procedure for situations involving Indigenous peoples, Maroons (Quilombolas) or other traditional communities in order to identify potential improvements for Brazil and potentially other countries. Although Brazilian procedures are consistent with international best practice in environmental licensing, in practice social impacts are inadequately addressed, mitigation measures are poorly implemented, and there is a lack of enforcement and compliance. The paper is based on document analysis and interviews with key actors in governmental and non-governmental organizations and Indigenous leaders. We suggest that Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) processes need to be conducted at the earliest stages of project planning, and that Indigenous peoples should actively participate in impact assessment, monitoring and evaluation processes. In order to achieve a social licence to operate, there needs to be full recognition of traditional knowledge and acceptance of Indigenous values and concepts. We also recommend increased involvement of social experts and mediators as well as improved accountability, enforcement and grievance mechanisms in the licensing process. - Highlights: • The Brazilian environmental licensing system needs to address social impacts better. • Communities need to be consulted at the earliest stage possible. • Indigenous peoples need to be invited to participate in impact assessment teams. • Independent Indigenous committees to monitor implementation of mitigation measures. • Accountability, enforcement and grievance mechanisms need to be improved.

  20. The DOE s In-Plant Training (INPLT) Model to Promote Energy Efficiency in the Industrial Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Nimbalkar, Sachin U; De Fontaine, Mr. Andre; Schoeneborn, Fred C

    2013-01-01

    In-Plant Training (INPLT) is a new model for developing energy efficiency expertise within the US manufacturing companies participating in the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE s) Better Buildings, Better Plants Program-a nationwide initiative to drive a 25% reduction in industrial energy intensity in 10 years. INPLTs are designed to fill a market niche by providing hands on training in a real world manufacturing plant environment. Through INPLTs, participants from multiple manufacturing plants, supply chains, utilities, and other external stakeholders learn how to conduct energy assessments, use energy analysis tools to analyze energy saving opportunities, develop energy management systems, and implement energy savings projects. Typical INPLT events are led by DOE-certified Energy Experts and range from 2-4 days. Topics discussed include: identification of cross-cutting or system specific opportunities; introduction to ISO 50001 Energy Management Systems; and energy project implementation and replication. This model is flexible, and can be tailored to suit the needs of specific industries. The INPLTs are a significant departure from the traditional single plant energy assessment model previously employed by DOE. INPLTs shift the focus from the concept of a single-plant s energy profile to a broader focus on training and capacity building among multiple industrial participants. The objective is to enable trainees to identify, quantify, implement and replicate future energy saving projects without continued external assistance. This paper discusses the INPLT model and highlights some of the initial outcomes from the successfully delivered INPLTs and the overall impact in terms of numbers of plants/participants trained, impacted energy footprints, and potential replication of identified opportunities.

  21. Evolución Dinámica de Cúmulos Estelares Abiertos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Fuente Marcos, R.

    Las estrellas que observamos no se formaron aisladamente, sino que lo hicieron en grupos o cúmulos. Estos sistemas estelares recibenel nombre de cúmulos estelares abiertos o galácticos cuando están constituidos por estrellas de la Población I. Los cúmulos abiertos se localizan preferentemente en el plano galáctico, y en muchos de ellos está teniendo lugar aún una activa formación estelar. El propósito principal de esta tesis doctoral es el estudio de la evolución dinámica de estos sistemas estelares por medio de simulaciones numéricas y de la comparación de sus resultados con datos observacionales. Con este fin se analizan los efectos que, sobre la dinámica de los cúmulos, ejercen varios fenómenos de interés astrofísico tales como el campo gravitatorio galáctico, la pérdida de masa causada por la evolución estelar y la presencia de binarias primordiales. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de más de un centenar de modelos de cúmulos, con poblaciones comprendidas en el intervalo [100, 10.000] estrellas, calculados con NBODY5, un programa estándar en el campo de la Dinámica Estelar Experimental. De los mismos se deduce que el mecanismo principal que rige la dinámica de los cúmulos abiertos es la evolución estelar de su distribución de masas, encontrándose un comportamiento diferencial fuertemente dependiente de la población inicial del cúmulo. Los mecanismos responsables de la desintegración de los cúmulos abiertos son analizados en detalle, proponiéndose un modelo analítico que ajusta razonablemente los resultados de las simulaciones. Además, y con el fin de explicar el elevado número de sistemas múltiples observados en cúmulos abiertos, se estudian los efectos que, sobre los mismos, ejerce la presencia de una cierta fracción de binarias primordiales. El papel de las binarias tambiín depende de la riqueza del cúmulo y sus efectos se interrelacionan con aquellos debidos a la evolución estelar. Por último, se aborda la posibilidad de construir diagramas de Hertzsprung-Russell teóricos a partir de las simulaciones y compararlos con datos procedentes de cúmulos abiertos reales.

  22. Incorporando a variabilidade no processo de identificação do modelo de máximo global no Grade of Membership (GoM): considerações metodológicas

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho; Siviero, Pamila Cristina Lima; Caetano, André Junqueira; Machado, Carla Jorge; Brondízio, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    A disponibilidade de bases de dados cada vez mais complexas e multidimensionais é um dos principais motivadores para o aumento do número de estudos que utilizam análises multivariadas baseadas em lógica de conjuntos nebulosos. Apesar da disseminação do método Grade of Membership nos trabalhos empíricos brasileiros da área de ciências sociais e saúde, questões relativas à identificabilidade e estabilidade dos parâmetros finais estimados pelo programa GoM 3.4 não foram suficientemente aprofundadas. Dada a relevância de se obterem parâmetros únicos e estáveis, Guedes et al. (2010) propuseram um procedimento empírico para localizar um modelo de máximo global (MG) com parâmetros estáveis. Entretanto, seu localizador de MG não incorpora qualquer medida de variabilidade. Neste artigo, tal limitação é contornada por meio da utilização de uma estatística de ponderação – Máximo Global Ponderado (MGP) – semelhante ao coeficiente de variação. Esse indicador busca não penalizar de forma desproporcional situações nas quais os desvios médios, apesar de diferentes de zero, são muito pequenos. Apresentam-se evidências de que o localizador MGP reduz a distância do modelo identificado à real estrutura latente dos dados em análise, quando comparados ao modelo identificado pelo localizador não ponderado, MG. PMID:23293402

  23. Methods for economic evaluation of a factorial-design cluster randomised controlled trial of a nutrition supplement and an exercise programme among healthy older people living in Santiago, Chile: the CENEX study

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Damian G; Aedo, Cristian; Albala, Cecilia; Allen, Elizabeth; Dangour, Alan D; Elbourne, Diana; Grundy, Emily; Uauy, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Background In an effort to promote healthy ageing and preserve health and function, the government of Chile has formulated a package of actions into the Programme for Complementary Food in Older People (Programa de Alimentación Complementaria para el Adulto Mayor - PACAM). The CENEX study was designed to evaluate the impact, cost and cost-effectiveness of the PACAM and a specially designed exercise programme on pneumonia incidence, walking capacity and body mass index in healthy older people living in low- to medium-socio-economic status areas of Santiago. The purpose of this paper is to describe in detail the methods that will be used to estimate the incremental costs and cost-effectiveness of the interventions. Methods and design The base-case analysis will adopt a societal perspective, including the direct medical and non-medical costs borne by the government and patients. The cost of the interventions will be calculated by the ingredients approach, in which the total quantities of goods and services actually employed in applying the interventions will be estimated, and multiplied by their respective unit prices. Relevant information on costs of interventions will be obtained mainly from administrative records. The costs borne by patients will be collected via exit and telephone interviews. An annual discount rate of 8% will be used, consistent with the rate recommended by the Government of Chile. All costs will be converted from Chilean Peso to US dollars with the 2007 average period exchange rate of US$1 = 522.37 Chilean Peso. To test the robustness of model results, we will vary the assumptions over a plausible range in sensitivity analyses. Discussion The protocol described here indicates our intent to conduct an economic evaluation alongside the CENEX study. It provides a detailed and transparent statement of planned data collection methods and analyses. Trial registration ISRCTN48153354 PMID:19473513

  24. The InterCon network: a program for education partnerships at the University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center.

    PubMed

    Castro, G A; Bouldin, P A; Farver, D W; Maugans, L A; Sanders, L C; Booker, J

    1999-04-01

    The University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center (UT-Houston) has created programs and activities to address the state's pressing needs in minority education. Through InterCon, a network of universities and K-12 schools, UT-Houston works with its partners to identify competitive candidates in the current pool of minority graduates with bachelor's degrees and to help them--along with their non-minority counterparts--progress in their education. Another objective is to expand the pool of minorities underrepresented in medicine who complete high school and go to college. In 1994 UT-Houston and Prairie View A&M University created a collaborative venture to provide new educational opportunities at UT-Houston for Prairie View's predominantly African American students. A three-track summer internship program--a result of that collaboration--has since been expanded to partnerships with other minority and majority universities throughout Texas. In 1998, for example, 108 undergraduate students from these universities (and 40 other universities nationwide) participated in research, professional, and administrative summer internships at UT-Houston. The InterCon network also has partnerships with K-12 schools. UT-Houston works with inner-city, suburban, and rural school districts to develop education models that can be transferred throughout the state. The partnerships deal with helping to teach basic academic skills and computer literacy, improve science-related instruction, meet demands for health promotion materials and information for school-initiated health and wellness programs, and develop distance-learning paradigms. UT-Houston views InterCon as a program helping Texas institutions to engage and adapt to the socioeconomic factors, demographic changes, and technology explosion that currently challenge public education. PMID:10219211

  1. Identificação de variáveis cataclísmicas eruptivas na direção do bojo galáctico e Nuvens de Magalhães usando dados do OGLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieslinski, D.; Diaz, M. P.; Mennickent, R.; Pietrzyski, G.

    2003-08-01

    Na década de 90 iniciaram-se vários programas para a pesquisa de matéria escura na Galáxia usando o efeito de microlentes gravitacionais. Entre os projetos mais bem conhecidos podemos mencionar o OGLE (Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment) e o MACHO (MAssive Compact Halo Objects). A estratégia usada por eles consiste em fazer fotometria de banda larga (normalmente B, R e I) de um grande número de estrelas (dezenas de milhões) tão freqüentemente quanto possí vel e por longos perí odos de tempo (anos). Uma tal sistemática de observação, além de descobrir inúmeras lentes gravitacionais, é também muito apropriada para a descoberta de estrelas variáveis. De fato, inúmeras novas variáveis de vários tipos foram descobertas como subproduto. Exemplos podem ser encontrados nos endereços http://bulge.princeton.edu/~ogle/ e http://wwwmacho.mcmaster.ca/. As variáveis cataclí smicas eruptivas (novas clássicas, novas recorrentes e novas anãs) são objetos que apresentam variabilidade de grande amplitude com escalas de tempo de dias a centenas de dias e, por esta razão, devem ter sido detectadas em grande número nestes "surveys". Para testar esta possibilidade nós procuramos nos dados do OGLE por tais sistemas e o presente trabalho mostra os resultados desta pesquisa. Os objetos foram selecionados entre as variáveis detectadas usando a amplitude de variação de brilho como critério principal. Este critério forneceu 13756 objetos, sendo 2169 na direção da Grande Nuvem de Magalhães, 1162 na direção da Pequena Nuvem de Magalhães e o restante na direção do Bojo Galáctico. A análise foi feita inspecionando-se visualmente cada curva de luz por erupções com as características acima mencionadas. Os resultados obtidos podem ser sumarizados como: descoberta de duas novas clássicas e 33 novas anãs. Além disso, pode-se mencionar a identificação de candidatas a outros tipos de variáveis como: estrelas simbióticas, RV Tauri, R Coronae Borealis, Miras, etc.

  2. Astronomia para/com crianças carentes em Limeira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Oliveira, V. C.

    2003-08-01

    Em 2001, o Instituto Superior de Ciências Aplicadas (ISCA Faculdades de Limeira) iniciou um projeto pelo qual o Observatório do Morro Azul empreendeu uma parceria com o Centro de Promoção Social Municipal (CEPROSOM), instituição mantida pela Prefeitura Municipal de Limeira para atender crianças e adolescentes carentes. O CEPROSOM contava com dois projetos: Projeto Centro de Convivência Infantil (CCI) e Programa Criança e Adolescente (PCA), que atendiam crianças e adolescentes em Centros Comunitários de diversas áreas da cidade. Esses projetos têm como prioridades estabelecer atividades prazerosas para as crianças no sentido de retirá-las das ruas. Assim sendo, as crianças passaram a ter mais um tipo de atividade - as visitas ao observatório. Este painel descreve as várias fases do projeto, que envolveu: reuniões de planejamento, curso de Astronomia para as orientadoras dos CCIs e PCAs, atividades relacionadas a visitas das crianças ao Observatório, proposta de construção de gnômons e relógios de Sol nos diversos Centros Comunitários de Limeira e divulgação do projeto na imprensa. O painel inclui discussões sobre a aprendizagem de crianças carentes, relatos que mostram a postura das orientadoras sobre a pertinência do ensino de Astronomia, relatos do monitor que fez o atendimento no Observatório e o que o número de crianças atendidas representou para as atividades da instituição desde o início de suas atividades e, em particular, em 2001. Os resultados são baseados na análise de relatos das orientadoras e do monitor do Observatório, registros de visitas e matérias da imprensa local. Conclui com uma avaliação do que tal projeto representou para as Instituições participantes. Para o Observatório, em particular, foi feita uma análise com relação às outras modalidades de atendimentos que envolvem alunos de escolas e público em geral. Também é abordada a questão do compromisso social do Observatório na educação do público em questão.

  3. Prognostic value of FLT3 mutations in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline monochemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Barragán, Eva; Montesinos, Pau; Camos, Mireia; González, Marcos; Calasanz, Maria J.; Román-Gómez, José; Gómez-Casares, Maria T.; Ayala, Rosa; López, Javier; Fuster, Óscar; Colomer, Dolors; Chillón, Carmen; Larrayoz, María J.; Sánchez-Godoy, Pedro; González-Campos, José; Manso, Félix; Amador, Maria L.; Vellenga, Edo; Lowenberg, Bob; Sanz, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) gene mutations are frequent in acute promyelocytic leukemia but their prognostic value is not well established. Design and Methods We evaluated FLT3-internal tandem duplication and FLT3-D835 mutations in patients treated with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline-based chemotherapy enrolled in two subsequent trials of the Programa de Estudio y Tratamiento de las Hemopatías Malignas (PETHEMA) and Hemato-Oncologie voor Volwassenen Nederland (HOVON) groups between 1996 and 2005. Results FLT3-internal tandem duplication and FLT3-D835 mutation status was available for 306 (41%) and 213 (29%) patients, respectively. Sixty-eight (22%) and 20 (9%) patients had internal tandem duplication and D835 mutations, respectively. Internal tandem duplication was correlated with higher white blood cell and blast counts, lactate dehydrogenase, relapse-risk score, fever, hemorrhage, coagulopathy, BCR3 isoform, M3 variant subtype, and expression of CD2, CD34, human leukocyte antigen-DR, and CD11b surface antigens. The FLT3-D835 mutation was not significantly associated with any clinical or biological characteristic. Univariate analysis showed higher relapse and lower survival rates in patients with a FLT3-internal tandem duplication, while no impact was observed in relation to FLT3-D835. The prognostic value of the FLT3-internal tandem duplication was not retained in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions FLT3-internal tandem duplication mutations are associated with several hematologic features in acute promyelocytic leukemia, in particular with high white blood cell counts, but we were unable to demonstrate an independent prognostic value in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline-based regimens. PMID:21685470

  4. Neurologic outcomes of toxic oil syndrome patients 18 years after the epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    de la Paz, Manuel Posada; Philen, Rossanne M; Gerr, Fredric; Letz, Richard; Ferrari Arroyo, Maria José; Vela, Lydia; Izquierdo, Maravillas; Arribas, Concepción Martín; Borda, Ignacio Abaitua; Ramos, Alejandro; Mora, Cristina; Matesanz, Gloria; Roldán, Maria Teresa; Pareja, Juan

    2003-01-01

    Toxic oil syndrome (TOS) resulted from consumption of rapeseed oil denatured with 2% aniline and affected more than 20,000 persons. Eighteen years after the epidemic, many patients continue to report neurologic symptoms that are difficult to evaluate using conventional techniques. We conducted an epidemiologic study to determine whether an exposure to toxic oil 18 years ago was associated with current adverse neurobehavioral effects. We studied a case group of 80 adults exposed to toxic oil 18 years ago and a referent group of 79 adult age- and sex-frequency-matched unexposed subjects. We interviewed subjects for demographics, health status, exposures to neurotoxicants, and responses to the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT), Programa Integrado de Exploracion Neuropsicologica (PIEN), and Goldberg depression questionnaires and administered quantitative neurobehavioral and neurophysiologic tests by computer or trained nurses. The groups did not differ with respect to educational background or other critical variables. We examined associations between case and referent groups and the neurobehavioral and neurophysiologic outcomes of interest. Decreased distal strength of the dominant and nondominant hands and increased vibrotactile thresholds of the fingers and toes were significantly associated with exposure to toxic oil. Finger tapping, simple reaction time latency, sequence B latency, symbol digit latency, and auditory digit span were also significantly associated with exposure. Case subjects also had statistically significantly more neuropsychologic symptoms compared with referents. Using quantitative neurologic tests, we found significant adverse central and peripheral neurologic effects in a group of TOS patients 18 years after exposure to toxic oil when compared with a nonexposed referent group. These effects were not documented by standard clinical examination and were found more frequently in women. PMID:12896854

  5. A national clinical quality program for Veterans Affairs catheterization laboratories (from the Veterans Affairs clinical assessment, reporting, and tracking program).

    PubMed

    Maddox, Thomas M; Plomondon, Mary E; Petrich, Megan; Tsai, Thomas T; Gethoffer, Hans; Noonan, Gregory; Gillespie, Brian; Box, Tamara; Fihn, Stephen D; Jesse, Robert L; Rumsfeld, John S

    2014-12-01

    A "learning health care system", as outlined in a recent Institute of Medicine report, harnesses real-time clinical data to continuously measure and improve clinical care. However, most current efforts to understand and improve the quality of care rely on retrospective chart abstractions complied long after the provision of clinical care. To align more closely with the goals of a learning health care system, we present the novel design and initial results of the Veterans Affairs (VA) Clinical Assessment, Reporting, and Tracking (CART) program-a national clinical quality program for VA cardiac catheterization laboratories that harnesses real-time clinical data to support clinical care and quality-monitoring efforts. Integrated within the VA electronic health record, the CART program uses a specialized software platform to collect real-time patient and procedural data for all VA patients undergoing coronary procedures in VA catheterization laboratories. The program began in 2005 and currently contains data on 434,967 catheterization laboratory procedures, including 272,097 coronary angiograms and 86,481 percutaneous coronary interventions, performed by 801 clinicians on 246,967 patients. We present the initial data from the CART program and describe 3 quality-monitoring programs that use its unique characteristics-procedural and complications feedback to individual labs, coronary device surveillance, and major adverse event peer review. The VA CART program is a novel approach to electronic health record design that supports clinical care, quality, and safety in VA catheterization laboratories. Its approach holds promise in achieving the goals of a learning health care system. PMID:25439452

  6. Comparison of analytical predictions and verification flight test results for the performance of the Spacelab environmental control and life support subsystem as obtained during the 1st mission.

    PubMed

    Loser, H

    1985-12-01

    The environmental control and life support subsystem (ECLS) of the Spacelab module provides various functions which can be assigned to its various branches as follows: Thermal insulation from the external environment is achieved by the passive thermal control subsystem (PTCS). Rejection of the heat produced by the Spacelab subsystem equipment and by the various experiments is the task of the active thermal control subsystem (ATCS). Life support in the form of cabin air ventilation, oxygen/carbon dioxide partial pressure control; total pressure and air temperature/humidity control is achieved by the life support subsystem (LSS). In the first part of the paper a brief description of the various elements and loops forming the Spacelab ECLS will be given by discussing the PTCS, ATCS and LSS in some detail. Objective of the verification flight test program--as implied in the title already--is the verification of major requirements the ECLS has to comply with. Those requirements will then be comprehensively discussed in the second part of the paper. A description of the analytical approach is given in the third part of the paper. However, only those areas will be addressed which were included in the verification flight test program. A brief description of the flight instrumentation, the data transmission and collection follows then in the fourth part of the paper. In the fifth part of the paper the approach to select and compile flight test data obtained during the first mission (Shuttle flight STS 9) from November 28 till December 8, 1983 is illustrated. Flight test data are compared with the analytical predictions in form of examples. In the sixth and last portion of the paper the actual/measured performance is compared with the requirements, and conclusions are drawn with respect to comprehensiveness/accuracy of the flight test verification and the compliance of the Spacelab actual performance with the requirements. PMID:11542823

  7. Composição química, evolução e cinemática de estrelas de tipo solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, R. O.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; Milone, A. C.

    2003-08-01

    A composição química das estrelas de tipo solar é um diagnóstico extremamente valioso da evolução química do disco da Galáxia. Existe alguma evidência de que tal evolução tem sido heterogênea no espaço e ao longo do tempo e que a composição química do Sol pode não ser um padrão representativo de abundâncias. Neste trabalho, foram obtidas as abundâncias dos elementos químicos C, N, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd e Sm em uma amostra de estrelas de tipo solar na vizinhança solar (distâncias £ 25 pc). A técnica empregada foi a análise espectroscópica diferencial em relação ao Sol, baseando-se em dados de alta resolução (R ~ 46.000) e alta razão sinal/ruído (S/R > 300), obtidos com o espectrógrafo échelle de bancada do telescópio de 1,5 m do CTIO. Adicionalmente, abundâncias de C e N foram obtidas através de síntese de bandas moleculares dos Sistemas Eletrônicos Swan do C2 e Vermelho do CN utilizando-se um programa de síntese espectral. Os parâmetros atmosféricos foram estabelecidos usando cores fotométricas, o equilíbrio de excitação e ionização de linhas do Fe e a análise da temperatura e da luminosidade estelares no diagrama HR. Os resultados de abundâncias químicas obtidos proporcionam uma melhor compreensão da relação das abundâncias conhecidas para o Sol com a das estrelas anãs de tipo G da população local, uma vez que as razões de abundâncias de diversos elementos (em relação ao ferro) obtidas para estrelas de metalicidade semelhante à solar diferem daquelas obtidas para o Sol. Tais resultados também contribuem para um melhor entendimento do processo de evolução química da vizinhança solar e do enriquecimento nucleossintético do disco galáctico.

  8. Descripción del coronógrafo a ser instalado en Argentina (MICA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenborg, G.; Francile, C.; Schwenn, R.; Epple, A.; Rovira, M.

    El ``Coronógrafo de espejo para Argentina'' es un telescopio solar terrestre a ser colocado en el Observatorio Astronómico Félix Aguilar (El Leoncito), antes de finalizar 1996, como parte de un programa de ciencia bilateral entre Alemania y Argentina. Eclipses fotográficos de alta resolución han revelado que la corona solar es altamente estructurada y variable. De hecho, está contínuamente deformada y moldeada por los movimientos convectivos de los extremos de los arcos magnéticos en la fotosfera, estando, en muchas oportunidades, afectada por explosivas liberaciones de energía. MICA, en conjunción con otros telescopios solares espaciales y terrestres, tratará de contribuir al entendimiento de cuestiones fundamentales de la física solar. Entre ellas: cómo la corona está siendo calentada, dónde y cómo el viento solar es acelerado, qué causa los transitorios coronales, etc. Para ello investigará la distribución de los parámetros del plasma y su evolución con el tiempo, la estructura espacial de la corona en fina y gran escala, procesos que ocurren en los transitorios coronales y factores que los disparan, etc. Para responder a estas cuestiones MICA observará la atmósfera solar por sobre el limbo entre 1.1 y 2 radios solares aproximadamente, usando un nuevo tipo de sistema coronográfico que permite suprimir el brillo del disco solar suficientemente bien, tomando las imágenes con una cámara CCD de 1024x1024 pixels, codificada en 12 bits, pudiendo el mismo ser operado en forma remota. En la presente exposición describiremos las características del instrumento, cómo será controlado y qué esperamos observar basados en las imágenes obtenidas por los telescopios de similares características LASCO C1 a bordo del SOHO y PICO (ubicado en el Observatorio de Pic du Midi, Francia).

  9. Current Approaches for Control Room I and C Modernization

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Alberto; Jimenez, Alfonso

    2002-07-01

    In general, instrumentation and control (I and C) systems for nuclear power plants were made using analogic systems and relays, since this was the only technology available by the time these systems were designed. This fact impacts on the operational and maintenance capabilities required to these systems. For this reason, nuclear power plants are facing nowadays two challenges: on one hand, the obsolescence of these systems contributes to the increase in the operation and maintenance costs - due to the difficulties for getting spare parts and support from the system vendors -. On the other hand, there has been an increase in the utilities competitiveness due to the electric power market liberalization. All this, of course, along with the commitment to maintain the current safety levels and meet the new requirements and standards that may arise in the near future. The application of current technologies, especially digital technology, solves the obsolescence problems and allows for a more functional and updated human-machine interface. Nevertheless, the cost associated to these modifications makes it necessary to develop strategies to determine which systems need to be modified and how to implement modifications effectively, so that these systems can work jointly with others using different technologies. Other issues inherent to digital technology must be considered, such as verification and validation of the software and of the human-machine interface, which are required for its licensing. This presentation describes the current approaches for I and C modernization, the main reasons, technologies and implementation plans, focusing on the control room and on the impact on operations. The main issues to be considered for developing a specific modernization plan are analysed. The goals and status of the 'Feasibility Study of the Control Room I and C Modernization' are described. This study is currently being developed by Endesa, Iberdrola and Tecnatom, and is included within the PROFIT program (Programa Nacional de Fomento de la Investigacion Tecnica). Vandellos 2 NPP is the pilot plant. (authors)

  10. Conceptuaciones de los estudiantes de las facultades de educacion y ciencias naturales de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, recinto de Rio Piedras, acerca de la ciencia y la pseudociencia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes Medina, Hector A.

    Esta investigacion describe las conceptuaciones de los estudiantes de tercer ano o mas a nivel de bachillerato de los programas de Educacion en Ciencia y Ciencias Naturales de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, Recinto de Rio Piedras, acerca de lo establecido en la literatura para distinguir el conocimiento cientifico de las creencias pseudocientificas. Este estudio se guio por un diseno tipo encuesta transversal que permitio conocer de manera consistente las conceptuaciones de los estudiantes encuestados acerca de la Ciencia y la Pseudociencia. Ademas, permitio desarrollar inferencias estadisticas relacionadas a la poblacion de estudio, sus conceptuaciones y su inclinacion teorica en torno al Realismo y al Racionalismo cientifico moderados. El instrumento utilizado fue el Cuestionario acerca de las concepciones de la ciencia y la pseudocienca en estudiantes universitarios, Reyes (2015). Este cuestionario fue validado mediante la recopilacion de diversas fuentes de evidencias, entre estas se encuentran las evidencias basadas en el contenido, el proceso de respuesta, la estructura interna y de constructo. Tambien, se calculo el Alfa de Crombach para la escala total y para cada componente y se realizo un analisis de factores que demostro la presencia de seis componentes claramente definidos de acuerdo a lo esperado sobre las caracteristicas originales del instrumento. Las estadisticas utilizadas fueron descriptivas. Participaron 302 alumnos, de las facultades de educacion y ciencias naturales. Se encontro que las conceptuaciones de los estudiantes de ambas facultades se inclinan en un 66.2% a favor con lo establecido en el modelo teorico en torno al Realismo y al Racionalismo cientifico moderados. Sin embargo, aun hay un 33.8% de los estudiantes de ambas facultades que poseen conceptuaciones distintas al modelo teorico propuesto.

  11. Contaminant plume configuration and movement: an experimental model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alencoao, A.; Reis, A.; Pereira, M. G.; Liberato, M. L. R.; Caramelo, L.; Amraoui, M.; Amorim, V.

    2009-04-01

    The relevance of Science and Technology in our daily routines makes it compulsory to educate citizens who have both scientific literacy and scientific knowledge. These will allow them to be intervening citizens in a constantly changing society. Thus, physical and natural sciences are included in school curricula, both in primary and secondary education, with the fundamental aim of developing in the students the skills, attitudes and knowledge needed for the understanding of the planet Earth and its real problems. On the other hand, teaching in Geosciences is more and more based on practical methodologies which use didactic material, sustaining teachers' pedagogical practices and facilitating students' learning tasks suggested on the syllabus defined for each school level. Themes related to exploring the different components of the Hydrological Cycle and themes related to natural environment protection and preservation, namely water resources and soil contamination by industrial and urban sewage are examples of subject matters included on the Portuguese syllabus. These topics motivated the conception and construction of experimental models for the study of the propagation of pollutants on a porous medium. The experimental models allow inducing a horizontal flux of water though different kinds of permeable substances (e.g. sand, silt), with contamination spots on its surface. These experimental activities facilitate the student to understand the flow path of contaminating substances on the saturated zone and to observe the contaminant plume configuration and movement. The activities are explored in a teaching and learning process perspective where the student builds its own knowledge through real question- problem based learning which relate Science, Technology and Society. These activities have been developed in the framework of project ‘Water in the Environment' (CV/PVI/0854) of the POCTI Program (Programa Operacional "Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovação") financed by the Portuguese Fundation for Science and Tecnology and FEDER Program.

  12. Nutritional status and epidemiological profile of elderly people.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Gonçalves DF; Tinoco AL; Ribeiro Rde C; Martinho KO; de Mendonça ET; Benfica DT

    2012-07-01

    We intended to identify and evaluate the association between the socio-demographic and epidemiological characteristics of elderly people with their nutritional characteristics. This is a transversal study PMTI (from the Portuguese name of "Programa Municipal da Terceira Idade"), conducted at Viçosa, MG, Brazil. We analyzed 93 records of elderly people registered since 2006 and who underwent nutritional care. After having analyzed the questionnaire, we performed the descriptive and association analyses in the Epi Info (version 6.04) and Minitab softwares. Of the 93 analyzed records, most elderly people were women (80.4%), with an average of 72 years of age, of which 13.0% were long-lived people. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.4 kg/m(2), and 50.5% were overweight. We have found 26.8% elderly patients with hypertension, and 31.6% took antihypertensives. Elderly patients who were overweight are 4.54 times more likely to have arterial hypertension (odds ratio (OR)=4.54; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.2-2.45). Only 7.5% smoked, 30.1% were alcoholics and 60.2% made physical activities. Inadequacies were found regarding the servings of fruits, dairy products, vegetables and sugars consumed. However, the servings of cereals, leguminous, meat and fat consumed were appropriate. This study showed that the nutritional diagnosis and the epidemiological and socio-demographic studies are critical tools to understand this population group, in addition to being important to the planning of health actions.

  13. Nutritional status and epidemiological profile of elderly people.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Déborah Franco; Tinoco, Adelson Luiz Araújo; Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia Lanes; Martinho, Karina Oliveira; de Mendonça, Erica Toledo; Benfica, Dalilla Tâmara

    2012-01-01

    We intended to identify and evaluate the association between the socio-demographic and epidemiological characteristics of elderly people with their nutritional characteristics. This is a transversal study PMTI (from the Portuguese name of "Programa Municipal da Terceira Idade"), conducted at Viçosa, MG, Brazil. We analyzed 93 records of elderly people registered since 2006 and who underwent nutritional care. After having analyzed the questionnaire, we performed the descriptive and association analyses in the Epi Info (version 6.04) and Minitab softwares. Of the 93 analyzed records, most elderly people were women (80.4%), with an average of 72 years of age, of which 13.0% were long-lived people. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.4 kg/m(2), and 50.5% were overweight. We have found 26.8% elderly patients with hypertension, and 31.6% took antihypertensives. Elderly patients who were overweight are 4.54 times more likely to have arterial hypertension (odds ratio (OR)=4.54; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.2-2.45). Only 7.5% smoked, 30.1% were alcoholics and 60.2% made physical activities. Inadequacies were found regarding the servings of fruits, dairy products, vegetables and sugars consumed. However, the servings of cereals, leguminous, meat and fat consumed were appropriate. This study showed that the nutritional diagnosis and the epidemiological and socio-demographic studies are critical tools to understand this population group, in addition to being important to the planning of health actions. PMID:21737152

  14. Energy efficiency as a commodity: The emergence of a secondary market for efficiency savings in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Kats, G.H.; Rosenfield, A.H.; McIntosh, T.A.; McGaraghan, S.A.

    1997-06-01

    The energy efficiency industry is constrained by lack of financing. For example, in the United States, commercial and public buildings need an investment of $100 billion for cost-effective retrofits with an average payback of about four years. But the current level of financing is stagnant at only about 34% of this level per year. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has led the development of the North American Energy Measurement and Verification Protocol (NEMVP). This Protocol will increase the reliability and quality of estimated efficiency savings and improve realized savings. A critical element in the development of low cost financing and a secondary market--whether for homes or credit card debt--is the adoption of protocols to provide uniformity and reliability of the product. This is also true of energy efficiency installations, which have been characterized by inconsistency in the installation methodologies and, frequently, unreliability of savings. This Protocol, published in April 1996, is a DOE-led effort involving American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. ASHRAE, National Association of Energy Service Companies NAESCO, National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners NARUC, National Association of State Energy Officials NASEO, US Environmental Protection Agency EPA, Canada`s Canadian Association of Energy Service Companies CAESCO, and Mexico`s Comision Nacional Para El Ahorro De Energia CONAE and Fideicomiso De Apoyo Al Programa De Ahorro De Energia Del Sector Electrico FIDE. DOE has begun to build on this Protocol to develop new forms of lower-cost financing including, ultimately, development of a secondary market for energy efficiency. This could double financing for building energy efficiency within five years.

  15. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Sellés, Sergio; Fernández-Sáez, José; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Cejuela, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    El proceso de formación de futuros deportistas debe ser un trabajo estructurado y planificado para poder alcanzar el máximo nivel deportivo. Es fundamental en este periodo tener presentes los ritmos de desarrollo y maduración de los jóvenes deportistas para así adecuar las cargas de entrenamientos a sus estados evolutivos. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar y analizar la edad morfológica en nadadores y triatletas adolescentes, estableciendo diferencias entre su edad cronológica, grupos y género. A través del método antropométrico se determinó el estado de maduración biológica en un grupo de 37 deportistas jóvenes tecnificados. Los resultados muestran que la mayoría de la muestra (70,8%) se encuentra en un estado avanzado de desarrollo con respecto a su edad cronológica, siendo más notorio en el caso de los nadadores este estado de madurez avanzado. Tener una edad morfológica más avanzada respecto a su edad cronológica podría favorecer a los deportistas adolescentes a la hora de conseguir mejores marcas y resultados en las competiciones y de esta manera acceder con más facilidad a los programas de tecnificación. El índice de desarrollo corporal modificado (IDCm) se presenta como un método validado, fiable y no invasivo para tener presente el grado de desarrollo y maduración en la selección de talentos deportivos y adecuar las cargas de entrenamiento al estado evolutivo de los deportistas. PMID:27019253

  16. Precisión de las velocidades radiales obtenidas con el REOSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. F.; Lapasset, E.

    Complementando una línea de trabajo iniciada con anterioridad discutimos la estabilidad del espectrógrafo REOSC de CASLEO en DC para la medición de velocidades radiales en base al análisis de observaciones realizadas en enero y abril de 1997. En esas oportunidades obtuvimos 26 espectros de estrellas patrones y 27 espectros de 3 estrellas usadas como estrellas de referencia en nuestro programa de cúmulos abiertos. Además tomamos 26 espectros de crepúsculo con el telescopio en posiciones cubriendo el rango H=-4,+4 y δ =-90,+30. Mediante correlaciones cruzadas derivamos la velocidad de 19 órdenes en cada uno de estos espectros. En base a un análisis estadístico de los datos obtenidos discutimos la contribución de los distintos factores que afectan a la dispersión de lectura observada. En particular, la flexión del instrumento no introduciría errores significativos cuando se observa con masas de aire menores que 2.0. La dispersión de los valores de velocidad medidos para espectros de alta relación S/N de una misma estrella resultó del orden de 0.5 km/s. La comparación con los valores de velocidad publicados por distintos autores para las estrellas patrones no permite distinguir ninguna diferencia sistemática apreciable de las velocidades de CASLEO, siendo la media cuadrática de los residuos del orden de 1.0 km/s.

  17. The Tutorial Education Program on the Formation of the New Milenium's Meteorologist: 20 Years of Project Experience at Universidade Federal de Pelotas - Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, P.

    2012-12-01

    The Programa de Educação Tutorial (Tutorial Education Program), also known as "PET", has the objective to finance students with potential, encouraging and providing extracurricular activities in order to promote the integration with the academic market and the development of study programs in graduate school, preparing a professional that in the future will operate in a global market, transforming and fighting for the professional interests of their class. The design of the program dates back to 1970 and is based on the model of learning and guidance to form the student. The groups are composed gradually, through an annual selection. The deployment and implementation of the groups consider the inclusion of new members in different stages of their school program, working in an integrated manner. To apply, students must submit satisfactory academic performance, without failures on any course and commit to devote a minimum of twenty hours per week to the program activities. Deployed at Universidade Federal de Pelotas - Brazil, in 1991, the group has contributed to the training of students of Meteorology through the concept of teaching-research-extension activities. We believe that PET has been of utmost importance in the training of the new millennium's professional, given that the objectives of this program seek to provide an excellent level of academic training to undergraduates, encouraging their entry into the graduate studies; stimulating the improvement of the quality of teaching degree through the development of new practices and teaching experience; multiplying the activities developed by scholars and increase their interactions with program's faculty and other students of the institution. With the highly competitive market requiring specialized professionals, the high investment in students with potential can be reversed for the benefit of the profession.

  18. Origin of fine carbonaceous particulate matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin: fossil versus modern sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz Minguillón, María.; Perron, Nolwenn; Querol, Xavier; Szidat, Sönke; Fahrni, Simon; Wacker, Lukas; Reche, Cristina; Cusack, Michael; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2010-05-01

    The present work was carried out in the frame of the international field campaign DAURE (Determination of the sources of atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and Rural Environments in the western Mediterranean). The objective of this campaign is to study the aerosol pollution episodes occurring at regional scale during winter and summer in the Western Mediterranean Basin. As part of this campaign, this work focuses on identifying the origin of fine carbonaceous aerosols. To this end, fine particulate matter (PM1) samples were collected during two different seasons (February-March and July 2009) at two sites: an urban site (Barcelona, NE Spain) and a rural European Supersite for Atmospheric Aerosol Research (Montseny, NE Spain). Subsequently, 14C analyses were carried out on these samples, both in the elemental carbon (EC) fraction and the organic carbon (OC) fraction, in order to distinguish between modern carbonaceous sources (biogenic emissions and biomass burning emissions) and fossil carbonaceous sources (mainly road traffic). Preliminary results from the winter period show that 40% of the OC at Barcelona has a fossil origin whereas at Montseny this percentage is 30%. These values can be considered as unexpected given the nature of the sites. Nevertheless, the absolute concentrations of fossil OC at Barcelona and Montseny differ by a factor of 2 (the first being higher), since the total OC at Montseny is lower than at Barcelona. Further evaluation of results and comparison with other measurements carried out during the campaign are required to better evaluate the origin of the fine carbonaceous matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Acknowledgements: Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for a Postdoctoral Grant awarded to M.C. Minguillón in the frame of Programa Nacional de Movilidad de Recursos Humanos del Plan nacional de I-D+I 2008-2011. Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for the Acción Complementaria DAURE CGL2007-30502-E/CLI.

  19. Onshore wind energy potential over Iberia: present and future projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochinha, Carlos A.; Santos, João A.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2014-05-01

    Onshore grid-connected wind power generation has been explored for more than three decades in the Iberian Peninsula. Further, increasing attention has been devoted to renewable energy sources in a climate change context. While advantages of wind energy are widely recognized, its distribution is not spatially homogeneous and not uniform throughout the year. Hence, understanding these spatial-temporal distributions is critical in power system planning. The present study aims at assessing the potential power output estimated from 10 m wind components simulated by a regional climate model (CCLM), driven by ERA40 reanalysis. Datasets are available on a grid with a high spatial resolution (approximately 20 km) and over a 40-yr period (1961-2000). Furthermore, several target sites, located in areas with high installed wind generation capacity, are selected for local-to-regional scale assessments. The results show that potential wind power is higher over northern Iberia, mostly in Cantabria and Galicia, while Andalucía and Cataluña record the lowest values. With respect to the intra-annual variability, summer is by far the season with the lowest potential energy outputs. Furthermore, the inter-annual variability reveals an overall downward long-term trend over the 40-yr period, particularly in the winter time series. A CCLM transient experiment, forced by the SRES A1B emission scenario, is also discussed for a future period (2041-2070), after a model validation/calibration process (bias corrections). Significant changes in the wind power potential are projected for the future throughout Iberia, but their magnitude largely depends on the locations. This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER- 019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010).

  20. Obstáculos a la adherencia y retención en los sistemas de salud público y privado según pacientes y personal de salud

    PubMed Central

    Arístegui, Inés; Dorigo, Analía; Bofill, Lina; Bordatto, Alejandra; Lucas, Mar; Cabanillas, Graciela Fernández; Sued, Omar; Cahn, Pedro; Cassetti, Isabel; Weiss, Stephen; Jones., Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Resumen Introducción el Programa Nacional de Sida garantiza el acceso universal a los antirretrovirales, aun así las personas que reciben medicamentos a través del sistema público no logran obtener una carga viral indetectable en la misma proporción que los pacientes del sistema privado. Este estudio cualitativo tiene como objeto identificar los factores asociados a la adherencia y retención en la cascada de atención de VIH de los sistemas de salud público y privado de Buenos Aires, según las percepciones de pacientes y del personal de salud. Métodos se registraron datos cualitativos de 12 entrevistas semi-estructuradas a informantes clave y 4 grupos focales de pacientes y personal de salud tanto del sistema público como privado. Se codificaron y analizaron temas predeterminados sobre adherencia, utilizando el software QRS Nvivo9® de análisis de datos cualitativos. Resultados pacientes y personal de salud de ambos sistemas coinciden en la importancia del estigma asociado al VIH, la relación médicopaciente, la comunicación entre ambos y la división de responsabilidades en relación al tratamiento como aspectos fundamentales para la adherencia y retención en la cascada de atención. Se observan diferencias entre los sistemas en la forma en que algunos de estos aspectos actúan. Las barreras estructurales se presentan como principales obstáculos del sistema público. Discusión se resalta la necesidad de intervenciones focalizadas en la díada médico-paciente que considere las particularidades de cada sistema de atención para facilitar el compromiso del paciente en la adherencia. PMID:26878024

  1. Environmental restoration and waste management: An introduction. Student edition; Restauracion ambiental y administracion de residuos nucleares: Introduccion; Edicion estudiantil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    For more than 40 years, the United States has produced nuclear weapons. These production activities generated both radioactive and hazardous waste and often contaminated the environment. For many years, the public was unaware of the problem and unable to do anything about it. All of this has changed. In response to recent public outcry, the former Secretary of Energy, Retired Admiral James D. Watkins, established the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November 1989. The creation of EM was the first step toward correcting contamination problems from the past 40 years In this booklet, we at DOE, through the efforts of the students at Oak Hills High School of Cincinnati, Ohio, will introduce you to EM and encourage your involvement in this major program within the Department of Energy. [Espanol] Durante mas de 40 anos, los Estados Unidos fabricaron armamentos nucleares. Esta produccion genero residuos radiactivos y peligrosos y, en muchos casos, contaminaron el medio ambiente. Durante mucho tiempo, el publico norteamericano no tenia conocimiento de este problema y no pudo hacer nada para solucionarlo. Todo esto ha cambiado. Respondiendo a crecientes protestas publicas, el ex Secretario de Energia Almirante James D. Watkins, establecio en noviembre de 1989 la Subsecretaria de Administracion Ambiental. La creacion de esta Subsecretaria fue el primer paso que dio el Departamento de Energia para corregir los problemas de contaminacion ambiental de los ultimos 40 anos. En esta publicacion, los que trabajamos en el Departamento de Energia con la ayuda de los estudiantes de la Escuela Secundaria de Oak Hills, Cincinnati, Ohio, te introduciermos a la administracion ambiental y alentamos tu participacion en este programa de fundamental importancia en el Departamento de Energia.

  2. An application of the distributed hydrologic model CASC2D to a tropical montane watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsik, Matt; Waylen, Peter

    2006-11-01

    SummaryIncreased stormflow in the Quebrada Estero watershed (2.5 km 2), in the northwestern Central Valley tectonic depression of Costa Rica, reportedly has caused flooding of the city of San Ramón in recent decades. Although scientifically untested, urban expansion was deemed the cause and remedial measures were recommended by the Programa de Investigación en Desarrollo Humano Sostenible (ProDUS). CASC2D, a physically-based, spatially explicit hydrologic model, was constructed and calibrated to a June 10th 2002 storm that delivered 110.5 mm of precipitation in 4.5 h visibly exceeded the bankfull stage (0.9 m) of the Quebrada flooding portions of San Ramón. The calibrated hydrograph showed a peak discharge 16.68% (2.5 m 3 s -1) higher, an above flood stage duration 20% shorter, and time to peak discharge 11 min later than the same observed discharge hydrograph characteristics. Simulations of changing land cover conditions from 1979 to 1999 showed an increase also in the peak discharge, above flood stage duration, and time to peak discharge. Analysis using a modified location quotient identified increased urbanization in lower portions of the watershed over the time period studied. These results suggest that increased urbanization in the Quebrada Estero watershed have increased flooding peaks, and durations above threshold, confirming the ProDUS report. These results and the CASC2D model offer an easy-to-use, pragmatic planning tool for policymakers in San Ramón to assess future development scenarios and their potential flooding impacts to San Ramón.

  3. Developing a climatological / hydrological baseline for climate change impact assessment in a remote mountain region - an example from Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salzmann, N.; Huggel, C.; Calanca, P.; Diaz, A.; Jonas, T.; Konzelmann, T.; Lagos, P.; Rohrer, M.; Silverio, W.; Zappa, M.

    2009-04-01

    Changes in the availability of fresh water caused by climatic changes will become a major issue in the coming years and decades. In this context, regions presently depending on water from retreating mountain glaciers are particularly vulnerable. In many parts of the Andes for example, people already suffer from the impacts of reduced glacier run off. Therefore, the development and implementation of adequate adaptation measures is an urgent need. To better understand the impact of climate change on water resources in the Andean region, a new research program (PACC - Programa de Adaptación al Cambio Climático en el Perú) between Peru and Switzerland has recently been launched by SDC (Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation). As a first step, a scientific baseline relative to climatology, hydrology, agriculture and natural disasters will be developed on a regional scale for the Departments of Cusco and Apurimac in close cooperation with partners from Universities and governmental institutions as well as NGOs in Peru. A reliable data baseline is a must for the development of adaptation measures that can effectively cope with the risks induced by climate change. The realization of this task in remote mountain regions, where observational data are generally sparse, however, is challenging. Temporal and spatial gaps must be filled using indirect methods such as re-analyses, remote sensing and interpolation techniques. For future scenarios, the use of climate model output along with statistical and dynamical downscaling is indicated. This contribution will present and discuss approaches and possible concepts to tackle the challenges in a Peruvian context. In addition, first experiences will be reported particularly on cross-disciplinary issues that naturally emerge from the integrative perspective needed in climate change impact assessments and the development of adaptation strategies.

  4. Projeto observatórios virtuais: educação através de telescópios robóticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, P. H. S.; Shida, R. Y.

    2003-08-01

    O principal objetivo do projeto Observatórios Virtuais é o ensino na área de ciências através de atividades práticas desenvolvidas em colaboração entre instituições de pesquisa em astronomia e escolas de ensino médio e fundamental. Este ano deverá ser concluída a implantação do programa piloto de estudos, pesquisas e observação astronômica direta, com utilização em tempo real de telescópios robóticos, que assim funcionarão como "observatórios virtuais". O objetivo pedagógico das atividades práticas baseadas nas imagens atronômicas é desenvolver as habilidades e competências dos alunos no uso do método científico. Para isso, serão realizados projetos interdisciplinares, a partir de observações astronômicas, já que a astronomia é uma área interdisciplinar por excelência. Essas atividades terão níveis diferenciados de complexidade, que podem ser adequados aos vários graus do ensino e realidades regionais. Será dada ênfase ao desenvolvimento e aplicação em São Paulo, onde atua a equipe do IAG/USP. Como resultados apresentados no presente trabalho, temos a criação de um software em português para o processamento de imagens obtidas através de CCDs e a elaboração de material para as atividades educacionais relacionadas.

  5. GRASSLAND BIRD DISTRIBUTION AND RAPTOR FLIGHT PATTERNS IN THE COMPETITIVE RENEWABLE ENERGY ZONES OF THE TEXAS PANHANDLE

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, Erik

    2013-08-10

    The consistent wind resource in the Great Plains of North America has encouraged the development of wind energy facilities across this region. In the Texas Panhandle, a high quality wind resource is only one factor that has led to the expansion of wind energy development. Other factors include federal tax incentives and the availability of subsidies. Moreover, the State Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), mandating production of 10,000 mega-watts of renewable energy in the state by 2025, has contributed to an amicable regulatory and permitting environment (State Energy Conservation Office 2010). Considering the current rate of development, the RPS will be met in coming years (American Wind Energy Association 2011) and the rate of development is likely to continue. To meet increased energy demands in the face of a chronically constrained transmission grid, Texas has developed a comprehensive plan that organizes and prioritizes new transmission systems in high quality wind resource areas called Competitive Renewable Energy Zones (CREZ). The CREZ plan provides developers a solution to transmission constraints and unlocks large areas of undeveloped wind resource areas. In the northern Texas panhandle, there are two CREZs that are classified Class 3 wind (Class 5 is the highest) and range from 862,725 to 1,772,328 ha in size (Public Utility Commission of Texas 2008). Grassland bird populations have declined more than any other bird group in North America (Peterjohn and Sauer 1999, Sauer et al. 2004). Loss of grassland habitat from agricultural development has been the greatest contributor to the decline of grassland bird populations, but development of non-renewable (i.e., oil, coal, and gas) and renewable energy (i.e., wind, solar, biomass, and geothermal) sources have contributed to the decline as well (Pimentel et al. 2002, Maybe and Paul 2007). The effects of wind energy development on declining grassland bird populations has become an area of extensive research, as we attempt to understand and minimize potential impacts of a growing energy sector on declining bird populations. Based on data from post-construction fatality surveys, two grassland bird groups have been the specific focus of research, passerines (songbird guild) and raptors (birds of prey). The effects of wind energy development on these two groups of birds, both of conservation concern, have been examined over the last decade. The primary focus of this research has been on mortality resulting from collision with wind turbines (Kuvlesky et al. 2007). Most studies just quantify post-construction fatality levels (e.g., Erickson et al. 2002) while very few studies provide a comparison of bird populations prior to development through a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) study design. Before-After-Control-Impact studies provide powerful evidence of avian/wind energy relationships (Anderson et al. 1999). Despite repeated urgency on conducting these types of studies (Anderson et al. 1999, Madders and Whitfield 2006, Kuvelsky et al. 2007), few have been conducted in North America. Although several European researchers (Larsson 1994, de Lucas et al. 2007) have used BACI designs to examine whether wind facilities modified raptor behavior, there is a scarcity of BACI data relating to North America grassland ecosystems that examine avian-wind energy relationships. There are less than a handful of studies in the entire United States, let alone the southern short grass prairie ecosystem, that incorporate preconstruction data to form the baseline for post-construction impact estimates (Johnson et al. 2000, Erickson et al. 2002). Although declines in grassland bird populations are well-documented (Peterjohn and Sauer 1999, Sauer et al. 2004), the causal mechanisms affecting the decline of grassland birds with increasing wind energy development in the southern short grass prairie are not well-understood (Kuvlesky et al. 2007, Maybe and Paul 2007). Several factors may potentially affect the bird population when wind turbines are constructed in areas with high bird densities (de Lucas et al. 2007). Habitat fragmentation, noise from turbines, physical movement of turbine blades, and increased vehicle traffic have been suggested as causes of decreased density of nesting grassland birds in Minnesota (Leddy et al. 1999), Oklahoma (O’Connell and Piorkowski 2006), and South Dakota (Shaffer and Johnson 2008). Similarly, constructing turbines in areas where bird flight patterns place them at similar heights of turbine blades increases the potential for bird collisions (Johnson et al. 2000, Hoover 2002). Raptor fatalities have been associated with topographic features such as ridges, saddles and rims where birds use updrafts from prevailing winds (Erickson et al. 2000, Johnson et al. 2000, Barrios and Rodriquez 2004, Hoover and Morrison 2005). Thus, wind energy development can result in indirect (e.g., habitat avoidance, decreased nest success) and direct (e.g., collision fatalities) impacts to bird populations (Anderson et al. 1999). Directly quantifying the level of potential impacts (e.g., estimated fatalities/mega-watthour) from wind energy development is beyond the scope of this study. Instead, I aim to quantify density, occupancy and flight behavior for the two bird groups mentioned earlier: obligate grassland songbirds and raptors, respectively, predict where impacts may occur, and provide management recommendations to minimize potential impacts. The United States Department of Energy (DOE), through the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Allocation, contracted Texas Tech University to investigate grassland bird patterns of occurrence in the anticipated CREZ in support of DOE’s 20% Wind Energy by 2030 initiative. In cooperation with Iberdrola Renewables, Inc., studies initiated by Wulff (2010) at Texas Tech University were continued at an area proposed for wind energy development and a separate reference site unassociated with wind energy development. I focused on four primary objectives and this thesis is accordingly organized in four separate chapters that address grassland bird density, grassland bird occupancy, raptor flight patterns, and finally I summarize species diversity and composition. The following chapters use formatting from the Journal of Wildlife Management guidelines (Block et al. 2011) with modifications as required by the Texas Tech University Graduate School. 1) I estimate pre-construction bird density patterns using methods that adjust for imperfect detection. I used a distance sampling protocol that effectively accounts for incomplete detection in the field where birds are present but not detected (Buckland et al. 2001). I improved density estimates with hierarchical distance sampling models, a modeling technique that effectively incorporates the detection process with environmental covariates that further influence bird density (Royle et al. 2004, Royle and Dorazio 2008). Covariates included road density and current oil and gas infrastructure to determine the relationship between existing energy development and bird density patterns. Further, I used remote sensing techniques and vegetation field data to investigate how landcover characteristics influenced bird density patterns. I focused species-specific analyses on obligate grassland birds with >70 detections per season namely grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) and horned lark (Eremophila alpestris). Chapter II focuses on hierarchical models that model and describe relationships between grassland bird density and anthropogenic and landscape features. 2) A large number of bird detections (>70) are needed to estimate density using distance sampling and collection of such quantity are often not feasible, particularly for cryptic species or species that naturally occur at low densities (Buckland et al. 2001). Occupancy models operate with far fewer data and are often used as a surrogate for bird abundance when there are fewer detections (MacKenzie and Nichols 2004). I used occupancy models that allow for the possibility of imperfect detection and species abundance to improve estimates of occurrence probability (Royal 2004). I focused species-specific analyses on grassland birds with few detections: Cassin’s sparrow (Peucaea cassinii), eastern meadowlark (Sturnella magna), and upland sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda). Chapter III uses a multi-season dynamic site occupancy model that incorporates bird abundance to better estimate occurrence probability. 3) When I considered the topographic relief of the study sites, the proposed design of the wind facility and its location within the central U.S. migratory corridor, I expanded the study to investigate raptor abundance and flight behavior (Hoover 2002, Miller 2008). I developed a new survey technique that improved the accuracy of raptor flight height estimates and compared seasonal counts and flight heights at the plateau rim and areas further inland. I used counts and flight behaviors to calculate species-specific collision risk indices for raptors based on topographic features. I focused species-specific analyses on raptors with the highest counts: American kestrel (Falco sparverius), northern harrier (Circus cyaneus), red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Swainson’s hawk (Buteo swainsoni), and turkey vulture (Cathartes aura). Chapter IV describes patterns of seasonal raptor abundance and flight behavior and how topography modulates collision risk with proposed wind energy turbines. 4) Finally, for completeness, in Chapter V I summarize morning point count data for all species and provide estimates of relative composition and species diversity with the Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index (Shannon and Weaver 1949).

  6. Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fainstein, Pablo D.; Lima, Marco Aurelio P.; Miraglia, Jorge E.; Montenegro, Eduardo C.; Rivarola, Roberto D.

    2006-11-01

    Plenary. Electron collisions - past, present and future / J. W. McConkey. Collisions of slow highly charged ions with surfaces / J. Burgdörfer ... [et al.]. Atomic collisions studied with "reaction-microscopes" / R. Moshammer ... [et al.]. Rydberg atoms: a microscale laboratory for studying electron-molecule tnteractions / F. B. Dunning -- Collisions involvintg photons. Quantum control of photochemical reaction dynamics and molecular functions / M. Yamaki ... [et al.]. Manipulating and viewing Rydberg wavepackets / R. R. Jones. Angle-resolved photoelectrons as a probe of strong-field interactions / M. Vrakking. Ultracold Rydberg atoms in a structured environment / I. C. H. Liu and J. M. Rost. Synchrotron-radiation-based recoil ion momentum spectroscopy of laser cooled and trapped cesium atoms / L. H. Coutinho. Reconstruction of attosecond pulse trains / Y. Mairesse ... [et al.]. Selective excitation of metastable atomic states by Femto- and attosecond laser pulses / A. D. Kondorskiy. Accurate calculations of triple differential cross sections for double photoionization of the hygrogen molecule / W. Vanroose ... [et al.]. Double and triple photoionization of Li and Be / J. Colgan, M. S. Pindzola and F. Robicheaux. Few/many body dynamics in strong laser fields / J. Zanghellini and T. Brabec. Rescattering-induced effects in electron-atom scattering in the presence of a circularly polarized laser field / A. V. Flegel ... [et al.]. Multidimensional photoelectron spectroscopy / P. Lablanquie ... [et al.]. Few photon and strongly driven transitions in the XUV and beyond / P. Lambropoulos, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos and S. I. Themelis. Ionization dynamics of atomic clusters in intense laser pulses / U. Saalmann and J. M. Rost. On the second order autocorrelation of an XUV attosecond pulse train / E. P. Benis ... [et al.]. Evidence for rescattering in molecular dissociation / I. D. Williams ... [et al.]. Photoionizing ions using synchrotron radiation / R. Phaneuf. Photo double ionization of fixed in space deuterium molecules / T. Weber ... [et al.]. Coherence and intramolecular scattering in molecular photoionization / U. Becker. Experimental observation of interatomic coulombic decay in neon dimers / T. Jahnke ... [et al.]. Ionization by short UV laser pulses: secondary ATI peaks of the electron spectrum / V. D. Rodríguez, E. Cormier and R. Gayet. Molecular frame photoemission in photoionization of H[symbol] and D[symbol]: the role of dissociation on autoionization of the Q[symbol] and Q[symbol] doubly excited states / D. Dowek, M. Lebech and J. C. Houver. 3p photoemission of 3d transition metals - atoms, molecules and clusters / M. Martins -- Collisions involving electrons. Spin-resolved collisions of electrons with atoms and molecules / G. F. Hanne. Calculation of ionization and excitation processes using the convergent close-coupling method / D. V. Fursa, I. Bray and A. T. Stelbovics. The B-spline R-matrix method for electron and photon collisions with atoms and ions / O. Zatsarinny and K. Bartschat. Absolute angle-differential cross sections for excitation of neon atoms electrons of energy 16.6-19.2 eV / M. Allan ... [et al.]. Studies of QED and nuclear size effects with highly charged ions in an EBIT / J. R. Crespo López-Urrutia ... [et al.]. Recombination of astrophysically relevant ions: Be-like C, N, and O / M. Fogle ... [et al.]. Dissociation and excitation of molecules and molecular ions by electron impact / A. E. Orel and J. Royal state-selective X-ray study of the radiative recombination of U[symbol] ions with cooling electrons / M. Pajek ... [et al.]. Electron collisions with trapped, metastable helium / L. J. Uhlmann ... [et al.]. Non-dipole effects in electron and photon impact ionization / N. L. S. Martin. Electron driven processes in atmospheric behaviour / L. Campbell, M. J. Brunger and P. J. 0. Teubner. Calculation of excitation and ionization for electron-molecule collisions at intermediate energies / J. D. Gorfinkiel. Absolute total cross sections for electron-CH[symbol] scattering at intermediate energies / M. C. A. Lopes ... [et al.]. Electron-CO[symbol] scattering in a cluster environment / I. I. Fabrikant. Isomer effect in electron collisions with small hydrocarbons / M. H. F. Bettega ... [et al.]. Low energy electron interactions with bio-molecules / B. P. Marinković ... [et al.]. Narrow resonances in dissociative electron attachment and vibrational excitation in H[symbol] / M. Číček. (e, 2e) experiments with randomly oriented and fixed-in-space hydrogen molecules / M. Takahashi. Initial and final state correlation effects in (e, 3e) processes / G. Gasaneo, S. Otranto and K. V. Rodríguez. An (e, 2˙e) experiment for simultaneous ionization-excitation of helium to the He[symbol](2p)[symbol]P states by electron impact / A. Dorn ... [et al.] -- Collisions involving exotic particles. Antihydrogen in the laboratory / M. Charlton. Atomic collisions involving positrons / H. R. J. Walters and C. Starret. Ionization and positronium formation in noble gases / J. P. Marler, J. P. Sullivan and C. M. Surko. Study of inner-shell ionization by low-energy positron impact / Y. Nagashima ... [et al.]. Positron-atom bound states and interactions / M. W. J. Bromley. Extraction of ultra-slow antiproton beams for single collision experiments / H. A. Torii ... [et al.]. Positronium formation from valence and inner shells in noble gases / L. J. M. Dunlop and G. F. Gribakin. Molecular effects in neutrino mass measurements / N. Doss ... [et al.] -- Collisions involving heavy projectiles. Probing the solar wind with cometary X-ray and far-ultraviolet emission / R. Hoekstra ... [et al.]. Production of O[symbol] + neutrals from the collision of C[symbol] with water / H. Luna ... [et al.]. Vector correlation of fragment ions produced by collision of Ar[symbol] with dimethyldisulfide / T. Matsuoka ... [et al.]. Slow multiply charged ion-molecule collision dynamics studied through a multi-coincidence technique / T. Kaneyasu, T. Azuma and K. Okuno. Recent developments in proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry / A. Wisthaler ... [et al.]. Interferences in electron emission from H[symbol] induced by fast ions / N. Stolterfoht. Atomic realization of the young single electron interference process in individual autoionization collisions / R. O. Barrachina and M. Šitnik. Multiple ionization processes related to irradiation of biological tissue / M. E. Galassi ... [et al.]. Atom-diatom collisions at cold and ultra-cold temperatures / F. D. Colavecchia, G. A. Parker and R. T. Pack. Interactions of ions with hydrogen atoms / A. Luca, G. Borodi and D. Gerlich. Analysis of all structures in the elastic and charge transfer cross sections for proton-hydrogen collisions in the range of 10[symbol]-10øeV / P. S. Krstić ... [et al.]. Ab-initio ion-atom collision calculations for many-electron systems / J. Anton and B. Fricke. Fully differential studies on single ionization of helium by slow proton impact / A. Hasan ... [et al.]. Dipole polarization effects on highly-charged-ion-atom electron capture / C. C. Havener ... [et al.]. Proton-, antiproton-, and photon-he collisions in the context of ultra fast processes / T. Morishita ... [et al.]. Impact parameter dependent charge exchange studies with channeled heavy ions / D. Dauvergne ... [et al.]. Crystal assisted atomic physics experiments using heavy ions / K. Komaki -- Collisions involving clusters and surfaces. Structure and dynamics of Van der Waal complexes: from triatomic to medium size clusters / G. Delgado Barrio ... [et al.]. Evaporation, fission and multifragmentation processes of multicharged C[symbol] ions versus excitation energies / S. Martin ... [et al.]. Fragmentation of collisionally excited fullerenes / M. Alcami, S. Diaz-Tendero and F. Martín. Lifetimes of C[symbol] and C[symbol] dianions in a storage ring / S. Tomita ... [et al.]. Clusters and clusters of clusters in collisions / B. Manil ... [et al.]. Fragmentation of small carbon clusters / M. Chabot ... [et al.]. Collective excitations in collisions of photons and electrons with metal clusters and fullerenes / A. V. Solov'yov. Dynamics of H[symbol] chemisorption on metal surfaces / H. F. Busnengo ... [et al.]. Interaction of slow multiply charged ions with insulator surfaces / W. Meissl ... [et al.]. Electron emission during grazing impact of atoms on metals surfaces / H. Winter. Inner-shell collective effects for protons sackscattered from the Al(110) surface / P. L. Grande, A. Hentz and G. Schiwietz. Guiding of highly charged ions by SiO[symbol] nano-capillaries / M. B. Sahana ... [et al.]. Low-energy electron impact on hydrogenated polycrystalline diamond and condensed molecules / A. Lafosse ... [et al.]. Low energy spin-polarized electron-pair (e, 2e)-in-reflection from various surfaces / J. F. Williams ... [et al.] -- List of contributors.

  7. Desarrollo curricular, conciencia ambiental y tecnologia para estudiantes de intermedia: Una investigacion en accion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Ramos, Teresita

    Se llevó a cabo una investigación en acción con los propósitos de 1) documentar las relaciones de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación en las clases de ciencias de escuela intermedia como elemento de apoyo cuando se aborda el tema ambiental y sus conceptos pertinentes, a partir de las observaciones de la investigadora, así como las entrevistas y diarios reflexivos de los estudiantes de una escuela intermedia en la zona metropolitana, y luego 2) diseñar una unidad instruccional sobre el tema ambiental que integre actividades tecnologías para el curso de ciencias de la escuela intermedia según el modelo PROCIC y las observaciones que hayan iniciado los estudiantes participantes. Finalmente, se plantearon las implicaciones educativas para el currículo del Programa de Ciencias al instrumentar este modelo de unidad mediante PROCIC, e integrado la tecnología y el tema ambiental. Los hallazgos se analizaron y se categorizaron de acuerdo con las preguntas de investigación. El hallazgo principal de la investigación aborda las cuatro relaciones centrales en las que se articula la utilización de las tecnologías y sus aplicaciones en la clase de ciencias. Estas cuatro relaciones que recogen la posición de los estudiantes son: 1) Perspectiva de los estudiantes hacia la tecnología. 2) Participación de los estudiantes en los aspectos docentes. 3) Aprendizaje estudiantil sobre el ambiente, y 4) Conciencia ambiental en relación con la vida diaria. Estas relaciones ponen de manifiesto,cómo se plantea en las implicaciones, la necesidad de más investigación en acción en la sala de clases, la importancia—como tema transversal—de la conciencia ambiental mediante la tecnología al construir conocimientos significativos dentro y fuera de la escuela, asó como, valorar la investigación y la dialogicidad en la sala de clases como actividades que obligan al reexamen de la práctica didáctica en su formas curriculares de objetivos, recursos, actividades, evaluación, entre otros. Estos planteamientos definen la unidad curricular que se propone en el cuatro capítulo.

  8. The forsaken mental health of the Indigenous Peoples - a moral case of outrageous exclusion in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Mental health is neglected in most parts of the world. For the Indigenous Peoples of Latin America, the plight is even more severe as there are no specific mental health services designed for them altogether. Given the high importance of mental health for general health, the status quo is unacceptable. Lack of research on the subject of Indigenous Peoples' mental health means that statistics are virtually unavailable. To illustrate their mental health status, one can nonetheless point to the high rates of poverty and extreme poverty in their communities, overcrowded housing, illiteracy, and lack of basic sanitary services such as water, electricity and sewage. At the dawn of the XXI century, they remain poor, powerless, and voiceless. They remain severely excluded from mainstream society despite being the first inhabitants of this continent and being an estimated of 48 million people. This paper comments, specifically, on the limited impact of the Pan American Health Organization's mental health initiative on the Indigenous Peoples of Latin America. Discussion The Pan American Health Organization's sponsored workshop "Programas y Servicios de Salud Mental en Communidades Indígenas" [Mental Health Programs and Services for the Indigenous Communities] in the city of Santa Cruz, Bolivia on July16 - 18, 1998, appeared promising. However, eleven years later, no specific mental health program has been designed nor developed for the Indigenous Peoples in Latin America. This paper makes four specific recommendations for improvements in the approach of the Pan American Health Organization: (1) focus activities on what can be done; (2) build partnerships with the Indigenous Peoples; (3) consider traditional healers as essential partners in any mental health effort; and (4) conduct basic research on the mental health status of the Indigenous Peoples prior to the programming of any mental health service. Summary The persistent neglect of the Indigenous Peoples' mental health in Latin America raises serious concerns of moral and human rights violations. Since the Pan American Health Organization' Health of the Indigenous Peoples Initiative 16 years ago, no mental health service designed for them has yet been created. PMID:19874588

  9. Water Quality Monitoring of Inland Waters using Meris data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potes, M.; Costa, M. J.; Salgado, R.; Le Moigne, P.

    2012-04-01

    The successful launch of ENVISAT in March 2002 has given a great opportunity to understand the optical changes of water surfaces, including inland waters such as lakes and reservoirs, through the use of the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS). The potential of this instrument to describe variations of optically active substances has been examined in the Alqueva reservoir, located in the south of Portugal, where satellite spectral radiances are corrected for the atmospheric effects to obtain the surface spectral reflectance. In order to validate this spectral reflectance, several field campaigns were carried out, with a portable spectroradiometer, during the satellite overpass. The retrieved lake surface spectral reflectance was combined with limnological laboratory data and with the resulting algorithms, spatial maps of biological quantities and turbidity were obtained, allowing for the monitoring of these water quality indicators. In the framework of the recent THAUMEX 2011 field campaign performed in Thau lagoon (southeast of France) in-water radiation, surface irradiation and reflectance measurements were taken with a portable spectrometer in order to test the methodology described above. At the same time, water samples were collected for laboratory analysis. The two cases present different results related to the geographic position, water composition, environment, resources exploration, etc. Acknowledgements This work is financed through FCT grant SFRH/BD/45577/2008 and through FEDER (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade - COMPETE) and National funding through FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia in the framework of projects FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-007122 (PTDC / CTE-ATM / 65307 / 2006) and FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-009303 (PTDC/CTE-ATM/102142/2008). Image data has been provided by ESA in the frame of ENVISAT projects AOPT-2423 and AOPT-2357. We thank AERONET investigators for their effort in establishing and maintaining Évora AERONET site. We also thank the Water Laboratory of the University of Évora for support in the field campaigns, EDIA and IFREMER (Institut Français de Recherche pour le Exploitation de la Mer) for providing the water quality data used in this work.

  10. Comunicación de pareja y VIH en mujeres en desventaja social

    PubMed Central

    Rosina Cianelli, A.; Lilian Ferrer, L.; Margarita Bernales, S.; Natalia Villegas, R.

    2009-01-01

    Introducción La epidemia de VIH y SIDA se ha diseminado rápidamente a nivel mundial tendiendo a la feminización, pauperización y heterosexualización. La comunicación de pareja en torno el VIH es descrita como uno de los factores protectores en la adquisición de esta enfermedad, favoreciendo la adopción de conductas sexuales seguras tales como la negociación de pareja y la utilización de preservativo, consideróndose como un pilar fundamental en la incorporación de medidas de autocuidado en la sexualidad femenina. Objetivo Determinar el nivel de comunicación de pareja en torno al VIH en mujeres chilenas en desventaja social. Metodología Cuatrocientas noventa y seis mujeres contestaron la entrevista inicial de la investigación “Testing an HIV/AIDS Prevention Intervention for Chilean Women” (RO1 TW 006977 PI Cianelli). Se utilizó la escala “Health protective sexual communication scale (HPC)” (0–10 puntos). Se realizó un análisis descriptivo utilizando el programa SPSS 16.0. Resultados El promedio del nivel de comunicación de pareja fue de 3,26 ± 2,7 puntos con la pareja principal, de 2,52 ± 2,48 puntos con una segunda pareja y de 0 puntos con una tercera pareja. Los temas de menor comunicación entre las parejas fueron el uso de preservativo y la realización del test para VIH antes de tener relaciones sexuales. Conclusión Las mujeres de la muestra presentan bajos niveles de comunicación de pareja en relación a VIH con todas sus parejas sexuales. Son necesarias estrategias que potencien este tópico dentro de las intervenciones de prevención de VIH y SIDA de manera de fortalecer la adopción de conductas de autocuidado en torno al tema. PMID:19936328

  11. Detecção inesperada de efeitos de lentes fracas em grupos de galáxias pouco luminosos em raios-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, R.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Cypriano, E. S.; Lengruber, L. L.; Cuevas, H.; Ramirez, A.

    2003-08-01

    Obtivemos, como parte do programa de verificação científica do GMOS Sul, imagens profundas de três grupos de galáxias: G97 e G102 (z~0,4) e G124 (z = 0,17). Esses alvos foram selecionados a partir do catálogo de fontes extensas de Vikhlinin (1998), por terem luminosidades em raios X menores que 3´1043 ergs s-1, valor cerca de uma ou duas ordens de grandeza inferior ao de aglomerados de galáxias. O objetivo primário dessas observações é o estudo da evolução de galáxias em grupos. Grupos são ambientes menos densos que aglomerados, contêm a grande maioria das galáxias do Universo mas que, até o momento, foram estudados detalhadamente apenas no Universo local (z~0). Com esses dados efetuamos uma análise estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes gravitacionais fracas) como forma de inferir o conteúdo e a distribuição de massa nesses grupos apesar de que, em princípio, esse efeito não deveria ser detectado uma vez que os critérios de seleção adotados previlegiam sistemas de baixa massa. De fato, para G124 obtivemos apenas um limite superior para sua massa que é compatível com sua luminosidade em raios X. De modo contrário e surpreendente, os objetos G102 e G097, aparentam ter massas que resultariam em dispersões de velocidade maiores que 1000 km s-1, muito maiores do que se espera para grupos de galáxias. Com efeito, para G097 obtivemos, a partir de dados do satélite XMM, uma estimativa para a temperatura do gás intragrupo de kT = 2,6 keV, que é tipica de sistemas com dispersões de velocidade de ~ 600 km s-1, bem característica de grupos. Essas contradições aparentes entre lentes fracas e raios X podem ser explicadas de dois modos: i) a massa obtida por lentes estaria sobreestimada devido à superposição de estruturas massivas ao longo da linha de visada ou ii) a temperatura do gás do meio intra-grupo reflete o potencial gravitacional de estruturas menores que estariam se fundindo para formar uma estrutura maior.

  12. Determinação da massa de júpiter a partir das órbitas de seus satélites: um experimento didático

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlickmann, M. S.; Saito, R. K.; Becker, D. A.; Rezende, M. F., Jr.; Cid Fernandes, R.

    2003-08-01

    Este trabalho apresenta o roteiro piloto de uma prática observacional em astronomia, junto com os primeiros resultados obtidos nesta fase de implementacão. O projeto, que será executado em duas etapas, visa introduzir noções de Astronomia a alunos do Ensino Médio e iniciantes nos cursos de Física. O experimento consiste em medir as órbitas dos satélites Galileanos e, a partir da análise dos dados coletados, verificar a validade da Lei das órbitas de Kepler, determinando a massa do planeta Júpiter. Em uma primeira etapa, as observações serão feitas utilizando um telescópio Meade LX200 10" e câmera CCD para obter uma seqüência de imagens do planeta, que possibilitará medir o movimento de seus satélites. A segunda etapa terá início a partir do funcionamento do telescópio em modo robótico, com a possibilidade de observações via internet por instituições de ensino. Para o desenvolvimento deste experimento foram inicialmente coletadas várias imagens de Júpiter obtidas com os instrumentos citados acima. Estas imagens serviram como base para confecção dos roteiros para a experiência no nível médio e superior. Os roteiros serão inicialmente apresentados em uma home-page. Nela também se buscará uma contextualização histórica da experiência bem como o estabelecimento de relações com professores e alunos, propostas metodológicas e a disponibilização dos programas computacionais necessários para a utilização "on-line" pelos usuários. O projeto conta com apoio da Fundação VITAE.

  13. Estimativa de imagens solares soho através de redes neurais artificiais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M. C.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Cecatto, J. R.; Rios Neto, A.; Rosa, R. R.; Sawant, H. S.

    2003-08-01

    A Rede Neural Artificial (RNA), no âmbito da teoria computacional, constitui uma teoria emergente que, por possuir habilidade em aprender a partir de dados de entrada, encontra diferentes aplicações em diferentes áreas. Um exemplo é a utilização de RNA na caracterização de padrões associados à dinâmica de processos espaço-temporais relacionados a fenômenos físicos não-lineares. Para obter informações sobre o comportamento destes fenômenos físicos utiliza-se, em diversos casos, seqüências de imagens digitalizadas, onde a caracterização de alguns fenômenos espaço-temporais é o procedimento mais viável para descrever a dinâmica das regiões ativas do Sol. Com base em imagens observadas por telescópios a bordo de satélites, estudos de previsão de eventos solares podem ser programados, permitindo prever possíveis efeitos posteriores nas regiões mais próximas da Terra (tempestades geomagnéticas e irregularidades ionosféricas). Neste trabalho avaliamos o desempenho da RNA para estimar padrões espaço-temporais, ou seja, imagens solares em ultravioleta, obtidas através do telescópio a bordo do satélite SOHO. Os resultados mostraram que as RNA conseguem generalizar os padrões de maneira satisfatória sem perder de forma significativa os principais aspectos da configuração global da atmosfera solar, comprovando a eficácia da RNA como ferramenta para esse tipo de aplicação. Portanto, este trabalho comprova a viabilidade de uso desta ferramenta em projetos voltados ao estudo do comportamento solar, em trabalhos do grupo de Física do Meio Interplanetário (FMI) na DAS e em programas desenvolvidos pelo Núcleo de Simulação e Análise de Sistemas Complexos (NUSASC) do Laboratório Associado de Computação e Matemática Aplicada (LAC) do INPE.

  14. Código para imageamento indireto de estrelas em sistemas binarios: simulação de variações elipsoidais e do perfil das linhas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, T. R.; Baptista, R.

    2003-08-01

    As estrelas secundárias em variáveis cataclí smicas (VCs) e binárias-x de baixa massa (BXBMs) são cruciais para o entendimento da origem, evolução e comportamento destas binárias interagentes. Elas são estrelas magneticamente ativas submetidas a condições ambientais extremas [e.g., estão muito próximas de uma fonte quente e irradiante; têm rotação extremamente rápida e forma distorcida; estão perdendo massa a taxas de 10-8-10-10 M¤/ano] que contribuem para que suas propriedades sejam distintas das de estrelas de mesma massa na seqüência principal. Por outro lado, o padrão de irradiação na face da secundária fornece informação sobre a geometria das estruturas de acréscimo em torno da estrela primária. Assim, a obtenção de imagens da superfície destas estrelas é de grande interesse astrofísico. A Tomografia Roche usa as variações no perfil das linhas de emissão/absorção da estrela secundária em função da fase orbital para mapear a distribuição de brilho em sua superfície. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados iniciais do desenvolvimento de um programa para o mapeamento da distribuição de brilho na superfí cie das estrelas secundárias em VCs e BXBMs com técnicas de astro-tomografia. Presentemente temos em operação um código que simula as variações no perfil das linhas em conseqüência de efeito Doppler resultante da combinação de rotação e translação de uma estrela em forma de lobo de Roche em torno do centro de massa da binária, em função da distribuição de brilho na superfície desta estrela. O código igualmente produz a curva de luz resultante das variações de aspecto da estrela em função da fase orbital (variações elipsoidais).

  15. The triumph and decline of the "squares": Grumman Aerospace engineers and production workers in the Apollo era, 1957--1973

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onkst, David Hugh

    This dissertation is a social, cultural, and economic history of the men and women of the Grumman Aerospace Company of Bethpage, New York from 1957 through 1973. These "Grummanites" were the engineers and production workers who designed and built the Apollo Lunar Modules that allowed humans to land on the Moon. This study provides unique insights into the impact that the Apollo Program---a large state-initiated and -supported program---had on those "squares," people whom many contemporaries saw as a vital part of mainstream 1960s American society. By the beginning of the Space Age in 1957, Grumman, Long Island's single largest employer, had firmly established a workplace culture of paternalism that Grummanites largely embraced. Company officials believed strongly in worker retention and had established a policy of providing every sort of benefit their employees seemingly desired, including a highly personal and participatory form of management. Many Grummanites had joined the firm during the early years of the Apollo Program because they believed in the promise of permanent employment on exciting projects that would explore the endless frontier of space. But, as many of these mainly self-reliant, individualistic "squares" would bitterly discover, their dedication to Grumman did little to secure their livelihoods during the aerospace industry's early 1970s downsizing; their individual successes were too largely tied to federal spending and declined when Americans grew disenchanted with space exploration. This dissertation demonstrates how the cultural bond of paternalism between aerospace workers and their company unraveled in the 1960s, and then ended in the early 1970s, because of forces within the company, the economy, and the American state. The word "triumph" in this study's title not only applies to Grummanites' triumphs with the Lunar Modules, but also their individual socioeconomic victories. The term "decline" refers to the early 1970s downsizing of more than a third of the Apollo workforce that had made that program a reality. By relying on a wide-range of archival research (including corporate records) and extensive surveys and interviews with Grummanites, this dissertation provides an overview of how Apollo era aerospace workers interacted with the Cold War American state.

  16. Analysis of moisture advection during explosive cyclogenesis over North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordóñez, Paulina; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2013-04-01

    The development of a mid-latitude cyclone may strongly be amplified by the presence of a very warm and moist air mass within its warm sector through enhanced latent heat release. In this work, a lagrangian approach is applied to examine the contribution of moisture advection to the deepening of cyclones over the North Atlantic Ocean. The warm sector is represented by a 5°x5° longitude/latitude moving box comprising the centre of the cyclone and its south-eastern area is defined for the tracks of different cyclones computed at 6-hourly intervals. Using the lagrangian particle model FLEXPART we evaluated the fresh water flux (E - P) along 2-days back-trajectories of the particles residing on the total column over the defined boxes for case studies occurring during winter months from 1980 to 2000. FLEXPART simulations were performed using one degree resolution and 60 model vertical levels available in ERA40 Reanalyses at 00, 06, 12, 18 UTC for each case. Sensitivity studies on the dimensions of the target area - chosen boxes representing the warm sector -, and on its relative position to the center, were performed. We have applied this methodology to several case studies of independent North Atlantic cyclones with notorious characteristics (e.g. deepening rate, wind speed, surface damages). Results indicate that the moisture transport is particularly relevant in what concerns the fast/explosive development stage of these extratropical cyclones. In particular, the advection of moist air from the subtropics towards the cyclone core is clearly associated with the warm conveyor belt of the cyclone. This methodology can be generalized to a much larger number of mid-latitude cyclones, providing a unique opportunity to analyze the moisture behavior associated with the explosive development. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) Programme and by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) through project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010).

  17. Effect of acclimation to outdoor condition on the sexual performance of mass-produced Medflies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, R.; Silva, N.; Quintal, C.; Abreu, R.; Andrade, J.; Dantas, L.

    2007-03-15

    Application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of integrated area-wide programs to control the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) require that the released males attract wild females and transfer sterile sperm. However, knowledge about male sexual performance after they are released is scarce. We conducted a study to evaluate male sexual performance in field cage tests, according to standard quality control procedures. Mass-reared 5-d-old sterile males from the genetic sexing strain VIENNA 7mix2000 were acclimated for 0, 1, and 3 d to outdoor conditions before competing with wild males for wild females. Although the proportion of mating (PM) in the test was satisfactory, the resulting relative sterility index (RSI) data showed no significant differences among the treatments. The data indicate that pre-conditioning males to outdoor conditions in Madeira did not confer an advantage in field cage sexual performance. (author) [Spanish] La aplicacion de la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE) como parte de un programa integrado de amplio efecto para el control de la mosca mediterranea de la fruta Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) requiere que los machos liberados atraigan las hembras naturales y transfieran su esperma. Sin embargo, el conocimiento del desempeno sexual de los machos despues de ser liberados es muy escaso. Nosotros realizamos un estudio para evaluar el desempeno sexual de los machos en pruebas usando jaulas del campo, segun los procedimientos estandardizados de calidad. Machos esteriles de 5 dias de edad de la raza que separa los sexos geneticamente VIENNA 7mix2000 criados en masa fueron aclimatados por 0, 1 y 3 dias en condiciones de campo antes de competir con machos naturales para las hembras naturales. Aunque la proporcion del apareamiento en la prueba fue satisfactorio, el indice relativo de esterilidad (IRS) resultante no mostro ninguna diferencia significativa entre los tratamientos. Los datos indicaron que al condicionar los machos anteriormente a las condiciones de campo en Madeira no conferio ventaja alguna en el desempeno sexual en la jaula de campo. (author)

  18. Chromospheric activity and rotation of FGK stars in the solar vicinity. An estimation of the radial velocity jitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Arnáiz, R.; Maldonado, J.; Montes, D.; Eiroa, C.; Montesinos, B.

    2010-09-01

    Context. Chromospheric activity produces both photometric and spectroscopic variations that can be mistaken as planets. Large spots crossing the stellar disc can produce planet-like periodic variations in the light curve of a star. These spots clearly affect the spectral line profiles, and their perturbations alter the line centroids creating a radial velocity jitter that might “contaminate” the variations induced by a planet. Precise chromospheric activity measurements are needed to estimate the activity-induced noise that should be expected for a given star. Aims: We obtain precise chromospheric activity measurements and projected rotational velocities for nearby (d ? 25 pc) cool (spectral types F to K) stars, to estimate their expected activity-related jitter. As a complementary objective, we attempt to obtain relationships between fluxes in different activity indicator lines, that permit a transformation of traditional activity indicators, i.e., Ca ii H & K lines, to others that hold noteworthy advantages. Methods: We used high resolution (~50 000) echelle optical spectra. Standard data reduction was performed using the IRAF echelle package. To determine the chromospheric emission of the stars in the sample, we used the spectral subtraction technique. We measured the equivalent widths of the chromospheric emission lines in the subtracted spectrum and transformed them into fluxes by applying empirical equivalent width and flux relationships. Rotational velocities were determined using the cross-correlation technique. To infer activity-related radial velocity (RV) jitter, we used empirical relationships between this jitter and the R'_HK index. Results: We measured chromospheric activity, as given by different indicators throughout the optical spectra, and projected rotational velocities for 371 nearby cool stars. We have built empirical relationships among the most important chromospheric emission lines. Finally, we used the measured chromospheric activity to estimate the expected RV jitter for the active stars in the sample. Based on observations made with the 2.2 m telescope at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto (Spain) and the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Istituto Nazionale de Astrofisica Italiano (INAF), in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos. This research has been supported by the Programa de Acceso a Infraestructuras Científicas y Tecnológicas Singulares (ICTS).Tables A1 to A4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/520/A79

  19. Venus upper clouds and the UV-absorber from MESSENGER/MASCS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin; Garcia Munoz, Antonio; Irwin, Patrick; Peralta, Javier; Holsclaw, Greg; McClintock, William

    2014-11-01

    In June 2007, the MESSENGER spacecraft performed its second Venus flyby on its route to Mercury. The spacecraft’s MASCS instrument (VIRS channel) acquired numerous spectra of the sunlight reflected from the equatorial region of the planet at wavelengths from the near ultraviolet (300nm) to the near infrared (1450 nm). In this work we present an analysis of the data and their spectral and spatial variability following the mission footprint on the Venus disk. In order to reproduce the observed reflectivity and obtain information on the upper clouds and the unknown UV absorber, we use the NEMESIS retrieval code, including SO2 , CO2 and H2O absorption together with absorption and scattering by mode-1, -2 and -3 cloud particles. This spectral range provides sensitivity to the uppermost cloud levels, above 60 km. Vertical profiles of the mode-1 and mode-2 particles have been retrieved along the equatorial region of Venus, with average retrieved sounding levels of 70 +/- 2 km at 1 micron, in good agreement with previous investigations. This spectral range is also very interesting because of the existence of a mysterious absorber in the blue and UV side of the reflected spectra, whose origin remains as one of the key questions about the Venus atmosphere. Here we report a comparison with some of the previously proposed absorbers: (1) sulfur-related compounds (amorphous and liquid sulfur, S3, S4, S8, S2O); (2) chlorine related species (Cl2, FeCl3); (3) organics (C3O2, Croconic acid). Preliminary results show that the first group provides better fits to the data, although combinations of the proposed agents might be required in order to produce better results. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Spanish MICIIN projects AYA2009- 10701, AYA2012-38897-C02-01, and AYA2012-36666 with FEDER support, PRICIT-S2009/ESP-1496, Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT765-13, and UPV/EHU UFI11/55. S.P.-H. acknowledges support from the Jose Castillejo Program funded by Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte, Programa Nacional de Movilidad de Recursos Humanos del Plan Nacional de I-D+i 2008-2011.

  20. Exobiology opportunities from Discovery-class missions. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Michael A.; Rummel, John D.

    1994-01-01

    Discovery-class missions that are now planned, and those in the concept stage, have the potential to expand our knowledge of the origins and evolution of biogenic compounds, and ultimately, of the origins of life in the solar system. This class of missions, recently developed within NASA's Solar System Exploration Program, is designed to meet important scientific objectives within stringent guidelines--$150 million cap on development cost and a 3-year cap on the development schedule. The Discovery Program will effectively enable "faster, cheaper" missions to explore the inner solar system. The first two missions are Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) Pathfinder and Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR). MESUR Pathfinder will be the first Discovery mission, with launch planned for November/December 1996. It will be primarily a technical demonstration and validation of the MESUR Program--a network of automated landers to study the internal structure, meteorology, and surface properties of Mars. Besides providing engineering data, Pathfinder will carry atmospheric instrumentation and imaging capabilities, and may deploy a microrover equipped with an alpha proton X-ray spectrometer to determine elemental composition, particularly the lighter elements of exobiological interest. NEAR is expected to be launched in 1998 and to rendezvous with a near-Earth asteroid for up to 1 year. During this time, the spacecraft will assess the asteroid's mass, size, density, map its surface topography and composition, determine its internal properties, and study its interaction with the interplanetary environment. A gamma ray or X-ray spectrometer will be used to determine elemental composition. An imaging spectrograph, with 0.35 to 2.5 micron spectral range, will be used to determine the asteroid's compositional disbribution. Of the 11 Discovery mission concepts that have been designated as warranting further study, several are promising in terms of determining the composition and chemical evolution of organic matter on small planetary bodies. The following mission concepts are of particular interest to the Exobiology Program: Cometary coma chemical composition, comet nucleus tour, near earth asteroid returned sample, small missions to asteroids and comets, and solar wind sample return. The following three Discovery mission concepts that have been targeted for further consideration are relevant to the study of the evolution of biogenic compounds: Comet nucleus penetrator, mainbelt asteroid rendezvous explorer, and the Mars polar Pathfinder.

  1. Field Courses for Volcanic Hazards Mapping at Parícutinand Jorullo Volcanoes (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victoria Morales, A.; Delgado Granados, H.; Roberge, J.; Farraz Montes, I. A.; Linares López, C.

    2007-05-01

    During the last decades, Mexico has suffered several geologic phenomena-related disasters. The eruption of El Chichón volcano in 1982 killed >2000 people and left a large number of homeless populations and severe economic damages. The best way to avoid and mitigate disasters and their effects is by making geologic hazards maps. In volcanic areas these maps should show in a simplified fashion, but based on the largest geologic background possible, the probable (or likely) distribution in time and space of the products related to a variety of volcanic processes and events, according to likely magnitude scenarios documented on actual events at a particular volcano or a different one with similar features to the volcano used for calibration and weighing geologic background. Construction of hazards maps requires compilation and acquisition of a large amount of geological data in order to obtain the physical parameters needed to calibrate and perform controlled simulation of volcanic events under different magnitude-scenarios in order to establish forecasts. These forecasts are needed by the authorities to plan human settlements, infrastructure, and economic development. The problem is that needs are overwhelmingly faster than the adjustments of university programs to include courses. At the Earth Science División of the Faculty of Engineering at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, the students have a good background that permits to learn the methodologies for hazards map construction but no courses on hazards evaluations. Therefore, under the support of the university's Program to Support Innovation and Improvement of Teaching (PAPIME, Programa de Apoyo para la Innovación y Mejoramiento de la Enseñanza) a series of field-based intensive courses allow the Earth science students to learn what kind of data to acquire, how to record, and process in order to carry out hazards evaluations. This training ends with hazards maps that can be used immediately by the authorities after proper review by peers. This project has been running for two years and hazards maps for the region of Parícutin and Jorullo volcanoes have been carried out. The students have been applying their knowledge and got results in a very short time and at the same time socially very important.

  2. Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards for Residential General Service Lighting in Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Letschert, Virginie E.; McNeil, Michael A.; Leiva Ibanez, Francisco Humberto; Ruiz, Ana Maria; Pavon, Mariana; Hall, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) have been chosen as part of Chile's national energy efficiency action plan. As a first MEPS, the Ministry of Energy has decided to focus on a regulation for lighting that would ban the sale of inefficient bulbs, effectively phasing out the use of incandescent lamps. Following major economies such as the US (EISA, 2007) , the EU (Ecodesign, 2009) and Australia (AS/NZS, 2008) who planned a phase out based on minimum efficacy requirements, the Ministry of Energy has undertaken the impact analysis of a MEPS on the residential lighting sector. Fundacion Chile (FC) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with the Ministry of Energy and the National Energy Efficiency Program (Programa Pais de Eficiencia Energetica, or PPEE) in order to produce a techno-economic analysis of this future policy measure. LBNL has developed for CLASP (CLASP, 2007) a spreadsheet tool called the Policy Analysis Modeling System (PAMS) that allows for evaluation of costs and benefits at the consumer level but also a wide range of impacts at the national level, such as energy savings, net present value of savings, greenhouse gas (CO2) emission reductions and avoided capacity generation due to a specific policy. Because historically Chile has followed European schemes in energy efficiency programs (test procedures, labelling program definitions), we take the Ecodesign commission regulation No 244/2009 as a starting point when defining our phase out program, which means a tiered phase out based on minimum efficacy per lumen category. The following data were collected in order to perform the techno-economic analysis: (1) Retail prices, efficiency and wattage category in the current market, (2) Usage data (hours of lamp use per day), and (3) Stock data, penetration of efficient lamps in the market. Using these data, PAMS calculates the costs and benefits of efficiency standards from two distinct but related perspectives: (1) The Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) calculation examines costs and benefits from the perspective of the individual household; and (2) The National Perspective projects the total national costs and benefits including both financial benefits, and energy savings and environmental benefits. The national perspective calculations are called the National Energy Savings (NES) and the Net Present Value (NPV) calculations. PAMS also calculate total emission mitigation and avoided generation capacity. This paper describes the data and methodology used in PAMS and presents the results of the proposed phase out of incandescent bulbs in Chile.

  3. Telescópio de pequeno porte como suporte ao ensino em cidades com intensa poluição luminosa II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P. C. R.; Santos-Júnior, J. M.; Cruz, W. S.

    2003-08-01

    Para a maioria dos estudantes, sua passagem pelo ensino formal fundamental envolve a transmissão de fatos que devem ser guardados para um exame, a habilidade para lembrar fórmulas e, eventualmente, a repetição de experimentos que devem produzir resultados exigidos pelo professor. O resultado deste modelo de ensino, ao longo dos anos, é conhecido por todos: desconhecimento e descontentamento, por parte dos estudantes, de temas relativos ao papel e aos processos da ciência. Acreditamos que a Astronomia, pelo seu caráter observacional, é uma das áreas do conhecimento que pode contribuir neste cenário. A Fundação Planetário da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro possui um telescópio Meade LX-200 (25cm) que, juntamente com as câmeras CCD ST-7E e ST8E, tem sido utilizado em projetos voltados aos estudantes do ensino médio desde o ano 2000. Tais projetos envolvem a condução de um projeto de pesquisa observacional num nível apropriado, e possibilitam o contato com técnicas e novas tecnologias: computador, software para manipulação de dados e gráficos, programas de tratamento e redução de dados, uso de equipamentos óptico-eletrônicos (telescópio e CCD), bem como o processo de aquisição de conhecimento. Dentro da proposta dos anos anteriores, priorizamos projetos de uma noite, ou seja, procuramos trabalhar com fenômenos que apresentem variabilidade com intervalo de recorrência relativamente curto. Em todos os casos, optamos pela fotometria diferencial, que tem se mostrado bastante eficiente para o céu luminoso como o da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Neste painel, apresentamos alguns dos projetos desenvolvidos no último ano, com 25 estudantes. Apresentamos os resultados da observação da variável pulsante AI Vel (V = 6,6) e da variável cataclísmica FO Aqr (V = 13,5), e do monitoramento do trânsito da lua de Júpiter, Europa, ocorrido em 30 de abril de 2003. As curvas de luz produzidas para as primeiras estão concordantes com as da literatura, assim como os respectivos períodos encontrados (1h20min e 4h48min). No caso do FO Aqr, ficou evidente, também, a modulação decorrente da rotação da anã branca receptora (21min). O erro estimado é de 0,01 magnitude. Propomos uma maior utilização de telescópios de pequeno porte, como suporte ao ensino (médio e superior) em cidades com poluição luminosa. Escolas e Planetários seriam ambientes propícios para a localização do telescópio. Os critérios adotados na escolha dos objetos e o método observacional empregado são também apresentados.

  4. DUCHAS VAGINALES Y OTROS RIESGOS DE VAGINOSIS BACTERIANA

    PubMed Central

    Chávez, Natividad; Molina, Helfer; Sánchez, Jorge; Gelaye, Bizu; Sánchez, Sixto E.

    2010-01-01

    Vaginosis bacteriana (VB) es una infección caracterizada por el cambio en la microflora de la vagina, asociándose a resultados adversos del embarazo y a la adquisición de infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS), incluyendo el VIH. En este estudio se buscó la asociación entre el uso de duchas vaginales y otros factores de riesgos con VB. Se usó un diseño observacional descriptivo transversal prospectivo, en 1,252 mujeres que asistieron al servicio de planificación familiar de tres hospitales nacionales (Dos de Mayo, Arzobispo Loayza, San Bartolomé) y el Instituto Materno Perinatal, durante el año 1997. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado donde se registraron variables socio demográficas y características del estilo de vida de las participantes. VB fue diagnosticada mediante el puntaje de Nugent. Se empleó análisis de regresión logística para calcular odds ratio (OR) e intervalos de confianza al 95%. La edad promedio de las participantes fue 25.1 ± 4,7 años, el 23.4% tenían más de 11 años de educación. La prevalencía de VB fue 20,1%. Las mujeres que practicaban duchas vaginales tuvieron 2.28 veces (OR = 2.28, IC 95% [1.0–5.0]) mayor probabilidad de tener VB comparado con aquellas que no lo practicaban. Tener dos o más parejas sexuales estuvo asociado con 2.0 veces (OR =2.0, IC 95% [1.2–3.5]) mayor probabilidad de adquirir VB comparado con aquellas que habían tenido solo una pareja sexual. Las participantes que iniciaron una relación sexual a una edad temprana tuvieron 1.4 veces (OR=1.4, IC 95% [1.0 –1.9]) mayor probabilidad de adquirir VB. El uso de duchas vaginales es un factor de riesgo de VB. Los programas destinados a la salud de la mujer deben abordar las repercusiones perjudiciales para la salud asociados con las duchas vaginales. PMID:21132048

  5. Engineering-geological model of the landslide of Güevejar (S Spain) reactivated by historical earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, José; García-Tortosa, Francisco J.; Garrido, Jesús; Giner, José; Lenti, Luca; López-Casado, Carlos; Martino, Salvatore; Peláez, José A.; Sanz de Galdeano, Carlos; Soler, Juan L.

    2015-04-01

    Landslides are a common ground effect induced by earthquakes of moderate to large magnitude. Most of them correspond to first-time instabilities induced by the seismic event, being the reactivation of pre-existing landslides less frequent in practice. The landslide of Güevejar (Granada province, S Spain) represents a case study of landslide that was reactivated, at least, two times by far field earthquakes: the Mw 8.7, 1755, Lisbon earthquake (with estimated epicentral distance of 680 km), and the Mw 6.5, 1884, Andalucia event (estimated epicentral distance of 45 km), but not by near field events of moderate magnitude (Mw < 6.0 and epicentral distances lower than 25 km). To study the seismic response of this landslide, a study has been conducted to elaborate an engineering-geological model. For this purpose, field work done included the elaboration of a detailed geological map (1:1000) of the landslide and surrounding areas, drilling of deep boreholes (80 m deep), down-hole measurement of both P and S wave velocities in the boreholes drilled, piezometric control of water table, MASW and ReMi profiles for determining the underlying structure of the sites tested (soil profile stratigraphy and the corresponding S-wave velocity of each soil level) and undisturbed sampling of the materials affected by the landslide. These samples were then tested in laboratory according to standard procedures for determination of both static (among which soil density, soil classification and shear strength) and dynamic properties (degradation curves for shear modulus and damping ratio with shear strain) of the landslide-involved materials. The model proposed corresponds to a complex landslide that combines a rototranslational mechanism with an earth-flow at its toe, which is characterized by a deep (> 50 m) sliding surface. The engineering-geological model constitutes the first step in an ongoing research devoted to understand how it could be reactivated during far field events. The authors would like to thank the ERDF of European Union for financial support via project "Monitorización sísmica de deslizamientos. Criterios de reactivación y alerta temprana" of the "Programa Operativo FEDER de Andalucía 2007-2015". We also thank all Public Works Agency and Ministry of Public Works and Housing of the Regional Government of Andalusia.

  6. An assessment of wind energy potential in Iberia under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Santos, João A.; Rochinha, Carlos; Reyers, Mark; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2015-04-01

    Wind energy potential in Iberia is assessed for recent-past (1961-2000) and future (2041-2070) climates. For recent-past, a COSMO-CLM simulation driven by ERA-40 is used. COSMO-CLM simulations driven by ECHAM5 following the A1B scenario are used for future projections. A 2 MW rated power wind turbine is selected. Mean potentials, inter-annual variability and irregularity are discussed on annual/seasonal scales and on a grid resolution of 20 km. For detailed regional assessments eight target sites are considered. For recent-past conditions, the highest daily mean potentials are found in winter over northern and eastern Iberia, particularly on high-elevation or coastal regions. In northwestern Iberia, daily potentials frequently reach maximum wind energy output (50 MWh day-1), particularly in winter. Southern Andalucía reveals high potentials throughout the year, whereas the Ebro valley and central-western coast show high potentials in summer. The irregularity in annual potentials is moderate (<15% of mean output), but exacerbated in winter (40%). Climate change projections show significant decreases over most of Iberia (<2 MWh day-1). The strong enhancement of autumn potentials in Southern Andalucía is noteworthy (>2 MWh day-1). The northward displacement of North Atlantic westerly winds (autumn-spring) and the strengthening of easterly flows (summer) are key drivers of future projections. Santos, J.A.; Rochinha, C.; Liberato, M.L.R.; Reyers, M.; Pinto, J.G. (2015) Projected changes in wind energy potentials over Iberia. Renewable Energy, 75, 1: 68-80. doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2014.09.026 Acknowledgements: This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010).

  7. Precipitation effects on aerosol concentration in the background EMEP station of Zarra (Valencia), Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, Ana Isabel; San Martín, Isabel; Castro, Amaya; Alonso-Blanco, Elisabeth; Alves, Célia; Duarte, Márcio; Fernández-González, Sergio; Fraile, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    Aerosols and precipitation are closely related, presenting a bidirectional influence and constituting an important source of uncertainties on climate change studies. However, they are usually studied independently and in general are only linked to one another for the development or validation of cloud models. The primary and secondary pollutants may be removed by wet and dry deposition. Wet deposition, including in-cloud and below-cloud scavenging processes, can efficiently remove atmospheric aerosols and it is considered a critical process for determining aerosol concentrations in the atmosphere. In this study, aerosols and precipitation data from a background Spanish EMEP (Cooperative Programme for the Monitoring and Evaluation of Long Range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe) station located in Zarra, Valencia (Spain) were analyzed (1° 06' W and 39° 05' N, 885 m asl). The effect of precipitation on aerosol concentration was studied and the correlation between the intensity of precipitation and scavenging effect was investigated. In order to evaluate the effects of precipitation on different aerosol size ranges three different aerosol fractions were studied: PM10, PM10-2.5 and PM2.5. In order to eliminate the influence of the air mass changes, only the days in which the air mass of the precipitation day and the previous day had the same origin were considered. Thus, from a total of 3586 rainy days registered from March 2001 to December 2010, 34 precipitation days satisfied this condition and were analyzed. During the period of study, daily precipitation ranged between 0.2 and 28.8 mm, with a mean value of 4 mm. Regarding the origin of the air masses, those from west were dominant at the three height levels investigated (500, 1500 and 3000 m). In order to obtain additional information, aerosol and precipitation chemical composition were also studied in relation to the days of precipitation and the previous days. Furthermore, in order to identify the type of weather associated with each particular synoptic situation, a Circulation Weather Type (CWT) classification was applied. Acknowledgment: This work has been funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (Grant TEC2010-19241-C02-01). S. Fernández-González acknowledges the grant from the "Programa de Formación de Profesorado Universitario (FPU)" awarded by the Spanish Ministry of Education.

  8. Analisis de Alteraciones EN la Imagen Debidas a Descolimacion de un Telescopio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Galan, M. J.

    1987-05-01

    Podemos considerar, en términos generales, que los espejos de un telescopio tienen una calidad óptica intrínseca, entendiendo por ésta la que se ha obtenido como resultado, fundamentalmente, de la destreza del personal del Taller Optico, que considerará terminadas las superficies ópticas cuando éstas satisfagan los requisitos de diseño y las pruebas de evaluación pertinentes. Debemos esperar que, una vez instalados los espejos en el telescopio, no se altere esta calidad de la óptica por un funcionamiento inadecuado de partes mecánicas del mismo. En los últimos años, en la medida que los problemas de infraestructuratura de nuestros Observatorios se han ido resolviendo, se ha hecho más patente la necesidad de llevar a la instrumentación existente al máximo de su potencial y parte esencial de ésta la conforman los mismos te lescopios. Mejorar la calidad óptica de las imágenes obtenidas con ellos ha hecho que sea prioritario el realizar una investigación más sistemática de sus características. Este trabajo ha tenido como objetivo primordial el usar un programa de diseño óptico, en el caso particular del telescopio UNAM212, con el fin de calcular y obtener gráficamente los diagramas de manchas de imagenes en foco y extrafocales, tanto con la óptica perfectamente alineada como descolimándola (mediante pequenos giros y descentramientos de los espejos). De esta manera, se hizo una evaluación de los efectos que estas alteraciones simuladas producirían en las imágenes focales y extra focales para así poder compararlas con las que realmente se han observado. Asimismo, se ha buscado información bibliográfica, en particular sobre los efectos de giros y descentramientos en las imágenes extrafocales, en lo que se ref iere a la falta de concentricidad de los círculos que forman la "dona" y a la distribución de intensidad luminosa en la misma. De ésta, l futuro un proceso que, haciendo uso de los detectores bidimensionales, nos permita Ilevar a cabo una alineación más rigurosa de la óptica del telescopio y evaluar con precisión Si variaciones en el posicionado del misesperamos desarrollar en emo producen efectos de descolimación.

  9. Characteristics of storms that contribute to extreme precipitation events over the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo, Ricardo; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Ordoñez, Paulina; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Trigo, Isabel F.

    2014-05-01

    Floods correspond to one of the most deadly natural disasters in the Iberian Peninsula during the last century. Quite often these floods are associated to intense low pressure systems with an Atlantic origin. In recent years a number of episodes have been evaluated on a case-by-case approach, with a clear focus on extreme events, thus lacking a systematic assessment. In this study we focus on the characteristics of storms for the extended winter season (October to March) that are responsible for the most extreme rainfall events over large areas of the Iberian Peninsula. An objective method for ranking daily precipitation events during the extended winter is used based on the most comprehensive database of high resolution (0.2º latitude by 0.2º longitude) gridded daily precipitation dataset available for the Iberian Peninsula. The magnitude of an event is obtained after considering the total area affected as well as its intensity in every grid point (taking into account the daily normalised departure from climatology). Different precipitation rankings are studied considering the entire Iberian Peninsula, Portugal and also the six largest river basins in the Iberian Peninsula (Duero, Ebro, Tagus, Minho, Guadiana and Guadalquivir). Using an objective cyclone detecting and tracking scheme [Trigo, 2006] the storm track and characteristics of the cyclones were obtained using the ERA-Interim reanalyses for the 1979-2008 period. The spatial distribution of extratropical cyclone positions when the precipitation extremes occur will be analysed over the considered sub-domains (Iberia, Portugal, major river basins). In addition, we distinguish the different cyclone characteristics (lifetime, direction, minimum pressure, position, velocity, vorticity and radius) with significant impacts in precipitation over the different domains in the Iberian Peninsula. This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER- 019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010). A. M. Ramos was also supported by a FCT postdoctoral Grant (FCT/DFRH/SFRH/BPD/84328/2012). Trigo I. F. (2006) Climatology and interannual variability of storm-tracks in the Euro-Atlantic sector: A comparison between ERA-40 and NCEP/NCAR reanalyses. Clim. Dyn., 26, 127-143.

  10. Diagnosis and Modeling of the Explosive Development of Winter Storms: Sensitivity to PBL Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Pradhan, Prabodha K.

    2014-05-01

    The correct representation of extreme windstorms in regional models is of great importance for impact studies of climate change. The Iberian Peninsula has recently witnessed major damage from winter extratropical intense cyclones like Klaus (January 2009), Xynthia (February 2010) and Gong (January 2013) which formed over the mid-Atlantic, experienced explosive intensification while travelling eastwards at lower latitudes than usual [Liberato et al. 2011; 2013]. In this paper the explosive development of these storms is simulated by the advanced mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF v 3.4.1), initialized with NCEP Final Analysis (FNL) data as initial and lateral boundary conditions (boundary conditions updated in every 3 hours intervals). The simulation experiments are conducted with two domains, a coarser (25km) and nested (8.333km), covering the entire North Atlantic and Iberian Peninsula region. The characteristics of these storms (e.g. wind speed, precipitation) are studied from WRF model and compared with multiple observations. In this context simulations with different Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) schemes are performed. This approach aims at understanding which mechanisms favor the explosive intensification of these storms at a lower than usual latitudes, thus improving the knowledge of atmospheric dynamics (including small-scale processes) on controlling the life cycle of midlatitude extreme storms and contributing to the improvement in predictability and in our ability to forecast storms' impacts over Iberian Peninsula. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER- 019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010). References: Liberato M.L.R., J.G. Pinto, I.F. Trigo, R.M. Trigo (2011) Klaus - an exceptional winter storm over Northern Iberia and Southern France. Weather 66: 330-334 doi:10.1002/wea.755 Liberato M.L.R., J.G. Pinto, R.M. Trigo, P. Ludwig, P. Ordóñez, D. Yuen, I.F. Trigo (2013) Explosive development of winter storm Xynthia over the Subtropical North Atlantic Ocean, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 2239-2251, doi:10.5194/nhess-13-2239-2013

  11. ANÁLISE DA INSERÇÃO DOS TEMAS DE HUMANIDADES E ÉTICA, COM METODOLOGIA DE APRENDIZAGEM BASEADA EM PROBLEMAS, EM CURRICULO MÉDICO INTEGRADO EM ESCOLA PÚBLICA NO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando; Silveira, Carla; Guiotti, Murilo

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo Realizar uma análise da inserção da ética e humanidades no currículo do Curso de Medicina da Escola Superior em Ciências da Saúde - ESCS, escola pública do Distrito Federal, Brasil, de forma a contribuir com o processo de gestão curricular. Metodologia O Estudo é de coorte e documental. Foram pesquisados 37 termos relacionados à ética e 36 referentes à humanização nos objetivos educacionais e conteúdo dos módulos temáticos, habilidades e atitudes e interação ensino-serviço-comunidade, de 1a a 4a série e no programa do internato no currículo (ano 2006) e no projeto pedagógico do Curso de Medicina (2001). Resultados Maior inserção da humanização, ética e bioética na 1a e 2a série, quando comparado à inserção na 3a e 4a série e no internato, (IC95%-α=0,034, pvalue=0,007). Unidade de habilidades e atitudes: freqüência das 3 temáticas no currículo da 1a a 4a séries (IC95%-α=0,026, pvalue=0,013). Quando comparada a inserção entre o internato e as quatro primeiras séries, observa-se que nestas a inserção da temática humanização é superior (IC95%-α=0,042, pvalue=0,029). Conclusão O currículo desenvolvido no ano de 2006 na ESCS apresentou correlação com o projeto pedagógico do curso e contemplou a temática de forma abrangente, em todas as séries e internato. PMID:20396594

  12. ZPR-6 assembly 7 high {sup 240} PU core : a cylindrical assemby with mixed (PU, U)-oxide fuel and a central high {sup 240} PU zone.

    SciTech Connect

    Lell, R. M.; Schaefer, R. W.; McKnight, R. D.; Tsiboulia, A.; Rozhikhin, Y.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering

    2007-10-01

    Over a period of 30 years more than a hundred Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The ZPR facilities, ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR, were all fast critical assembly facilities. The ZPR critical assemblies were constructed to support fast reactor development, but data from some of these assemblies are also well suited to form the basis for criticality safety benchmarks. Of the three classes of ZPR assemblies, engineering mockups, engineering benchmarks and physics benchmarks, the last group tends to be most useful for criticality safety. Because physics benchmarks were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, they were as simple as possible in geometry and composition. The principal fissile species was {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu. Fuel enrichments ranged from 9% to 95%. Often there were only one or two main core diluent materials, such as aluminum, graphite, iron, sodium or stainless steel. The cores were reflected (and insulated from room return effects) by one or two layers of materials such as depleted uranium, lead or stainless steel. Despite their more complex nature, a small number of assemblies from the other two classes would make useful criticality safety benchmarks because they have features related to criticality safety issues, such as reflection by soil-like material. The term 'benchmark' in a ZPR program connotes a particularly simple loading aimed at gaining basic reactor physics insight, as opposed to studying a reactor design. In fact, the ZPR-6/7 Benchmark Assembly (Reference 1) had a very simple core unit cell assembled from plates of depleted uranium, sodium, iron oxide, U3O8, and plutonium. The ZPR-6/7 core cell-average composition is typical of the interior region of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) of the era. It was one part of the Demonstration Reactor Benchmark Program,a which provided integral experiments characterizing the important features of demonstration-size LMFBRs. As a benchmark, ZPR-6/7 was devoid of many 'real' reactor features, such as simulated control rods and multiple enrichment zones, in its reference form. Those kinds of features were investigated experimentally in variants of the reference ZPR-6/7 or in other critical assemblies in the Demonstration Reactor Benchmark Program.

  13. Preliminary ground response of the Diezma landslide (Southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, José; García-Tortosa, Francisco J.; Garrido, Jesús; Lenti, Luca; López-Casado, Carlos; Martino, Salvatore; Peláez, José A.; Sanz de Galdeano, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    The reactivation of landslides is a major concern in regions of moderate to high seismicity, especially when it affects roads or villages. The Diezma landslide (Southern Spain), which had an estimated volume of 1.2 Mm3 and affected the main highway of Andalusia (A-92), it is located in a region of moderate seismicity and it has been active since 1998, but some local reactivations keep going after the general failure occurred in 2001, despite of the corrective measures built after the main failure. A heavy rain period was the triggering factor of the landslide, therefore future rains and mainly earthquakes may destabilize the whole slope again. An engineering-geological model of the landslide was developed from field surveys, laboratory tests, boreholes logs and geophysical investigations (MASW and seismic noise measurements). The landslide mass is constituted by silts and clays with heterometric blocks sliding on a metamorphic bedrock, and its mechanism was conditioned by structural constraints. The ground response o f the landslide was studied through experimental techniques including ambient noise and earthquake records. The ambient noise survey was designed for the use of the Nakamura's HVSR technique. While the measurements done inside the landslide exhibit a sharp peak whose peak frequency varies depending of the site within the landslide mass, those made outside landslide mass are characterized by a flat response. A temporary seismic network (0-30 s broadband seismometers), set up inside the landslide and in rocky outcrops outside the landslide, has allowed to record up to 20 earthquakes with epicentral distances from local to distant earthquakes, and magnitudes ranging from 1.7 to 7.2, showing similar spectral response to that retrieved from noise measurements. An unconventional pseudostatic analysis was applied to the landslide under limit equilibrium conditions through several sine waves, which cause accelerations which values are in the range of the expected PGA values for a return period of 475 years in the area. The landslide stability varies depending on the frecuency values of seismic waves, so the earthquake-induced effects are related to the characteristic period of them and landslide geometry (thickness and length). The temporary seismic network installed in the landslide slope will allow constraining the co-seismic displacements in the landslide and the possible damages to the highway. The authors would like to thank the ERDF of European Union for financial support via project "Monitorización sísmica de deslizamientos. Criterios de reactivación y alerta temprana" of the "Programa Operativo FEDER de Andalucía 2007-2015". We also thank all Public Works Agency and Ministry of Public Works and Housing of the Regional Government of Andalusia.

  14. Land degradation in the Canyoles river watershed, Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, A.; Gonzalez Peñaloza, F. A.; Imeson, A. C.; Gimenez Morera, A.

    2012-04-01

    Human induced Land Degradation by actions that have a negative impact on the functioning of the environment (Imeson, 2012). Mediterranean arid lands have been intensely transformed by human activity through history, especially due to agricultural management. This intense use of the land resulted in a new man made landscape that is evolving as a consequence of the global change to a new situation that can trigger Land Degradation processes. Extensive areas of olive groves, fruit orchards and vineyards, many of them grown on marginal areas (e.g., terraced slopes) as well as non-sustainable land uses have induced different environmental problems in the Canyoles river watershed (Eastern Spain). The human and physical changes suffered by this region are being used as a representative area of the western Mediterranean basin to monitor how the responses to the Desertification and Land Degradation fit. The aim of this research is to evaluate socio-ecological systems as a part of the Land Ecosystem and Degradation Desertification Response Assessment (LEDDRA) project. This presentation will show the main Land Degradation processes that has been identified: [1] soil erosion as a consequence of agriculture, [2] soil compaction due to herbicide and heavy machinery use, [3] soil sealing on croplands due to heavy vehicles and asphalt and concrete application on roads, [4] soil/water pollution due to agrochemicals, [5] reduction of biodiversity in croplands due to herbicides and substitution of the traditional irrigation system, [6] urbanization processes of rural areas due to the development of urban areas and agricultural infrastructures, [7] monoculture of citrus plantations in the lower part of the watershed, [8] roads and railway construction, [9] aquifer depletion, [10] abandonment of industrial activities, [11] abandonment of local traditional practices for food production and other resources and [12] the effect of land abandonment and wildfires in the nearby mountainous areas on soil erosion and degradation processes. Special attention is being paid to the citrus plantations expansion at the Canyoles river watershed as it was found the increase in soil erosion is due to the chemically managed citrus orchards (Cerdà et al., 2009). The economic changes on the citrus orchards are also analized. This research is being conducted by the EU project "Land and Ecosystem Degradation and Desertification: Assessing the Fit of Responses" LEDDRA 243857 CONSORTIUM AGREEMENT . TR07 - VII PROGRAMA MARCO - ENERGÍA FP7-ENERGY-2007-2-TREN. - European Union FP7. ENV.2009 243857. The experimental setup within the citrus plantation is being supported by the the research project CGL2008-02879/BTE

  15. PREFACE: FLUIDOS 2010: XI Meeting on Recent Advances in the Physics of Fluids and their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bove, Italo; Cabeza, Cecilia; Martí, Arturo C.; Sarasúa, Gustavo

    2011-04-01

    The papers published in this volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series were selected from the manuscripts submitted to the XI Meeting on Recent Advances in the Physics of Fluids and their Applications (FLUIDOS2010), which was held in Colonia del Sacramento, Uruguay, 3-5 November 2010. FLUIDOS takes place every two years, usually in November, with the aim of gathering together researchers from all areas of the Physics of Fluids, to update themselves on the latest technical developments and applications, share knowledge and stimulate new ideas. This 11th meeting continues the successful experience of the previous ones which were held in different Argentinian cities. For the first time, the meeting was celebrated in Uruguay, more specifically, in the peaceful town of Colonia del Sacramento, designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. The conference presented an outstanding program of papers covering the most recent advances in Physics of Fluids in the following areas: General Fluid Dynamics General and non-Newtonian Flows Magnetohydrodynamics Electrohydrodynamics and Plasmas Hydraulics, Thermohydraulics and Multiple Phase Flows A website with full details of the conference program, abstracts and other information can be found at http://fluidos2010.fisica.edu.uy. We would like to thank all the participants, especially those who contributed with talks, posters and manuscripts, for making FLUDOS2010 such a successful conference. Our thanks also go to our colleagues for their support and encouragement, particularly in the refereeing of papers. We would like to acknowledge additional financial support from Comisión Sectorial de Investigación Científica (Universidad de la República, Uruguay), Programa de Desarrollo de las Ciencias Básicas (Uruguay) and the Centro Latinoamericano de Física (CLAF). Our thanks are extended to the local government of Colonia del Sacramento. The next FLUIDOS conference will be held in November 2013, in Buenos Aires, Argentina. We anticipate enjoying another successful FLUIDOS meeting to be held in one of the main cultural centres of the continent. Italo Bove, Cecilia Cabeza, Arturo C Martí, and Gustavo SarasúaEditors

  16. Fragmented coastal boundary layer induced by gap winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, Rui M. A.; Iglesias, Isabel; Sala, Iria; Vieira, Rui R.; Bastos, Luísa

    2015-04-01

    The oceanic impact of offshore-localized winds in the NW Iberian Peninsula was studied. Satellite and in situ observations showed the formation of plumes protruding offshore from the coast. To study the dynamics of such episodes tee Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave- Sediment Transport Modeling System (COAWST) was used to reproduce the coastal conditions of the nortwestern Iberian Peninsula, allowing the concurrent representation of local winds, waves, currents, and rivers runoff. The use of coupled models is of outmost importance in order to accurately study the impact of the local winds on the coastal currents. The NW Iberian Peninsula has prominent capes, promontories and submarine canyons, which produce persistent hydrodynamic features. Thus far, the scientific literature shows that the western Iberian rivers produce a recurrent combined plume often denominated as the Western Iberian Buoyant Plume (WIBP) which increases the stratification of the water column and produces a vertical retention mechanism that keeps the biological material inshore. The WIBP extends northward along the coast (over the inner-shelf), and forms a front with the warmer and more saline surface (offshore) waters. However during episodes of strong offshore winds this coastal boundary layer is broken interrupting the WIBP. Coastal orography allows the formation of down-valley winds that produce coastal jets, promoting the offshore transport of pollutants, larvae and sediments. Acknowledgments: Acknowledgments: Numerical model solutions were calculated at CIIMARs HPC unit, acquired and maintained by FCT pluriannual funds (PesTC/Mar/LA0015/2013), and RAIA (0313-RAIA-1-E) and RAIA.co (0520-RAIACO-1-E) projects. The NICC (POCTI/CTA/49563/2002) project provided databases for this work. Rui Caldeira was supported by funds from the ECORISK project (NORTE-07-0124-FEDER-000054), co-financed by the North Portugal Regional Operational Programme (ON.2 - O Novo Norte), under the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF), through the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). RAIA.co and RAIA tec (0688-RAIATEC-1-P) projects provided postdoctoral funds for Isabel Iglesias. The RAIA Coastal Observatory has been funded by the Programa Operativo de Cooperación Transfronteriza España-Portugal (POCTEP 2007-2013).

  17. Preparación de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos para hacer frente a los desastres naturales: encuesta a escala nacional*

    PubMed Central

    Al-rousan, Tala M.; Rubenstein, Linda M.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Nos propusimos determinar el grado de preparación frente a los desastres naturales de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos y evaluar los factores que pueden afectar negativamente la salud y la seguridad durante este tipo de incidentes. Métodos. Obtuvimos una muestra de adultos de 50 años en adelante (n = 1 304) de la encuesta del 2010 del Estudio de la Salud y la Jubilación (HRS por su sigla en inglés). La encuesta recogió datos sobre las características demográficas generales, el estado de discapacidad o las limitaciones funcionales, y también sobre factores y comportamientos relacionados con la preparación frente a los desastres. Calculamos una puntuación global de preparación mediante indicadores individuales a fin de evaluar el grado de preparación general. Resultados. La media de la edad de los participantes (n = 1 304) fue de 70 años (desviación estándar [DE] = 9,3). Solo 34,3% informaron que habían participado en un programa formativo o que habían leído materiales sobre la preparación para los desastres. Casi 15% indicaron que usaban dispositivos médicos eléctricos que podían correr riesgo de no funcionar si se interrumpiera el suministro eléctrico. La puntuación de preparación indicó que la edad más avanzada, la discapacidad física y el menor nivel de escolaridad y de ingresos se asociaban independiente y significativamente a un grado de preparación general inferior. Conclusiones. A pesar de la mayor vulnerabilidad ante los desastres y del número cada vez mayor de adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos, muchos de los problemas sustanciales que encontramos son remediables y requieren atención en los sectores de la sociedad dedicados a la atención clínica, a la salud pública y al manejo de situaciones de emergencia.

  18. The Science Teachers and Their way of Thinking about Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Los Profesores de Ciencias y Sus Formas de Pensar la Astronomía.) Os Professores de Ciências e Suas Formas de Pensar a Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, Cristina; Hosoume, Yassuko

    2007-12-01

    The research presented in this article is about the way science teachers from Elementary School think about astronomical elements. Its methodology is based on semi-structured interviews, which were video recorded. The research is centered in a three-dimensional perspective of astronomical Earth, the Sun, the Moon, the planets and the stars, and also the conceptions about sky and Universe. The esults indicate a Universe that contains: Sun, stars, planets and Moon; where the Solar System is a little part of the whole. Sometimes they think that the Solar System is the Universe. The objects are in the sky or in the Universe, which, for many of them, is only the space above the Earth. The flat shape of astronomical objects and the spatial structure of the Universe are striking features. Many of them think that Sun and stars are different: the Sun is a hot object and the stars are cold ones. These results worry us and they certainly indicate how urgent it is to plan Professional Development in Astronomy for teachers, after all the PCN's emphasize that this subject is important to be taught. El objeto de investigación de este artículo es la manera de pensar sobre los elementos de la Astronomía de los profesores de Ciencias en la enseñanza fundamental. La metodología consiste en entrevistas semi-estructuradas, filmadas en video y centradas en la tridimensionalidad de los elementos astronómicos, para posibilitar un mapeamiento de las concepciones sobre las formas y dimensiones de la Tierra, del Sol, de la Luna, de los planetas y de las estrellas, como también de la concepción de cielo y de Universo en su totalidad. Los resultados indican un Universo conteniendo: Sol, estrellas, planetas y Luna, donde el Sistema Solar se ubica como parte. Algunas veces, el Universo es concebido como el propio Sistema Solar. Los objetos están en el cielo o en el Universo, que, para muchos, se restringe al espacio que está arriba de la Tierra. La forma plana de los objetos astronómicos y la estructura espacial del montaje del Universo son características fundamentales. Muchos indican Sol y estrellas como cosas distintas: el Sol es un objeto caliente y las estrellas son frías. Esos resultados nos preocupan y ciertamente señalan una urgencia de programas de formación continuada para profesores en el contenido de astronomía, pues los PCN's (Parámetros Curriculares Nacionales) recomiendan con énfasis la enseñanza de este contenido. O modo de pensar dos professores de Ciências do ensino fundamental sobre os elementos da Astronomia é o objeto de pesquisa presente neste artigo, cuja metodologia consiste em entrevistas semiestruturadas, filmadas em vídeo e centradas numa perspectiva tridimensional dos elementos astronômicos, possibilitando um mapeamento das concepções das formas e das dimensões da Terra, do Sol, da Lua, dos planetas e das estrelas, bem como da concepção de céu e de Universo como um todo. Os resultados indicam um Universo contendo: Sol, estrelas, planetas e Lua, onde o Sistema Solar é parte do todo. Algumas vezes o Universo é concebido como o próprio Sistema Solar. Os objetos estão no céu ou no Universo o qual, para muitos, se restringe ao espaço que está acima da Terra. A forma plana dos objetos astronômicos e a estrutura espacial da montagem do Universo são características marcantes. Muitos indicam Sol e estrelas como coisas diferentes: Sol é um objeto quente e as estrelas são frias. Esses resultados nos preocupam e certamente sinalizam uma urgência de programas de formação continuada para professores no conteúdo de astronomia, uma vez que os PCN's indicam fortemente o ensino desse conteúdo.

  19. The Astronomy Club of Araranguá: Educating Science Teachers as Science Communicators. (Breton Title: Clube de Astronomia de AraranguÁ: a Formação de Professores de Ciências Como Divulgadores Científicos. ) Club de Astronomía de Araranguá: la Formación del Profesorado Como Comunicadores de la Ciencia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damasio, Felipe; Allain, Olivier; Antunes Rodrigues, Adriano

    2013-07-01

    The study reported in this work takes place since 2009 at the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Santa Catarina, Campus Araranguá. Our main goal is to help form teachers, training undergraduate students in Natural Sciences with specialization in Physics as science communicators, as well as to promote actions of broader scientific popularization in the region of the town of Araranguá through an Astronomy Club called CA2. Among the actions of scientific popularization that the students promote are: video production, radio broadcasts, lectures, nightly observations, preparation and exhibition of posters, physics teaching for children, continuing education activities for teachers and regular physics teaching using Astronomy as a theme. The Club's teacher education and scientific dissemination work is based on the Theory of Meaningful Learning, always trying to reach the student's predisposition to learn and produce potentially meaningful material, the two essential conditions for meaningful learning to occur. O estudo que este trabalho relata ocorre desde 2009 no Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Santa Catarina, campus Araranguá. Nele procura-se formar divulgadores científicos durante a formação inicial de docentes do curso de Licenciatura em Ciências da Natureza com habilitação em Física, além de promover ações de divulgação científica para o público geral da região da cidade de Araranguá por meio de um Clube de Astronomia chamado CA² (Clube de Astronomia de Araranguá). Entre as ações de divulgação científica que os licenciandos promovem estão: produção de vídeos, programas de rádio, palestras, observações noturnas, confecção e exposição de pôsteres, ensino de física para crianças, formação continuada de professores em atividades e ensino de Física regular utilizando a Astronomia como tema gerador. O trabalho de formação docente e divulgação científica do Clube fundamenta-se na Teoria da Aprendizagem Significativa, sempre procurando alcançar a pré-disposição em aprender e produzir material potencialmente significativo, as duas condições necessárias para que a aprendizagem significativa ocorra. El estudio relatado en este trabajo se lleva a cabo desde 2009 en el Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnología de Santa Catarina, campus Araranguá. En él se busca formar a comunicadores de la ciencia durante la formación inicial de los docentes Licenciatura en Ciencias Naturales con especialidad en Física, y también promover acciones de divulgación científica para el público en general en la región de Araranguá a través de un club de astronomía llamado CA2 (Clube de Astronomia Araranguá). Entres las acciones de los estudiantes que se promueven están: producción de videos, programas de radio, conferencias, observaciones nocturnas, la preparación y exposición de carteles, la educación en física para los niños, actividades de formación permanente del profesorado y enseñanza de la física de con el tema generador Astronomía. El trabajo de la formación del profesorado y la difusión de club científico se basa en la teoría del aprendizaje significativo, buscando siempre la predisposición para aprender y producir material potencialmente significativo, las dos condiciones necesarias para que ocurra el aprendizaje significativo.

  20. Marine hydrogeology: recent accomplishments and future opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, A. T.

    2005-03-01

    Marine hydrogeology is a broad-ranging scientific discipline involving the exploration of fluid-rock interactions below the seafloor. Studies have been conducted at seafloor spreading centers, mid-plate locations, and in plate- and continental-margin environments. Although many seafloor locations are remote, there are aspects of marine systems that make them uniquely suited for hydrologic analysis. Newly developed tools and techniques, and the establishment of several multidisciplinary programs for oceanographic exploration, have helped to push marine hydrogeology forward over the last several decades. Most marine hydrogeologic work has focused on measurement or estimation of hydrogeologic properties within the shallow subsurface, but additional work has emphasized measurements of local and global fluxes, fluid source and sink terms, and quantitative links between hydrogeologic, chemical, tectonic, biological, and geophysical processes. In addition to summarizing selected results from a small number of case studies, this paper includes a description of several new experiments and programs that will provide outstanding opportunities to address fundamental hydrogeologic questions within the seafloor during the next 20-30 years. L'hydrogéologie marine est une large discipline scientifique impliquant l' exploration des interactions entre les fluides et les roches sous les fonds marins. Des études ont été menées dans les différents environnements sous-marins (zone abyssale, plaque océanique, marges continentales). Bien que de nombreux fonds marins soient connus, il existe des aspects des systèmes marins qui les rendent inadaptés à l'analyse hydrologique. De nouveaux outils et techniques, et la mise en oeuvre de nombreux programmes multidisciplinaires d'exploration océanographique, ont aidé à pousser en avant l'hydrogéologie marine ces dix dernières années. La plus part des études hydrogéologiques se sont concentrées jusqu'à présent sur la mesure ou l'estimation des propriétés à la sub-surface des fonds marins, et des travaux complémentaires ont mis en valeur les mesures de flux, local ou global, de termes « sources » et « pertes », et des liens quantitatifs entre l'hydrogéologie, la chimie, la tectonique, la biologie, et les processus géophysiques. Cet article vise à résumer des résultats sélectionnés parmi un petit nombre d'études, et à décrire plusieurs nouvelles expériences et programmes, qui sont autant d'opportunités pour répondre aux questions fondamentales relatives aux fonds marins, posées ces dernières 20-30 années. La hidrogeología marina es una disciplina científica de amplios alcances que involucra la exploración de interacciones fluido-roca por debajo del fondo del mar. Se han llevado a cabo estudios en centros de expansión del fondo del mar, lugares en medio de una placa, y en ambientes de placa y margen continental. Aunque muchos sitios en el fondo del mar son remotos, existen aspectos de estos sistemas marinos que los hacen particularmente adaptables para análisis hidrológico. Nuevas técnicas y herramientas desarrolladas, y el establecimiento de varios programas multidisciplinarios para exploración oceanográfica, han ayudado a impulsar la hidrogeología marina hacia delante durante las ultimas décadas. La mayor parte del trabajo hidrogeológico marino se ha enfocado en la medición o estimación de propiedades hidrogeológicas dentro del subsuelo superficial, pero trabajo adicionalha enfatizado mediciones de flujos globales y locales, términos de fuente y sumidero de fluidos, y vínculos cuantitativos entre procesos hidrogeológicos, químicos, tectónicos, biológicos y geofísicos. Además de resumir resultados seleccionados de un número pequeño de estudios de caso, este artículo incluye una descripción de varios programas y experimentos nuevos que aportarán oportunidades excepcionales para dirigir preguntas hidrogeológicas fundamentales dentro del fondo oceánico durante los siguientes 20-30 años.