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Sample records for programs cute ectos

  1. Kawaii/Cute Interactive Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheok, Adrian David

    Cuteness in interactive systems is a relatively new development, yet having its roots in the aesthetics of many historical and cultural elements. Symbols of cuteness abound in nature as in the creatures of neotenous proportions; drawing in the care and concern of the parent and the care from a protector. We provide an in depth look at the role of cuteness in interactive systems beginning with a history. We particularly focus on the Japanese culture of Kawaii, which has made a large impact around the world, especially in entertainment, fashion, and animation. We then take the approach of defining cuteness in contemporary popular perception. User studies are presented offering an in-depth understanding of key perceptual elements which are identified as cute. This knowledge provides for the possibility to create a cute filter which can transform inputs and automatically create more cute outputs. The development of cute social computing and entertainment projects are discussed as well, providing an insight into the next generation of interactive systems which bring happiness and comfort to users of all ages and cultures through the soft power of cute.

  2. CUTE Installation and Diffusion Project. Second Phase. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soptick, John M.; Clothier, Grant M.

    The Cooperative Urban Teacher Education (CUTE) Project was initiated in 1967 by the Mid-continent Regional Educational Laboratory (McREL) to design an intensive, field-oriented undergraduate program to prepare effective teachers for inner-city schools. The results is a 16-week program which is conducted during the student teaching semester and…

  3. Beauty and cuteness in peripheral vision

    PubMed Central

    Kuraguchi, Kana; Ashida, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Guo et al. (2011) showed that attractiveness was detectable in peripheral vision. Since there are different types of attractiveness (Rhodes, 2006), we investigated how beauty and cuteness are detected in peripheral vision with a brief presentation. Participants (n = 45) observed two Japanese female faces for 100 ms, then were asked to respond which face was more beautiful (or cuter). The results indicated that both beauty and cuteness were detectable in peripheral vision, but not in the same manner. Discrimination rates for judging beauty were invariant in peripheral and central vision, while discrimination rates for judging cuteness declined in peripheral vision as compared with central vision. This was not explained by lower resolution in peripheral vision. In addition, for male participants, it was more difficult to judge cuteness than beauty in peripheral vision, thus suggesting that gender differences can have a certain effect when judging cuteness. Therefore, central vision might be suitable for judging cuteness while judging beauty might not be affected by either central or peripheral vision. This might be related with the functional difference between beauty and cuteness. PMID:25999883

  4. On Cuteness: Unlocking the Parental Brain and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Kringelbach, Morten L; Stark, Eloise A; Alexander, Catherine; Bornstein, Marc H; Stein, Alan

    2016-07-01

    Cuteness in offspring is a potent protective mechanism that ensures survival for otherwise completely dependent infants. Previous research has linked cuteness to early ethological ideas of a 'Kindchenschema' (infant schema) where infant facial features serve as 'innate releasing mechanisms' for instinctual caregiving behaviours. We propose extending the concept of cuteness beyond visual features to include positive infant sounds and smells. Evidence from behavioural and neuroimaging studies links this extended concept of cuteness to simple 'instinctual' behaviours and to caregiving, protection, and complex emotions. We review how cuteness supports key parental capacities by igniting fast privileged neural activity followed by slower processing in large brain networks also involved in play, empathy, and perhaps even higher-order moral emotions. PMID:27211583

  5. Fibronectin phosphorylation by ecto-protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Imada, Sumi; Sugiyama, Yayoi; Imada, Masaru )

    1988-12-01

    The presence of membrane-associated, extracellular protein kinase (ecto-protein kinase) and its substrate proteins was examined with serum-free cultures of Swiss 3T3 fibroblast. When cells were incubated with ({gamma}-{sup 32})ATP for 10 min at 37{degree}C, four proteins with apparent molecular weights between 150 and 220 kDa were prominently phosphorylated. These proteins were also radiolabeled by lactoperoxidase catalyzed iodination and were sensitive to mild tryptic digestion, suggesting that they localized on the cell surface or in the extracellular matrix. Phosphorylation of extracellular proteins with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP in intact cell culture is consistent with the existence of ecto-protein kinase. Anti-fibronectin antibody immunoprecipitated one of the phosphoproteins which comigrated with a monomer and a dimer form of fibronectin under reducing and nonreducing conditions of electrophoresis, respectively. The protein had affinity for gelatin as demonstrated by retention with gelatin-conjugated agarose. This protein substrate of ecto-protein kinase was thus concluded to be fibronectin. The sites of phosphorylation by ecto-protein kinase were compared with those of intracellularly phosphorylated fibronectin by the analysis of radiolabeled amino acids and peptides. Ecto-protein kinase phosphorylated fibronectin at serine and threonine residues which were distinct from the sites of intracellular fibronectin phosphorylation.

  6. Menstrual cycle phase affects discrimination of infant cuteness.

    PubMed

    Lobmaier, Janek S; Probst, Fabian; Perrett, David I; Heinrichs, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that women are more sensitive than men to subtle cuteness differences in infant faces. It has been suggested that raised levels in estradiol and progesterone may be responsible for this advantage. We compared young women's sensitivity to computer-manipulated baby faces varying in cuteness. Thirty-six women were tested once during ovulation and once during the luteal phase of their menstrual cycle. In a two alternative forced-choice experiment, participants chose the baby which they thought was cuter (Task 1), younger (Task 2), or the baby that they would prefer to babysit (Task 3). Saliva samples to assess levels of estradiol, progesterone and testosterone were collected at each test session. During ovulation, women were more likely to choose the cuter baby than during the luteal phase, in all three tasks. These results suggest that cuteness discrimination may be driven by cyclic hormonal shifts. However none of the measured hormones were related to increased cuteness sensitivity. We speculate that other hormones than the ones measured here might be responsible for the increased sensitivity to subtle cuteness differences during ovulation. PMID:25683277

  7. CUTE: Correlation Utilities and Two-point Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, David

    2015-05-01

    CUTE (Correlation Utilities and Two-point Estimation) extracts any two-point statistic from enormous datasets with hundreds of millions of objects, such as large galaxy surveys. The computational time grows with the square of the number of objects to be correlated; technology provides multiple means to massively parallelize this problem and CUTE is specifically designed for these kind of calculations. Two implementations are provided: one for execution on shared-memory machines using OpenMP and one that runs on graphical processing units (GPUs) using CUDA.

  8. Flight Model Development of Tokyo Tech Nano-Satellite Cute-1.7 + APD II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashida, Hiroki; Nishida, Junichi; Omagari, Kuniyuki; Fujiwara, Ken; Konda, Yasumi; Yamanaka, Tomio; Tanaka, Yohei; Maeno, Masaki; Fujihashi, Kota; Inagawa, Shinichi; Miura, Yoshiyuki; Matunaga, Saburo

    The Laboratory for Space Systems at the Tokyo Institute of Technology has developed the nano-satellite Cute-1.7+APD. The satellite was launched by JAXA M-V-8 rocket on February 22, 2006 and operated for about a month. A successor to the Cute-1.7+APD was developed and is named Cute-1.7+APD II. This new satellite is based on its predecessor but has some modifications. In this paper an overview of the Cute-1.7 series and flight model development of Cute-1.7+APD II are introduced.

  9. Leishmania amazonensis: characterization of an ecto-pyrophosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Freitas-Mesquita, Anita Leocadio; Fonseca-de-Souza, André Luiz; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2014-02-01

    Several ecto-enzymatic activities have been described in the plasma membrane of the protozoan Leishmania amazonensis, which is the major etiological agent of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in South America. These enzymes, including ecto-phosphatases, contribute to the survival of the parasite by participating in phosphate metabolism. This work identifies and characterizes the extracellular hydrolysis of inorganic pyrophosphate related to an ecto-pyrophosphatase activity of the promastigote form of L. amazonensis. This ecto-pyrophosphatase activity is insensitive to MnCl2 but is strongly stimulated by MgCl2. This stimulation was not observed during the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (p-NPP) or β-glycerophosphate, two substrates for different ecto-phosphatases present in the L. amazonensis plasma membrane. Furthermore, extracellular PPi hydrolysis is more efficient at alkaline pHs, while p-NPP hydrolysis occurs mainly at acidic pHs. These results led us to conclude that extracellular PPi is hydrolyzed not by non-specific ecto-phosphatases but rather by a genuine ecto-pyrophosphatase. In the presence of 5mM MgCl2, the ecto-pyrophosphatase activity from L. amazonensis is sensitive to micromolar concentrations of NaF and millimolar concentrations of CaCl2. Moreover, this activity is significantly higher during the first days of L. amazonensis culture, which suggests a possible role for this enzyme in parasite growth. PMID:24316462

  10. Preference for Cute Infants Does Not Depend on Their Ethnicity or Species: Evidence from Hypothetical Adoption and Donation Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Golle, Jessika; Probst, Fabian; Mast, Fred W.; Lobmaier, Janek S.

    2015-01-01

    Results of previous work suggest a preference of adult observers for cute compared to less cute infants. In Study 1 we investigated whether the preference for cute infants depends on the ethnicity and species of the infant. We simultaneously presented two faces (one cute and one less cute) and asked Caucasian participants to choose the infant to whom they would rather give a toy (Task 1) and which infant they would rather adopt (Task 2). The infants were Caucasian or African human babies or dog puppies. For all face categories and in both tasks we found a strong preference for cute infants. A possible reason for preferring cute infants may be that cute infants look healthier than less cute infants. To investigate whether cuteness is associated with the assessment of health we conducted Study 2. Faces of Caucasian and African infants and dog puppies were rated for cuteness and health. The findings revealed a significant relationship between health and cuteness evaluation across all stimuli. We suggest that one reason why cute infants are preferred might be because they are perceived as being healthier. PMID:25844526

  11. Ecto-nucleotidases distribution in human cyclic and postmenopausic endometrium.

    PubMed

    Aliagas, Elisabet; Vidal, August; Torrejón-Escribano, Benjamín; Taco, Maria del Rosario; Ponce, Jordi; de Aranda, Inmaculada Gómez; Sévigny, Jean; Condom, Enric; Martín-Satué, Mireia

    2013-06-01

    Extracellular ATP and its hydrolysis product, adenosine, acting through specific receptors collectively named purinergic receptors, regulate female fertility by influencing the endometrial fluid microenvironment. There are four major groups of ecto-nucleotidases that control the levels of extracellular ATP and adenosine and thus their availability at purinergic receptors: ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (E-NTPDases), ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phospho-diesterases (E-NPPs), ecto-5'-nucleotidase (5'NT), and alkaline phosphatases (APs). The aim of the present work is to characterize the expression and distribution of ecto-nucleotidases in human endometrium along the menstrual cycle and after menopause, to evaluate their potential utility as fertility markers. We examined proliferative, secretory and atrophic endometria from women without endometrial pathology undergoing hysterectomy. We show that the ecto-nucleotidases are mainly present at endometrial epithelia, both luminal and glandular, and that their expression fluctuates along the cycle and also changes after menopause. An important result was identifying NPP3 as a new biological marker of tubal metaplasia. Our results emphasize the relevance of the study of purinergic signaling in human fertility. PMID:23225236

  12. Design of Tokyo Tech nano-satellite Cute-1.7+APD II and its operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashida, Hiroki; Fujihashi, Kota; Inagawa, Shinichi; Miura, Yoshiyuki; Omagari, Kuniyuki; Miyashita, Naoki; Matunaga, Saburo; Toizumi, Takahiro; Kataoka, Jun; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2010-05-01

    Cute-1.7+APD II is the 3rd satellite developed by the Laboratory for Space Systems at the Tokyo Institute of Technology. Cute-1.7+APD II is the current successor to Cute-1.7+APD. This new satellite is based on its predecessor but has some modifications to increase its reliability and robustness against radiation effects, electrical power shortage and so on. The satellite was launched by an ISRO PSLV-C9 rocket on April 28, 2008 and has operated for more than 9 months. Throughout its operation, many missions such as attitude determination and control experiments, scientific observations, photographing and communication experiments have been conducted. In this paper an overview of the Cute-1.7 series and configurations, modifications and operation results of Cute-1.7+APD II are introduced.

  13. Characterization and purification of neutrophil ecto-phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase.

    PubMed Central

    English, D; Martin, M; Harvey, K A; Akard, L P; Allen, R; Widlanski, T S; Garcia, J G; Siddiqui, R A

    1997-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid and its derivatives play potentially important roles as extracellular messengers in biological systems. An ecto-phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase (ecto-PAPase) has been identified which effectively regulates neutrophil responses to exogenous phosphatidic acid by converting the substrate to diacylglycerol. The present study was undertaken to characterize this ecto-enzyme on intact cells and to isolate the enzyme from solubilized neutrophil extracts. In the absence of detergent, short chain phosphatidic acids were hydrolysed most effectively by neutrophil plasma membrane ecto-PAPase; both saturated and unsaturated long chain phosphatidic acids were relatively resistant to hydrolysis. Both long (C18:1) and short (C8) chain lyso-phosphatidic acids were hydrolysed at rates comparable with those observed for short chain (diC8) phosphatidic acid. Activity of the ecto-enzyme accounted for essentially all of the N-ethylmaleimide-insensitive, Mg2+-independent PAPase activity recovered from disrupted neutrophils. At 37 degrees C and pH7.2, the apparent Km for dioctanoyl phosphatidic acid (diC8PA) was 1. 4x10(-3) M. Other phosphatidic acids and lysophosphatidic acids inhibited hydrolysis of [32P]diC8PA in a rank order that correlated with competitor solubility, lysophosphatidic acids and unsaturated phosphatidic acids being much more effective inhibitors than long chain saturated phosphatidic acids. Dioleoyl (C18:1) phosphatidic acid was an unexpectedly strong inhibitor of activity, in comparison with its ability to act as a direct substrate in the absence of detergent. Other inhibitors of neutrophil ecto-PAPase included sphingosine, dimethyl- and dihydro-sphingosine, propranolol, NaF and MgCl2. Of several leucocyte populations isolated from human blood by FACS, including T cells, B cells, NK lymphocytes and monocytes, ecto-PAPase was most prevalent on neutrophils; erythrocytes were essentially devoid of activity. A non-hydrolysable, phosphonate analogue of

  14. Polyoxometalates--potent and selective ecto-nucleotidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Yong; Fiene, Amelie; Li, Wenjin; Hanck, Theodor; Brylev, Konstantin A; Fedorov, Vladimir E; Lecka, Joanna; Haider, Ali; Pietzsch, Hans-Jürgen; Zimmermann, Herbert; Sévigny, Jean; Kortz, Ulrich; Stephan, Holger; Müller, Christa E

    2015-01-15

    Polyoxometalates (POMs) are inorganic cluster metal complexes that possess versatile biological activities, including antibacterial, anticancer, antidiabetic, and antiviral effects. Their mechanisms of action at the molecular level are largely unknown. However, it has been suggested that the inhibition of several enzyme families (e.g., phosphatases, protein kinases or ecto-nucleotidases) by POMs may contribute to their pharmacological properties. Ecto-nucleotidases are cell membrane-bound or secreted glycoproteins involved in the hydrolysis of extracellular nucleotides thereby regulating purinergic (and pyrimidinergic) signaling. They comprise four distinct families: ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDases), ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatases/phosphodiesterases (NPPs), alkaline phosphatases (APs) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN). In the present study, we evaluated the inhibitory potency of a series of polyoxometalates as well as chalcogenide hexarhenium cluster complexes at a broad range of ecto-nucleotidases. [Co4(H2O)2(PW9O34)2](10-) (5, PSB-POM142) was discovered to be the most potent inhibitor of human NTPDase1 described so far (Ki: 3.88 nM). Other investigated POMs selectively inhibited human NPP1, [TiW11CoO40](8-) (4, PSB-POM141, Ki: 1.46 nM) and [NaSb9W21O86](18-) (6, PSB-POM143, Ki: 4.98 nM) representing the most potent and selective human NPP1 inhibitors described to date. [NaP5W30O110](14-) (8, PSB-POM144) strongly inhibited NTPDase1-3 and NPP1 and may therefore be used as a pan-inhibitor to block ATP hydrolysis. The polyoxoanionic compounds displayed a non-competitive mechanism of inhibition of NPPs and eN, but appeared to be competitive inhibitors of TNAP. Future in vivo studies with selected inhibitors identified in the current study are warranted. PMID:25449596

  15. Extracellular ATP Selectively Upregulates Ecto-Nucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase 2 and Ecto-5'-Nucleotidase by Rat Cortical Astrocytes In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Brisevac, Dusica; Adzic, Marija; Laketa, Danijela; Parabucki, Ana; Milosevic, Milena; Lavrnja, Irena; Bjelobaba, Ivana; Sévigny, Jean; Kipp, Markus; Nedeljkovic, Nadezda

    2015-11-01

    Extracellular ATP (eATP) acts as a danger-associated molecular pattern which induces reactive response of astrocytes after brain insult, including morphological remodeling of astrocytes, proliferation, chemotaxis, and release of proinflammatory cytokines. The responses induced by eATP are under control of ecto-nucleotidases, which catalyze sequential hydrolysis of ATP to adenosine. In the mammalian brain, ecto-nucleotidases comprise three enzyme families: ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases 1-3 (NTPDase1-3), ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phospodiesterases 1-3 (NPP1-3), and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN), which crucially determine ATP/adenosine ratio in the pericellular milieu. Altered expression of ecto-nucleotidases has been demonstrated in several experimental models of human brain dysfunctions. In the present study, we have explored the pattern of NTPDase1-3, NPP1-3, and eN expression by cultured cortical astrocytes challenged with 1 mmol/L ATP (eATP). At the transcriptional level, eATP upregulated expression of NTPDase1, NTPDase2, NPP2, and eN, while, at translational and functional levels, these were paralleled only by the induction of NTPDase2 and eN. Additionally, eATP altered membrane topology of eN, from clusters localized in membrane domains to continuous distribution along the cell membrane. Our results suggest that eATP, by upregulating NTPDase2 and eN and altering the enzyme membrane topology, affects local kinetics of ATP metabolism and signal transduction that may have important roles in the process related to inflammation and reactive gliosis. PMID:26080748

  16. The Power of Kawaii: Viewing Cute Images Promotes a Careful Behavior and Narrows Attentional Focus

    PubMed Central

    Nittono, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Michiko; Yano, Akihiro; Moriya, Hiroki

    2012-01-01

    Kawaii (a Japanese word meaning “cute”) things are popular because they produce positive feelings. However, their effect on behavior remains unclear. In this study, three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of viewing cute images on subsequent task performance. In the first experiment, university students performed a fine motor dexterity task before and after viewing images of baby or adult animals. Performance indexed by the number of successful trials increased after viewing cute images (puppies and kittens; M ± SE = 43.9±10.3% improvement) more than after viewing images that were less cute (dogs and cats; 11.9±5.5% improvement). In the second experiment, this finding was replicated by using a non-motor visual search task. Performance improved more after viewing cute images (15.7±2.2% improvement) than after viewing less cute images (1.4±2.1% improvement). Viewing images of pleasant foods was ineffective in improving performance (1.2±2.1%). In the third experiment, participants performed a global–local letter task after viewing images of baby animals, adult animals, and neutral objects. In general, global features were processed faster than local features. However, this global precedence effect was reduced after viewing cute images. Results show that participants performed tasks requiring focused attention more carefully after viewing cute images. This is interpreted as the result of a narrowed attentional focus induced by the cuteness-triggered positive emotion that is associated with approach motivation and the tendency toward systematic processing. For future applications, cute objects may be used as an emotion elicitor to induce careful behavioral tendencies in specific situations, such as driving and office work. PMID:23050022

  17. Baby schema in human and animal faces induces cuteness perception and gaze allocation in children

    PubMed Central

    Borgi, Marta; Cogliati-Dezza, Irene; Brelsford, Victoria; Meints, Kerstin; Cirulli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    The baby schema concept was originally proposed as a set of infantile traits with high appeal for humans, subsequently shown to elicit caretaking behavior and to affect cuteness perception and attentional processes. However, it is unclear whether the response to the baby schema may be extended to the human-animal bond context. Moreover, questions remain as to whether the cute response is constant and persistent or whether it changes with development. In the present study we parametrically manipulated the baby schema in images of humans, dogs, and cats. We analyzed responses of 3–6 year-old children, using both explicit (i.e., cuteness ratings) and implicit (i.e., eye gaze patterns) measures. By means of eye-tracking, we assessed children’s preferential attention to images varying only for the degree of baby schema and explored participants’ fixation patterns during a cuteness task. For comparative purposes, cuteness ratings were also obtained in a sample of adults. Overall our results show that the response to an infantile facial configuration emerges early during development. In children, the baby schema affects both cuteness perception and gaze allocation to infantile stimuli and to specific facial features, an effect not simply limited to human faces. In line with previous research, results confirm human positive appraisal toward animals and inform both educational and therapeutic interventions involving pets, helping to minimize risk factors (e.g., dog bites). PMID:24847305

  18. Characterization of circulating microparticle-associated CD39 family ecto-nucleotidases in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z Gordon; Wu, Yan; Csizmadia, Eva; Feldbrügge, Linda; Enjyoji, Keiichi; Tigges, John; Toxavidis, Vasilis; Stephan, Holger; Müller, Christa E; Müller, Christina E; McKnight, C James; Moss, Alan; Robson, Simon C

    2014-12-01

    Phosphohydrolysis of extracellular ATP and ADP is an essential step in purinergic signaling that regulates key pathophysiological processes, such as those linked to inflammation. Classically, this reaction has been known to occur in the pericellular milieu catalyzed by membrane bound cellular ecto-nucleotidases, which can be released in the form of both soluble ecto-enzymes as well as being associated with exosomes. Circulating ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (NTPDase 1/CD39) and adenylate kinase 1 (AK1) activities have been shown to be present in plasma. However, other ecto-nucleotidases have not been characterized in depth. An in vitro ADPase assay was developed to probe the ecto-enzymes responsible for the ecto-nucleotidase activity in human platelet-free plasma, in combination with various specific biochemical inhibitors. Identities of ecto-nucleotidases were further characterized by chromatography, immunoblotting, and flow cytometry of circulating exosomes. We noted that microparticle-bound E-NTPDases and soluble AK1 constitute the highest levels of ecto-nucleotidase activity in human plasma. All four cell membrane expressed E-NTPDases are also found in circulating microparticles in human plasma, inclusive of: CD39, NTPDase 2 (CD39L1), NTPDase 3 (CD39L3), and NTPDase 8. CD39 family members and other ecto-nucleotidases are found on distinct microparticle populations. A significant proportion of the microparticle-associated ecto-nucleotidase activity is sensitive to POM6, inferring the presence of NTPDases, either -2 or/and -3. We have refined ADPase assays of human plasma from healthy volunteers and have found that CD39, NTPDases 2, 3, and 8 to be associated with circulating microparticles, whereas soluble AK1 is present in human plasma. These ecto-enzymes constitute the bulk circulating ADPase activity, suggesting a broader implication of CD39 family and other ecto-enzymes in the regulation of extracellular nucleotide metabolism. PMID

  19. CrATP as a new inhibitor of ecto-ATPases of trypanosomatids.

    PubMed

    Moreira, O C; Rios, P F; Esteves, F F; Meyer-Fernandes, J R; Barrabin, H

    2009-01-01

    Trypanosomatid protozoa include heteroxenic species some of them pathogenic for men, animals and plants. Parasite membrane contains ecto-enzymes whose active sites face the external medium rather than the cytoplasm. Herpetomonas sp. displayed a Mg2+-dependent ecto-ATPase activity, a Mg-independent ecto-ADPase and an ecto-phosphatase activity. Both, the ecto-ADPase and phosphatase activities were insensitive to CrATP (chromium(III) adenosine 5'-triphosphate complex). Ecto-ATPase activity was reversibly inhibited. At 2 mm ATP the apparent Ki was 4 x 7+/-1 x 0 microm but a fraction of about 40-50% was insensitive to CrATP. Remarkably, at low substrate concentration (0 x 2 mm) more than 90% of the ecto-ATPase was inhibited with Ki=0 x 33+/-0 x 10 microm. These parameter dependences are interpreted as the presence of 2 ecto-ATPases activities, one of them with high ATP apparent affinity and sensitivity to CrATP. DIDS (4,4 diisothiocyanatostilbene 2,2' disulfonic acid), suramin and ADP were also effective as inhibitors. Only ADP presented no additive inhibition with CrATP. The pattern of partial inhibition by CrATP was also observed for the ecto-ATPase activities of Leishmania amazonensis, Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli. CrATP emerges as a new inhibitor of ecto-ATPases and as a tool for a better understanding of properties and role of ecto-ATPases in the biology of parasites. PMID:19126268

  20. Influence of Ecto-Nucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase Activity on Trypanosoma cruzi Infectivity and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Ramon F.; Pôssa, Marcela A. S.; Bastos, Matheus S.; Guedes, Paulo M. M.; Almeida, Márcia R.; DeMarco, Ricardo; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio; Bahia, Maria T.; Fietto, Juliana L. R.

    2009-01-01

    Background The protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease. There are no vaccines or effective treatment, especially in the chronic phase when most patients are diagnosed. There is a clear necessity to develop new drugs and strategies for the control and treatment of Chagas disease. Recent papers have suggested the ecto-nucleotidases (from CD39 family) from pathogenic agents as important virulence factors. In this study we evaluated the influence of Ecto-Nucleoside-Triphosphate-Diphosphohydrolase (Ecto-NTPDase) activity on infectivity and virulence of T. cruzi using both in vivo and in vitro models. Methodology/Principal Findings We followed Ecto-NTPDase activities of Y strain infective forms (trypomastigotes) obtained during sequential sub-cultivation in mammalian cells. ATPase/ADPase activity ratios of cell-derived trypomastigotes decreased 3- to 6-fold and infectivity was substantially reduced during sequential sub-cultivation. Surprisingly, at third to fourth passages most of the cell-derived trypomastigotes could not penetrate mammalian cells and had differentiated into amastigote-like parasites that exhibited 3- to 4-fold lower levels of Ecto-NTPDase activities. To evidence the participation of T. cruzi Ecto-NTPDase1 in the infective process, we evaluated the effect of known Ecto-ATPDase inhibitors (ARL 67156, Gadolinium and Suramin), or anti-NTPDase-1 polyclonal antiserum on ATPase and ADPase hydrolytic activities in recombinant T. cruzi NTPDase-1 and in live trypomastigotes. All tests showed a partial inhibition of Ecto-ATPDase activities and a marked inhibition of trypomastigotes infectivity. Mice infections with Ecto-NTPDase-inhibited trypomastigotes produced lower levels of parasitemia and higher host survival than with non-inhibited control parasites. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that Ecto-ATPDases act as facilitators of infection and virulence in vitro and in vivo and emerge as target candidates in chemotherapy

  1. Expression of "Kawaii" ("Cute"): Gender Reinforcement of Young Japanese Female School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asano-Cavanagh, Yuko

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the Japanese word "kawaii" "cute". Teachers frequently use "kawaii" to show positive feelings toward objects in the classroom. Female children also are primary users of the word, which suggests that they are acquiring "kawaii" as an index of female gender identity. From a linguistic perspective, "kawaii" is not lexicalised in…

  2. NAD+ glycohydrolase, an ecto-enzyme of calf spleen cells.

    PubMed Central

    Muller, H M; Muller, C D; Schuber, F

    1983-01-01

    By using a sensitive fluorimetric assay of NAD+ glycohydrolase (EC 3.2.2.6), we showed that calf spleen cells are able to hydrolyse 1,N6-etheno-NAD+ given in the medium. The observed rates of substrate hydrolysis and product accumulation in the medium are equivalent. Moreover, the splenocytes are able to cleave the nicotinamide-ribose bond of a water-soluble polymer of NAD+, and their NAD+ glycohydrolase activity is fully inhibited by a high-molecular-weight Blue Dextran. Selective permeation of the cellular membrane digitonin revealed an intracellular pool of NAD+ glycohydrolase, which accounts for 25% of the total activity. We conclude that NAD+ glycohydrolase associated with the splenocytes has the characteristics of an ecto-enzyme. PMID:6192807

  3. Aesthetic and incentive salience of cute infant faces: studies of observer sex, oral contraception and menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Sprengelmeyer, Reiner; Lewis, Jennifer; Hahn, Amanda; Perrett, David I

    2013-01-01

    Infant cuteness can influence adult-infant interaction and has been shown to activate reward centres in the brain. In a previous study, we found men and women to be differentially sensitive to small differences in infant facial cuteness, with reproductive hormone status as the potential underlying cause. It is unclear, however, whether reproductive hormone status impacts on the aesthetic and incentive salience of infant faces. To address this question, we conducted two interlinked studies. We used static images of the same smiling and neutral-looking infant faces in both a rating task, in which participants had to rate the cuteness of infant faces (aesthetic salience - 'liking'), and a key-press task, in which participants could prolong or shorten viewing time of infant faces by rapid alternating key-presses (incentive salience - 'wanting'). In a first study, we compared the performance of men, women who are taking oral contraceptives, and regularly cycling women. In this study, we found a significant correlation between cuteness ratings within and between groups, which implies that participants had the same concept of cuteness. Cuteness ratings and effort to look at faces was linked regardless of sex and reproductive hormone status, in that cute faces were looked at for longer than less cute faces. A happy facial expression contributed only marginally to the incentive salience of the face. To explore the potential impact of reproductive hormone status in more detail, we followed a subset of regularly cycling women during the menstrual, follicular and luteal phases of their cycle. The aesthetic and incentive salience of infant faces did not change across the menstrual cycle. Our findings suggest that reproductive hormone status does not modulate the aesthetic and incentive value of infant faces. PMID:23734262

  4. Sera from cancer patients contain two oscillating ECTO-NOX activities with different period lengths.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sui; Morré, Dorothy M; Morré, D James

    2003-02-20

    ECTO-NOX protein's are cell surface-associated and growth-related hydroquinone oxidases with both protein disulfide-thiol interchange activity and the capacity to oxidize NAD(P)H. The activities of these ECTO-NOX proteins are not steady state but fluctuate to create a repeating pattern of oscillations. Two forms of ECTO-NOX activities have been distinguished. The constitutive ECTO-NOX (CNOX), is hormone responsive and refractory to quinone-site inhibitors. A tumor-associated NOX (tNOX) is unregulated, refractory to hormones and growth factors and responds to quinone-site inhibitors. CNOX proteins are widely distributed and exhibit oscillations in enzymatic activity with a period length of 24 min. tNOX proteins are cancer specific and exhibit oscillations with a period length of about 22 min. Our findings now demonstrate the presence of the novel oscillating tNOX activity in sera of patients with cancer whereas the constitutive NOX of non-cancer cells is present in sera of both cancer patients and healthy volunteers. We conclude that ECTO-NOX proteins in sera exhibit oscillatory characteristics similar to those of ECTO-NOX forms of the cell surface. PMID:12565167

  5. Sera from cancer patients contain two oscillating ECTO-NOX activities with different period lengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Sui; Morre, Dorothy M.; Morre, D. James

    2003-01-01

    ECTO-NOX protein's are cell surface-associated and growth-related hydroquinone oxidases with both protein disulfide-thiol interchange activity and the capacity to oxidize NAD(P)H. The activities of these ECTO-NOX proteins are not steady state but fluctuate to create a repeating pattern of oscillations. Two forms of ECTO-NOX activities have been distinguished. The constitutive ECTO-NOX (CNOX), is hormone responsive and refractory to quinone-site inhibitors. A tumor-associated NOX (tNOX) is unregulated, refractory to hormones and growth factors and responds to quinone-site inhibitors. CNOX proteins are widely distributed and exhibit oscillations in enzymatic activity with a period length of 24 min. tNOX proteins are cancer specific and exhibit oscillations with a period length of about 22 min. Our findings now demonstrate the presence of the novel oscillating tNOX activity in sera of patients with cancer whereas the constitutive NOX of non-cancer cells is present in sera of both cancer patients and healthy volunteers. We conclude that ECTO-NOX proteins in sera exhibit oscillatory characteristics similar to those of ECTO-NOX forms of the cell surface.

  6. Leishmania amazonensis: Increase in ecto-ATPase activity and parasite burden of vinblastine-resistant protozoa.

    PubMed

    Giarola, Naira Lígia Lima; Silveira, Thaís Souza; Inacio, Job Domingos Filho; Vieira, Lisvane Paes; Almeida-Amaral, Elmo Eduardo; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2014-11-01

    Leishmania amazonensis is a protozoan parasite that induces mucocutaneous and diffuse cutaneous lesions upon infection. An important component in treatment failure is the emergence of drug-resistant parasites. It is necessary to clarify the mechanism of resistance that occurs in these parasites to develop effective drugs for leishmaniasis treatment. Promastigote forms of L. amazonensis were selected by gradually increasing concentrations of vinblastine and were maintained under continuous drug pressure (resistant cells). Vinblastine-resistant L. amazonensis proliferated similarly to control parasites. However, resistant cells showed changes in the cell shape, irregular flagella and a decrease in rhodamine 123 accumulation, which are factors associated with the development of resistance, suggesting the MDR phenotype. The Mg-dependent-ecto-ATPase, an enzyme located on cell surface of Leishmania parasites, is involved in the acquisition of purine and participates in the adhesion and infectivity process. We compared control and resistant L. amazonensis ecto-enzymatic activities. The control and resistant Leishmania ecto-ATPase activities were 16.0 ± 1.5 nmol Pi × h(-1) × 10(-7) cells and 40.0 ± 4.4 nmol Pi × h(-1) × 10(-7)cells, respectively. Interestingly, the activity of other ecto-enzymes present on the L. amazonensis cell surface, the ecto-5' and 3'-nucleotidases and ecto-phosphatase, did not increase. The level of ecto-ATPase modulation is related to the degree of resistance of the cell. Cells resistant to 10 μM and 60 μM of vinblastine have ecto-ATPase activities of 22.7 ± 0.4 nmol Pi × h(-1) × 10(-7) cells and 33.8 ± 0.8 nmol Pi × h(-1) × 10(-7)cells, respectively. In vivo experiments showed that both lesion size and parasite burden in mice infected with resistant parasites are greater than those of L. amazonensis control cells. Furthermore, our data established a relationship between the increase in ecto-ATPase activity and greater infectivity and

  7. Ecto-5′-nucleotidase and intestinal ion secretion by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Shulgina, Irina; Naeher, Tonniele M.

    2007-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) triggers a large release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from host intestinal cells and the extracellular ATP is broken down to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), AMP, and adenosine. Adenosine is a potent secretagogue in the small and large intestine. We suspected that ecto-5′-nucleotidase (CD73, an intestinal enzyme) was a critical enzyme involved in the conversion of AMP to adenosine and in the pathogenesis of EPEC diarrhea. We developed a nonradioactive method for measuring ecto-5′-nucleotidase in cultured T84 cell monolayers based on the detection of phosphate release from 5′-AMP. EPEC infection triggered a release of ecto-5′-nucleotidase from the cell surface into the supernatant medium. EPEC-induced 5′-nucleotidase release was not correlated with host cell death but instead with activation of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC). Ecto-5′-nucleotidase was susceptible to inhibition by zinc acetate and by α,β-methylene-adenosine diphosphate (α,β-methylene-ADP). In the Ussing chamber, these inhibitors could reverse the chloride secretory responses triggered by 5′-AMP. In addition, α,β-methylene-ADP and zinc blocked the ability of 5′-AMP to stimulate EPEC growth under nutrient-limited conditions in vitro. Ecto-5′-nucleotidase appears to be the major enzyme responsible for generation of adenosine from adenine nucleotides in the T84 cell line, and inhibitors of ecto-5′-nucleotidase, such as α,β-methylene-ADP and zinc, might be useful for treatment of the watery diarrhea produced by EPEC infection. PMID:18404437

  8. Leishmania amazonensis: effects of heat shock on ecto-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Peres-Sampaio, Carlos Eduardo; de Almeida-Amaral, Elmo Eduardo; Giarola, Naira Ligia Lima; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2008-05-01

    In this work we demonstrated that promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis exhibit an Mg-dependent ecto-ATPase activity, which is stimulated by heat shock. The Mg-dependent ATPase activity of cells grown at 22 and 28 degrees C was 41.0+/-5.2 nmol Pi/h x 10(7)cells and 184.2+/-21.0 nmol Pi/h x 10(7)cells, respectively. When both promastigotes were pre-incubated at 37 degrees C for 2h, the ATPase activity of cells grown at 22 degrees C was increased to 136.4+/-10.6 nmol Pi/h x 10(7) whereas that the ATPase activity of cells grown at 28 degrees C was not modified by the heat shock (189.8+/-10.3 nmol Pi/h x 10(7)cells). It was observed that Km of the enzyme from cells grown at 22 degrees C (Km=980.2+/-88.6 microM) was the same to the enzyme from cells grown at 28 degrees C (Km=901.4+/-91.9 microM). In addition, DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene 2,2'-disulfonic acid) and suramin, two inhibitors of ecto-ATPases, also inhibited similarly the ATPase activities from promastigotes grown at 22 and 28 degrees C. We also observed that cells grown at 22 degrees C exhibit the same ecto-phosphatase and ecto 3'- and 5'-nucleotidase activities than cells grown at 28 degrees C. Interestingly, cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, suppressed the heat-shock effect on ecto-ATPase activity of cells grown at 22 degrees C were exposed at 37 degrees C for 2h. A comparison between the stimulation of the Mg-dependent ecto-ATPase activity of virulent and avirulent promastigotes by the heat shock showed that avirulent promastigotes had a higher stimulation than virulent promastigotes after heat stress. PMID:18295760

  9. Biochemical and mass spectrometric characterization of soluble ecto-5'-nucleotidase from bull seminal plasma.

    PubMed Central

    Fini, Carlo; Talamo, Fabio; Cherri, Silvia; Coli, Marcello; Floridi, Ardesio; Ferrara, Lino; Scaloni, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (ecto-5'-NT) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane-bound protein that is ubiquitous in mammalian tissues. It is a target for a number of therapeutic drugs since increased levels of the enzyme correlate with various disease states. In this investigation, we describe the properties of a soluble ecto-5'-NT derived from bull seminal plasma. The protein was highly heterogeneous as demonstrated by chromatofocusing and two-dimensional PAGE. Sequencing analyses revealed a truncated polypeptide lacking the glycosylphospatidylinositol attachment site, suggesting that it is produced post-translationally by cleavage at Gln(547) and/or Phe(548). Heterogeneity was largely due to differential glycosylation, especially in the oligosaccharides linked to Asn(403). Significant differences in substrate specificity were observed between isoforms and, on the basis of molecular-modelling studies, were interpreted in terms of variable glycosylation causing steric hindrance of the substrate-binding site. Thus the soluble forms of ecto-5'-NT found in bull seminal plasma are unique both biochemically and structurally, and have a putative role in signalling interactions with spermatozoa following ejaculation and capacitation in the female reproductive tract. PMID:12608891

  10. GS52 Ecto-Apyrase Plays a Critical Role during Soybean Nodulation1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajulu, Manjula; Kim, Sung-Yong; Libault, Marc; Berg, R. Howard; Tanaka, Kiwamu; Stacey, Gary; Taylor, Christopher G.

    2009-01-01

    Apyrases are non-energy-coupled nucleotide phosphohydrolases that hydrolyze nucleoside triphosphates and nucleoside diphosphates to nucleoside monophosphates and orthophosphates. GS52, a soybean (Glycine soja) ecto-apyrase, was previously shown to be induced very early in response to inoculation with the symbiotic bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Overexpression of the GS52 ecto-apyrase in Lotus japonicus increased the level of rhizobial infection and enhanced nodulation. These data suggest a critical role for the GS52 ecto-apyrase during nodulation. To further investigate the role of GS52 during nodulation, we used RNA interference to silence GS52 expression in soybean (Glycine max) roots using Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated root transformation. Transcript levels of GS52 were significantly reduced in GS52 silenced roots and these roots exhibited reduced numbers of mature nodules. Development of the nodule primordium and subsequent nodule maturation was significantly suppressed in GS52 silenced roots. Transmission electron micrographs of GS52 silenced root nodules showed that early senescence and infected cortical cells were devoid of symbiosome-containing bacteroids. Application of exogenous adenosine diphosphate to silenced GS52 roots restored nodule development. Restored nodules contained bacteroids, thus indicating that extracellular adenosine diphosphate is important during nodulation. These results clearly suggest that GS52 ecto-apyrase catalytic activity is critical for the early B. japonicum infection process, initiation of nodule primordium development, and subsequent nodule organogenesis in soybean. PMID:19036836

  11. Leishmania amazonensis: Biological and biochemical characterization of ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase activities.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Carla M; Martins-Duarte, Erica S; Ferraro, Rodrigo B; Fonseca de Souza, André Luíz; Gomes, Marta T; Lopes, Angela H C S; Vannier-Santos, Marcos A; Santos, André L S; Meyer-Fernandes, José R

    2006-09-01

    The presence of Leishmania amazonensis ecto-nucleoside triphosphate triphosphohydrolase activities was demonstrated using antibodies against different NTPDase members by Western blotting, flow cytometry, and immunoelectron microscopy analysis. Living promastigote cells sequentially hydrolyzed the ATP molecule generating ADP, AMP, and adenosine, indicating that this surface enzyme may play a role in the salvage of purines from the extracellular medium. The L. amazonensis ecto-NTPDase activities were insensitive to Triton X-100, but they were enhanced by divalent cations, such as Mg(2+). In addition, the ecto-NTPDase activities decreased with time for 96 h when promastigotes were grown in vitro. On the other hand, these activities increased considerably when measured in living amastigote forms. Furthermore, the treatment with adenosine, a mediator of several relevant biological phenomena, induced a decrease in the reactivity with anti-CD39 antibody, raised against mammalian E-NTPDase, probably because of down regulation in the L. amazonensis ecto-NTPDase expression. Also, adenosine and anti-NTPDase antibodies induced a significant diminishing in the interaction between promastigotes of L. amazonensis and mouse peritoneal macrophages. PMID:16603157

  12. Ecto-phosphatase activity on the external surface of Rhodnius prolixus salivary glands: modulation by carbohydrates and Trypanosoma rangeli.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Suzete A O; Fonseca de Souza, André L; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Dick, Claudia F; dos Santos, André L A; Meyer-Fernandes, José R

    2008-05-01

    The salivary glands of insect's vectors are target organs to study the vectors-pathogens interactions. Rhodnius prolixus an important vector of Trypanosoma cruzi can also transmit Trypanosoma rangeli by bite. In the present study we have investigated ecto-phosphatase activity on the surface of R. prolixus salivary glands. Ecto-phosphatases are able to hydrolyze phosphorylated substrates in the extracellular medium. We characterized these ecto-enzyme activities on the salivary glands external surface and employed it to investigate R. prolixus-T. rangeli interaction. Salivary glands present a low level of hydrolytic activity (4.30+/-0.35 nmol p-nitrophenol (p-NP)xh(-1)xgland pair(-1)). The salivary glands ecto-phosphatase activity was not affected by pH variation; and it was insensitive to alkaline inhibitor levamisole and inhibited approximately 50% by inorganic phosphate (Pi). MgCl2, CaCl2 and SrCl2 enhanced significantly the ecto-phosphatase activity detected on the surface of salivary glands. The ecto-phosphatase from salivary glands surface efficiently releases phosphate groups from different phosphorylated amino acids, giving a higher rate of phosphate release when phospho-tyrosine is used as a substrate. This ecto-phosphatase activity was inhibited by carbohydrates as d-galactose and d-mannose. Living short epimastigotes of T. rangeli inhibited salivary glands ecto-phosphatase activity at 75%, while boiled parasites did not. Living long epimastigote forms induced a lower, but significant inhibitory effect on the salivary glands phosphatase activity. Interestingly, boiled long epimastigote forms did not loose the ability to modulate salivary glands phosphatase activity. Taken together, these data suggest a possible role for ecto-phosphatase on the R. prolixus salivary glands-T. rangeli interaction. PMID:18407240

  13. Baby Fat May Be Cute, but Chubby Kids Could Be in Jeopardy, and for Children with Disabilities...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, H. Barry; Perlman, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    Baby fat may be cute, but chubby kids could be in imminent health jeopardy. This cautionary advice is most certainly extended to the parents of children with special needs. This article examines the association of childhood obesity with the development of diabetes and discusses the prevalence of obesity among individuals with intellectual…

  14. Role of adenosine deaminase, ecto-(5'-nucleotidase) and ecto-(non-specific phosphatase) in cyanide-induced adenosine monophosphate catabolism in rat polymorphonuclear leucocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Newby, A C

    1980-01-01

    1. The role of adenosine deaminase (EC 3.5.4.4), ecto-(5'-nucleotidase) (EC 3.1.3.5) and ecto-(non-specific phosphatase) in the CN-induced catabolism of adenine nucleotides in intact rat polymorphonuclear leucocytes was investigated by inhibiting the enzymes in situ. 2. KCN (10mM for 90 min) induced a 20-30% fall in ATP concentration accompanied by an approximately equimolar increase in hypoxanthine, ADP, AMP and adenosine concentrations were unchanged, and IMP and inosine remained undetectable ( less than 0.05 nmol/10(7) cells). 3. Cells remained 98% intact, as judged by loss of the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27). 4. Pentostatin (30 microM), a specific inhibitor of adenosine deaminase, completely inhibited hypoxanthine production from exogenous adenosine (55 microM), but did not black CN-induced hypoxanthine production or cause adenosine accumulation in intact cells. This implied that IMP rather than adenosine was an intermediate in AMP breakdown in response to cyanide. 5. Antibodies raised against purified plasma-membrane 5'-nucleotidase inhibited the ecto-(5'-nucleotidase) by 95-98%. Non-specific phosphatases were blocked by 10 mM-sodium beta-glycerophosphate. 6. These two agents together blocked hypoxanthine production from exogenous AMP and IMP (200 microM) by more than 90%, but had no effect on production from endogenous substrates. 7. These data suggest that ectophosphatases do not participate in CN-induced catabolism of intracellular AMP in rat polymorphonuclear leucocytes. 8. A minor IMPase, not inhibited by antiserum, was detected in the soluble fraction of disrupted cells. PMID:6249264

  15. Function and expression study uncovered hepatocyte plasma membrane ecto-ATP synthase as a novel player in liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Taurino, Federica; Giannoccaro, Caterina; Sardanelli, Anna Maria; Cavallo, Alessandro; De Luca, Elisa; Santacroce, Salvatore; Papa, Sergio; Zanotti, Franco; Gnoni, Antonio

    2016-08-15

    ATP synthase, canonically mitochondrially located, is reported to be ectopically expressed on the plasma membrane outer face of several cell types. We analysed, for the first time, the expression and catalytic activities of the ecto- and mitochondrial ATP synthase during liver regeneration. Liver regeneration was induced in rats by two-thirds partial hepatectomy. The protein level and the ATP synthase and/or hydrolase activities of the hepatocyte ecto- and mitochondrial ATP synthase were analysed on freshly isolated hepatocytes and mitochondria from control, sham-operated and partial hepatectomized rats. During the priming phase of liver regeneration, 3 h after partial hepatectomy, liver mitochondria showed a marked lowering of the ATP synthase protein level that was reflected in the impairment of both ATP synthesis and hydrolysis. The ecto-ATP synthase level, in 3 h partial hepatectomized hepatocytes, was decreased similarly to the level of the mitochondrial ATP synthase, associated with a lowering of the ecto-ATP hydrolase activity coupled to proton influx. Noteworthily, the ecto-ATP synthase activity coupled to proton efflux was completely inhibited in 3 h partial hepatectomized hepatocytes, even in the presence of a marked intracellular acidification that would sustain it as in control and sham-operated hepatocytes. At the end of the liver regeneration, 7 days after partial hepatectomy, the level and the catalytic activities of the ecto- and mitochondrial ATP synthase reached the control and sham-operated values. The specific modulation of hepatocyte ecto-ATP synthase catalytic activities during liver regeneration priming phase may modulate the extracellular ADP/ATP levels and/or proton influx/efflux trafficking, making hepatocyte ecto-ATP synthase a candidate for a novel player in the liver regeneration process. PMID:27287557

  16. Hypercholesterolemia and Ecto-enzymes of Purinergic System: Effects of Paullinia cupana.

    PubMed

    Ruchel, J B; Rezer, J F P; Thorstenberg, M L; Dos Santos, C B; Cabral, F L; Lopes, S T A; da Silva, C B; Machado, A K; da Cruz, I B M; Schetinger, M R C; Gonçalves, J F; Leal, D B R

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a metabolic disorder characterized by high levels of low-density lipoprotein and blood cholesterol, causing inflammatory lesion. Purinergic signaling modulates the inflammatory and immune responses through adenine nucleotides and nucleoside. Guaraná has hypocholesterolemic and antiinflammatory properties. Considering that there are few studies demonstrating the effects of guaraná powder on the metabolism of adenine nucleotides, we investigated its effects on the activity of ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase) and ecto-adenosine deaminase activity in lymphocytes of rats with diet-induced hypercholesterolemia. The rats were divided into hypercholesterolemic and normal diet groups. Each group was subdivided by treatment: saline, guaraná powder 12.5, 25, or 50 mg/kg/day and caffeine concentration equivalent to highest dose of guaraná, fed orally for 30 days. An increase in adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis was observed in the lymphocytes of rats with hypercholesterolemia and treated with 25 or 50 mg/kg/day when compared with the other groups. The hypercholesterolemic group treated with the highest concentration of guaraná powder showed decreased ecto-adenosine deaminase activity compared with the normal diet groups. Guaraná was able to reduce the total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to basal levels in hypercholesterolemic rats. High concentrations of guaraná associated with a hypercholesterolemic diet are likely to have contributed to the reduction of the inflammatory process. PMID:26514663

  17. The advanced EctoSys electrolysis as an integral part of a ballast water treatment system.

    PubMed

    Echardt, J; Kornmueller, A

    2009-01-01

    A full-scale 500 m(3)/h ballast water treatment system was tested according to the landbased type approval procedure of the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The system consists of disc filters followed by the advanced EctoSys electrolysis as an integral part for disinfection. The test water quality exceeded by far the minimum requirements for type approval testing. Due to the properties of the special electrodes used together with the striking disinfection effect, the disinfectants assumed to be produced inline by the EctoSys cell in river water were hydroxyl radicals, while in brackish water additionally chlorine and consequently the more stable bromine were formed. In river water, no residual oxidants could be detected in accordance with the assumed production of not responding, highly-reactive and short-living hydroxyl radicals. Accordingly, disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation was very low and close to the limit of quantification in river water. While in brackish water, initial residual oxidant concentrations were maximum 2 mg/L as chlorine and mostly brominated DBP (especially bromoform and bromate) were found. Overall considering this worst case test approach, the DBP concentrations of the treated effluents were below or in the range of the WHO Drinking Water Guideline values and therefore evaluated as acceptable for discharge to the environment. The stringent discharge standard by IMO concerning viable organisms was fully met in river and brackish water, proving the disinfection efficiency of the EctoSys electrolysis against smaller plankton and bacteria. PMID:19901453

  18. Application to optical data storage of laser-induced synthesis of CuTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanus, Francoise; Laude, Lucien D.

    1990-08-01

    Many optical recording media have been investigated since a few years, but none appears to be fully suitable for WORM optical disk. Te and its alloys have been studied. For alloys, contrast is obtained by crystallization of the amorphous initial film. The constrast is low because it is only due to a difference in structure between the irradiated and non-irradiated zone. We propose a sensitive layer made of thin films of Cu and Te, in 1:1 atomic proportion '. As it is well known, laser annealing of thin sandwich films of that kind allows the synthesis of crystalline compounds. Contrast, in this case, is high due to synthesis of the semiconducting compound CuTe, with optical properties (both in transmission and reflection) quite different from the non-irradiated film ones. A study is made of the irradiation conditions (power density), of the reduction to im scale spots and of the optimization of the contrast. The stability of the layer is also studied by ageing procedure. In particular, we demonstrate the feasibility of a WORM glass disk with this coating. The disk is irradiated with a 830 nm solid state laser diode, pulsed at a frequency of .1 MHz, with instant power within the range 7-10mW. Spots with a diameter in the i.tm range were obtained. Long term stability of the virgin layer makes the technology described here a convincing competitor in the WORM disk market.

  19. The plasma membrane-associated NADH oxidase (ECTO-NOX) of mouse skin responds to blue light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morre, D. James; Morre, Dorothy M.

    2003-01-01

    NADH oxidases of the external plasma membrane surface (ECTO-NOX proteins) are characterized by oscillations in activity with a regular period length of 24 min. Explants of mouse skin exhibit the oscillatory activity as estimated from the decrease in A(340) suggesting that individual ECTO-NOX molecules must somehow be induced to function synchronously. Transfer of explants of mouse skin from darkness to blue light (495 nm, 2 min, 50 micromol m(-1) s(-1)) resulted in initiation of a new activity maximum (entrainment) with a midpoint 36 min after light exposure followed by maxima every 24 min thereafter. Addition of melatonin resulted in a new maximum 24 min after melatonin addition. The findings suggest that the ECTO-NOX proteins play a central role in the entrainment of the biological clock both by light and by melatonin.

  20. Design, validation and efficacy of bisubstrate inhibitors specifically affecting ecto-CK2 kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Cozza, Giorgio; Zanin, Sofia; Sarno, Stefania; Costa, Elena; Girardi, Cristina; Ribaudo, Giovanni; Salvi, Mauro; Zagotto, Giuseppe; Ruzzene, Maria; Pinna, Lorenzo A

    2015-11-01

    By derivatizing the purely competitive CK2 inhibitor N1-(4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-propane-1,3-diamine (K137) at its 3-amino position with a peptidic fragment composed of three or four glutamic or aspartic acid residues, a new family of bisubstrate inhibitors has been generated whose ability to simultaneously interact with both the ATP and the phosphoacceptor substrate-binding sites has been probed by running mixed competition kinetics and by mutational mapping of the kinase residues implicated in substrate recognition. The most effective bisubstrate inhibitor, K137-E4, interacts with three functional regions of the kinase: the hydrophobic pocket close to the ATP-binding site, the basic residues of the p+1 loop that recognizes the acidic determinant at position n+1 and the basic residues of α-helixC that recognize the acidic determinant at position n+3. Compared with the parent inhibitor (K137), K137-E4 is severalfold more potent (IC50 25 compared with 130 nM) and more selective, failing to inhibit any other kinase as drastically as CK2 out of 140 enzymes, whereas 35 kinases are inhibited more potently than CK2 by K137. K137-E4 is unable to penetrate the cell and to inhibit endogenous CK2, its pro-apoptotic efficacy being negligible compared with cell-permeant inhibitors; however, it readily inhibits ecto-CK2 on the outer cell surface, reducing the phosphorylation of several external phosphoproteins. Inhibition of ecto-CK2 by K137-E4 is accompanied by a slower migration of cancer cells as judged by wound healing assays. On the basis of the cellular responses to K137-E4, we conclude that ecto-CK2 is implicated in cell motility, whereas its contribution to the pro-survival role of CK2 is negligible. PMID:26349539

  1. A Mg(2+)-dependent ecto-phosphatase activity on the external surface of Trypanosoma rangeli modulated by exogenous inorganic phosphate.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-de-Souza, André L; Dick, Claudia Fernanda; Dos Santos, André Luiz Araújo; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2008-08-01

    In this work, we characterized a Mg(2+)-dependent ecto-phosphatase activity present in live Trypanosoma rangeli epimastigotes. This enzyme showed capacity to hydrolyze the artificial substrate for phosphatases, p-nitrophenylphosphate (p-NPP). At saturating concentration of p-NPP, half-maximal p-NPP hydrolysis was obtained with 0.23mM Mg(2+). Ca(2+) had no effect on the basal phosphatase activity, could not substitute Mg(2+) as an activator and in contrast inhibited the p-NPP hydrolysis stimulated by Mg(2+). The dependence on p-NPP concentration showed a normal Michaelis-Menten kinetics for this phosphatase activity with values of V(max) of 8.94+/-0.36 nmol p-NP x h(-1) x 10(-7) cells and apparent K(m) of 1.04+/-0.16 mM p-NPP. Mg(2+)-dependent ecto-phosphatase activity was stimulated by the alkaline pH range. Experiments using inhibitors, such as, sodium fluoride, sodium orthovanadate and ammonium molybdate, inhibited the Mg(2+)-dependent ecto-phosphatase activity. Inorganic phosphate (Pi), a product of phosphatases, inhibited reversibly in 50% this activity. Okadaic acid and microcystin-LR, specific phosphoserine/threonine phosphatase inhibitors, inhibited significantly the Mg(2+)-dependent ecto-phosphatase activity. In addition, this phosphatase activity was able to recognize as substrates only o-phosphoserine and o-phosphothreonine, while o-phosphotyrosine was not a good substrate for this phosphatase. Epimastigote forms of T. rangeli exhibit a typical growth curve, achieving the stationary phase around fifth or sixth day and the Mg(2+)-dependent ecto-phosphatase activity decreased around 10-fold with the cell growth progression. Cells maintained at Pi-deprived medium (2 mM Pi) present Mg(2+)-dependent ecto-phosphatase activity approximately threefold higher than that maintained at Pi-supplemented medium (50 mM Pi). PMID:18599005

  2. High Expression of Ecto-Nucleotidases CD39 and CD73 in Human Endometrial Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Aliagas, Elisabet; Vidal, August; Texidó, Laura; Ponce, Jordi; Condom, Enric; Martín-Satué, Mireia

    2014-01-01

    One of the strategies used by tumors to evade immunosurveillance is the accumulation of extracellular adenosine, which has immunosupressive and tumor promoting effects. The study of the mechanisms leading to adenosine formation at the tumor interstitium are therefore of great interest in oncology. The dominant pathway generating extracellular adenosine in tumors is the dephosphorylation of ATP by ecto-nucleotidases. Two of these enzymes acting sequentially, CD39 and CD73, efficiently hydrolyze extracellular ATP to adenosine. They have been found to play a crucial role in a variety of tumors, but there were no data concerning endometrial cancer, the most frequent of the invasive tumors of the female genital tract. The aim of the present work is to study the expression of CD39 and CD73 in human endometrial cancer. We have analyzed protein and gene expression, as well as enzyme activity, in type I endometrioid adenocarcinomas and type II serous adenocarcinomas and their nonpathological endometrial counterparts. High levels of both enzymes were found in tumor samples, with significantly increased expression of CD39 in type II serous tumors, which also coincided with the higher tumor grade. Our results reinforce the involvement of the adenosinergic system in cancer, emphasizing the relevance of ecto-nucleotidases as emerging therapeutic targets in oncology. PMID:24707115

  3. Evidence for the occurrence of an ecto-(adenosine triphosphatase) in rat epididymal spermatozoa.

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, G C; Biswas, R

    1979-01-01

    Intact spermatozoa from rat cauda epididymis possess a Mg2+-dependent ATPase activity that hydrolyses externally added [gamma-32P]ATP. The ATPase reaction was linear with time for approx. 6 min and there was no detectable uptake of ATP by these cells. The ATPase activity of the whole spermatozoa was not due to leakage of the intracellular enzymic activity, contamination of the broken cells or any possible cell damage during incubation and isolation of spermatozoa. The activity of the enzyme was strongly inhibited (approx. 85%) by p-chloromercuribenzenesulphonic acid (50 microM) or the diazonium salt of sulphanilic acid (50 microM), which are believed not to enter the cells, whereas ouabain (0.5 mM), NaF (10 mM), NaN3 (2.5 mM) and oligomycin (5 microM) had no appreciable effect on the activity of the spermatozoal APTase. There was little loss of ATPase activity from the cells when washed with 0.5 mM-EDTA and an iso-osmotic or hyperosmotic medium. These data are consistent with the view that the observed ATPase activity is located on the external surface of spermatozoa. The sperm ecto-ATPase activity is resistant to the action of proteinases (50 micrograms/ml), namely trypsin, chymotrypsin and Pronase. Studies with various unlabelled phosphate esters indicate that the sperm ecto-ATPase is not a non-specific phosphatase and it has high degree of substrate specificity for ATP. PMID:231971

  4. Closely coupled evolutionary history of ecto- and endosymbionts from two distantly related animal phyla.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Judith; Wentrup, Cecilia; Sadowski, Miriam; Blazejak, Anna; Gruber-Vodicka, Harald R; Kleiner, Manuel; Ott, Jörg A; Cronholm, Bodil; De Wit, Pierre; Erséus, Christer; Dubilier, Nicole

    2016-07-01

    The level of integration between associated partners can range from ectosymbioses to extracellular and intracellular endosymbioses, and this range has been assumed to reflect a continuum from less intimate to evolutionarily highly stable associations. In this study, we examined the specificity and evolutionary history of marine symbioses in a group of closely related sulphur-oxidizing bacteria, called Candidatus Thiosymbion, that have established ecto- and endosymbioses with two distantly related animal phyla, Nematoda and Annelida. Intriguingly, in the ectosymbiotic associations of stilbonematine nematodes, we observed a high degree of congruence between symbiont and host phylogenies, based on their ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. In contrast, for the endosymbioses of gutless phallodriline annelids (oligochaetes), we found only a weak congruence between symbiont and host phylogenies, based on analyses of symbiont 16S rRNA genes and six host genetic markers. The much higher degree of congruence between nematodes and their ectosymbionts compared to those of annelids and their endosymbionts was confirmed by cophylogenetic analyses. These revealed 15 significant codivergence events between stilbonematine nematodes and their ectosymbionts, but only one event between gutless phallodrilines and their endosymbionts. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences from 50 Cand. Thiosymbion species revealed seven well-supported clades that contained both stilbonematine ectosymbionts and phallodriline endosymbionts. This closely coupled evolutionary history of marine ecto- and endosymbionts suggests that switches between symbiotic lifestyles and between the two host phyla occurred multiple times during the evolution of the Cand. Thiosymbion clade, and highlights the remarkable flexibility of these symbiotic bacteria. PMID:26826340

  5. Extracellular Adenosine Production by ecto-5'-Nucleotidase (CD73) Enhances Radiation-Induced Lung Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Wirsdörfer, Florian; de Leve, Simone; Cappuccini, Federica; Eldh, Therese; Meyer, Alina V; Gau, Eva; Thompson, Linda F; Chen, Ning-Yuan; Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Fischer, Ute; Kasper, Michael; Klein, Diana; Ritchey, Jerry W; Blackburn, Michael R; Westendorf, Astrid M; Stuschke, Martin; Jendrossek, Verena

    2016-05-15

    Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis is a severe side effect of thoracic irradiation, but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood and no effective treatment is available. In this study, we investigated the role of the extracellular adenosine as generated by the ecto-5'-nucleotidase CD73 in fibrosis development after thoracic irradiation. Exposure of wild-type C57BL/6 mice to a single dose (15 Gray) of whole thorax irradiation triggered a progressive increase in CD73 activity in the lung between 3 and 30 weeks postirradiation. In parallel, adenosine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were increased by approximately 3-fold. Histologic evidence of lung fibrosis was observed by 25 weeks after irradiation. Conversely, CD73-deficient mice failed to accumulate adenosine in BALF and exhibited significantly less radiation-induced lung fibrosis (P < 0.010). Furthermore, treatment of wild-type mice with pegylated adenosine deaminase or CD73 antibodies also significantly reduced radiation-induced lung fibrosis. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that CD73 potentiates radiation-induced lung fibrosis, suggesting that existing pharmacologic strategies for modulating adenosine may be effective in limiting lung toxicities associated with the treatment of thoracic malignancies. Cancer Res; 76(10); 3045-56. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26921334

  6. Olfactory ecto-mesenchymal stem cells possess immunoregulatory function and suppress autoimmune arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rui, Ke; Zhang, Zhijiang; Tian, Jie; Lin, Xiang; Wang, Xiaohui; Ma, Jie; Tang, Xinyi; Xu, Huaxi; Lu, Liwei; Wang, Shengjun

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have identified olfactory ecto-mesenchymal stem cells (OE-MSCs) as a new type of resident stem cell in the olfactory lamina propria. However, it remains unclear whether OE-MSCs possess any immunoregulatory functions. In this study, we found that mouse OE-MSCs expressed higher transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin-10 levels than bone marrow-derived MSCs. In culture, OE-MSCs exerted their immunosuppressive capacity via directly suppressing effector T-cell proliferation and increasing regulatory T (Treg) cell expansion. In mice with collagen-induced arthritis, adoptive transfer of OE-MSCs markedly suppressed arthritis onset and disease severity, which was accompanied by increased Treg cells and reduced Th1/Th17 cell responses in vivo. Taken together, our findings identified a novel function of OE-MSCs in regulating T-cell responses, indicating that OE-MSCs may represent a new cell therapy for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. PMID:26388237

  7. E-NTPDase (ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase) of Leishmania amazonensis inhibits macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Rodrigo Saar; de Carvalho, Luana Cristina Faria; de Souza Vasconcellos, Raphael; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel; Afonso, Luís Carlos Crocco

    2015-04-01

    Leishmania amazonensis, the causal agent of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, is known for its ability to modulate the host immune response. Because a relationship between ectonucleotidase activity and the ability of Leishmania to generate injury in C57BL/6 mice has been demonstrated, in this study we evaluated the involvement of ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase) activity of L. amazonensis in the process of infection of J774-macrophages. Our results show that high-activity parasites show increased survival rate in LPS/IFN-γ-activated cells, by inhibiting the host-cell NO production. Conversely, inhibition of E-NTPDase activity reduces the parasite survival rates, an effect associated with increased macrophage NO production. E-NTPDase activity generates substrate for the production of extracellular adenosine, which binds to A2B receptors and reduces IL-12 and TNF-α produced by activated macrophages, thus inhibiting NO production. These results indicate that E-NTPDase activity is important for survival of L. amazonensis within macrophages, showing the role of the enzyme in modulating macrophage response and lower NO production, which ultimately favors infection. Our results point to a new mechanism of L. amazonensis infection that may pave the way for the development of new treatments for this neglected disease. PMID:25554487

  8. Comparative Genomics of Flatworms (Platyhelminthes) Reveals Shared Genomic Features of Ecto- and Endoparastic Neodermata

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Christoph; Fromm, Bastian; Bachmann, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    The ectoparasitic Monogenea comprise a major part of the obligate parasitic flatworm diversity. Although genomic adaptations to parasitism have been studied in the endoparasitic tapeworms (Cestoda) and flukes (Trematoda), no representative of the Monogenea has been investigated yet. We present the high-quality draft genome of Gyrodactylus salaris, an economically important monogenean ectoparasite of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). A total of 15,488 gene models were identified, of which 7,102 were functionally annotated. The controversial phylogenetic relationships within the obligate parasitic Neodermata were resolved in a phylogenomic analysis using 1,719 gene models (alignment length of >500,000 amino acids) for a set of 16 metazoan taxa. The Monogenea were found basal to the Cestoda and Trematoda, which implies ectoparasitism being plesiomorphic within the Neodermata and strongly supports a common origin of complex life cycles. Comparative analysis of seven parasitic flatworm genomes identified shared genomic features for the ecto- and endoparasitic lineages, such as a substantial reduction of the core bilaterian gene complement, including the homeodomain-containing genes, and a loss of the piwi and vasa genes, which are considered essential for animal development. Furthermore, the shared loss of functional fatty acid biosynthesis pathways and the absence of peroxisomes, the latter organelles presumed ubiquitous in eukaryotes except for parasitic protozoans, were inferred. The draft genome of G. salaris opens for future in-depth analyses of pathogenicity and host specificity of poorly characterized G. salaris strains, and will enhance studies addressing the genomics of host–parasite interactions and speciation in the highly diverse monogenean flatworms. PMID:24732282

  9. Targeted disruption of cd73/ecto-5'-nucleotidase alters thromboregulation and augments vascular inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Koszalka, Patrycja; Ozüyaman, Burcin; Huo, Yuqing; Zernecke, Alma; Flögel, Ulrich; Braun, Norbert; Buchheiser, Anja; Decking, Ulrich K M; Smith, Michael L; Sévigny, Jean; Gear, Adrian; Weber, Artur-Aron; Molojavyi, Andrei; Ding, Zhaoping; Weber, Christian; Ley, Klaus; Zimmermann, Herbert; Gödecke, Axel; Schrader, Jürgen

    2004-10-15

    To investigate the role of adenosine formed extracellularly in vascular homeostasis, mice with a targeted deletion of the cd73/ecto-5'-nucleotidase were generated. Southern blot, RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis confirmed the constitutive knockout. In vivo analysis of hemodynamic parameters revealed no significant differences in systolic blood pressure, ejection fraction, or cardiac output between strains. However, basal coronary flow measured in the isolated perfused heart was significantly lower (-14%; P<0.05) in the mutant. Immunohistochemistry revealed strong CD73 expression on the endothelium of conduit vessels in wild-type (WT) mice. Time to carotid artery occlusion after ferric chloride (FeCl3) was significantly reduced by 20% in cd73-/- mice (P<0.05). Bleeding time after tail tip resection tended to be shorter in cd73-/- mice (-35%). In vivo platelet cAMP levels were 0.96+/-0.46 in WT versus 0.68+/-0.27 pmol/106 cells in cd73-/- mice (P<0.05). Under in vitro conditions, platelet aggregation in response to ADP (0.05 to 10 micromol/L) was undistinguishable between the two strains. In the cremaster model of ischemia-reperfusion, the increase in leukocyte attachment to endothelium was significantly higher in cd73-/- compared with WT littermates (WT 98% versus cd73-/- 245%; P<0.005). The constitutive adhesion of monocytes in ex vivo-perfused carotid arteries of WT mice was negligible but significantly increased in arteries of cd73-/- mice (P<0.05). Thus, our data provide the first evidence that adenosine, extracellularly formed by CD73, can modulate coronary vascular tone, inhibit platelet activation, and play an important role in leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium in vivo. PMID:15358667

  10. Ecto-Nucleotidase Activities of Promastigotes from Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Relates to Parasite Infectivity and Disease Clinical Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Pauline M.; Gomes, Rodrigo S.; Figueiredo, Amanda B.; Serafim, Tiago D.; Tafuri, Wagner L.; de Souza, Carolina C.; Moura, Sandra A. L.; Fietto, Juliana L. R.; Melo, Maria N.; Ribeiro-Dias, Fátima; Oliveira, Milton A. P.; Rabello, Ana; Afonso, Luís C. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis has been associated with a broad range of clinical manifestations ranging from a simple cutaneous ulcer to destructive mucosal lesions. Factors leading to this diversity of clinical presentations are not clear, but parasite factors have lately been recognized as important in determining disease progression. Given the fact that the activity of ecto-nucleotidases correlates with parasitism and the development of infection, we evaluated the activity of these enzymes in promastigotes from 23 L. braziliensis isolates as a possible parasite-related factor that could influence the clinical outcome of the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Our results show that the isolates differ in their ability to hydrolyze adenine nucleotides. Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation between the time for peak of lesion development in C57BL/6J mice and enzymatic activity and clinical manifestation of the isolate. In addition, we found that L. (V.) braziliensis isolates obtained from mucosal lesions hydrolyze higher amounts of adenine nucleotides than isolates obtained from skin lesions. One isolate with high (PPS6m) and another with low (SSF) ecto-nucleotidase activity were chosen for further studies. Mice inoculated with PPS6m show delayed lesion development and present larger parasite loads than animals inoculated with the SSF isolate. In addition, PPS6m modulates the host immune response by inhibiting dendritic cell activation and NO production by activated J774 macrophages. Finally, we observed that the amastigote forms from PPS6m and SSF isolates present low enzymatic activity that does not interfere with NO production and parasite survival in macrophages. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that ecto-nucleotidases present on the promastigote forms of the parasite may interfere with the establishment of the immune response with consequent impaired ability to control parasite dissemination and this may be an important

  11. Trichomonas vaginalis NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase hydrolyze guanine nucleotides and increase extracellular guanosine levels under serum restriction.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Camila Braz; Durgante, Juliano; de Oliveira, Rafael Rodrigues; Dos Santos, Victor Hugo Jacks Mendes; Rodrigues, Luiz Frederico; Garcia, Solange Cristina; Dos Santos, Odelta; Tasca, Tiana

    2016-05-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the aethiologic agent of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease in the world. The purinergic signaling pathway is mediated by extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides that are involved in many biological effects as neurotransmission, immunomodulation and inflammation. Extracellular nucleotides can be hydrolyzed by a family of enzymes known as ectonucleotidases including the ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (E-NTPDases) family which hydrolyses nucleosides triphosphate and diphosphate as preferential substrates and ecto-5'-nucleotidase which catalyzes the conversion of monophosphates into nucleosides. In T. vaginalis the E-NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase activities upon adenine nucleotides have already been characterized in intact trophozoites but little is known concerning guanine nucleotides and nucleoside. These enzymes may exert a crucial role on nucleoside generation, providing the purine sources for the synthesis de novo of these essential nutrients, sustaining parasite growth and survival. In this study, we investigated the hydrolysis profile of guanine-related nucleotides and nucleoside in intact trophozoites from long-term-grown and fresh clinical isolates of T. vaginalis. Knowing that guanine nucleotides are also substrates for T. vaginalis ectoenzymes, we evaluated the profile of nucleotides consumption and guanosine uptake in trophozoites submitted to a serum limitation condition. Results show that guanine nucleotides (GTP, GDP, GMP) were substrates for T. vaginalis ectonucleotidases, with expected kinetic parameters for this enzyme family. Different T. vaginalis isolates (two from the ATCC and nine fresh clinical isolates) presented a heterogeneous hydrolysis profile. The serum culture condition increased E-NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase activities with high consumption of extracellular GTP generating enhanced GDP, GMP and guanosine levels as demonstrated by HPLC, with final

  12. Biochemical properties of Candida parapsilosis ecto-5'-nucleotidase and the possible role of adenosine in macrophage interaction.

    PubMed

    Russo-Abrahão, Thais; Cosentino-Gomes, Daniela; Gomes, Marta T; Alviano, Daniela S; Alviano, Celuta S; Lopes, Angela H; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2011-04-01

    Candida parapsilosis is considered to be an emerging fungal pathogen because it is associated with an increasing range of infections. In this work, we biochemically characterized ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity on the surface of living, intact C. parapsilosis cells. At a pH of 4.5, intact cells were able to hydrolyze 5'-AMP at a rate of 52.44 ± 7.01 nmol Pi h(-1) 10(-7) cells. 5'-AMP, 5'-IMP and 5'-UMP were hydrolyzed at similar rates, whereas 5'-GMP and 5'-CMP hydrolyzed at lower rates. Enzyme activity was increased by about 42% with addition of Mg(2+) or Ca(2+), and the optimum pH was in the acidic range. An inhibitor of phosphatase activities, sodium orthovanadate, showed no effect on AMP hydrolysis; however, as expected, ammonium molybdate, a classical nucleotidase inhibitor, inhibited the activity in a dose-dependent manner. The results indicated that the existence of an ecto-5'-nucleotidase could play a role in the control of extracellular nucleotide concentrations. PMID:21241359

  13. Ecto-5′-nucleotidase expression is associated with the progression of renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    YU, YI; WANG, WEI; SONG, LEI; HU, WENTAO; DONG, CHI; PEI, HAILONG; ZHOU, GUANGMING; YUE, ZHONGJIN

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common tissue tumor that occurs across all age groups and has become one of the types of cancer with the fastest increasing incidence. Due to the resistance of RCC chemo- and radiotherapy, surgery is the only currently effective treatment. Therefore, specific markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of RCC are expected to result in novel methods of treatment. Ecto-5′-nucleotidase, also termed cluster of differentiation (CD)73, is a protein that is activated in several types of aggressive cancer and may promote cancer progression. CD73 was examined in the present study to determine the association between the protein and RCC. The expression levels of CD73 in 159 RCC tissue sections and 30 paratumorous normal renal tissue samples obtained from 235 patients that underwent nephrectomy were examined by immunohistochemical staining. By contrast, the expression level of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a potential prognostic factor in RCC, was also examined in 85 RCC and 13 normal tissue samples. Intense CD73 expression was identified in 75 out of 159 RCC cell membranes compared with normal renal tissues. In contrast, there was high P-gp expression in the blood vessels of 42 out of 85 RCC tissues and there was no significant difference between the P-gp expression identified in RCC cells (34 out of 85) and the cell membrane of normal renal cells (2 out of 13). The expression level of CD73 in RCC cells was significantly associated with tumor type, tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage, and tumor grade. However, the expression of P-gp in RCC cells was only associated with the TNM stage and tumor grade. Using a multivariable Cox regression analysis, it was found that the median survival rate of RCC patients with intense CD73 expression in RCC cells was 62.06±5.35 months, which was drastically shorter compared with rare CD73 expression (103.72±3.67 months). In conclusion, the expression level of CD73 is significantly associated with RCC tumor progression

  14. Deficits in Endogenous Adenosine Formation by Ecto-5′-Nucleotidase/CD73 Impair Neuromuscular Transmission and Immune Competence in Experimental Autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis

    PubMed Central

    Cristina Costa, Ana; Guerra-Gomes, Sónia; Ferreirinha, Fátima; Magalhães-Cardoso, Maria Teresa; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    AMP dephosphorylation via ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73 is the rate limiting step to generate extracellular adenosine (ADO) from released adenine nucleotides. ADO, via A2A receptors (A2ARs), is a potent modulator of neuromuscular and immunological responses. The pivotal role of ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73, in controlling extracellular ADO formation, prompted us to investigate its role in a rat model of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG). Results show that CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells express lower amounts of ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73 as compared to controls. Reduction of endogenous ADO formation might explain why proliferation of CD4+ T cells failed upon blocking A2A receptors activation with ZM241385 or adenosine deaminase in EAMG animals. Deficits in ADO also contribute to neuromuscular transmission failure in EAMG rats. Rehabilitation of A2AR-mediated immune suppression and facilitation of transmitter release were observed by incubating the cells with the nucleoside precursor, AMP. These findings, together with the characteristic increase in serum adenosine deaminase activity of MG patients, strengthen our hypothesis that the adenosinergic pathway may be dysfunctional in EAMG. Given that endogenous ADO formation is balanced by ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73 activity and that A2ARs exert a dual role to restore use-dependent neurocompetence and immune suppression in myasthenics, we hypothesize that stimulation of the two mechanisms may have therapeutic potential in MG. PMID:25691808

  15. Hyperglycemia alters E-NTPDases, ecto-5'-nucleotidase, and ectosolic and cytosolic adenosine deaminase activities and expression from encephala of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Capiotti, Katiucia Marques; Siebel, Anna Maria; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Bonan, Carla Denise; Da Silva, Rosane Souza

    2016-06-01

    Hyperglycemia is the main feature for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM). Some studies have demonstrated the relationship between DM and dysfunction on neurotransmission systems, such as the purinergic system. In this study, we evaluated the extracellular nucleotide hydrolysis and adenosine deamination activities from encephalic membranes of hyperglycemic zebrafish. A significant decrease in ATP, ADP, and AMP hydrolyses was observed at 111-mM glucose-treated group, which returned to normal levels after 7 days of glucose withdrawal. A significant increase in ecto-adenosine deaminase activity was observed in 111-mM glucose group, which remain elevated after 7 days of glucose withdrawal. The soluble-adenosine deaminase activity was significantly increased just after 7 days of glucose withdrawal. We also evaluated the gene expressions of ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (E-NTPDases), ecto-5'-nucleotidase, ADA, and adenosine receptors from encephala of adult zebrafish. The entpd 2a.1, entpd 2a.2, entpd 3, and entpd 8 mRNA levels from encephala of adult zebrafish were decreased in 111-mM glucose-treated and glucose withdrawal groups. The gene expressions of adenosine receptors (adora 1 , adora 2aa , adora 2ab , and adora 2b ) were decreased in 111-mM glucose-treated and glucose withdrawal groups. The gene expression of ADA (ada 2a.1) was decreased in glucose withdrawal group. Maltodextrin, used as a control, did not affect the expression of adenosine receptors, ADA and E-NTPDases 2, 3, and 8, while the expression of ecto-5'-nucleotidase was slightly increased and the E-NTPDases 1 decreased. These findings demonstrated that hyperglycemia might affect the ecto-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase activities and gene expression in zebrafish, probably through a mechanism involving the osmotic effect, suggesting that the modifications caused on purinergic system may also contribute to the diabetes-induced progressive cognitive impairment. PMID:26769247

  16. Tenascin C interacts with ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN) and regulates adenosine generation in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sadej, Rafal; Inai, Kunihiro; Rajfur, Zenon; Ostapkowicz, Anna; Kohler, Jon; Skladanowski, Andrzej C; Mitchell, Beverly S; Spychala, Jozef

    2008-01-01

    Tenascin C is expressed in invasive human solid tumors; however its specific role in cancer biology remains obscure. Previously, we have found that ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN) is a marker of ER (-) breast carcinoma and elevated expression correlates with invasive mesenchymal cell phenotype. To investigate for the potential relationship between eN and protein components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) we measured adenosine generation from AMP in cells incubated with soluble ECM proteins. We found that tenascin C was the only ECM component that strongly inhibited ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN) activity in situ and adenosine generation from AMP (75% inhibition, p < 0.01). The inhibition was comparable to that induced by concanavalin A, a well-defined and strong inhibitor of eN. Resin immobilized tenascin C, but not collagen, and only weakly fibronectin, specifically and quantitatively bound cell-extracted eN. We further developed breast cancer cell line with reduced eN expression and tested changes in cell adhesion on different ECM. Breast cancer cells expressing reduced eN attached 56% weaker (p < 0.05) to immobilized tenascin C. This difference was not detected with other ECM proteins. Finally, control breast cancer cells migrated slower on tenascin C when compared with clone with reduced eN expression. These data suggest that eN is a novel and specific receptor for tenascin C and that the interaction between these proteins may influence cell adhesion and migration and also lead to decreased generation of local adenosine. PMID:18062933

  17. The Leishmania donovani histidine acid ecto-phosphatase LdMAcP: insight into its structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Papadaki, Amalia; Politou, Anastasia S.; Smirlis, Despina; Kotini, Maria P.; Kourou, Konstadina; Papamarcaki, Thomais; Boleti, Haralabia

    2015-01-01

    Acid ecto-phosphatase activity has been implicated in Leishmania donovani promastigote virulence. In the present study, we report data contributing to the molecular/structural and functional characterization of the L. donovani LdMAcP (L. donovani membrane acid phosphatase), member of the histidine acid phosphatase (HAcP) family. LdMAcP is membrane-anchored and shares high sequence identity with the major secreted L. donovani acid phosphatases (LdSAcPs). Sequence comparison of the LdMAcP orthologues in Leishmania sp. revealed strain polymorphism and species specificity for the L. donovani complex, responsible for visceral leishmaniasis (Khala azar), proposing thus a potential value of LdMAcP as an epidemiological or diagnostic tool. The extracellular orientation of the LdMAcP catalytic domain was confirmed in L. donovani promastigotes, wild-type (wt) and transgenic overexpressing a recombinant LdMAcP–mRFP1 (monomeric RFP1) chimera, as well as in transiently transfected mammalian cells expressing rLdMAcP–His. For the first time it is demonstrated in the present study that LdMAcP confers tartrate resistant acid ecto-phosphatase activity in live L. donovani promastigotes. The latter confirmed the long sought molecular identity of at least one enzyme contributing to this activity. Interestingly, the L. donovani rLdMAcP–mRFP1 promastigotes generated in this study, showed significantly higher infectivity and virulence indexes than control parasites in the infection of J774 mouse macrophages highlighting thereby a role for LdMAcP in the parasite's virulence. PMID:25695743

  18. Melatonin receptor deficiency decreases and temporally shifts ecto-5'-nucleotidase mRNA levels in mouse prosencephalon.

    PubMed

    Homola, Moran; Pfeffer, Martina; Robson, Simon C; Fischer, Claudia; Zimmermann, Herbert; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2016-07-01

    Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN) is the major extracellular adenosine-producing ecto-enzyme in mouse brain. Via the production of adenosine, eN participates in many physiological and pathological processes, such as wakefulness, inflammation, nociception and neuroprotection. The mechanisms regulating the expression of eN are therefore of considerable neurobiological and clinical interest. Having previously described a modulatory effect of melatonin in the regulation of eN mRNA levels, we decided to analyze the melatonin receptor subtype involved in the regulation of eN mRNA levels by comparing eN mRNA patterns in melatonin-proficient transgenic mice lacking either the melatonin receptor subtype 1 (MT1 KO) or both melatonin receptor subtypes (MT1 and MT2; MT1/2 KO) with the corresponding melatonin-proficient wild-type (WT) controls. By means of radioactive in situ hybridization, eN mRNA levels were found to be diminished in both MT1 and MT1/2 KO mice compared with WT controls suggesting stimulatory impacts of melatonin receptors on eN mRNA levels. Whereas eN mRNA levels increased during the day and peaked at night in WT and MT1 KO mice, eN mRNA levels at night were reduced and the peak was shifted toward day-time in double MT1/2 KO mice. These data suggest that the MT2 receptor subtype may play a role in the temporal regulation of eN mRNA availability. Notably, day-time locomotor activity was significantly higher in MT1/2 KO compared with WT mice. Our results suggest melatoninergic signaling as an interface between the purinergic system and the circadian system. PMID:26917036

  19. The Leishmania donovani histidine acid ecto-phosphatase LdMAcP: insight into its structure and function.

    PubMed

    Papadaki, Amalia; Politou, Anastasia S; Smirlis, Despina; Kotini, Maria P; Kourou, Konstadina; Papamarcaki, Thomais; Boleti, Haralabia

    2015-05-01

    Acid ecto-phosphatase activity has been implicated in Leishmania donovani promastigote virulence. In the present study, we report data contributing to the molecular/structural and functional characterization of the L. donovani LdMAcP (L. donovani membrane acid phosphatase), member of the histidine acid phosphatase (HAcP) family. LdMAcP is membrane-anchored and shares high sequence identity with the major secreted L. donovani acid phosphatases (LdSAcPs). Sequence comparison of the LdMAcP orthologues in Leishmania sp. revealed strain polymorphism and species specificity for the L. donovani complex, responsible for visceral leishmaniasis (Khala azar), proposing thus a potential value of LdMAcP as an epidemiological or diagnostic tool. The extracellular orientation of the LdMAcP catalytic domain was confirmed in L. donovani promastigotes, wild-type (wt) and transgenic overexpressing a recombinant LdMAcP-mRFP1 (monomeric RFP1) chimera, as well as in transiently transfected mammalian cells expressing rLdMAcP-His. For the first time it is demonstrated in the present study that LdMAcP confers tartrate resistant acid ecto-phosphatase activity in live L. donovani promastigotes. The latter confirmed the long sought molecular identity of at least one enzyme contributing to this activity. Interestingly, the L. donovani rLdMAcP-mRFP1 promastigotes generated in this study, showed significantly higher infectivity and virulence indexes than control parasites in the infection of J774 mouse macrophages highlighting thereby a role for LdMAcP in the parasite's virulence. PMID:25695743

  20. Making "Cute" Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dark, Denise

    2007-01-01

    A holiday quilt project in a kindergarten classroom becomes a focus for exploring patterns, shapes, measurement, spatial relationships, and number sense. Cooperative group work, problem solving, and communication of mathematical ideas enhance the completion of the project. (Contains 5 figures.)

  1. FACS array profiling identifies Ecto-5' nucleotidase as a striatopallidal neuron-specific gene involved in striatal-dependent learning.

    PubMed

    Ena, Sabrina L; De Backer, Jean-François; Schiffmann, Serge N; de Kerchove d'Exaerde, Alban

    2013-05-15

    The striatopallidal (STP) and striatonigral (STN) neurons constitute the main neuronal populations of the striatum. Despite the increasing knowledge concerning their involvement in multiple tasks associated with the striatum, it is still challenging to understand the precise differential functions of these two neuronal populations and to identify and study new genes involved in these functions. Here, we describe a reliable approach, applied on adult mouse brain, to generate specific STP and STN neuron gene profiles. STP and STN neurons were identified in the same animal using the transgenic Adora2A-Cre × Z/EG mouse model combined with retrograde labeling, respectively. Gene profiling was generated from FACS-purified neurons leading to the identification of new STP and STN neuron-specific genes. Knock-down models based on Cre-dependent lentiviral vector were developed to investigate their function either in striatal or in STP neurons. Thereby, we demonstrate that ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5e) is specifically expressed in STP neurons and is at the origin of most of the extracellular adenosine produced in the striatum. Behavioral analysis of striatal and STP neuron knock-down mouse models as well as NT5e knock-out mice demonstrates the implication of this STP neuron enzyme in motor learning. PMID:23678122

  2. Ecto-5′-Nucleotidase (CD73) Deficiency in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Infected Mice Enhances Neutrophil Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Petit-Jentreau, Laetitia; Jouvion, Grégory; Charles, Patricia; Majlessi, Laleh; Gicquel, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    The immune system needs safeguards that prevent collateral tissue damage mediated by the immune system while enabling an effective response against a pathogen. The purinergic pathway is one such mechanism and finely modulates inflammation by sensing nucleotides in the environment. Extracellular ATP is considered to be a danger signal leading to a proinflammatory response, whereas adenosine is immunosuppressive. CD73, also called ecto-5′-nucleotidase, occupies a strategic position in this pathway, as it is the main enzyme responsible for the generation of adenosine from ATP. Here, we explore the role of CD73 during tuberculosis, a disease characterized by an immune response that is harmful to the host and unable to eradicate Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Using CD73 knockout (KO) mice, we found that CD73 regulates the response to M. tuberculosis infection in vitro and in vivo. Mycobacterium-infected murine macrophages derived from CD73 KO mice secrete more keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and release less vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) upon ATP stimulation than do those derived from wild-type (WT) mice. In vivo, CD73 limits the early influx of neutrophils to the lungs without affecting bacterial growth and dissemination. Collectively, our results support the view that CD73 fine-tunes antimycobacterial immune responses. PMID:26150535

  3. Enzymatic Activity of the Soybean Ecto-Apyrase GS52 Is Essential for Stimulation of Nodulation1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kiwamu; Nguyen, Cuong T.; Libault, Marc; Cheng, Jianlin; Stacey, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth. In the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis, root nodules are the sites of bacterial nitrogen fixation, in which atmospheric nitrogen is converted into a form that plants can utilize. While recent studies suggested an important role for the soybean (Glycine max) ecto-apyrase GS52 in rhizobial root hair infection and root nodule formation, precisely how this protein impacts the nodulation process remains undetermined. In this study, the biochemical characteristics of the GS52 enzyme were investigated. Computer modeling of the GS52 apyrase structure identified key amino acid residues important for catalytic activity, which were subsequently mutagenized. Although the GS52 enzyme exhibited broad substrate specificity, its activity on pyrimidine nucleotides and diphosphate nucleotides was significantly higher than on ATP. This result was corroborated by structural modeling of GS52, which predicted a low specificity for the adenine base within the substrate-binding pocket of the enzyme. The wild-type enzyme and its inactive mutant forms were expressed in soybean roots in order to evaluate the importance of GS52 enzymatic activity for nodulation. The results indicated a clear correlation between GS52 enzymatic activity and nodule number. Altogether, our study indicates that the catalytic activity of the GS52 apyrase, likely acting on extracellular nucleotides, is critical for rhizobial infection and nodulation. PMID:21346172

  4. The volatile anesthetic isoflurane induces ecto-5′-nucleotidase (CD73) to protect against renal ischemia and reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mihwa; Ham, Ahrom; Kim, Joo Yun; Brown, Kevin M.; D’Agati, Vivette D.; Lee, H. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The volatile anesthetic isoflurane protects against renal ischemia and reperfusion injury by releasing renal tubular TGF-β1. Since adenosine is a powerful cytoprotective molecule, we tested whether TGF-β1 generated by isoflurane induces renal tubular ecto-5′-nucleotidase (CD73) and adenosine to protect against renal ischemia and reperfusion injury. Isoflurane induced new CD73 synthesis and increased adenosine generation in cultured kidney proximal tubule cells and in mouse kidney. Moreover, a TGF-β1 neutralizing antibody prevented isoflurane-mediated induction of CD73 activity. Mice anesthetized with isoflurane after renal ischemia and reperfusion had significantly reduced plasma creatinine and decreased renal tubular necrosis, neutrophil infiltration and apoptosis compared to pentobarbital-anesthetized mice. Isoflurane failed to protect against renal ischemia and reperfusion injury in CD73 deficient mice, in mice pretreated with a selective CD73 inhibitor or mice treated with an adenosine receptor antagonist. The TGF-β1 neutralizing antibody or the CD73 inhibitor attenuated isoflurane-mediated protection against HK-2 cell apoptosis. Thus, isoflurane causes TGF-β1-dependent induction of renal tubular CD73 and adenosine generation to protect against renal ischemia and reperfusion injury. Modulation of this pathway may have important therapeutic implications to reduce morbidity and mortality arising from ischemic acute kidney injury. PMID:23423261

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the open form of human ecto-5′-nucleotidase (CD73)

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Karen Maree; Zebisch, Matthias; Sträter, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotic ecto-5′-nucleotidase (e5NT) catalyses the hydrolysis of extracellular AMP to adenosine and plays a pivotal role in switching on adenosine signalling via the P1 receptors of the purinergic signalling pathway. With such an important regulatory role, e5NT has become an appealing new drug target, with potential applications in the treatment of inflammation, chronic pain, hypoxia and cancer. In order to gain insight into the structure and function of the eukaryotic e5NT enzymes and to assist in structure-based drug design, the crystal structure of human e5NT has been solved. Recombinant human e5NT comprising four asparagine-to-aspartate surface mutations targeting potential glycosylation sites was refolded from bacterial inclusion bodies. Refolded and purified human e5NT crystallized in space group P4332 and a data set to 1.85 Å resolution was obtained. The structure could be solved by molecular replacement using a polyalanine model generated from Thermus thermophilus 5′-nucleotidase (5NT). An anomalous data set revealed the presence of a metal-ion binding site, as well as calcium and chloride ion-binding sites. Structural comparisons with bacterial 5NT homologues showed that the human e5NT crystal structure has an open conformation in which the metal- and substrate-binding sites are distant from each other. Here, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallo­graphic analysis of an open structural conformation of human e5NT are described. PMID:23192044

  6. Catalytic and molecular properties of highly purified phosvitin/casein kinase type II from human epithelial cells in culture (HeLa) and relation to ecto protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Pyerin, W; Burow, E; Michaely, K; Kübler, D; Kinzel, V

    1987-03-01

    Phosvitin/casein type II kinase was purified from HeLa cell extracts to homogeneity and characterized. The kinase prefers phosvitin over casein (Vmax phosvitin greater than Vmax casein; apparent Km 0.5 microM phosvitin and 3.3 microM casein) and utilizes as cosubstrate ATP (apparent Km 3-4 microM), GTP (apparent Km 4-5 microM) and other purine nucleoside triphosphates, including dATP and dGTP but not pyrimidine nucleoside triphosphates. Enzyme reaction is optimal at pH 6-8 and at 10-25 mM Mg2+.Mg2+ cannot be replaced by, but is antagonized by other divalent metal ions. The kinase is stimulated by polycations (spermine) and monovalent cations (Na+,K+), and is inhibited by fluoride, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, and low levels of heparin (50% inhibition at 0.1 microgram/ml). The HeLa enzyme is composed of three subunits with Mr of approximately 43,000 (alpha), 38,000 (alpha'), and 28,000 (beta) forming alpha alpha'beta 2 and alpha'2 beta 2 structures with obvious sequence homology of alpha with alpha' but not with beta. Photoaffinity labeling with [alpha-32P]- and [gamma-32P]8-azido-ATP revealed high affinity binding sites on subunits alpha and alpha' but not on subunit beta. The kinase autophosphorylates subunit beta and, much weaker, subunits alpha and alpha'. Ecto protein kinase, detectable only by its enzyme activity but not yet as a protein (J. Biol. Chem. 257, 322-329), was characterized in cell-bound form and in released form, and the released form both with and without prior separation from phosvitin which was employed to induce the kinase release from intact HeLa cells (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80, 4021-4025). Ratios of phosvitin/casein phosphorylation (greater than 2) and of ATP/GTP utilization (1.5-2.1), inhibition by heparin (50% inhibition at 0.1 microgram/ml), and amino-acid side chains phosphorylated in phosvitin and casein (serine, threonine) are comparable for cell-bound and released form. These properties resemble those of type II kinase as does Mr

  7. Computed Ultrasound Tomography in Echo mode (CUTE) of speed of sound for diagnosis and for aberration correction in pulse-echo sonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Michael; Held, Gerrit; Preisser, Stefan; Peeters, Sara; Grünig, Michael; Frenz, Martin

    2014-03-01

    Sound speed as a diagnostic marker for various diseases of human tissue has been of interest for a while. Up to now, mostly transmission ultrasound computed tomography (UCT) was able to detect spatially resolved sound speed, and its promise as a diagnostic tool has been demonstrated. However, UCT is limited to acoustically transparent samples such as the breast. We present a novel technique where spatially resolved detection of sound speed can be achieved using conventional pulse-echo equipment in reflection mode. For this purpose, pulse-echo images are acquired under various transmit beam directions and a two-dimensional map of the sound speed is reconstructed from the changing phase of local echoes using a direct reconstruction method. Phantom results demonstrate that a high spatial resolution (1 mm) and contrast (0.5 % of average sound speed) can be achieved suitable for diagnostic purposes. In comparison to previous reflection-mode based methods, CUTE works also in a situation with only diffuse echoes, and its direct reconstruction algorithm enables real-time application. This makes it suitable as an addition to conventional clinical ultrasound where it has the potential to benefit diagnosis in a multimodal approach. In addition, knowledge of the spatial distribution of sound speed allows full aberration correction and thus improved spatial resolution and contrast of conventional B-mode ultrasound.

  8. In-vivo and In-vitro activities of medicinal plants on ecto, endo and haemoparasitic infections: a review.

    PubMed

    Mbaya, Albert Wulari; Ogwiji, Mathew

    2014-01-01

    Crude methanol, pet. ether, ethyl acetate, n-hexane, dichloromethane and aqueous extracts of various species of medicinal plants have shown significant in-vivo and in-vitro pharmacological activities against ecto, endo and haemoparasites. The scientific evaluations of the use of the plants as antiparasitic agents were based on the claims of folklore drawn from traditional healers from various communities across the world. The pharmacological activities of these plants were associated with the presence of various bioactive compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, allicinine, harmala, harmaline, harman, tetrahydroharman, ursolic acid, terapines, tannins, phenolic compounds, embelin and brucine. These compounds were either found in the leaves, seeds, bulbs, flowers, stem, root barks or entire plant. In the in-vivo studies, plant extracts were tested using animal models such as mice, sheep, goats, cattle and dogs. The in-vivo anthelmintic activities of the plants were assessed by faecal egg out puts and post-mortem worm counts which in most instances achieved 70-90% priori levels with some of the plants. For haemoparasitic infections, parasitaemia clearance levels were used, while larvae and adult deaths were used to measure the activity of the plants against ectoparasites. For in-vitro activities, inhibitory concentration IC50 values using the brine lethality test, micro dilution, flow cytometery and larval packet test were used to assess the efficacy of the plant extracts on the parasites in various cell cultures. Significant in-vitro activity of 99.8% at 3.1mg/ml was achieved with the ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica. Many of the plants were found to be more potent and possessed similar mechanism of action as their novel synthetic drugs. Such breakthroughs have led to the development of less toxic, cheaper and readily available drugs. Worthy of note is the use of the fruit of the Thai plant Piper longum (PIPERACEAE) as part of a drug

  9. Presence of ecto-protein tyrosine phosphatase activity is vital for survival of Setaria cervi, a bovine filarial parasite.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neetu; Heneberg, Petr; Rathaur, Sushma

    2014-10-01

    The ecto protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP) are known to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and survival of the intracellular parasites. However, their presence and role in filarial parasites is still unknown. We found a significant amount of tyrosine phosphatase activity in the surface antigen fraction extracted from Setaria cervi (S. cervi), a bovine filarial parasite. An antibody designed against the conserved catalytic core of human protein tyrosine phosphatases, PTP1B cross reacted with a 63 kDa band in the surface antigen. We detected a significant amount of PTP activity in the intact S. cervi adult parasites as well as microfilariae in this study for the first time. This PTP may be localized on the surface of the parasite with an exposed active site available for the external substrates. The PTP activity was also inhibited by sodium orthovanadate and phenyl arsine oxide, specific inhibitors of PTP in both the life stages. The Km and Vmax for PTP in the adult parasites and microfilariae were determined to be 2.574 ± 0.14 mM; 206.3 ± 2.75 μM Pi/h/two parasites and 5.510 ± 0.59 mM; 62.27 ± 2.27 μM Pi/h/10(6) parasites respectively using O-P-L-Tyrosine as substrate. Interestingly, a positive correlation was observed between the inhibition in PTP activity and reduction in the motility/ viability of the parasites when they were subjected to the specific PTP inhibitors (Orthovanadate and Phenyl arsine oxide) for 4 h in the KRB maintenance medium. The activity was also significantly inhibited in the parasites exposed to antifilarial drug/compounds for e.g. Diethylcarbamazine, Acetylsalicylic Acid and SK7, a methyl chalcone. Therefore suggesting a possible role played by PTP in the survival of the parasite, its interaction with the host as well as in the screening of newly synthesized antifilarials/drugs. PMID:25028209

  10. Concomitant blockade of P2X-receptors and ecto-nucleotidases by P2-receptor antagonists: functional consequences in rat vas deferens.

    PubMed

    Bültmann, R; Trendelenburg, M; Tuluc, F; Wittenburg, H; Starke, K

    1999-04-01

    In order to assess the consequences of a concomitant blockade of P2X-receptors and ecto-nucleotidases, effects of 13 P2-receptor antagonists were investigated on contractions of the rat vas deferens elicited by alpha,beta-methylene ATP (alpha,beta-MeATP) and ATP and on the removal of ATP from the incubation medium by vas deferens tissue. Increasing concentrations of all antagonists reduced and finally abolished contractions elicited by alpha,beta-MeATP (3 microM), with IC50-values ranging from 1.1 to 100 microM. Pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonate (PPADS), 6-azophenyl-4-amino-5-hydroxy-naphthalene-1,3-disulphonate (NH02), 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonate (DIDS) and uniblue A also progressively reduced and finally abolished contractions elicited by ATP (1 mM). 8,8'-[Carbonylbis(imino-3, 1-phenylenecarbonyl-imino)]-bis-(1,3,5-naphthalenetrisulphonate ) (NF023), suramin, pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',5'-disulphonate (iso-PPADS), trypan blue and reactive blue 19, in contrast, caused only partial blockade, by 34-43% maximally; reactive blue 2 and reactive red 2 had no effect; and 6,6'-(1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diylbisazo)-bis-4-amino-5-hydroxy-naphtha lene-1,3-disulphonate (NH01) and Evans blue even enhanced the response to ATP. For antagonists causing full or partial inhibition, the IC50-values against ATP were close to those against alpha,beta-MeATP. All antagonists attenuated the removal of ATP, with IC25%-values ranging from 0.8 microM to >320 microM. The results confirm the frequent combination, in one antagonist molecule, of P2-receptor blockade and blockade of ecto-nucleotidases. This dual action underlies the effect of such compounds on contractions of the vas deferens elicited by ATP which, for certain substances (e.g., suramin, reactive blue 2), can be explained by a simple model in which the antagonist simultaneously blocks the degradation of ATP and a single contraction-mediating receptor (P2X1). Several observations, however, do

  11. Methotrexate up-regulates ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 and reduces the frequency of T lymphocytes in the glioblastoma microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Figueiró, Fabrício; de Oliveira, Catiúscia P; Bergamin, Letícia S; Rockenbach, Liliana; Mendes, Franciane B; Jandrey, Elisa Helena F; Moritz, Cesar Eduardo J; Pettenuzzo, Letícia F; Sévigny, Jean; Guterres, Silvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Battastini, Ana Maria O

    2016-06-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a deadly cancer characterized by a pro-tumoral immune response. T-regulatory (Treg) lymphocytes suppress effector immune cells through cytokine secretion and the adenosinergic system. Ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 plays a crucial role in Treg-mediated immunosuppression in the GBM microenvironment (GME). Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressive drug that can increase the extracellular concentration of adenosine. In this manuscript, C6 GBM cells were treated with 1.0 μM MTX, and ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 expression and extracellular AMP metabolism were analyzed in vitro. For in vivo studies, rats with implanted GBM were treated for 10 days with MTX-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (MTX-LNCs, 1 mg/kg/day). The activity of ectonucleotidase and the expression of NTPDase1/CD39 and ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 were measured. The frequencies of T lymphocytes (CD3(+)CD4(+), CD3(+)CD8(+), and CD4(+)CD25(high)CD39(+)) were quantified. In vitro, treatment with MTX increased CD73 expression and activity in C6 cells, which is in agreement with higher levels of extracellular adenosine. In vivo, MTX-LNC treatment increased CD39 expression on CD3(+)CD8(+) lymphocytes. In addition, MTX-LNC treatment up-regulated CD73 expression in tissue isolated from GBM, a finding that is in agreement with the higher activity of this enzyme. More specifically, the treatment increased CD73 expression on CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) lymphocytes. Treatment with MTX-LNCs decreased the frequencies of T-cytotoxic, T-helper, and Treg lymphocytes in the GME. Although more studies are necessary to better understand the complex cross-talk mediated by supra-physiological concentrations of adenosine in the GME, these studies demonstrate that MTX treatment increases CD73 enzyme expression and AMP hydrolysis, leading to an increase in adenosine production and immunosuppressive capability. PMID:26910734

  12. Effects of divalent cations and La3+ on contractility and ecto-ATPase activity in the guinea-pig urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Ziganshin, A U; Ziganshina, L E; Hoyle, C H; Burnstock, G

    1995-01-01

    1. Several cations (Ba2+, Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and La3+, all as chloride salts, 1-1000 microM) were tested in the guinea-pig urinary bladder for their ability to: (i) modify contractile responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS), ATP, alpha,beta-methylene ATP (alpha,beta-meATP), carbachol (CCh), and KCl; (ii) affect ecto-ATPase activity. 2. Ba2+ (10-1000 microM) concentration-dependently potentiated contractile responses evoked by EFS (4-16 Hz), ATP (100 microM), alpha,beta-meATP (1 microM), CCh (0.5 microM), and KCl (30 mM). Ni2+ at concentrations of 1-100 microM also potentiated contractility of the urinary bladder, but at concentrations tested its effect was not concentration-dependent. Cu2+ at a concentration of 10 microM and Cd2+ at a concentration of 1 microM potentiated responses to all stimuli, except KCl. Ni2+ at a concentration of 1000 microM and Cd2+ at a concentration of 100 microM inhibited contractions evoked by all stimuli, and at a concentration of 1000 microM Cd2+ abolished any contractions. Responses to ATP and alpha,beta-meATP were selectively inhibited by Cu2+, Zn2+ or La3+, each at a concentration of 1 mM. 3. Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and La3+ (100-1000 microM) concentration-dependently inhibited ecto-ATPase activity in the urinary bladder smooth muscle preparations, while Ba2+ and Mn2+ were without effect, and Cd2+ and Co2+ caused significant inhibition only at a concentration of 1000 microM. 4. There was no correlation between the extent of ecto-ATPase inhibition and the effect on contractile activity of any of the cations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7735690

  13. Αcute Exercise Alters the Levels of Human Saliva miRNAs Involved in Lipid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidou, A; Mougios, V; Sidossis, L S

    2016-06-01

    The response of micro-ribonucleic acid (miRNA) expression to exercise has not been studied in saliva, although saliva combines non-invasive collection with the largest number of miRNA species among biological fluids and tissues. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute exercise on the expression of 8 human saliva miRNAs involved in lipid metabolism. 19 healthy, physically active men (VO2max, 40.9±1.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), mean±se) performed a 50-min interval exercise program on stationary bicycle (spinning). Saliva samples were collected before and after exercise for miRNA expression analysis by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Statistically significant (p<0.05) changes after exercise were found in 2 of the 8 miRNAs, namely, hsa-miR-33a (fold change, 7.66±2.94; p=0.012), which regulates cholesterol homeostasis and fatty acid metabolism in the liver, and hsa-miR-378a (fold change 0.79±0.11, p=0.048), which regulates energy homeostasis and affects lipogenesis and adipogenesis. These alterations may contribute to our understanding of physiological responses to exercise and the therapeutic potential of exercise against cardiovascular disease, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome. Moreover, our findings open the possibility of noninvasively studying miRNAs that regulate the function of specific organs. PMID:27116339

  14. The Biochemical Properties of the Arabidopsis Ecto-Nucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase AtAPY1 Contradict a Direct Role in Purinergic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Massalski, Carolin; Bloch, Jeannine; Zebisch, Matthias; Steinebrunner, Iris

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis E-NTPDase (ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase) AtAPY1 was previously shown to be involved in growth and development, pollen germination and stress responses. It was proposed to perform these functions through regulation of extracellular ATP signals. However, a GFP-tagged version was localized exclusively in the Golgi and did not hydrolyze ATP. In this study, AtAPY1 without the bulky GFP-tag was biochemically characterized with regard to its suggested role in purinergic signaling. Both the full-length protein and a soluble form without the transmembrane domain near the N-terminus were produced in HEK293 cells. Of the twelve nucleotide substrates tested, only three – GDP, IDP and UDP – were hydrolyzed, confirming that ATP was not a substrate of AtAPY1. In addition, the effects of pH, divalent metal ions, known E-NTPDase inhibitors and calmodulin on AtAPY1 activity were analyzed. AtAPY1-GFP extracted from transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings was included in the analyses. All three AtAPY1 versions exhibited very similar biochemical properties. Activity was detectable in a broad pH range, and Ca2+, Mg2+ and Mn2+ were the three most efficient cofactors. Of the inhibitors tested, vanadate was the most potent one. Surprisingly, sulfonamide-based inhibitors shown to inhibit other E-NTPDases and presumed to inhibit AtAPY1 as well were not effective. Calmodulin stimulated the activity of the GFP-tagless membranous and soluble AtAPY1 forms about five-fold, but did not alter their substrate specificities. The apparent Km values obtained with AtAPY1-GFP indicate that AtAPY1 is primarily a GDPase. A putative three-dimensional structural model of the ecto-domain is presented, explaining the potent inhibitory potential of vanadate and predicting the binding mode of GDP. The found substrate specificity classifies AtAPY1 as a nucleoside diphosphatase typical of N-terminally anchored Golgi E-NTPDases and negates a direct function in purinergic signaling

  15. 17β-Estradiol upregulates ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) in hippocampal synaptosomes of female rats through action mediated by estrogen receptor-α and -β.

    PubMed

    Mitrović, N; Zarić, M; Drakulić, D; Martinović, J; Stanojlović, M; Sévigny, J; Horvat, A; Nedeljković, N; Grković, I

    2016-06-01

    17β-Estradiol (E2) crucially affects several processes in the hippocampus of both sexes. E2 acts upon estradiol receptors ERα and ERβ, influencing target gene expression and/or modulates intracellular signaling cascades. Another potent modulator of hippocampal function is nucleoside adenosine, the final product of ectonucleotidase cascade, enzymes which hydrolyze extracellular ATP to adenosine. The last and rate-limiting step of the hydrolysis is catalyzed by membrane-bound ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN). Previous findings obtained on adenosine metabolism in brain suggest that eN may be modulated by ovarian steroids. Therefore, the present study reports that the activity and protein abundance of membrane-bound eN fluctuates across the estrus cycle in the hippocampal synaptosomes of female rats. Further, we analyzed the role of E2 and its intracellular receptors on the expression of eN in ovariectomized females. We found that E2 upregulated eN activity and protein abundance in the hippocampal synaptosomes. Application of nonspecific ER antagonist, ICI 182,780 and selective ERα and ERβ agonists, PPT and DPN, respectively, demonstrated the involvement of both receptor subtypes in observed actions. Selective ERα receptor agonist, PPT, induced upregulation of both the protein level and activity of eN, while application of selective ERβ receptor agonist, DPN, increased only the activity of eN. In both cases, E2 entered into the intracellular compartment and activated ER(s), which was demonstrated by membrane impermeable E2-BSA conjugate. Together these results imply that E2-induced effects on connectivity and functional properties of the hippocampal synapses may be in part mediated through observed effect on eN. PMID:26987957

  16. Ecto-5'-nucleotidase CD73 modulates the innate immune response to influenza infection but is not required for development of influenza-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Aeffner, Famke; Woods, Parker S; Davis, Ian C

    2015-12-01

    Extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides are important signaling molecules in the lung. Nucleotide and nucleoside concentrations in alveolar lining fluid are controlled by a complex network of surface ectonucleotidases. Previously, we demonstrated that influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus resulted in increased levels of the nucleotide ATP and the nucleoside adenosine in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. Influenza-induced acute lung injury (ALI) was highly attenuated in A1-adenosine receptor-knockout mice. Because AMP hydrolysis by the ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) plays a central role in and is rate-limiting for generation of adenosine in the normal lung, we hypothesized that ALI would be attenuated in C57BL/6-congenic CD73-knockout (CD73-KO) mice. Infection-induced hypoxemia, bradycardia, viral replication, and bronchoconstriction were moderately increased in CD73-KO mice relative to WT controls. However, postinfection weight loss, pulmonary edema, and parenchymal dysfunction were not altered. Treatment of WT mice with the CD73 inhibitor 5'-(α,β-methylene) diphosphate (APCP) also had no effect on infection-induced pulmonary edema but modestly attenuated hypoxemia. BALF from CD73-KO and APCP-treated WT mice contained more IL-6 and CXCL-10/IFN-γ-induced protein 10, less CXCL-1/keratinocyte chemoattractant, and fewer neutrophils than BALF from untreated WT controls. BALF from APCP-treated WT mice also contained fewer alveolar macrophages and more transforming growth factor-β than BALF from untreated WT mice. These results indicate that CD73 is not necessary for development of ALI following influenza A virus infection and suggest that tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase may be responsible for increased adenosine generation in the infected lung. However, they do suggest that CD73 has a previously unrecognized immunomodulatory role in influenza. PMID:26432867

  17. Regional and sex-related differences in modulating effects of female sex steroids on ecto-5'-nucleotidase expression in the rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Mitrović, Nataša; Guševac, Ivana; Drakulić, Dunja; Stanojlović, Miloš; Zlatković, Jelena; Sévigny, Jean; Horvat, Anica; Nedeljković, Nadežda; Grković, Ivana

    2016-09-01

    Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN), a membrane rate-limiting enzyme of the purine catabolic pathway, catalyzes the conversion of AMP to adenosine involved in the regulation of many brain physiological and pathological processes. Since gender fundamentally determines hormonal milieu in the body and brain, it is reasonable to assume that sex differences in the activity of various signaling systems, including adenosine, may be generated by gonadal steroids. Thus, we examined expression of eN as a component of adenosine signaling system in the basal state in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of male and female rats at gene, protein and functional level, as well as in the state of gonadal hormone deprivation, induced by ovariectomy (OVX), whereas impact of steroid hormones was explored after repeated administration of 17α-estradiol, 17β-estradiol and progesterone for seven consecutive days. Results showed regional and sex-related differences in basal eN activity level, with the highest AMP hydrolysis observed in the hippocampus of male rats. Furthermore, ovarian steroids do not contribute to basal gene eN expression or the activity in cortical and hippocampal region of female rats. However, protein eN expression was increased in OVX rats in both investigated region. Investigated exogenous steroids had no influence on eN expression in male brain, while in OVX females alterations in eN activity were induced. The observed effects in female rats were different between examined regions e.g. in cortex, applied treatments predominantly decreased whereas in hippocampus increased eN activity. Based on the presented results, eN exerts regional and sex-related response in basal state as well as after treatment with female gonadal hormones, however the exact mechanisms of sex steroids actions on eN remain unclear and should be fully explored. PMID:27296672

  18. Sequencing, functional expression and characterization of rat NTPDase6, a nucleoside diphosphatase and novel member of the ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase family.

    PubMed

    Braun, N; Fengler, S; Ebeling, C; Servos, J; Zimmermann, H

    2000-11-01

    We have isolated and characterized the cDNA encoding nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 6 (NTPDase6), a novel member of the ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase family. The rat-brain-derived cDNA has an open reading frame of 1365 bp encoding a protein of 455 amino acid residues, a calculated molecular mass of 49971 Da and a predicted N-terminal hydrophobic sequence. It shares 86% sequence identity with the human CD39L2 sequence and 48% and 51% identity respectively with sequences of the two related human and murine nucleoside diphosphatases (CD39L4, NTPDase5/ER-UDPase). The mRNA was expressed in all tissues investigated, revealing two major transcripts with differing abundances. PCR analysis suggests a single open reading frame. A Myc-His-tagged NTPDase6 was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and PC12 cells for immunological analysis and protein isolation. The protein was contained in membrane fractions of transfected CHO cells and occurred in a soluble form in the cell culture supernatants. NTPDase6 preferentially hydrolysed nucleoside 5'-diphosphates. With different substrates the order of activity was GDP>IDP>UDP,CDP>ADP. Nucleoside 5'-triphosphates were hydrolysed only to a minor extent and no hydrolysis of nucleoside 5'-monophosphates was observed. The enzyme was strongly and equally activated by Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) and had a K(m) for GDP of 211 microM. The immunohistochemical analysis of transfected CHO and PC12 cells suggests that NTPDase6 is associated with the Golgi apparatus and to a small extent also with the plasma membrane. The enzyme might support glycosylation reactions in the Golgi apparatus and, when released from cells, might catalyse the hydrolysis of extracellular nucleotides. PMID:11042118

  19. Ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 3 in the ventral and lateral hypothalamic area of female rats: morphological characterization and functional implications

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, David S; Zsarnovszky, Attila; Horvath, Krisztina; Gyorffy, Andrea; Bartha, Tibor; Hazai, Diana; Sotonyi, Peter; Somogyi, Virag; Frenyo, Laszlo V; Diano, Sabrina

    2009-01-01

    Background Based on its distribution in the brain, ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 3 (NTPDase3) may play a role in the hypothalamic regulation of homeostatic systems, including feeding, sleep-wake behavior and reproduction. To further characterize the morphological attributes of NTPDase3-immunoreactive (IR) hypothalamic structures in the rat brain, here we investigated: 1.) The cellular and subcellular localization of NTPDase3; 2.) The effects of 17β-estradiol on the expression level of hypothalamic NTPDase3; and 3.) The effects of NTPDase inhibition in hypothalamic synaptosomal preparations. Methods Combined light- and electron microscopic analyses were carried out to characterize the cellular and subcellular localization of NTPDase3-immunoreactivity. The effects of estrogen on hypothalamic NTPDase3 expression was studied by western blot technique. Finally, the effects of NTPDase inhibition on mitochondrial respiration were investigated using a Clark-type oxygen electrode. Results Combined light- and electron microscopic analysis of immunostained hypothalamic slices revealed that NTPDase3-IR is linked to ribosomes and mitochondria, is predominantly present in excitatory axon terminals and in distinct segments of the perikaryal plasma membrane. Immunohistochemical labeling of NTPDase3 and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) indicated that γ-amino-butyric-acid- (GABA) ergic hypothalamic neurons do not express NTPDase3, further suggesting that in the hypothalamus, NTPDase3 is predominantly present in excitatory neurons. We also investigated whether estrogen influences the expression level of NTPDase3 in the ventrobasal and lateral hypothalamus. A single subcutaneous injection of estrogen differentially increased NTPDase3 expression in the medial and lateral parts of the hypothalamus, indicating that this enzyme likely plays region-specific roles in estrogen-dependent hypothalamic regulatory mechanisms. Determination of mitochondrial respiration rates

  20. Effect of zinc supplementation on ecto-adenosine deaminase activity in lambs infected by Haemonchus contortus: highlights on acute phase of disease.

    PubMed

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Pivoto, Felipe L; Bottari, Nathieli B; Tonin, Alexandre A; Machado, Gustavo; Aires, Adelina R; Rocha, José F X; Pelinson, Luana P; Dalenogare, Diéssica P; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Morsch, Vera M; Leal, Marta L R; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2015-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus (order Strongylida) is a common parasitic nematode infecting small ruminants and causing significant economic losses worldwide. It induces innate and adaptive immune responses, which are essential for the clearance of this nematode from the host. Ecto-adenosine deaminase (E-ADA) is an enzyme that plays an important role in the immune system, while Zinc (Zn) has been found playing a critical role in E-ADA catalysis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of Zn supplementation on E-ADA activity in serum of lambs experimentally infected with H.contortus. To reach this purpose 28 male lambs (in average 25 kg) were used. The animals were divided into four groups: A and B composed of healthy animals (uninfected); C and D, infected with H.contortus. Groups B and D were supplemented with Zn Edetate, subcutaneously with 3 mg kg of live weight, on days 11 and 25 post-infection (PI). Blood and fecal samples were collected on the days 11, 25 and 39 PI, in order to assess hematocrit, seric E-ADA, and eggs per gram (EPG) counting, respectively. The animals of groups C and D showed severe hematocrit reduction (days 25 and 39 PI) and were EPG positive (days 11, 25 and 39 PI). On day 41 PI, three animals each group were subjected to necropsy. This procedure showed that animals of groups A and B did not have helminths in abomasum and intestines, while H.contortus were observed in groups C (5782.5 ± 810.9) and D (6185.0 ± 150.0). Infected and untreated animals (group C) showed a reduction in E-ADA activity, but this was not observed when the animals were supplemented with Zn (Group D). Therefore, based on our results, it was possible to observe that Zn supplementation exercised a positive effect on E-ADA activity in lambs infected with H.contortus, and did not allow a reduction in E-ADA activity, as occurred in the group infected and without supplementation. However, Zn supplementation was not able to prevent the worm burden. PMID

  1. Influence of carbon content on the copper-telluride phase formation and on the resistive switching behavior of carbon alloyed Cu-Te conductive bridge random access memory cells

    SciTech Connect

    Devulder, Wouter De Schutter, Bob; Detavernier, Christophe; Opsomer, Karl; Franquet, Alexis; Meersschaut, Johan; Muller, Robert; Van Elshocht, Sven; Jurczak, Malgorzata; Goux, Ludovic; Belmonte, Attilio

    2014-02-07

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of the carbon content on the Cu-Te phase formation and on the resistive switching behavior in carbon alloyed Cu{sub 0.6}Te{sub 0.4} based conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM) cells. Carbon alloying of copper-tellurium inhibits the crystallization, while attractive switching behavior is preserved when using the material as Cu-supply layer in CBRAM cells. The phase formation is first investigated in a combinatorial way. With increasing carbon content, an enlargement of the temperature window in which the material stays amorphous was observed. Moreover, if crystalline phases are formed, subsequent phase transformations are inhibited. The electrical switching behavior of memory cells with different carbon contents is then investigated by implementing them in 580 μm diameter dot TiN/Cu{sub 0.6}Te{sub 0.4}-C/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si memory cells. Reliable switching behavior is observed for carbon contents up to 40 at. %, with a resistive window of more than 2 orders of magnitude, whereas for 50 at. % carbon, a higher current in the off state and only a small resistive window are present after repeated cycling. This degradation can be ascribed to the higher thermal and lower drift contribution to the reset operation due to a lower Cu affinity towards the supply layer, leading cycle-after-cycle to an increasing amount of Cu in the switching layer, which contributes to the current. The thermal diffusion of Cu into Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} under annealing also gives an indication of the Cu affinity of the source layer. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy was used to investigate this migration depth in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} before and after annealing, showing a higher Cu, Te, and C migration for high carbon contents.

  2. Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community College Journal, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Includes a collection of eight short articles describing model community college programs. Discusses a literacy program, a mobile computer classroom, a support program for at-risk students, a timber-harvesting program, a multimedia presentation on successful women graduates, a career center, a collaboration with NASA, and an Israeli engineering…

  3. The ΔC splice-variant of TRPM2 is the hypertonicity-induced cation channel in HeLa cells, and the ecto-enzyme CD38 mediates its activation

    PubMed Central

    Numata, Tomohiro; Sato, Kaori; Christmann, Jens; Marx, Romy; Mori, Yasuo; Okada, Yasunobu; Wehner, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Hypertonicity-induced cation channels (HICCs) are key-players in proliferation and apoptosis but their molecular correlate remains obscure. Furthermore, the activation profile of HICCs is not well defined yet. We report here that, in HeLa cells, intracellular adenosine diphosphate ribose (ADPr) and cyclic ADPr (cADPr), as supposed activators of TRPM2, elicited cation currents that were virtually identical to the osmotic activation of HICCs. Silencing of the expression of TRPM2 and of the ecto-enzyme CD38 (as a likely source of ADPr and cADPr) inhibited HICC as well as nucleotide-induced currents and, in parallel, the hypertonic volume response of cells (the regulatory volume increase, RVI) was attenuated. Quantification of intracellular cADPr levels and the systematic application of extra- vs. intracellular nucleotides indicate that the outwardly directed gradient rather than the cellular activity of ADPr and cADPr triggers TRPM2 activation, probably along with a simultaneous biotransformation of nucleotides. Cloning of TRPM2 identified the ΔC-splice variant as the molecular correlate of the HICC, which could be strongly supported by a direct comparison of the respective Ca2+ selectivity. Finally, immunoprecipitation and high-resolution FRET/FLIM imaging revealed the interaction of TRPM2 and CD38 in the native as well as in a heterologous (HEK293T) expression system. We propose transport-related nucleotide export via CD38 as a novel mechanism of TRPM2/HICC activation. With the biotransformation of nucleotides running in parallel, continuous zero trans-conditions are achieved which will render the system infinitely sensitive. PMID:22219339

  4. Induction of antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cell response by dendritic cells generated from ecto-mesenchymal stem cells infected with an adenovirus containing the MAGE-D4a gene

    PubMed Central

    HU, SHIJIE; LI, BING; SHEN, XUEFENG; ZHANG, RUI; GAO, DAKUAN; GUO, QINGDONG; JIN, YAN; FEI, ZHOU

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the feasibility of using ecto-mesenchymal stem cell (EMSC)-derived dendritic cells (DCs) for glioma immunotherapy following infection by a recombinant adenovirus containing the melanoma-associated antigen D4a (MAGE-D4a) gene. The ex vivo cultured EMSCs were infected by the adenoviral plasmid containing MAGE-D4a (pAd/MAGE-D4a). Efficiency of transfection was evaluated through the detection of green fluorescent protein-marked MAGE-D4a. The MAGE-EMSCs were induced to differentiate into DCs, termed as MAGE-EMSCs-DCs. The morphology was subsequently analyzed under a microscope, and methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) assays were performed to analyze the cytotoxicity of the MAGE-EMSC-DCs on the human glioma U251 cell line. Following purification by magnetic-activated cell sorting, the EMSCs grew into swirls, with a long spindle shape and were fibroblast-like. The gene transfected with recombinant adenovirus vectors maintained high and stable expression levels of MAGE-D4a, and its efficiency was increased in a multiplicity of infection-dependent manner. The results of the MTT assay indicated that the T cells, primed by the recombinant MAGE-D4a-infected EMSC-DCs in vitro, recognized MAGE-D4a-expressing tumor cell lines in a human leukocyte antigen class I-restricted manner, and evoked a higher cytotoxic T cell (CTL) response. The CTL response induced by the MAGE-EMSC-DCs, co-cultured with the U251 cells for 24 h, produced 765.0 pg/ml IFN-γ, which was significantly greater when compared to the control wells. T lymphocytes stimulated by MAGE-EMSC-DCs evoke a higher CTL response to human glioma cell lines, and may serve as a promising therapeutic modality for the treatment of MAGE-D4a-expressing glioma. PMID:27073570

  5. Diagnosis of Ecto- and Endoparasites in Laboratory Rats and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, Christina M.; O'Brien, Alexandra; Albers, Theresa M.; Simon, Meredith A.; Clifford, Charles B.; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R.

    2011-01-01

    Internal and external parasites remain a significant concern in laboratory rodent facilities, and many research facilities harbor some parasitized animals. Before embarking on an examination of animals for parasites, two things should be considered. One: what use will be made of the information collected, and two: which test is the most appropriate. Knowing that animals are parasitized may be something that the facility accepts, but there is often a need to treat animals and then to determine the efficacy of treatment. Parasites may be detected in animals through various techniques, including samples taken from live or euthanized animals. Historically, the tests with the greatest diagnostic sensitivity required euthanasia of the animal, although PCR has allowed high-sensitivity testing for several types of parasite. This article demonstrates procedures for the detection of endo- and ectoparasites in mice and rats. The same procedures are applicable to other rodents, although the species of parasites found will differ. PMID:21912374

  6. Programing and Programed Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Susan Meyer

    The impact of programed instruction on the educational system has been minimal quantitatively and qualitatively. In the interface between education and programing there are serious weaknesses in the design of materials, severe problems in the economics of design and use, and an almost insurmountable gulf between the philosophy or point of view on…

  7. Postsecondary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Annals of the Deaf, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This article lists postsecondary programs specifically for people with deafness and other postsecondary programs with supportive services for students with deafness. Alphabetized by state, contact information is provided for each of the programs, along with date the program was founded, programs, degrees, and number of students and staff with…

  8. Programs To Aid FORTRAN Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragosta, Arthur E.

    1987-01-01

    Program-development time decreased while program quality increased. FORTRAN Programming Tools are series of programming tools used to support development and maintenance of FORTRAN 77 source codes. Included are debugging aid, central-processing-unit time-monitoring program, source-code maintenance aids, print utilities, and library of useful, well-documented programs. Tools assist in reducing development time and encouraging high-quality programming. Although intended primarily for FORTRAN programmers, some tools used on data files and other programming languages. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  9. Materials Data on K2(CuTe)5 (SG:63) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-10

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  10. Acrobats, Contortionists, and Cute Children: The Promise and Perversity of U.S. Women's Gymnastics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Ann

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how the media represents U.S. women's gymnastics, examining the degree to which the manifest promises of gymnastics (veneration of mass-mediated femininity and celebration of flexibility, strength, and agility) function in relation to economies of perversity. Suggests that the promises and perversities embodied by gymnasts are…

  11. Materials Data on Cr2CuTe4 (SG:227) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2015-02-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  12. Materials Data on Tl4CuTe3 (SG:140) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2015-04-10

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  13. Program Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Washington, DC.

    Program monitoring permits assessments to be made on a community-based program--its managerial and operational efficiency, its effectiveness, its acceptability by clients, and suitability to needs. It assists a program in defining objectives and developing and implementing quality care in an effective manner. This guide lists kinds of things…

  14. Flexibility Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    These brief guidelines for a muscular flexibility program state that the purpose of such a program is to increase the range of motion in order to avoid injuries and eliminate awkwardness in physical activities. A flexibility program is described as an extension of the warm-up period and should be an ongoing, permanent effort to lengthen muscles. A…

  15. Program Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triton Coll., River Grove, IL.

    Triton College's proposed method of conducting periodic comprehensive evaluations of the quality and potential of its academic programs has five components. First, a self-study is conducted by the faculty and administrators of the program being reviewed, in a year-long comprehensive examination of the program. Second, an external consultant, with…

  16. Sponsored Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College and University Business Administration, 1980

    1980-01-01

    General administrative principles and procedures applicable to any type of program sponsored by external funds, including the federal government, are examined. Contracts, grants, and cooperative agreements are the devices for authorizing sponsored programs. Since the institutions assume full legal responsibility for the programs and for fulfilling…

  17. PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KINGSTON, ALBERT J.; WASH, JAMES A.

    THE SOURCES OF CONFUSION INVOLVED IN INITIATING PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION IN THE CLASSROOM ARE LISTED--(1) SPECIALIZED VOCABULARY DEALING WITH THE FIELD, (2) TYPES OF MACHINERY WITH RANGE FROM THE HIGHLY COMPLEX TO THE VERY SIMPLE, AND (3) DIFFERENT MODES OF PROGRAMING. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF TRUE PROGRAMED FORMATS ARE GIVEN--(1) THE MATERIALS ARE…

  18. Gifted Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luehning, Barbara

    1979-01-01

    Describes programs for the gifted: visual and performing arts for secondary students, enrichment for rural elementary students, and a learning center elementary enrichment program. NOTE: includes "INTERARTS: The High School Program for the Talented in the Arts" by Barbara Luehning, "Spice" by Jane V. Salisbury, and "Learning Center Enrichment…

  19. Program TDIFFUSE

    SciTech Connect

    Boneh, Y.; Dworzecka, M.; Kan, K.K.; Griffin, J.J.

    1981-07-01

    A program written for the Univac 1108 to obtain the distribution in N and Z in a deep inelastic collision is described. The equations employed by the program to calculate the values of the dissipated energies and the resulting distribution are formulated. A prospective user should find here the needed instructions for executing the program, or changing one or more of its several subroutines.

  20. MEXUS Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branan, Alvord; Hergert, Michael

    The MEXUS program, a transnational, undergraduate, dual-degree program in the United States and Mexico, addresses the problem of how universities can better prepare students to manage business in an interdependent global marketplace. The program was initiated as a consortium of four institutions (San Diego State University and Southwestern College…

  1. Program Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, John

    Literature on program budgeting is synthesized. Program budgeting has progressed considerably in development and use, but only recently has it been used by the public schools. Program budgeting is practiced differently, depending on the mission of an organization or school district. With regard to schools, literature on the subject is mainly…

  2. Cultural Voucher Program; Program Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Museums Collaborative, Inc., New York, NY.

    A description of the Museums Collaborative Voucher Program, a system through which cultural institutions conduct programs with large, heterogeneous, adult populations in New York City is provided in this paper. The program began with two goals: to broaden the audience served by New York City's cultural institutions and to provide the institutions…

  3. Interpreter Training Program: Program Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massoud, LindaLee

    This report describes in detail the deaf interpreter training program offered at Mott Community College (Flint, Michigan). The program features field-based learning experiences, internships, team teaching, a field practicum, the goal of having students meet certification standards, and proficiency examinations. The program has special…

  4. HEIGHTS PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    POTTER, LOUIS A.

    THE "HEIGHTS" PROGRAM, AS PART OF THE GREAT CITIES SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM, IS BASED ON THE BELIEF THAT MUCH CAN BE DONE TO CHANGE THE PATTERNS OF ASPIRATION, ACHIEVEMENT, AND ADJUSTMENT WHICH CULTURALLY DEPRIVED YOUTH TEND TO FOLLOW. TRADITIONAL GOALS OF EDUCATION WILL BE FOLLOWED, BUT THE TEACHERS AND STAFF WILL HAVE AT THEIR DISPOSAL A GROUP…

  5. Promising Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindall, Lloyd W.; Hedberg, Sally B.

    Benefits to disabled participants of programs funded by the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) are summarized and several JTPA programs highlighted. Common services included vocational assessment, work experience, career exploration, on-the-job training, vocational training, job placement, job counseling, job seeking, and job keeping. The Special…

  6. Computer Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tiffoni

    This module provides information on development and use of a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) software program that seeks to link literacy skills education, safety training, and human-centered design. Section 1 discusses the development of the software program that helps workers understand the MSDSs that accompany the chemicals with which they…

  7. Programming Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesler, Lawrence G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of programing languages, considering the features of BASIC, LOGO, PASCAL, COBOL, FORTH, APL, and LISP. Also discusses machine/assembly codes, the operation of a compiler, and trends in the evolution of programing languages (including interest in notational systems called object-oriented languages). (JN)

  8. Practical Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipe, Peter

    Programed instruction causes the student to take an active role in the instructional process and stimulates interchange between student and teacher. Since it adjusts itself to individual differences in students' learning rates, it can have delegated to it some parts of a teacher's task. Characteristics of programed instruction are small steps,…

  9. BASIC Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Carol Ann

    Designed for use by both secondary- and postsecondary-level business teachers, this curriculum guide consists of 10 units of instructional materials dealing with Beginners All-Purpose Symbol Instruction Code (BASIC) programing. Topics of the individual lessons are numbering BASIC programs and using the PRINT, END, and REM statements; system…

  10. Adventure Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, John C., Ed.; Priest, Simon, Ed.

    Adventure programming is the deliberate use of adventurous experiences to create learning in individuals or groups, often with the goal of improving society or communities. Adventure programming may focus on recreation, education, individual or group development, or therapy, or on a combination of these. This second edition contains 61 chapters by…

  11. Reading Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Kathryn

    2001-01-01

    Notes that a major issue in literacy instruction today is whether commercial reading programs emphasizing phonemic awareness and phonics are more effective than teacher-designed programs that focus on literature-based reading and process writing with integrated skill instruction. Reviews two books that address this controversy. Presents seven…

  12. Postsecondary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Annals of the Deaf, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This listing provides directory information on U.S. postsecondary schools specifically for people who are deaf and other postsecondary programs with supportive services for students with deafness. Schools and programs are listed by state and information is provided on the number of students with deafness enrolled, degrees offered, and special…

  13. Programming models

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, David J; Mc Pherson, Allen; Thorp, John R; Barrett, Richard; Clay, Robert; De Supinski, Bronis; Dube, Evi; Heroux, Mike; Janssen, Curtis; Langer, Steve; Laros, Jim

    2011-01-14

    A programming model is a set of software technologies that support the expression of algorithms and provide applications with an abstract representation of the capabilities of the underlying hardware architecture. The primary goals are productivity, portability and performance.

  14. Deconvolution Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-02-18

    The program is suitable for a lot of applications in applied mathematics, experimental physics, signal analytical system and some engineering applications range i.e. deconvolution spectrum, signal analysis and system property analysis etc.

  15. SPOT Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jason T.; Welsh, Sam J.; Farinetti, Antonio L.; Wegner, Tim; Blakeslee, James; Deboeck, Toni F.; Dyer, Daniel; Corley, Bryan M.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine; Kramer, Leonard; Zimmerman, Patrick L.; Khatri, Reshma

    2010-01-01

    A Spacecraft Position Optimal Tracking (SPOT) program was developed to process Global Positioning System (GPS) data, sent via telemetry from a spacecraft, to generate accurate navigation estimates of the vehicle position and velocity (state vector) using a Kalman filter. This program uses the GPS onboard receiver measurements to sequentially calculate the vehicle state vectors and provide this information to ground flight controllers. It is the first real-time ground-based shuttle navigation application using onboard sensors. The program is compact, portable, self-contained, and can run on a variety of UNIX or Linux computers. The program has a modular objec-toriented design that supports application-specific plugins such as data corruption remediation pre-processing and remote graphics display. The Kalman filter is extensible to additional sensor types or force models. The Kalman filter design is also strong against data dropouts because it uses physical models from state and covariance propagation in the absence of data. The design of this program separates the functionalities of SPOT into six different executable processes. This allows for the individual processes to be connected in an a la carte manner, making the feature set and executable complexity of SPOT adaptable to the needs of the user. Also, these processes need not be executed on the same workstation. This allows for communications between SPOT processes executing on the same Local Area Network (LAN). Thus, SPOT can be executed in a distributed sense with the capability for a team of flight controllers to efficiently share the same trajectory information currently being computed by the program. SPOT is used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) for Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) operations, and can also be used as a post -flight analysis tool. It is primarily used for situational awareness, and for contingency situations.

  16. [Mentoring program].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, N

    2001-11-01

    Due to drastic changes in the business environment and prolonged recession, stress management practices in business organizations have been encountering two kinds of problems: budget cuts and difficulties in the delivery of services. The feasibility of mentoring programs to cope with these two problems is discussed. Through an extensive review of the literature, it becomes clear that mentoring programs have the following features and advantages; (1) One to one relationship between elder mentor and younger protégé has a favorable effect on the both mentor and protégé's mental health. (2) Formal mentoring programs are widely used in the U.S. for the prevention of juvenile delinquency, professional education, and human resource development in business settings. (3) Mentoring programs, in general, are practiced with the cooperation of kindred volunteers and professionals who monitor the mentor-protégé relationships. (4) Since a mentoring program utilizes a wide range of human resources in work organizations, it is able to overcome the "budget and delivery" problems. Further discussions are about the comparison with listener programs as well as the relationship with the total human resource management system. PMID:11802451

  17. ASCENT Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Richard; Collier, Gary; Heckenlaible, Richard; Dougherty, Edward; Dolenz, James; Ross, Iain

    2012-01-01

    The ASCENT program solves the three-dimensional motion and attendant structural loading on a flexible vehicle incorporating, optionally, an active analog thrust control system, aerodynamic effects, and staging of multiple bodies. ASCENT solves the technical problems of loads, accelerations, and displacements of a flexible vehicle; staging of the upper stage from the lower stage; effects of thrust oscillations on the vehicle; a payload's relative motion; the effect of fluid sloshing on vehicle; and the effect of winds and gusts on the vehicle (on the ground or aloft) in a continuous analysis. The ATTACH ASCENT Loads program reads output from the ASCENT flexible body loads program, and calculates the approximate load indicators for the time interval under consideration. It calculates the load indicator values from pre-launch to the end of the first stage.

  18. Program Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine if a deficiency, or learning gap, existed in a particular working environment. To determine if an assessment was to be conducted, a program proposal would need to be developed to explore this situation. In order for a particular environment to react and grow with other environments, it must be able to take on…

  19. Parkway Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia School District, PA.

    The Parkway Program was designed to investigate the possibility that a high school could be organized independently of any fixed institutional facilities, whether these be a school building or a fixed faculty. One hundred and forty-three Philadelphia High School students were selected at random from among applicants representing all eight…

  20. Program evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings from the panel on program evaluation. Some of the papers included are the following: Seattle City Light's Industrial Retrofit Demonstration Project Uses Quasi-Experimental Research Design and Metering to Measure Savings, Evaluation for PUCs, and The Takeback Effect Low-income Weatherizations Fact or Fiction

  1. BEACON PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    THE GREAT CITIES SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM AT LUDLOW SCHOOL, IN A PREDOMINANTLY PUERTO RICAN AND NEGRO NEIGHBORHOOD, HAS BEEN LABLED "BEACON" (BE A CITIZEN OF OUR NATION). IT ENDEAVORS TO ENRICH THE EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF THE STUDENTS THEREBY DEVELOPING THEIR MAXIMUM POTENTIALS FOR ACHIEVEMENT, AND CONTRIBUTING TO THEIR USEFULNESS AS CITIZENS.…

  2. [Fetal programming].

    PubMed

    Lang, U; Fink, D; Kimmig, R

    2008-01-01

    The intrauterine environment not only influences fetal well-being and behaviour during pregnancy, but also predisposes the fetus in many health aspects of later life. The terms 'fetal programming' and 'developmental origins of health and disease' reflect the enormous impact of pregnancy-related factors on the individual and the health. PMID:19096216

  3. Summer Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toussaint, Isabella H.

    An intensive 6-week summer readiness program held in the Beaver Area School District, Beaver, Pennsylvania, developed linguistic facility among 15 preschool children. Daily activities included discussion, picture study, creative arts, field trips, developing experience charts, and other nonlanguage arts activities. A combined experiential,…

  4. Federal Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Annals of the Deaf, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This listing provides directory information for federal offices that provide educational and rehabilitation services information for individuals with disabilities, including those with hearing impairments. Information is provided on the Office of Special Education Programs, the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, and the…

  5. A Program to Teach Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Robert R.; And Others

    1969-01-01

    The TEACH system was developed to provide inexpensive, effective, virtually instructorless instruction in programing. The TEACH system employed an interactive language, UNCL. Two full sections of the TEACH course were taught. The results of this experience suggested ways in which the research and development effort on the system should be…

  6. Developmental Programming

    PubMed Central

    Veiga-Lopez, A.; Wurst, A. K.; Steckler, T. L.; Ye, W.

    2014-01-01

    Excess of prenatal testosterone (T) induces reproductive defects including follicular persistence. Comparative studies with T and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) have suggested that follicular persistence is programmed via estrogenic actions of T. This study addresses the androgenic and estrogenic contributions in programming follicular persistence. Because humans are exposed to estrogenic environmental steroids from various sources throughout their life span and postnatal insults may also induce organizational and/or activational changes, we tested whether continuous postnatal exposure to estradiol (E) will amplify effects of prenatal steroids on ovarian function. Pregnant sheep were treated with T, DHT, E, or ED (E and DHT) from days 30 to 90 of gestation. Postnatally, a subset of the vehicle (C), T, and DHT females received an E implant. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed in the first breeding season during a synchronized cycle to monitor ovarian follicular dynamics. As expected, number of ≥8 mm follicles was higher in the T versus C group. Postnatal E reduced the number of 4 to 8 mm follicles in the DHT group. Percentage of females bearing luteinized follicles and the number of luteinized follicles differed among prenatal groups. Postnatal E increased the incidence of subluteal cycles in the prenatal T-treated females. Findings from this study confirm previous findings of divergences in programming effects of prenatal androgens and estrogens. They also indicate that some aspects of follicular dynamics are subject to postnatal modulation as well as support the existence of an extended organizational period or the need for a second insult to uncover the previously programmed event. PMID:24077439

  7. AWARD program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leppert, Frank

    1998-07-01

    The All Weather ARrival and Departure (AWARD) program is supported by the European Commission under the Brite-EuRam III structure. Following the VERSATILE preparation program, it started on June 1996 and is planned to finish end of 1999. The program consortium consists of ten partners such as a major airline, aircraft and equipment manufacturers, research and tests centers, and an university. Contractors from France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy and The Netherlands are coordinated by Sextant Avionique. AWARD main objective is to demonstrate the efficiency of vision systems under adverse weather conditions. In order to evaluate the added benefits of these concepts within aircraft operations of approach, landing, taxi and takeoff, two applications are developed: (1) Enhanced Vision System (EVS) based on Head Up Display enhancement with Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) and Millimeter Wave Radar (MMWR) images. (2) Synthetic Vision System (SVS) displaying an overlaid symbology on a perspective presentation of the environment, thanks to the combination of database and accurate positioning systems. The evaluation of these two tests systems will focus on: (1) Performance and human acceptability aspects. They will be appreciated according to human factors criteria as well as an integration within realistic environments. The NLR Research Flight Simulator and the DLR ATTAS flight test aircraft will be used. (2) Reliability, integrity aspects thanks to a theoretical certification/system study which will propose guidelines for certification, and will address impact on the system architecture. The paper addresses the work structure of AWARD in order to show what are the keypoints addressed in this program.

  8. Program Development

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-01

    This presentation covers how to go about developing a human reliability program. In particular, it touches on conceptual thinking, raising awareness in an organization, the actions that go into developing a plan. It emphasizes evaluating all positions, eliminating positions from the pool due to mitigating factors, and keeping the process transparent. It lists components of the process and objectives in process development. It also touches on the role of leadership and the necessity for audit.

  9. Libraries program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Congress authorized a library for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1879. The library was formally established in 1882 with the naming of the first librarian and began with a staff of three and a collection of 1,400 books. Today, the USGS Libraries Program is one of the world's largest Earth and natural science repositories and a resource of national significance used by researchers and the public worldwide.

  10. Baseline program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barney B.; Vonputtkamer, Jesco

    1992-01-01

    This assumed program was developed from several sources of information and is extrapolated over future decades using a set of reasonable assumptions based on incremental growth. The assumptions for the NASA baseline program are as follows: balanced emphasis in four domains; a constant level of activity; low to moderate real budget growth; maximum use of commonality; and realistic and practical technology development. The first domain is low Earth Orbit (LEO). Activities there are concentrated on the space station but extend on one side to Earth-pointing sensors for unmanned platforms and on the other to the launch and staging of unmanned solar system exploration missions. The second domain is geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) and cislunar space. Activities here include all GEO missions and operations, both unmanned and manned, and all transport of materials and crews between LEO and the vicinity of the Moon. The third domain is the Moon itself. Lunar activities are to include both orbiting and landing missions; the landings may be either unmanned or manned. The last domain is Mars. Missions to Mars will initially be unmanned but they will eventually be manned. Program elements and descriptions are discussed as are critiques of the NASA baseline.

  11. Phosphorus cycling in deciduous forest soil differs between stands dominated by ecto- and arbuscular mycorrhizal trees.

    PubMed

    Rosling, Anna; Midgley, Meghan G; Cheeke, Tanya; Urbina, Hector; Fransson, Petra; Phillips, Richard P

    2016-02-01

    Although much is known about how trees and their associated microbes influence nitrogen cycling in temperate forest soils, less is known about biotic controls over phosphorus (P) cycling. Given that mycorrhizal fungi are instrumental for P acquisition and that the two dominant associations - arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi - possess different strategies for acquiring P, we hypothesized that P cycling would differ in stands dominated by trees associated with AM vs ECM fungi. We quantified soil solution P, microbial biomass P, and sequentially extracted inorganic and organic P pools from May to November in plots dominated by trees forming either AM or ECM associations in south-central Indiana, USA. Overall, fungal communities in AM and ECM plots were functionally different and soils exhibited fundamental differences in P cycling. Organic forms of P were more available in ECM plots than in AM plots. Yet inorganic P decreased and organic P accumulated over the growing season in both ECM and AM plots, resulting in increasingly P-limited microbial biomass. Collectively, our results suggest that P cycling in hardwood forests is strongly influenced by biotic processes in soil and that these are driven by plant-associated fungal communities. PMID:26510093

  12. Formalin treatments pass new tests. Additional notes on the control of ecto-parasitic protozoa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1940-01-01

    After the completion of the eхреriments reported recently, in which the efficacy of formalin in controlling infections of Gostia mecatrix was demonstrated, the author was afforded an opportunity to test the value of formalin solutions in combatting established mixed infections of (Gyrodactylus, Tricbodina, Cyclochaeta) and a stalked protozoan on rainbow trout fingerlings. This opportunity was provided through the courtesy and cooperation of Clarence F. Pautzke, Chief Biologist for the Washington State Game Department, and Lee Walters, Superintendent of the Washington State Hatchery at Seward Park, Seattle.

  13. Ecto-protein kinases and phosphatases: an emerging field for translational medicine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Progress in translational research has led to effective new treatments of a large number of diseases. Despite this progress, diseases including cancer and cardiovascular disorders still are at the top in death statistics and disorders such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis represent an increasing disease burden in the aging population. Novel strategies in research are needed more than ever to overcome such diseases. The growing field of extracellular protein phosphorylation provides excellent opportunities to make major discoveries of disease mechanisms that can lead to novel therapies. Reversible phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of sites in the extracellular domains of matrix, cell-surface and trans-membrane proteins is emerging as a critical regulatory mechanism in health and disease. Moreover, a new concept is emerging from studies of extracellular protein phosphorylation: in cells where ATP is stored within secretory vesicles and released by exocytosis upon cell-stimulation, phosphorylation of extracellular proteins can operate as a messenger operating uniquely in signaling pathways responsible for long-term cellular adaptation. Here, we highlight new concepts that arise from this research, and discuss translation of the findings into clinical applications such as development of diagnostic disease markers and next-generation drugs. PMID:24923278

  14. Inhibitory effects promoted by 5'-nucleotides on the ecto-3'-nucleotidase activity of Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Freitas-Mesquita, Anita Leocadio; Gomes, Marta T; Vieira, Danielle P; Paes-Vieira, Lisvane; Nascimento, Michelle T C; Lopes, Angela H C S; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2016-10-01

    The protozoan parasite Leishmania amazonensis is the etiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis. During its life cycle, the flagellated metacyclic promastigote forms are transmitted to vertebrate hosts by sandfly bites, and they develop into amastigotes inside macrophages, where they multiply. L. amazonensis possesses a bifunctional enzyme, called 3'-nucleotidase/nuclease (3'NT/NU), which is able to hydrolyze extracellular 3'-monophosphorylated nucleosides and nucleic acids. 3'NT/NU plays an important role in the generation of extracellular adenosine and has been described as a key enzyme in the acquisition of purines by trypanosomatids. Furthermore, it has been observed that 3'NT/NU also plays a valuable role in the establishment of parasitic infection. In this context, this study aimed to investigate the modulation of the 3'-nucleotidase (3'NT) activity of L. amazonensis by several nucleotides. It was observed that 3'NT activity is inhibited by micromolar concentrations of guanosine and guanine nucleotides. The inhibition promoted by 5'-GMP on the 3'NT activity of L. amazonensis is reversible and uncompetitive because the addition of the inhibitor decreased the kinetic parameters Km and Vmax. Finally, we found that the addition of 5'-GMP is able to reverse the stimulation promoted by 3'-AMP in a macrophage-parasite interaction assay. The determination of compounds that can inhibit the 3'NT activity of Leishmania is very important because this enzyme does not occur in mammals, making it a potential therapeutic target. PMID:27531705

  15. The existence and properties of two dimers of rat liver ecto-5'-nucleotidase.

    PubMed Central

    Bailyes, E M; Soos, M; Jackson, P; Newby, A C; Siddle, K; Luzio, J P

    1984-01-01

    Immunoaffinity-purified rat liver 5'-nucleotidase contained two subunits of Mr 70 000 (alpha) and 38 000 (beta). Charge-shift electrophoresis and chemical cross-linking revealed that approx. 80% of the solubilized enzyme activity occurred as an alpha alpha-dimer of Mr 140 000. The remaining 20% was an alpha beta-dimer of Mr 108 000. The beta-subunit did not possess enzymic activity. Peptide mapping and immunoblotting with antibodies against the alpha- and beta-subunits showed that the beta-subunit was homologous with a part of the alpha-subunit. Three monoclonal antibodies against rat liver 5'-nucleotidase were characterized as binding to the extracellular domain of the enzyme. All three monoclonal antibodies and concanavalin A bound to the alpha-subunit, but no binding could be detected to the beta-subunit. It was therefore concluded that the beta-subunit was a fragment of an alpha-subunit that had lost an extracellular domain. Both forms of the enzyme occurred in freshly solubilized membrane preparations as well. Images Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:6089738

  16. RADARSAT program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnally, J.; Parashar, S.

    1993-01-01

    Work on the RADARSAT system is progressing towards the currently scheduled launch date of early 1995. The spacecraft bus and the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) payload are at various stages of development. Requirements for the ground segment have been mostly established. The design of the ground elements such as the mission control facility and the SAR data processor is underway. The SAR applications development work is continuing and the chosen distributor, RADARSAT International Inc. (RSI) is making preparations to market RADARSAT data internationally. A plan for the follow-on to RADARSAT 1 is being finalized to ensure continuity of SAR data under the Radarsat program.

  17. The MSFC Program Control Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    It is the policy of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that employees be given the opportunity to develop their individual skills and realize their full potential consistent with their selected career path and with the overall Center's needs and objectives. The MSFC Program Control Development Program has been designed to assist individuals who have selected Program Control or Program Analyst Program Control as a career path to achieve their ultimate career goals. Individuals selected to participate in the MSFC Program Control Development Program will be provided with development training in the various Program Control functional areas identified in the NASA Program Control Model. The purpose of the MSFC Program Control Development Program is to develop individual skills in the various Program Control functions by on-the-job and classroom instructional training on the various systems, tools, techniques, and processes utilized in these areas.

  18. Geothermal Technologies Program Overview - Peer Review Program

    SciTech Connect

    Milliken, JoAnn

    2011-06-06

    This Geothermal Technologies Program presentation was delivered on June 6, 2011 at a Program Peer Review meeting. It contains annual budget, Recovery Act, funding opportunities, upcoming program activities, and more.

  19. Educational Programs and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Annals of the Deaf, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Listed are over 1,000 programs for the deaf including preschool through secondary schools and classes in the U.S. and Canada, postsecondary programs, teacher training programs, programs for professional specialists, programs for training interpreters for the deaf, programs for the deaf-blind, the Helen Keller National Center, and programs for…

  20. HEATKAU Program.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-07-24

    Version 00 Calculations of the decay heat is of great importance for the design of the shielding of discharged fuel, the design and transport of fuel-storage flasks and the management of the resulting radioactive waste. These are relevant to safety and have large economic and legislative consequences. In the HEATKAU code, a new approach has been proposed to evaluate the decay heat power after a fission burst of a fissile nuclide for short cooling time.more » This method is based on the numerical solution of coupled linear differential equations that describe decays and buildups of the minor fission products (MFPs) nuclides. HEATKAU is written entirely in the MATLAB programming environment. The MATLAB data can be stored in a standard, fast and easy-access, platform- independent binary format which is easy to visualize.« less

  1. Telemedicine Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Since the 1970s, NASA has been involved in the research and demonstration of telemedicine for its potential in the care of astronauts in flight and Earth-bound applications. A combination of NASA funding, expertise and off-the-shelf computer and networking systems made telemedicine possible for a medically underserved hospital in Texas. Through two-way audio/video relay, the program links pediatric oncology specialists at the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio to South Texas Hospital in Harlingen, providing easier access and better care to children with cancer. Additionally, the hospital is receiving teleclinics on pediatric oncology nursing, family counseling and tuberculosis treatment. VTEL Corporation, Sprint, and the Healthcare Open Systems and Trials Consortium also contributed staff and hardware.

  2. HEATKAU Program.

    SciTech Connect

    ELDIN NAFEE, SHERIF SALAH

    2013-07-24

    Version 00 Calculations of the decay heat is of great importance for the design of the shielding of discharged fuel, the design and transport of fuel-storage flasks and the management of the resulting radioactive waste. These are relevant to safety and have large economic and legislative consequences. In the HEATKAU code, a new approach has been proposed to evaluate the decay heat power after a fission burst of a fissile nuclide for short cooling time. This method is based on the numerical solution of coupled linear differential equations that describe decays and buildups of the minor fission products (MFPs) nuclides. HEATKAU is written entirely in the MATLAB programming environment. The MATLAB data can be stored in a standard, fast and easy-access, platform- independent binary format which is easy to visualize.

  3. Intrauterine programming

    PubMed Central

    Sedaghat, Katayoun; Zahediasl, Saleh; Ghasemi, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, the intrauterine condition has an important role in the development of fetal physiological systems in later life. Suboptimal maternal environment can alter the regulatory pathways that determine the normal development of the fetus in utero, which in post-natal life may render the individual more susceptible to cardiovascular or metabolic adult-life diseases. Changes in the intrauterine availability of nutrients, oxygen and hormones can change the fetal tissue developmental regulatory planning, which occurs genomically and non-genomically and can cause permanent structural and functional changes in the systems, leading to diseases in early years of life and those that particularly become overt in adulthood. In this review we take a brief look at the main elements which program the fetal system development and consequently induce a crucial impact on the cardiovascular, nervous and hormonal systems in adulthood. PMID:25945232

  4. Apollo Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Construction of Model 2 used in the LOLA simulator: Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White wrote in his paper, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  5. Apollo Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Construction of the track which runs in front of Model 3: Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White wrote in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'The model system is designed so that a television camera is mounted on a camera boom on each transport cart and each cart system is shared by two models. The cart's travel along the tracks represents longitudinal motion along the plane of a nominal orbit, vertical travel of the camera boom represents latitude on out-of-plane travel, and horizontal travel of the camera boom represents altitude changes.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  6. Apollo Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Construction of the track which runs in front of Model 2. Technicians work on Model 1, the 20-foot sphere. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White wrote in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'The model system is designed so that a television camera is mounted on a camera boom on each transport cart and each cart system is shared by two models. The cart's travel along the tracks represents longitudinal motion along the plane of a nominal orbit, vertical travel of the camera boom represents latitude on out-of-plane travel, and horizontal travel of the camera boom represents altitude changes.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  7. Apollo Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Construction of Model 1 used in the LOLA simulator. This was a twenty-foot sphere which simulated for the astronauts what the surface of the moon would look like from 200 miles up. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White wrote in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  8. Vehicle Technologies Program Overview

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-09-05

    Overview of the Vehicle Technologies Program including external assessment and market view; internal assessment, program history and progress; program justification and federal role; program vision, mission, approach, strategic goals, outputs, and outcomes; and performance goals.

  9. Human Reliability Program Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  10. NIH Minority Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This publication contains brief descriptions of National Institutes of Health programs for underrepresented minorities, including fellowships, programs for high school students, graduate research assistantships, postdoctoral training, and programs for college students. The publication provides a description of each program, eligibility…

  11. Stop smoking support programs

    MedlinePlus

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... It is hard to quit smoking if you are acting alone. Smokers may have a ... of quitting with a support program. Stop smoking programs ...

  12. Using Program Theory To Replicate Successful Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacsi, Timothy A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the potential that program theory evaluation has to provide knowledge about the parts of a program that should be retained and the parts that can be changed or should be abandoned. Considers why program theory evaluation may be able to give some guidance about how a program should be changed to function in a new and different…

  13. [California Mentor Teacher Program. Program Advisory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This advisory for superintendents on the California Mentor Teacher Program provides background information, discusses issues in initial program planning, describes the state department of education's role and upcoming activities in program implementation, and gives information on funding for the program. The background section describes the…

  14. NASA's educational programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    The educational programs of NASA's Educational Affairs Division are examined. The problem of declining numbers of science and engineering students is reviewed. The various NASA educational programs are described, including programs at the elementary and secondary school levels, teacher education programs, and undergraduate, graduate, and university faculty programs. The coordination of aerospace education activities and future plans for increasing NASA educational programs are considered.

  15. Mars Exploration Program and Mars Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whetsel, C. W.

    2002-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Program and constituent Mars Technology Program are described. Current ongoing and future NASA-led missions are presented, including discussions of scientific accomplishments and objectives as well as technology validations accomplished and technological enablers for future missions.

  16. Structured Programming: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulton, Peter

    Designed for use by computer programming teachers, this booklet presents the concepts of structured programming and provides examples of how to implement this methodology, which provides a systematic way of organizing programs so that even large and complex programs are easier to understand and modify than unstructured programs. After a brief…

  17. TEN MASTER TEACHER AND PROGRAM AWARD PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KOVACH, EDITH M.A.

    IN 1966 THE AMERICAN CLASSICAL LEAGUE HONORED THREE TEACHERS WITH ITS MASTER SECONDARY SCHOOL LATIN TEACHER AND PROGRAM AWARD. AMONG THE 32 PROGRAMS CITED FOR RECOGNITION, TEN (INCLUDING THOSE OF THE AWARD WINNERS) POSSESS CLEARLY INNOVATIVE FEATURES. IN BRIEF THEY FEATURE (1) A FIFTH YEAR ADVANCED PLACEMENT PROGRAM, LATIN AS INTRODUCTORY TO…

  18. Acid Rain Program CEM audit program

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, K.O.T.; Alexander, T.H.; Dupree, J.C.

    1997-12-31

    This presentation will give an overview of the Acid Rain Program CEM Audit Program: electronic and field audits. The presentation will include the reasons for audits, field audit types and levels the steps used in develop in the audit program and the audit procedures.

  19. Music Program of Study: Educational Program Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Dept. of Education, Charleston.

    The West Virginia music study program is a public school K-12 curriculum sequence. This program is divided into the four principal areas of: (1) general classroom music; (2) string instrumental music; (3) wind and percussion instrumental music; and (4) choral music. The general classroom music program is an early and middle childhood sequence of…

  20. COSMIC program documentation experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalar, M. C.

    1970-01-01

    A brief history of COSMIC as it relates to the handling of program documentation is summarized; the items that are essential for computer program documentation are also discussed. COSMIC documentation and program standards handbook is appended.

  1. [Theme: Horticulture Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Jan; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A series of articles discusses requirements for optimum growth of horticulture education programs. Includes beginning a program, simulating working conditions, the need for mechanical skills, starting a business, and other areas to be considered for a successful horticultural program. (JOW)

  2. An Urban Agricultural Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Parker V.

    1974-01-01

    A program of Agricultural Education (primarily horticulture) was started in the San Diego, California school district in 1967. The philosophy behind the program, the growth in terms of students involved, and the structural framework of the program are outlined. (KP)

  3. Masonry Program Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the masonry program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); program structure…

  4. Stop smoking support programs

    MedlinePlus

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... also provide ongoing support for staying away from tobacco. Be wary of programs that: Are short and ...

  5. Vehicle Technologies Program Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-06-19

    The Vehicle Technologies Program takes a systematic approach to Program implementation. Elements of this approach include the evaluation of new technologies, competitive selection of projects and partners, review of Program and project improvement, project tracking, and portfolio management and adjustment.

  6. Drive program documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, S.

    1979-01-01

    The program description and user's guide for the Downlist Requirement Integrated Verification and Evaluation (DRIVE) program is provided. The program is used to compare existing telemetry downlist files with updated downlist requirements.

  7. General Medical Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on the General Medical Surveillance Program at LeRC is presented. The purpose of the General Medical Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the program are discussed.

  8. NASA geodynamics program: Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Seventh Geodynamics Program report summarizes program activities and achievements during 1988 and 1989. Included is a 115 page bibliography of the publications associated with the NASA Geodynamics Program since its initiation in 1979.

  9. NEMAR plotting computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myler, T. R.

    1981-01-01

    A FORTRAN coded computer program which generates CalComp plots of trajectory parameters is examined. The trajectory parameters are calculated and placed on a data file by the Near Earth Mission Analysis Routine computer program. The plot program accesses the data file and generates the plots as defined by inputs to the plot program. Program theory, user instructions, output definitions, subroutine descriptions and detailed FORTRAN coding information are included. Although this plot program utilizes a random access data file, a data file of the same type and formatted in 102 numbers per record could be generated by any computer program and used by this plot program.

  10. Program (systems) engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baroff, Lynn E.; Easter, Robert W.; Pomphrey, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    Program Systems Engineering applies the principles of Systems Engineering at the program level. Space programs are composed of interrelated elements which can include collections of projects, advanced technologies, information systems, etc. Some program elements are outside traditional engineering's physical systems, such as education and public outreach, public relations, resource flow, and interactions within the political environments.

  11. Inside Home Visiting Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Douglas R.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the wide variation that exists among home visiting programs in their content, theory, and operation, outlining the theoretical goals and operational dimensions of such programs. Numerous home visiting programs that focus on parents of young children are highlighted. Observes that few programs have been rigorously evaluated using the…

  12. The Cybernetic Writing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Kelly Fisher

    This paper looks at the role of a Writing Program Administrator, and applies the idea of a cybernetic system to the administration of the program. In this cybernetic model, the Writing Program Administrator (WPA) works as both a problem solver and problem causer, with the responsibility of keeping the program in proper balance. A cybernetic…

  13. Program analysis for documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lolmaugh, G. H.

    1970-01-01

    A program analysis for documentation (PAD) written in FORTRAN has three steps: listing the variables, describing the structure and writing the program specifications. Technical notes on editing criteria for reviewing program documentation, technical notes for PAD, and FORTRAN program analyzer for documentation are appended.

  14. Student Assistance Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Robin; And Others

    The Student Assistance Program (SAP) is a chemical use prevention and early intervention program. Entering the fifth year of implementation, the SAP has expanded from a part-time service contracted with Mental Health to a school-based program serving two high schools and three middle schools. The program is broad based, employing a variety of…

  15. Light water reactor program

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s Light Water Reactor Program is outlined. The scope of the program consists of: design certification of evolutionary plants; design, development, and design certification of simplified passive plants; first-of-a-kind engineering to achieve commercial standardization; plant lifetime improvement; and advanced reactor severe accident program. These program activities of the Office of Nuclear Energy are discussed.

  16. Utilities. [univac computer programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colquitt, W. N.

    1976-01-01

    Several sets of related Adage utility programs are described. A general description of the software group, instructions on how to use the programs, and a programmers description of the theory of operation are given along with a printed example of the program in use and a listing of the program.

  17. Developmental Programs: Survival Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, F. Eugene; Kinsey, Richard H.

    1978-01-01

    Describes major program elements of the College Assistance Migrant Program (CAMP)--a developmental education program at St. Edward's University, Texas, serving a population of migrant and seasonal farmworker families. Outlines steps necessary to receive funding and legislative support for developmental education programs. (DR)

  18. NASA Microgravity Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Dan

    1999-01-01

    The Fiscal Year 1998 Annual Report describes key elements of the NASA Microgravity Research Program. The Program's goals, approach taken to achieve those goals, and program resources are summarized. A review of the Program's status at the end of FY1998 and highlights of the ground- and-flight-based research are provided.

  19. Software for PROM Programing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goolsby, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    Driver program allows for programing, reading, and verification of various PROM's. Manual entry of data to DATA/I/O PROM Programmer timeconsuming and error-prone. Driver program combines file management capability of EXORCISOR with flexibility of DATA I/O system. Provides user with way of reading, programing and verifying PROM's storing data on disk, modifying files and printing data.

  20. Evaluating Court Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudzik, John K.; Wakeley, John H.

    1981-01-01

    Careful evaluation of court training programs can use two approaches, program monitoring and training/learning. Four areas of inquiry include: reactions to the program, learning, behavior, and results (behavior measured against organizational goals). The Michigan Judicial Institute program is noted. Journal availability: 200 W. Monroe, Suite 1606,…

  1. [PIC Program Evaluation Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, N. J.

    These 4 questionnaires are designed to elicit teacher and parent evaluations of the Prescriptive Instruction Center (PIC) program. Included are Teacher Evaluation of Program Effectiveness (14 items), M & M Evaluation of Program Implementation (methods and materials specialists; 11 items), Teacher Evaluation of Program Effectiveness--Case Study…

  2. NASA's Microgravity Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Dan R. (Editor); Henderson, Robin N. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Fiscal Year 1999 Annual Report describes key elements of the NASA Microgravity Research Program. The Program's goals, approach taken to achieve those goals, and program resources are summarized. A review of the Program's status at the end of FY1999 and highlights of the ground-and-flight research are provided.

  3. Laser Programs Highlights 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Lowdermilk, H.; Cassady, C.

    1999-12-01

    This report covers the following topics: Commentary; Laser Programs; Inertial Confinement Fusion/National Ignition Facility (ICF/NIF); Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS); Laser Science and Technology (LS&T); Information Science and Technology Program (IS&T); Strategic Materials Applications Program (SMAP); Medical Technology Program (MTP) and Awards.

  4. Streamlining Federal Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mockler, John B.; Birdsall, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Proposes a way to streamline federal categorical program management while maintaining equity and equality. The proposal has three components: (1) incentives to state governments to adopt programs that meet federal objectives; (2) schoolwide coordination of programs; and (3) waivers from categorical program requirements under certain conditions.…

  5. DOE Small Hydropower Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, W.W.; McLaughlin, T.B.

    1980-01-01

    The scope of work and activities of the Department of Energy's National Small Hydropower Program are discussed. Each portion of the program is discussed to provide an overall view of the program's depth. The three major subprograms are the Demonstration Projects subprogram, the Engineering Development subprogram, and the Loan subprogram. Program results are presented by graphic illustrations where applicable.

  6. Managing Mentoring Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IUME Briefs, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Some programs for helping at-risk youth achieve excellent results, while others do not. One reason for program success can be proper management. Mentoring is a promising strategy for helping at-risk youth. Planners who want to create effective mentoring programs should look at the implementation experiences of other youth programs. Evaluations…

  7. Derivation of sorting programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varghese, Joseph; Loganantharaj, Rasiah

    1990-01-01

    Program synthesis for critical applications has become a viable alternative to program verification. Nested resolution and its extension are used to synthesize a set of sorting programs from their first order logic specifications. A set of sorting programs, such as, naive sort, merge sort, and insertion sort, were successfully synthesized starting from the same set of specifications.

  8. Trainer Recertification Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blitzer, Roy J.; Dumas, Roland A.

    1985-01-01

    Lists reasons why people shy away from trainer recertification programs, benefits of attending such programs, and considerations that users and purchasers of training programs might keep in mind in order to get the best quality programs and service from their vendors. (CT)

  9. C++ Programming Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    C++ Programming Language: The C++ seminar covers the fundamentals of C++ programming language. The C++ fundamentals are grouped into three parts where each part includes both concept and programming examples aimed at for hands-on practice. The first part covers the functional aspect of C++ programming language with emphasis on function parameters and efficient memory utilization. The second part covers the essential framework of C++ programming language, the object-oriented aspects. Information necessary to evaluate various features of object-oriented programming; including encapsulation, polymorphism and inheritance will be discussed. The last part of the seminar covers template and generic programming. Examples include both user defined and standard templates.

  10. Technology Commercialization Program 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This reference compilation describes the Technology Commercialization Program of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs. The compilation consists of two sections. Section 1, Plans and Procedures, describes the plans and procedures of the Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Program. The second section, Legislation and Policy, identifies legislation and policy related to the Program. The procedures for implementing statutory and regulatory requirements are evolving with time. This document will be periodically updated to reflect changes and new material.

  11. Traditional Planetarium Programming versus Participatory Planetarium Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jack K.

    1980-01-01

    The results of this study indicate that, for the astronomical concepts used, no significant difference in the cognitive domain will occur between the achievement of students who experience a participatory planetarium program and students who experience a traditional lecture-demonstration program. (Author/MK)

  12. Parent Volunteer Programs/Reading Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huyer, Diane

    Designed to be an example of how elementary and secondary schools can involve parents in their children's education, this guide is a compilation of letters to parents, memos, newsletters, and general information concerning Parkway (Missouri) School District's Parent Volunteer program, focusing primarily on the reading program. The first of the…

  13. A Program Evaluation of a Seminar Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Robert Dale, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    When students do not score well on standardized tests, their school can suffer. In an attempt to improve standardized test scores, a district placed students into a program called Seminar to help them work on weak areas of content through personalized instruction. The purpose of this project study was to assess if the Seminar program had a…

  14. Two Feathers Endowment Scholarship Program: Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    The Saint Paul Foundation contracted with the Wilder Research Center to conduct an evaluation of their Two Feathers Scholarship Program. The Two Feathers Scholarship Program is funded through the Two Feathers Endowment, which is one part of the Foundation's SpectrumTrust. SpectrumTrust is a unique partnership between communities of color and The…

  15. Management of Youth Rehabilitation Programs. Program Audit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geizer, Bernard P., Ed.

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of New York State's Division for Youth (DFY) rehabilitation programs, which range from secure facilities to residential homes. The goals of the evaluation were to assess the level of expenditures for facility operation and use, to determine the scope of programs and the extent to which they meet…

  16. Analyzing Array Manipulating Programs by Program Transformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornish, J. Robert M.; Gange, Graeme; Navas, Jorge A.; Schachte, Peter; Sondergaard, Harald; Stuckey, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    We explore a transformational approach to the problem of verifying simple array-manipulating programs. Traditionally, verification of such programs requires intricate analysis machinery to reason with universally quantified statements about symbolic array segments, such as "every data item stored in the segment A[i] to A[j] is equal to the corresponding item stored in the segment B[i] to B[j]." We define a simple abstract machine which allows for set-valued variables and we show how to translate programs with array operations to array-free code for this machine. For the purpose of program analysis, the translated program remains faithful to the semantics of array manipulation. Based on our implementation in LLVM, we evaluate the approach with respect to its ability to extract useful invariants and the cost in terms of code size.

  17. TFE verification program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-03-01

    The information presented herein will include evaluated test data, design evaluations, the results of analyses and the significance of results. The program objective is to demonstrate the technology readiness of a Thermionic Fuel Element (TFE) suitable for use as the basic element in a thermionic reactor with electric power output in the 0.5 to 5.0 MW(e) range, and a full-power life of 7 years. The TF Verification Program builds directly on the technology and data base developed in the 1960s and 1970s in an AEC/NASA program, and in the SP-100 program conducted in 1983, 1984 and 1985. In the SP-100 program, the attractive features of thermionic power conversion technology were recognized but concern was expressed over the lack of fast reactor irradiation data. The TFE Verification Program addresses this concern. The general logic and strategy of the program to achieve its objectives is shown. Five prior programs form the basis for the TFE Verification Program: (1) AEC/NASA program of the 1960s and early 1970; (2) SP-100 concept development program; (3) SP-100 thermionic technology program; (4) Thermionic irradiations program in TRIGA in FY-88; and (5) Thermionic Program in 1986 and 1987.

  18. TFE Verification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The objective of the semiannual progress report is to summarize the technical results obtained during the latest reporting period. The information presented herein will include evaluated test data, design evaluations, the results of analyses and the significance of results. The program objective is to demonstrate the technology readiness of a TFE suitable for use as the basic element in a thermionic reactor with electric power output in the 0.5 to 5.0 MW(e) range, and a full-power life of 7 years. The TF Verification Program builds directly on the technology and data base developed in the 1960s and 1970s in an AEC/NASA program, and in the SP-100 program conducted in 1983, 1984 and 1985. In the SP-100 program, the attractive but concern was expressed over the lack of fast reactor irradiation data. The TFE Verification Program addresses this concern. The general logic and strategy of the program to achieve its objectives is shown on Fig. 1-1. Five prior programs form the basis for the TFE Verification Program: (1) AEC/NASA program of the 1960s and early 1970; (2) SP-100 concept development program;(3) SP-100 thermionic technology program; (4) Thermionic irradiations program in TRIGA in FY-86; (5) and Thermionic Technology Program in 1986 and 1987. 18 refs., 64 figs., 43 tabs.

  19. STI Program Multimedia Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotter, Gladys A.; Kaye, Karen

    1993-01-01

    This paper relates the experience of the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program in introducing multimedia within the STI Program framework. A discussion of multimedia technology is included to provide context for the STI Program effort. The STI Program's Multimedia Initiative is discussed in detail. Parallels and differences between multimedia and traditional information systems project development are highlighted. Challenges faced by the program in initiating its multimedia project are summarized along with lessons learned. The paper concludes with a synopsis of the benefits the program hopes to provide its users through the introduction of multimedia illustrated by examples of successful multimedia projects.

  20. The CHROME Honors Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Eleanor

    2002-01-01

    The CHROME Honors Program was designed as a two-week residential program for 9th and 1Oth grade students participating in CHROME clubs. The curriculum focused on the health sciences with instruction from: (1) the science and health curriculum of the Dozoretz National Program for Minorities in Applied Sciences (DNIMAS) Program of Norfolk State University (NSU); (2) the humanities curriculum of the NSU Honors Program; (3) NASA-related curriculum in human physiology. An Advisory Committee was formed to work with the Project Coordinator in the design of the summer program.

  1. Python to learn programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanchikov, A.; Zhaparov, M.; Suliyev, R.

    2013-04-01

    Today we have a lot of programming languages that can realize our needs, but the most important question is how to teach programming to beginner students. In this paper we suggest using Python for this purpose, because it is a programming language that has neatly organized syntax and powerful tools to solve any task. Moreover it is very close to simple math thinking. Python is chosen as a primary programming language for freshmen in most of leading universities. Writing code in python is easy. In this paper we give some examples of program codes written in Java, C++ and Python language, and we make a comparison between them. Firstly, this paper proposes advantages of Python language in relation to C++ and JAVA. Then it shows the results of a comparison of short program codes written in three different languages, followed by a discussion on how students understand programming. Finally experimental results of students' success in programming courses are shown.

  2. Computer Lens Design Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiue, S. G.; Chang, M. W.

    1986-02-01

    An interactive computer lens design program has been developed. It has capabilities for editing lens data, optimizing zoom lens, evaluating image qualities, etc.. A Tessar lens and an IR zoom telescope designed by using this program are discussed.

  3. FORTRAN manpower account program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, J. N.

    1972-01-01

    Computer program for determining manpower costs for full time, part time, and contractor personnel is discussed. Twelve different tables resulting from computer output are described. Program is written in FORTRAN 4 for IBM 360/65 computer.

  4. Modeling EERE deployment programs

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, K. A.; Hostick, D. J.; Belzer, D. B.; Livingston, O. V.

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address possible improvements to the modeling process, and note gaps in knowledge for future research.

  5. Monte Carlo Example Programs

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-05-09

    The Monte Carlo example programs VARHATOM and DMCATOM are two small, simple FORTRAN programs that illustrate the use of the Monte Carlo Mathematical technique for calculating the ground state energy of the hydrogen atom.

  6. Youth Suicide Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalafat, John

    2006-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention programs are described that promote the identification and referral of at-risk youth, address risk factors, and promote protective factors. Emphasis is on programs that are both effective and sustainable in applied settings.

  7. Nonflammable Clothing Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Richard; Radnofsky, Matthew I.

    1968-01-01

    Protective clothing is of major importance in our space program. The authors discuss the requirements, selection, and testing of materials considered for use in the program. The various types of garments worn by astronauts and support personnel are briefly described.

  8. Radiologic Technology Program Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the radiologic technology program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories; Foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); Admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); Program…

  9. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    EPA Science Inventory

    LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for simulating hydrology, sediment, and general water quality on land as well as a simplified stream transport model. LSPC ...

  10. On Teaching Computer Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Er, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Points out difficulties associated with teaching introductory computer programing courses, discussing the importance of computer programing and explains activities associated with its use. Possible solutions to help teachers resolve problem areas in computer instruction are also offered. (ML)

  11. USEPA Arsenic Demonstration Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides background information on the USEPA arsenic removal program. The summary includes information on the history of the program, sites and technology selected, and a summary of the data collected from two completed projects.

  12. Parallel programming with PCN

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.; Tuecke, S.

    1991-12-01

    PCN is a system for developing and executing parallel programs. It comprises a high-level programming language, tools for developing and debugging programs in this language, and interfaces to Fortran and C that allow the reuse of existing code in multilingual parallel programs. Programs developed using PCN are portable across many different workstations, networks, and parallel computers. This document provides all the information required to develop parallel programs with the PCN programming system. In includes both tutorial and reference material. It also presents the basic concepts that underly PCN, particularly where these are likely to be unfamiliar to the reader, and provides pointers to other documentation on the PCN language, programming techniques, and tools. PCN is in the public domain. The latest version of both the software and this manual can be obtained by anonymous FTP from Argonne National Laboratory in the directory pub/pcn at info.mcs.anl.gov (c.f. Appendix A).

  13. ICASE Computer Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering computer science program is discussed in outline form. Information is given on such topics as problem decomposition, algorithm development, programming languages, and parallel architectures.

  14. Sandia's Biofuels Program

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Blake; Singh, Seema; Lane, Todd; Reichardt, Tom; Davis, Ryan

    2014-07-22

    Sandia's biofuels program is focused on developing next-generation, renewable fuel solutions derived from biomass. In this video, various Sandia researchers discuss the program and the tools they employ to tackle the technical challenges they face.

  15. Programs, Materials and Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannatyne, Alex, Ed.

    1973-01-01

    Favorably reviewed are a prescriptive program model, a handbook containing educational therapy materials, a collection of large type books, and a psychophysical development program to be used with learning disabled children. (MC)

  16. NASA Geodynamics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Activities and achievements for the period of May 1983 to May 1984 for the NASA geodynamics program are summarized. Abstracts of papers presented at the Conference are inlcuded. Current publications associated with the NASA Geodynamics Program are listed.

  17. High Speed Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Robert E.; Corsiglia, Victor R.; Schmitz, Frederic H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    An overview of the NASA High Speed Research Program will be presented from a NASA Headquarters perspective. The presentation will include the objectives of the program and an outline of major programmatic issues.

  18. Sandia's Biofuels Program

    ScienceCinema

    Simmons, Blake; Singh, Seema; Lane, Todd; Reichardt, Tom; Davis, Ryan

    2014-07-24

    Sandia's biofuels program is focused on developing next-generation, renewable fuel solutions derived from biomass. In this video, various Sandia researchers discuss the program and the tools they employ to tackle the technical challenges they face.

  19. Science Investigations Mentorship Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Science fair mentorship programs let students investigate a wide variety of science topics under the guidance of interested community members. These programs enhance the relationships among school, community, and home. (PR)

  20. Aeroacoustics Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Michael K.; Posey, Joe W. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    Since its inception in January 2003, the program has provided support for 1 faculty and 1 graduate student researcher. One Graduate Research Scholar Assistant was partially supported by this award. One student has completed his M.S. degree program and 1 has nearly completed the D.Sc. degree program (expected completion Fall 2005). The program has generated 1 D.Sc. dissertation. 1 M.S. theses and 2 publications.

  1. NASA's Technology Utilization Program.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, C. F.

    1972-01-01

    NASA's Technology Utilization Program is described, illustrating how it can be useful in achieving improved productivity, providing more jobs, solving public sector challenges, and strengthening the international competitive situation. Underlying the program is the fact that research and development conducted in NASA's aeronautics and space programs have generated much technical information concerning processes, products, or techniques which may be useful to engineers, doctors, or to others. The program is based on acquisition and publication, working with the user, and applications engineering.

  2. PLS Program and Documentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This program for discriminant analysis using SAS Partial Least Squares (PLS) has been developed as a major modification of a previously published SAS program for quantitative analysis using PLS which is available at http://www.nirpublications.com/software/index.html. That program implemented multip...

  3. Barbering Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide presents the barbering program for technical institutes in Georgia. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description, including admissions, typical job titles, and accreditation and certification; and curriculum model, including standard curriculum sequence and lists of courses.…

  4. After-School Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Results of research and evaluation efforts are just beginning to shed some light on how to create and maintain high-quality after-school programs. This research roundup reviews five documents that touch upon a range of issues related to the developing field of after-school programming. "Getting School-Based After-School Programming Off the Ground"…

  5. Vehicle Technologies Program Results

    SciTech Connect

    2009-06-19

    The Vehicle Technologies Program's progress is closely monitored by both internal and external organizations. The Program's results are detailed in a wide range of documents and tools that can be accessed through the PIR website. Descriptions of these materials are provided on this program results page.

  6. Wisconsin Education Opportunity Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Div. for School Financial Resources and Management Services.

    This report describes the history and programs of the Wisconsin Education Opportunity Program (WEOP), a bureau within the State Department of Public Instruction that provides support services for Wisconsin youths and adults (particularly the disadvantaged) who intend to complete a postsecondary education program. Currently, it is said, WEOP…

  7. Preschool Program Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Office of Child Development.

    Intended for persons interested in operating preschool programs in California, these guidelines provide basic information on student eligibility, program requirements, and fiscal reporting. The first section provides background information on California preschool programs. Characteristics affecting children's eligibility for preschool services are…

  8. Supportive and Rehabilitative Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Annals of the Deaf, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This directory lists supportive and rehabilitative programs for the deaf. Listed separately are federal programs, state vocational rehabilitation offices, regional and local programs, national professional organizations and centers, state chapters of the National Association of the Deaf, and committee members (Conference of Educational…

  9. Supportive and Rehabilitative Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Annals of the Deaf, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This directory of supportive and rehabilitative programs for the deaf lists federal programs, state vocational-rehabiltation offices, regional and local programs, national professional organizations and centers, state contacts for the National Association of the Deaf, and professional committee members of the Conference of Educational…

  10. Language Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Language program evaluation is a pragmatic mode of inquiry that illuminates the complex nature of language-related interventions of various kinds, the factors that foster or constrain them, and the consequences that ensue. Program evaluation enables a variety of evidence-based decisions and actions, from designing programs and implementing…

  11. Navigator program risk management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessen, Randii R.; Padilla, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, program risk management as applied to the Navigator Program: In Search of New Worlds will be discussed. The Navigator Program's goals are to learn how planetary systems form and to search for those worlds that could or do harbor life.

  12. Building Effective Afterschool Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fashola, Olatokunbo S.

    Through a comprehensive review of various afterschool programs across the United States, this resource provides a practical overview of the research and best practices that can be easily adapted and applied in the development of highly effective afterschool programs. chapters focus on: (1) "Why Afterschool Programs?" (benefits, challenges, and…

  13. Staff Development Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashur, Nina E.; And Others

    An evaluation of the staff development program at College of the Canyons (California) was conducted in 1991 to provide information applicable to program improvement. Questionnaires were distributed to all faculty, classified staff, and flexible calendar program committee and staff development advisory committee members, resulting in response rates…

  14. World weather program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A brief description of the Global Weather Experiment is presented. The world weather watch program plan is described and includes a global observing system, a global data processing system, a global telecommunication system, and a voluntary cooperation program. A summary of Federal Agency plans and programs to meet the challenges of international meteorology for the two year period, FY 1980-1981, is presented.

  15. The Zero Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Erling; Midthassel, Unni Vere

    2012-01-01

    Zero is a schoolwide antibullying program developed by the Centre for Behavioural Research at the University of Stavanger, Norway. It is based on three main principles: a zero vision of bullying, collective commitment among all employees at the school using the program, and continuing work. Based on these principles, the program aims to reduce…

  16. Canadian Space Station program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doetsch, K. H.

    1991-01-01

    Information on the Canadian Space Station Program is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include the Mobile Servicing Center (MSC), Space Station Freedom assembly milestones, the MB-3 launch configuration, a new workstation configuration, strategic technology development, the User Development Program, the Space Station Program budget, and Canada's future space activities.

  17. Instructional Program Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Community Coll., TX.

    This document describes the 1993-94 program review process for Austin Community College (ACC), in Texas. First, the goals of program review are briefly reviewed and ACC's mission and instructional philosophy are set forth. The structure and process is then described, indicating that an Instructional Program Review Committee (PRC), formed of two…

  18. 24-hour care programs.

    PubMed

    Hergenrader, R

    1996-06-01

    Twenty-four-hour care programs, which combine group health programs with workers' compensation and disability benefits, hold considerable potential for cost savings and greater efficiency. This article explains these programs and uses a care history to show the savings they can achieve. PMID:10157798

  19. Waunakee's Summer Science Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, J. Peter

    1981-01-01

    Describes Waunakee Community School's six-week Summer Science Program for students entering the seventh grade. Students are selected for this science enrichment program on the basis of interest, ability, and maturity. Program content includes wetlands, forests, prairies, and animals, concluding with a camping trip. (DS)

  20. Exemplary Program: Sharing Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Stephen

    1990-01-01

    Describes the secondary vocational/special education program at Elk Mound, Wisconsin, that was selected as one of 12 exemplary programs nationwide for use of Carl Perkins funding. The program prepares students with disabilities for the work world through participation in mainstream vocational courses. (Author/JOW)

  1. The School Breakfast Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The School Breakfast Program is a federally assisted meal program operating in public and nonprofit private schools and residential child care institutions. It began as a pilot project in 1966, and was made permanent in 1975. The School Breakfast Program is administered at the Federal level by the Food and Nutrition Service. At the State level,…

  2. X-33 Program Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dill, Charlie C.; Austin, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The presentation briefly presents the current status of the program. The program's objectives and near term plans are stated. A brief description of the vehicle configuration, the technologies to be demonstrated and the missions to be flown are presented. Finally, a status of the vehicle assembly, the launch control center development and the significant test programs' accomplishments are presented.

  3. Specially Funded Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles City Schools, CA.

    A total of eight specially funded programs designed to improve social and human conditions are described. These programs are Adult Basic Education (ABE), Adult Personal Traffic Safety (APTS), Emergency Employment Act (EEA), Industry Sponsored Programs (ISP), Manpower Development Training Act (MDTA), Model Cities Projects, Work Incentive Program…

  4. Guidelines for Program Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg. Literacy and Continuing Education Branch.

    This guide, which is intended to assist developers of community-based adult literacy programs in Manitoba, explains the following components of good programming and presents suggestions for integrating them into literacy provision: community outreach, program development, learner involvement, provision of appropriate staffing, use of volunteers,…

  5. Surgical Technology Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This surgical technology program guide presents the standard curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum addresses the minimum competencies for a surgical technology program. The program guide is designed to relate primarily to the development of those skills needed by individuals in the field to provide services in the…

  6. Masonry Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This masonry program guide presents the standard curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum addresses the minimum competencies for a masonry program. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description, including admissions, typical job titles, and accreditation and certification;…

  7. Programs in Animal Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Don R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Five topics relating to programs in animal agriculture are addressed: (1) the future of animal agriculture; (2) preparing teachers in animal agriculture; (3) how animal programs help young people; (4) a nontraditional animal agriculture program; and (5) developing competencies in animal agriculture. (LRA)

  8. Special Milk Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Special Milk Program provides milk to children in schools, child care institutions and eligible camps that do not participate in other Federal child nutrition meal service programs. The program reimburses schools and institutions for the milk they serve. In 2008, 4,676 schools and residential child care institutions participated, along with…

  9. Distance Learning Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucero, Jesus Ricardo; And Others

    This resource guide for distance learning information, courses, and programming covers: (1) audiographics programming by the Pennsylvania Teleteaching Project; (2) cable programming, including the Cable Alliance for Education's Cable in the Classroom projects, Consumer News and Business Channel, Nostalgia Television, PENNARAMA Channel, Silent…

  10. Customer Service Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Use of computer program STRCMACS has enabled Illinois Bell Telephone, a subsidiary of American Telephone and Telegraph to cut software development costs about 10 percent by reducing program maintenance and by allowing the department to bring other software into operation more quickly. It has also been useful in company training of programming staff.