The Mid-Atlantic Division manufactures and distributes Tissue Microarrays (TMAs) for the CHTN. A number of different arrays designs targeted to discovery research are available. All TMAs are constructed from formalin-fixed tissue and provided as unstained sections, 4 microns thick, mounted on charged glass slides. TMA slides are suitable for standard histologic staining, immunohistochemistry, and some in-situ applications.
Toby C. Cornish; Angelo M. De Marzo
\\u000a Tissue microarrays (TMAs) are composite tissue blocks capable of accommodating over 1,000 unique tissue cores on a single\\u000a glass slide. TMAs have become widely adopted in pathology and biomarker research. This chapter briefly discusses the design\\u000a and construction of TMAs, the state of TMA imaging, and current methods for the analysis and management of TMA data. A significant\\u000a portion of
Anirban Maitra; N Volkan Adsay; Pedram Argani; Christine Iacobuzio-Donahue; Angelo De Marzo; John L Cameron; Charles J Yeo; Ralph H Hruban
A multistep model for pancreatic adenocarcinoma has been proposed recently. In this model, well-defined, noninvasive ductal lesions are recognized as precursors of invasive cancer and have been classified under the nomenclature of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia, or PanIN. Increasing evidence suggests that PanINs represent true neoplasms of the pancreatic ductal epithelium, accumulating histologic and genetic abnormalities in their progression toward invasive
Services Price List Courier Services & Shipment Procedures Scheduling Contact Information Related Links Establishing an Account PHL Forms Staff Publications PHL Portal Rodent Tissue Microarray Tissue microarays allow the possibility to represent a large
Voduc, David; Kenney, Challayne; Nielsen, Torsten O.
The tissue microarray is a recently-implemented, high-throughput technology for the analysis of molecular markers in oncology. This research tool permits the rapid assessment of a biomarker in thousands of tumor samples, using commonly available laboratory assays such as immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization. Although introduced less than a decade ago, the TMA has proven to be invaluable in the study of tumor biology, the development of diagnostic tests, and the investigation of oncological biomarkers. This review describes the impact of TMA-based research in clinical oncology and its potential future applications. Technical aspects of TMA construction, and the advantages and disadvantages inherent to this technology are also discussed. PMID:18314063
Huang, Wei; Hennrick, Kenneth; Drew, Sally
The Vectra platform (Caliper Life Sciences, Hopkinton, MA) is an advanced multispectral imaging system for biomarker quantitation in tissue microarray or intact tissue sections. This is the first study to validate its reliability for quantitating spatially overlapping biomarkers using chromogenic multiplexed immunohistochemistry on prostate tissue microarrays. Two tissue microarray cohorts (an outcome tissue microarray and a progression tissue microarray) were used. The outcome tissue microarray cohort consists of 462 duplicate cores with more than 5-year outcome information. The progression tissue microarray cohort consists of 384 duplicate cores from different disease (stage) groups. The tissue microarray slides were stained with different combinations of antibodies (anti-androgen receptor, anti-E-cadherin, anti-erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene-related gene product, and anti-?-methylacyl-CoA racemase). Three outcome tissue microarrays were stained with androgen receptor + erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene-related gene + E-cadherin (outcome tissue microarray 1), androgen receptor + E-cadherin (outcome tissue microarray 2), and erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene-related gene + E-cadherin (outcome tissue microarray 3), respectively. One progression tissue microarray section was stained with E-cadherin and ?-methylacyl-CoA racemase; tissue microarray slides were then scanned with the Vectra platform. Biomarker expression analysis was performed with Vectra software-Nuance 3.0.0, and inForm 1.2. IBM SPSS Statistics 19 was used for statistical and correlation analysis (SPSS, Chicago, IL). Close concordance was found between the triple- and double-immunostaining assays used for quantitating spatially overlapping biomarkers androgen receptor and erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene-related gene using outcome tissue microarrays (r = 0.897 for androgen receptor and 0.613 for erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene-related gene, respectively). ?-Methylacyl-CoA racemase and E-cadherin expression levels measured in progression tissue microarray were consistent with previously published data by other groups. In conclusion, Vectra technology is reliable for objective and high-throughput biomarker quantitation and colocalization study using chromogenic multiplexed immunohistochemistry. PMID:22944297
Jawhar, Nazar M.T.
Tissue microarray is a recent innovation in the field of pathology. A microarray contains many small representative tissue samples from hundreds of different cases assembled on a single histologic slide, and therefore allows high throughput analysis of multiple specimens at the same time. Tissue microarrays are paraffin blocks produced by extracting cylindrical tissue cores from different paraffin donor blocks and re-embedding these into a single recipient (microarray) block at defined array coordinates. Using this technique, up to 1000 or more tissue samples can be arrayed into a single paraffin block. It can permit simultaneous analysis of molecular targets at the DNA, mRNA, and protein levels under identical, standardized conditions on a single glass slide, and also provide maximal preservation and use of limited and irreplaceable archival tissue samples. This versatile technique, in which data analysis is automated facilitates retrospective and prospective human tissue studies. It is a practical and effective tool for high-throughput molecular analysis of tissues that is helping to identify new diagnostic and prognostic markers and targets in human cancers, and has a range of potential applications in basic research, prognostic oncology and drug discovery. This article summarizes the technical aspects of tissue microarray construction and sectioning, advantages, application, and limitations. PMID:19318744
Viti, Federica; Merelli, Ivan; Caprera, Andrea; Lazzari, Barbara; Stella, Alessandra; Milanesi, Luciano
Background Tissue MicroArray technique is becoming increasingly important in pathology for the validation of experimental data from transcriptomic analysis. This approach produces many images which need to be properly managed, if possible with an infrastructure able to support tissue sharing between institutes. Moreover, the available frameworks oriented to Tissue MicroArray provide good storage for clinical patient, sample treatment and block construction information, but their utility is limited by the lack of data integration with biomolecular information. Results In this work we propose a Tissue MicroArray web oriented system to support researchers in managing bio-samples and, through the use of ontologies, enables tissue sharing aimed at the design of Tissue MicroArray experiments and results evaluation. Indeed, our system provides ontological description both for pre-analysis tissue images and for post-process analysis image results, which is crucial for information exchange. Moreover, working on well-defined terms it is then possible to query web resources for literature articles to integrate both pathology and bioinformatics data. Conclusions Using this system, users associate an ontology-based description to each image uploaded into the database and also integrate results with the ontological description of biosequences identified in every tissue. Moreover, it is possible to integrate the ontological description provided by the user with a full compliant gene ontology definition, enabling statistical studies about correlation between the analyzed pathology and the most commonly related biological processes. PMID:18460177
Rachel Airley; Andrew Evans; Ali Mobasheri; Stephen M. Hewitt
The hypoxic tumor microenvironment is associated with malignant progression and poor treatment response. The glucose transporter Glut-1 is a prognostic factor and putative hypoxia marker. So far, studies of Glut-1 in cancer have utilized conventional immunohistochemical analysis in a series of individual biopsy or surgical specimens. Tissue microarrays, however, provide a rapid, inexpensive means of profiling biomarker expression. To evaluate
Amaral, Telmo; McKenna, Stephen J; Robertson, Katherine; Thompson, Alastair
Tissue microarrays (TMAs) facilitate the survey of very large numbers of tumors. However, the manual assessment of stained TMA sections constitutes a bottleneck in the pathologist's work flow. This paper presents a computational pipeline for automatically classifying and scoring breast cancer TMA spots that have been subjected to nuclear immunostaining. Spots are classified based on a bag of visual words approach. Immunohistochemical scoring is performed by computing spot features reflecting the proportion of epithelial nuclei that are stained and the strength of that staining. These are then mapped onto an ordinal scale used by pathologists. Multilayer perceptron classifiers are compared with latent topic models and support vector machines for spot classification, and with Gaussian process ordinal regression and linear models for scoring. Intraobserver variation is also reported. The use of posterior entropy to identify uncertain cases is demonstrated. Evaluation is performed using TMA images stained for progesterone receptor. PMID:23715601
Aboulkassim, Tahar; Yasmeen, Amber; Akil, Nizar; Batist, Gerald; Moustafa, Ala-Eddin Al
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been recently shown to be present in human breast cancer worldwide, which could play an important role in the initiation and progression of this cancer. In this regard, we aimed to explore the prevalence of EBV in 108 breast cancer tissues from Syrian women using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and tissue microarray (TMA) analysis. We found that EBV is present in 56 (51.85%) of breast cancers samples. Additionally, we report that the expression of LMP1 gene of EBV is associated with a cancer invasive phenotype in the majority of the cancer samples. These data imply that EBV is present in breast cancer worldwide including Syria and its presence is associated with more aggressive cancer phenotype. Thus, future investigations are needed to elucidate the exact role of EBV in breast carcinogenesis and metastasis. PMID:25933186
Munirah, M A; Siti-Aishah, M A; Reena, M Z; Sharifah, N A; Rohaizak, M; Norlia, A; Rafie, M K M; Asmiati, A; Hisham, A; Fuad, I; Shahrun, N S; Das, S
Breast cancer may be classified into luminal A, luminal B, HER2+/ER-, basal-like and normal-like subtypes based on gene expression profiling or immunohistochemical (IHC) characteristics. The main aim of the present study was to classify breast cancer into molecular subtypes based on immunohistochemistry findings and correlate the subtypes with clinicopathological factors. Two hundred and seventeen primary breast carcinomas tumor tissues were immunostained for ER, PR, HER2, CK5/6, EGFR, CK8/18, p53 and Ki67 using tissue microarray technique. All subtypes were significantly associated with Malay ethnic background (p=0.035) compared to other racial origins. The most common subtypes of breast cancers were luminal A and was significantly associated with low histological grade (p<0.000) and p53 negativity (p=0.003) compared to HER2+/ER-, basal-like and normal-like subtypes with high histological grade (p<0.000) and p53 positivity (p=0.003). Luminal B subtype had the smallest mean tumor size (p=0.009) and also the highest mean number of lymph nodes positive (p=0.032) compared to other subtypes. All markers except EGFR and Ki67 were significantly associated with the subtypes. The most common histological type was infiltrating ductal carcinoma, NOS. Majority of basal-like subtype showed comedo-type necrosis (68.8%) and infiltrative margin (81.3%). Our studies suggest that IHC can be used to identify the different subtypes of breast cancer and all subtypes were significantly associated with race, mean tumor size, mean number of lymph node positive, histological grade and all immunohistochemical markers except EGFR and Ki67. PMID:21655659
Plomin, Robert; Schalkwyk, Leonard C.
Microarrays are revolutionizing genetics by making it possible to genotype hundreds of thousands of DNA markers and to assess the expression (RNA transcripts) of all of the genes in the genome. Microarrays are slides the size of a postage stamp that contain millions of DNA sequences to which single-stranded DNA or RNA can hybridize. This…
April 30, 2015 10:30 AM - 11:30 AM Shady Grove Room TE 406 + Add to Outlook Calendar Title: Merging Discovery with Validation in Tissue Based Translation Research: Toward the Goal of Multiplex Testing of Tissue Microarrays Speaker: Lawrence R Sternberg,
Background Human tissue displays a remarkable diversity in structure and function. To understand how such diversity emerges from the same DNA, systematic measurements of gene expression across different tissues in the human body are essential. Several recent studies addressed this formidable task using microarray technologies. These large tissue expression data sets have provided us an important basis for biomedical research. However, it is well known that microarray data can be compromised by high noise level and various experimental artefacts. Critical comparison of different data sets can help to reveal such errors and to avoid pitfalls in their application. Results We present here the first comparison and integration of four freely available tissue expression data sets generated using three different microarray platforms and containing a total of 377 microarray hybridizations. When assessing the tissue expression of genes, we found that the results considerably depend on the chosen data set. Nevertheless, the comparison also revealed statistically significant similarity of gene expression profiles across different platforms. This enabled us to construct consolidated lists of platform-independent tissue-specific genes using a set of complementary measures. Follow-up analyses showed that results based on consolidated data tend to be more reliable. Conclusions Our study strongly indicates that the consolidation of the four different tissue expression data sets can increase data quality and can lead to biologically more meaningful results. The provided compendium of platform-independent gene lists should facilitate the identification of novel tissue-specific marker genes. PMID:20465848
Ambepitiya Wickramasinghe, Iresha N.; de Vries, Robert P.; Eggert, Amber M.; Wandee, Nantaporn; de Haan, Cornelis A. M.; Gröne, Andrea; Verheije, Monique H.
The initial interaction between viral attachment proteins and the host cell is a critical determinant for the susceptibility of a host for a particular virus. To increase our understanding of avian pathogens and the susceptibility of poultry species, we developed novel avian tissue microarrays (TMAs). Tissue binding profiles of avian viral attachment proteins were studied by performing histochemistry on multi-species TMA, comprising of selected tissues from ten avian species, and single-species TMAs, grouping organ systems of each species together. The attachment pattern of the hemagglutinin protein was in line with the reported tropism of influenza virus H5N1, confirming the validity of TMAs in profiling the initial virus-host interaction. The previously believed chicken-specific coronavirus (CoV) M41 spike (S1) protein displayed a broad attachment pattern to respiratory tissues of various avian species, albeit with lower affinity than hemagglutinin, suggesting that other avian species might be susceptible for chicken CoV. When comparing tissue-specific binding patterns of various avian coronaviral S1 proteins on the single-species TMAs, chicken and partridge CoV S1 had predominant affinity for the trachea, while pigeon CoV S1 showed marked preference for lung of their respective hosts. Binding of all coronaviral S1 proteins was dependent on sialic acids; however, while chicken CoV S1 preferred sialic acids type I lactosamine (Gal(1-3)GlcNAc) over type II (Gal(1-4)GlcNAc), the fine glycan specificities of pigeon and partridge CoVs were different, as chicken CoV S1-specific sialylglycopolymers could not block their binding to tissues. Taken together, TMAs provide a novel platform in the field of infectious diseases to allow identification of binding specificities of viral attachment proteins and are helpful to gain insight into the susceptibility of host and organ for avian pathogens. PMID:26035584
Harris, Loleta D.; De La Cerda, Jorge; Tuziak, Tomas; Rosen, Daniel; Xiao, Lianchun; Shen, Yu; Sabichi, Anita L.; Czerniak, Bogdan; Grossman, H. Barton
Dysregulation of Akt, PTEN, Drg-1, Cx-26, and L-plastin expression appear to be important in the progression of various cancers. Their expression in bladder cancer has not been well characterized. To assess the expression of these genes and their relationship to the outcome of bladder cancer, we used a bladder cancer tissue microarray (TMA) of 251 transitional cell carcinomas. We quantitated immunohistochemical staining of each protein using both automated and manual methods and correlated the expression levels with the clinicopathologic characteristics of the tumor and patient survival. Overall, the results from both automated and manual analyses were similar. We found a significant correlation between the expression of PTEN, Cx-26 and L-plastin with known clinically important pathologic features of bladder cancer (tumor grade, stage, and growth pattern). Aberrant localization patterns of Cx-26 and Drg-1 were observed in bladder tumors. There was also a significant correlation in expression among pAkt, PTEN, and L-plastin. Although the expression of these genes correlated with factors known to be associated with patient outcome, none of them was an independent predictor of progression-free or overall survival. PMID:18288642
Alessandro Lugli; Yvonne Forster; Philippe Haas; Antoinio Nocito; Christoph Bucher; Heidi Bissig; Martina Mirlacher; Martina Storz; Michael J Mihatsch; Guido Sauter
Calretinin is a calcium-binding protein expressed in different normal and neoplastic tissues. Early studies suggested that calretinin is a useful marker to differentiate adenocarcinomas from malignant mesotheliomas of the lung, but subsequent work has shown that calretinin can be expressed in several other tumor types. To systematically investigate the epidemiology of calretinin expression in normal and neoplastic tissues, we used
Mathur, Sandeep Kumar; Jain, Priyanka; Mathur, Prashant
Clustering of insulin resistance and dysmetabolism with obesity is attributed to pathologic adipose tissue. The morphologic hallmarks of this pathology are adipocye hypertrophy and heightened inflammation. However, it's underlying molecular mechanisms remains unknown. Study of gene function in metabolically active tissues like adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver is a promising strategy. Microarray is a powerful technique of assessment of gene function by measuring transcription of large number of genes in an array. This technique has several potential applications in understanding pathologic adipose tissue. They are: (1) transcriptomic differences between various depots of adipose tissue, adipose tissue from obese versus lean individuals, high insulin resistant versus low insulin resistance, brown versus white adipose tissue, (2) transcriptomic profiles of various stages of adipogenesis, (3) effect of diet, cytokines, adipokines, hormones, environmental toxins and drugs on transcriptomic profiles, (4) influence of adipokines on transcriptomic profiles in skeletal muscle, hepatocyte, adipose tissue etc., and (5) genetics of gene expression. The microarray evidences of molecular basis of obesity and insulin resistance are presented here. Despite the limitations, microarray has potential clinical applications in finding new molecular targets for treatment of insulin resistance and classification of adipose tissue based on future risk of insulin resistance syndrome. PMID:21603273
Andrew Rabinovich; Stan Krajewski; Maryla Krajewska; Ahmed Shabaik; Stephen M. Hewitt; Serge J. Belongie; John C. Reed; Jeffrey H. Price
Increasingly automated techniques for arraying, im- munostaining, and imaging tissue sections led us to design soft- ware for convenient management, display, and scoring. Demand for molecular marker data derived in situ from tissue has driven histology informatics automation to the point where one can en- vision the computer, rather than the microscope, as the primary viewing platform for histopathological scoring
Galli, Serena; Zlobec, Inti; Schürch, Christian; Perren, Aurel; Ochsenbein, Adrian F; Banz, Yara
Binding of CD47 to signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRP?), an inhibitory receptor, negatively regulates phagocytosis. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), CD47 is overexpressed on peripheral blasts and leukemia stem cells and inversely correlates with survival. Aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between CD47 protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a bone marrow (BM) tissue microarray (TMA) and clinical outcome in AML patients. CD47 staining on BM leukemia blasts was scored semi-quantitatively and correlated with clinical parameters and known prognostic factors in AML. Low (scores 0-2) and high (score 3) CD47 protein expression were observed in 75% and 25% of AML patients. CD47 expression significantly correlated with percentage BM blast infiltration and peripheral blood blasts. Moreover, high CD47 expression was associated with nucleophosmin (NPM1) gene mutations. In contrast, CD47 expression did not significantly correlate with overall or progression free survival or response to therapy. In summary, a BM TMA permits rapid and reproducible semi-quantitative analysis of CD47 protein expression by IHC. While CD47 expression on circulating AML blasts has been shown to be a negative prognostic marker for a very defined population of AML patients with NK AML, CD47 expression on AML BM blasts is not. PMID:25943033
Muangsub, Tachapol; Samsuwan, Jarunya; Tongyoo, Pumipat; Kitkumthorn, Nakarin; Mutirangura, Apiwat
The role of human DNA methylation has been extensively studied in genomic imprinting, X-inactivation, and disease. However, studies of tissue-specific methylation remain limited. In this study, we use bioinformatics methods to analyze methylation data and reveal loci that are exclusively methylated or unmethylated in individual tissues. We collect 39 previously published DNA methylation profiles using an Illumina® HumanMethylation 27 BeadChip Kit containing 22 common tissues and involving 27,578 CpG loci across the human genome. We found 86 positions of tissue specific methylation CpG (TSM) that encompass 34 hypermethylated TSMs (31 genes) and 52 hypomethylated TSMs (47 genes). Tissues were found to contain 1 to 25 TSM loci, with the majority in the liver (25), testis (18), and brain (16). Fewer TSM loci were found in the muscle (8), ovary (7), adrenal gland (3), pancreas (2-4), kidney, spleen, and stomach (1 each). TSMs are predominantly located 0-300 base pairs in the 3' direction after the transcription start site. Similar to known promoters of methylation, hypermethylated TSM genes suppress transcription, while hypomethylated TSMs allow gene transcription. The majority of hypermethylated TSM genes encode membrane proteins and receptors, while hypomethylated TSM genes primarily encode signal peptides and tissue-specific proteins. In summary, the database of TSM loci produced herein is useful for the selection of tissue-specific DNA markers as diagnostic tools, as well as for the further study of the mechanisms and roles of TSM. PMID:25281015
Espina, Virginia; Mueller, Claudius; Liotta, Lance A.
Phosphorylated proteins reflect the activity of specific cell signaling nodes in biological kinase protein networks. Cell signaling pathways can be either activated or deactivated depending on the phosphorylation state of the constituent proteins. The state of these kinase pathways reflects the in vivo activity of the cells and tissue at any given point in time. As such, cell signaling pathway information can be extrapolated to infer which phosphorylated proteins/pathways are driving an individual tumor’s growth. Reverse Phase Protein Microarrays (RPMA) are a sensitive and precise platform that can be applied to the quantitative measurement of hundreds of phosphorylated signal proteins from a small sample of tissue. Pre-analytical variability originating from tissue procurement and preservation may cause significant variability and bias in downstream molecular analysis. Depending on the ex vivo delay time in tissue processing, and the manner of tissue handling, protein biomarkers such as signal pathway phosphoproteins will be elevated or suppressed in a manner that does not represent the biomarker levels at the time of excision. Consequently, assessment of the state of these kinase networks requires stabilization, or preservation, of the phosphoproteins immediately post tissue procurement. We have employed reverse phase protein microarray analysis of phosphoproteins to study the factors influencing stability of phosphoproteins in tissue following procurement. Based on this analysis we have established tissue procurement guidelines for clinical research with an emphasis on quantifying phosphoproteins by RPMA. PMID:21901591
Yongjin Park; Russell Schwartz
Cancer cells exhibit a common phenotype of uncontrolled cell growth, but this phenotype may arise from many different combinations of mutations. By inferring how cells evolve in individual tumors, a process called cancer progression, we may be able to identify important mutational events for different tumor types, potentially leading to new therapeutics and diagnostics. Prior work has shown that it
Pérez-Sayáns, M; Suárez-Peñaranda, J M; Aguirre-Urízar, J M; Rodríguez-Tojo, M J; Barros-Angueira, F; Gallas-Torreira, M; García-García, A
We described earlier the possible role of ATPaseC1 expression as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for oral cancer; others have reported its use for tumors of the lung and breast. We assessed ATPaseC1 expression in a sample of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) using tissue microarrays (TMAs) to analyze the relation between ATPaseC1 expression and clinical, histopathological and prognostic parameters. We performed a retrospective study of 48 cases of OSCC. We constructed TMAs using two different regions of each tumor. V-ATPaseC1 immunohistochemistry was performed and assessed semiquantitatively. ATPaseC1 staining was observed in most of the neoplastic cells in all tumors. Staining was diffusely cytoplasmic and, to a lesser extent, nuclear. The degree of concordance between the measurements performed in tissue microarray 1 (TMA1) and tissue microarray 2 (TMA2), as evaluated using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), was low. We found great variability in the immunohistochemical staining of the different regions of each tumor. We found 16 cases with mild expression (33.3%), 20 with moderate expression (41.7%) and 12 with intense expression (25%). Differences in the clinical-pathological variables studied were not statistically significant. The difficulty of immunohistochemical evaluation, the heterogeneity of the carcinomas and the fact that evaluation of expression requires semiquantitative analysis render the reliability of the results obtained from TMA-based techniques questionable. PMID:25901422
Marie-Claude Djidja; Emmanuelle Claude; Marten F. Snel; Simona Francese; Peter Scriven; Vikki Carolan; Malcolm R. Clench
The development of tissue micro-array (TMA) technologies provides insights into high-throughput analysis of proteomics patterns\\u000a from a large number of archived tumour samples. In the work reported here, matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionisation–ion\\u000a mobility separation–mass spectrometry (MALDI–IMS–MS) profiling and imaging methodology has been used to visualise the distribution\\u000a of several peptides and identify them directly from TMA sections after on-tissue tryptic digestion.
Vogel, Ulrich Felix
Paraffin tissue microarrays (PTMAs) are blocks of paraffin containing up to 1300 paraffin tissue core biopsies (PTCBs). Normally, these PTCBs are punched from routine paraffin tissue blocks, which contain tissues of differing thicknesses. Therefore, the PTCBs are of different lengths. In consequence, the sections of the deeper portions of the PTMA do not contain all of the desired PTCBs. To overcome this drawback, cutting boards were constructed from panels of plastic with a thickness of 4 mm. Holes were drilled into the plastic and filled completely with at least one PTCB per hole. After being trimmed to a uniform length of 4 mm, these PTCBs were pushed from the cutting board into corresponding holes in a recipient block by means of a plate with steel pins. Up to 1000 sections per PTMA were cut without any significant loss of PTCBs, thereby increasing the efficacy of the PTMA technique. PMID:20048672
Zlobec, Inti; Suter, Guido; Perren, Aurel; Lugli, Alessandro
Biomarker research relies on tissue microarrays (TMA). TMAs are produced by repeated transfer of small tissue cores from a 'donor' block into a 'recipient' block and then used for a variety of biomarker applications. The construction of conventional TMAs is labor intensive, imprecise, and time-consuming. Here, a protocol using next-generation Tissue Microarrays (ngTMA) is outlined. ngTMA is based on TMA planning and design, digital pathology, and automated tissue microarraying. The protocol is illustrated using an example of 134 metastatic colorectal cancer patients. Histological, statistical and logistical aspects are considered, such as the tissue type, specific histological regions, and cell types for inclusion in the TMA, the number of tissue spots, sample size, statistical analysis, and number of TMA copies. Histological slides for each patient are scanned and uploaded onto a web-based digital platform. There, they are viewed and annotated (marked) using a 0.6-2.0 mm diameter tool, multiple times using various colors to distinguish tissue areas. Donor blocks and 12 'recipient' blocks are loaded into the instrument. Digital slides are retrieved and matched to donor block images. Repeated arraying of annotated regions is automatically performed resulting in an ngTMA. In this example, six ngTMAs are planned containing six different tissue types/histological zones. Two copies of the ngTMAs are desired. Three to four slides for each patient are scanned; 3 scan runs are necessary and performed overnight. All slides are annotated; different colors are used to represent the different tissues/zones, namely tumor center, invasion front, tumor/stroma, lymph node metastases, liver metastases, and normal tissue. 17 annotations/case are made; time for annotation is 2-3 min/case. 12 ngTMAs are produced containing 4,556 spots. Arraying time is 15-20 hr. Due to its precision, flexibility and speed, ngTMA is a powerful tool to further improve the quality of TMAs used in clinical and translational research. PMID:25285857
Prasad, Keerthana; Zimmermann, Bernhard; Prabhu, Gopalakrishna; Pai, Muktha
Cancer of the breast is the second most common human neoplasm, accounting for approximately one quarter of all cancers in females after cervical carcinoma. Estrogen receptor (ER), Progesteron receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER-2/neu) expressions play an important role in diagnosis and prognosis of breast carcinoma. Tissue microarray (TMA) technique is a high throughput technique which provides a standardized set of images which are uniformly stained, facilitating effective automation of the evaluation of the specimen images. TMA technique is widely used to evaluate hormone expression for diagnosis of breast cancer. If one considers the time taken for each of the steps in the tissue microarray process workflow, it can be observed that the maximum amount of time is taken by the analysis step. Hence, automated analysis will significantly reduce the overall time required to complete the study. Many tools are available for automated digital acquisition of images of the spots from the microarray slide. Each of these images needs to be evaluated by a pathologist to assign a score based on the staining intensity to represent the hormone expression, to classify them into negative or positive cases. Our work aims to develop a system for automated evaluation of sets of images generated through tissue microarray technique, representing the ER expression images and HER-2/neu expression images. Our study is based on the Tissue Microarray Database portal of Stanford university at http://tma.stanford.edu/cgi-bin/cx?n=her1, which has made huge number of images available to researchers. We used 171 images corresponding to ER expression and 214 images corresponding to HER-2/neu expression of breast carcinoma. Out of the 171 images corresponding to ER expression, 104 were negative and 67 were representing positive cases. Out of the 214 images corresponding to HER-2/neu expression, 112 were negative and 102 were representing positive cases. Our method has 92.31% sensitivity and 93.18% specificity for ER expression image classification and 96.67% sensitivity and 88.24% specificity for HER-2/neu expression image classification. PMID:21589855
Rimm, David L.; Nielsen, Torsten O.; Jewell, Scott D.; Rohrer, Daniel C.; Broadwater, Gloria; Waldman, Frederic; Mitchell, Kisha A.; Singh, Baljit; Tsongalis, Gregory J.; Frankel, Wendy L.; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Lara, Jonathan F.; Hsi, Eric D.; Bleiweiss, Ira J.; Badve, Sunil S.; Chen, Beiyun; Ravdin, Peter M.; Schilsky, Richard L.; Thor, Ann; Berry, Donald A.
Practice-changing evidence requires confirmation, preferably in multi-institutional clinical trials. The collection of tissue within such trials has enabled biomarker studies and evaluation of companion diagnostic tests. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) have become a standard approach in many cooperative oncology groups. A principal goal is to maximize the number of assays with this precious tissue. However, production strategies for these arrays have not been standardized, possibly decreasing the value of the study. In this article, members of the Cancer and Leukemia Group B Pathology Committee relay our experiences as array facility directors and propose guidelines regarding the production of high-quality TMAs for cooperative group studies. We also discuss statistical issues arising from having a proportion of patients available for TMAs and the possibility that patients with TMAs fail to represent the greater study population. PMID:21519016
Bilek, Marcela M. M.
Despite major research efforts in the field of biomaterials, rejection, severe immune responses, scar tissue and poor integration continue to seriously limit the performance of today's implantable biomedical devices. Implantable biomaterials that interact with their host via an interfacial layer of active biomolecules to direct a desired cellular response to the implant would represent a major and much sought after improvement. Another, perhaps equally revolutionary, development that is on the biomedical horizon is the introduction of cost-effective microarrays for fast, highly multiplexed screening for biomarkers on cell membranes and in a variety of analyte solutions. Both of these advances will rely on effective methods of functionalizing surfaces with bioactive molecules. After a brief introduction to other methods currently available, this review will describe recently developed approaches that use energetic ions extracted from plasma to facilitate simple, one-step covalent surface immobilization of bioactive molecules. A kinetic theory model of the immobilization process by reactions with long-lived, mobile, surface-embedded radicals will be presented. The roles of surface chemistry and microstructure of the ion treated layer will be discussed. Early progress on applications of this technology to create diagnostic microarrays and to engineer bioactive surfaces for implantable biomedical devices will be reviewed.
D'Urso, Davide G; La Spada, Alberto; Tramonte, Tommaso; Rainoldi, Barnaba; De Blasio, Andrea
In the past decade, the popularity and power of Tissue Microarray (TMA) technology has increased since it provides a method to detect diagnostic and prognostic markers in an array of clinical tissue specimens collected for translational research. TMAs allow for rapid and cost-effective analysis of hundreds of molecular markers at the nucleic acid and protein levels. This technology is particularly useful in the realization of the Human Protein Atlas Project, since it aims to create a reference database of non-redundant human proteins. In this context, it is important to assure the lack of cross-sample contamination due to the repeated use of the same needle in consecutive coring. Here we show that carry-over contamination from one tissue core to another does not occur, reinforcing the accuracy of the TMA technology in the simultaneous testing of multiple bio-samples. PMID:26035013
Mercer, Sarah E.; Cheng, Chia-Ho; Atkinson, Donald L.; Krcmery, Jennifer; Guzman, Claudia E.; Kent, David T.; Zukor, Katherine; Marx, Kenneth A.; Odelberg, Shannon J.; Simon, Hans-Georg
The inability to functionally repair tissues that are lost as a consequence of disease or injury remains a significant challenge for regenerative medicine. The molecular and cellular processes involved in complete restoration of tissue architecture and function are expected to be complex and remain largely unknown. Unlike humans, certain salamanders can completely regenerate injured tissues and lost appendages without scar formation. A parsimonious hypothesis would predict that all of these regenerative activities are regulated, at least in part, by a common set of genes. To test this hypothesis and identify genes that might control conserved regenerative processes, we performed a comprehensive microarray analysis of the early regenerative response in five regeneration-competent tissues from the newt Notophthalmus viridescens. Consistent with this hypothesis, we established a molecular signature for regeneration that consists of common genes or gene family members that exhibit dynamic differential regulation during regeneration in multiple tissue types. These genes include members of the matrix metalloproteinase family and its regulators, extracellular matrix components, genes involved in controlling cytoskeleton dynamics, and a variety of immune response factors. Gene Ontology term enrichment analysis validated and supported their functional activities in conserved regenerative processes. Surprisingly, dendrogram clustering and RadViz classification also revealed that each regenerative tissue had its own unique temporal expression profile, pointing to an inherent tissue-specific regenerative gene program. These new findings demand a reconsideration of how we conceptualize regenerative processes and how we devise new strategies for regenerative medicine. PMID:23300656
Gauffin, Fredrika; Diffner, Eva; Gustafsson, Bertil; Nordgren, Ann; Wingren, Anette Gjörloff; Sander, Birgitta; Persson, Jenny Liao; Gustafsson, Britt
PTEN and SHP1 are tumor suppressor genes involved in the regulation of cell cycle control and apoptosis. The authors investigated the protein expression of PTEN and SHP1, by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays from bone marrow samples in children, diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and nonmalignant controls. PTEN was overexpressed in diagnostic ALL samples, while SHP1 showed a low expression. Both proteins showed a significant difference in expression compared to nonmalignant controls. The roles of PTEN and SHP1 are not well investigated in pediatric leukemia and could in the future play a role as prognostic factors. PMID:19206008
Boparai, Ravneet K.; Kondepudi, Kanthi Kiran; Mantri, Shrikant; Bishnoi, Mahendra
Background Two types of adipose tissues, white (WAT) and brown (BAT) are found in mammals. Increasingly novel strategies are being proposed for the treatment of obesity and its associated complications by altering amount and/or activity of BAT using mouse models. Methodology/Principle Findings The present study was designed to: (a) investigate the differential expression of genes in LACA mice subcutaneous WAT (sWAT) and BAT using mouse DNA microarray, (b) to compare mouse differential gene expression with previously published human data; to understand any inter- species differences between the two and (c) to make a comparative assessment with C57BL/6 mouse strain. In mouse microarray studies, over 7003, 1176 and 401 probe sets showed more than two-fold, five-fold and ten-fold change respectively in differential expression between murine BAT and WAT. Microarray data was validated using quantitative RT-PCR of key genes showing high expression in BAT (Fabp3, Ucp1, Slc27a1) and sWAT (Ms4a1, H2-Ob, Bank1) or showing relatively low expression in BAT (Pgk1, Cox6b1) and sWAT (Slc20a1, Cd74). Multi-omic pathway analysis was employed to understand possible links between the organisms. When murine two fold data was compared with published human BAT and sWAT data, 90 genes showed parallel differential expression in both mouse and human. Out of these 90 genes, 46 showed same pattern of differential expression whereas the pattern was opposite for the remaining 44 genes. Based on our microarray results and its comparison with human data, we were able to identify genes (targets) (a) which can be studied in mouse model systems to extrapolate results to human (b) where caution should be exercised before extrapolation of murine data to human. Conclusion Our study provides evidence for inter species (mouse vs human) differences in differential gene expression between sWAT and BAT. Critical understanding of this data may help in development of novel ways to engineer one form of adipose tissue to another using murine model with focus on human. PMID:26010905
Gu, Junxia; Li, Xiaoyun; Liang, Yuting; Qiao, Longwei; Ran, Deyuan; Lu, Yaojuan; Li, Xingang; Wei, Wenxiang; Zheng, Qiping
URI, or RMP, is a RNA polymerase II subunit RPB5-associated protein known to play essential roles in ubiquitination and transcription. Recently, we and others have shown that URI/RMP is also important for progression of hepatocellular carcinoma, ovarian, and prostate cancers. To identify the mechanistic basis of URI/RMP during multiple cellular processes, we investigated URI/RMP expression in a tissue microarray (TMA) containing multiple normal human tissues. The results showed that URI/RMP is ubiquitously but differentially expressed in these human tissues which partially explains its multiple cellular functions. To elucidate the role of URI/RMP during oncogenesis of multiple malignancies, especially the tumors of reproductive system, we analyzed URI/RMP expression in a TMA containing multiple reproductive system tumors. We did not observe significant difference of URI/RMP expression between cancerous and adjacent tissues of the prostate, breast, ovarian, and endometrial cancers. However, increased URI/RMP expression was observed in two of the three cases of cervical SCC (squamous cell carcinoma) cells compared to their adjacent epithelial cells. Moreover, we detected significantly upregulated URI/RMP expression not only in cervical cancers but also in pre-cancerous CINs (cervical intra-epithelial neoplasias) in a TMA that covers the whole spectrum of normal cervix, CINs, and cervical cancers. No difference of URI/RMP expression was observed between CINs and cervical cancers. Given the high risk of CINs (especially CIN3) turning into cervical cancer if left untreated, the increased URI/RMP expression in CINs as well as in cervical cancers suggest a clinical relevance of URI/RMP upon cervical cancer tumorigenesis and worth further investigation. PMID:23573313
Kampf, Caroline; Olsson, IngMarie; Ryberg, Urban; Sjöstedt, Evelina; Pontén, Fredrik
The tissue microarray (TMA) technology provides the means for high-throughput analysis of multiple tissues and cells. The technique is used within the Human Protein Atlas project for global analysis of protein expression patterns in normal human tissues, cancer and cell lines. Here we present the assembly of 1 mm cores, retrieved from microscopically selected representative tissues, into a single recipient TMA block. The number and size of cores in a TMA block can be varied from approximately forty 2 mm cores to hundreds of 0.6 mm cores. The advantage of using TMA technology is that large amount of data can rapidly be obtained using a single immunostaining protocol to avoid experimental variability. Importantly, only limited amount of scarce tissue is needed, which allows for the analysis of large patient cohorts 1 2. Approximately 250 consecutive sections (4 ?m thick) can be cut from a TMA block and used for immunohistochemical staining to determine specific protein expression patterns for 250 different antibodies. In the Human Protein Atlas project, antibodies are generated towards all human proteins and used to acquire corresponding protein profiles in both normal human tissues from 144 individuals and cancer tissues from 216 different patients, representing the 20 most common forms of human cancer. Immunohistochemically stained TMA sections on glass slides are scanned to create high-resolution images from which pathologists can interpret and annotate the outcome of immunohistochemistry. Images together with corresponding pathology-based annotation data are made publically available for the research community through the Human Protein Atlas portal (www.proteinatlas.org) (Figure 1) 3 4. The Human Protein Atlas provides a map showing the distribution and relative abundance of proteins in the human body. The current version contains over 11 million images with protein expression data for 12.238 unique proteins, corresponding to more than 61% of all proteins encoded by the human genome. PMID:22688270
Sugnet, Charles W; Srinivasan, Karpagam; Clark, Tyson A; O'Brien, Georgeann; Cline, Melissa S; Wang, Hui; Williams, Alan; Kulp, David; Blume, John E; Haussler, David; Ares, Manuel
Alternative splicing contributes to both gene regulation and protein diversity. To discover broad relationships between regulation of alternative splicing and sequence conservation, we applied a systems approach, using oligonucleotide microarrays designed to capture splicing information across the mouse genome. In a set of 22 adult tissues, we observe differential expression of RNA containing at least two alternative splice junctions for about 40% of the 6,216 alternative events we could detect. Statistical comparisons identify 171 cassette exons whose inclusion or skipping is different in brain relative to other tissues and another 28 exons whose splicing is different in muscle. A subset of these exons is associated with unusual blocks of intron sequence whose conservation in vertebrates rivals that of protein-coding exons. By focusing on sets of exons with similar regulatory patterns, we have identified new sequence motifs implicated in brain and muscle splicing regulation. Of note is a motif that is strikingly similar to the branchpoint consensus but is located downstream of the 5? splice site of exons included in muscle. Analysis of three paralogous membrane-associated guanylate kinase genes reveals that each contains a paralogous tissue-regulated exon with a similar tissue inclusion pattern. While the intron sequences flanking these exons remain highly conserved among mammalian orthologs, the paralogous flanking intron sequences have diverged considerably, suggesting unusually complex evolution of the regulation of alternative splicing in multigene families. PMID:16424921
Toberer, Ferdinand; Sykora, Jaromir; Göttel, Daniel; Hartschuh, Wolfgang; Werchau, Siegfried; Enk, Alexander; Joos, Stefan; Krammer, Peter H; Kuhn, Annegret
Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease. Different pathogenetic mechanisms, including the accumulation of apoptotic keratinocytes in CLE, have been reported. Therefore, we investigated whether CLE and other inflammatory skin diseases differ with regard to the epidermal expression of molecules that are crucial for the initiation and regulation of apoptosis. In this study, 241 skin biopsies from patients with CLE, psoriasis (PSO), lichen planus (LP) and healthy controls (HCs) were analysed immunohistochemically using the tissue microarray (TMA) technique. The TUNEL assay and anti-activated caspase-3 antibodies revealed a significant increase of apoptotic keratinocytes in CLE lesions compared with HCs. Furthermore, we detected a significant increase in the epidermal expression of CD95 in CLE specimens compared with PSO, LP and HCs. These data suggest that the accumulation of apoptotic keratinocytes in CLE might be due to the increased epidermal expression of CD95, resulting in increased activity of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in the disease. PMID:24079735
Santoro, A.; Pannone, G.; Errico, M.E.; Bifano, D.; Lastilla, G.; Bufo, P.; Loreto, C.; Donofrio, V.
Beta-catenin is a major protein in the Wnt signalling pathway. Although it has been studied in various types of carcinoma, little is known about its expression in mesenchymal tumours. In this study 41 specimens of a variety of mesenchymal childhood tumours were compared to 24 samples of the corresponding adult tumours to assess the diagnostic value of nuclear ?-catenin expression using tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry. Similar to adult sarcoma and fibromatosis, ?-catenin was not expressed in the majority of childhood sarcomas, and its nuclear translocation was detected in paediatric fibromatosis; non-negligible levels of nuclear staining in other tumour types demonstrate Wnt pathway activation in mesenchymal neoplasms of childhood and adolescence. PMID:23027341
Salto-Tellez, M; Nga, M E; Han, H C; Wong, A S-C; Lee, C K; Anuar, D; Ng, S S; Ho, M; Wee, A; Chan, Y H; Soong, R
A tissue microarray analysis of 22 proteins in gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST), followed by an unsupervised, hierarchical monothetic cluster statistical analysis of the results, allowed us to detect a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein overexpression signature discriminator of prognosis in GIST, and discover novel VEGF-A DNA variants that may have functional significance. PMID:17299397
efficiency of hyperspectral microscopic analysis of normal & neoplastic colon biopsies prepared as microarray-array tissue sections of normal and malignant colon through a Nikon Biophot microscope. Hyper-spectral pictures with a diagnostic efficiency of 100.0%. CONCLUSION: Hyperspectral microscopic analysis does discriminate normal
Blows, Fiona M.; Ali, H. Raza; Dawson, Sarah-Jane; Le Quesne, John; Provenzano, Elena; Caldas, Carlos; Pharoah, Paul D. P.
in paraffin wax prior to long term storage was also assessed. Methods Patient data We used data generated from tissue micro-arrays constructed using archival tumour material from patients in the Study of Epidemiology and Risk factors in Cancer Heredity...
Benjachat, Thitima; Tongyoo, Pumipat; Tantivitayakul, Pornpen; Somparn, Poorichaya; Hirankarn, Nattiya; Prom-On, Santitham; Pisitkun, Prapaporn; Leelahavanichkul, Asada; Avihingsanon, Yingyos; Townamchai, Natavudh
The prognosis of severe lupus nephritis (LN) is very different among individual patients. None of the current biomarkers can be used to predict the development of refractory LN. Because kidney histology is the gold standard for diagnosing LN, the authors hypothesize that molecular signatures detected in kidney biopsy tissue may have predictive value in determining the therapeutic response. Sixty-seven patients with biopsy-proven severely active LN by International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society (ISN/RPS) classification III/IV were recruited. Twenty-three kidney tissue samples were used for RNA microarray analysis, while the remaining 44 samples were used for validation by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) gene expression analysis. From hundreds of differential gene expressions in refractory LN, 12 candidates were selected for validation based on gene expression levels as well as relevant functions. The candidate biomarkers were members of the innate immune response molecules, adhesion molecules, calcium-binding receptors, and paracellular tight junction proteins. S100A8, ANXA13, CLDN19 and FAM46B were identified as the best kidney biomarkers for refractory LN, and COL8A1 was identified as the best marker for early loss of kidney function. These new molecular markers can be used to predict refractory LN and may eventually lead to novel molecular targets for therapy. PMID:26110394
Benjachat, Thitima; Tongyoo, Pumipat; Tantivitayakul, Pornpen; Somparn, Poorichaya; Hirankarn, Nattiya; Prom-On, Santitham; Pisitkun, Prapaporn; Leelahavanichkul, Asada; Avihingsanon, Yingyos; Townamchai, Natavudh
The prognosis of severe lupus nephritis (LN) is very different among individual patients. None of the current biomarkers can be used to predict the development of refractory LN. Because kidney histology is the gold standard for diagnosing LN, the authors hypothesize that molecular signatures detected in kidney biopsy tissue may have predictive value in determining the therapeutic response. Sixty-seven patients with biopsy-proven severely active LN by International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society (ISN/RPS) classification III/IV were recruited. Twenty-three kidney tissue samples were used for RNA microarray analysis, while the remaining 44 samples were used for validation by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) gene expression analysis. From hundreds of differential gene expressions in refractory LN, 12 candidates were selected for validation based on gene expression levels as well as relevant functions. The candidate biomarkers were members of the innate immune response molecules, adhesion molecules, calcium-binding receptors, and paracellular tight junction proteins. S100A8, ANXA13, CLDN19 and FAM46B were identified as the best kidney biomarkers for refractory LN, and COL8A1 was identified as the best marker for early loss of kidney function. These new molecular markers can be used to predict refractory LN and may eventually lead to novel molecular targets for therapy. PMID:26110394
Background Rice is one of the major crop species in the world helping to sustain approximately half of the global population’s diet especially in Asia. However, due to the impact of extreme climate change and global warming, rice crop production and yields may be adversely affected resulting in a world food crisis. Researchers have been keen to understand the effects of drought, temperature and other environmental stress factors on rice plant growth and development. Gene expression microarray technology represents a key strategy for the identification of genes and their associated expression patterns in response to stress. Here, we report on the development of the rice OneArray® microarray platform which is suitable for two major rice subspecies, japonica and indica. Results The rice OneArray® 60-mer, oligonucleotide microarray consists of a total of 21,179 probes covering 20,806 genes of japonica and 13,683 genes of indica. Through a validation study, total RNA isolated from rice shoots and roots were used for comparison of gene expression profiles via microarray examination. The results were submitted to NCBI’s Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Data can be found under the GEO accession number GSE50844 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE50844). A list of significantly differentially expressed genes was generated; 438 shoot-specific genes were identified among 3,138 up-regulated genes, and 463 root-specific genes were found among 3,845 down-regulated genes. GO enrichment analysis demonstrates these results are in agreement with the known physiological processes of the different organs/tissues. Furthermore, qRT-PCR validation was performed on 66 genes, and found to significantly correlate with the microarray results (R?=?0.95, p?0.001***). Conclusion The rice OneArray® 22 K microarray, the first rice microarray, covering both japonica and indica subspecies was designed and validated in a comprehensive study of gene expression in rice tissues. The rice OneArray® microarray platform revealed high specificity and sensitivity. Additional information for the rice OneArray® microarray can be found at http://www.phalanx.com.tw/index.php. PMID:24398116
Wang, Hongzhen; Cheng, Jun; Cheng, Yanping; Zhou, Xioafu
It has been paid more and more attention on maize tissue culture as it is a basic work in maize genetic transformation, especially huge breakthrough has been made in maize tissue culture utilizing mature embryos as explants in the recent years. This paper reviewed the study progress on maize tissue culture and plant regeneration utilizing mature embryos as explants from callus induction, subculture, plant regeneration and browning reduction and so on.
Maciej P. Zerkowski; Robert L. Camp; Barbara A. Burtness; David L. Rimm; Gina G. Chung
Epidemiologic and preclinical studies suggest that cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) may promote tumor growth and spread by affecting angiogenesis and apoptosis in breast cancer. Using a tissue microarray (TMA), we analyzed the expression and subcellular localization of Cox-2 by AQUA and X-tile, our algorithms for quantitative analysis of protein expression and determi- nation of optimal cutpoints. Our TMA consisted of 669 Stage
Byung-IL Yoon; Guang-Xun Li; Kunio Kitada; Yasushi Kawasaki; Katsuhide Igarashi; Yukio Kodama; Tomoaki Inoue; Kazuko Kobayashi; Jun Kanno; Dae-Yong Kim; Tohru Inoue; Yoko Hirabayashi
Although the mechanisms underlying benzene-induced toxicity and leukemogenicity are not yet fully understood, they are likely to be complicated by various pathways, including those of metabolism, growth factor regulation, oxidative stress, DNA damage, cell cycle regulation, and programmed cell death. With this as a background, we performed cDNA microarray analyses on mouse bone marrow tissue during and after a 2-week
Liu, Xia; Gao, Yutao; Zhao, Bingbing; Li, Xiaofeng; Lu, Yi; Zhang, Jian; Li, Danrong; Li, Li; Yin, Fuqiang
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal cancer of female reproductive system. There is a consistent and urgent need to better understand its mechanism. In this study, we retrieved 186 genes that were dysregulated by at least 4-fold in 594 ovarian serous cystadenocarcinomas in comparison with eight normal ovaries, according to The Cancer Genome Atlas Ovarian Statistics data deposited in Oncomine database. DAVID analysis of these genes enriched two biological processes indicating that the cell cycle and microtubules might play critical roles in ovarian cancer progression. Among these 186 genes, 46 were dysregulated by at least 10-fold and their expression was further confirmed by the Bonome Ovarian Statistics data deposited in Oncomine, which covered 185 cases of ovarian carcinomas and 10 cases of normal ovarian surface epithelium. Six genes, including aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A2 (ALDH1A2), alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (class I), ? polypeptide (ADH1B), NEL-like 2 (chicken) (NELL2), hemoglobin, ? (HBB), ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A (ABC1), member 8 (ABCA8) and hemoglobin, ?1 (HBA1) were identified to be downregulated by at least 10-fold in 779 ovarian cancers compared with 18 normal controls. Using mRNA expression profiles retrieved from microarrays deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus Profiles database, RT-qPCR measurement and bioinformatics analysis, we further indicated that high expression of HBB might predict a poorer 5-year survival, high expression of ALDH1A2 and ABCA8 might predict a poor outcome; while ALDH1A2, ADH1B, HBB and ABCA8, in particular the former two genes, might be associated with drug resistance, and ALDH1A2 and NELL2 might contribute to invasiveness and metastasis in ovarian cancer. This study thus contributes to our understanding of the mechanism of ovarian cancer progression and development, and the six identified genes may be potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:25891226
Zhu, Jianhui; He, Jintang; Liu, Yashu; Simeone, Diane M.; Lubman, David M.
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is characterized by late diagnosis due to lack of early symptoms, extensive metastasis, and high resistance to chemo/radiation therapy. Recently, a subpopulation of cells within pancreatic cancers, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs), has been characterized and postulated to be the drivers for pancreatic cancer and responsible for metastatic spread. Further studies on pancreatic CSCs are therefore of particular importance to identify novel diagnosis markers and therapeutic targets for this dismal disease. Herein, the malignant phenotype of pancreatic cancer stem-like CD24+CD44+ cells was isolated from a human pancreatic carcinoma cell line (PANC-1), and demonstrated 4-fold increased invasion ability compared to CD24?CD44+ cells. Using lectin microarray and nano LC-MS/MS, we identified a differentially expressed set of glycoproteins between these two subpopulations. Lectin microarray analysis revealed that fucose- and galactose-specific lectins, UEA-1 and DBA respectively, exhibit distinctly strong binding to CD24+CD44+ cells. The glycoproteins extracted by multi-lectin affinity chromatography were consequently analyzed by LC-MS/MS. 17 differentially expressed glycoproteins were identified, including upregulated Cytokeratin 8/CK8, Integrin ?1/CD29, ICAM1/CD54 and Ribophorin 2/RPN2, and downregulated Aminopeptidase N/CD13. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarrays showed that CD24 was significantly associated with late-stage pancreatic adenocarcinomas, and RPN2 was exclusively coexpressed with CD24 in a small population of CD24-positive cells. However, CD13 expression was dramatically decreased along with tumor progression, preferentially present on the apical membrane of ductal cells and vessels in early-stage tumors. Our findings suggest that these glycoproteins may provide potential therapeutic targets and promising prognostic markers for pancreatic cancer. PMID:22335271
Machado, Isidro; Giner, Francisco; Mayordomo, Empar; Carda, Carmen; Navarro, Samuel; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio
Background Chondrosarcoma (Chs) is the third most frequent primary malignant tumour of bone and can be primary or secondary, the latter results mainly from the malignant transformation of a benign pre-existing tumour. Methods All the cases diagnosed as Chs (primary tumours, recurrences and/or metastasis and xenotransplanted Chs) from the files of our Department were collected. Only cases with paraffin blocks available were selected (Total 32 cases). Six Tissue Microarrays (TMAs) were performed and all the cases and biopsies were distributed into the following groups: a) only paraffin block available from primary and/or metastatic tumours (3 TMAs), b) paraffin block available from primary and/or metastatic tumours as well as from the corresponding Nude mice xenotransplant (2 TMAs), c) only paraffin block available from xenotransplanted Chs (1 TMA). A reclassification of all the cases was performed; in addition, conventional hematoxylin-eosin as well as immunohistochemistry staining (S100, SOX-9, Ki-67, BCL-2, p53, p16, CK, CD99, Survivin and Caveolin) was analyzed in all the TMA. Results The distribution of the cases according to the histopathological pattern and the location of tumours were as follows: fourteen Grade I Chs (all primaries), two primary Grade II Chs, ten Grade III Chs (all primaries), five dedifferentiated Chs (four primaries and one primary with metastasis), and two Chs from cell cultures (Ch grade III). One recurrent extraskeletal myxoid Chs was included as a control in the TMA. Although there was heterogeneity in immunohistochemistry results of the different material analyzed, S100, SOX-9, Caveolin and Survivin were more expressed. The number of passages in xenotransplants fluctuated between 1 and 13. Curiously, in Grade I Chs, these implanted tumours hardly grew, and the number of passages did not exceed one. Conclusion The study of Chs by means of TMA techniques is very important because it will improve the assessment of different antibodies applied in the immunohistochemical assays. Xenotransplanted tumours in TMA improve knowledge concerning the variability in the morphological pattern shown by these tumours during the evolution in nudes. PMID:18673514
Beuvink, Iwan; Kolb, Fabrice A.; Budach, Wolfgang; Garnier, Arlette; Lange, Joerg; Natt, Francois; Dengler, Uwe; Hall, Jonathan; Weiler, Jan
Microarrays to examine the global expression levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) in a systematic in-parallel manner have become important tools to help unravel the functions of miRNAs and to understand their roles in RNA-based regulation and their implications in human diseases. We have established a novel miRNA-specific microarray platform that enables the simultaneous expression analysis of both known and predicted miRNAs obtained from human or mouse origin. Chemically modified 2?-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-(MOE) oligoribonucleotide probes were arrayed onto Evanescent Resonance (ER) microchips by robotic spotting. Supplementing the complementary probes against miRNAs with carefully designed mismatch controls allowed for accurate sequence-specific determination of miRNA expression profiles obtained from a panel of mouse tissues. This revealed new expression signatures of known miRNAs as well as of novel miRNAs previously predicted using bioinformatic methods. Systematic confirmation of the array data with northern blotting and, in particular, real-time PCR suggests that the described microarray platform is a powerful tool to analyze miRNA expression patterns with rapid throughput and high fidelity. PMID:17355992
of hyperspectral microscopic analysis of normal & neoplastic colon biopsies prepared as microarray tissue sections microscopic analysis of normal & malignant colon. We compare the results to our previous studies which used-array tissue sections of normal and malignant colon with a Nikon Biophot microscope. Hyper-spectral pictures
Smigiel, R; Lebioda, A; Blaszczy?ski, M; Korecka, K; Czauderna, P; Korlacki, W; Jakubiak, A; Bednarczyk, D; Maciejewski, H; Wizinska, P; Sasiadek, M M; Patkowski, D
Esophageal atresia (EA) is a congenital defect of the esophagus involving the interruption of the esophagus with or without connection to the trachea (tracheoesophageal fistula [TEF]). EA/TEF may occur as an isolated anomaly, may be part of a complex of congenital defects (syndromic), or may develop within the context of a known syndrome or association. The molecular mechanisms underlying the development of EA are poorly understood. It is supposed that a combination of multigenic factors and epigenetic modification of genes play a role in its etiology. The aim of our work was to assess the human gene expression microarray study in esophageal tissue samples. Total RNA was extracted from 26 lower pouches of esophageal tissue collected during thoracoscopic EA repair in neonates with the isolated (IEA) and the syndromic form (SEA). We identified 787 downregulated and 841 upregulated transcripts between SEA and controls, and about 817 downregulated and 765 upregulated probes between IEA and controls. Fifty percent of these genes showed differential expression specific for either IEA or SEA. Functional pathway analysis revealed substantial enrichment for Wnt and Sonic hedgehog, as well as cytokine and chemokine signaling pathways. Moreover, we performed reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction study in a group of SHH and Wnt pathways genes with differential expression in microarray profiling to confirm the microarray expression results. We verified the altered expression in SFRP2 gene from the Wnt pathway as well as SHH, GLI1, GLI2, and GLI3 from the Sonic hedgehog pathway. The results suggest an important role of these pathways and genes for EA/TEF etiology. PMID:24460849
Satu-Leena Sallinen; Pauli K. Sallinen; Hannu K. Haapasalo; Heikki J. Helin; Pauli T. Helen; Peter Schraml; Juha Kononen
New genomic large-scale screening techniques have made the task of establishing an accurate molecular fingerprint of cancer cells feasible. Here, we have used a two-phase strategy for identification of molecular alterations in gliomas. First, cDNA microarrays (Clontech Laboratories, Inc., Research Genetics) were used to pinpoint differentially expressed genes between normal brain and diffuse astrocytomas (grades II-IV), and between a primary
Boissière-Michot, Florence; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Gourgou-Bourgade, Sophie; Radal, Michèle; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Rochaix, Philippe; Arnould, Laurent; Bralet, Marie-Pierre; Azria, David; Ychou, Marc
Metastatic colorectal carcinomas (CRC) resistant to chemotherapy may benefit from targeting monoclonal therapy cetuximab when they express the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Because of its clinical implications, we studied EGFR expression by immunohistochemistry on tissue sections of primary CRC (n=32) and their related metastases (n=53). A tissue microarray (TMA) was generated from the same paraffin blocks to determine whether this technique could be used for EGFR screening in CRC. On tissue sections, 84% of the primary CRC and 94% of the metastases were EGFR-positive. When matched, they showed a concordant EGFR-positive status in 78% of the cases. Moreover, staining intensity and extent of EGFR-positive cells in the primary CRC correlated with those observed in the synchronous metastases. On TMA, 65% of the primary CRC, 66% of the metastases, and 43% of the matched primary CRC metastases were EGFR-positive. There was no concordant EGFR status between the primary and the metastatic sites. A strong discrepancy of EGFR status was noted between TMA and tissue sections. In conclusion, EGFR expression measured in tissue sections from primary CRC and their related metastases was found to be similar and frequent, but it was significantly underestimated by the TMA technique. PMID:16865406
Background Bovine Spastic Paresis (BSP) is a neuromuscular disorder which affects both male and female cattle. BSP is characterized by spastic contraction and overextension of the gastrocnemious muscle of one or both limbs and is associated with a scarce increase in body weight. This disease seems to be caused by an autosomal and recessive gene, with incomplete penetration, although no genes clearly involved with its onset have been so far identified. We employed cDNA microarrays to identify metabolic pathways affected by BSP in Romagnola cattle breed. Investigation of those pathways at the genome level can help to understand this disease. Results Microarray analysis of control and affected individuals resulted in 268 differentially expressed genes. These genes were subjected to KEGG pathway functional clustering analysis, revealing that they are predominantly involved in Cell Communication, Signalling Molecules and Interaction and Signal Transduction, Diseases and Nervous System classes. Significantly enriched KEGG pathway’s classes for the differentially expressed genes were calculated; interestingly, all those significantly under-expressed in the affected samples are included in Neurodegenerative Diseases. To identify genome locations possibly harbouring gene(s) involved in the disease, the chromosome distribution of the differentially expressed genes was also investigated. Conclusions The cDNA microarray we used in this study contains a brain library and, even if carrying an incomplete transcriptome representation, it has proven to be a valuable tool allowing us to add useful and new information to a poorly studied disease. By using this tool, we examined nearly 15000 transcripts and analysed gene pathways affected by the disease. Particularly, our data suggest also a defective glycinergic synaptic transmission in the development of the disease and an alteration of calcium signalling proteins. We provide data to acquire knowledge of a genetic disease for which literature still presents poor results and that could be further and specifically analysed in the next future. Moreover this study, performed in livestock, may also harbour molecular information useful for understanding human diseases. PMID:23782433
Hammer, Anne Sofie; Dietz, Hans Henrik; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen
Immunohistochemical (IHC) assays were developed and tested for the detection of 3 viral infections in archived paraffin-embedded mink tissue. Specimens had been obtained from mink with diagnoses of acute Aleutian disease (AD), mink parvoviral enteritis (MVE), or canine distemper (CD) made by means of routine diagnostic procedures. To improve the efficiency and reduce the costs of IHC analyses, tissue microarray (TMA) technology was used. Representative cores 2 mm in diameter from each tissue specimen and from positive- and negative-control specimens were collected in a TMA block. Immunohistochemical reactions to viral antigens were assessed and graded. Positive reactions were found in 91% of the 32 specimens from mink with AD, 53% to 80% of the 60 specimens from mink with MVE, and all 66 of the specimens from mink with CD. To validate the use of TMAs, the IHC methods were applied to whole-mount paraffin-embedded sections of 10 of the positive specimens for each disease, together with whole-mount sections of small intestine and lung tissue from 2 healthy mink. The IHC grading of the TMA cores and the whole-mount sections from the same animal corresponded completely. These results suggest that IHC demonstration of viral antigen allows rapid and reliable diagnosis of the 3 viral infections in mink and is a potential supplement to histologic diagnostic procedures. The TMA technique proved useful for screening large numbers of samples for expression of specific viral antigens, while reducing overall costs. PMID:17193876
Juan F. Garcia; Francisca I. Camacho; Manuel Morente; Maximo Fraga; Carlos Montalban; Tomas Álvaro; Carmen Bellas; Angel Castano; Ana Diez; Teresa Flores; Carmen Martin; Miguel A. Martinez; Francisco Mazorra; Javier Menarguez; Maria J. Mestre; Manuela Mollejo
Tumoral cells in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) display an increased growth fraction and diminished apoptosis, implying a pro- found disturbance of the cell cycle and apoptosis regulation. However, limita- tions of molecular techniques have pre- vented the analysis of the tumor suppres- sor pathways and cell-cycle checkpoints. Tissue microarray (TMA) is a powerful tool for analyzing a large number of mo-
Dessauvagie, B F; Thomas, C; Robinson, C; Frost, F A; Harvey, J; Sterrett, G F
Mitosis counting in H&E stained sections is the most informative constituent of the Nottingham histological grade in breast carcinoma prognosis. Phosphohistone H3 (PHH3) immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a highly specific marker of mitoses, with practical application in identifying mitoses in poorly fixed or distorted tissue and is of prognostic significance in breast carcinoma. Our aim was to assess methods of PHH3 IHC mitosis counting in a tissue microarray (TMA) of 2?mm cores from 36 resected breast carcinomas. Mitoses in H&E and PHH3 stained slides were manually scored by pathologist consensus and expressed as counts/2 mm. PHH3 stained cores were also evaluated by automated digital image analysis (DIA). Results were compared using Spearman correlation. A strong and significant correlation was observed between manual PHH3 and manual H&E mitotic counts (correlation?=?0.81; p?0.0001) and between automated PHH3 DIA and manual H&E mitotic counts (correlation?=?0.79; p?0.0001). More mitoses were identified with PHH3 IHC than with H&E. Manual and DIA PHH3 counts were strongly and significantly correlated (correlation?=?0.83; p?0.0001) and of similar absolute values. PHH3 DIA is a valid alternative to manual counting with potential application in breast cancer reporting and prognostication. PMID:25938351
Tholouli, Eleni [Department of Haematology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9WL (United Kingdom)] [Department of Haematology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9WL (United Kingdom); MacDermott, Sarah [The Medical School, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PT Manchester (United Kingdom)] [The Medical School, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PT Manchester (United Kingdom); Hoyland, Judith [School of Biomedicine, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PT Manchester (United Kingdom)] [School of Biomedicine, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PT Manchester (United Kingdom); Yin, John Liu [Department of Haematology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9WL (United Kingdom)] [Department of Haematology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9WL (United Kingdom); Byers, Richard, E-mail: email@example.com [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, The University of Manchester, Stopford Building, Oxford Road, M13 9PT Manchester (United Kingdom)] [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, The University of Manchester, Stopford Building, Oxford Road, M13 9PT Manchester (United Kingdom)
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Development of a quantitative high throughput in situ expression profiling method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application to a tissue microarray of 242 AML bone marrow samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of HOXA4, HOXA9, Meis1 and DNMT3A as prognostic markers in AML. -- Abstract: Measurement and validation of microarray gene signatures in routine clinical samples is problematic and a rate limiting step in translational research. In order to facilitate measurement of microarray identified gene signatures in routine clinical tissue a novel method combining quantum dot based oligonucleotide in situ hybridisation (QD-ISH) and post-hybridisation spectral image analysis was used for multiplex in-situ transcript detection in archival bone marrow trephine samples from patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Tissue-microarrays were prepared into which white cell pellets were spiked as a standard. Tissue microarrays were made using routinely processed bone marrow trephines from 242 patients with AML. QD-ISH was performed for six candidate prognostic genes using triplex QD-ISH for DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, and for HOXA4, HOXA9, Meis1. Scrambled oligonucleotides were used to correct for background staining followed by normalisation of expression against the expression values for the white cell pellet standard. Survival analysis demonstrated that low expression of HOXA4 was associated with poorer overall survival (p = 0.009), whilst high expression of HOXA9 (p < 0.0001), Meis1 (p = 0.005) and DNMT3A (p = 0.04) were associated with early treatment failure. These results demonstrate application of a standardised, quantitative multiplex QD-ISH method for identification of prognostic markers in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded clinical samples, facilitating measurement of gene expression signatures in routine clinical samples.
Pohjanvirta, Raimo [Department of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 66, FI-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Finnish Food Safety Authority EVIRA, Research Unit of Kuopio, P.O. Box 92, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); National Public Health Institute, Laboratory of Toxicology, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Boutros, Paul C.; Moffat, Ivy D. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, MSB, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A8 (Canada); Linden, Jere; Wendelin, Dominique [Department of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 66, FI-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Okey, Allan B. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, MSB, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A8 (Canada)
Acute progressive feed restriction (APFR) represents a specific form of caloric restriction in which feed availability is increasingly curtailed over a period of a few days to a few weeks. It is often used for control animals in toxicological and pharmacological studies on compounds causing body weight loss to equalize weight changes between experimental and control groups and thereby, intuitively, to also set their metabolic states to the same phase. However, scientific justification for this procedure is lacking. In the present study, we analyzed by microarrays the impact on hepatic gene expression in rats of two APFR regimens that caused identical diminution of body weight (19%) but differed slightly in duration (4 vs. 10 days). In addition, white adipose tissue (WAT) was also subjected to the transcriptomic analysis on day-4. The data revealed that the two regimens led to distinct patterns of differentially expressed genes in liver, albeit some major pathways of energy metabolism were similarly affected (particularly fatty acid and amino acid catabolism). The reason for the divergence appeared to be entrainment by the longer APFR protocol of peripheral oscillator genes, which resulted in derailment of circadian rhythms and consequent interaction of altered diurnal fluctuations with metabolic adjustments in gene expression activities. WAT proved to be highly unresponsive to the 4-day APFR as only 17 mRNA levels were influenced by the treatment. This study demonstrates that body weight is a poor proxy of metabolic state and that the customary protocols of feed restriction can lead to rhythm entrainment.
Hu, Haichuan; Wang, Rui; Sun, Yihua; Zeng, Rong; Chen, Haiquan
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Clinically, the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can be improved by the early detection and risk screening among population. To meet this need, here we describe the application of extensive peptide level fractionation coupled with label free quantitative proteomics for the discovery of potential serum biomarkers for lung cancer, and the usage of Tissue microarray analysis (TMA) and Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) assays for the following up validations in the verification phase. Using these state-of-art, currently available clinical proteomic approaches, in the discovery phase we confidently identified 647 serum proteins, and 101 proteins showed a statistically significant association with NSCLC in our 18 discovery samples. This serum proteomic dataset allowed us to discern the differential patterns and abnormal biological processes in the lung cancer blood. Of these proteins, Alpha-1B-glycoprotein (A1BG) and Leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein (LRG1), two plasma glycoproteins with previously unknown function were selected as examples for which TMA and MRM verification were performed in a large sample set consisting about 100 patients. We revealed that A1BG and LRG1 were overexpressed in both the blood level and tumor sections, which can be referred to separate lung cancer patients from healthy cases. PMID:23284758
Stefanie Meyer; Thomas J. Fuchs; Anja K. Bosserhoff; Ferdinand Hofstädter; Armin Pauer; Volker Roth; Joachim M. Buhmann; Ingrid Moll; Nikos Anagnostou; Johanna M. Brandner; Kristian Ikenberg; Holger Moch; Michael Landthaler; Thomas Vogt; Peter J. Wild
BackgroundCurrent staging methods such as tumor thickness, ulceration and invasion of the sentinel node are known to be prognostic parameters in patients with malignant melanoma (MM). However, predictive molecular marker profiles for risk stratification and therapy optimization are not yet available for routine clinical assessment.Methods and FindingsUsing tissue microarrays, we retrospectively analyzed samples from 364 patients with primary MM. We
T. Reimer; D. Koczan; B. Gerber; D. Richter; H. J. Thiesen; K. Friese
Susceptibility genes present in both mother and fetus most likely contribute to the risk of pre-eclampsia. Placental biopsies were therefore investigated by high-density DNA microarray analysis to determine genes differentially regulated within chorionic villous tissue in pre-eclampsia and normal pregnancy. The pooled RNAs of pre-eclamptic and normotensive subjects were hybridized to the HuGeneFL array representing sequences from ~5600 full-length human
David J Foran; Lin Yang; Wenjin Chen; Jun Hu; Lauri A Goodell; Michael Reiss; Fusheng Wang; Tahsin Kurc; Tony Pan; Ashish Sharma; Joel H Saltz
Objective and designThe design and implementation of ImageMiner, a software platform for performing comparative analysis of expression patterns in imaged microscopy specimens such as tissue microarrays (TMAs), is described. ImageMiner is a federated system of services that provides a reliable set of analytical and data management capabilities for investigative research applications in pathology. It provides a library of image processing
Thielecke, H; Mack, A; Robitzki, A
To investigate the effectiveness of potential anticancer therapeutics or therapies, efficient screening methods are required. On the one hand, multicellular 3D aggregates (spheroids) are a powerful in vitro model for simulating the in vivo situation and on the other hand, planar electrode structures are generally highly suitable for automation and parallel testing. Here, the detection of the effect of active substances on spheroids positioned on electrodes of substrate integrated electrode arrays is exemplarily investigated. As a 3D tissue model a reaggregation system of T47D clone 11 tumor cells is used. The effect of cytotoxins (DMSO, Triton X-100) on spheroids can be detected by recording the effective impedance of planar electrodes covered by spheroids. The equivalent circuit model parameter of electrodes covered by cytotoxin treated spheroids are determined from recorded impedance spectra and compared to the parameter of electrodes covered by control spheroids as well as not covered electrodes. Spheroids on electrodes mainly influence the electrode impedance in the frequency range of 10 kHz to 1 MHz. The results are discussed in view of an optimal electrode/spheroid-interface for sensing the effects of therapeutics with high sensitivity. PMID:11210225
R. Andrews; R. Mah; A. Galvagni; M. Guerrero; R. Papasin; M. Wallace; J. Winters
Real-time identification of tissue would improve procedures such as stereotactic brain biopsy (SBX), functional and implantation neurosurgery, and brain tumor excision. To standard SBX equipment has been added: (1) computer-controlled stepper motors to drive the biopsy needle\\/probe precisely; (2) multiple microprobes to track tissue density, detect blood vessels and changes in blood flow, and distinguish the various tissues being penetrated;
Shahmanesh, Mohsen; Phillips, Kenneth; Boothby, Meg; Tomlinson, Jeremy W.
Objective To compare changes in gene expression by microarray from subcutaneous adipose tissue from HIV treatment naïve patients treated with efavirenz based regimens containing abacavir (ABC), tenofovir (TDF) or zidovidine (AZT). Design Subcutaneous fat biopsies were obtained before, at 6- and 18–24-months after treatment, and from HIV negative controls. Groups were age, ethnicity, weight, biochemical profile, and pre-treatment CD4 count matched. Microarray data was generated using the Agilent Whole Human Genome Microarray. Identification of differentially expressed genes and genomic response pathways was performed using limma and gene set enrichment analysis. Results There were significant divergences between ABC and the other two groups 6 months after treatment in genes controlling cell adhesion and environmental information processing, with some convergence at 18–24 months. Compared to controls the ABC group, but not AZT or TDF showed enrichment of genes controlling adherence junction, at 6 months and 18–24 months (adjusted p<0.05) and focal adhesions and tight junction at 6 months (p<0.5). Genes controlling leukocyte transendothelial migration (p<0.05) and ECM-receptor interactions (p = 0.04) were over-expressed in ABC compared to TDF and AZT at 6 months but not at 18–24 months. Enrichment of pathways and individual genes controlling cell adhesion and environmental information processing were specifically dysregulated in the ABC group in comparison with other treatments. There was little difference between AZT and TDF. Conclusion After initiating treatment, there is divergence in the expression of genes controlling cell adhesion and environmental information processing between ABC and both TDF and AZT in subcutaneous adipose tissue. If similar changes are also taking place in other tissues including the coronary vasculature they may contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular events reported in patients recently started on abacavir-containing regimens. PMID:25617630
Hani N. Sabbah; Victor G. Sharov; Sidney Goldstein
An important feature of heart failure is the progressive deterioration of left ventricular function that occurs in the absence of clinically apparent intercurrent adverse events. The mechanism or mechanisms responsible for this hemodynamic deterioration are not known. We and others have advanced the hypothesis that this hemodynamic deterioration results from progressive intrinsic contractile dysfunction of viable cardiomyocytes and\\/or from ongoing
Wang, Chun-Chao; Jamal, Leen; Janes, Kevin A.
Epithelial cells organize into various tissue architectures that largely maintain their structure throughout the life of an organism. For decades, the morphogenesis of epithelial tissues has fascinated scientists at the interface of cell, developmental, and molecular biology. Systems biology offers ways to combine knowledge from these disciplines by building integrative models that are quantitative and predictive. Can such models be useful for gaining a deeper understanding of epithelial morphogenesis? Here, we take inventory of some recurring themes in epithelial morphogenesis that systems approaches could strive to capture. Predictive understanding of morphogenesis at the systems level would prove especially valuable for diseases such as cancer, where epithelial tissue architecture is profoundly disrupted. PMID:21898857
Tissue-engineered skin is now a reality. For patients with extensive full-thickness burns, laboratory expansion of skin cells to achieve barrier function can make the difference between life and death, and it was this acute need that drove the initiation of tissue engineering in the 1980s. A much larger group of patients have ulcers resistant to conventional healing, and treatments using cultured skin cells have been devised to restart the wound-healing process. In the laboratory, the use of tissue-engineered skin provides insight into the behaviour of skin cells in healthy skin and in diseases such as vitiligo, melanoma, psoriasis and blistering disorders.
Reuter, Jason A.; Ortiz-Urda, Susana; Kretz, Markus; Garcia, John; Scholl, Florence A.; Pasmooij, Anna M.G.; Cassarino, David; Chang, Howard Y.; Khavari, Paul A.
To elucidate mechanisms of cancer progression, we generated inducible human neoplasia in 3-dimensionally intact epithelial tissue. Gene expression profiling of both epithelia and stroma at specific time points during tumor progression revealed sequential enrichment of genes mediating discrete biologic functions in each tissue compartment. A core cancer progression signature was distilled using the increased signaling specificity of downstream oncogene effectors and subjected to network modeling. Network topology predicted that tumor development depends upon specific ECM-interacting network hubs. Blockade of one such hub, the ?1 integrin subunit, disrupted network gene expression and attenuated tumorigenesis in vivo. Thus, integrating network modeling and temporal gene expression analysis of inducible human neoplasia provides an approach to prioritize and characterize genes functioning in cancer progression. Significance Investigating tumor progression in patient samples is complicated by etiologic heterogeneity, genetic instability, and an overabundance of precursor lesions that fail to progress. These complexities obscure construction of a dynamic picture of progression from normal tissue to invasive cancer. Here, we generate inducible human neoplasia driven by conditionally active Ras and characterize the sequence of gene expression programs engaged in epithelial tumor tissue and adjacent stroma during carcinogenesis. We show that tumor-intrinsic gene expression can be refined by sufficient downstream oncogene effectors and apply a generalizable network modeling strategy to prioritize targets based upon local interconnectivity. This analysis highlights the importance of tumor-stroma interaction during tumorigenesis and identifies ? integrin as a potential oncotherapeutic that distinguishes normal and neoplastic tissue. PMID:19477427
Bates, Jason H.T.; Ma, Baoshun
A striking feature of stress relaxation in biological soft tissue is that it frequently follows a power law in time with an exponent that is independent of strain even when the elastic properties of the tissue are highly nonlinear. This kind of behavior is an example of quasi-linear viscoelasticity, and is usually modeled in a purely empirical fashion. The goal of the present study was to account for quasi-linear viscoelasticity in mechanistic terms based on our previously developed hypothesis that it arises as a result of isolated micro-yield events occurring in sequence throughout the tissue, each event passing the stress it was sustaining on to other regions of the tissue until they themselves yield. We modeled stress relaxation computationally in a collection of stress-bearing elements. Each element experiences a stochastic sequence of either increases in elastic equilibrium length or decreases in stiffness according to the stress imposed upon it. This successfully predicts quasi-linear viscoelastic behavior, and in addition predicts power-law stress relaxation that proceeds at the same slow rate as observed in real biological soft tissue. PMID:23508634
Wolfgang Seifarth; Oliver Frank; Udo Zeilfelder; Birgit Spiess; Alex D. Greenwood; Rudiger Hehlmann; Christine Leib-Mosch
Retrovirus-like sequences account for 8 to 9% of the human genome. Among these sequences, about 8,000 pol-containing proviral elements have been identified to date. As part of our ongoing search for active and possibly disease-relevant human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), we have recently developed an oligonu- cleotide-based microarray. The assay allows for both the detection and the identification of most known
Lu, Chia-Hsin; Chang, Yu-Han; Lin, Shih-Yeh; Li, Kuei-Chang; Hu, Yu-Chen
Gene therapy has converged with bone engineering over the past decade, by which a variety of therapeutic genes have been delivered to stimulate bone repair. These genes can be administered via in vivo or ex vivo approach using either viral or nonviral vectors. This article reviews the fundamental aspects and recent progresses in the gene therapy-based bone engineering, with emphasis on the new genes, viral vectors and gene delivery approaches. PMID:23994567
Nguyen, C.; Gidrol, X.
Genomics has revolutionised biological and biomedical research. This revolution was predictable on the basis of its two driving forces: the ever increasing availability of genome sequences and the development of new technology able to exploit them. Up until now, technical limitations meant that molecular biology could only analyse one or two parameters per experiment, providing relatively little information compared with the great complexity of the systems under investigation. This gene by gene approach is inadequate to understand biological systems containing several thousand genes. It is essential to have an overall view of the DNA, RNA, and relevant proteins. A simple inventory of the genome is not sufficient to understand the functions of the genes, or indeed the way that cells and organisms work. For this purpose, functional studies based on whole genomes are needed. Among these new large-scale methods of molecular analysis, DNA microarrays provide a way of studying the genome and the transcriptome. The idea of integrating a large amount of data derived from a support with very small area has led biologists to call these chips, borrowing the term from the microelectronics industry. At the beginning of the 1990s, the development of DNA chips on nylon membranes [1, 2], then on glass  and silicon  supports, made it possible for the first time to carry out simultaneous measurements of the equilibrium concentration of all the messenger RNA (mRNA) or transcribed RNA in a cell. These microarrays offer a wide range of applications, in both fundamental and clinical research, providing a method for genome-wide characterisation of changes occurring within a cell or tissue, as for example in polymorphism studies, detection of mutations, and quantitative assays of gene copies. With regard to the transcriptome, it provides a way of characterising differentially expressed genes, profiling given biological states, and identifying regulatory channels.
Foran, David J; Yang, Lin; Hu, Jun; Goodell, Lauri A; Reiss, Michael; Wang, Fusheng; Kurc, Tahsin; Pan, Tony; Sharma, Ashish; Saltz, Joel H
Objective and design The design and implementation of ImageMiner, a software platform for performing comparative analysis of expression patterns in imaged microscopy specimens such as tissue microarrays (TMAs), is described. ImageMiner is a federated system of services that provides a reliable set of analytical and data management capabilities for investigative research applications in pathology. It provides a library of image processing methods, including automated registration, segmentation, feature extraction, and classification, all of which have been tailored, in these studies, to support TMA analysis. The system is designed to leverage high-performance computing machines so that investigators can rapidly analyze large ensembles of imaged TMA specimens. To support deployment in collaborative, multi-institutional projects, ImageMiner features grid-enabled, service-based components so that multiple instances of ImageMiner can be accessed remotely and federated. Results The experimental evaluation shows that: (1) ImageMiner is able to support reliable detection and feature extraction of tumor regions within imaged tissues; (2) images and analysis results managed in ImageMiner can be searched for and retrieved on the basis of image-based features, classification information, and any correlated clinical data, including any metadata that have been generated to describe the specified tissue and TMA; and (3) the system is able to reduce computation time of analyses by exploiting computing clusters, which facilitates analysis of larger sets of tissue samples. PMID:21606133
Lebsack, Ty W; Fa, Vuna; Woods, Chris C; Gruener, Raphael; Manziello, Ann M; Pecaut, Michael J; Gridley, Daila S; Stodieck, Louis S; Ferguson, Virginia L; Deluca, Dominick
The detrimental effects of spaceflight and simulated microgravity on the immune system have been extensively documented. We report here microarray gene expression analysis, in concert with quantitative RT-PCR, in young adult C57BL/6NTac mice at 8 weeks of age after exposure to spaceflight aboard the space shuttle (STS-118) for a period of 13 days. Upon conclusion of the mission, thymus lobes were extracted from space flown mice (FLT) as well as age- and sex-matched ground control mice similarly housed in animal enclosure modules (AEM). mRNA was extracted and an automated array analysis for gene expression was performed. Examination of the microarray data revealed 970 individual probes that had a 1.5-fold or greater change. When these data were averaged (n = 4), we identified 12 genes that were significantly up- or down-regulated by at least 1.5-fold after spaceflight (P < or = 0.05). The genes that significantly differed from the AEM controls and that were also confirmed via QRT-PCR were as follows: Rbm3 (up-regulated) and Hsph110, Hsp90aa1, Cxcl10, Stip1, Fkbp4 (down-regulated). QRT-PCR confirmed the microarray results and demonstrated additional gene expression alteration in other T cell related genes, including: Ctla-4, IFN-alpha2a (up-regulated) and CD44 (down-regulated). Together, these data demonstrate that spaceflight induces significant changes in the thymic mRNA expression of genes that regulate stress, glucocorticoid receptor metabolism, and T cell signaling activity. These data explain, in part, the reported systemic compromise of the immune system after exposure to the microgravity of space. PMID:20213684
1. DNA microarray DNA (spot) . DNA probe , probe (hybridization) . DNA microarray cDNA oligonucleotide oligonucleotide cDNA probe . oligonucleotide microarray , DNA , probe . oligonucleotide microarray probe
Pirnia, Farzaneh; Pawlak, Michael; Thallinger, Gerhard G; Gierke, Berthold; Templin, Markus F; Kappeler, Andi; Betticher, Daniel C; Gloor, Beat; Borner, Markus M
Cancer is caused by a complex pattern of molecular perturbations. To understand the biology of cancer, it is thus important to look at the activation state of key proteins and signaling networks. The limited amount of available sample material from patients and the complexity of protein expression patterns make the use of traditional protein analysis methods particularly difficult. In addition, the only approach that is currently available for performing functional studies is the use of serial biopsies, which is limited by ethical constraints and patient acceptance. The goal of this work was to establish a 3-D ex vivo culture technique in combination with reverse-phase protein microarrays (RPPM) as a novel experimental tool for use in cancer research. The RPPM platform allows the parallel profiling of large numbers of protein analytes to determine their relative abundance and activation level. Cancer tissue and the respective corresponding normal tissue controls from patients with colorectal cancer were cultured ex vivo. At various time points, the cultured samples were processed into lysates and analyzed on RPPM to assess the expression of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and 24 proteins involved in the regulation of apoptosis. The methodology displayed good robustness and low system noise. As a proof of concept, CEA expression was significantly higher in tumor compared with normal tissue (p<0.0001). The caspase 9 expression signal was lower in tumor tissue than in normal tissue (p<0.001). Cleaved Caspase 8 (p=0.014), Bad (p=0.007), Bim (p=0.007), p73 (p=0.005), PARP (p<0.001), and cleaved PARP (p=0.007) were differentially expressed in normal liver and normal colon tissue. We demonstrate here the feasibility of using RPPM technology with 3-D ex vivo cultured samples. This approach is useful for investigating complex patterns of protein expression and modification over time. It should allow functional proteomics in patient samples with various applications such as pharmacodynamic analyses in drug development. PMID:19609961
Bradley, D. A.; Farquharson, M. J.; Gundogdu, O.; Al-Ebraheem, Alia; Che Ismail, Elna; Kaabar, W.; Bunk, O.; Pfeiffer, F.; Falkenberg, G.; Bailey, M.
The investigations reported herein link tissue structure and elemental presence with issues of environmental health and disease, exemplified by uptake and storage of potentially toxic elements in the body, the osteoarthritic condition and malignancy in the breast and other soft tissues. Focus is placed on application of state-of-the-art ionizing radiation techniques, including, micro-synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (?-SXRF) and particle-induced X-ray emission/Rutherford backscattering mapping (?-PIXE/RBS), coherent small-angle X-ray scattering (cSAXS) and X-ray phase-contrast imaging, providing information on elemental make-up, the large-scale organisation of collagen and anatomical features of moderate and low atomic number media. For the particular situations under investigation, use of such facilities is allowing information to be obtained at an unprecedented level of detail, yielding new understanding of the affected tissues and the progression of disease.
Murielle Mimeault; Surinder K. Batra
Recent progress in the field of the stem cell research has given new hopes to treat and even cure diverse degenerative disorders\\u000a and incurable diseases in human. Particularly, the identification of a rare population of adult stem cells in the most tissues\\/organs\\u000a in human has emerged as an attractive source of multipotent stem\\/progenitor cells for cell replacement-based therapies and\\u000a tissue
Hong, X.; Doddapaneni, H.; Comeron, J. M.; Rodesch, M. J.; Halvensleben, H. A.; Nien, C. Y.; Bolei, F.; Metpally, R.; Richmond, T. A.; Albert, T. J.; Manak, J. R.
Faithful annotation of tissue-specific transcript isoforms is important not only to understand how genes are organized and regulated but also to identify potential novel, unannotated exons of genes, which may be additional targets of mutation in disease states or while performing mutagenic screens. We have developed a microarray enrichment methodology followed by long-read, next-generation sequencing for identification of unannotated transcript isoforms expressed in two Drosophila tissues, the ovary and the testis. Even with limited sequencing, these studies have identified a large number of novel transcription units, including 5? exons and extensions, 3? exons and extensions, internal exons and exon extensions, gene fusions, and both germline-specific splicing events and promoters. Additionally, comparing our capture dataset with tiling array and traditional RNA-seq analysis, we demonstrate that our enrichment strategy is able to capture low-abundance transcripts that cannot readily be identified by the other strategies. Finally, we show that our methodology can help identify transcriptional signatures of minority cell types within the ovary that would otherwise be difficult to reveal without the CoNECT enrichment strategy. These studies introduce an efficient methodology for cataloging tissue-specific transcriptomes in which specific classes of genes or transcripts can be targeted for capture and sequence, thus reducing the significant sequencing depth normally required for accurate annotation. PMID:22908036
Horn, Heike; Bausinger, Julia; Staiger, Annette M.; Sohn, Maximilian; Schmelter, Christopher; Gruber, Kim; Kalla, Claudia; Ott, M. Michaela; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ott, German
Few data are available regarding the reliability of fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), especially for chromosomal deletions, in high-throughput settings using tissue microarrays (TMAs). We performed a comprehensive FISH study for the detection of chromosomal translocations and deletions in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor specimens arranged in TMA format. We analyzed 46 B-cell lymphoma (B-NHL) specimens with known karyotypes for translocations of IGH-, BCL2-, BCL6- and MYC-genes. Locus-specific DNA probes were used for the detection of deletions in chromosome bands 6q21 and 9p21 in 62 follicular lymphomas (FL) and six malignant mesothelioma (MM) samples, respectively. To test for aberrant signals generated by truncation of nuclei following sectioning of FFPE tissue samples, cell line dilutions with 9p21-deletions were embedded into paraffin blocks. The overall TMA hybridization efficiency was 94%. FISH results regarding translocations matched karyotyping data in 93%. As for chromosomal deletions, sectioning artefacts occurred in 17% to 25% of cells, suggesting that the proportion of cells showing deletions should exceed 25% to be reliably detectable. In conclusion, FISH represents a robust tool for the detection of structural as well as numerical aberrations in FFPE tissue samples in a TMA-based high-throughput setting, when rigorous cut-off values and appropriate controls are maintained, and, of note, was superior to quantitative PCR approaches. PMID:24733537
Bertha Chen; Yan Wen; Zhaomei Zhang; Yaqian Guo; Janet A. Warrington
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of pelvic floor dysfunction resulting in stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women is complex. Evidence suggests that there is also a genetic predisposition towards SUI. We sought to identify differentially expressed genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism in vaginal tissues from women with SUI in the secretory phase of menses compared with asymptomatic women. METHODS: Tissue
Kume, Hideaki; Muraoka, Satoshi; Kuga, Takahisa; Adachi, Jun; Narumi, Ryohei; Watanabe, Shio; Kuwano, Masayoshi; Kodera, Yoshio; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Fukuoka, Junya; Masuda, Takeshi; Ishihama, Yasushi; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Nomura, Fumio; Tomonaga, Takeshi
Recent advances in quantitative proteomic technology have enabled the large-scale validation of biomarkers. We here performed a quantitative proteomic analysis of membrane fractions from colorectal cancer tissue to discover biomarker candidates, and then extensively validated the candidate proteins identified. A total of 5566 proteins were identified in six tissue samples, each of which was obtained from polyps and cancer with and without metastasis. GO cellular component analysis predicted that 3087 of these proteins were membrane proteins, whereas TMHMM algorithm predicted that 1567 proteins had a transmembrane domain. Differences were observed in the expression of 159 membrane proteins and 55 extracellular proteins between polyps and cancer without metastasis, while the expression of 32 membrane proteins and 17 extracellular proteins differed between cancer with and without metastasis. A total of 105 of these biomarker candidates were quantitated using selected (or multiple) reaction monitoring (SRM/MRM) with stable synthetic isotope-labeled peptides as an internal control. The results obtained revealed differences in the expression of 69 of these proteins, and this was subsequently verified in an independent set of patient samples (polyps (n = 10), cancer without metastasis (n = 10), cancer with metastasis (n = 10)). Significant differences were observed in the expression of 44 of these proteins, including ITGA5, GPRC5A, PDGFRB, and TFRC, which have already been shown to be overexpressed in colorectal cancer, as well as proteins with unknown function, such as C8orf55. The expression of C8orf55 was also shown to be high not only in colorectal cancer, but also in several cancer tissues using a multicancer tissue microarray, which included 1150 cores from 14 cancer tissues. This is the largest verification study of biomarker candidate membrane proteins to date; our methods for biomarker discovery and subsequent validation using SRM/MRM will contribute to the identification of useful biomarker candidates for various cancers. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000851. PMID:24687888
Blankenberg, Stefan; Carstensen, Maren; Dörr, Marcus; Endlich, Karlhans; Felix, Stephan B.; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Herder, Christian; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Homuth, Georg; Illig, Thomas; Kruppa, Jochen; Meitinger, Thomas; Müller, Christian; Nauck, Matthias; Peters, Annette; Rettig, Rainer; Roden, Michael; Strauch, Konstantin; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Wahl, Simone; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Philipp S.; Zeller, Tanja; Teumer, Alexander; Prokisch, Holger; Ziegler, Andreas
Microarray profiling of gene expression is widely applied in molecular biology and functional genomics. Experimental and technical variations make meta-analysis of different studies challenging. In a total of 3358 samples, all from German population-based cohorts, we investigated the effect of data preprocessing and the variability due to sample processing in whole blood cell and blood monocyte gene expression data, measured on the Illumina HumanHT-12 v3 BeadChip array. Gene expression signal intensities were similar after applying the log2 or the variance-stabilizing transformation. In all cohorts, the first principal component (PC) explained more than 95% of the total variation. Technical factors substantially influenced signal intensity values, especially the Illumina chip assignment (33–48% of the variance), the RNA amplification batch (12–24%), the RNA isolation batch (16%), and the sample storage time, in particular the time between blood donation and RNA isolation for the whole blood cell samples (2–3%), and the time between RNA isolation and amplification for the monocyte samples (2%). White blood cell composition parameters were the strongest biological factors influencing the expression signal intensities in the whole blood cell samples (3%), followed by sex (1–2%) in both sample types. Known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were located in 38% of the analyzed probe sequences and 4% of them included common SNPs (minor allele frequency >5%). Out of the tested SNPs, 1.4% significantly modified the probe-specific expression signals (Bonferroni corrected p-value<0.05), but in almost half of these events the signal intensities were even increased despite the occurrence of the mismatch. Thus, the vast majority of SNPs within probes had no significant effect on hybridization efficiency. In summary, adjustment for a few selected technical factors greatly improved reliability of gene expression analyses. Such adjustments are particularly required for meta-analyses. PMID:23236413
Häggström, Jenny; Cipriano, Mariateresa; Forshell, Linus Plym; Persson, Emma; Hammarsten, Peter; Stella, Nephi; Fowler, Christopher J
BACKGROUND The endocannabinoid system regulates cancer cell proliferation, and in prostate cancer a high cannabinoid CB1 receptor expression is associated with a poor prognosis. Down-stream mediators of CB1 receptor signaling in prostate cancer are known, but information on potential upstream regulators is lacking. RESULTS Data from a well-characterized tumor tissue microarray were used for a Bayesian network analysis using the max-min hill-climbing method. In non-malignant tissue samples, a directionality of pEGFR (the phosphorylated form of the epidermal growth factor receptor) ? CB1 receptors were found regardless as to whether the endocannabinoid metabolizing enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) was included as a parameter. A similar result was found in the tumor tissue, but only when FAAH was included in the analysis. A second regulatory pathway, from the growth factor receptor ErbB2 ? FAAH was also identified in the tumor samples. Transfection of AT1 prostate cancer cells with CB1 receptors induced a sensitivity to the growth-inhibiting effects of the CB receptor agonist CP55,940. The sensitivity was not dependent upon the level of receptor expression. Thus a high CB1 receptor expression alone does not drive the cells towards a survival phenotype in the presence of a CB receptor agonist. CONCLUSIONS The data identify two potential regulators of the endocannabinoid system in prostate cancer and allow the construction of a model of a dysregulated endocannabinoid signaling network in this tumor. Further studies should be designed to test the veracity of the predictions of the network analysis in prostate cancer and other solid tumors. Prostate 74:1107–1117, 2014. © 2014 The Authors. The Prostate published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24913716
Hong, X; Doddapaneni, H; Comeron, J M; Rodesch, M J; Halvensleben, H A; Nien, C Y; Bolei, F; Metpally, R; Richmond, T A; Albert, T J; Manak, J R
Faithful annotation of tissue-specific transcript isoforms is important not only to understand how genes are organized and regulated but also to identify potential novel, unannotated exons of genes, which may be additional targets of mutation in disease states or while performing mutagenic screens. We have developed a microarray enrichment methodology followed by long-read, next-generation sequencing for identification of unannotated transcript isoforms expressed in two Drosophila tissues, the ovary and the testis. Even with limited sequencing, these studies have identified a large number of novel transcription units, including 5' exons and extensions, 3' exons and extensions, internal exons and exon extensions, gene fusions, and both germline-specific splicing events and promoters. Additionally, comparing our capture dataset with tiling array and traditional RNA-seq analysis, we demonstrate that our enrichment strategy is able to capture low-abundance transcripts that cannot readily be identified by the other strategies. Finally, we show that our methodology can help identify transcriptional signatures of minority cell types within the ovary that would otherwise be difficult to reveal without the CoNECT enrichment strategy. These studies introduce an efficient methodology for cataloging tissue-specific transcriptomes in which specific classes of genes or transcripts can be targeted for capture and sequence, thus reducing the significant sequencing depth normally required for accurate annotation. Ovary and testis isotigs over 200 bp have been deposited with the GenBank Transcriptome Shotgun Assembly Sequence Database as bioproject no.PRJNA89451 (accession nos. JV208106–JV230865). PMID:22908036
Melissa J. Roach; Michael K. Deyholos
To better understand the molecular processes associated with the development of the unusually long (>30 mm) and strong bast\\u000a fibre cells within the phloem of flax stems, we conducted a gene discovery experiment to identify transcripts enriched in\\u000a fibre-bearing tissues, with the intention that these transcripts would serve as future targets for crop improvement and research\\u000a in phloem development and cell
Recent progress in the field of the stem cell research has given new hopes to treat and even cure diverse degenerative disorders and incurable diseases in human. Particularly, the identification of a rare population of adult stem cells in the most tissues/organs in human has emerged as an attractive source of multipotent stem/progenitor cells for cell replacement-based therapies and tissue engineering in regenerative medicine. The tissue-resident adult stem/progenitor cells offer the possibility to stimulate their in vivo differentiation or to use their ex vivo expanded progenies for cell replacement-based therapies with multiple applications in human. Among the human diseases that could be treated by the stem cell-based therapies, there are hematopoietic and immune disorders, multiple degenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s and Alzeimeher’s diseases, type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus as well as eye, liver, lung, skin and cardiovascular disorders and aggressive and metastatic cancers. In addition, the genetically-modified adult stem/progenitor cells could also be used as delivery system for expressing the therapeutic molecules in specific damaged areas of different tissues. Recent advances in cancer stem/progenitor cell research also offer the possibility to targeting these undifferentiated and malignant cells that provide critical functions in cancer initiation and progression and disease relapse for treating the patients diagnosed with the advanced and metastatic cancers which remain incurable in the clinics with the current therapies. PMID:18288619
Proteins are key actors in the life of the cell, involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Since variations in the expression of messenger RNA are not systematically correlated with variations in the protein levels, the latter better reflect the way a cell functions. Protein microarrays thus supply complementary information to DNA chips. They are used in particular to analyse protein expression profiles, to detect proteins within complex biological media, and to study protein-protein interactions, which give information about the functions of those proteins [3-9]. They have the same advantages as DNA microarrays for high-throughput analysis, miniaturisation, and the possibility of automation. Section 18.1 gives a brief overview of proteins. Following this, Sect. 18.2 describes how protein microarrays can be made on flat supports, explaining how proteins can be produced and immobilised on a solid support, and discussing the different kinds of substrate and detection method. Section 18.3 discusses the particular format of protein microarrays in suspension. The diversity of protein microarrays and their applications are then reported in Sect. 18.4, with applications to therapeutics (protein-drug interactions) and diagnostics. The prospects for future developments of protein microarrays are then outlined in the conclusion. The bibliography provides an extensive list of reviews and detailed references for those readers who wish to go further in this area. Indeed, the aim of the present chapter is not to give an exhaustive or detailed analysis of the state of the art, but rather to provide the reader with the basic elements needed to understand how proteins are designed and used.
Background Microarray technology has matured over the past fifteen years into a cost-effective solution with established data analysis protocols for global gene expression profiling. The Agilent-016047 maize 44 K microarray was custom-designed from EST sequences, but only reporter sequences with EST accession numbers are publicly available. The following information is lacking: (a) reporter - gene model match, (b) number of reporters per gene model, (c) potential for cross hybridization, (d) sense/antisense orientation of reporters, (e) position of reporter on B73 genome sequence (for eQTL studies), and (f) functional annotations of genes represented by reporters. To address this, we developed a strategy to annotate the Agilent-016047 maize microarray, and built a publicly accessible annotation database. Description Genomic annotation of the 42,034 reporters on the Agilent-016047 maize microarray was based on BLASTN results of the 60-mer reporter sequences and their corresponding ESTs against the maize B73 RefGen v2 "Working Gene Set" (WGS) predicted transcripts and the genome sequence. The agreement between the EST, WGS transcript and gDNA BLASTN results were used to assign the reporters into six genomic annotation groups. These annotation groups were: (i) "annotation by sense gene model" (23,668 reporters), (ii) "annotation by antisense gene model" (4,330); (iii) "annotation by gDNA" without a WGS transcript hit (1,549); (iv) "annotation by EST", in which case the EST from which the reporter was designed, but not the reporter itself, has a WGS transcript hit (3,390); (v) "ambiguous annotation" (2,608); and (vi) "inconclusive annotation" (6,489). Functional annotations of reporters were obtained by BLASTX and Blast2GO analysis of corresponding WGS transcripts against GenBank. The annotations are available in the Maize Microarray Annotation Database http://MaizeArrayAnnot.bi.up.ac.za/, as well as through a GBrowse annotation file that can be uploaded to the MaizeGDB genome browser as a custom track. The database was used to re-annotate lists of differentially expressed genes reported in case studies of published work using the Agilent-016047 maize microarray. Up to 85% of reporters in each list could be annotated with confidence by a single gene model, however up to 10% of reporters had ambiguous annotations. Overall, more than 57% of reporters gave a measurable signal in tissues as diverse as anthers and leaves. Conclusions The Maize Microarray Annotation Database will assist users of the Agilent-016047 maize microarray in (i) refining gene lists for global expression analysis, and (ii) confirming the annotation of candidate genes before functional studies. PMID:21961731
The remarkable speed with which biotechnology has become critical to the practice of life sciences owes much to a series of technological revolutions. Microarray is the latest invention in this ongoing technological revolution. This technology holds the promise to revolutionize the future of biology and medicine unlike any other technology that preceded it. Development of microarray technology has significantly changed the way questions about diseases and/or biological phenomena are addressed. This is because microarrays facilitate monitoring the expression of thousands of genes or proteins in a single experiment. This enormous power of microarrays has enabled scientists to monitor thousands of genes and their products in a given living organism in one experiment, and to understand how these genes function in an orchestrated manner. Obtaining such a global view of life at the molecular level was impossible using conventional molecular biological techniques. However, despite all the progress made in developing this technology, microarray is yet to reach a point where all data are obtained, analyzed, and shared in a standardized fashion. The present article is a brief overview of microarray technologies and their applications with an emphasis on DNA microarray. PMID:15452887
Understanding the host response during pathogen infection will extend our knowledge of pathogenesis and enhance the development of novel preventive methodologies against important infectious diseases. Microarray technology is a powerful tool to analyze host transcriptional responses. Coccidiosis re...
Benjamin I. P. Rubinstein; Jon D. McAuliffe; Simon Cawley; Marimuthu Palaniswami; Kotagiri Ramamohanarao; Terence P. Speed
Machine learning and data mining have found a multitude of successful applications in microarray analysis, with gene clustering and classification of tissue samples being widely cited examples. Low-level microarray analysis -- often associated with the pre-processing stage within the microarray life-cycle -- has increasingly become an area of active research, traditionally involving techniques from classical statistics. This paper explores opportunities
Iñaki Inza; Pedro Larrañaga; Rosa Blanco; Antonio J. Cerrolaza
DNA microarray experiments generating thousands of gene expression measurements, are used to collect information from tissue and cell samples regarding gene expression differences that could be useful for diagnosis disease, distinction of the specific tumor type, etc. One important application of gene expression microarray data is the classification of samples into known categories.As DNA microarray technology measures the gene expression
W. B. Langdon
Variation in tissue sample preparation leads to variation across the Transcriptome not just between experiments but to between individual microarrays. Normalisation is essential before data from dierent arrays can be compared. Quantile normalisation can be used to force data from a single GeneChip to take a given distribution. However quantile normalisation can be blind to the consistent spatial variation we
Shin, Kunyoo; Lim, Agnes; Odegaard, Justin I.; Honeycutt, Jared D.; Kawano, Sally; Hsieh, Michael H.; Beachy, Philip A.
Understanding how malignancies arise within normal tissues requires identification of the cancer cell of origin and knowledge of the cellular and tissue dynamics of tumor progression. Here we examine bladder cancer in a chemical carcinogenesis model that mimics muscle-invasive human bladder cancer. With no prior bias regarding genetic pathways or cell types, we prospectively mark or ablate cells to show that muscle-invasive bladder carcinomas arise exclusively from Sonic hedgehog (Shh)-expressing stem cells in basal urothelium. These carcinomas arise clonally from a single cell whose progeny aggressively colonize a major portion of the urothelium to generate a lesion with histological features identical to human carcinoma-in-situ. Shh-expressing basal cells within this precursor lesion become tumor-initiating cells, although Shh expression is lost in subsequent carcinomas. We thus find that invasive carcinoma is initiated from basal urothelial stem cells but that tumor cell phenotype can diverge significantly from that of the cancer cell-of-origin. PMID:24747439
Stem cells hold remarkable promise for applications in disease modeling, cancer therapy and regenerative medicine. Despite the significant progress made during the last decade, designing materials to control stem cell fate remains challenging. As an alternative, materials microarray technology has received great attention because it allows for high throughput materials synthesis and screening at a reasonable cost. Here, we discuss recent developments in materials microarray technology and their applications in stem cell engineering. Future opportunities in the field will also be reviewed. PMID:24311967
J. M. Lucas
Progress in nanotechnology and DNA recombination techniques have produced tools for the diagnosis and investigation of allergy at molecular level. The most advanced examples of such progress are the microarray techniques, which have been expanded not only in research in the field of proteomics but also in application to the clinical setting.Microarrays of allergic components offer results relating to hundreds
Vivian G. Cheung; Michael Morley; Francisco Aguilar; Aldo Massimi; Raju Kucherlapati; Geoffrey Childs
There are a variety of options for making microarrays and obtaining microarray data. Here, we describe the building and use of two microarray facilities in academic settings. In addition to specifying technical detail, we comment on the advantages and disadvantages of components and approaches, and provide a protocol for hybridization. The fact that we are now making and using microarrays
Ryan, James C.; Van Dolah, Frances M.
Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a commonly used validation tool for confirming gene expression results obtained from microarray analysis; however, microarray and qPCR data often result in disagreement. The current study assesses factors contributing to the correlation between these methods in five separate experiments employing two-color 60-mer oligonucleotide microarrays and qPCR using SYBR green. Overall, significant correlation was observed between microarray and qPCR results (?=0.708, p<0.0001, n=277) using these platforms. The contribution of factors including up- vs. down-regulation, spot intensity, ?-value, fold-change, cycle threshold (Ct), array averaging, tissue type, and tissue preparation was assessed. Filtering of microarray data for measures of quality (fold-change and ?-value) proves to be the most critical factor, with significant correlations of ?>0.80 consistently observed when quality scores are applied. PMID:17242735
Deangelis, Tracy M; Shen, Liang
In the fall of 2007, the Minnesota Department of Health was notified of 11 cases of an unexplained neurological illness, all linked to a pork processing plant, Quality Pork Processors, Inc., in Austin, MN. The cluster of workers had been experiencing similar symptoms, including fatigue, pain, numbness, and tingling in their extremities as well as weakness. The symptoms were described as more sensory than motor, and all patients had evidence of polyradiculoneuropathy with signs of nerve root irritation. An epidemiological investigation revealed that the only commonality between cases was their exposure to a pork brain extraction procedure involving compressed air. As relatives of the cases remained asymptomatic and all cultures for known pathogens were negative, the etiology of the syndrome seemed not to be infectious. Clinically, the syndrome was most akin to chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Laboratory tests corroborated the clinical findings, revealing inflammation of peripheral nerves and nerve roots; however, these cases also had features clinically distinct from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy as well as laboratory testing revealing a novel immunoglobulin G immunostaining pattern. This suggested that the observed inflammation was the result of 1 or more unidentified antigens. This syndrome was ultimately dubbed progressive inflammatory neuropathy and was theorized to be an autoimmune reaction to aerosolized porcine neural tissue. Since the investigation's outset, 18 cases of progressive inflammatory neuropathy have been identified at the Minnesota pork processing plant, with 5 similar cases at an Indiana plant and 1 case at a Nebraskan plant. The plants in which cases have been identified have since stopped the use of compressed air in removing pork brains. All cases have stabilized or improved, with some requiring immunosuppressive and analgesic treatment. The study of progressive inflammatory neuropathy is ongoing, and the details of this investigation highlight the value of epidemiological principles in the identification and containment of outbreaks while researchers attempt to uncover the unique pathophysiology and potential etiology of the illness. Mt Sinai J Med 76:442-447, 2009. (c) 2009 Mount Sinai School of Medicine. PMID:19787653
Matthieu Peyre; Frédéric Commo; Carmela Dantas-Barbosa; Felipe Andreiuolo; Stéphanie Puget; Ludovic Lacroix; Françoise Drusch; Véronique Scott; Pascale Varlet; Audrey Mauguen; Philippe Dessen; Vladimir Lazar; Gilles Vassal; Jacques Grill
BackgroundChildren with ependymoma may experience a relapse in up to 50% of cases depending on the extent of resection. Key biological events associated with recurrence are unknown.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsTo discover the biology behind the recurrence of ependymomas, we performed CGHarray and a dual-color gene expression microarray analysis of 17 tumors at diagnosis co-hybridized with the corresponding 27 first or subsequent relapses
Watanabe, Takeshi; Kato, Atsuhiko; Terashima, Hiromichi; Matsubara, Koichi; Chen, Yu Jau; Adachi, Kenji; Mizuno, Hideaki; Suzuki, Masami
Recently, large-scale gene expression profiling is often performed using RNA extracted from unfixed frozen or formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples. However, both types of samples have drawbacks in terms of the morphological preservation and RNA quality. In the present study, we investigated 30 human prostate tissues using the PFA-AMeX method (fixation using paraformaldehyde (PFA) followed by embedding in paraffin by AMeX) with a DNA microarray combined with laser-capture microdissection. Morphologically, in contrast to the case of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, loss of basal cells in prostate adenocarcinomas was as obvious in PFA-AMeX samples as in FFPE samples. As for quality, the loss of rRNA peaks 18S and 28S on the capillary electropherograms from both FFPE and PFA-AMeX samples showed that the RNA was degraded equally during processing. However, qRT-PCR with 3' and 5' primer sets designed against human beta-actin revealed that, although RNA degradation occurred in both methods, it occurred more mildly in the PFA-AMeX samples. In conclusion, the PFA-AMeX method is good with respect to morphology and RNA quality, which makes it a promising tool for DNA microarrays combined with laser-capture microdissection, and if the appropriate RNA quality criteria are used, the capture of credible GeneChip data is well over 80% efficient, at least in human prostate specimens. PMID:26023261
H. Ling; R. R. Liu
As an important medicinal plant, Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. is widely spread in East Asian countries, and its root, possessing multiple pharmacological values, is used as traditional\\u000a Chinese medicine in clinics. Recently, much progress in R. glutinosa has been made. Tissue culture and micropropagation have been applied to generate virus-free germs or homogeneous plants.\\u000a In vitro culture and generation of transgenic
In this activity, learners explore the "nuts and bolts" of gene chips. Learners construct a simple model of a DNA microarray (also known as gene chips) and learn how microarrays can be used to identify and treat disease--including cancer. This resource includes references and an explanation of microarrays.
Gavin Sherlock; Tina Hernandez-boussard; Andrew Kasarskis; Gail Binkley; John C. Matese; Selina S. Dwight; Miroslava Kaloper; Shuai Weng; Heng Jin; Catherine A. Ball; Michael B. Eisen; Paul T. Spellman; Patrick O. Brown; David Botstein; J. Michael Cherry
The Stanford Microarray Database (SMD) stores raw and normalized data from microarray experiments, and provides web interfaces for researchers to retrieve, analyze and visualize their data. The two immediate goals for SMD are to serve as a storage site for microarray data from ongoing research at Stanford University, and to facilitate the public dissemination of that data once published, or
Combinatorial chemistry is used to find materials that form sensor microarrays. This book discusses the fundamentals, and then proceeds to the many applications of microarrays, from measuring gene expression (DNA microarrays) to protein-protein interactions, peptide chemistry, carbodhydrate chemistry, electrochemical detection, and microfluidics.
Klein, David C.; Bailey, Michael J.; Carter, David A.; Kim, Jong-so; Shi, Qiong; Ho, Anthony; Chik, Constance; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Morin, Fabrice; Ganguly, Surajit; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Sugden, David; Rangel, Zoila G.; Munson, Peter J.; Weller, Joan L.; Coon, Steven L.
Microarray analysis has provided a new understanding of pineal function by identifying genes that are highly expressed in this tissue relative to other tissues and also by identifying over 600 genes that are expressed on a 24-hour schedule. This effort has highlighted surprising similarity to the retina and has provided reason to explore new avenues of study including intracellular signaling, signal transduction, transcriptional cascades, thyroid/retinoic acid hormone signaling, metal biology, RNA splicing, and the role the pineal gland plays in the immune/inflammation response. The new foundation that microarray analysis has provided will broadly support future research on pineal function. PMID:19622385
Shadjou, Nasrin; Hasanzadeh, Mohammad
Bone disorders are of significant concern due to increase in the median age of our population. It is in this context that tissue engineering has been emerging as a valid approach to the current therapies for bone regeneration/substitution. Tissue-engineered bone constructs have the potential to alleviate the demand arising from the shortage of suitable autograft and allograft materials for augmenting bone healing. Silica based mesostructured nanomaterials possessing pore sizes in the range 2-50nm and surface reactive functionalities have elicited immense interest due to their exciting prospects in bone tissue engineering. In this review we describe application of silica-based mesoporous nanomaterials for bone tissue engineering. We summarize the preparation methods, the effect of mesopore templates and composition on the mesopore-structure characteristics, and different forms of these materials, including particles, fibers, spheres, scaffolds and composites. Also, the effect of structural and textural properties of mesoporous materials on development of new biomaterials for production of bone implants and bone cements was discussed. Also, application of different mesoporous materials on construction of manufacture 3-dimensional scaffolds for bone tissue engineering was discussed. It begins by giving the reader a brief background on tissue engineering, followed by a comprehensive description of all the relevant components of silica-based mesoporous biomaterials on bone tissue engineering, going from materials to scaffolds and from cells to tissue engineering strategies that will lead to "engineered" bone. PMID:26117771
David B. Allison; Xiangqin Cui; Grier P. Page; Mahyar Sabripour
In just a few years, microarrays have gone from obscurity to being almost ubiquitous in biological research. At the same time, the statistical methodology for microarray analysis has progressed from simple visual assessments of results to a weekly deluge of papers that describe purportedly novel algorithms for analysing changes in gene expression. Although the many procedures that are available might
Irena Barbulovic-Nad; Michael Lucente; Yu Sun
Microarrays with biomolecules (e.g., DNA and proteins), cells, and tissues immobilized on solid substrates are important tools for biological research, including genomics, proteomics, and cell analysis. In this paper, the current state of microarray fabrication is reviewed. According to spot formation techniques, methods are categorized as \\
Microarrays of spotted PCR amplified cDNA, or gene-specific oligomers, allow one to screen for differential gene expression by comparing mRNA abundance from different tissues. We are using soybean microarrays to screen for gene expression affected by plant association with pathogenic and symbiotic m...
Manoj K. Rai; N. S. Shekhawat; Harish; Amit K. Gupta; M. Phulwaria; Kheta Ram; U. Jaiswal
Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a significant role in the regulation of many physiological processes of plants. It is often used\\u000a in tissue culture systems to promote somatic embryogenesis and enhance somatic embryo quality by increasing desiccation tolerance\\u000a and preventing precocious germination. ABA is also employed to induce somatic embryos to enter a quiescent state in plant\\u000a tissue culture systems and
Andreiuolo, Felipe; Puget, Stéphanie; Lacroix, Ludovic; Drusch, Françoise; Scott, Véronique; Varlet, Pascale; Mauguen, Audrey; Dessen, Philippe; Lazar, Vladimir; Vassal, Gilles; Grill, Jacques
Background Children with ependymoma may experience a relapse in up to 50% of cases depending on the extent of resection. Key biological events associated with recurrence are unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings To discover the biology behind the recurrence of ependymomas, we performed CGHarray and a dual-color gene expression microarray analysis of 17 tumors at diagnosis co-hybridized with the corresponding 27 first or subsequent relapses from the same patient. As treatment and location had only limited influence on specific gene expression changes at relapse, we established a common signature for relapse. Eighty-seven genes showed an absolute fold change ?2 in at least 50% of relapses and were defined as the gene expression signature of ependymoma recurrence. The most frequently upregulated genes are involved in the kinetochore (ASPM, KIF11) or in neural development (CD133, Wnt and Notch pathways). Metallothionein (MT) genes were downregulated in up to 80% of the recurrences. Quantitative PCR for ASPM, KIF11 and MT3 plus immunohistochemistry for ASPM and MT3 confirmed the microarray results. Immunohistochemistry on an independent series of 24 tumor pairs at diagnosis and at relapse confirmed the decrease of MT3 expression at recurrence in 17/24 tumor pairs (p?=?0.002). Conversely, ASPM expression was more frequently positive at relapse (87.5% vs 37.5%, p?=?0.03). Loss or deletion of the MT genes cluster was never observed at relapse. Promoter sequencing after bisulfite treatment of DNA from primary tumors and recurrences as well as treatment of short-term ependymoma cells cultures with a demethylating agent showed that methylation was not involved in MT3 downregulation. However, in vitro treatment with a histone deacetylase inhibitor or zinc restored MT3 expression. Conclusions/Significance The most frequent molecular events associated with ependymoma recurrence were over-expression of kinetochore proteins and down-regulation of metallothioneins. Metallothionein-3 expression is epigenetically controlled and can be restored in vitro by histone deacetylase inhibitors. PMID:20885975
Spencer, Virginia A.; Xu, Ren; Bissell, Mina J.
Almost three decades ago, we presented a model where the extracellular matrix (ECM) was postulated to influence gene expression and tissue-specificity through the action of ECM receptors and the cytoskeleton. This hypothesis implied that ECM molecules could signal to the nucleus and that the unit of function in higher organisms was not the cell alone, but the cell plus its microenvironment. We now know that ECM invokes changes in tissue and organ architecture and that tissue, cell, nuclear, and chromatin structure are changed profoundly as a result of and during malignant progression. Whereas some evidence has been generated for a link between ECM-induced alterations in tissue architecture and changes in both nuclear and chromatin organization, the manner by which these changes actively induce or repress gene expression in normal and malignant cells is a topic in need of further attention. Here, we will discuss some key findings that may provide insights into mechanisms through which ECM could influence gene transcription and how tumor cells acquire the ability to overcome these levels of control. PMID:17419950
Walker, Josef; Flower, Darren; Rigley, Kevin
Microarrays are fast becoming routine tools for the high-throughput analysis of gene expression in a wide range of biologic systems, including hematology. Although a number of approaches can be taken when implementing microarray-based studies, all are capable of providing important insights into biologic function. Although some technical issues have not been resolved, microarrays will continue to make a significant impact on hematologically important research. PMID:11753074
Tucker, Jennifer A.; Mintzer, Keith A.; Mullins, Mary C.
Summary Patterning of the vertebrate anteroposterior (AP) axis proceeds temporally from anterior to posterior. How dorsoventral (DV) axial patterning relates to AP temporal patterning is unknown. We examined the temporal activity of BMP signaling in patterning ventrolateral cell fates along the AP axis, using transgenes that rapidly turn ‘off’ or ‘on’ BMP signaling. We show that BMP signaling patterns rostral DV cell fates at the onset of gastrulation, while progressively more caudal DV cell fates are patterned at progressively later intervals during gastrulation. Increased BMP signal duration is not required to pattern more caudal DV cell fates, rather distinct temporal intervals of signaling are required. This progressive action is regulated downstream of, or in parallel to BMP signal transduction at the level of Smad1/5 phosphorylation. We propose that a temporal cue regulates a cell's competence to respond to BMP signaling, allowing the acquisition of a cell's DV and AP identity simultaneously. PMID:18194657
Murakami, Yoshiki; Tanahashi, Toshihito; Okada, Rina; Toyoda, Hidenori; Kumada, Takashi; Enomoto, Masaru; Tamori, Akihiro; Kawada, Norifumi; Taguchi, Y-h; Azuma, Takeshi
MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiling has proven useful in diagnosing and understanding the development and progression of several diseases. Microarray is the standard method for analyzing miRNA expression profiles; however, it has several disadvantages, including its limited detection of miRNAs. In recent years, advances in genome sequencing have led to the development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, which significantly advance genome sequencing speed and discovery. In this study, we compared the expression profiles obtained by next generation sequencing (NGS) with the profiles created using microarray to assess if NGS could produce a more accurate and complete miRNA profile. Total RNA from 14 hepatocellular carcinoma tumors (HCC) and 6 matched non-tumor control tissues were sequenced with Illumina MiSeq 50-bp single-end reads. Micro RNA expression profiles were estimated using miRDeep2 software. As a comparison, miRNA expression profiles for 11 out of 14 HCCs were also established by microarray (Agilent human microRNA microarray). The average total sequencing exceeded 2.2 million reads per sample and of those reads, approximately 57% mapped to the human genome. The average correlation for miRNA expression between microarray and NGS and subtraction were 0.613 and 0.587, respectively, while miRNA expression between technical replicates was 0.976. The diagnostic accuracy of HCC, p-value, and AUC were 90.0%, 7.22×10?4, and 0.92, respectively. In summary, NGS created an miRNA expression profile that was reproducible and comparable to that produced by microarray. Moreover, NGS discovered novel miRNAs that were otherwise undetectable by microarray. We believe that miRNA expression profiling by NGS can be a useful diagnostic tool applicable to multiple fields of medicine. PMID:25215888
Xu, Shaoping; Liu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Hua; Luo, Jie
Biological tissues generally exhibit nonlinearity, anisotropy, quasi-incompressibility and viscoelasticity about material properties. Simulating the behaviour of elastic objects in real time is one of the current objectives of virtual surgery simulation which is still a challenge for researchers to accurately depict the behaviour of human tissues. In this paper, we present a classification of the different deformable models that have been developed. We present the advantages and disadvantages of each one. Finally, we make a comparison of deformable models and perform an evaluation of the state of the art and the future of deformable models. PMID:20481334
Cloud P. Paweletz; John W. Gillespie; David K. Ornstein; Nicole L. Simone; Monica R. Brown; Kristina A. Cole; Quan-Hong Wang; Jing Huang; Nan Hu; Tai-Tung Yip; William E. Rich; Elise C. Kohn; W. Marston Linehan; Thomas Weber; Phil Taylor; Mike R. Emmert-Buck; Lance A. Liotta; Emanuel F. Petricoin III
The complicated, changing pattern of protein expression should contain important infor- mation about the pathologic process taking place in the cells of actual tissue. Utilization of this information for the selection of druggable targets could be possible if a means existed to rapidly analyze and display changes in protein expression in defined microscopic cellular subpopulations. As a demonstration of feasi-
Berg, Daniela; Langer, Rupert; Tran, Kai; Walch, Axel; Schuster, Tibor; Bronger, Holger; Becker, Karl-Friedrich
Currently, core biopsies are routinely used for diagnosis of breast cancer and they are often the only sample for providing prognostic and predictive markers before treatment. However, biopsies may not accurately reflect protein expression profiles from the whole tumor. In the last few years, reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA) have become a very promising tool for biomarker profiling allowing quick, precise, and simultaneous analysis of many components of a protein network. After extraction of full-length proteins from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, we compared human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), estrogen receptor (ER?), and progesterone receptor (PGR) expression levels in a series of 35 FFPE breast cancer surgical specimens and their corresponding core biopsies using RPPA. We found a high concordance between protein expression in core biopsies and surgical specimens with concordance and ?-values of 91.4% and ?=0.677 for HER2; 80% and ?=0.587 for ER?; and 82.8% and ?=0.656 for PGR. In this study, we could show that HER2, ER?, and PGR expression can be assessed reliably on core biopsies of FFPE breast cancer tissues using RRPA. These results might facilitate the implementation of RPPA technology in routine clinical settings. PMID:21293257
Roy, Bibhas; Chattopadhyay, Gautam; Mishra, Debasish; Das, Tamal; Chakraborty, Suman; Maiti, Tapas K.
An on-chip lectin microarray based glycomic approach is employed to identify glyco markers for different gastritis and gastric cancer. Changes in protein glycosylation have impact on biological function and carcinogenesis. These altered glycosylation patterns in serum proteins and membrane proteins of tumor cells can be unique markers of cancer progression and hence have been exploited to diagnose various stages of cancer through lectin microarray technology. In the present work, we aimed to study the alteration of glycan structure itself in different stages of gastritis and gastric cancer thoroughly. In order to perform the study from both serum and tissue glycoproteins in an efficient and high-throughput manner, we indigenously developed and employed lectin microarray integrated on a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip platform. We analyzed serum and gastric biopsy samples from 8 normal, 15 chronic Type-B gastritis, 10 chronic Type-C gastritis, and 6 gastric adenocarcinoma patients and found that the glycoprofile obtained from tissue samples was more distinctive than that of the sera samples. We were able to establish signature glycoprofile for the three disease groups, that were absent in healthy normal individuals. In addition, our findings elucidated certain novel signature glycan expression in chronic gastritis and gastric cancer. In silico analysis showed that glycoprofile of chronic gastritis and gastric adenocarcinoma formed close clusters, confirming the previously hypothesized linkage between them. This signature can be explored further as gastric cancer marker to develop novel analytical tools and obtain in-depth understanding of the disease prognosis. PMID:24959308
German Cancer Research Center email@example.com Why do we need microarray clone annotation? · Often for protein domain structure, and GeneCards for comprehensive information from other databases on human ge- nes. The relation of clone information to genes and proteins · Microarrays are produced using
Cards for comprehensive information from other databases on human genes. The relation of clone information to genes German Cancer Research Center 2005-11-29 Why do we need microarray clone annotation? Often, the result and proteins Microarrays are produced using information on expressed sequences as EST clones, cDNAs, partial c
Evelyne Dupuy; Patricia Hainaud; Aude Villemain; Eva Bodevin-Phèdre; Jean Philippe Brouland; Pascale Briand; Gérard Tobelem
Background\\/Aims: The hypervascularity described in hepatocellular carcinoma varies according to the progression and the differentiation of the tumor, suggesting an angiogenic switch during tumor development.Methods: We used a transgenic mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma induced by the expression of SV40-T antigen, in which male mice developed hepatic tumors at various temporal and histological stages, whereas female mice remained tumor-free. We
Herr, Amy E.
Although protein microarrays have proven to be an important tool in proteomics research, the technology is emerging as useful for public health and defense applications. Recent progress in the measurement and characterization of biothreat agents is reviewed in this chapter. Details concerning validation of various protein microarray formats, from contact-printed sandwich assays to supported lipid bilayers, are presented. The reviewed technologies have important implications for in vitro characterization of toxin-ligand interactions, serotyping of bacteria, screening of potential biothreat inhibitors, and as core components of biosensors, among others, research and engineering applications.
Sehgal, Rakesh; Misra, Shubham; Anand, Namrata; Sharma, Monika
Modern biology and genomic sciences are rooted in parasitic disease research. Genome sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of new biological information that promises to have a major impact on our understanding of parasites. Microarrays provide one of the major high-throughput platforms by which this information can be exploited in the laboratory. Many excellent reviews and technique articles have recently been published on applying microarrays to organisms for which fully annotated genomes are at hand. However, many parasitologists work on organisms whose genomes have been only partially sequenced. This review is mainly focused on how to use microarray in these situations. PMID:23508469
Marco Botta; Raffaele A. Calogero; Enrico Caserta; Alessandro Guffanti
Microarray based transcription profiling is now a consolidated methodology and has widespread use in areas such as pharmacogenomics, diagnostics and drug target identification. Large-scale microarray studies are also becoming crucial to a new way of conceiving experimental biology. A main issue in microarray transcription profiling is data analysis and mining. When microarrays became a methodology of general use, considerable effort
Zhou, Jieyu; Li, Wenming; Jin, Tong; Xiang, Xuan; Li, Maocai; Wang, Juan; Li, Guojun; Pan, Xinliang; Lei, Dapeng
Background: Studies have shown that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in the development and progression of many types of cancer. However, the mechanisms by which lncRNAs influence development and progression of hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HSCC) are unclear. Method: We investigated differences in lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles between 3 pairs of HSCC tissues and adjacent nontumor tissues by microarray analysis. Results: In HSCC tissues, 1299 lncRNAs were significantly upregulated (n=669) or downregulated (n=630) compared to levels in adjacent nontumor tissues. Moreover, 1432 mRNAs were significantly upregulated (n=684) or downregulated (n=748) in HSCC tissues. We randomly selected 2 differentially expressed lncRNAs (AB209630, AB019562) and 2 differentially expressed mRNAs (SPP1, TJP2) for confirmation of microarray results using qRT-PCR. The qRT-PCR results matched well with the microarray data. The differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs were distributed on each of the chromosomes, including the X and Y chromosomes. Pathway analysis indicated that the biological functions of differentially expressed mRNAs were related to 48 cellular pathways that may be associated with HSCC development. GO analysis revealed that 593 mRNAs involved in biological processes, 50 mRNAs involved in cellular components, and 46 mRNAs involved in molecular functions were upregulated in the carcinomas; 280 mRNAs involved in biological processes, 58 mRNAs involved in cellular components, and 71 mRNAs involved in molecular functions were downregulated in the carcinomas. In addition, 8 enhancer-like lncRNAs and 21 intergenic lncRNAs with their adjacent mRNA pairs were identified as coregulated transcripts. Conclusion: These findings provide insight into the mechanisms underlying HSCC tumorigenesis and will facilitate identification of new therapeutic targets and diagnostic biomarkers for this disease.
Shiono, Katsuhiro; Yamauchi, Takaki; Yamazaki, So; Mohanty, Bijayalaxmi; Malik, Al Imran; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Nishizawa, Naoko K; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro; Colmer, Timothy D; Nakazono, Mikio
Internal aeration is crucial for root growth in waterlogged soil. A barrier to radial oxygen loss (ROL) can enhance long-distance oxygen transport via the aerenchyma to the root tip; a higher oxygen concentration at the apex enables root growth into anoxic soil. The ROL barrier is formed within the outer part of roots (OPR). Suberin and/or lignin deposited in cell walls are thought to contribute to the barrier, but it is unclear which compound is the main constituent. This study describes gene expression profiles during ROL barrier formation in rice roots to determine the relative responses of suberin and/or lignin biosyntheses for the barrier. OPR tissues were isolated by laser microdissection and their transcripts were analysed by microarray. A total of 128 genes were significantly up- or downregulated in the OPR during the barrier formation. Genes associated with suberin biosynthesis were strongly upregulated, whereas genes associated with lignin biosynthesis were not. By an ab initio analysis of the promoters of the upregulated genes, the putative cis-elements that could be associated with transcription factors, WRKY, AP2/ERF, NAC, bZIP, MYB, CBT/DREB, and MADS, were elucidated. They were particularly associated with the expression of transcription factor genes containing WRKY, AP2, and MYB domains. A semiquantitative reverse-transcription PCR analysis of genes associated with suberin biosynthesis (WRKY, CYP, and GPAT) confirmed that they were highly expressed during ROL barrier formation. Overall, these results suggest that suberin is a major constituent of the ROL barrier in roots of rice. PMID:24913626
Terence Rooney; Pascale Roux-Lombard; Douglas J Veale; Oliver FitzGerald; Jean-Michel Dayer; Barry Bresnihan
ObjectivesTo evaluate synovial tissue and serum biomarkers of disease activity, therapeutic response and radiographic progression during biological therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA).MethodsPatients with active RA entered a randomised study of anakinra 100 mg\\/day, administered as monotherapy or in combination with pegsunercept 800 ?g\\/kg twice a week. Arthroscopic synovial tissue biopsies were obtained at baseline and two further time points. Following
Downes, Aidan Rawle
Experibase is an experimental database that supports the storage of data from leading biological experiment techniques. Experibase ontology was extended to include a robust representation of microarray data, a leading ...
TGM2 is a stress-responsive gene that encodes a multifunctional and structurally complex protein called tissue transglutaminase (abbreviated as TG2 or tTG). TGM2 expression is frequently upregulated during inflammation and wounding. Emerging evidence indicates that TGM2 expression is aberrantly upregulated in multiple cancer cell types, particularly those selected for resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy and those isolated from metastatic sites. It is becoming increasingly evident that chronic expression of TG2 in epithelial cancer cells initiates a complex series of signaling networks which contributes to the development of drug resistance and an invasive phenotype. For example, forced or basal high expression of TG2 in mammary epithelial cells is associated with activation of nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-?B), Akt, focal adhesion kinase, and hypoxia-inducible factor. All of these changes are considered hallmarks of aggressive tumors. TG2 expression is able to induce the developmentally regulated program of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and to confer cancer stem cell (CSC) traits in mammary epithelial cells; both EMT and CSCs have been implicated in cancer metastasis and resistance to standard therapies. Importantly, TG2 expression in tumor samples is associated with poor disease outcome, increased drug resistance, and increased incidence of metastasis. These observations imply that TG2 plays a crucial role in promoting an aggressive phenotype in mammary epithelial cells. In this review, we discuss recent evidence that TG2-regulated pathways contribute to the aggressive phenotype in breast cancer. PMID:23673317
Ramery, Eve; Closset, Rodrigue; Art, Tatiana; Bureau, Fabrice; Lekeux, Pierre
Microarrays have become an important research tool for life science researchers. Expression microarrays are capable of profiling the gene expression pattern of tens of thousands of genes in a single experiment. It appears to be the platform of choice for parallel gene expression profiling. Various equine-specific gene expression microarrays have been generated and used. However, homologous microarrays are not yet commercially available for the horse. An alternative is the use of heterologous microarrays, mainly microarrays specific for mice or humans. Although the use of microarrays in equine research is still in its infancy, gene expression microarrays have shown their potential in equine research. This review presents the previous, current and potential use of expression microarrays in equine research. PMID:19027176
Andreas Sturm; Kimberley A. Krivacic; Claudio Fiocchi; Alan D. Levine
Tissue T cells encounter Ag in a distinct microenvironment, where they are embedded in the interstitial extracellular matrix (ECM). In contrast, while naive T cells are exposed to Ag in the lymph node, immediately after naive T cells are activated they must extravasate into the ECM to function effectively. Because integrin-mediated adhesion to the ECM modulates cell cycle progression and
Roland B. Stoughton
? Abstract DNA microarrays,have enabled,biology researchers to conduct,large- scale quantitative experiments. This capacity has produced,qualitative changes,in the breadth of hypotheses,that can be explored. In what has become,the dominant,mode,of use, changes in the transcription rate of nearly all the genes in a genome, taking place in a particular tissue or cell type, can be measured in disease states, during development, and
Mulrane, Laoighse; Rexhepaj, Elton; Smart, Valerie; Callanan, John J; Orhan, Diclehan; Eldem, Türkan; Mally, Angela; Schroeder, Susanne; Meyer, Kirstin; Wendt, Maria; O'Shea, Donal; Gallagher, William M
The widespread use of digital slides has only recently come to the fore with the development of high-throughput scanners and high performance viewing software. This development, along with the optimisation of compression standards and image transfer techniques, has allowed the technology to be used in wide reaching applications including integration of images into hospital information systems and histopathological training, as well as the development of automated image analysis algorithms for prediction of histological aberrations and quantification of immunohistochemical stains. Here, the use of this technology in the creation of a comprehensive library of images of preclinical toxicological relevance is demonstrated. The images, acquired using the Aperio ScanScope CS and XT slide acquisition systems, form part of the ongoing EU FP6 Integrated Project, Innovative Medicines for Europe (InnoMed). In more detail, PredTox (abbreviation for Predictive Toxicology) is a subproject of InnoMed and comprises a consortium of 15 industrial (13 large pharma, 1 technology provider and 1 SME) and three academic partners. The primary aim of this consortium is to assess the value of combining data generated from 'omics technologies (proteomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics) with the results from more conventional toxicology methods, to facilitate further informed decision making in preclinical safety evaluation. A library of 1709 scanned images was created of full-face sections of liver and kidney tissue specimens from male Wistar rats treated with 16 proprietary and reference compounds of known toxicity; additional biological materials from these treated animals were separately used to create 'omics data, that will ultimately be used to populate an integrated toxicological database. In respect to assessment of the digital slides, a web-enabled digital slide management system, Digital SlideServer (DSS), was employed to enable integration of the digital slide content into the 'omics database and to facilitate remote viewing by pathologists connected with the project. DSS also facilitated manual annotation of digital slides by the pathologists, specifically in relation to marking particular lesions of interest. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) were constructed from the specimens for the purpose of creating a repository of tissue from animals used in the study with a view to later-stage biomarker assessment. As the PredTox consortium itself aims to identify new biomarkers of toxicity, these TMAs will be a valuable means of validation. In summary, a large repository of histological images was created enabling the subsequent pathological analysis of samples through remote viewing and, along with the utilisation of TMA technology, will allow the validation of biomarkers identified by the PredTox consortium. The population of the PredTox database with these digitised images represents the creation of the first toxicological database integrating 'omics and preclinical data with histological images. PMID:18479893
In this activity, learners use microarray technology to determine which genes are turned on and off at various points in the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells on their way to becoming pancreatic ? cells. An introductory PowerPoint, reading, video clip and an animation provide learners with background information needed to interpret the results of a paper microarray simulation. Learners will position cDNA strips on mini-microarrays to discover which genes are expressing, to what degree they are expressing, and which are not. They use these findings to trace the differentiation of embryonic stem cells that give rise to pancreatic ? cells and other cell types. The role of growth factors and proximity of other cell types is central to learners understanding how researchers may direct the ultimate fate of stem cells. The value of this in treating diabetes is also discussed. This activity is recommended for learners studying Biology at the High School (honors, IB and AP) or Undergraduate level.
Mukhopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Das, Nandan K.; Pradhan, Asima; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.
DIC (Differential Interference Contrast Image) images of cervical pre-cancer tissues are taken from epithelium region, on which wavelet transform and multi-fractal analysis are applied. Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) through Daubechies basis are done for identifying fluctuations over polynomial trends for clear characterization and differentiation of tissues. A systematic investigation of denoised images is carried out through the continuous Morlet wavelet. The scalogram reveals the changes in coefficient peak values from grade-I to grade-III. Wavelet normalized energy plots are computed in order to show the difference of periodicity among different grades of cancerous tissues. Using the multi-fractal de-trended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA), it is observed that the values of Hurst exponent and width of singularity spectrum decrease as cancer progresses from grade-I to grade-III tissue.
Campbell, A. Malcolm
into the undergraduate curriculum. · Affordable DNA Microarrays · Student Friendly Protocols · GCAT-L Listserv · Free isolation, have high success rates and are inexpensive. #1394 Inexpensive DNA Microarrays and Analysis with Current Research Trends ¸ Make DNA Microarrays Affordable for All Students ¸ Develop Student-Friendly DNA
Sun, Yan; Song, Zhengbo
Target treatment based on driver genes in advanced non-small cell lung cancer is very important currently. Tumor tissues is the gold standard for driver genes testing. However, most of patients could not get the gene information for lack of enough tissues. To explore the tissue specimens alternatives is a hot spot in clinical work. This report reviews the tissue specimen alternatives of driver gene testing in non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:26104897
Zhu, Xiao-Peng; Mou, Ke-Jie; Xu, Qing-Fu; Tang, Jun-Hai; Huang, Guo-Hao; Xu, Jian-Ping; Li, Guang-Hui; Ai, Si-Jin; Hugnot, Jean-Phillippe; Zhou, Zheng; Lv, Sheng-Qing
Previous studies have focused on miRNA expression in brain gliomas. However, both the expression pattern of miRNAs in gliomas of different grades and various miRNAs involved in malignant progression of gliomas are poorly understood. In the present study, we used miRNA microarray-based screening to investigate the miRNA expression profile in gliomas, which was further verified by qRT-PCR in selected miRNAs. In total, we found 13 differentially expressed miRNAs between gliomas and their matched surrounding tissues. Among them, 12 miRNAs were upregulated and only one (miR-4489) was downregulated compared with the control. Furthermore, the lower expression level of miR-4489 was confirmed by qRT-PCR in 26 glioma samples. Our microarray result revealed 8, 9 and 15 aberrantly expressed miRNAs in gliomas of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II-IV, respectively. Gene Ontology (GO) and Pathway analysis indicated that target genes of the 13 miRNAs were significantly enriched in central nervous system- and tumor?related biological processes and signaling pathways. The dysregulated miRNAs identified in the present study contribute to the tumorigenesis and malignant progression of gliomas and may serve as useful markers for advanced glioma pathological grading and prognosis. PMID:25954994
Hristovski, Dimitar; Kastrin, Andrej; Peterlin, Borut; Rindflesch, Thomas C
The results from microarray experiments, in the form of lists of over- and under-expressed genes, have great potential to support progress in biomedical research. However, results are not easy to interpret. Information about the function of the genes and their relation to other genes is needed, and this information is usually present in vast amounts of biomedical literature. Considerable effort is required to find, read and extract relevant information from the literature. A potential solution is to use computerized text analysis methods to extract relevant information. Our proposal enhances current methods in this regard and uses semantic relations extracted from biomedical text with the SemRep information extraction system. We describe an application that integrates microarray results with semantic relations and discuss its benefits in supporting enhanced access to the relevant literature for interpretation of results. PMID:20351860
Otsuka, M; Kato, M; Yoshikawa, T; Chen, H; Brown, E J; Masuho, Y; Omata, M; Seki, N
To identify molecular alterations in the progression of colorectal carcinoma, we analyzed gene expression profiles of colon cancer cell lines derived from primary and metastatic tumors from a single patient. Of 2280 cDNAs investigated using our in-house microarray, the expression of 6 genes (tumor-associated antigen L6, L-plastin, the human homologue of yeast ribosomal protein S28, the B-cell translocation gene, mitochondrial aspartate-aminotransferase, and HLA-A) increased, while that of 2 genes (keratin 5 and phosphoglucomutase) decreased in metastatic-tumor-derived cells compared with primary-tumor-derived cells. Of these genes, we assessed the L-plastin gene, an actin-bundling protein, at the protein level using a tissue microarray consisting of 58 clinically stratified colorectal cancer specimens. Consistent with our microarray results, the expression of L-plastin was significantly correlated with the progression of cancer staging. Therefore, our results suggest that the L-plastin gene is a potential metastatic marker. In addition, combining cDNA microarrays and tissue arrays, as shown here, is thought to facilitate the rapid characterization of candidate biomarkers. PMID:11735128
Robert D. Gibbons; Dulal K. Bhaumik; David R. Cox; Dennis R. Grayson; John M. Davis; Rajiv P. Sharma
Microarrays are new biotechnological devices that permit the simultaneous evaluation of expression levels of thousands of genes in one or more tissue samples. We develop a new method for identifying differentially expressed genes in replicated cDNA and oligonucleotide microarray experiments. The method is based on a nonparametric prediction interval which is computed as an order statistic of n control measurements
Johan Lindberg; Erik af Klint; Ann-Kristin Ulfgren; André Stark; Tove Andersson; Peter Nilsson; Lars Klareskog; Joakim Lundeberg
In recent years microarray technology has been used increasingly to acquire knowledge about the pathogenic processes involved in rheumatoid arthritis. The present study investigated variations in gene expression in synovial tissues within and between patients with rheumatoid arthritis. This was done by applying microarray technology on multiple synovial biopsies obtained from the same knee joints. In this way the relative
Shea, April; Wolcott, Mark; Daefler, Simon; Rozak, David A
Phenotype microarrays nicely complement traditional genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analysis by offering opportunities for researchers to ground microbial systems analysis and modeling in a broad yet quantitative assessment of the organism's physiological response to different metabolites and environments. Biolog phenotype assays achieve this by coupling tetrazolium dyes with minimally defined nutrients to measure the impact of hundreds of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulfur sources on redox reactions that result from compound-induced effects on the electron transport chain. Over the years, we have used Biolog's reproducible and highly sensitive assays to distinguish closely related bacterial isolates, to understand their metabolic differences, and to model their metabolic behavior using flux balance analysis. This chapter describes Biolog phenotype microarray system components, reagents, and methods, particularly as they apply to bacterial identification, characterization, and metabolic analysis. PMID:22639219
With the ever-escalating amount of data being produced by genome-wide microarray studies, it is of increasing importance that these data are captured in public databases so that researchers can use this information to complement and enhance their own studies. Many groups have set up databases of expression data, ranging from large repositories, which are designed to comprehensively capture all published data, through to more specialized databases. The public repositories, such as ArrayExpress at the European Bioinformatics Institute contain complete datasets in raw format in addition to processed data, whilst the specialist databases tend to provide downstream analysis of normalized data from more focused studies and data sources. Here we provide a guide to the use of these public microarray resources. PMID:18629145
Han, Hui; Wang, Yu-Hong; Qu, Guang-Jin; Sun, Ting-Ting; Li, Feng-Qing; Jiang, Wei; Luo, Shan-Shun
The microRNA (miRNA) regulation mechanisms associated with atherosclerosis are largely undocumented. Specific selection and efficient validation of miRNA regulation pathways involved in atherosclerosis development may be better assessed by contemporary microarray platforms applying cross-verification methodology. A screening platform was established using both miRNA and genomic microarrays. Microarray analysis was then simultaneously performed on pooled atherosclerotic aortic tissues from 10 Apolipoprotein E (apoE) knockout mice (apoE?/?) and 10 healthy C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Differentiated miRNAs were screened and cross-verified against an mRNA screen database to explore integrative mRNA–miRNA regulation. Gene set enrichment analysis was conducted to describe the potential pathways regulated by these mRNA–miRNA interactions. High-throughput data analysis of miRNA and genomic microarrays of knockout and healthy control mice revealed 75 differentially expressed miRNAs in apoE?/? mice at a threshold value of 2. The six miRNAs with the greatest differentiation expression were confirmed by real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT–PCR) in atherosclerotic tissues. Significantly enriched pathways, such as the type 2 diabetes mellitus pathway, were observed by a gene-set enrichment analysis. The enriched molecular pathways were confirmed through qRT–PCR evaluation by observing the presence of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) and SOCS3-related miRNAs, miR-30a, miR-30e and miR-19b. Cross-verified high-throughput microarrays are optimally accurate and effective screening methods for miRNA regulation profiles associated with atherosclerosis. The identified SOCS3 pathway is a potentially valuable target for future development of targeted miRNA therapies to control atherosclerosis development and progression. PMID:23470715
Seurynck-Servoss, Shannon L.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Rodland, Karin D.; Zangar, Richard C.
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) microarrays promise to be a powerful tool for the detection of disease biomarkers. The original technology for printing ELISA microarray chips and capturing antibodies on slides was derived from the DNA microarray field. However, due to the need to maintain antibody structure and function when immobilized, surface chemistries used for DNA microarrays are not always appropriate for ELISA microarrays. In order to identify better surface chemistries for antibody capture, a number of commercial companies and academic research groups have developed new slide types that could improve antibody function in microarray applications. In this review we compare and contrast the commercially available slide chemistries, as well as highlight some promising recent advances in the field.
Advances in analytic technologies have often driven progress in medicine. This is particularly true for diagnostics in which new imaging methods and novel molecular analytic tools such as DNA sequencing and PCR have all found their diag- nostic niche and are now routinely used in the clinic. High- throughput microarray-based analytic methods were first described over a decade ago (1).
Nelson, Celeste M.; Inman, Jamie L.; Bissell, Mina J.
Here we describe a simple micromolding method to construct three-dimensional arrays of organotypic epithelial tissue structures that approximate in vivo histology. An elastomeric stamp containing an array of posts of defined geometry and spacing is used to mold microscale cavities into the surface of type I collagen gels. Epithelial cells are seeded into the cavities and covered with a second layer of collagen. The cells reorganize into hollow tissues corresponding to the geometry of the cavities. Patterned tissue arrays can be produced in 3-4 h and will undergo morphogenesis over the following one to three days. The protocol can easily be adapted to study a variety of tissues and aspects of normal and neoplastic development.
Chou, Ruey-Hwang; Yen, Chia-Jui; Huang, Wei-Chien; Wu, Chung-Yi; Yu, Yung-Luen
The ?-fetoprotein fraction L3 (AFP-L3), which is synthesized by malignant cells and incorporates a fucosylated oligosaccharide, has been investigated as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Quantification of AFP-L3 by conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has not always produced reliable results for serum samples with low AFP, and thus we evaluated the clinical utility of quantifying AFP-L3 using a new and highly sensitive glycan microarray assay. Sera from 9 patients with chronic hepatitis B and 32 patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC were tested for AFP-L3 level using the glycan microarray. Additionally, we compared receiver operator characteristic curves for the ELISA and glycan microarray methods for determination of the AFP-L3: AFP-L1 ratio in patient samples. This ratio was calculated for 8 HCC patients who underwent transarterial embolization therapy pre- or post-treatment with AFP-L3. Glycan microarrays showed that the AFP-L3 ratio of HBV-related HCC patients was significantly higher than that measured for chronic hepatitis B patients. Overall parameters for estimating AFP-L3% in HCC samples were as follows: sensitivity, 53.13%; specificity, 88.89%; and area under the curve, 0.75. The elevated AFP-L3% in the 8 patients with HBV-related HCC was strongly associated with HCC progression. Following one month of transarterial embolization therapy, the relative mean AFP-L3% decreased significantly. In addition, we compared Fut8 gene expression between paired tumor and non-tumor tissues from 24 patients with HBV-related HCC. The Fut8 mRNA expression was significantly increased in tumorous tissues in these patients than that in non-tumor tissue controls. Higher expression of Fut8 mRNA in tumorous tissues in these patients was associated with poor differentiation than well and moderate differentiation. Our results describe a new glycan microarray for the sensitive and rapid quantification of fucosylated AFP; this method is potentially applicable to screening changes in AFP-L3 level for assessment of HCC progression. PMID:24927126
Niroshan Ramachandran; Eugenie Hainsworth; Bhupinder Bhullar; Samuel Eisenstein; Benjamin Rosen; Albert Y. Lau; Johannes C. Walter; Joshua LaBaer
Protein microarrays provide a powerful tool for the study of protein function. However, they are not widely used, in part because of the challenges in producing proteins to spot on the arrays. We generated protein microarrays by printing complementary DNAs onto glass slides and then translating target proteins with mammalian reticulocyte lysate. Epitope tags fused to the proteins allowed them
Xuyu Zu; Jun Ma; Hongxia Liu; Feng Liu; Chunyan Tan; Lingling Yu; Jue Wang; Zhenhua Xie; Deliang Cao; Yuyang Jiang
Introduction Pokemon is an oncogenic transcription factor involved in cell growth, differentiation and oncogenesis, but little is known\\u000a about its role in human breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to reveal the role of Pokemon in breast cancer progression\\u000a and patient survival and to understand its underlying mechanisms.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Tissue microarray analysis of breast cancer tissues from patients with complete clinicopathological
Andrews, Justen; Bouffard, Gerard G.; Cheadle, Chris; Lü, Jining; Becker, Kevin G.; Oliver, Brian
Identification and annotation of all the genes in the sequenced Drosophila genome is a work in progress. Wild-type testis function requires many genes and is thus of potentially high value for the identification of transcription units. We therefore undertook a survey of the repertoire of genes expressed in the Drosophila testis by computational and microarray analysis. We generated 3141 high-quality testis expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Testis ESTs computationally collapsed into 1560 cDNA set used for further analysis. Of those, 11% correspond to named genes, and 33% provide biological evidence for a predicted gene. A surprising 47% fail to align with existing ESTs and 16% with predicted genes in the current genome release. EST frequency and microarray expression profiles indicate that the testis mRNA population is highly complex and shows an extended range of transcript abundance. Furthermore, >80% of the genes expressed in the testis showed onefold overexpression relative to ovaries, or gonadectomized flies. Additionally, >3% showed more than threefold overexpression at p <0.05. Surprisingly, 22% of the genes most highly overexpressed in testis match Drosophila genomic sequence, but not predicted genes. These data strongly support the idea that sequencing additional cDNA libraries from defined tissues, such as testis, will be important tools for refined annotation of the Drosophila genome. Additionally, these data suggest that the number of genes in Drosophila will significantly exceed the conservative estimate of 13,601. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the dbEST data library under accession nos. AI944400–AI947263 and BE661985–BE662262.] [The microarray data described in this paper have been submitted to the GEO data library under accession nos. GPLS, GSM3–GSM10.] PMID:11116097
Druliner, Brooke R.; Fincher, Justin A.; Sexton, Brittany S.; Vera, Daniel L.; Roche, Michael; Lyle, Stephen; Dennis, Jonathan H.
The development and progression of lung adenocarcinoma, one of the most common cancers, is driven by the interplay of genetic and epigenetic changes and the role of chromatin structure in malignant transformation remains poorly understood. We used systematic nucleosome distribution and chromatin accessibility microarray mapping platforms to analyze the genome-wide chromatin structure from normal tissues and from primary lung adenocarcinoma of different grades and stages. We identified chromatin-based patterns across different patients with lung adenocarcinoma of different cancer grade and stage. Low-grade cancers had nucleosome distributions very different compared with the corresponding normal tissue but had nearly identical chromatin accessibility. Conversely, nucleosome distributions of high-grade cancers showed few differences. Substantial disruptions in chromosomal accessibility were seen in a patient with a high-grade and high-stage tumor. These data imply that chromatin structure changes during the progression of lung adenocarcinoma. We have therefore developed a model in which low-grade lung adenocarcinomas are linked to changes in nucleosome distributions, whereas higher-grade tumors are linked to large-scale chromosomal changes. These results provide a foundation for the development of a comprehensive framework linking the general and locus-specific roles of chromatin structure to lung cancer progression. We propose that this strategy has the potential to identify a new class of chromatin-based diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic markers in cancer progression. PMID:23598721
Mohamed Anwar K Abdelhalim; NJ Siddiqi; AS Alhomida; Mohammed S Al-Ayed
BACKGROUND: The most important function of collagen and elastin is to induce several mechanical parameters which are known to play a dominant role in governing mechanical properties of the blood vessels. The aortic tissue of rabbit is one of the important sources of collagen and elastin. The effects of high fat diet (HFD) on the hydroxyproline (Hyp) fractions in serum
Zhao, Min; Sachs, Patrick C; Wang, Xu; Dumur, Catherine I; Idowu, Michael O; Robila, Valentina; Francis, Michael P; Ware, Joy; Beckman, Matthew; Rizki, Aylin; Holt, Shawn E; Elmore, Lynne W
Data are accumulating to support a role for adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in breast cancer progression; however, to date most studies have relied on adipose MSCs from non-breast sources. There is a particular need to investigate the role of adipose MSCs in the pathogenesis of basal-like breast cancer, which develops at a disproportionate rate in pre-menopausal African-American women with a gain in adiposity. The aim of this study was to better understand how breast adipose MSCs (bMSCs) contribute to the progression of basal-like breast cancers by relying on isogenic HMT-3255 S3 (pre-invasive) and T4-2 (invasive) human cells that upon transplantation into nude mice resemble this tumor subtype. In vitro results suggested that bMSCs may contribute to breast cancer progression in multiple ways. bMSCs readily penetrate extracellular matrix components in part through their expression of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 3, promote the invasion of T4-2 cells and efficiently chemoattract endothelial cells via a bFGF-independent, VEGF-A-dependent manner. As mixed xenografts, bMSCs stimulated the growth, invasion and desmoplasia of T4-2 tumors, yet these resident stem cells showed no observable effect on the progression of pre-invasive S3 cells. While bMSCs form vessel-like structures within Matrigel both in vitro and in vivo and chemoattract endothelial cells, there appeared to be no difference between T4-2/bMSC mixed xenografts and T4-2 xenografts with regard to intra- or peri-tumoral vascularity. Collectively, our data suggest that bMSCs may contribute to the progression of basal-like breast cancers by stimulating growth and invasion but not vasculogenesis or angiogenesis. PMID:22669576
s3-3 A “living microarray” technology has been developed to enable high throughput screening and analysis of bacterial and mammalian cells. This novel approach augments traditional microarray technology which has been extensively used to study proteins and nucleic acids. Our living microarray utilizes micro-scale “quill-pen” cantilevers to transfer living cells onto a wide variety of surfaces. In contrast with existing cell deposition methods, such as ink jet or laser ablation, the quill-pen approach imparts minimal thermal and shear stress to cells, preserving cell viability and biological functionality. Cell viability and proliferation has been evaluated, demonstrating the feasibility of this printing method and its compatibility with a wide range of cell types. These living arrays have applications for cell-based screening assays, tissue engineering, cell signaling studies, and for directly interfacing cells with nanodevices and biosensors.
Li, Yan; Tao, Sheng-Ce; Bova, G. Steven; Liu, Alvin Y.; Chan, Daniel W.; Zhu, Heng; Zhang, Hui
Aberrant glycosylation is a fundamental characteristic of progression of diseases such as cancer. Therefore, characterization of glycosylation patterns of proteins from disease tissues may identify changes specific to the disease development and improve diagnostic performance. Thus, analysis strategies with sufficient sensitivity for evaluation of glycosylation patterns in clinical specimens are needed. Here, we describe an analytical strategy for detection and verification of glycosylation patterns. It is based on a two-phase platform including a pattern discovery phase to identify the glycosylation changes using high-density lectin microarrays and a verification phase by developing lectin-based immunosorbent assays using the identified lectins. We evaluated the analytical performance of the platform using the glycoprotein standard, and found that the lectin microarray could detect specific bindings of glycoprotein to lectins at the nanogram level and the lectin-based immunosorbent assay could be used for verification of protein glycosylation. We then applied the approach to the analysis of glycosylation patterns of two glycoproteins, which are highly expressed in prostate cancer in our prior studies, PSA and membrane metallo-endopeptidase (MME), from aggressive (AC) and non-aggressive prostate cancer (NAC) tissues. The observed differences in glycosylation patterns of PSA and MME may represent significant clinical importance, and could used to develop multiplex assays for diagnosis of aggressive prostate cancer. PMID:21975078
1 Exploration and Analysis of DNA Microarray Data Dhammika Amaratunga Senior Research Fellow and toxicity mechanisms medical diagnostics and prognostics #12;7 DNA microarrays DNA microarray technology is one of the most promising tools for obtaining gene expression data. A DNA microarray is a tiny glass
Spencer, Virginia A.; Xu, Ren; Bissell, Mina J.
Almost three decades ago, we presented a model where theextracellular matrix (ECM) was postulated to influence gene expressionand tissue-specificity through the action of ECM receptors and thecytoskeleton. This hypothesis implied that ECM molecules could signal tothe nucleus and that the unit of function in higher organisms was not thecell alone, but the cell plus its microenvironment. We now know that ECMinvokes changes in tissue and organ architecture and that tissue, cell,nuclear, and chromatin structure are changed profoundly as a result ofand during malignant progression. Whereas some evidence has beengenerated for a link between ECM-induced alterations in tissuearchitecture and changes in both nuclear and chromatin organization, themanner by which these changes actively induce or repress gene expressionin normal and malignant cells is a topic in need of further attention.Here, we will discuss some key findings that may provide insights intomechanisms through which ECM could influence gene transcription and howtumor cells acquire the ability to overcome these levels ofcontrol.
Stoner, Gerald L.; Ryschkewitsch, Caroline F.; Walker, Duard L.; Webster, Henry De F.
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a JC papovavirus infection of the central nervous system in immunocompromised patients. It is well established that demyelination in PML is caused by JC virus infection of oligodendroglia, but whether the nonstructural regulatory protein, large tumor (T) antigen, is detectable in infected human tissue was not known. Using a modification of the peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique, we found T antigen expressed in the nuclei of cells in virus-infected sites in five cases of PML studied, including two with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). PML occurs in AIDS at a much higher frequency than in other immunosuppressive disorders, and PML in AIDS may represent a more severe form of JC virus infection of the central nervous system.
Chen, Chen; Li, Zhilu; Yang, Yuan; Xiang, Tingxiu; Song, Weihong; Liu, Shengchun
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents a collection of malignant breast tumors that are often aggressive and have an increased risk of metastasis and relapse. Long non-coding RNAs are generally defined as RNA transcripts measuring 200 nucleotides or longer that do not encode for any protein. During the past decade, increasing evidence has shown that lncRNAs play important roles in oncogenesis and tumor suppression; however, the roles of lncRNAs in TNBC are poorly understood. To address this issue, we used Agilent human lncRNA microarray chips and bioinformatics tools, including Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), to assess lncRNA expression in 3 pairs of TNBC tissues. A dysregulated lncRNA expression profile was identified by microarray and verified by qRT-PCR in 48 pairs of breast cancer subtype tissues. Metastasis is the major cause of cancer-related deaths, including those in TNBC, and the presence of dormant residual disseminated tumor cells (DTC) may be a key factor leading to metastasis. ANKRD30A, a potential target for breast cancer immunotherapy, is currently one of the most used DTC markers. Notably, we found the expression levels of the novel intergenic lncRNA LINC00993 to be associated with the expression levels of ANKRD30A. Furthermore, our qRT-PCR data indicated that the expression of LINC00993 was also associated with the expression of the estrogen receptor. In conclusion, our study identified a set of lncRNAs that were consistently aberrantly expressed in TNBC, and these dysregulated lncRNAs may be involved in the development and/or progression of TNBC. PMID:25996380
This project involves two related activities directed toward understanding respiratory carcinogenesis in radon-exposed former uranium miners. The first activity involves a continuation of the tissue resource of lung cancer cases from former underground uranium miners and comparison cases from non-miners. The second activity is a pilot study for a proposed longitudinal study of respiratory carcinogenesis in former uranium miners. The objectives are to facilitate the investigation of molecular changes in radon exposed lung cancer cases and to develop methods for prospectively studying clinical, cytologic, cytogenetic, and molecular changes in the multi-event process of respiratory carcinogenesis, and to assess the feasibility of recruiting former uranium miners into a longitudinal study that collects multiple biologic specimens.
Barbarroja, Nuria; Lopez-Pedrera, Chary; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Mayas, Maria Dolores; Oliva-Olivera, Wilfredo; Bernal-Lopez, Maria Rosa; El Bekay, Rajaa; Tinahones, Francisco Jose
Obesity is associated with a low-grade chronic inflammation state. As a consequence, adipose tissue expresses pro-inflammatory cytokines that propagate inflammatory responses systemically elsewhere, promoting whole-body insulin resistance and consequential islet ?-cell exhaustation. Thus, insulin resistance is considered the early stage of type 2 diabetes. However, there is evidence of obese individuals that never develop diabetes indicating that the mechanisms governing the association between the increase of inflammatory factors and type 2 diabetes are much more complex and deserve further investigation. We studied for the first time the differences in insulin signalling and inflammatory pathways in blood and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of 20 lean healthy donors and 40 equal morbidly obese (MO) patients classified in high insulin resistance (high IR) degree and diabetes state. We studied the changes in proinflammatory markers and lipid content from serum; macrophage infiltration, mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines and transcription factors, activation of kinases involved in inflammation and expression of insulin signalling molecules in VAT. VAT comparison of these experimental groups revealed that type 2 diabetic-MO subjects exhibit the same pro-inflammatory profile than the high IR-MO patients, characterized by elevated levels of IL-1?, IL-6, TNF?, JNK1/2, ERK1/2, STAT3 and NF?B. Our work rules out the assumption that the inflammation should be increased in obese people with type 2 diabetes compared to high IR obese. These findings indicate that some mechanisms, other than systemic and VAT inflammation must be involved in the development of type 2 diabetes in obesity. PMID:23110196
Mimeault, Murielle; Mehta, Parmender P.; Hauke, Ralph; Batra, Surinder K.
This review summarizes the recent advancements that have improved our understanding of the functions of prostatic stem/progenitor cells in maintaining homeostasis of the prostate gland. We also describe the oncogenic events that may contribute to their malignant transformation into prostatic cancer stem/progenitor cells during cancer initiation and progression to metastatic disease stages. The molecular mechanisms that may contribute to the intrinsic or the acquisition of a resistant phenotype by the prostatic cancer stem/progenitor cells and their differentiated progenies with a luminal phenotype to the current therapies and disease relapse are also reviewed. The emphasis is on the critical functions of distinct tumorigenic signaling cascades induced through the epidermal growth factor system, hedgehog, Wnt/?-catenin, and/or stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXC chemokine receptor-4 pathways as well as the deregulated apoptotic signaling elements and ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporter. Of particular therapeutic interest, we also discuss the potential beneficial effects associated with the targeting of these signaling elements to overcome the resistance to current treatments and prostate cancer recurrence. The combined targeted strategies toward distinct oncogenic signaling cascades in prostatic cancer stem/progenitor cells and their progenies as well as their local microenvironment, which could improve the efficacy of current clinical chemotherapeutic treatments against incurable, androgen-independent, and metastatic prostate cancers, are also described. PMID:18292464
Devilard, Elizabeth; Bladou, Franck; Ramuz, Olivier; Karsenty, Gilles; Dalès, Jean-Philippe; Gravis, Gwenaëlle; Nguyen, Catherine; Bertucci, François; Xerri, Luc; Birnbaum, Daniel
Background Androgen-independent prostate adenocarcinomas are responsible for about 6% of overall cancer deaths in men. Methods We used DNA microarrays to identify genes related to the transition between androgen-dependent and androgen-independent stages in the LuCaP 23.1 xenograft model of prostate adenocarcinoma. The expression of the proteins encoded by these genes was then assessed by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays (TMA) including human prostate carcinoma samples issued from 85 patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy. Results FGFR1, TACC1 and WT1 gene expression levels were associated with the androgen-independent stage in xenografts and human prostate carcinoma samples. MART1 protein expression was correlated with pT2 tumor stages. Conclusion Our results suggest that each of these four genes may play a role, or at least reflect a stage of prostate carcinoma growth/development/progression. PMID:17137506
Campbell, A. Malcolm
Appendix A: Microarray Methodology Overview DNA microarrays allow an investigator to measure simultaneously the relative activity of every gene in a genome. A microarray consists of a glass slide with DNA. The single-stranded DNA printed on the microarray is the target bound by fluorescently labeled cDNA probe
Extrapolating Traditional DNA Microarray Statistics to the Tiling and Protein Microarray for analyzing traditional gene-centric DNA microarrays, so the rst challenge in analyzing the advanced- anistic aspects with the traditional DNA microarrays, but in several respects, are quite dierent
Davis, B. A.; Sipe, B.; Gershan, L. A.; Fiacco, G. J.; Lorenz, T. C.; Jeffrey, J. J.; Partridge, N. C.
Exposure to zero gravity has been shown to cause a decrease in bone formation. This implicates osteoblasts as the gravity-sensing cell in bone. Osteoblasts also are known to produce neutral proteinases, including collagenase and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), which are thought to be important in bone development and remodeling. The present study investigated the effects of zero gravity on development of calvariae and their expression of collagenase and tPA. After in utero exposure to zero gravity for 9 days on the NASA STS-70 space shuttle mission, the calvariae of rat pups were examined by immunohistochemistry for the presence and location of these two proteinases. The ages of the pups were from gestational day 20 (G20) to postnatal (PN) day 35. Both collagenase and tPA were found to be present at all ages examined, with the greatest amount of both proteinases present in the PN14 rats. At later ages, high amounts were maintained for tPA but collagenase decreased substantially between ages PN21 to PN35. The location of collagenase was found to be associated with bone-lining cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, and in the matrix along cement lines. In contrast, tPA was associated with endothelial cells lining the blood vessels entering bone. The presence and developmental expression of these two proteinases appeared to be unaffected by the exposure to zero gravity. The calvarial thickness of the pups was also examined; again the exposure to zero gravity showed little to no effect on the growth of the calvariae. Notably, from G20 to PN14, calvarial thickness increased dramatically, reaching a plateau after this age. It was apparent that elevated collagenase expression correlated with rapid bone growth in the period from G20 to PN14. To conclude, collagenase and tPA are present during the development of rat calvariae. Despite being produced by the same cell in vitro, i.e., the osteoblast, they are located in distinctly different places in bone in vivo. Their presence, developmental expression, and quantity do not seem to be affected by a brief exposure to zero gravity in utero.
Sharov, Alexei A.; Piao, Yulan; Ko, Minoru S. H.
Global expression profiling by DNA microarrays provides a snapshot of cell and tissue status and becomes an essential tool in biological and medical sciences. Typical questions that can be addressed by microarray analysis in developmental biology include: (1) to find a set of genes expressed in a specific cell type; (2) to identify genes expressed commonly in multiple cell types; (3) to follow the time-course changes of gene expression patterns; (4) to demonstrate cell’s identity by showing similarities or differences among two or multiple cell types; (5) to find regulatory pathways and/or networks affected by gene manipulations, such as overexpression or repression of gene expression; (6) to find downstream target genes of transcription factors; (7) to find downstream target genes of cell signaling; (8) to examine the effects of environmental manipulation of cells on gene expression patterns; and (9) to find the effects of genetic manipulation in embryos and adults. Here we describe strategies for executing these experiments and monitoring changes of cell state with gene expression microarrays in application to mouse embryology. Both statistical assessment and interpretation of data are discussed. We also present a protocol for performing microarray analysis on a small amount of embryonic materials. PMID:20699157
Predicting Microarray Signals by Physical Modeling Josh Deutsch University of California Santa Cruz Predicting Microarray Signals by Physical Modeling p.1/39 #12;Collaborators Shoudan Liang NASA Ames Onuttom Narayan UCSC Predicting Microarray Signals by Physical Modeling p.2/39 #12;Outline Background Gene
Brewster, Jay L.; Beason, K. Beth; Eckdahl, Todd T.; Evans, Irene M.
In recent years, microarray analysis has become a key experimental tool, enabling the analysis of genome-wide patterns of gene expression. This review approaches the microarray revolution with a focus upon four topics: 1) the early development of this technology and its application to cancer diagnostics; 2) a primer of microarray research,…
Catherine Situma; Masahiko Hashimoto; Steven A. Soper
Microarray technologies provide powerful tools for biomedical researchers and medicine, since arrays can be configured to monitor the presence of molecular signatures in a highly parallel fashion and can be configured to search either for nucleic acids (DNA microarrays) or proteins (antibody-based microarrays) as well as different types of cells. Microfluidics on the other hand, provides the ability to analyze
APPLICATIONS OF LINEAR ALGEBRA TO DNA MICROARRAYS Amir Niknejad Shmuel Friedland #12;In memory, and in gene expression data imbedded in DNA microarrays in particular. The second motivation is to complete first some biological background for gene expressions and DNA microarrays. Next we introduce
Danh V. Nguyen; A. Bulak Arpat; Naisyin Wang; Raymond J. Carroll
SUMMARY. DNA microarray technologies, such as cDNA and oligonucleotide microarrays, promise to rev- olutionize biological research and further our understanding of biological processes. Due to the complex nature and sheer amount of data produced from microarray experiments, biologists have sought the collab- oration of experts in the analytical sciences, including statisticians, among others. However, the biological and technical intricacies of
Lycan, Deborah E.
Research tools known as DNA microarrays are already clarifying the molecular roots of health replace a one-size-fits-all approach to health care DOT PATTERNS EMERGE when DNA microarrays analyze. Then a remarkable tool known as a DNA microarray, or DNA chip, broke the impasse. It enabled a team of researchers
Wong, Prudence W.H.
Approximating Border Length for DNA Microarray Synthesis Cindy Y. Li1 Prudence W.H. Wong1 Qin Xin2 Introduction DNA microarrays  have become a very important research tool which have proved to benefit areas about the pres- ence or absence of biological target sequences in a sample. A DNA microarray ("chip
1 Probe Design for Compressive Sensing DNA Microarrays Wei Dai, Mona A. Sheikh, Olgica Milenkovic, and Richard G. Baraniuk Abstract--Compressive Sensing Microarrays (CSM) are DNA- based sensors that operate are allowed. Index Terms--Compressive sensing, DNA microarray, group testing, hybridization affinity, probe
M. Kathleen Kerr; Gary A. Churchill
We examine experimental design issues arising with gene expression microarray technology. Microarray experiments have multiple sources of variation, and experimental plans should ensure that effects of interest are not confounded with ancillary effects. A commonly used design is shown to violate this principle and to be generally inefficient. We explore the connection between microarray designs and classical block design and
Zhao, Jia; Patwa, Tasneem H.; Pal, Manoj; Qiu, Weilian; Lubman, David M.
Summary Protein glycosylation and phosphorylation are very common posttranslational modifications. The alteration of these modifications in cancer cells is closely related to the onset and progression of cancer and other disease states. In this protocol, strategies for monitoring the changes in protein glycosylation and phosphorylation in serum or tissue cells on a global scale and specifically characterizing these alterations are included. The technique is based on lectin affinity enrichment for glycoproteins, all liquid-phase two-dimensional fractionation, protein microarray, and mass spectrometry technology. Proteins are separated based on pI in the first dimension using chromatofocusing (CF) or liquid isoelectric focusing (IEF) followed by the second-dimension separation using nonporous silica RP-HPLC. Five lectins with different binding specificities to glycan structures are used for screening glycosylation patterns in human serum through a biotin–streptavidin system. Fluorescent phosphodyes and phosphospecific antibodies are employed to detect specific phosphorylated proteins in cell lines or human tissues. The purified proteins of interest are identified by peptide sequencing. Their modifications including glycosylation and phosphorylation could be further characterized by mass-spectrometry-based approaches. These strategies can be used in biological samples for large-scale glycoproteome/phosphoproteome screening as well as for individual protein modification analysis. PMID:19241043
Inoue, Tohru; Hirabayashi, Yoko
In this study, Trp53-deficient and wild-type mice of both C57BL/6 and C3H/He strains were exposed to benzene (33, 100, and 300 ppm; 6h/day, 5 days/week for 26 weeks) and then observed for lifetime. As results, first, the incidence of nonthymic lymphomas in C57BL/6 mice and acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) in C3H/He mice showed linear responses at the lower exposure level in Trp53-deficient mice; second, the incidence of thymic lymphomas in C57BL/6 mice and nonthymic lymphomas in C3H/He mice increased without a plateau-like ceiling; thus, the former equivocal induction of hematopoietic neoplasms (HPNs) in the case of low-dose benzene exposure was assumed to be based on the DNA repair potential in wild-type mice, and the latter limited increase in HPNs in the case of high-dose benzene exposure was considered to be due to excessive apoptosis in wild-type mice. Concerning the incidence of AMLs, though a dose of 300 ppm benzene inhalation induced 9% AMLs in wild-type C3H/He mice-AML-prone, it induced AMLs in 38% of Trp53-deficient C3H/He mice. Because AMLs were also observed in Trp53-deficient mice, including in the C57BL/6 mice, benzene exposure may also be a potent inducer of AMLs in mice with some strain differences. In the present study, to elucidate the hematopoietic stem cell-specific, aryl hydrocarbon-receptor-related low-dose adverse effect, global gene expression in the bone marrow was analyzed at 28 days after 2-week-intermittent exposure to 150 mg/kg b.w. benzene, by gavage, i.e., equivalent to the above inhalation protocol with 300 ppm. We observed two conceptually different gene expression profiles; "common gene profiles" (CGPs) shared among mice in each group, and "stochastic gene profiles" (SGPs), i.e., unique union genes from one individual mouse to another. The CGPs of the experimental group and the SGPs of each individual mouse were separately characterized by individual assay. Concerning the CGPs, reciprocal strain differences between C3H/He and C57BL/6 mice in expression gene profiles, both plausible for leukemogenesis, were identified; namely, dominant downmodulations of Sltm and Cryl1, related to suppression of apoptosis and genomic instability in C3H/He mice, respectively, and dominant downmodulations of Atrx/rad54 and Kdm2a, related to a decrease in DNA repair and genomic instability, respectively, in C57BL/6 mice. These findings imply that these reciprocal gene expression differences induced by benzene exposure may lead each strain to undergo different hematopoietic neoplastic pathways. In contrast, each individual mouse often shows a unique SGP. SGPs often include transcription factors, which regulate reciprocal signaling pathways including further SGPs. Among them, apoptosis-related genes expressed in C57BL/6 mice and those in C3H/He mice were attributable to different combinations of SGPs. Such stochastic case-by-case gene expression may be in good agreement with the individual and strain differences observed following benzene exposure. Because gene chip microarray techniques can elucidate stochastic changes in gene expression profiles, possible stochastic toxicology and its future role are discussed. PMID:20018183
Analysis of DNA microarrays involves the extraction of fluorescent intensity from raw image files generated by the scanner, storing the extracted data in a database, normalizing the data, conducting statistical analysis and finally querying the analyzed data to find biologically meaningful results. ...
Hudson, Michael E; Pozdnyakova, Irina; Haines, Kenneth; Mor, Gil; Snyder, Michael
Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of deaths, yet many aspects of the biology of the disease and a routine means of its detection are lacking. We have used protein microarrays and autoantibodies from cancer patients to identify proteins that are aberrantly expressed in ovarian tissue. Sera from 30 cancer patients and 30 healthy individuals were used to probe microarrays containing 5,005 human proteins. Ninety-four antigens were identified that exhibited enhanced reactivity from sera in cancer patients relative to control sera. The differential reactivity of four antigens was tested by using immunoblot analysis and tissue microarrays. Lamin A/C, SSRP1, and RALBP1 were found to exhibit increased expression in the cancer tissue relative to controls. The combined signals from multiple antigens proved to be a robust test to identify cancerous ovarian tissue. These antigens were also reactive with tissue from other types of cancer and thus are not specific to ovarian cancer. Overall our studies identified candidate tissue marker proteins for ovarian cancer and demonstrate that protein microarrays provide a powerful approach to identify proteins aberrantly expressed in disease states. PMID:17954908
Shi, Leming; Perkins, Roger G.; Tong, Weida
DNA microarray technology that allows simultaneous assay of thousands of genes in a single experiment has steadily advanced to become a mainstream method used in research, and has reached a stage that envisions its use in medical applications and personalized medicine. Many different strategies have been developed for manufacturing DNA microarrays. In this chapter, we discuss the manu facturing characteristics of seven microarray platforms that were used in a recently completed large study by the MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC) consortium, which evaluated the concordance of results across these platforms. The platforms can be grouped into three categories: (1) in situ synthesis of oligonucleotide probes on microarrays (Affymetrix GeneChip® arrays based on photolithography synthesis and Agilent's arrays based on inkjet synthesis); (2) spotting of presynthe-sized oligonucleotide probes on microarrays (GE Healthcare's CodeLink system, Applied Biosystems' Genome Survey Microarrays, and the custom microarrays printed with Operon's oligonucleotide set); and (3) deposition of presynthesized oligonucleotide probes on bead-based microarrays (Illumina's BeadChip microar-rays). We conclude this chapter with our views on the challenges and opportunities toward acceptance of DNA microarray data in clinical and regulatory settings.
Shi, Leming; Perkins, Roger G.; Tong, Weida
DNA microarray technology that allows simultaneous assay of thousands of genes in a single experiment has steadily advanced to become a mainstream method used in research, and has reached a stage that envisions its use in medical applications and personalized medicine. Many different strategies have been developed for manufacturing DNA microarrays. In this chapter, we discuss the manufacturing characteristics of seven microarray platforms that were used in a recently completed large study by the MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC) consortium, which evaluated the concordance of results across these platforms. The platforms can be grouped into three categories: (1) in situ synthesis of oligonucleotide probes on microarrays (Affymetrix GeneChip® arrays based on photolithography synthesis and Agilent's arrays based on inkjet synthesis); (2) spotting of presynthesized oligonucleotide probes on microarrays (GE Healthcare's CodeLink system, Applied Biosystems' Genome Survey Microarrays, and the custom microarrays printed with Operon's oligonucleotide set); and (3) deposition of presynthesized oligonucleotide probes on bead-based microarrays (Illumina's BeadChip microarrays). We conclude this chapter with our views on the challenges and opportunities toward acceptance of DNA microarray data in clinical and regulatory settings.
Mueller, Claudius; Liotta, Lance A.; Espina, Virginia
Individualizing cancer therapy for molecular targeted inhibitors requires a new class of molecular profiling technology that can map the functional state of the cancer cell signal pathways containing the drug targets. Reverse phase protein microarrays (RPMA) are a technology platform designed for quantitative, multiplexed analysis of specific phosphorylated, cleaved, or total (phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated) forms of cellular proteins from a limited amount of sample. This class of microarray can be used to interrogate tissue samples, cells, serum, or body fluids. RPMA were previously a research tool; now this technology has graduated to use in research clinical trials with clinical grade sensitivity and precision. In this review we describe the application of RPMA for multiplexed signal pathway analysis in therapeutic monitoring, biomarker discovery, and evaluation of pharmaceutical targets, and conclude with a summary of the technical aspects of RPMA construction and analysis. PMID:20974554
Ramachandran, Niroshan; Hainsworth, Eugenie; Bhullar, Bhupinder; Eisenstein, Samuel; Rosen, Benjamin; Lau, Albert Y.; C. Walter, Johannes; LaBaer, Joshua
Protein microarrays provide a powerful tool for the study of protein function. However, they are not widely used, in part because of the challenges in producing proteins to spot on the arrays. We generated protein microarrays by printing complementary DNAs onto glass slides and then translating target proteins with mammalian reticulocyte lysate. Epitope tags fused to the proteins allowed them to be immobilized in situ. This obviated the need to purify proteins, avoided protein stability problems during storage, and captured sufficient protein for functional studies. We used the technology to map pairwise interactions among 29 human DNA replication initiation proteins, recapitulate the regulation of Cdt1 binding to select replication proteins, and map its geminin-binding domain.
Differentially Expressed Proteins and Associated Histological and Disease Progression Changes in Cotyledon Tissue of a Resistant and Susceptible Genotype of Brassica napus Infected with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
Garg, Harsh; Li, Hua; Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai; Barbetti, Martin J.
Sclerotinia rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is one of the most serious diseases of oilseed rape. To understand the resistance mechanisms in the Brassica napus to S. sclerotiorum, comparative disease progression, histological and proteomic studies were conducted of two B. napus genotypes (resistant cv. Charlton, susceptible cv. RQ001-02M2). At 72 and 96 h post inoculation (hpi), lesion size on cotyledons was significantly (P?0.001) smaller in the resistant Charlton. Anatomical investigations revealed impeded fungal growth (at 24 hpi and onwards) and hyphal disintegration only on resistant Charlton. Temporal changes (12, 24, 48 and 72 hpi) in protein profile showed certain enzymes up-regulated only in resistant Charlton, such as those related to primary metabolic pathways, antioxidant defence, ethylene biosynthesis, pathogenesis related proteins, protein synthesis and protein folding, play a role in mediating defence responses against S. sclerotiorum. Similarly a eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A enzyme with increased abundance in susceptible RQ001-02M2 and decreased levels in resistant Charlton has a role in increased susceptibility to this pathogen. This is the first time that the expression of these enzymes has been shown to be associated with mediating the defence response against S. sclerotinia in cotyledon tissue of a resistant cultivar of B. napus at a proteomics level. This study not only provides important new insights into the resistance mechanisms within B. napus against S. sclerotiorum, but opens the way for novel engineering of new B. napus varieties that over-express these key enzymes as a strategy to enhance resistance and better manage this devastating pathogen. PMID:23776450
Julia Brettschneider; François Collin; Benjamin M. Bolstad; Terence P. Speed
Quality of microarray gene expression data has emerged as a new research\\u000atopic. As in other areas, microarray quality is assessed by comparing suitable\\u000anumerical summaries across microarrays, so that outliers and trends can be\\u000avisualized, and poor quality arrays or variable quality sets of arrays can be\\u000aidentified. Since each single array comprises tens or hundreds of thousands of
Alvis Brazma; Ugis Sarkans; Alan Robinson; Jaak Vilo; Martin Vingron; Jörg Hoheisel; Kurt Fellenberg
Management and analysis of the huge amounts of data produced by microarray experiments is becoming one of the major bottlenecks\\u000a in the utilization of this high-throughput technology. We describe the basic design of a microarray gene expression database\\u000a to help microarray users and their informatics teams to set up their information services. We describe two data models — a\\u000a simpler
Asaph Aharoni; Oscar Vorst
DNA microarray technology is a key element in today's functional genomics toolbox. The power of the method lies in miniaturization, automation and parallelism permitting large-scale and genome-wide acquisition of quantitative biological information from multiple samples. DNA microarrays are currently fabricated and assayed by two main approaches involving either in situ synthesis of oligonucleotides (`oligonucleotide microarrays') or deposition of pre-synthesized DNA
Rodrigo F. Chuaqui; Robert F. Bonner; Carolyn J. M. Best; John W. Gillespie; Michael J. Flaig; Stephen M. Hewitt; John L. Phillips; David B. Krizman; Michael A. Tangrea; Mamoun Ahram; W. Marston Linehan; Vladimir Knezevic; Michael R. Emmert-Buck
Measurement of gene-expression profiles using microarray technology is becoming increasingly popular among the biomedical research community. Although there has been great progress in this field, investigators are still confronted with a difficult question after completing their experiments: how to validate the large data sets that are generated? This review summarizes current approaches to verifying global expression results, discusses the caveats
Xu, H B; Yang, H; Liu, G; Chen, H
The accuracy of prenatal diagnosis for abnormal chromosome diseases by chromosome microarray technology and karyotyping were compared. A literature search was carried out in the MEDLINE database with the keywords "chromosome" and "karyotype" and "genetic testing" and "prenatal diagnosis" and "oligonucleotide array sequence". The studies obtained were filtered by using the QUADAS tool, and studies conforming to the quality standard were fully analyzed. There was one paper conforming to the QUADAS standards including 4406 gravidas with adaptability syndromes of prenatal diagnosis including elderly parturient women, abnormal structure by type-B ultrasound, and other abnormalities. Microarray technology yielded successful diagnoses in 4340 cases (98.8%), and there was no need for tissue culture in 87.9% of the samples. All aneuploids and non-parallel translocations in 4282 cases of non-chimera identified by karyotyping could be detected using microarray analysis technology, whereas parallel translocations and fetal triploids could not be detected by microarray analysis technology. In the samples with normal karyotyping results, type-B ultrasound showed that 6% of chromosomal deficiencies or chromosome duplications could be detected by microarray technology, and the same abnormal chromosomes were detected in 1.7% of elderly parturient women and samples with positive serology screening results. In the prenatal diagnosis test, compared with karyotyping, microarray technology could identify the extra cell genetic information with clinical significance, aneuploids, and non-parallel translocations; however, its disadvantage is that it could not identify parallel translocations and triploids. PMID:25366803
Judith E Mank; Lina Hultin-Rosenberg; Matthew T Webster; Hans Ellegren
BACKGROUND: In order to develop a framework for the analysis of sex-biased genes, we present a characterization of microarray data comparing male and female gene expression in 18 day chicken embryos for brain, gonad, and heart tissue. RESULTS: From the 15982 significantly expressed coding regions that have been assigned to either the autosomes or the Z chromosome (12979 in brain,
Christine A. Iacobuzio-Donahue; Anirban Maitra; Mari Olsen; Anson W. Lowe; N. Tjarda Van Heek; Christophe Rosty; Kim Walter; Norihiro Sato; Antony Parker; Raheela Ashfaq; Elizabeth Jaffee; Byungwoo Ryu; Jessa Jones; James R. Eshleman; Charles J. Yeo; John L. Cameron; Scott E. Kern; Ralph H. Hruban; Patrick O. Brown; Michael Goggins
Pancreatic cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. We used cDNA microarrays to analyze global gene expression patterns in 14 pancre- atic cancer cell lines, 17 resected infiltrating pancreatic cancer tissues, and 5 samples of normal pancreas to identify genes that are differentially expressed in pan- creatic cancer. We found more than 400 cDNAs
Paul Spellman; Chris Stoeckert; John Aach; Wilhelm Ansorge; Catherine A. Ball; Helen C. Causton; Terry Gaasterland; Patrick Glenisson; Frank C. P. Holstege; Irene F. Kim; Victor Markowitz; John C. Matese; Helen Parkinson; Alan Robinson; Ugis Sarkans; Steffen Schulze-Kremer; Jason Stewart; Ronald Taylor; Jaak Vilo; Martin Vingron; Alvis Brazma; John Quackenbush
Microarray analysis has become a widely used tool for the generation of gene expression data on a genomic scale. Although many significant results have been derived from microarray studies, one limitation has been the lack of standards for presenting and exchanging such data. Here we present a proposal, the Minimum Information About a Microarray Experiment (MIAME), that describes the minimum
Over the past several years, the field of microarrays has grown and evolved drastically. In its continued efforts to track this evolution and transformation, the ABRF-MARG has once again conducted a survey of international microarray facilities and individual microarray users. Th...
Reddington, A. P.; Monroe, M. R.; Ünlü, M. S.
Protein microarrays, or multiplexed and high-throughput assays, monitor multiple protein binding events to facilitate the understanding of disease progression and cell physiology. Fluorescence imaging is a popular method to detect proteins captured by immobilized probes with high sensitivity and specificity. Reliability of fluorescence assays depends on achieving minimal inter- and intra-assay probe immobilization variation, an ongoing challenge for protein microarrays. Therefore, it is desirable to establish a label-free method to quantify the probe density prior to target incubation to calibrate the fluorescence readout. Previously, a silicon oxide on silicon chip design was introduced to enhance the fluorescence signal and enable interferometric imaging to self-calibrate the signal with the immobilized probe density. In this paper, an integrated interferometric reflectance imaging sensor and wide-field fluorescence instrument is introduced for sensitive and calibrated microarray measurements. This platform is able to analyze a 2.5 mm × 3.4 mm area, or 200 spots (100 ?m diameter with 200 ?m pitch), in a single field-of-view.
Dittami, Simon M; Hostyeva, Vladyslava; Egge, Elianne Sirnæs; Kegel, Jessica U; Eikrem, Wenche; Edvardsen, Bente
Monitoring of marine microalgae is important to predict and manage harmful algal blooms. Microarray Detection of Toxic ALgae (MIDTAL) is an FP7-funded EU project aiming to establish a multi-species microarray as a tool to aid monitoring agencies. We tested the suitability of different prototype versions of the MIDTAL microarray for the monthly monitoring of a sampling station in outer Oslofjorden during a 1-year period. Microarray data from two different versions of the MIDTAL chip were compared to results from cell counts (several species) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR; only Pseudochattonella spp.). While results from generation 2.5 microarrays exhibited a high number of false positive signals, generation 3.3 microarray data generally correlated with microscopy and qPCR data, with three important limitations: (1) Pseudo-nitzschia cells were not reliably detected, possibly because cells were not sufficiently retained during filtration or lysed during the extraction, and because of low sensitivity of the probes; (2) in the case of samples with high concentrations of non-target species, the sensitivity of the arrays was decreased; (3) one occurrence of Alexandrium pseudogonyaulax was not detected due to a 1-bp mismatch with the genus probe represented on the microarray. In spite of these shortcomings our data demonstrate the overall progress made and the potential of the MIDTAL array. The case of Pseudochattonella - where two morphologically similar species impossible to separate by light microscopy were distinguished - in particular, underlines the added value of molecular methods such as microarrays in routine phytoplankton monitoring. PMID:23325054
Application of Singular Value Decomposition to DNA Microarray Amir Niknejad M.S. Claremont Graduate.1 Missing gene imputation in DNA microarrays . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.2 Some biological background and Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1.2.3 DNA microarrays (chips
Microarrays have been used for gene expression and protein interaction studies, but recently, multianalyte diagnostic assays have employed the microarray platform. We developed a microarray immunoassay for bacteria, with biotinylated capture antibodies on streptavidin slides. To complete the fluor...
Wang, Chih-Yang; Lai, Ming-Derg; Phan, Nam Nhut; Sun, Zhengda; Lin, Yen-Chang
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are well documented to play roles in cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis; however, whether VGCCs regulate the onset and progression of cancer is still under investigation. The VGCC family consists of five members, which are L-type, N-type, T-type, R-type and P/Q type. To date, no holistic approach has been used to screen VGCC family genes in different types of cancer. We analyzed the transcript expression of VGCCs in clinical cancer tissue samples by accessing ONCOMINE (www.oncomine.org), a web-based microarray database, to perform a systematic analysis. Every member of the VGCCs was examined across 21 different types of cancer by comparing mRNA expression in cancer to that in normal tissue. A previous study showed that altered expression of mRNA in cancer tissue may play an oncogenic role and promote tumor development; therefore, in the present findings, we focus only on the overexpression of VGCCs in different types of cancer. This bioinformatics analysis revealed that different subtypes of VGCCs (CACNA1C, CACNA1D, CACNA1B, CACNA1G, and CACNA1I) are implicated in the development and progression of diverse types of cancer and show dramatic up-regulation in breast cancer. CACNA1F only showed high expression in testis cancer, whereas CACNA1A, CACNA1C, and CACNA1D were highly expressed in most types of cancer. The current analysis revealed that specific VGCCs likely play essential roles in specific types of cancer. Collectively, we identified several VGCC targets and classified them according to different cancer subtypes for prospective studies on the underlying carcinogenic mechanisms. The present findings suggest that VGCCs are possible targets for prospective investigation in cancer treatment. PMID:26147197
The purpose of this project is to organize the databases/information and organize and move the tissues from the long-term dog (4,000 dogs) and mouse (over 30,000 mice) radiation experiments done at Argonne National Laboratory during the 1970's and 80's to Northwestern University. These studies were done with the intention of understanding the effects of exposure to radiation at a variety of different doses, dose-rates, and radiation qualities on end-points such as life-shortening, carcinogenesis, cause of death, shifts in disease incidence and other biological parameters. Organ and tissue samples from these animals including cancers, metastases and other significant degenerative and inflammatory lesions and those in a regular protocol of normal tissues were preserved in paraffin blocks, tissue impressions and sections and represent a great resource for the radiation biology community. These collections are particularly significant since these experiments are not likely to be repeated because of the extreme cost of monies and time for such large-scale animal studies. The long-term goal is to make these tissues and databases available to the wider scientific community so that questions such as tissue sensitivity, early and late effects, low dose and protracted dose responses of normal and tumor tissues, etc. can be examined and defined. Recent advances in biology particularly at the subcellular and molecular level now permit microarray-based gene expression array analyses from paraffin-embedded tissues (where RNA samples are significantly degraded), synchrotron-based studies of metal and other elemental distribution patterns in tissues, PCR-based analyses for mutation detection, and other similar approaches that were not available when the long¬ term animal studies were designed and initiated. Understanding the basis and progression of radiation damage should also permit rational approaches to prevention and mitigation of those damages. Therefore, as stated earlier, these tissues and their related documentation, represent a significant resource for future studies. For this project, we propose to accomplish the following objectives: (1) inventory and organize the tissues, blood smears, wet-tissues and paper-¬based information that is available in the tissue bank at Argonne National Laboratory; (2) convert the existing Oracle database of the mouse studies to MS Access( the dog data is already in this format which is far more user friendly and widely used in business and research) , (3) move the remaining samples and documentation from dogs that had been transferred from ANL to New Mexico (in Dr. F. Hahn's care) to Northwestern University and add these to the inventory; (4) move the tissues and Access database at Argonne National Laboratory to Northwestern University.
Argyris Tzouvelekis; George Patlakas; Demosthenes Bouros
Microarrays are a powerful tool that have multiple applications both in clinical and cell biology arenas of common lung diseases. To exemplify how this tool can be useful, in this review, we will provide an overview of the application of microarray technology in research relevant to common lung diseases and present some of the future perspectives.
Daniel Warren; Forrest Spencer; Irene F Kim; Shyam Biswal; Bryan C Frank; Edward Gabrielson; Joe G N Garcia; Joel Geoghegan; Gregory Germino; Constance Griffin; Sara C Hilmer; Eric Hoffman; Anne E Jedlicka; Ernest Kawasaki; Francisco Martínez-Murillo; Laura Morsberger; Hannah Lee; David Petersen; John Quackenbush; Alan Scott; Michael Wilson; Yanqin Yang; Shui Qing Ye; Wayne Yu; Rafael A Irizarry
Microarray technology is a powerful tool for measuring RNA expression for thousands of genes at once. Various studies have been published comparing competing platforms with mixed results: some find agreement, others do not. As the number of researchers starting to use microarrays and the number of cross-platform meta-analysis studies rapidly increases, appropriate platform assessments become more important. Here we present
Sandrine Dudoit; Juliet Popper Shaffer; Jennifer C. Boldrick
DNA microarrays are part of a new and promising class of biotechnologies that allow the monitoring of expression levels in cells for thousands of genes simultaneously. An important and common question in DNA microarray experiments is the identification of differentially expressed genes, that is, genes whose expression levels are associated with a response or covariate of interest. The biological question
Christine Debouck; Peter N. Goodfellow
DNA microarrays can be used to measure the expression patterns of thousands of genes in parallel, generating clues to gene function that can help to identify appropriate targets for therapeutic intervention. They can also be used to monitor changes in gene expression in response to drug treatments. Here, we discuss the different ways in which microarray analysis is likely to
Richard Simon; Michael D. Radmacher; Kevin Dobbin
DNA microarrays are assays that simultaneously provide information about expression levels of thousands of genes and are consequently finding wide use in biomedical research. In order to control the many sources of variation and the many opportunities for misanalysis, DNA microarray studies require careful planning. Different studies have different objectives, and important aspects of design and analysis strategy differ for
Ravi Kothapalli; Sean J. Yoder; Shrikant Mane; Thomas P. Loughran Jr
Background: DNA microarray technology is a powerful technique that was recently developedin order to analyze thousands of genes in a short time. Presently, microarrays, or chips, of thecDNA type and oligonucleotide type are available from several sources. The number ofpublications in this area is increasing exponentially.
Johannes Schuchhardt; Dieter Beule; Arif Malik; E ryc Wolski; Holger Eickhoff; Hans Lehrach; Hanspeter Herzel
Multiple Arabidopsis thaliana clones from an experi- mental series of cDNA microarrays are evaluated in order to identify essential sources of noise in the spotting and hybridization process. Theoretical and experimental strategies for an improved quantitative evaluation of cDNA microarrays are proposed and tested on a series of differently diluted control clones. Several sources of noise are identified from the
DNA microarray technology is revolutionizing biological science. DNA microarrays (also called DNA chips) allow simultaneous screening of many genes for changes in expression between different cells. Now researchers can obtain information about genes in days or weeks that used to take months or years. The paper activity described in this article…
Bradley Efron; Robert Tibshirani; Storey J. D; Virginia Tusher
Microarrays are a novel technology that facilitates the simultaneous measurement of thousands of gene expression levels. A typi- cal microarray experiment can produce millions of data points, raising serious problems of data reduction, and simultaneous infer- ence. We consider one such experiment in which oligonucleotide arrays were employed to assess the genetic effects of ionizing radiation on seven thousand human
PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS TO SUMMARIZE MICROARRAY EXPERIMENTS: APPLICATION TO SPORULATION TIME.stanford.edu A series of microarray experiments produces observations of differential expression for thousands of genes across multiple conditions. It is often not clear whether a set of experiments are measuring
Futschik, Matthias E.
11 Microarrays and the shadows in Plato's cave Matthias E. Futschik Institute for Theoretical Biology Humboldt-University, Berlin, Germany Overview General Introduction Plato and the cave: What can we and data storage Design of experiments Reference design Factorial design Yeast cDNA microarray Plato's Cave
Mark Schena; Renu A Heller; Thomas P Theriault; Ken Konrad; Eric Lachenmeier; Ronald W Davis
Advances in microarray technology enable massive parallel mining of biological data, with biological chips providing hybridization-based expression monitoring, polymorphism detection and genotyping on a genomic scale. Microarrays containing sequences representative of all human genes may soon permit the expression analysis of the entire human genome in a single reaction. These `genome chips' will provide unprecedented access to key areas of
Chow, Brian Y.; Emig, Christopher J.; Jacobson, Joseph M.
Optical addressing of semiconductor electrodes represents a powerful technology that enables the independent and parallel control of a very large number of electrical phenomena at the solid-electrolyte interface. To date, it has been used in a wide range of applications including electrophoretic manipulation, biomolecule sensing, and stimulating networks of neurons. Here, we have adapted this approach for the parallel addressing of redox reactions, and report the construction of a DNA microarray synthesis platform based on semiconductor photoelectrochemistry (PEC). An amorphous silicon photoconductor is activated by an optical projection system to create virtual electrodes capable of electrochemically generating protons; these PEC-generated protons then cleave the acid-labile dimethoxytrityl protecting groups of DNA phosphoramidite synthesis reagents with the requisite spatial selectivity to generate DNA microarrays. Furthermore, a thin-film porous glass dramatically increases the amount of DNA synthesized per chip by over an order of magnitude versus uncoated glass. This platform demonstrates that PEC can be used toward combinatorial bio-polymer and small molecule synthesis. PMID:19706433
Microarrays are powerful tools in gene expression assessment, protein profiling, and protein function screening, as well as cell and tissue analysis. With thousands of small array spots assembled in an ordered array, these small devices makes it possible to screen for multiple targets in a fast, parallel, high-throughput manner. The well-developed technology of DNA microarrays, also called DNA chips, has proved successful in all kinds of biological experiments, including the human genome-sequencing project. The development of protein arrays has lagged behind that of DNA arrays mainly because of the greater complexity of proteins. Some parts of the microarray technology can be transplanted into the realm of protein arrays, while others cannot. The challenges from the complexity of protein targets demand more robust and powerful devices. Traditional planar arrays, in which proteins bind directly to a planar surface, have a drawback in that some proteins will be denatured or cluster together after immobilization. Microsphere-based microarrays represent a more advanced strategy. The functional proteins are first attached to microspheres; these microspheres are then immobilized in arrays on a planar surface. In this dissertation, two approaches to assembling arrays of microspheres will be discussed. The hydrodynamic approach uses surface micromachining and Deep Reactive Ion Etching techniques to form an array of channels through a silicon wafer. By drawing fluid containing the microspheres through the channels they become trapped in the channels and thereby immobilized. In the magnetic approach, permalloy films are deposited on a silicon substrate and subsequently patterned to form magnetic attachment sites. An external magnetic field is then applied and the magnetic microspheres then assemble on these sites. Both devices are able to immobilize microspheres in an ordered array, as opposed to coarsely grouping them in array spots. The assembled arrays are robust in that they ensure a resolution rate of almost 100%. In addition, different patterns of array spots with various spacings and diameters can be fabricated to satisfy different requirements. Moreover, the devices are easy to clean and reuse, and the experimental set-ups are relatively simple and portable. All these features make them good platforms for all kinds of microarrays.
Background In the field of mouse genetics the advent of technologies like microarray based expression profiling dramatically increased data availability and sensitivity, yet these advanced methods are often vulnerable to the unavoidable heterogeneity of in vivo material and might therefore reflect differentially expressed genes between mouse strains of no relevance to a targeted experiment. The aim of this study was not to elaborate on the usefulness of microarray analysis in general, but to expand our knowledge regarding this potential “background noise” for the widely used Illumina microarray platform surpassing existing data which focused primarily on the adult sensory and nervous system, by analyzing patterns of gene expression at different embryonic stages using wild type strains and modern transgenic models of often non-isogenic backgrounds. Results Wild type embryos of 11 mouse strains commonly used in transgenic and molecular genetic studies at three developmental time points were subjected to Illumina microarray expression profiling in a strain-by-strain comparison. Our data robustly reflects known gene expression patterns during mid-gestation development. Decreasing diversity of the input tissue and/or increasing strain diversity raised the sensitivity of the array towards the genetic background. Consistent strain sensitivity of some probes was attributed to genetic polymorphisms or probe design related artifacts. Conclusion Our study provides an extensive reference list of gene expression profiling background noise of value to anyone in the field of developmental biology and transgenic research performing microarray expression profiling with the widely used Illumina microarray platform. Probes identified as strain specific background noise further allow for microarray expression profiling on its own to be a valuable tool for establishing genealogies of mouse inbred strains. PMID:22583621
Chavan, Preeti; Joshi, Kalpana; Patwardhan, Bhushan
Natural products are gaining increased applications in drug discovery and development. Being chemically diverse they are able to modulate several targets simultaneously in a complex system. Analysis of gene expression becomes necessary for better understanding of molecular mechanisms. Conventional strategies for expression profiling are optimized for single gene analysis. DNA microarrays serve as suitable high throughput tool for simultaneous analysis of multiple genes. Major practical applicability of DNA microarrays remains in DNA mutation and polymorphism analysis. This review highlights applications of DNA microarrays in pharmacodynamics, pharmacogenomics, toxicogenomics and quality control of herbal drugs and extracts. PMID:17173108
The Stanford Microarray Database: data access and quality assessment tools Jeremy Gollub, Catherine The Stanford Microarray Database (SMD; http:// genome-www.stanford.edu/microarray/) serves as a microarray research database for Stanford investi- gators and their collaborators. In addition, SMD functions
Ki-yeol Kim; Dong Hyuk Ki; Ha Jin Jeong; Hei-cheul Jeung; Hyun Cheol Chung; Sun Young Rha
Background: With microarray technology, variability in experimental environments such as RNA sources, microarray production, or the use of different platforms, can cause bias. Such systematic differences present a substantial obstacle to the analysis of microarray data, resulting in inconsistent and unreliable information. Therefore, one of the most pressing challenges in the field of microarray technology is how to integrate results
Sinskey, Anthony J.
lysates. Ab microarrays are an extension of DNA microarrays. In both cases, ratiometric comparisonsProfiling receptor tyrosine kinase activation by using Ab microarrays Ulrik B. Nielsen* , Mike H to measure the amounts and activ- ities of multiple proteins in a rapid and accurate manner. Ab microarrays
1 Exploration and Analysis of DNA Microarray and Protein Array Data Dhammika Amaratunga Senior. Multivariate methods (JC) 5. Computational issues and software (JC) Exploration and Analysis of DNA Microarray microarrays DNA microarrays are the most widely used tool to monitor the expression levels of many thousands
Beeton-Kempen, Natasha; Duarte, Jessica; Shoko, Aubrey; Serufuri, Jean-Michel; John, Thomas; Cebon, Jonathan; Blackburn, Jonathan
The cancer-testis antigens are a group of unrelated proteins aberrantly expressed in various cancers in adult somatic tissues. This aberrant expression can trigger spontaneous immune responses, a phenomenon exploited for the development of disease markers and therapeutic vaccines. However, expression levels often vary amongst patients presenting the same cancer type, and these antigens are therefore unlikely to be individually viable as diagnostic or prognostic markers. Nevertheless, patterns of antigen expression may provide correlates of specific cancer types and disease progression. Herein, we describe the development of a novel, readily customizable cancer-testis antigen microarray platform together with robust bioinformatics tools, with which to quantify anti-cancer testis antigen autoantibody profiles in patient sera. By exploiting the high affinity between autoantibodies and tumor antigens, we achieved linearity of response and an autoantibody quantitation limit in the pg/mL range-equating to a million-fold serum dilution. By using oriented attachment of folded, recombinant antigens and a polyethylene glycol microarray surface coating, we attained minimal non-specific antibody binding. Unlike other proteomics methods, which typically use lower affinity interactions between monoclonal antibodies and tumor antigens for detection, the high sensitivity and specificity realized using our autoantibody-based approach may facilitate the development of better cancer biomarkers, as well as potentially enabling pre-symptomatic diagnosis. We illustrated the usage of our platform by monitoring the response of a melanoma patient cohort to an experimental therapeutic NY-ESO-1-based cancer vaccine; inter alia, we found evidence of determinant spreading in individual patients, as well as differential CT antigen expression and epitope usage. PMID:24604332
Zhining Wen; Zhenqiang Su; Jie Liu; Baitang Ning; Lei Guo; Weida Tong; Leming Shi
\\u000a As a powerful tool for genome-wide gene expression analysis, DNA microarray technology is widely used in biomedical research.\\u000a One important application of microarrays is to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between two distinct biological\\u000a conditions, e.g. disease versus normal or treatment versus control, so that the underlying molecular mechanism differentiating\\u000a the two conditions maybe revealed. Mechanistic interpretation of microarray results
Moller, Isabel E.; Pettolino, Filomena A.; Hart, Charlie; Lampugnani, Edwin R.; Willats, William G.T.; Bacic, Antony
Plant cell walls are complex matrixes of heterogeneous glycans which play an important role in the physiology and development of plants and provide the raw materials for human societies (e.g. wood, paper, textile and biofuel industries)1,2. However, understanding the biosynthesis and function of these components remains challenging. Cell wall glycans are chemically and conformationally diverse due to the complexity of their building blocks, the glycosyl residues. These form linkages at multiple positions and differ in ring structure, isomeric or anomeric configuration, and in addition, are substituted with an array of non-sugar residues. Glycan composition varies in different cell and/or tissue types or even sub-domains of a single cell wall3. Furthermore, their composition is also modified during development1, or in response to environmental cues4. In excess of 2,000 genes have Plant cell walls are complex matrixes of heterogeneous glycans been predicted to be involved in cell wall glycan biosynthesis and modification in Arabidopsis5. However, relatively few of the biosynthetic genes have been functionally characterized 4,5. Reverse genetics approaches are difficult because the genes are often differentially expressed, often at low levels, between cell types6. Also, mutant studies are often hindered by gene redundancy or compensatory mechanisms to ensure appropriate cell wall function is maintained7. Thus novel approaches are needed to rapidly characterise the diverse range of glycan structures and to facilitate functional genomics approaches to understanding cell wall biosynthesis and modification. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs)8,9 have emerged as an important tool for determining glycan structure and distribution in plants. These recognise distinct epitopes present within major classes of plant cell wall glycans, including pectins, xyloglucans, xylans, mannans, glucans and arabinogalactans. Recently their use has been extended to large-scale screening experiments to determine the relative abundance of glycans in a broad range of plant and tissue types simultaneously9,10,11. Here we present a microarray-based glycan screening method called Comprehensive Microarray Polymer Profiling (CoMPP) (Figures 1 & 2)10,11 that enables multiple samples (100 sec) to be screened using a miniaturised microarray platform with reduced reagent and sample volumes. The spot signals on the microarray can be formally quantified to give semi-quantitative data about glycan epitope occurrence. This approach is well suited to tracking glycan changes in complex biological systems12 and providing a global overview of cell wall composition particularly when prior knowledge of this is unavailable. PMID:23271573
Moller, Isabel E; Pettolino, Filomena A; Hart, Charlie; Lampugnani, Edwin R; Willats, William G T; Bacic, Antony
Plant cell walls are complex matrixes of heterogeneous glycans which play an important role in the physiology and development of plants and provide the raw materials for human societies (e.g. wood, paper, textile and biofuel industries)(1,2). However, understanding the biosynthesis and function of these components remains challenging. Cell wall glycans are chemically and conformationally diverse due to the complexity of their building blocks, the glycosyl residues. These form linkages at multiple positions and differ in ring structure, isomeric or anomeric configuration, and in addition, are substituted with an array of non-sugar residues. Glycan composition varies in different cell and/or tissue types or even sub-domains of a single cell wall(3). Furthermore, their composition is also modified during development(1), or in response to environmental cues(4). In excess of 2,000 genes have Plant cell walls are complex matrixes of heterogeneous glycans been predicted to be involved in cell wall glycan biosynthesis and modification in Arabidopsis(5). However, relatively few of the biosynthetic genes have been functionally characterized (4,5). Reverse genetics approaches are difficult because the genes are often differentially expressed, often at low levels, between cell types(6). Also, mutant studies are often hindered by gene redundancy or compensatory mechanisms to ensure appropriate cell wall function is maintained(7). Thus novel approaches are needed to rapidly characterise the diverse range of glycan structures and to facilitate functional genomics approaches to understanding cell wall biosynthesis and modification. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs)(8,9) have emerged as an important tool for determining glycan structure and distribution in plants. These recognise distinct epitopes present within major classes of plant cell wall glycans, including pectins, xyloglucans, xylans, mannans, glucans and arabinogalactans. Recently their use has been extended to large-scale screening experiments to determine the relative abundance of glycans in a broad range of plant and tissue types simultaneously(9,10,11). Here we present a microarray-based glycan screening method called Comprehensive Microarray Polymer Profiling (CoMPP) (Figures 1 & 2)(10,11) that enables multiple samples (100 sec) to be screened using a miniaturised microarray platform with reduced reagent and sample volumes. The spot signals on the microarray can be formally quantified to give semi-quantitative data about glycan epitope occurrence. This approach is well suited to tracking glycan changes in complex biological systems(12) and providing a global overview of cell wall composition particularly when prior knowledge of this is unavailable. PMID:23271573
Lee, Kyeong Eun
. Additionally, we consider the wellknown Weibull regression and semiparametric proportional hazards (PH) models for survival analysis. With microarray data, we need to consider the case where the number of covariates p exceeds the number of samples n. Speci...
Kronick, Mel N
Several companies have recently announced the availability of products that enable a scientist to probe gene expression from the entire human genome on a single DNA microarray. This review will focus on the underlying technological trends that have made this achievement possible, the particular methodologies which are employed to create such microarrays and the implications of the whole human genome microarray for future biological studies. The single genome array represents an important milestone on the path to unraveling the complexity of the cellular networks that control living processes. The microarrays being designed today may, however, become distant ancestors to the whole human genome arrays of the future as our understanding of the functioning of the human genome increases. PMID:15966795
Berrade, Luis; Garcia, Angie E.
Protein microarray technology possesses some of the greatest potential for providing direct information on protein function and potential drug targets. For example, functional protein microarrays are ideal tools suited for the mapping of biological pathways. They can be used to study most major types of interactions and enzymatic activities that take place in biochemical pathways and have been used for the analysis of simultaneous multiple biomolecular interactions involving protein-protein, protein-lipid, protein-DNA and protein-small molecule interactions. Because of this unique ability to analyze many kinds of molecular interactions en masse, the requirement of very small sample amount and the potential to be miniaturized and automated, protein microarrays are extremely well suited for protein profiling, drug discovery, drug target identification and clinical prognosis and diagnosis. The aim of this review is to summarize the most recent developments in the production, applications and analysis of protein microarrays. PMID:21116694
Merrick, B. Alex; Auerbach, Scott S.; Stockton, Patricia S.; Foley, Julie F.; Malarkey, David E.; Sills, Robert C.; Irwin, Richard D.; Tice, Raymond R.
Archival tissues from laboratory studies represent a unique opportunity to explore the relationship between genomic changes and agent-induced disease. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of qPCR for detecting genomic changes in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues by determining if a subset of 14 genes from a 90-gene signature derived from microarray data and associated with eventual tumor development could be detected in archival liver, kidney, and lung of rats exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) for 90 days in feed at 1 ppm. These tissues originated from the same rats used in the microarray study. The 14 genes evaluated were Adam8, Cdh13, Ddit4l, Mybl2, Akr7a3, Akr7a2, Fhit, Wwox, Abcb1b, Abcc3, Cxcl1, Gsta5, Grin2c and C8orf46 homolog. The qPCR FFPE liver results were compared to the original liver microarray data and to qPCR results using RNA from fresh frozen liver. Archival liver paraffin blocks yielded 30 to 50 ?g of degraded RNA that ranged in size from 0.1 to 4 kB. qPCR results from FFPE and fresh frozen liver samples were positively correlated (p?0.05) by regression analysis and showed good agreement in direction and proportion of change with microarray data for 11 of 14 genes. All 14 transcripts could be amplified from FFPE kidney RNA except the glutamate receptor gene Grin2c; however, only Abcb1b was significantly upregulated from control. Abundant constitutive transcripts, S18 and ?-actin, could be amplified from lung FFPE samples, but the narrow RNA size range (25–500 bp length) prevented consistent detection of target transcripts. Overall, a discrete gene signature derived from prior transcript profiling and representing cell cycle progression, DNA damage response, and xenosensor and detoxication pathways was successfully applied to archival liver and kidney by qPCR and indicated that gene expression changes in response to subchronic AFB1 exposure occurred predominantly in liver, the primary target for AFB1-induced tumors. We conclude that an evaluation of gene signatures in archival tissues can be an important toxicological tool for evaluating critical molecular events associated with chemical exposures. PMID:22545673
Virtanen, Carl; Woodgett, James
Perturbations in genes play a key role in the pathogenesis of cancer. Microarray-based technology is an ideal way in which to study the effects and interactions of multiple genes in cancer. There are many technologic challenges in running a microarray study including annotation of genes likely to be involved, designing the appropriate experiment and ensuring adequate quality assurance steps are implemented. Once data are normalized, they need to be analyzed and for this there are numerous software packages. PMID:18453086
Jones, Paul G; Allaway, David; Gilmour, D Martin; Harris, Chris; Rankin, Debbie; Retzel, Ernest R; Jones, Chris A
The cacao bean harvest from the relatively under developed tropical tree cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is subject to high losses in potential production due to pests and diseases. To discover and understand the stability of putative natural resistance mechanisms in this commodity crop, essential for chocolate production, we undertook a gene-discovery program and demonstrated its use in gene-expression arrays. Sequencing and assembling bean and leaf cDNA library inserts produced a unique contig set of 1,380 members. High-quality annotation of this gene set using Blast and MetaFam produced annotation for 75% of the contigs and allowed us to identify the types of gene expressed in cacao beans and leaves. Microarrays were constructed using amplified inserts of the uni-gene set and challenged with bean and leaf RNA from five cacao varieties. The microarray performed well across the five randomly chosen cacao genotypes and did not show a bias towards either leaf or bean tissues. This demonstrates that the gene sequences are useful for microarray analysis across cacao genotypes and tissue types. The array results, when compared with real-time PCR results for selected genes, showed a correlation with differential gene-expression patterns. We intend that the resultant DNA sequences and molecular microarray platform will help the cacao community to understand the basis, likely stability and pathotype resistance range of candidate cacao plants. PMID:12447539
Seurynck-Servoss, Shannon L.; White, Amanda M.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Rodland, Karin D.; Zangar, Richard C.
Antibody microarrays are an emerging technology that promises to be a powerful tool for the detection of disease biomarkers. The current technology for protein microarrays has been primarily derived from DNA microarrays and is not fully characterized for use with proteins. For example, there are a myriad of surface chemistries that are commercially available for antibody microarrays, but no rigorous studies that compare these different surfaces. Therefore, we have used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) microarray platform to analyze 16 different commercially available slide types. Full standard curves were generated for 24 different assays. We found that this approach provides a rigorous and quantitative system for comparing the different slide types based on spot size and morphology, slide noise, spot background, lower limit of detection, and reproducibility. These studies demonstrate that the properties of the slide surface affect the activity of immobilized antibodies and the quality of data produced. Although many slide types can produce useful data, glass slides coated with poly-L-lysine or aminosilane, with or without activation with a crosslinker, consistently produce superior results in the ELISA microarray analyses we performed.
Xiong, Dan; Ye, Yunlin; Fu, Yujie; Wang, Jinglong; Kuang, Bohua; Wang, Hongbo; Wang, Xiumin; Zu, Lidong; Xiao, Gang; Hao, Mingang; Wang, Jianhua
Previous studies indicate that the role of B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (Bmi-1) is responsible for multiple cancer progression. However, Bmi-1 in controlling gene expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) development is not well explored. Here we report that the Bmi-1 level is highly increased in primary NSCLC tissues compared to matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues and required for lung tumor growth in xenograft model. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that Bmi-1 level is lower in matched involved lymph node cancerous tissues than the respective primary NSCLC tissues. We find that Bmi-1 does not affect cell cycle and apoptosis in lung cancer cell lines as it does not affect the expression of p16/p19, Pten, AKT and P-AKT. Mechanistic analyses note that reduction of Bmi-1 expression inversely regulates invasion and metastasis of NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo, followed by induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Using genome microarray assays, we find that RNAi-mediated silence of Bmi-1 modulates some important molecular genetics or signaling pathways, potentially associated with NSCLC development. Taken together, our findings disclose for the first time that Bmi-1 level accumulates strongly in early stage and then declines in late stage, which is potentially important for NSCLC cell invasion and metastasis during progression. PMID:25880371
Background It is of great importance to identify molecular processes and pathways that are involved in disease etiology. Although there has been an extensive use of various high-throughput methods for this task, pathogenic pathways are still not completely understood. Often the set of genes or proteins identified as altered in genome-wide screens show a poor overlap with canonical disease pathways. These findings are difficult to interpret, yet crucial in order to improve the understanding of the molecular processes underlying the disease progression. We present a novel method for identifying groups of connected molecules from a set of differentially expressed genes. These groups represent functional modules sharing common cellular function and involve signaling and regulatory events. Specifically, our method makes use of Bayesian statistics to identify groups of co-regulated genes based on the microarray data, where external information about molecular interactions and connections are used as priors in the group assignments. Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling is used to search for the most reliable grouping. Results Simulation results showed that the method improved the ability of identifying correct groups compared to traditional clustering, especially for small sample sizes. Applied to a microarray heart failure dataset the method found one large cluster with several genes important for the structure of the extracellular matrix and a smaller group with many genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. The method was also applied to a microarray dataset on melanoma cancer patients with or without metastasis, where the main cluster was dominated by genes related to keratinocyte differentiation. Conclusion Our method found clusters overlapping with known pathogenic processes, but also pointed to new connections extending beyond the classical pathways. PMID:24758699
The work was undertaken to establish whether polarized Raman spectra recorded through the Raman microprobe could reveal evidence of molecular orientation among cell wall constituents relative to the morphology of cell walls in woody tissue, and whether they are capable of detecting compositional variation within cell walls, both within individual cells and between adjacent cells. The findings were affirmative in
Geraci, Filippo; Pellegrini, Marco; Renda, M. Elena
The AMIC@ Web Server offers a light-weight multi-method clustering engine for microarray gene-expression data. AMIC@ is a highly interactive tool that stresses user-friendliness and robustness by adopting AJAX technology, thus allowing an effective interleaved execution of different clustering algorithms and inspection of results. Among the salient features AMIC@ offers, there are: (i) automatic file format detection, (ii) suggestions on the number of clusters using a variant of the stability-based method of Tibshirani et al. (iii) intuitive visual inspection of the data via heatmaps and (iv) measurements of the clustering quality using cluster homogeneity. Large data sets can be processed efficiently by selecting algorithms (such as FPF-SB and k-Boost), specifically designed for this purpose. In case of very large data sets, the user can opt for a batch-mode use of the system by means of the Clustering wizard that runs all algorithms at once and delivers the results via email. AMIC@ is freely available and open to all users with no login requirement at the following URL http://bioalgo.iit.cnr.it/amica. PMID:18477631
Jaroslav P Novak; Seon-Young Kim; Jun Xu; Olga Modlich; David J Volsky; David Honys; Joan L Slonczewski; Douglas A Bell; Fred R Blattner; Eduardo Blumwald; Marjan Boerma; Manuel Cosio; Zoran Gatalica; Marian Hajduch; Juan Hidalgo; Roderick R McInnes; Merrill C Miller III; Milena Penkowa; Michael S Rolph; Jordan Sottosanto; Rene St-Arnaud; Michael J Szego; David Twell; Charles Wang
BACKGROUND: DNA microarrays are a powerful technology that can provide a wealth of gene expression data for disease studies, drug development, and a wide scope of other investigations. Because of the large volume and inherent variability of DNA microarray data, many new statistical methods have been developed for evaluating the significance of the observed differences in gene expression. However, until
Fa-Ren Zhang; Li-Hua Tao; Zhong-Ying Shen; Zhuo Lv; Li-Yan Xu; En-Min Li
SUMMARY This study investigates the distribution of fascin in human embryonic, fetal, and normal adult tissues. Tissue microarray technology was used to perform immunohistochem- ical experiments on human embryos and fetuses at 4-22 weeks of gestation and adult specimens. Fascin was widely expressed in the nervous system. At 4 weeks of gestation, fascin was present in the neural tube. At
Fa-Ren Zhang; Li-Hua Tao; Zhong-Ying Shen; Zhuo Lv; Li-Yan Xu; En-Min Li
This study investigates the distribution of fascin in human embryonic, fetal, and normal adult tissues. Tissue microarray technology was used to perform immunohistochemical experiments on human embryos and fetuses at 4–22 weeks of gestation and adult specimens. Fascin was widely expressed in the nervous system. At 4 weeks of gestation, fascin was present in the neural tube. At 8–12 weeks
Background Complementary DNA (cDNA) microarrays are a well established technology for studying gene expression. A microarray image is obtained by laser scanning a hybridized cDNA microarray, which consists of thousands of spots representing chains of cDNA sequences, arranged in a two-dimensional array. The separation of the spots into distinct cells is widely known as microarray image gridding. Methods In this paper we propose M3G, a novel method for automatic gridding of cDNA microarray images based on the maximization of the margin between the rows and the columns of the spots. Initially the microarray image rotation is estimated and then a pre-processing algorithm is applied for a rough spot detection. In order to diminish the effect of artefacts, only a subset of the detected spots is selected by matching the distribution of the spot sizes to the normal distribution. Then, a set of grid lines is placed on the image in order to separate each pair of consecutive rows and columns of the selected spots. The optimal positioning of the lines is determined by maximizing the margin between these rows and columns by using a maximum margin linear classifier, effectively facilitating the localization of the spots. Results The experimental evaluation was based on a reference set of microarray images containing more than two million spots in total. The results show that M3G outperforms state of the art methods, demonstrating robustness in the presence of noise and artefacts. More than 98% of the spots reside completely inside their respective grid cells, whereas the mean distance between the spot center and the grid cell center is 1.2 pixels. Conclusions The proposed method performs highly accurate gridding in the presence of noise and artefacts, while taking into account the input image rotation. Thus, it provides the potential of achieving perfect gridding for the vast majority of the spots. PMID:20100338
Yu, Xiaobo; Wallstrom, Garrick; Magee, Dewey Mitchell; Qiu, Ji; Mendoza, D. Eliseo A.; Wang, Jie; Bian, Xiaofang; Graves, Morgan; LaBaer, Joshua
To address the issue of quantification for antibody assays with protein microarrays, we firstly developed a Microarray Nonlinear Calibration (MiNC) method that applies in the quantification of antibody binding to the surface of microarray spots. We found that MiNC significantly increased the linear dynamic range and reduced assay variations. A serological analysis of guinea pig Mycobacterium tuberculosis models showed that a larger number of putative antigen targets were identified with MiNC, which is consistent with the improved assay performance of protein microarrays. We expect that our cumulative results will provide scientists with a new appreciation of antibody assays with protein microarrays. Our MiNC method has the potential to be employed in biomedical research with multiplex antibody assays which need quantitation, including the discovery of antibody biomarkers, clinical diagnostics with multi-antibody signatures and construction of immune mathematical models. PMID:23662896
Hegarty, Matthew J; Jones, Joanna M; Wilson, Ian D; Barker, Gary L; Coghill, Jane A; Sanchez-Baracaldo, Patricia; Liu, Guoqing; Buggs, Richard J A; Abbott, Richard J; Edwards, Keith J; Hiscock, Simon J
Interspecific hybridization is an important process through which abrupt speciation can occur. In recent years, genetic changes associated with hybrid speciation have been identified through a variety of techniques, including AFLP/SSR mapping, GISH/FISH and cDNA-AFLP differential display. However, progress in using microarray technology to analyse whole genome/transcriptome changes associated with hybrid speciation has been limited due to the lack of extensive sequence data for many hybrid species and the difficulties in extrapolating results from commercially available microarrays for model species onto nonmodel hybrid taxa. Increasingly therefore researchers studying nonmodel systems are turning to the development of 'anonymous' cDNA microarrays, where the time and cost of producing microarrays is reduced by printing unsequenced cDNA clones, and sequencing only those clones that display interesting expression patterns. Here we describe the creation, testing and preliminary use of anonymous cDNA microarrays to study changes in floral transcriptome associated with allopolyploid speciation in the genus Senecio. We report a comparison of gene expression between the allohexaploid hybrid, Senecio cambrensis, its parental taxa Senecio squalidus (diploid) and Senecio vulgaris (tetraploid), and the intermediate triploid (sterile) hybrid Senecioxbaxteri. Anonymous microarray analysis revealed dramatic differences in floral gene expression between these four taxa and demonstrates the power of this technique for studies of the genetic impact of hybridization in nonmodel flowering plants. PMID:15969730
Jinrong Wan; Mark F. Dunning; Andrew F. Bent
. The interaction between a plant and a pathogen activates a wide variety of defense responses. The recent development of microarray-based\\u000a expression profiling methods, together with the availability of genomic and\\/or EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence data\\u000a for some plant species, has allowed significant progress in the characterization of plant pathogenesis-related responses.\\u000a The small number of expression profiling studies completed
White, Amanda M.; Daly, Don S.; Zangar, Richard C.
Our research group develops analytical methods and software for the high-throughput analysis of quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) microarrays. ELISA microarrays differ from DNA microarrays in several fundamental aspects and most algorithms for analysis of DNA microarray data are not applicable to ELISA microarrays. In this review, we provide an overview of the steps involved in ELISA microarray data analysis and how the statistically sound algorithms we have developed provide an integrated software suite to address the needs of each data-processing step. The algorithms discussed are available in a set of open-source software tools (http://www.pnl.gov/statistics/ProMAT).
Jason M. Johnson; John Castle; Philip Garrett-Engele; Zhengyan Kan; Patrick M. Loerch; Christopher D. Armour; Ralph Santos; Eric E. Schadt; Roland Stoughton; Daniel D. Shoemaker
Alternative pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing plays important roles in development, physiology, and disease, and more than half of human genes are alternatively spliced. To understand the biological roles and regulation of alternative splicing across different tissues and stages of development, systematic methods are needed. Here, we demonstrate the use of microarrays to monitor splicing at every exon-exon junction in more
John Patrick Mpindi; Henri Sara; Saija Haapa-Paananen; Sami Kilpinen; Tommi Pisto; Elmar Bucher; Kalle Ojala; Kristiina Iljin; Paula Vainio; Mari Björkman; Santosh Gupta; Pekka Kohonen; Matthias Nees; Olli Kallioniemi
BackgroundMeta-analysis of gene expression microarray datasets presents significant challenges for statistical analysis. We developed and validated a new bioinformatic method for the identification of genes upregulated in subsets of samples of a given tumour type (‘outlier genes’), a hallmark of potential oncogenes.MethodologyA new statistical method (the gene tissue index, GTI) was developed by modifying and adapting algorithms originally developed for
Background Peptide microarrays offer an enormous potential as a screening tool for peptidomics experiments and have recently seen an increased field of application ranging from immunological studies to systems biology. By allowing the parallel analysis of thousands of peptides in a single run they are suitable for high-throughput settings. Since data characteristics of peptide microarrays differ from DNA oligonucleotide microarrays, computational methods need to be tailored to these specifications to allow a robust and automated data analysis. While follow-up experiments can ensure the specificity of results, sensitivity cannot be recovered in later steps. Providing sensitivity is thus a primary goal of data analysis procedures. To this end we created rapmad (Robust Alignment of Peptide MicroArray Data), a novel computational tool implemented in R. Results We evaluated rapmad in antibody reactivity experiments for several thousand peptide spots and compared it to two existing algorithms for the analysis of peptide microarrays. rapmad displays competitive and superior behavior to existing software solutions. Particularly, it shows substantially improved sensitivity for low intensity settings without sacrificing specificity. It thereby contributes to increasing the effectiveness of high throughput screening experiments. Conclusions rapmad allows the robust and sensitive, automated analysis of high-throughput peptide array data. The rapmad R-package as well as the data sets are available from http://www.tron-mz.de/compmed. PMID:21816082
Lee, Myoyong; Xiang, Charlie C; Trent, Jeffrey M; Bittner, Michael L
Microarray fabrication using presynthesized long oligonucleotide is becoming increasingly important, but a study of large-scale array productions has not yet been published. We addressed the issue of fabricating oligonucleotide microarrays by spotting commercial presynthesized 65-mers with 5' amines representing 7500 murine genes. Amine-modified oligonucleotides were immobilized on glass slides having aldehyde groups via transient Schiff base formation followed by reduction to produce a covalent conjugate. When RNA derived from the same source was used for Cy3 and Cy5 labeling and hybridized to the same array, signal intensities spanning three orders of magnitude were observed and the coefficient of variance (CV) between the two channels for all spots was 8 to 10%. To ascertain the reproducibility of ratio determination of these arrays, two triplicate hybridizations (with fluorochrome reversal) comparing RNAs from a fibroblast (NIH3T3) and a breast cancer (JC) cell line were carried out. The 95% confidence interval for all spots in the six hybridizations was 0.60 to 1.66. This level of reproducibility allows use of the full range of pattern finding and discriminant analysis typically applied to complementary DNA (cDNA) microarrays. Further comparative testing was carried out with oligonucleotide microarrays, cDNA microarrays, and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assays to examine the comparability of results across these different methodologies. PMID:17617369
Joyce, Tobias; Pintzas, Alexander
Sporadic colon cancer is a major cause of death throughout the world. Multistage development of the disease has been associated with remarkable genetic events, mainly at the level of oncogenes and oncosuppressor genes, most notably APC (adenomatous polyposis coli), ras and p53. Despite all of these efforts, the development of a sensitive and convenient diagnostic system for detecting colorectal cancers at the early stage is still in progress. In recent years, cDNA and oligonucleotide microarray technologies have made the analysis of gene expression profiles of colorectal tumours at the genomic level possible and have identified signatures of gene expression associated with pre-cancerous phenotypes, cancers of the early stage and/or metastatic cancer. The contribution of this powerful technology in identification of novel important genes for prognosis, diagnosis and therapy of sporadic colorectal will be discussed. PMID:17472535
Zang, Shizhu; Guo, Ruifang; Xing, Rui; Zhang, Liang; Li, Wenmei; Zhao, Min; Fang, Jingyuan; Hu, Fulian; Kang, Bin; Ren, Yonghong; Zhuang, Yonglong; Liu, Siqi; Wang, Rong; Li, Xianghong; Yu, Yingyan; Cheng, Jing; Lu, Youyong
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most frequent malignant tumors. In order to systematically characterize the cellular and molecular mechanisms of intestinal GC development, in this study, we used 22 K oligonucleotide microarrays and bioinformatics analysis to evaluate the gene expression profiles of GC in 45 tissue samples, including 20 intestinal GC tissue samples, 20 normal appearing tissues (NATs) adjacent to tumors and 5 noncancerous gastric mucosa tissue samples. These profiles allowed us to explore the transcriptional characteristics of GC and determine the change patterns in gene expression that may be of clinical significance. 1519 and 1255 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in intestinal GC tissues and NATs, respectively, as determined by Bayesian analysis (P < 0.001). These genes were associated with diverse functions such as mucosa secretion, metabolism, proliferation, signaling and development, which occur at different stages of GC development. PMID:25500430
Li, Ji; Fan, Shengjun; Han, Dongwei; Xie, Jiaming; Kuang, Haixue; Ge, Pengling
Premature ovarian failure (POF) remains one of the major gynecological problems worldwide which affected 1% of women. Even though tremendous achievements had been acquired as opposed to years past, molecular pathogenesis associated with POF is still unclear and needs to be well-defined. The aim of this study was to analyze the gene expression profiles in the POF rat model. To predict potential regulating factors, we firstly treated female Sprague Dawley (SD) rat with 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD). Total RNA from ovarian tissue was converted to cDNA and hybridized to mRNA Chip array. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by two-sample t test and assessed using hierarchical clustering and Principal Component Analysis methods. Potential regulatory targets associated with these DEGs were constructed using BisoGenet in Cytoscape. Gene Ontology (GO) and functional enrichment analysis were performed using BiNGO and DAVID, respectively. As the results, 25 DEGs were found to be closely associated with POF initiation. Hierarchical clustering and Principal Component Analysis on the transcriptional profiles revealed an excellent separation of the vehicle and POF compartments. Pathway enrichment analysis based on the disease-gene interaction network analysis led to the identification of two core signaling pathways that were strongly affected during POF initiation and progression: immune response and cardiovascular disorders. In conclusion, we constructed a gene regulatory network associated with POF using the microarray gene expression profiling, and screened out some genes or transcription factors that may be used as potential molecular therapeutic targets for POF. PMID:25445499
Têtu, Bernard; Popa, Ion; Bairati, Isabelle; L'Esperance, Sylvain; Bachvarova, Magdalena; Plante, Marie; Harel, François; Bachvarov, Dimcho
Using the DNA microarray technology, we have identified genes that are differentially expressed in chemosensitive and chemoresistant ovarian serous papillary carcinomas and could potentially distinguish ovarian cancer patients based on their response to chemotherapy. The present study aims to evaluate the clinical usefulness of overexpression of selected genes by immunohistochemistry. Our cohort included 158 women who were operated on and received chemotherapy for an advanced serous papillary ovarian carcinoma (FIGO stages III and IV). The end point used in this study was progression-free survival. Immunohistochemistry was performed on microarray blocks containing all 158 cases. Twelve commercially available antibodies were selected. Of them, 10 corresponded to differentially expressed genes in our micro-array study and p53 and Ki67 were included. Antibodies were obtained for the following selected genes: GSTA1, MMP1, FOSB, CTSL2, HSP10, CD36, CXCL2, RBBP7, Siva, and PTGDS. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for standard risk factors, were used to estimate the associations between the markers and progression-free survival. No association was found between mRNA level and protein expression by immunohistochemistry. In multivariate analyses, patients whose tumors overexpressed HSP10 had a lower risk of progression than those with low expression (HR: 0.6; CI: 0.42-0.87; P=0.007). High level of proliferation (Ki67) tended to be associated with a lower risk of progression (HR: 0.72; CI: 0.51-1.03; P=0.07) whereas MMP1 overexpression tended to be associated with a higher risk of progression (HR: 1.61; CI: 0.94-2.79; P=0.08). Our study shows that gene expression analysis coupled with immunohistochemistry allowed the identification of HSP10 as an independent factor of progression-free survival. PMID:18500265
Montaner, David; Tárraga, Joaquín; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Burguet, Jordi; Vaquerizas, Juan M.; Conde, Lucía; Minguez, Pablo; Vera, Javier; Mukherjee, Sach; Valls, Joan; Pujana, Miguel A. G.; Alloza, Eva; Herrero, Javier; Al-Shahrour, Fátima; Dopazo, Joaquín
The Gene Expression Profile Analysis Suite (GEPAS) has been running for more than four years. During this time it has evolved to keep pace with the new interests and trends in the still changing world of microarray data analysis. GEPAS has been designed to provide an intuitive although powerful web-based interface that offers diverse analysis options from the early step of preprocessing (normalization of Affymetrix and two-colour microarray experiments and other preprocessing options), to the final step of the functional annotation of the experiment (using Gene Ontology, pathways, PubMed abstracts etc.), and include different possibilities for clustering, gene selection, class prediction and array-comparative genomic hybridization management. GEPAS is extensively used by researchers of many countries and its records indicate an average usage rate of 400 experiments per day. The web-based pipeline for microarray gene expression data, GEPAS, is available at . PMID:16845056
Stamos, Brian; Loredo, Leticia; Chand, Subhash; Phan, Tuan V; Zhang, Yanbo; Mohapatra, Sridev; Rajeshwar, Krishnan; Perera, Roshan
Protein microarrays have emerged as an indispensable research tool for providing information about protein functions and interactions through high-throughput screening. Traditional methods for immobilizing biomolecules onto solid surfaces have been based on covalent and noncovalent binding, entrapment in semipermeable membranes, microencapsulation, sol gel, and hydrogel methods. Each of these techniques has its own strengths but fails to combine the most important tenets of a functional protein microarray such as covalent attachment, native protein conformation, homogeneity of the protein monolayer, control over active site orientation, and retention of protein activity. Here we present a selective and site-directed covalent immobilization technique for proteins via a benzoxazine ring formation through a Diels-Alder reaction in water and a genetically encoded 3-amino-L-tyrosine (3-NH(2)Tyr) amino acid. Fully functional protein microarrays, with monolayer arrangements and complete control over their orientations, were generated using this strategy. PMID:22370272
Banerjee, Abhijit G; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K
An early interventional effort in oral premalignancy requires novel molecular targets and diagnostic biomarkers to delay or reverse incidences of malignant progression. Microarray-based transcriptional profiling in disease states provides global insight into the causal biomolecular processes and novel pathways involved. In this study, we investigated transcript profiles in precancerous oral lesions to identify nearly 1,700 genes as significantly overexpressed or underexpressed and a primarily affected metabolic pathway that may be responsible for irreversible transition to progressive stages of oral cancer. For the first time, we show a convergence of several genes and pathways known for their oncogenic capabilities, in progression of premalignant oral epithelial tissues. This study consequently provides a molecular basis for persistent proinflammatory conditions in oral premalignant tissues. We found that lipocalin-type prostaglandin D(2) synthase (PTGDS), a key enzyme in the arachidonic acid metabolism pathway, as repressed in premalignant stages. We show the protective role of these enzyme-derived metabolites in inhibiting cell proliferation using an in vitro oral cancer progression model. We have also confirmed the overexpression of two invasion-related biomarkers, psoriasin (PSOR1) and versican (CSPG2), in oral premalignant and malignant archival tissues. Our results clearly indicate that pharmacologic intervention with anti-inflammatory prostaglandin D(2)-like analogues may help prevent or delay oral epithelial carcinogenesis because of metabolic restoration of a negative feedback regulatory loop through its several cognate receptors or target molecules. Further studies directed toward a multitude of possible protective mechanisms of this lipocalin-type enzyme or its products in oral cancer progression are warranted. PMID:15956244
George, Nysia I.
Microarray technology has become a dynamic tool in gene expression analysis because it allows for the simultaneous measurement of thousands of gene expressions. Uniqueness in experimental units and microarray data platforms, coupled with how gene...
Thoughtful data analysis is as important as experimental design, biological sample quality, and appropriate experimental procedures for making microarrays a useful supplement to traditional toxicology. In the present study, spotted oligonucleotide microarrays were used to profile...
Wardle, Fiona C
We have designed a zebrafish genomic microarray to identify DNA-protein interactions in the proximal promoter regions of over 11,000 zebrafish genes. Using these microarrays, together with chromatin immunoprecipitation ...
Background Affymetrix microarray technology allows one to investigate expression of thousands of genes simultaneously upon a variety of conditions. In a popular U133A microarray platform, the expression of 37% of genes is measured by more than one probeset. The discordant expression observed for two different probesets that match the same gene is a widespread phenomenon which is usually underestimated, ignored or disregarded. Results Here we evaluate the prevalence of discordant expression in data collected using Affymetrix HG-U133A microarray platform. In U133A, about 30% of genes annotated by two different probesets demonstrate a substantial correlation between independently measured expression values. To our surprise, sorting the probesets according to the nature of the discrepancy in their expression levels allowed the classification of the respective genes according to their fundamental functional properties, including observed enrichment by tissue-specific transcripts and alternatively spliced variants. On another hand, an absence of discrepancies in probesets that simultaneously match several different genes allowed us to pinpoint non-expressed pseudogenes and gene groups with highly correlated expression patterns. Nevertheless, in many cases, the nature of discordant expression of two probesets that match the same transcript remains unexplained. It is possible that these probesets report differently regulated sets of transcripts, or, in best case scenario, two different sets of transcripts that represent the same gene. Conclusion The majority of absolute gene expression values collected using Affymetrix microarrays may not be suitable for typical interpretative downstream analysis. PMID:25563078
Qian, X-J; Li, X-L; Xu, X; Wang, X; Feng, Q-T; Yang, C-J
The phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) - phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1)-Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) cascade plays a critical role in cardiovascular development and tumor genesis. But the role of PDK1 in the microenvironment of heart and tumor remains unknown. To clarify the effects of PDK1 on tissue microenvironment in vivo, here, we created ?-SMA-Cre-mediated excision of PDK1 mice. And the mice were injected subcutaneously with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells. We found PDK1-deficient mice had post-natal praecox dilated cardiomyopathy, decelerated tumor growth and severe tumor metastasis. Histopathological analysis revealed abnormality of vascular microenvironment in heart and primary tumor. In conclusion, PDK1 plays a pivotal role in regulating cardiac function and tumor metastasis by interfering with microenvironment. PMID:25601552
Ilona Koronczi; Karlheinz Ziegler; Uwe Krüger; Joachim Goschnick
Investigations with human breath and cultures of oral bacteria have been performed to examine the analytical performance of the KAMINA gradient microarray based on a segmented metal oxide layer. Standard microarray chips with 38 segments, one chip equipped with platinum doped SnO2 and the other with WO3, were inspected. The results show that the gradient microarray is able to detect
and elimination of unwanted artifacts and greatly improves the accuracy of microarray experiments. Microarray autofluorescence of the yeast cells and the growth media. © 2004 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: 170 to further in- crease sensitivity, throughput, and accuracy. In a typical microarray experiment,14 glass
Xiaolian Gao; Jean Philippe Pellois; Younghwa Na; Younkee Kim; Erdogan Gulari; Xiaochuan Zhou
The technologies enabling the creation of large scale, miniaturized peptide or protein microarrays are emerging. The focuses of this review are the synthesis and applications of peptide and peptidomimetic microarrays, especially the light directed parallel synthesis of individually addressable high density peptide microarrays using a novel photogenerated reagent chemistry and digital photolithography (Gao et al., 1998, J. Am. Chem. Soc.
Bulyk, Martha L.
Compact, universal DNA microarrays to comprehensively determine transcription-factor binding site microarray (PBM) experiments1 that represents all possible DNA sequence variants of a given length k (that is to double-stranded (ds) DNA arrays. Using these microarrays we comprehensively determined the binding
Improved Sensitivity of DNA Microarrays Using Photonic Crystal Enhanced Fluorescence Patrick C, Illinois 61801 DNA microarrays are used to profile changes in gene expression between samples in a high substrates. The DNA microarray is a valuable tool for high-throughput quantification of gene expression
Fabricating RNA Microarrays with RNA-DNA Surface Ligation Chemistry Hye Jin Lee, Alastair W. Wark to create renewable RNA microarrays from single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) microar- rays on gold surfaces of the ssRNA microarray in terms of (i) the hybridization adsorption of complementary DNA onto the RNA array
Sonnenburg, Justin L.
unrecognized role in repairing DNA damaged by ionizing radiation. D NA microarrays contain oligonucleotide or cDNASignificance analysis of microarrays applied to the ionizing radiation response Virginia Goss for review December 1, 2000) Microarrays can measure the expression of thousands of genes to identify changes
Bulyk, Martha L.
DNA microarray technologies for measuring proteinDNA interactions Martha L Bulyk DNA approach to analyse the in vitro binding of proteins directly to double-stranded DNA microarrays (protein binding microarrays; PBMs), permits rapid characterization of their DNA binding site sequence
DNA MICROARRAY DATA CLUSTERING USING GROWING SELF ORGANIZING NETWORKS Kim Jackson and Irenafirstname.lastname@example.org ABSTRACT Recent advances in DNA microarray technology have allowed biologists to simultaneously monitor Neural Gas) for clustering DNA microarray data, comparing them with traditional algorithms. 1
Lee, Thomas H.
. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic model of the DNA microarray and employ this model for optimal have gained much attention in the genomic research community. DNA microarrays, in particular, have a small number of genes at a time. DNA microarrays  are primarily used to measure gene expression
Compressed Sensing DNA Microarrays ECE, Rice University TREE0706 Mona A. Sheikh, Olgica Milenkovic. The DNA microarray is one of the most frequently employed technological solutions for microbe detection of the organism of concern. The target DNA sample is fluorescently tagged so when flushed against the microarray
Mining Subspace Clusters from DNA Microarray Data Using Large Itemset Techniques Ye-In Chang1 the DNA microarrays could help researchers identify those genes which commonly contribute to a disease of conditions. Since in a DNA microarray, the number of genes is far larger than the number of conditions, those
, and to understanding their fundamental limitations. Index Terms: DNA microarrays, real-time, cross Genetics and Genomics Laboratory at Caltech. 1 #12;1 Introduction DNA microarrays - are affinity-based biosensors capable of testing tens of thousands of different genes simultaneously. Sensing in DNA microarrays
DESIGNING COMPRESSIVE SENSING DNA MICROARRAYS Mona A. Sheikh, Olgica Milenkovic, Richard G Microarray (CSM) is a new device for DNA-based identification of target organisms that lever- ages the nascent theory of Compressive Sensing (CS). In con- trast to a conventional DNA microarray, in which each
without PCR biases (7). DNA microarrays, originally devel- oped for exploring genome-wide transcriptional sensitivity of the DNA microarrays currently in use (8, 9). Thus, additional high-throughput and hybridizationDevelopment of Microbial Genome-Probing Microarrays Using Digital Multiple Displacement
A Review of DNA Microarray Data Analysis Background: The mystery of life for a living organism on one gene at a time, which is time consuming and costly. The ingenuous idea of DNA microarrays created a solution to this problem. DNA microarrays are a new technology that allows the whole genome to be monitored
Viral Discovery and Sequence Recovery Using DNA Microarrays David Wang1 , Anatoly Urisman1 , Yu, there is a great demand for new technological methods for viral discovery. We describe herein a DNA microarray-based platform for novel virus identification and characterization. Central to this approach was a DNA microarray
a specific set of conditions, we can use DNA microarrays to capture an image of the genome's instructions DNA microarrays and one of the #12;immediate challenges is to develop tools and interpretive framework with DNA microarrays are systematic and quantitative, powerful mathematical and statistical methods can
DNA microarray inspection by interference microscopy L. Vabrea) and A. Dubois Laboratoire d November 2000; accepted for publication 4 March 2001 DNA microarrays are important new objects of picometers in height. This microscope has been applied to obtain 3D images of DNA microarray spots. We
of DNA microarrays and next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to the field of microbial ecology-generation sequencing (NGS) and DNA microarrays, it is apparent that the diversity and population density of microbial and largely unexplored  and could represent the key to ecosystem resilience. DNA microarrays comprising
Sonnenburg, Justin L.
a previously unrecognized role in repairing DNA damaged by ionizing radiation. DNA microarrays containSignificance analysis of microarrays applied to the ionizing radiation response Virginia Goss for review December 1, 2000) Microarrays can measure the expression of thousands of genes to identify changes
Robotic spotting of cDNA and oligonucleotide microarrays Richard P. Auburn1 , David P. Kreil1 Laboratory, Dept of Physics, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK DNA microarrays to their flexibility and value, mechanically spotted microarrays remain the most popular platform. Here, we review
Quality Control and Early Diagnostics for cDNA Microarrays by Günther Sawitzki1 We present a case in the finer issues, but these details can only be mentioned in passing. Quality Control for Microarrays it quality control. We use R for quality control of microarrays. We simplify and specialize the problem
Ron Ammar; Andrew M Smith; Lawrence E Heisler; Guri Giaever; Corey Nislow
BACKGROUND: Microarrays are an invaluable tool in many modern genomic studies. It is generally perceived that decreasing the size of microarray features leads to arrays with higher resolution (due to greater feature density), but this increase in resolution can compromise sensitivity. RESULTS: We demonstrate that barcode microarrays with smaller features are equally capable of detecting variation in DNA barcode intensity
V. Choi; Y. Huang; Vy Lam; D. Potter; Reinhard C. Laubenbacher; Karen Duca
Microarray technologies, which can measure tens of thousands of gene expression values simultane- ously in a single experiment, have become a common research method for biomedical researchers. Computational tools to analyze microarray data for biological discovery are needed. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of using Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) as a tool for microarray data analy- sis. The
The expression of many genes encoding secreted and non-secreted factors have been studied in human and rodent adipose tissue with cDNA microarrays, but few such studies in adipose tissue from growing pigs have been reported. Total RNA was collected at slaughter from outer subcutaneous adipose tissue...
Sreedhar, Hari; Pant, Mamta; Ronquillo, Nemencio R.; Davidson, Bennett; Nguyen, Peter; Chennuri, Rohini; Choi, Jacqueline; Herrera, Joaquin A.; Hinojosa, Ana C.; Jin, Ming; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Guzman, Grace; Walsh, Michael J.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of primary hepatic carcinoma. HCC ranks the fourth most prevalent malignant tumor and the third leading cause of cancer related death in the world. Hepatocellular carcinoma develops in the context of chronic liver disease and its evolution is characterized by progression through intermediate stages to advanced disease and possibly even death. The primary sequence of hepatocarcinogenesis includes the development of cirrhosis, followed by dysplasia, and hepatocellular carcinoma.1 We addressed the utility of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging, both as a diagnostic tool of the different stages of the disease and to gain insight into the biochemical process associated with disease progression. Tissue microarrays were obtained from the University of Illinois at Chicago tissue bank consisting of liver explants from 12 transplant patients. Tissue core biopsies were obtained from each explant targeting regions of normal, liver cell dysplasia including large cell change and small cell change, and hepatocellular carcinoma. We obtained FT-IR images of these tissues using a modified FT-IR system with high definition capabilities. Firstly, a supervised spectral classifier was built to discriminate between normal and cancerous hepatocytes. Secondly, an expanded classifier was built to discriminate small cell and large cell changes in liver disease. With the emerging advances in FT-IR instrumentation and computation there is a strong drive to develop this technology as a powerful adjunct to current histopathology approaches to improve disease diagnosis and prognosis.
Rohde, Rachel M.; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann
This report summarizes research performed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in collaboration with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assess microarray quality on arrays from two platforms of interest to the EPA. Custom microarrays from two novel, commercially produced array platforms were imaged with SNL's unique hyperspectral imaging technology and multivariate data analysis was performed to investigate sources of emission on the arrays. No extraneous sources of emission were evident in any of the array areas scanned. This led to the conclusions that either of these array platforms could produce high quality, reliable microarray data for the EPA toxicology programs. Hyperspectral imaging results are presented and recommendations for microarray analyses using these platforms are detailed within the report.
Microarray technology as applied to areas that include genomics, diagnostics, environmental, and drug discovery, is an interesting research topic for which different chip-based devices have been developed. As an alternative, we have explored the principle of compact disc-based...
Kristopher Schwab; David P. Witte; Bruce J. Aronow; Prasad Devarajan; S. Steven Potter; Larry T. Patterson
Background: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a leading cause of chronic renal failure in children. Recent studies have begun to define the molecular pathogenesis of this heterogeneous condition. Here we use oligonucleotide microarrays to obtain a global gene expression profile of kidney biopsy specimens from patients with FSGS in order to better understand the pathogenesis of this disease. Methods: We
Microarray Data Analysis Using Multiple Statistical Models Wenjun Bao1, Judith E. Schmid1, Amber K. Goetz1, Ming Ouyang2, William J. Welsh2,Andrew I. Brooks3,4, ChiYi Chu3,Mitsunori Ogihara3,4, Yinhe Cheng5, David J. Dix1. 1National Health and Environmental Effects Researc...
Original article Microarray-based transcriptional profiling of Eimeria bovis-infected bovine suggest parasite-derived exploitation of host cell nutrients. The modulation of genes involved in cell) requires nutrients from the host cell, as in other apicomplexa [7, 27]. Furthermore, given that endothelial
Marcus Gry Bjorklund; Christian Natanaelsson; Amelie Eriksson Karlstrom; Yong Hao; Joakim Lundeberg
DNA microarray technology has evolved dramati- cally in recent years, and is now a common tool in researchers' portfolios. The scope of the technique has expanded from small-scale studies to extensive studies such as classification of disease states. Technical knowledge regarding solid phase micro- arrays has also increased, and the results acquired today are more reliable than those obtained just
Charalambous, Christoforos C; Matsopoulos, George K
In this paper, a new methodological scheme for the gridding of DNA microarrays is proposed. The scheme composes of a series of processes applied sequentially. Each DNA microarray image is pre-processed to remove any noise and the center of each spot is detected using a template matching algorithm. Then, an initial gridding is automatically placed on the DNA microarray image by 'building' rectangular pyramids around the detected spots' centers. The gridlines "move" between the pyramids, horizontally and vertically, forming this initial grid. Furthermore, a refinement process is applied composing of a five-step approach in order to correct gridding imperfections caused by its initial placement, both in non-spot cases and in more than one spot enclosure cases. The proposed gridding scheme is applied on DNA microarray images under known transformations and on real-world DNA data. Its performance is compared against the projection pursuit method, which is often used due to its speed and simplicity, as well as against a state-of-the-art method, the Optimal Multi-level Thresholding Gridding (OMTG). According to the obtained results, the proposed gridding scheme outperforms both methods, qualitatively and quantitatively. PMID:24034720
T. J. Gentry; G. S. Wickham; C. W. Schadt; Z. He; J. Zhou
Microarray technology has the unparalleled potential to simultaneously determine the dynamics and\\/or activities of most, if not all, of the microbial populations in complex environments such as soils and sediments. Researchers have developed several types of arrays that characterize the microbial populations in these samples based on their phylogenetic relatedness or functional genomic content. Several recent studies have used these
Chandler, Darrell P.; Alferov, Oleg; Chernov, Boris; Daly, Don S.; Golova, Julia; Perov, Alexander N.; Protic, Miroslava; Robison, Richard; Shipma, Matthew; White, Amanda M.; Willse, Alan R.
A diagnostic, genome-independent microbial fingerprinting method using DNA oligonucleotide microarrays was used for high-resolution differentiation between closely related Bacillus strains, including two strains of Bacillus anthracis that are monomorphic (indistinguishable) via amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting techniques. Replicated hybridizations on 391-probe nonamer arrays were used to construct a prototype fingerprint library for quantitative comparisons. Descriptive analysis of the fingerprints, including phylogenetic reconstruction, is consistent with previous taxonomic organization of the genus. Newly developed statistical analysis methods were used to quantitatively compare and objectively confirm apparent differences in microarray fingerprints with the statistical rigor required for microbial forensics and clinical diagnostics. These data suggest that a relatively simple fingerprinting microarray and statistical analysis method can differentiate between species in the Bacillus cereus complex, and between strains of B. anthracis. A synthetic DNA standard was used to understand underlying microarray and process-level variability, leading to specific recommendations for the development of a standard operating procedure and/or continued technology enhancements for microbial forensics and diagnostics.
Chain, Frédéric J. J.; Ilieva, Dora; Evans, Ben J.
Background Prefabricated expression microarrays are currently available for only a few species but methods have been proposed to extend their application to comparisons between divergent genomes. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we demonstrate that the hybridization intensity of genomic DNA is a poor basis on which to select unbiased probes on Affymetrix expression arrays for studies of comparative transcriptomics, and that doing so produces spurious results. We used the Affymetrix Xenopus laevis microarray to evaluate expression divergence between X. laevis, X. borealis, and their F1 hybrids. When data are analyzed with probes that interrogate only sequences with confirmed identity in both species, we recover results that differ substantially analyses that use genomic DNA hybridizations to select probes. Conclusions/Significance Our findings have implications for the experimental design of comparative expression studies that use single-species microarrays, and for our understanding of divergent expression in hybrid clawed frogs. These findings also highlight important limitations of single-species microarrays for studies of comparative transcriptomics of polyploid species. PMID:18815615
Microarrays DOI: 10.1002/anie.200704998 On-Chip Synthesis and Label-Free Assays of Oligosaccharide Arrays** Lan Ban and Milan Mrksich* Oligosaccharides, like proteins and DNA, are ubiquitous biopolymers for the synthesis and biochemical analysis of oligosaccharides and their conjugates. The development of biochips
Michael Egmont-petersen; Wim De Jonge; Arno Siebes
In this paper, we introduce a new approach for mining regulatory in- teractions between genes in microarray time series studies. A number of prepro- cessing steps transform the original continuous measurements into a discrete rep- resentation that captures salient regulatory events in the time series. The discrete representation is used to discover interactions between the genes. In particular, we introduce
can be chosen to reflect the purpose of clustering allowing control the definition of similarity potential target genes to be highlighted within the clusters of interest. Key words: Gene expression during a wide range of biological processes. Indeed, much has been learned from microarray interrogation
Chung, Cindy; Burdick, Jason A.
Cartilage tissue engineering is emerging as a technique for the regeneration of cartilage tissue damaged due to disease or trauma. Since cartilage lacks regenerative capabilities, it is essential to develop approaches that deliver the appropriate cells, biomaterials, and signaling factors to the defect site. The objective of this review is to discuss the approaches that have been taken in this area, with an emphasis on various cell sources, including chondrocytes, fibroblasts, and stem cells. Additionally, biomaterials and their interaction with cells and the importance of signaling factors on cellular behavior and cartilage formation will be addressed. Ultimately, the goal of investigators working on cartilage regeneration is to develop a system that promotes the production of cartilage tissue that mimics native tissue properties, accelerates restoration of tissue function, and is clinically translatable. Although this is an ambitious goal, significant progress and important advances have been made in recent years. PMID:17976858
Tikku, Gargi; Jain, Monica; Mridha, Asit; Grover, Rajesh
Solitary bone plasmacytomas and plasma cell myeloma are clonal proliferations of plasma cells. Many patients with solitary bone plasmacytomas develop plasma cell myeloma on follow-up. We present a case of a 70-year-old man who presented with fracture and a lytic lesion in the subtrochanteric region of the left femur and was assigned a diagnosis of solitary bone plasmacytoma. He received local curative radiotherapy. However, 4 months later his serum M protein and ?2-microglobulin levels increased to 2.31 g/dL and 5.965 mg/L, respectively. He complained of abdominal fullness and constipation. Ultrasound and non-contrast CT imaging revealed multiple retroperitoneal masses. Colonoscopic examination was normal. Biopsy of the a retroperitoneal mass confirmed it to be a plasmacytoma. Repeat hemogram, blood urea, serum creatinine, skeletal survey, and bone marrow examination revealed no abnormalities. This is an unusual presentation of plasma cell myeloma, which manifested as multiple huge extramedullary retroperitoneal masses and arose from a solitary bone plasmacytoma, without related end organ or tissue impairment and bone marrow plasmacytosis. The patient succumbed to his disease 8 months after the appearance of the retroperitoneal masses. This case highlights the importance of close monitoring of patients diagnosed with solitary bone plasmacytoma with increased serum M protein and serum ?2-microglobulin levels, so that early therapy can be instituted to prevent conversion to plasma cell myeloma. PMID:25330522
Mure?an, Leila; Jacak, Jaros?aw; Klement, Erich Peter; Hesse, Jan; Schütz, Gerhard J.
Bioanalytical chip-based assays have been enormously improved in sensitivity in the recent years; detection of trace amounts of substances down to the level of individual fluorescent molecules has become state of the art technology. The impact of such detection methods, however, has yet not fully been exploited, mainly due to a lack in appropriate mathematical tools for robust data analysis. One particular example relates to the analysis of microarray data. While classical microarray analysis works at resolutions of two to 20 micrometers and quantifies the abundance of target molecules by determining average pixel intensities, a novel high resolution approach  directly visualizes individual bound molecules as diffraction limited peaks. The now possible quantification via counting is less susceptible to labeling artifacts and background noise. We have developed an approach for the analysis of high-resolution microarray images. It consists first of a single molecule detection step, based on undecimated wavelet transforms, and second, of a spot identification step via spatial statistics approach (corresponding to the segmentation step in the classical microarray analysis). The detection method was tested on simulated images with a concentration range of 0.001 to 0.5 molecules per square micron and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) between 0.9 and 31.6. For SNR above 15 the false negatives relative error was below 15%. Separation of foreground/background proved reliable, in case foreground density exceeds background by a factor of 2. The method has also been applied to real data from high-resolution microarray measurements. PMID:20123580
Kochzius, Marc; Seidel, Christian; Antoniou, Aglaia; Botla, Sandeep Kumar; Campo, Daniel; Cariani, Alessia; Vazquez, Eva Garcia; Hauschild, Janet; Hervet, Caroline; Hjörleifsdottir, Sigridur; Hreggvidsson, Gudmundur; Kappel, Kristina; Landi, Monica; Magoulas, Antonios; Marteinsson, Viggo; Nölte, Manfred; Planes, Serge; Tinti, Fausto; Turan, Cemal; Venugopal, Moleyur N.; Weber, Hannes; Blohm, Dietmar
Background International fish trade reached an import value of 62.8 billion Euro in 2006, of which 44.6% are covered by the European Union. Species identification is a key problem throughout the life cycle of fishes: from eggs and larvae to adults in fisheries research and control, as well as processed fish products in consumer protection. Methodology/Principal Findings This study aims to evaluate the applicability of the three mitochondrial genes 16S rRNA (16S), cytochrome b (cyt b), and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) for the identification of 50 European marine fish species by combining techniques of “DNA barcoding” and microarrays. In a DNA barcoding approach, neighbour Joining (NJ) phylogenetic trees of 369 16S, 212 cyt b, and 447 COI sequences indicated that cyt b and COI are suitable for unambiguous identification, whereas 16S failed to discriminate closely related flatfish and gurnard species. In course of probe design for DNA microarray development, each of the markers yielded a high number of potentially species-specific probes in silico, although many of them were rejected based on microarray hybridisation experiments. None of the markers provided probes to discriminate the sibling flatfish and gurnard species. However, since 16S-probes were less negatively influenced by the “position of label” effect and showed the lowest rejection rate and the highest mean signal intensity, 16S is more suitable for DNA microarray probe design than cty b and COI. The large portion of rejected COI-probes after hybridisation experiments (>90%) renders the DNA barcoding marker as rather unsuitable for this high-throughput technology. Conclusions/Significance Based on these data, a DNA microarray containing 64 functional oligonucleotide probes for the identification of 30 out of the 50 fish species investigated was developed. It represents the next step towards an automated and easy-to-handle method to identify fish, ichthyoplankton, and fish products. PMID:20838643
Hu, Wenchao; Liu, Yuting; Yan, Jun
Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is a post-transcriptional mechanism to generate diverse mRNA transcripts with different 3?UTRs from the same gene. In this study, we systematically searched for the APA events with differential expression in public mouse microarray data. Hundreds of genes with over-represented differential APA events and the corresponding experiments were identified. We further revealed that global APA differential expression occurred prevalently in tissues such as brain comparing to peripheral tissues, and biological processes such as development, differentiation and immune responses. Interestingly, we also observed widespread differential APA events in RNA-binding protein (RBP) genes such as Rbm3, Eif4e2 and Elavl1. Given the fact that RBPs are considered as the main regulators of differential APA expression, we constructed a co-expression network between APAs and RBPs using the microarray data. Further incorporation of CLIP-seq data of selected RBPs showed that Nova2 represses and Mbnl1 promotes the polyadenylation of closest poly(A) sites respectively. Altogether, our study is the first microarray meta-analysis in a mammal on the regulation of APA by RBPs that integrated massive mRNA expression data under a wide-range of biological conditions. Finally, we present our results as a comprehensive resource in an online website for the research community. PMID:24622240
Uttamchandani, Mahesh; Neo, Jia Ling; Ong, Brandon Ngiap Zhung; Moochhala, Shabbir
The microarray is a platform with wide-ranging potential in biodefence. Owing to the high level of throughput attainable through miniaturization, microarrays have accelerated the ability to respond in an epidemic or crisis. Extending beyond diagnostics, recent studies have applied microarrays as a research tool towards understanding the etiology and pathogenicity of dangerous pathogens, as well as in vaccine development. The original emphasis was on DNA microarrays, but the range now includes protein, antibody and carbohydrate microarrays, and research groups have exploited this diversity to further extend microarray applications in the area of biodefence. Here, we discuss the impact and contributions of the growing range of microarrays and emphasize the concepts that might shape the future of biodefence research. PMID:19008003
Background As context is important to gene expression, so is the preprocessing of microarray to transcriptomics. Microarray data suffers from several normalization and significance problems. Arbitrary fold change (FC) cut-offs of >2 and significance p-values of <0.02 lead data collection to look only at genes which vary wildly amongst other genes. Therefore, questions arise as to whether the biology or the statistical cutoff are more important within the interpretation. In this paper, we reanalyzed a zebrafish (D. rerio) microarray data set using GeneSpring and different differential gene expression cut-offs and found the data interpretation was drastically different. Furthermore, despite the advances in microarray technology, the array captures a large portion of genes known but yet still leaving large voids in the number of genes assayed, such as leptin a pleiotropic hormone directly related to hypoxia-induced angiogenesis. Results The data strongly suggests that the number of differentially expressed genes is more up-regulated than down-regulated, with many genes indicating conserved signalling to previously known functions. Recapitulated data from Marques et al. (2008) was similar but surprisingly different with some genes showing unexpected signalling which may be a product of tissue (heart) or that the intended response was transient. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that based on the chosen statistical or fold change cut-off; microarray analysis can provide essentially more than one answer, implying data interpretation as more of an art than a science, with follow up gene expression studies a must. Furthermore, gene chip annotation and development needs to maintain pace with not only new genomes being sequenced but also novel genes that are crucial to the overall gene chips interpretation. PMID:22536862
Dawson, Kevin; Rodriguez, Raymond L; Malyj, Wasyl
Background Life processes are determined by the organism's genetic profile and multiple environmental variables. However the interaction between these factors is inherently non-linear . Microarray data is one representation of the nonlinear interactions among genes and genes and environmental factors. Still most microarray studies use linear methods for the interpretation of nonlinear data. In this study, we apply Isomap, a nonlinear method of dimensionality reduction, to analyze three independent large Affymetrix high-density oligonucleotide microarray data sets. Results Isomap discovered low-dimensional structures embedded in the Affymetrix microarray data sets. These structures correspond to and help to interpret biological phenomena present in the data. This analysis provides examples of temporal, spatial, and functional processes revealed by the Isomap algorithm. In a spinal cord injury data set, Isomap discovers the three main modalities of the experiment – location and severity of the injury and the time elapsed after the injury. In a multiple tissue data set, Isomap discovers a low-dimensional structure that corresponds to anatomical locations of the source tissues. This model is capable of describing low- and high-resolution differences in the same model, such as kidney-vs.-brain and differences between the nuclei of the amygdala, respectively. In a high-throughput drug screening data set, Isomap discovers the monocytic and granulocytic differentiation of myeloid cells and maps several chemical compounds on the two-dimensional model. Conclusion Visualization of Isomap models provides useful tools for exploratory analysis of microarray data sets. In most instances, Isomap models explain more of the variance present in the microarray data than PCA or MDS. Finally, Isomap is a promising new algorithm for class discovery and class prediction in high-density oligonucleotide data sets. PMID:16076401
Najafi, Ali; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali; Ghanei, Mostafa; Nourani, Mohamad Reza
There is much data about the acute effects of sulfur mustard gas on humans, animals and cells. But less is known regarding the molecular basics of chronic complications in humans. Basically, mustard gas, as an alkylating agent, causes several chronic problems in the eyes, skin and more importantly in the pulmonary system which is the main cause of death. Although recent proteomic research has been carried out on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and serum, but high-throughput transcriptomics have not yet been applied to chronic airway remodeling. This is the first cDNA-microarray report on the chronic human mustard lung disease, 25 years after exposure during the Iran-Iraq war. Microarray transcriptional profiling indicated that a total of 122 genes were significantly dysregulated in tissues located in the airway of patients. These genes are associated with the extracellular matrix components, apoptosis, stress response, inflammation and mucus secretion. PMID:24823320
Lin, Chun-Han; Lee, Jonathan K.; LaBarge, Mark A.
The interactions between cells and their surrounding microenvironment have functional consequences for cellular behaviour. On the single cell level, distinct microenvironments can impose differentiation, migration, and proliferation phenotypes, and on the tissue level the microenvironment processes as complex as morphogenesis and tumorigenesis1. Not only do the cell and molecular contents of microenvironments impact the cells within, but so do the elasticity2 and geometry3 of the tissue. Defined as the sum total of cell-cell, -ECM, and -soluble factor interactions, in addition to physical characteristics, the microenvironment is complex. The phenotypes of cells within a tissue are partially due to their genomic content and partially due to the combinatorial interactions with the microenviroment. A major challenge is to link specific combinations of microenvironmental components with distinctive behaviours. Here, we present the microenvironment microarray (MEArray) platform for cell-based functional screening of interactions with combinatorial microenvironments4. The method allows for simultaneous control of the molecular composition and the elastic modulus, and combines the use of widely available microarray and micropatterning technologies. MEArray screens require as few as 10,000 cells per array, which facilitates functional studies of rare cell types such as adult progenitor cells. A limitation of the technology is that entire tissue microenvironments cannot be completely recapitulated on MEArrays. However, comparison of responses in the same cell type to numerous related microenvironments, for instance pairwise combinations of ECM proteins that characterize a given tissue, will provide insights into how microenvironmental components elicit tissue-specific functional phenotypes. MEArrays can be printed using a wide variety of recombinant growth factors, cytokines, and purified ECM proteins, and combinations thereof. The platform is limited only by the availability of specific reagents. MEArrays are amenable to time-lapsed analysis, but most often are used for end point analyses of cellular functions that are measureable with fluorescent probes. For instance, DNA synthesis, apoptosis, acquisition of differentiated states, or production of specific gene products are commonly measured. Briefly, the basic flow of an MEArray experiment is to prepare slides coated with printing substrata and to prepare the master plate of proteins that are to be printed. Then the arrays are printed with a microarray robot, cells are allowed to attach, grow in culture, and then are chemically fixed upon reaching the experimental endpoint. Fluorescent or colorimetric assays, imaged with traditional microscopes or microarray scanners, are used to reveal relevant molecular and cellular phenotypes (Figure 1). PMID:23093325
Fontaine, Jean-Fred; Mirebeau-Prunier, Delphine; Raharijaona, Mahatsangy; Franc, Brigitte; Triau, Stephane; Rodien, Patrice; Goëau-Brissonniére, Olivier; Karayan-Tapon, Lucie; Mello, Marielle; Houlgatte, Rémi; Malthiery, Yves; Savagner, Frédérique
Background Genetic markers for thyroid cancers identified by microarray analysis have offered limited predictive accuracy so far because of the few classes of thyroid lesions usually taken into account. To improve diagnostic relevance, we have simultaneously analyzed microarray data from six public datasets covering a total of 347 thyroid tissue samples representing 12 histological classes of follicular lesions and normal thyroid tissue. Our own dataset, containing about half the thyroid tissue samples, included all categories of thyroid lesions. Methodology/Principal Findings Classifier predictions were strongly affected by similarities between classes and by the number of classes in the training sets. In each dataset, sample prediction was improved by separating the samples into three groups according to class similarities. The cross-validation of differential genes revealed four clusters with functional enrichments. The analysis of six of these genes (APOD, APOE, CLGN, CRABP1, SDHA and TIMP1) in 49 new samples showed consistent gene and protein profiles with the class similarities observed. Focusing on four subclasses of follicular tumor, we explored the diagnostic potential of 12 selected markers (CASP10, CDH16, CLGN, CRABP1, HMGB2, ALPL2, ADAMTS2, CABIN1, ALDH1A3, USP13, NR2F2, KRTHB5) by real-time quantitative RT-PCR on 32 other new samples. The gene expression profiles of follicular tumors were examined with reference to the mutational status of the Pax8-PPAR?, TSHR, GNAS and NRAS genes. Conclusion/Significance We show that diagnostic tools defined on the basis of microarray data are more relevant when a large number of samples and tissue classes are used. Taking into account the relationships between the thyroid tumor pathologies, together with the main biological functions and pathways involved, improved the diagnostic accuracy of the samples. Our approach was particularly relevant for the classification of microfollicular adenomas. PMID:19893615
Nimse, Satish Balasaheb; Song, Keumsoo; Sonawane, Mukesh Digambar; Sayyed, Danishmalik Rafiq; Kim, Taisun
The highly programmable positioning of molecules (biomolecules, nanoparticles, nanobeads, nanocomposites materials) on surfaces has potential applications in the fields of biosensors, biomolecular electronics, and nanodevices. However, the conventional techniques including self-assembled monolayers fail to position the molecules on the nanometer scale to produce highly organized monolayers on the surface. The present article elaborates different techniques for the immobilization of the biomolecules on the surface to produce microarrays and their diagnostic applications. The advantages and the drawbacks of various methods are compared. This article also sheds light on the applications of the different technologies for the detection and discrimination of viral/bacterial genotypes and the detection of the biomarkers. A brief survey with 115 references covering the last 10 years on the biological applications of microarrays in various fields is also provided. PMID:25429408
Vladimir Nikulin; Geoffrey J. McLachlan
\\u000a The high dimensionality of microarray data, the expressions of thousands of genes in a much smaller number of samples, presents\\u000a challenges that affect the validity of the analytical results. Hence attention has to be given to some form of dimension reduction\\u000a to represent the data in terms of a smaller number of variables. The latter are often chosen to be
Rebecca L. DeRosa; Jean A. Cardinale; Ashleigh Cooper
A series of glass treatments were investigated to develop a miniaturized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay microarray sensor with covalently immobilized antibody. Two glass compositions were photo-hydrolytically treated and functionalized with an amino- or mercapto-silane. Surface characterization was done using contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy data. Antibody binding efficiency was statistically compared between treatments and glass compositions.Photo-hydrolytic treatment
Shi, Leming; Tong, Weida; Su, Zhenqiang; Han, Tao; Han, Jing; Puri, Raj K; Fang, Hong; Frueh, Felix W; Goodsaid, Federico M; Guo, Lei; Branham, William S; Chen, James J; Xu, Z Alex; Harris, Stephen C; Hong, Huixiao; Xie, Qian; Perkins, Roger G; Fuscoe, James C
Background Microarray-based measurement of mRNA abundance assumes a linear relationship between the fluorescence intensity and the dye concentration. In reality, however, the calibration curve can be nonlinear. Results By scanning a microarray scanner calibration slide containing known concentrations of fluorescent dyes under 18 PMT gains, we were able to evaluate the differences in calibration characteristics of Cy5 and Cy3. First, the calibration curve for the same dye under the same PMT gain is nonlinear at both the high and low intensity ends. Second, the degree of nonlinearity of the calibration curve depends on the PMT gain. Third, the two PMTs (for Cy5 and Cy3) behave differently even under the same gain. Fourth, the background intensity for the Cy3 channel is higher than that for the Cy5 channel. The impact of such characteristics on the accuracy and reproducibility of measured mRNA abundance and the calculated ratios was demonstrated. Combined with simulation results, we provided explanations to the existence of ratio underestimation, intensity-dependence of ratio bias, and anti-correlation of ratios in dye-swap replicates. We further demonstrated that although Lowess normalization effectively eliminates the intensity-dependence of ratio bias, the systematic deviation from true ratios largely remained. A method of calculating ratios based on concentrations estimated from the calibration curves was proposed for correcting ratio bias. Conclusion It is preferable to scan microarray slides at fixed, optimal gain settings under which the linearity between concentration and intensity is maximized. Although normalization methods improve reproducibility of microarray measurements, they appear less effective in improving accuracy. PMID:16026596
Christina A Harrington; Carsten Rosenow; Jacques Retief
The concurrent development of high-density array technologies and the complete sequencing of a number of microbial genomes is providing the opportunity to comprehensively and efficiently survey the transcription profile of microorganisms under different conditions and well-defined genotypes. Microarray-based studies are uncovering broad patterns of genetic activity, providing new understanding of gene functions and, in some cases, generating unexpected insight into
Tomohiro Fukuda; Shunsuke Onogi; Yoshiko Miura
Saccharide microarrays with well-defined multivalency were prepared using glycodendrimers. The glycodendrimers with various generations and saccharides (?-Man, ?-GlcNAc and ?-Gal) were synthesized and immobilized on an acetylenyl-terminated gold substrate via click chemistry. The saccharide-immobilized substrates were analyzed using XPS, ellipsometry, cyclic voltammetry, contact angle goniometry, QCM and FTIR-RAS. The biological abilities of the saccharide-immobilized substrates were evaluated by SPR with
Markus-Bustani, Keren; Yaron, Yuval; Goldstein, Myriam; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Ben-Shachar, Shay
We report on a case of a female fetus found to be mosaic for Turner syndrome (45,X) and trisomy X (47,XXX). Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) failed to detect the aneuploidy because of a normal average dosage of the X chromosome. This case represents an unusual instance in which CMA may not detect chromosomal aberrations. Such a possibility should be taken into consideration in similar cases where CMA is used in a clinical setting. PMID:23034780
Spyro Mousses; Natasha J. Caplen; Robert Cornelison; Don Weaver; Mark Basik; Sampsa Hautaniemi; Abdel G. Elkahloun; Roberto A. Lotufo; Ashish Choudary; Edward R. Dougherty; Ed Suh; Olli Kallioniemi
RNA interference (RNAi) mediated by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is a powerful new tool for analyzing gene knockdown phenotypes in living mammalian cells. To facilitate large-scale, high-throughput functional genomics studies using RNAi, we have developed a microarray-based technology for highly parallel analysis. Specifically, siRNAs in a transfection matrix were first arrayed on glass slides, overlaid with a monolayer of adherent
D'Angelo, Giovanna; Di Rienzo, Teresa; Ojetti, Veronica
Gastric cancer is one of the most common tumors worldwide. Although several treatment options have been developed, the mortality rate is increasing. Lymph node involvement is considered the most reliable prognostic indicator in gastric cancer. Early diagnosis improves the survival rate of patients and increases the likelihood of successful treatment. The most reliable diagnostic method is endoscopic examination, however, it is expensive and not feasible in poorer countries. Therefore, many innovative techniques have been studied to develop a new non-invasive screening test and to identify specific serum biomarkers. DNA microarray analysis is one of the new technologies able to measure the expression levels of a large number of genes simultaneously. It is possible to define the gene expression profile of the tumor and to correlate it with the prognosis and metastasis formation. Several studies in the literature have been published on the role of microarray analysis in gastric cancer and the mechanisms of proliferation and metastasis formation. The aim of this review is to analyze the importance of microarray analysis and its clinical applications to better define the genetic characteristics of gastric cancer and its possible implications in a more decisive treatment. PMID:25232233
Kocaba?, F; Can, T; Baykal, N
The number of microarray and other high-throughput experiments on primary repositories keeps increasing as do the size and complexity of the results in response to biomedical investigations. Initiatives have been started on standardization of content, object model, exchange format and ontology. However, there are backlogs and inability to exchange data between microarray repositories, which indicate that there is a great need for a standard format and data management. We have introduced a metadata framework that includes a metadata card and semantic nets that make experimental results visible, understandable and usable. These are encoded in syntax encoding schemes and represented in RDF (Resource Description Frame-word), can be integrated with other metadata cards and semantic nets, and can be exchanged, shared and queried. We demonstrated the performance and potential benefits through a case study on a selected microarray repository. We concluded that the backlogs can be reduced and that exchange of information and asking of knowledge discovery questions can become possible with the use of this metadata framework. PMID:24052712
Blair, Steve; Williams, Layne; Bishop, Justin; Chagovetz, Alexander
In any microarray hybridization experiment, there are contributions at each probe spot due to the match and numerous mismatch target species (i.e., cross-hybridizations). One goal of temperature optimization is to minimize the contribution of mismatch species; however, achieving this goal may come at the expense of obtaining equilibrium reaction conditions. We employ two-component thermodynamic and kinetic models to study the trade-offs involved in temperature optimization. These models show that the maximum selectivity is achieved at equilibrium, but that the mismatch species controls the time to equilibrium via the competitive displacement mechanism. Also, selectivity is improved at lower temperatures. However, the time to equilibrium is also extended, so that greater selectivity cannot be achieved in practice. We also employ a two-color real-time microarray reader to experimentally demonstrate these effects by independently monitoring the match and mismatch species during multiplex hybridization. The only universal criterion that can be employed is to optimize temperature based upon attaining equilibrium reaction conditions. This temperature varies from one probe to another, but can be determined empirically using standard microarray experimentation methods. PMID:19381979
Yauk, Carole L.; Berndt, M. Lynn; Williams, Andrew; Douglas, George R.
Microarray technology is extensively used in biological research. The applied technologies vary greatly between laboratories, and outstanding questions remain regarding the degree of correlation among approaches. Recently, there has been a drive toward ensuring high-quality microarray data by the implementation of MIAME (Minimal Information About a Microarray Experiment) guidelines and an emphasis on ensuring public-availability to all datasets. However, despite its current widespread use and availability, very little is known about the extent to which application of the different technologies influences the outcome of transcriptional profiles and differential expression. The results among the handful of published studies are conflicting. Here, we present a comprehensive evaluation encompassing different reporter systems (short oligonucleotides, long oligonucleotides and cDNAs), labelling techniques and hybridization protocols. We used four oligonucleotide and two cDNA platforms to compare gene expression between two sample types. We determined the overall consistency (reproducibility) within each platform, and correlation among replicates within and between technologies. We find that the top performing platforms show low levels of technical variability that result in an increased ability to detect differential expression. Most importantly, we show the top four platforms are highly correlated with biological, rather than technological, differences accounting for the majority of variation in the data. PMID:15333675
Angenendt, Philipp; Glökler, Jim; Sobek, Jens; Lehrach, Hans; Cahill, Dolores J
The performance of protein and antibody microarrays is dependent on various factors, one of which is the use of an appropriate microarray surface for the immobilisation of either protein or antibody samples. We have investigated the properties of seven new surfaces in the context of both protein and antibody microarray technology. We have demonstrated the functionality of all new slide coatings and investigated the mean signal to spotted concentration ratio, determined detection limits and calculated coefficients of variation. Moreover, new concepts for slide coatings such as dendrimer and poly(ethylene glycol)-epoxy slides were evaluated and improved qualities of novel slide surfaces were observed. Optimal slide coatings for antibody and protein chips were proposed and the requirements for both technologies were discussed. PMID:13677649
Martínez, Miguel A.; Soto-del Río, María de los Dolores; Gutiérrez, Rosa María; Chiu, Charles Y.; Greninger, Alexander L.; Contreras, Juan Francisco; López, Susana; Arias, Carlos F.
Gastroenteritis is a clinical illness of humans and other animals that is characterized by vomiting and diarrhea and caused by a variety of pathogens, including viruses. An increasing number of viral species have been associated with gastroenteritis or have been found in stool samples as new molecular tools have been developed. In this work, a DNA microarray capable in theory of parallel detection of more than 100 viral species was developed and tested. Initial validation was done with 10 different virus species, and an additional 5 species were validated using clinical samples. Detection limits of 1 × 103 virus particles of Human adenovirus C (HAdV), Human astrovirus (HAstV), and group A Rotavirus (RV-A) were established. Furthermore, when exogenous RNA was added, the limit for RV-A detection decreased by one log. In a small group of clinical samples from children with gastroenteritis (n = 76), the microarray detected at least one viral species in 92% of the samples. Single infection was identified in 63 samples (83%), and coinfection with more than one virus was identified in 7 samples (9%). The most abundant virus species were RV-A (58%), followed by Anellovirus (15.8%), HAstV (6.6%), HAdV (5.3%), Norwalk virus (6.6%), Human enterovirus (HEV) (9.2%), Human parechovirus (1.3%), Sapporo virus (1.3%), and Human bocavirus (1.3%). To further test the specificity and sensitivity of the microarray, the results were verified by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) detection of 5 gastrointestinal viruses. The RT-PCR assay detected a virus in 59 samples (78%). The microarray showed good performance for detection of RV-A, HAstV, and calicivirus, while the sensitivity for HAdV and HEV was low. Furthermore, some discrepancies in detection of mixed infections were observed and were addressed by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) of the viruses involved. It was observed that differences in the amount of genetic material favored the detection of the most abundant virus. The microarray described in this work should help in understanding the etiology of gastroenteritis in humans and animals. PMID:25355758
Chen, Qian; Watson, Jeffery T; Marengo, Susan Ruth; Decker, Keith S; Coleman, Ilsa; Nelson, Peter S; Sikes, Robert A
Identification of the genes involved in prostate cancer (PCa) progression to a virulent and androgen-independent (AI) form is a major focus in the field. cDNA microarray was used to compare the gene expression profile of the indolent, androgen sensitive (AS) LNCaP PCa cell line to the aggressively metastatic, AI C4-2. Thirty-eight unique sequences from a 6388 cDNA array were found differentially expressed (> or =2-fold, 95% CI). The expression of 14 genes was lower in C4-2 than in LNCaP cells, while the reverse was true for 24 genes. Twelve genes were validated using Q-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) of LNCaP and C4-2 xenograft. Q-PCR showed that 10 of 12 (83.3%) genes had similar patterns of expression to the array (LNCaP>C4-2: TMEFF2, ATP1B1, IL-8, BTG1, BChE, NKX3.1; LNCaP
Iwahashi, Hitoshi; Kitagawa, Emiko; Suzuki, Yoshiteru; Ueda, Youji; Ishizawa, Yo-hei; Nobumasa, Hitoshi; Kuboki, Yoshihide; Hosoda, Hiroshi; Iwahashi, Yumiko
Background Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites commonly present in feed and food, and are widely regarded as hazardous contaminants. Citrinin, one of the very well known mycotoxins that was first isolated from Penicillium citrinum, is produced by more than 10 kinds of fungi, and is possibly spread all over the world. However, the information on the action mechanism of the toxin is limited. Thus, we investigated the citrinin-induced genomic response for evaluating its toxicity. Results Citrinin inhibited growth of yeast cells at a concentration higher than 100 ppm. We monitored the citrinin-induced mRNA expression profiles in yeast using the ORF DNA microarray and Oligo DNA microarray, and the expression profiles were compared with those of the other stress-inducing agents. Results obtained from both microarray experiments clustered together, but were different from those of the mycotoxin patulin. The oxidative stress response genes – AADs, FLR1, OYE3, GRE2, and MET17 – were significantly induced. In the functional category, expression of genes involved in "metabolism", "cell rescue, defense and virulence", and "energy" were significantly activated. In the category of "metabolism", genes involved in the glutathione synthesis pathway were activated, and in the category of "cell rescue, defense and virulence", the ABC transporter genes were induced. To alleviate the induced stress, these cells might pump out the citrinin after modification with glutathione. While, the citrinin treatment did not induce the genes involved in the DNA repair. Conclusion Results from both microarray studies suggest that citrinin treatment induced oxidative stress in yeast cells. The genotoxicity was less severe than the patulin, suggesting that citrinin is less toxic than patulin. The reproducibility of the expression profiles was much better with the Oligo DNA microarray. However, the Oligo DNA microarray did not completely overcome cross hybridization. PMID:17408496
Wang, Jinhua; Chong, Kelly K; Nakamura, Yoshitaka; Nguyen, Linhda; Huang, Sharon K; Kuo, Christine; Zhang, Wang; Yu, Hua; Morton, Donald L; Hoon, Dave S B
B7-H3, a cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein, was assessed for its functional and prognostic role in cutaneous melanoma progression. B7-H3 expression in melanoma cells was shown to be related to specific downstream signal transduction events as well as associated with functional epigenetic activity. B7-H3 expression and prognostic utility were shown by reverse transcription and real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry analysis on individual melanoma specimens and then verified in clinically annotated melanoma stage III and stage IV metastasis tissue microarrays in a double-blind study. B7-H3 messenger RNA expression was shown to be significantly increased with stage of melanoma (P<0.0001) and significantly associated with melanoma-specific survival in both stage III (P<0.0001) and stage IV (P<0.012) melanoma patients. B7-H3 expression was related to migration and invasion; overexpression of B7-H3 increased migration and invasion, whereas knockdown of B7-H3 reduced cell migration and invasion. MiR-29c expression was shown to inversely regulate B7-H3 expression. Furthermore, we demonstrated that melanoma B7-H3 expression was correlated to phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 activity level in melanoma tissues and cell lines. These studies demonstrate that B7-H3 is a significant factor in melanoma progression and events of metastasis. PMID:23474948
Juha K Rantala; Rami Mäkelä; Anna-Riina Aaltola; Petra Laasola; John-Patrick Mpindi; Matthias Nees; Petri Saviranta; Olli Kallioniemi
Background High-throughput RNAi screening is widely applied in biological research, but remains expensive, infrastructure-intensive and\\u000a conversion of many assays to HTS applications in microplate format is not feasible.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results Here, we describe the optimization of a miniaturized cell spot microarray (CSMA) method, which facilitates utilization of\\u000a the transfection microarray technique for disparate RNAi analyses. To promote rapid adaptation of the method, the
Jeremy Gollub; Catherine A. Ball; Gail Binkley; Janos Demeter; David B. Finkelstein; Joan M. Hebert; Tina Hernandez-boussard; Heng Jin; Miroslava Kaloper; John C. Matese; Mark Schroeder; Patrick O. Brown; David Botstein; Gavin Sherlock
The Stanford Microarray Database (SMD; http:\\/\\/ genome-www.stanford.edu\\/microarray\\/) serves as a microarray research database for Stanford investi- gators and their collaborators. In addition, SMD functions as a resource for the entire scientific community, by making freely available all of its source code and providing full public access to data published by SMD users, along with many tools to explore and analyze
Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Dougherty, Edward R.; Chen, Yidong; Bittner, Michael L.; Trent, Jeffrey M.
The images resulting from cDNA microarrays are highly random. There are many aspects to this randomness, including spot size, shape, intensity, uniformity, and circularity, as well as both foreground and background noise. This paper presents a random model for the generation of microarray images. The model is complicated and contains over 20 parameters. It can be used to test microarray imaging algorithms and to simulate the effects of various dependencies within the image formation process.
Rashi Gupta; Panu Somervuo; Sangita Kulathinal; Petri Auvinen
Microarrays are powerful tools for global monitoring of gene expressions in many areas of biomedical research (Brown and Botstein\\u000a (1999)). Since the first publication on the statistical analysis of data from microarray experiments (Chen et al. (1997)),\\u000a considerable amount of research has been carried out regarding such analysis. However, little work has been done on designing\\u000a microarray experiments despite the
B. Hopwood; S. Gronthos; J. S. Kuliwaba; P. G. Robey; D. M. Findlay; N. L. Fazzalari
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common age-related joint disease resulting in progressive degenerative damage to articular cartilage. The etiology of primary OA has not yet been determined. However, there is evidence supporting the hypothesis that primary OA is a disease affecting bone remodeling in addition to articular cartilage. In this study, we have used cDNA microarray analysis to compare gene expression
Qu, W; Han, C; Li, M; Zhang, J; Li, L
To explore the molecular mechanisms of diabetic nephropathy (DN) progression and provide the theoretical basis for treating DN, GSE1009 microarray data were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. Microarray data were obtained from glomeruli isolated from normal kidneys (n=3) and kidneys from patients with DN (n=3). We first screened the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in kidneys by the Linear Models for Microarray Data package in R. Then the function of DEGs in DN was explored through Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses. Critical DEGs for DN progression were investigated by constructing PPI network and mining significant modules. Afterwards, enriched protein domains of modules were analyzed by Interpro and DAVID. At last, the regulatory miRNAs for DEGs were calculated by WebGestalt, and DEGs-miRNAs network was visualized with Cytoscape. A total of 666 DEGs including 384 up- and 282 down-regulated genes were screened out. The up-regulated DEGs were significantly enriched in plasma membrane and signal transmission, and mainly participated in pathways of cytokine-cytokine receptor and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction. The down-regulated DEGs significantly enriched in extracellular region and cytoskeletal protein binding, and mainly participated in ECM-receptor interaction and dilated cardiomyopathy. 2 PPI networks were constructed with confidence score>0.4. One significant module obtained from PPI network for up-regulated DEGs mainly enriched in protein domain of rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors. The down-regulated DEGs were mainly regulated by 10 miRNAs clusters. Together, we constructed a comprehensive molecular network for DN progression and miR-1 and miR-25 might be theoretical targets for DN. PMID:25918880
Zangar, Richard C.; Varnum, Susan M.; Bollinger, Nikki
Protein microarrays are a rapidly developing analytic tool with diverse applications in biomedical research. These applications include profiling of disease markers or autoimmune responses, understanding molecular pathways, protein modifications and protein activities. One factor that is driving this expanding usage is the wide variety of experimental formats that protein microarrays can take. In this review, we provide a short, conceptual overview of the different approaches for protein microarray. We then examine some of the most significant applications of these microarrays to date, with an emphasis on how global protein analyses can be used to facilitate biomedical research.
Seidel, Michael; Niessner, Reinhard
Multi-analyte immunoassays on microarrays and on multiplex DNA microarrays have been described for quantitative analysis of small organic molecules (e.g., antibiotics, drugs of abuse, small molecule toxins), proteins (e.g., antibodies or protein toxins), and microorganisms, viruses, and eukaryotic cells. In analytical chemistry, multi-analyte detection by use of analytical microarrays has become an innovative research topic because of the possibility of generating several sets of quantitative data for different analyte classes in a short time. Chemiluminescence (CL) microarrays are powerful tools for rapid multiplex analysis of complex matrices. A wide range of applications for CL microarrays is described in the literature dealing with analytical microarrays. The motivation for this review is to summarize the current state of CL-based analytical microarrays. Combining analysis of different compound classes on CL microarrays reduces analysis time, cost of reagents, and use of laboratory space. Applications are discussed, with examples from food safety, water safety, environmental monitoring, diagnostics, forensics, toxicology, and biosecurity. The potential and limitations of research on multiplex analysis by use of CL microarrays are discussed in this review. PMID:25002333
Gehrau, Ricardo C.; Archer, Kellie J.
Background Early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) detection is difficult because low accuracy of surveillance tests. Genome-wide analyses were performed using HCV-cirrhosis with HCC to identify predictive signatures. Methodology/Principal Findings Cirrhotic liver tissue was collected from 107 HCV-infected patients with diagnosis of HCC at pre-transplantation and confirmed in explanted livers. Study groups included: 1) microarray hybridization set (n?=?80) including patients without (woHCC?=?45) and with (wHCC?=?24) HCC, and with incidental HCC (iHCC?=?11); 2) independent validation set (n?=?27; woHCC?=?16, wHCC?=?11). Pairwise comparisons were performed using moderated t-test. FDR<1% was considered significant. L1-penalized logistic regression model was fit for woHCC and wHCC microarrays, and tested against iHCC. Prediction model genes were validated in independent set by qPCR. The genomic profile was associated with genetic disorders and cancer focused on gene expression, cell cycle and cell death. Molecular profile analysis revealed cell cycle progression and arrest at G2/M, but progressing to mitosis; unregulated DNA damage check-points, and apoptosis. The prediction model included 17 molecules demonstrated 98.6% of accuracy and correctly classified 6 out of 11 undiagnosed iHCC cases. The best model performed even better in the additional independent set. Conclusions/Significances The molecular analysis of HCV-cirrhotic tissue conducted to a prediction model with good performance and high potential for HCC surveillance. PMID:22792259
Kyeong Eun Yang; Joseph Kwon; Ji-Heon Rhim; Jong Soon Choi; Seung Il Kim; Seung-Hoon Lee; Ik-Soon Jang
The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides an essential structural framework for cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation,\\u000a and undergoes progressive changes during senescence. To investigate changes in protein expression in the extracellular matrix\\u000a between young and senescent fibroblasts, we compared proteomic data (LTQ-FT) with cDNA microarray results. The peptide counts\\u000a from the proteomics analysis were used to evaluate the level of ECM
Ni, Terri T; Lemon, William J; Shyr, Yu; Zhong, Tao P
Background High-throughput microarrays are widely used to study gene expression across tissues and developmental stages. Analysis of gene expression data is challenging in these experiments due to the presence of significant percentages of differentially expressed genes (DEG) observed between tissues and developmental stages. Data normalization methods that are widely used today are not designed for data with a large proportion of tissue or gene effects. Results In our current study, we describe a novel two-dimensional nonparametric normalization method for analyzing microarray data which functions well in the absence or presence of large numbers of gene effects. Rather than relying on an assumption of low variability among most genes, the method implements a unique peak selection strategy to distinguish DEG from genes that are invariant in expression, prior to nonlinear curve fitting. We compared the method under simulated and experimental conditions with five alternative nonlinear normalization approaches: quantile, lowess, robust lowess, invariant set, and cross-correlation (Xcorr). Simulations included various percentages of simulated DEG and the experimental data used is from publicly available datasets known to be difficult to analyze due to the presence of approximately 34% DEG. Conclusion We have demonstrated that the new method provides considerable improvement in the accuracy of data normalization when large proportions of gene effects are present. The performance improvement is mostly attributed to its variable selection component, which is designed to separate expression invariant genes from DEG. Adding this key component of the new method to alternative normalization approaches rescues the most of the sensitivity of these methods to gene effects. The results indicate that our method may be used without prior knowledge of or assumptions about housekeeping genes to normalize microarrays that are quite different. PMID:19040742
DNA microarray is an ordered grid containing known sequences of DNA, which represent many of the genes in a particular organism. Each DNA sequence is unique to a specific gene. This technology enables the researcher to screen many genes from cells or tissue grown in different conditions. We developed an undergraduate lecture and laboratory…
Using a NSF45K-gene-microarray, we performed expression-profiling experiments on 2-week-old light- and dark-grown rice leaf tissue to identify mutants of light-responsive genes. We identified 356 genes that were at least 8-fold light induced genes at FDR of 1.00E-06. Then, we screened rice T-DNA i...
Zhen-Yu Qi; Yao Li; Kang Ying; Chao-Qun Wu; Rong Tang; Zong-Xiang Zhou; Zhong-Ping Chen; Guo-Zhen Hui; Yi Xie
Identification of the genes that are differentially expressed between brain tumor and normal brain tissues is important for understanding the molecular basis of these nerve system tumors and for defining possible targets for therapeutic intervention. This investigation is intended to obtain differentially expressed genes related to human glioma using cDNA microarray. Total RNA was extracted from human glioma specimens and
Robert Langer; Joseph P. Vacanti
The loss or failure of an organ or tissue is one of the most frequent, devastating, and costly problems in human health care. A new field, tissue engineering, applies the principles of biology and engineering to the development of functional substitutes for damaged tissue. This article discusses the foundations and challenges of this interdisciplinary field and its attempts to provide
Somnath Datta; Susmita Datta
In recent microarray experiments thousands of gene expressions are simultaneously tested in comparing samples (e.g., tissue types or experimental conditions). Application of a statistical test, such as the t-test, would lead to a p-value for each gene that reflects the amount of statistical evidence present in the data that the given gene is indeed differentially expressed. We show how to
Junshi YAZAKI; Naoki KISHIMOTO; Keiko NAKAMURA; Fumiko FUJII; Kanako SHIMBO; Yoshimi OTSUKA; Jianzhong Wu; Kimiko YAMAMOTO; Katsumi SAKATA; Takuji SASAKI
tion of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was generated from large-scale cDNA sequencing using cDNA libraries derived from rice callus cultured in different media and tissues such as root, shoot, leaf and panicle.4 This in- cluded more than 9000 partial cDNA sequences corre- sponding to unique genes have been identified. Based on the results of large-scale cDNA analysis, microarray can be
Vaquerizas, Juan M.; Conde, Lucía; Yankilevich, Patricio; Cabezón, Amaya; Minguez, Pablo; Díaz-Uriarte, Ramón; Al-Shahrour, Fátima; Herrero, Javier; Dopazo, Joaquín
The Gene Expression Profile Analysis Suite, GEPAS, has been running for more than three years. With >76?000 experiments analysed during the last year and a daily average of almost 300 analyses, GEPAS can be considered a well-established and widely used platform for gene expression microarray data analysis. GEPAS is oriented to the analysis of whole series of experiments. Its design and development have been driven by the demands of the biomedical community, probably the most active collective in the field of microarray users. Although clustering methods have obviously been implemented in GEPAS, our interest has focused more on methods for finding genes differentially expressed among distinct classes of experiments or correlated to diverse clinical outcomes, as well as on building predictors. There is also a great interest in CGH-arrays which fostered the development of the corresponding tool in GEPAS: InSilicoCGH. Much effort has been invested in GEPAS for developing and implementing efficient methods for functional annotation of experiments in the proper statistical framework. Thus, the popular FatiGO has expanded to a suite of programs for functional annotation of experiments, including information on transcription factor binding sites, chromosomal location and tissues. The web-based pipeline for microarray gene expression data, GEPAS, is available at . PMID:15980548
Conway, Tyrrell; Schoolnik, Gary K
The bacterial transcriptome is a dynamic entity that reflects the organism's immediate, ongoing and genome-wide response to its environment. Microarray expression profiling provides a comprehensive portrait of the transcriptional world enabling us to view the organism as a 'system' that is more than the sum of its parts. The vigilance of microorganisms to environmental change, the alacrity of the transcriptional response, the short half-life of bacterial mRNA and the genome-scale nature of the investigation collectively explain the power of this method. These same features pose the most significant experimental design and execution issues which, unless surmounted, predictably generate a distorted image of the transcriptome. Conversely, the expression profile of a properly conceived and conducted microarray experiment can be used for hypothesis testing: disclosure of the metabolic and biosynthetic pathways that underlie adaptation of the organism to chang-ing conditions of growth; the identification of co-ordinately regulated genes; the regulatory circuits and signal transduction systems that mediate the adaptive response; and temporal features of developmental programmes. The study of bacterial pathogenesis by microarray expression profiling poses special challenges and opportunities. Although the technical hurdles are many, obtaining expression profiles of an organism growing in tissue will probably reveal strategies for growth and survival in the host's microenvironment. Identifying these colonization strategies and their cognate expression patterns involves a 'deconstruction' process that combines bioinformatics analysis and in vitro DNA array experimentation. PMID:12581346
Zhang, Chaoyang; Li, Peng; Rajendran, Arun; Deng, Youping; Chen, Dequan
Background Multicategory Support Vector Machines (MC-SVM) are powerful classification systems with excellent performance in a variety of data classification problems. Since the process of generating models in traditional multicategory support vector machines for large datasets is very computationally intensive, there is a need to improve the performance using high performance computing techniques. Results In this paper, Parallel Multicategory Support Vector Machines (PMC-SVM) have been developed based on the sequential minimum optimization-type decomposition method for support vector machines (SMO-SVM). It was implemented in parallel using MPI and C++ libraries and executed on both shared memory supercomputer and Linux cluster for multicategory classification of microarray data. PMC-SVM has been analyzed and evaluated using four microarray datasets with multiple diagnostic categories, such as different cancer types and normal tissue types. Conclusion The experiments show that the PMC-SVM can significantly improve the performance of classification of microarray data without loss of accuracy, compared with previous work. PMID:17217507
Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,
Students reflect on their experiences making silly putty (the previous hands-on activity in the unit), especially why changing the borax concentration alters the mechanical properties of silly putty and how this pertains to tissue mechanics. Students learn why engineers must understand tissue mechanics in order to design devices that will be implanted or used inside bodies, to study pathologies of tissues and how this alters tissue function, and to design prosthetics. Finally, students learn about collagen, elastin and proteoglycans and their roles in giving body tissues their unique functions. This prepares them for the culminating design-build-test activity of the unit.
Anthony A. Philippakis; Aaron M. Qureshi; Michael F. Berger; Martha L. Bulyk
Our group has recently developed a compact, universal protein binding microarray (PBM) that can be used to determine the binding preferences of transcription factors (TFs). This design represents all possible sequence variants of a given length k (i.e., all k-mers) on a single array, allowing a complete characterization of the binding specificities of a given TF. Here, we present the
White, Amanda M.; Daly, Don S.; Varnum, Susan M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Bollinger, Nikki; Zangar, Richard C.
Summary: ProMAT is a software tool for statistically analyzing data from ELISA microarray experiments. The software estimates standard curves, sample protein concentrations and their uncertainties for multiple assays. ProMAT generates a set of comprehensive figures for assessing results and diagnosing process quality. The tool is available for Windows or Mac, and is distributed as open-source Java and R code. Availability: ProMAT is available at http://www.pnl.gov/statistics/ProMAT. ProMAT requires Java version 1.5.0 and R version 1.9.1 (or more recent versions) which are distributed with the tool.
Boulesteix, A.-L.; Strobl, C.; Augustin, T.; Daumer, M.
For the last eight years, microarray-based class prediction has been the subject of numerous publications in medicine, bioinformatics and statistics journals. However, in many articles, the assessment of classification accuracy is carried out using suboptimal procedures and is not paid much attention. In this paper, we carefully review various statistical aspects of classifier evaluation and validation from a practical point of view. The main topics addressed are accuracy measures, error rate estimation procedures, variable selection, choice of classifiers and validation strategy. PMID:19259405
Camarero, J A
Many experimental approaches in biology and biophysics, as well as applications in diagnosis and drug discovery, require proteins to be immobilized on solid supports. Protein microarrays, for example, provide a high-throughput format to study biomolecular interactions. The technique employed for protein immobilization is a key to the success of these applications. Recent biochemical developments are allowing, for the first time, the selective and traceless immobilization of proteins generated by cell-free systems without the need for purification and/or reconcentration prior to the immobilization step.
Li, Shuzhao; Pozhitkov, Alexander; Brouwer, Marius
Understanding the difference in probe properties holds the key to absolute quantification of DNA microarrays. So far, Langmuir-like models have failed to link sequence-specific properties to hybridization signals in the presence of a complex hybridization background. Data from washing experiments indicate that the post-hybridization washing has no major effect on the specifically bound targets, which give the final signals. Thus, the amount of specific targets bound to probes is likely determined before washing, by the competition against nonspecific binding. Our competitive hybridization model is a viable alternative to Langmuir-like models.
Thomas, Asha; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Kannan, Sadhana; Deodhar, Kedar; Shrivastava, Shyam K; Kumar-Sinha, Chandan; Mulherkar, Rita
Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide, with developing countries accounting for >80% of the disease burden. Although in the West, active screening has been instrumental in reducing the incidence of cervical cancer, disease management is hampered due to lack of biomarkers for disease progression and defined therapeutic targets. Here we carried out gene expression profiling of 29 cervical cancer tissues from Indian women, spanning International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages of the disease from early lesion (IA and IIA) to progressive stages (IIB and IIIA–B), and identified distinct gene expression signatures. Overall, metabolic pathways, pathways in cancer and signaling pathways were found to be significantly upregulated, while focal adhesion, cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction and WNT signaling were downregulated. Additionally, we identified candidate biomarkers of disease progression such as SPP1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), STK17A, and DUSP1 among others that were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in the samples used for microarray studies as well in an independent set of 34 additional samples. Integrative analysis of our results with other cervical cancer profiling studies could facilitate the development of multiplex diagnostic markers of cervical cancer progression. PMID:24403257
Dresen, I M Gana; Hüsing, J; Kruse, E; Boes, T; Jöckel, K-H
Microarray technology enables researchers to investigate the expression of several thousand genes simultaneously. The whole transcriptional response of these genes in normal cells or tissue, in disease condition, as an response to biological, genetical or chemical stimuli or during normal biological processes such as cell cycle or embryonic development can be investigated. This leads to a huge amount of data, from which the relevant information has to be extracted by statistical and computational methods. Several software packages for the analysis of gene expression data are available, both commercially and freely. They differ particularly with regard to the implemented analytical methods, the graphical display and the manageability. In this paper the commercial software packages arraySCOUT, GeneSpring and Spotfire DecisionSite for Functional Genomics are compared and their applicability for analysis of gene expression data is studied. Small artificial and application test datasets are used to compare the computational results of the software packages. As far as possible results are verified with standard statistical software package SAS. PMID:14683435
Xiong, Huilin; Chen, Xue-wen
Background The most fundamental task using gene expression data in clinical oncology is to classify tissue samples according to their gene expression levels. Compared with traditional pattern classifications, gene expression-based data classification is typically characterized by high dimensionality and small sample size, which make the task quite challenging. Results In this paper, we present a modified K-nearest-neighbor (KNN) scheme, which is based on learning an adaptive distance metric in the data space, for cancer classification using microarray data. The distance metric, derived from the procedure of a data-dependent kernel optimization, can substantially increase the class separability of the data and, consequently, lead to a significant improvement in the performance of the KNN classifier. Intensive experiments show that the performance of the proposed kernel-based KNN scheme is competitive to those of some sophisticated classifiers such as support vector machines (SVMs) and the uncorrelated linear discriminant analysis (ULDA) in classifying the gene expression data. Conclusion A novel distance metric is developed and incorporated into the KNN scheme for cancer classification. This metric can substantially increase the class separability of the data in the feature space and, hence, lead to a significant improvement in the performance of the KNN classifier. PMID:16774678
Li, Yongping; Cai, Guohong; Yuan, Shifang; Jun, Yi; Li, Nanlin; Wang, Ling; Chen, Feng; Ling, Rui; Yun, Jun
Membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) has been demonstrated to play an important role in tumor progression. The aim of the present study was to analyze the expression of MT1-MMP in breast cancer and its correlation with clinicopathologic characteristics, including the survival of breast cancer patients. In our results, MT-MMP1 was up-expressed in breast cancer tissues compared with ductal hyperplasia tissues in microarray data (GSE2429). MT1-MMP mRNA and protein expression was markedly higher in breast cancer tissues than in normal breast tissues (P=0.005 and P=0.037, respectively). Using immunohistochemistry, high levels of MT1-MMP protein were positively correlated with the status of clinical stage (I-II vs. III-IV; P=0.043), lymph node metastasis (absence vs. presence; P=0.024), and distant metastasis (No vs. Yes; P=0.017) of breast cancer patients. Patients with higher MT1-MMP expression had a significantly shorter overall survival time than did patients with low MT1-MMP expression. Multivariate analysis indicated that the level of MT1-MMP expression was an independent prognostic indicator (P<0.001) for the survival of patients with breast cancer. In conclusions, MT1-MMP plays an important role on breast cancer aggressiveness and prognosis and may act as a promising target for prognostic prediction. PMID:25755834
Gopalappa, Chaitra; Das, Tapas K; Enkemann, Steven; Eschrich, Steven
Microarray technology for measuring gene expression values has created significant opportunities for advances in disease diagnosis and individualized treatment planning. However, the random noise introduced by the sample preparation, hybridization, and scanning stages of microarray processing creates significant inaccuracies in the gene expression levels, and hence presents a major barrier in realizing the anticipated advances. Literature presents several methodologies for noise reduction, which can be broadly categorized as: 1) model based approaches for estimation and removal of hybridization noise; 2) approaches using commonly available image denoising tools; and 3) approaches involving the need for control sample(s). In this paper, we present a novel methodology for identifying and removing hybridization and scanning noise from microarray images, using a dual-tree-complex-wavelet-transform-based multiresolution analysis coupled with bivariate shrinkage thresholding. The key features of our methodology include consideration of inherent features and type of noise specific to microarray images, and the ability to work with a single microarray without needing a control. Our methodology is first benchmarked on a fabricated dataset that mimics a real microarray probe dataset. Thereafter, our methodology is tested on datasets obtained from a number of Affymetrix GeneChip human genome HG-U133 Plus 2.0 arrays, processed on HCT-116 cell line at the Microarray Core Facility of Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute. The results indicate an appreciable improvement in the quality of the microarray data. PMID:20051337
Regis Peytavi; Frederic R. Raymond; Dominic Gagne; Francois J. Picard; Guangyao Jia; Jim Zoval; Marc Madou; Karel Boissinot; Maurice Boissinot; Luc Bissonnette; Marc Ouellette; Michel G. Bergeron
Background: Current hybridization protocols on mi- croarrays are slow and need skilled personnel. Microflu- idics is an emerging science that enables the processing of minute volumes of liquids to perform chemical, biochemical, or enzymatic analyzes. The merging of microfluidics and microarray technologies constitutes an elegant solution that will automate and speed up microarray hybridization. Methods: We developed a microfluidic flow
Stable Gene Selection from Microarray Data via Sample Weighting Lei Yu, Yue Han, and Michael E. Berens Abstract--Feature selection from gene expression microarray data is a widely used technique for selecting candidate genes in various cancer studies. Besides predictive ability of the selected genes
J. Fuchs; J.-B. Fiche; A. Buhot; R. Calemczuk; T. Livache
DNA microarrays find applications in an increasing number of domains where more quantitative results are required. DNA being a charged polymer, the repulsive interactions between the surface of the microarray and the targets in solution are increasing upon hybridization. Such electrostatic penalty is generally reduced by increasing the salt concentration. In this article, we present equilibrium-melting curves obtained from dedicated physicochemical
Furge, Laura Lowe; Winter, Michael B.; Meyers, Jacob I.; Furge, Kyle A.
Comprehensive measurement of gene expression using high-density nucleic acid arrays (i.e. microarrays) has become an important tool for investigating the molecular differences in clinical and research samples. Consequently, inclusion of discussion in biochemistry, molecular biology, or other appropriate courses of microarray technologies has…
Joseph L. Hackett; Lawrence J. Lesko; Raj K. Puri; Steven I. Gutman; Konstantin Chumakov; Janet Woodcock; David W. Feigal; Kathryn C. Zoon; Emanuel F. Petricoin; Frank D. Sistare
The potential medical applications of microarrays have generated much excitement, and some skepticism, within the biomedical community. Some researchers have suggested that within the decade microarrays will be routinely used in the selection, assessment, and quality control of the best drugs for pharmaceutical development, as well as for disease diagnosis and for monitoring desired and adverse outcomes of therapeutic interventions.
Wei Kong; Xiaoyang Mou; Qingzhong Liu; Zhongxue Chen; Charles R Vanderburg; Jack T Rogers; Xudong Huang
BACKGROUND: Gene microarray technology is an effective tool to investigate the simultaneous activity of multiple cellular pathways from hundreds to thousands of genes. However, because data in the colossal amounts generated by DNA microarray technology are usually complex, noisy, high-dimensional, and often hindered by low statistical power, their exploitation is difficult. To overcome these problems, two kinds of unsupervised analysis
Douglas R. Call; Monica K. Borucki; Frank J. Loge
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an important tool for pathogen detection, but historically, it has not been possible to accurately identify PCR products without sequencing, Southern blots, or dot-blots. Microarrays can be coupled with PCR where they serve as a set of parallel dot-blots to enhance product detection and identification. Microarrays are composed of many discretely located probes on a
Jesús Angulo; Jean Serra
Motivation: DNA microarrays are an experimental tech- nology which consists in arrays of thousands of discrete DNA sequences that are printed on glass microscope slides. Image analysis is an important aspect of microarray experiments. The aim of this step is to reduce an image of spots into a table with a measure of the intensity for each spot. Efficient, accurate
Nicole L. W van Hal; Oscar Vorst; Adèle M. M. L van Houwelingen; Esther J Kok; A. A. C. M. Peijnenburg; Asaph Aharoni; Arjen J van Tunen; Jaap Keijer
DNA microarray technology is a new and powerful technology that will substantially increase the speed of molecular biological research. This paper gives a survey of DNA microarray technology and its use in gene expression studies. The technical aspects and their potential improvements are discussed. These comprise array manufacturing and design, array hybridisation, scanning, and data handling. Furthermore, it is discussed
Sung-Bae Cho; Hong-Hee Won
The development of microarray technology has supplied a large volume of data to many fields. In particular, it has been applied to prediction and diagnosis of cancer, so that it expectedly helps us to exactly predict and diagnose cancer. To precisely classify cancer we have to select genes related to cancer because extracted genes from microarray have many noises. In
Sorin Draghici; Purvesh Khatri; Aron C. Eklund; Zoltan Szallasi
DNA microarrays enable researchers to monitor the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously. However, the current technology has several limitations. Here we discuss problems related to the sensitivity, accuracy, specificity and reproducibility of microarray results. The existing data suggest that for relatively abundant transcripts the existence and direction (but not the magnitude) of expression changes can be reliably detected. However,
Emmanouil Athanasiadis; Dimitris Glotsos; Antonis Daskalakis; Panagiotis Bougioukos; Pantelis Theocharakis; Panagiota Spyridonos; Kalatzis Ioannis; George Nikiforidis; Dionisis Cavouras
The objective of this work was to perform a comparative evaluation of five different wavelet-based filtering techniques in the task of microarray image denoising and enhancement. Clinical material comprised microarray images collected from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Image processing was performed in two stages: In the first stage an Exponential Histogram Equalization filter was applied in order to increase
Estimating Dataset Size Requirements for Classifying DNA Microarray Data S. Mukherjee*+#1 , P methodology for estimating dataset size requirements for classifying microarray data using learning curves is introduced. The goal is to use existing classification results to estimate dataset size requirements
Davis, Ben G.
Detailed insights from microarray and crystallographic studies into carbohydrate recognition of the parasite can be explained by carbohydrate microarray screening analyses that have demonstrated the ability of TgMIC1 to 2-3- and 2-6-linked sialyl carbohydrates. Interestingly, two novel synthetic fluorinated
DNA microarray technology is a powerful functional genomics tool increasingly used for investigating global gene expression in environmental studies. Microarrays can also be used in identifying biological networks, as they give insight on the complex gene-to-gene interactions, ne...
Latha Ramdas; Kevin R Coombes; Keith Baggerly; Lynne Abruzzo; W Edward Highsmith; Tammy Krogmann; Wei Zhang
BACKGROUND: A key assumption in the analysis of microarray data is that the quantified signal intensities are linearly related to the expression levels of the corresponding genes. To test this assumption, we experimentally examined the relationship between signal and expression for the two types of microarrays we most commonly encounter: radioactively labeled cDNAs on nylon membranes and fluorescently labeled cDNAs
Xujing Wang; Soumitra Ghosh; Sun-Wei Guo
A new integrated image analysis package with quanti- tative quality control schemes is described for cDNA microarray technology. The package employs an itera- tive algorithm that utilizes both intensity characteristics and spatial information of the spots on a microarray image for signal-background segmentation and defines five quality scores for each spot to record irreg- ularities in spot intensity, size and
Patricia L. Dolan; Yang Wu; Linnea K. Ista; Robert L. Metzenberg; Mary Anne Nelson; Gabriel P. Lopez
The field of DNA microarray technology has necessi- tated the cooperative efforts of interdisciplinary scientific teams to achieve its primary goal of rapidly measuring global gene expression patterns. A collaborative effort was established to produce a chemically reactive surface on glass slide substrates to which unmodified DNA will covalently bind for improvement of cDNA microarray technology. Using the p-aminophenyl trimethoxysilane
P. Hegde; R. Qi; K. Abernathy; C. Gay; S. Dharap; R. Gaspard
Microarray expression analysis has become one of the most widely used functional genomics tools. Efficient application of this technique requires the development of robust and reproducible protocols. We have optimized all aspects of the process, including PCR amplification of target cDNA clones, microarray printing, probe labeling, and hybridization, and we have developed strategies for data normalization and analysis.
Microarrays have been developed for the study of various aspects of Salmonella, which is a model system for investigating pathogenesis. Microarrays were used to analyze the gene expression of Salmonella in various environments that mimic the host environment and these studies have helped to elucidat...
Chaussabel, Damien; Sher, Alan
Background The rapidly expanding fields of genomics and proteomics have prompted the development of computational methods for managing, analyzing and visualizing expression data derived from microarray screening. Nevertheless, the lack of efficient techniques for assessing the biological implications of gene-expression data remains an important obstacle in exploiting this information. Results To address this need, we have developed a mining technique based on the analysis of literature profiles generated by extracting the frequencies of certain terms from thousands of abstracts stored in the Medline literature database. Terms are then filtered on the basis of both repetitive occurrence and co-occurrence among multiple gene entries. Finally, clustering analysis is performed on the retained frequency values, shaping a coherent picture of the functional relationship among large and heterogeneous lists of genes. Such data treatment also provides information on the nature and pertinence of the associations that were formed. Conclusions The analysis of patterns of term occurrence in abstracts constitutes a means of exploring the biological significance of large and heterogeneous lists of genes. This approach should contribute to optimizing the exploitation of microarray technologies by providing investigators with an interface between complex expression data and large literature resources. PMID:12372143
Kroll, K. M.; Barkema, G. T.; Carlon, E.
DNA microarrays are devices that are able, in principle, to detect and quantify the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences in complex biological mixtures. The measurement consists in detecting fluorescence signals from several spots on the microarray surface onto which different probe sequences are grafted. One of the problems of the data analysis is that the signal contains a noisy background component due to nonspecific binding. We present a physical model for background estimation in Affymetrix Genechips. It combines two different approaches. The first is based on the sequence composition, specifically its sequence-dependent hybridization affinity. The second is based on the strong correlation of intensities from locations which are the physical neighbors of a specific spot on the chip. Both effects are incorporated in a background estimator which contains 24 free parameters, fixed by minimization on a training data set. In all data analyzed the sequence-specific parameters, obtained by minimization, are found to strongly correlate with empirically determined stacking free energies for RNA-DNA hybridization in solution. Moreover, there is an overall agreement with experimental background data and we show that the physics-based model that we propose performs on average better than purely statistical approaches for background calculations. The model thus provides an interesting alternative method for background subtraction schemes in Affymetrix Genechips.
Toglia, Patrick; Lewis, Jason; Lafalce, Evan; Jiang, Xiaomei
We have fabricated inverted organic microarray using a novel solution-based technique. The array consists of 60 small (1 square mm) solar cells on a one inch by one inch glass substrate. The device utilizes photoactive materials such as a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Manipulation of active layer nanomorphology has been done by choice of solvents and annealing conditions. Detailed analysis of device physics including current voltage characteristics, external quantum efficiency and carrier recombinations will be presented and complimented by AFM images and glazing angle XRD of the active layer under different processing conditions. The procedure described here has the full potential for use in future fabrication of microarrays with single cell as small as 0.01 square mm for application in DC power supplies for electrostatic Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices. This work was supported by New Energy Technology Inc. and Florida High Tech Corridor Matching Fund (FHT 09-18).
ROY, SASHWATI; SEN, CHANDAN K
The cDNA microarray technology and related bioinformatics tools presents a wide range of novel application opportunities. The technology may be productively applied to address food safety. In this mini-review article, we present an update highlighting the late breaking discoveries that demonstrate the vitality of cDNA microarray technology as a tool to analyze food safety with reference to microbial pathogens and genetically modified foods. In order to bring the microarray technology to mainstream food safety, it is important to develop robust user-friendly tools that may be applied in a field setting. In addition, there needs to be a standardized process for regulatory agencies to interpret and act upon microarray-based data. The cDNA microarray approach is an emergent technology in diagnostics. Its values lie in being able to provide complimentary molecular insight when employed in addition to traditional tests for food safety, as part of a more comprehensive battery of tests. PMID:16466843
Khaoustov, V. I.; Risin, D.; Pellis, N. R.; Yoffe, B.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)
Developed at NASA, the rotary cell culture system (RCCS) allows the creation of unique microgravity environment of low shear force, high-mass transfer, and enables three-dimensional (3D) cell culture of dissimilar cell types. Recently we demonstrated that a simulated microgravity is conducive for maintaining long-term cultures of functional hepatocytes and promote 3D cell assembly. Using deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) microarray technology, it is now possible to measure the levels of thousands of different messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs) in a single hybridization step. This technique is particularly powerful for comparing gene expression in the same tissue under different environmental conditions. The aim of this research was to analyze gene expression of hepatoblastoma cell line (HepG2) during early stage of 3D-cell assembly in simulated microgravity. For this, mRNA from HepG2 cultured in the RCCS was analyzed by deoxyribonucleic acid microarray. Analyses of HepG2 mRNA by using 6K glass DNA microarray revealed changes in expression of 95 genes (overexpression of 85 genes and downregulation of 10 genes). Our preliminary results indicated that simulated microgravity modifies the expression of several genes and that microarray technology may provide new understanding of the fundamental biological questions of how gravity affects the development and function of individual cells.
Hengyun Sun; Wei Liu; Guangdong Zhou; Wenjie Zhang; Lei Cui; Yilin Cao
Tissue engineering aims to produce a functional tissue replacement to repair defects. Tissue reconstruction is an essential\\u000a step toward the clinical application of engineered tissues. Significant progress has recently been achieved in this field.\\u000a In our laboratory, we focus on construction of cartilage, tendon and bone. The purpose of this review was to summarize the\\u000a advances in the engineering of
Tagmount, Abderrahmane; Wang, Mei; Lindquist, Erika; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Teranishi, Kristen S.; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Wong, Mike; Stillman, Jonathon H.
Background With the emergence of a completed genome sequence of the freshwater crustacean Daphnia pulex, construction of genomic-scale sequence databases for additional crustacean sequences are important for comparative genomics and annotation. Porcelain crabs, genus Petrolisthes, have been powerful crustacean models for environmental and evolutionary physiology with respect to thermal adaptation and understanding responses of marine organisms to climate change. Here, we present a large-scale EST sequencing and cDNA microarray database project for the porcelain crab Petrolisthes cinctipes. Methodology/Principal Findings A set of ?30K unique sequences (UniSeqs) representing ?19K clusters were generated from ?98K high quality ESTs from a set of tissue specific non-normalized and mixed-tissue normalized cDNA libraries from the porcelain crab Petrolisthes cinctipes. Homology for each UniSeq was assessed using BLAST, InterProScan, GO and KEGG database searches. Approximately 66% of the UniSeqs had homology in at least one of the databases. All EST and UniSeq sequences along with annotation results and coordinated cDNA microarray datasets have been made publicly accessible at the Porcelain Crab Array Database (PCAD), a feature-enriched version of the Stanford and Longhorn Array Databases. Conclusions/Significance The EST project presented here represents the third largest sequencing effort for any crustacean, and the largest effort for any crab species. Our assembly and clustering results suggest that our porcelain crab EST data set is equally diverse to the much larger EST set generated in the Daphnia pulex genome sequencing project, and thus will be an important resource to the Daphnia research community. Our homology results support the pancrustacea hypothesis and suggest that Malacostraca may be ancestral to Branchiopoda and Hexapoda. Our results also suggest that our cDNA microarrays cover as much of the transcriptome as can reasonably be captured in EST library sequencing approaches, and thus represent a rich resource for studies of environmental genomics. PMID:20174471
Tagmount, Abderrahmane; Wang, Mei; Lindquist, Erika; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Teranishi, Kristen S.; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Wong, Mike; Stillman, Jonathon H.
Background: With the emergence of a completed genome sequence of the freshwater crustacean Daphnia pulex, construction of genomic-scale sequence databases for additional crustacean sequences are important for comparative genomics and annotation. Porcelain crabs, genus Petrolisthes, have been powerful crustacean models for environmental and evolutionary physiology with respect to thermal adaptation and understanding responses of marine organisms to climate change. Here, we present a large-scale EST sequencing and cDNA microarray database project for the porcelain crab Petrolisthes cinctipes. Methodology/Principal Findings: A set of ~;;30K unique sequences (UniSeqs) representing ~;;19K clusters were generated from ~;;98K high quality ESTs from a set of tissue specific non-normalized and mixed-tissue normalized cDNA libraries from the porcelain crab Petrolisthes cinctipes. Homology for each UniSeq was assessed using BLAST, InterProScan, GO and KEGG database searches. Approximately 66percent of the UniSeqs had homology in at least one of the databases. All EST and UniSeq sequences along with annotation results and coordinated cDNA microarray datasets have been made publicly accessible at the Porcelain Crab Array Database (PCAD), a feature-enriched version of the Stanford and Longhorn Array Databases.Conclusions/Significance: The EST project presented here represents the third largest sequencing effort for any crustacean, and the largest effort for any crab species. Our assembly and clustering results suggest that our porcelain crab EST data set is equally diverse to the much larger EST set generated in the Daphnia pulex genome sequencing project, and thus will be an important resource to the Daphnia research community. Our homology results support the pancrustacea hypothesis and suggest that Malacostraca may be ancestral to Branchiopoda and Hexapoda. Our results also suggest that our cDNA microarrays cover as much of the transcriptome as can reasonably be captured in EST library sequencing approaches, and thus represent a rich resource for studies of environmental genomics.
Ferraz, André LJ; Ojeda, Ana; López-Béjar, Manel; Fernandes, Lana T; Castelló, Anna; Folch, Josep M; Pérez-Enciso, Miguel
Background Artificial selection has resulted in animal breeds with extreme phenotypes. As an organism is made up of many different tissues and organs, each with its own genetic programme, it is pertinent to ask: How relevant is tissue in terms of total transcriptome variability? Which are the genes most distinctly expressed between tissues? Does breed or sex equally affect the transcriptome across tissues? Results In order to gain insight on these issues, we conducted microarray expression profiling of 16 different tissues from four animals of two extreme pig breeds, Large White and Iberian, two males and two females. Mixed model analysis and neighbor – joining trees showed that tissues with similar developmental origin clustered closer than those with different embryonic origins. Often a sound biological interpretation was possible for overrepresented gene ontology categories within differentially expressed genes between groups of tissues. For instance, an excess of nervous system or muscle development genes were found among tissues of ectoderm or mesoderm origins, respectively. Tissue accounted for ~11 times more variability than sex or breed. Nevertheless, we were able to confidently identify genes with differential expression across tissues between breeds (33 genes) and between sexes (19 genes). The genes primarily affected by sex were overall different than those affected by breed or tissue. Interaction with tissue can be important for differentially expressed genes between breeds but not so much for genes whose expression differ between sexes. Conclusion Embryonic development leaves an enduring footprint on the transcriptome. The interaction in gene × tissue for differentially expressed genes between breeds suggests that animal breeding has targeted differentially each tissue's transcriptome. PMID:18416811
Tatsuya Shimizu; Masayuki Yamato; Akihiko Kikuchi; Teruo Okano
Recent progress in stem cell biology has shown the possibility of implantable human myocardial cell sources. It has encouraged\\u000a myocardial tissue engineering for rescuing damaged hearts. The present strategy is to repair not all of the myocardial tissue,\\u000a but part of it. There are two approaches. The first is direct injection of dissociated cell suspensions via the pericardium,\\u000a coronary arteries,
Perumal, Venkatesan; Mahalingam, Vasantha
Heart failure (HF) is the major of cause of mortality and morbidity in the developed world. Gene expression profiles of animal model of heart failure have been used in number of studies to understand human cardiac disease. In this study, statistical methods of analysing microarray data on cardiac tissues from dogs with pacing induced HF were used to identify differentially expressed genes between normal and two abnormal tissues. The unsupervised techniques principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis were explored to distinguish between three different groups of 12 arrays and to separate the genes which are up regulated in different conditions among 23912 genes in heart failure canines' microarray data. It was found that out of 23912 genes, 1802 genes were differentially expressed in the three groups at 5% level of significance and 496 genes were differentially expressed at 1% level of significance using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The genes clustered using PCA and clustering analysis were explored in the paper to understand HF and a small number of differentially expressed genes related to HF were identified. PMID:24023417
Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza; Nikkhah, Mehdi; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.; Hashmi, Basma; Guermani, Enrico; Aliabadi, Hamed; Camci-Unal, Gulden; Ferrante, Thomas; Foss, Morten; Ingber, Donald E.; Khademhosseini, Ali
Development of three dimensional (3D) microenvironments that direct stem cell differentiation into functional cell types remains a major challenge in the field of regenerative medicine. Here, we describe a new platform to address this challenge by utilizing a robotic microarray spotter for testing stem cell fates inside various miniaturized cell-laden gels in a systematic manner. To demonstrate the feasibility of our platform, we evaluated the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) within combinatorial 3D niches. We were able to identify specific combinations, that enhanced the expression of osteogenic markers. Notably, these ‘hit' combinations directed hMSCs to form mineralized tissue when conditions were translated to 3D macroscale hydrogels, indicating that the miniaturization of the experimental system did not alter stem cell fate. Overall, our findings confirmed that the 3D cell-laden gel microarray can be used for screening of different conditions in a rapid, cost-effective, and multiplexed manner for a broad range of tissue engineering applications. PMID:24473466
Tissue samples, also called biospecimens, are tissue and fluid samples taken from the human body that can be used for research. Biospecimens from cancer patients are critical to cancer research because they contain an extraordinary amount of biological information, written in the language of cells. Genes and proteins in biospecimens can identify the biological characteristics of cancer cells.
Zhang, XiaoTian; Ni, ZhaoHui; Duan, ZiPeng; Xin, ZhuoYuan; Wang, HuaiDong; Tan, JiaYi; Wang, GuoQing; Li, Fan
Gene expression is regulated at the transcription and translation levels; thus, both transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNA) play roles in regulation of gene expression. This study profiled differentially expressed mRNAs and miRNAs in gastric cancer tissues to construct a TF and miRNA co-regulatory network in order to identify altered genes in gastric cancer progression. A total of 70 cases gastric cancer and paired adjacent normal tissues were subjected to cDNA and miRNA microarray analyses. We obtained 887 up-regulated and 93 down-regulated genes and 41 down-regulated and 4 up-regulated miRNAs in gastric cancer tissues. Using the Transcriptional Regulatory Element Database, we obtained 105 genes that are regulated by the E2F family of genes and using Targetscan, miRanda, miRDB and miRWalk tools, we predicted potential targeting genes of these 45 miRNAs. We then built up the E2F-related TF and miRNA co-regulatory gene network and identified 9 hub-genes. Furthermore, we found that levels of E2F1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 mRNAs associated with gastric cancer cell invasion capacity, and has associated with tumor differentiation. These data showed Overexpression of E2F mRNAs associated with gastric cancer progression. PMID:25646628
Background Gene expression microarray data have been organized and made available as public databases, but the utilization of such highly heterogeneous reference datasets in the interpretation of data from individual test samples is not as developed as e.g. in the field of nucleotide sequence comparisons. We have created a rapid and powerful approach for the alignment of microarray gene expression profiles (AGEP) from test samples with those contained in a large annotated public reference database and demonstrate here how this can facilitate interpretation of microarray data from individual samples. Methods AGEP is based on the calculation of kernel density distributions for the levels of expression of each gene in each reference tissue type and provides a quantitation of the similarity between the test sample and the reference tissue types as well as the identity of the typical and atypical genes in each comparison. As a reference database, we used 1654 samples from 44 normal tissues (extracted from the Genesapiens database). Results Using leave-one-out validation, AGEP correctly defined the tissue of origin for 1521 (93.6%) of all the 1654 samples in the original database. Independent validation of 195 external normal tissue samples resulted in 87% accuracy for the exact tissue type and 97% accuracy with related tissue types. AGEP analysis of 10 Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) samples provided quantitative description of the key pathogenetic events, such as the extent of inflammation, in individual samples and pinpointed tissue-specific genes whose expression changed (SAMD4A) in DMD. AGEP analysis of microarray data from adipocytic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and from normal myeloid cell types and leukemias provided quantitative characterization of the transcriptomic changes during normal and abnormal cell differentiation. Conclusions The AGEP method is a widely applicable method for the rapid comprehensive interpretation of microarray data, as proven here by the definition of tissue- and disease-specific changes in gene expression as well as during cellular differentiation. The capability to quantitatively compare data from individual samples against a large-scale annotated reference database represents a widely applicable paradigm for the analysis of all types of high-throughput data. AGEP enables systematic and quantitative comparison of gene expression data from test samples against a comprehensive collection of different cell/tissue types previously studied by the entire research community. PMID:21453538
Uhlén, Mathias; Fagerberg, Linn; Hallström, Björn M; Lindskog, Cecilia; Oksvold, Per; Mardinoglu, Adil; Sivertsson, Åsa; Kampf, Caroline; Sjöstedt, Evelina; Asplund, Anna; Olsson, IngMarie; Edlund, Karolina; Lundberg, Emma; Navani, Sanjay; Szigyarto, Cristina Al-Khalili; Odeberg, Jacob; Djureinovic, Dijana; Takanen, Jenny Ottosson; Hober, Sophia; Alm, Tove; Edqvist, Per-Henrik; Berling, Holger; Tegel, Hanna; Mulder, Jan; Rockberg, Johan; Nilsson, Peter; Schwenk, Jochen M; Hamsten, Marica; von Feilitzen, Kalle; Forsberg, Mattias; Persson, Lukas; Johansson, Fredric; Zwahlen, Martin; von Heijne, Gunnar; Nielsen, Jens; Pontén, Fredrik
Resolving the molecular details of proteome variation in the different tissues and organs of the human body will greatly increase our knowledge of human biology and disease. Here, we present a map of the human tissue proteome based on an integrated omics approach that involves quantitative transcriptomics at the tissue and organ level, combined with tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry, to achieve spatial localization of proteins down to the single-cell level. Our tissue-based analysis detected more than 90% of the putative protein-coding genes. We used this approach to explore the human secretome, the membrane proteome, the druggable proteome, the cancer proteome, and the metabolic functions in 32 different tissues and organs. All the data are integrated in an interactive Web-based database that allows exploration of individual proteins, as well as navigation of global expression patterns, in all major tissues and organs in the human body. PMID:25613900
DNA microarrays have emerged as a viable platform for detection of pathogenic organisms in clinical and environmental samples. These microbial detection arrays occupy a middle ground between low cost, narrowly focused assays such as multiplex PCR and more expensive, broad-spectrum technologies like high-throughput sequencing. While pathogen detection arrays have been used primarily in a research context, several groups are aggressively working to develop arrays for clinical diagnostics, food safety testing, environmental monitoring and biodefense. Statistical algorithms that can analyze data from microbial detection arrays and provide easily interpretable results are absolutely required in order for these efforts to succeed. In this article, we will review the most promising array designs and analysis algorithms that have been developed to date, comparing their strengths and weaknesses for pathogen detection and discovery. PMID:21930658
Caminade, Anne-Marie; Padié, Clément; Laurent, Régis; Maraval, Alexandrine; Majoral, Jean-Pierre
Biosensors such as DNA microarrays and microchips are gaining an increasing importance in medicinal, forensic, and environmental analyses. Such devices are based on the detection of supramolecular interactions called hybridizations that occur between complementary oligonucleotides, one linked to a solid surface (the probe), and the other one to be analyzed (the target). This paper focuses on the improvements that hyperbranched and perfectly defined nanomolecules called dendrimers can provide to this methodology. Two main uses of dendrimers for such purpose have been described up to now; either the dendrimer is used as linker between the solid surface and the probe oligonucleotide, or the dendrimer is used as a multilabeled entity linked to the target oligonucleotide. In the first case the dendrimer generally induces a higher loading of probes and an easier hybridization, due to moving away the solid phase. In the second case the high number of localized labels (generally fluorescent) induces an increased sensitivity, allowing the detection of small quantities of biological entities.
Jaenisch, Holger; Handley, James; Williams, Deborah
We implement a Spatial Voting (SV) based analogy of microarray analysis for digital gene marker identification in malware code sections. We examine a famous set of malware formally analyzed by Mandiant and code named Advanced Persistent Threat (APT1). APT1 is a Chinese organization formed with specific intent to infiltrate and exploit US resources. Manidant provided a detailed behavior and sting analysis report for the 288 malware samples available. We performed an independent analysis using a new alternative to the traditional dynamic analysis and static analysis we call Spatial Analysis (SA). We perform unsupervised SA on the APT1 originating malware code sections and report our findings. We also show the results of SA performed on some members of the families associated by Manidant. We conclude that SV based SA is a practical fast alternative to dynamics analysis and static analysis.
Kierzek, Ryszard; Turner, Douglas H.; Kierzek, Elzbieta
Oligonucleotide microarrays are widely used in various biological studies. In this review, application of oligonucleotide microarrays for identifying binding sites and probing structure of RNAs is described. Deep sequencing allows fast determination of DNA and RNA sequence. High-throughput methods for determination of secondary structures of RNAs have also been developed. Those methods, however, do not reveal binding sites for oligonucleotides. In contrast, microarrays directly determine binding sites while also providing structural insights. Microarray mapping can be used over a wide range of experimental conditions, including temperature, pH, various cations at different concentrations and the presence of other molecules. Moreover, it is possible to make universal microarrays suitable for investigations of many different RNAs, and readout of results is rapid. Thus, microarrays are used to provide insight into oligonucleotide sequences potentially able to interfere with biological function. Better understanding of structure–function relationships of RNA can be facilitated by using microarrays to find RNA regions capable to bind oligonucleotides. That information is extremely important to design optimal sequences for antisense oligonucleotides and siRNA because both bind to single-stranded regions of target RNAs. PMID:25505162
Kierzek, Ryszard; Turner, Douglas H; Kierzek, Elzbieta
Oligonucleotide microarrays are widely used in various biological studies. In this review, application of oligonucleotide microarrays for identifying binding sites and probing structure of RNAs is described. Deep sequencing allows fast determination of DNA and RNA sequence. High-throughput methods for determination of secondary structures of RNAs have also been developed. Those methods, however, do not reveal binding sites for oligonucleotides. In contrast, microarrays directly determine binding sites while also providing structural insights. Microarray mapping can be used over a wide range of experimental conditions, including temperature, pH, various cations at different concentrations and the presence of other molecules. Moreover, it is possible to make universal microarrays suitable for investigations of many different RNAs, and readout of results is rapid. Thus, microarrays are used to provide insight into oligonucleotide sequences potentially able to interfere with biological function. Better understanding of structure-function relationships of RNA can be facilitated by using microarrays to find RNA regions capable to bind oligonucleotides. That information is extremely important to design optimal sequences for antisense oligonucleotides and siRNA because both bind to single-stranded regions of target RNAs. PMID:25505162
Sivakumar, Ponnurengam Malliappan; Moritsugu, Nozomi; Obuse, Sei; Isoshima, Takashi; Tashiro, Hideo; Ito, Yoshihiro
We developed an automated diagnostic system for the detection of virus-specific immunoglobulin Gs (IgGs) that was based on a microarray platform. We compared efficacies of our automated system with conventional enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). Viruses were immobilized to microarrays using a radical cross-linking reaction that was induced by photo-irradiation. A new photoreactive polymer containing perfluorophenyl azide (PFPA) and poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate was prepared and coated on plates. Inactivated measles, rubella, mumps, Varicella-Zoster and recombinant Epstein-Barr viruse antigen were added to coated plates, and irradiated with ultraviolet light to facilitate immobilization. Virus-specific IgGs in healthy human sera were assayed using these prepared microarrays and the results obtained compared with those from conventional EIAs. We observed high correlation (0.79-0.96) in the results between the automated microarray technique and EIAs. The microarray-based assay was more rapid, involved less reagents and sample, and was easier to conduct compared with conventional EIA techniques. The automated microarray system was further improved by introducing reagent storage reservoirs inside the chamber, thereby conserving the use of expensive reagents and antibodies. We considered the microarray format to be suitable for rapid and multiple serological diagnoses of viral diseases that could be developed further for clinical applications. PMID:24367491
Sivakumar, Ponnurengam Malliappan; Moritsugu, Nozomi; Obuse, Sei; Isoshima, Takashi; Tashiro, Hideo; Ito, Yoshihiro
We developed an automated diagnostic system for the detection of virus-specific immunoglobulin Gs (IgGs) that was based on a microarray platform. We compared efficacies of our automated system with conventional enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). Viruses were immobilized to microarrays using a radical cross-linking reaction that was induced by photo-irradiation. A new photoreactive polymer containing perfluorophenyl azide (PFPA) and poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate was prepared and coated on plates. Inactivated measles, rubella, mumps, Varicella-Zoster and recombinant Epstein-Barr viruse antigen were added to coated plates, and irradiated with ultraviolet light to facilitate immobilization. Virus-specific IgGs in healthy human sera were assayed using these prepared microarrays and the results obtained compared with those from conventional EIAs. We observed high correlation (0.79–0.96) in the results between the automated microarray technique and EIAs. The microarray-based assay was more rapid, involved less reagents and sample, and was easier to conduct compared with conventional EIA techniques. The automated microarray system was further improved by introducing reagent storage reservoirs inside the chamber, thereby conserving the use of expensive reagents and antibodies. We considered the microarray format to be suitable for rapid and multiple serological diagnoses of viral diseases that could be developed further for clinical applications. PMID:24367491
Chaudhry, M Ahmad
In cell populations exposed to ionizing radiation, the biological effects occur in a much larger proportion of cells than are estimated to be traversed by radiation. It has been suggested that irradiated cells are capable of providing signals to the neighboring unirradiated cells resulting in damage to these cells. This phenomenon is termed the bystander effect. The bystander effect induces persistent, long-term, transmissible changes that result in delayed death and neoplastic transformation. Because the bystander effect is relevant to carcinogenesis, it could have significant implications for risk estimation for radiation exposure. The nature of the bystander effect signal and how it impacts the unirradiated cells remains to be elucidated. Examination of the changes in gene expression could provide clues to understanding the bystander effect and could define the signaling pathways involved in sustaining damage to these cells. The microarray technology serves as a tool to gain insight into the molecular pathways leading to bystander effect. Using medium from irradiated normal human diploid lung fibroblasts as a model system we examined gene expression alterations in bystander cells. The microarray data revealed that the radiation-induced gene expression profile in irradiated cells is different from unirradiated bystander cells suggesting that the pathways leading to biological effects in the bystander cells are different from the directly irradiated cells. The genes known to be responsive to ionizing radiation were observed in irradiated cells. Several genes were upregulated in cells receiving media from irradiated cells. Surprisingly no genes were found to be downregulated in these cells. A number of genes belonging to extracellular signaling, growth factors and several receptors were identified in bystander cells. Interestingly 15 genes involved in the cell communication processes were found to be upregulated. The induction of receptors and the cell communication processes in bystander cells receiving media from irradiated cells supports the active involvement of these processes in inducing bystander effect. PMID:16414093
Shi, Leming; Tong, Weida; Fang, Hong; Scherf, Uwe; Han, Jing; Puri, Raj K; Frueh, Felix W; Goodsaid, Federico M; Guo, Lei; Su, Zhenqiang; Han, Tao; Fuscoe, James C; Xu, Z Alex; Patterson, Tucker A; Hong, Huixiao; Xie, Qian; Perkins, Roger G; Chen, James J; Casciano, Daniel A
Background The acceptance of microarray technology in regulatory decision-making is being challenged by the existence of various platforms and data analysis methods. A recent report (E. Marshall, Science, 306, 630–631, 2004), by extensively citing the study of Tan et al. (Nucleic Acids Res., 31, 5676–5684, 2003), portrays a disturbingly negative picture of the cross-platform comparability, and, hence, the reliability of microarray technology. Results We reanalyzed Tan's dataset and found that the intra-platform consistency was low, indicating a problem in experimental procedures from which the dataset was generated. Furthermore, by using three gene selection methods (i.e., p-value ranking, fold-change ranking, and Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM)) on the same dataset we found that p-value ranking (the method emphasized by Tan et al.) results in much lower cross-platform concordance compared to fold-change ranking or SAM. Therefore, the low cross-platform concordance reported in Tan's study appears to be mainly due to a combination of low intra-platform consistency and a poor choice of data analysis procedures, instead of inherent technical differences among different platforms, as suggested by Tan et al. and Marshall. Conclusion Our results illustrate the importance of establishing calibrated RNA samples and reference datasets to objectively assess the performance of different microarray platforms and the proficiency of individual laboratories as well as the merits of various data analysis procedures. Thus, we are progressively coordinating the MAQC project, a community-wide effort for microarray quality control. PMID:16026597
1 Tilescope: online analysis pipeline for high-density tiling microarray data Zhengdong D. Zhang1 pipeline Key words: high-density tiling microarray, high-density oligonucleotide microarray, microarray processing pipeline for analyzing tiling array data (http://tilescope.gersteinlab.org). In a completely
Gulak, P. Glenn
A CMOS Image Sensor for DNA Microarrays Samir Parikh, Glenn Gulak, Paul Chow University of Toronto-to-digital converter. I. INTRODUCTION DNA microarrays are commonly used to search for DNA sequences. A DNA microarray containing the target ssDNA is introduced to the DNA microarray leading to a pairing or unpairing process
Campbell, A. Malcolm
Article DNA Microarray Wet Lab Simulation Brings Genomics into the High School Curriculum A developed a wet lab DNA microarray simulation as part of a complete DNA microarray module for high school genomic methods. One popular method is the DNA microarray, which allows investigators to measure the level
NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY VOLUME 24 NUMBER 9 SEPTEMBER 2006 1115 Evaluation of DNA microarray results and correlated their expression measurements to those of five commercial microarray platforms, based on the MicroArray high correlation between quantitative gene expression values and microarray platform results and found
and demonstrate its advantages. Keywords: DNA microarray image analysis, microarray gridding, Gaussian mixture algorithm, cross-validated likelihood I. INTRODUCTION DNA microarrays  are used to measure the expression. In microarray exper- iments, the two mRNA samples to be compared are reverse transcripted into cDNA
Miga, Michael I.
Application of a soft tissue modulus evaluation assay to breast tumor tissue S. L. Barnes, and M. I. Miga In many diseases, development and progression result in changes in the stiffness of the tissue. Methods of assessing tissue elastic modulus have been developed which take advantage of this correlation
... followed by adjuvant chemotherapy . Blood Vessel Tumors Angiosarcoma (deep) Treatment of angiosarcoma may include the following: Surgery ... about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site . Recurrent and Progressive Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma ...
Gorlov, Ivan P.; Gallick, Gary E.; Gorlova, Olga Y.; Amos, Christopher; Logothetis, Christopher J.
Background Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and global profiling of gene expression (microarrays) are two major technological breakthroughs that allow hypothesis-free identification of candidate genes associated with tumorigenesis. It is not obvious whether there is a consistency between the candidate genes identified by GWAS (GWAS genes) and those identified by profiling gene expression (microarray genes). Methodology/Principal Findings We used the Cancer Genetic Markers Susceptibility database to retrieve single nucleotide polymorphisms from candidate genes for prostate cancer. In addition, we conducted a large meta-analysis of gene expression data in normal prostate and prostate tumor tissue. We identified 13,905 genes that were interrogated by both GWASs and microarrays. On the basis of P values from GWASs, we selected 1,649 most significantly associated genes for functional annotation by the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. We also conducted functional annotation analysis using same number of the top genes identified in the meta-analysis of the gene expression data. We found that genes involved in cell adhesion were overrepresented among both the GWAS and microarray genes. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the results of these analyses suggest that combining GWAS and microarray data would be a more effective approach than analyzing individual datasets and can help to refine the identification of candidate genes and functions associated with tumor development. PMID:19652704
Photoacoustic tomography (PAT), as well as thermoacoustic tomography (TAT), utilize electromagnetic radiation in its visible, near infrared, microwave, and radiofrequency forms, respectively, to induce acoustic waves in biological tissues...
Michael Soudry; Alexander Lerner
\\u000a The major factor determining the outcome in high-energy combat injuries to the limbs is the severity and extension of the\\u000a soft tissue damage. Primary radical debridement is a crucial phase in the management of patients after open high-energy injuries.\\u000a Inadequate tissue debridement remains the major cause of acute and chronic infection after severe trauma. Often, this important\\u000a first surgical procedure
or to a standard reference. Alternatively, gene expression values are used as markers for disease classification, and begin synaptogenesis. The final product of retinal development is a complex neural tissue that conveys
Parikh, Ankur P.; Curtis, Ross E.; Kuhn, Irene; Becker-Weimann, Sabine; Bissell, Mina; Xing, Eric P.; Wu, Wei
The HMT3522 progression series of human breast cells have been used to discover how tissue architecture, microenvironment and signaling molecules affect breast cell growth and behaviors. However, much remains to be elucidated about malignant and phenotypic reversion behaviors of the HMT3522-T4-2 cells of this series. We employed a “pan-cell-state” strategy, and analyzed jointly microarray profiles obtained from different state-specific cell populations from this progression and reversion model of the breast cells using a tree-lineage multi-network inference algorithm, Treegl. We found that different breast cell states contain distinct gene networks. The network specific to non-malignant HMT3522-S1 cells is dominated by genes involved in normal processes, whereas the T4-2-specific network is enriched with cancer-related genes. The networks specific to various conditions of the reverted T4-2 cells are enriched with pathways suggestive of compensatory effects, consistent with clinical data showing patient resistance to anticancer drugs. We validated the findings using an external dataset, and showed that aberrant expression values of certain hubs in the identified networks are associated with poor clinical outcomes. Thus, analysis of various reversion conditions (including non-reverted) of HMT3522 cells using Treegl can be a good model system to study drug effects on breast cancer. PMID:25057922
DNA/RNA and protein microarrays have proven their outstanding bioanalytical performance throughout the past decades, given the unprecedented level of parallelization by which molecular recognition assays can be performed and analyzed. Cell microarrays (CMAs) make use of similar construction principles. They are applied to profile a given cell population with respect to the expression of specific molecular markers and also to measure functional cell responses to drugs and chemicals. This review focuses on the use of cell-based microarrays for assessing the cytotoxicity of drugs, toxins, or chemicals in general. It also summarizes CMA construction principles with respect to the cell types that are used for such microarrays, the readout parameters to assess toxicity, and the various formats that have been established and applied. The review ends with a critical comparison of CMAs and well-established microtiter plate (MTP) approaches. PMID:26077916
Fu, Xing; Fu, Ning; Guo, Song; Yan, Zheng; Xu, Ying; Hu, Hao; Menzel, Corinna; Chen, Wei; Li, Yixue; Zeng, Rong; Khaitovich, Philipp
Background Microarrays revolutionized biological research by enabling gene expression comparisons on a transcriptome-wide scale. Microarrays, however, do not estimate absolute expression level accurately. At present, high throughput sequencing is emerging as an alternative methodology for transcriptome studies. Although free of many limitations imposed by microarray design, its potential to estimate absolute transcript levels is unknown. Results In this study, we evaluate relative accuracy of microarrays and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) using third methodology: proteomics. We find that RNA-Seq provides a better estimate of absolute expression levels. Conclusion Our result shows that in terms of overall technical performance, RNA-Seq is the technique of choice for studies that require accurate estimation of absolute transcript levels. PMID:19371429
We propose a novel strategy for discovering motifs from gene expression data. The gene expression data comes from DNA microarray analysis of the bacterium E. coli in response to recovery from nutrient starvation. We have annotated the data...
Han, Bing; Chen, Xue-wen; Wang, Xinkum; Michaelis, Elias K.
Previous applications of microarray technology for cancer research have mostly focused on identifying genes that are differentially expressed between a particular cancer and normal cells. In a biological system, genes perform different molecular...
Cretich, Marina; Damin, Francesco; Chiari, Marcella
The nature of protein microarray platforms is favorable for multiplexing, leading to the development of tools for personalised medicine and highly precise diagnostics. However, to date, only a limited number of protein microarrays are available in the in vitro diagnostics (IVD) market. This review article will focus on the following operational challenges that are crucial for the use of microarrays in clinical settings: (1) probe printing and quality control; (2) procurement of bio-reagents and antibody cross-reactivity; (3) mass transport limitations and assay automation; (4) calibration and quantification. A selection of microarray assays applicable to IVD and a summary of the diagnostic products currently available on the market are provided. PMID:24326290
Integrative Microarray Analysis of Pathways Dysregulated in Metastatic Prostate Cancer Sunita R array data from localized and metastatic prostate cancer. Comparison of metastatic cancer and localized pathways that were significantly dysregulated (P prostate cancer metastasis. The pathway
Hsu, Polly Yingshan; Harmer, Stacey L.
i. Summary Circadian rhythms are biological cycles with a period length of approximately 24 hours that are generated by endogenous clocks. The application of microarrays for high-throughput transcriptome analysis has led to the insight that substantial portions of the transcriptomes of both humans and many model organisms are clock-regulated. In a typical circadian time course microarray experiment, samples are collected from organisms maintained in constant environmental conditions, gene expression at each time point is determined using microarrays, and finally clock-regulated transcripts are identified using statistical algorithms. Here, we describe how to design the experiment, process RNA, determine expression profiles using ATH1 microarrays, and use a non-parametric statistical algorithm named JTK_CYCLE in order to identify circadian-regulated transcripts in Arabidopsis. This basic procedure can be modified to identify clock-regulated transcripts in different organisms or using different expression analysis platforms. PMID:24792043
The global aim of this thesis was to study the use of microarray technology for the screening and identification of biocompatible polymers, to understand physiological phenomena, and the design of biomaterials, implant ...
Mei, Pengjin; Bai, Jin; Shi, Meilin; Liu, Qinghua; Li, Zhonglin; Fan, Yuechao; Zheng, Junnian
Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) is a metastasis suppressor gene in several solid tumors. However, the expression and function of BRMS1 in glioma have not been reported. In this study, we investigated whether BRMS1 play a role in glioma pathogenesis. Using the tissue microarray technology, we found that BRMS1 expression is significantly decreased in glioma compared with tumor adjacent normal brain tissue (P<0.01, ?(2) test) and reduced BRMS1 staining is associated with WHO stages (P<0.05, ?(2) test). We also found that BRMS1 was significantly downregulated in glioma cell lines compared to normal human astrocytes (P<0.01, ?(2) test). Furthermore, we demonstrated that BRMS1 overexpression inhibited glioma cell invasion by suppressing uPA, NF-?B, MMP-2 expression and MMP-2 enzyme activity. Moreover, our data showed that overexpression of BRMS1 inhibited glioma cell migration and adhesion capacity compared with the control group through the Src-FAK pathway. Taken together, this study suggested that BRMS1 has a role in glioma development and progression by regulating invasion, migration and adhesion activities of cancer cells. PMID:24879377
Fu, Junjie; Allen, William; Xia, Amy; Ma, Zhuofan; Qi, Xin
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death by cancer in women. To identify biomarkers with potential diagnostic and therapeutic utilities in breast cancer, gene expression profiling from real patient tissues were used to discover significantly deregulated genes out of 50,739 genes of human transcriptome. Total RNAs were extracted, and the gene expression profiles of 32 cancerous and normal tissues were established using Agilent gene expression microarray technology. The results were analyzed with Agilent GeneSpring 12.6 software. Here we provide detailed experimental methods and analysis for the microarray data, which have been deposited into Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) under GSE57297. PMID:25396118
Since the late 1980s, Progressive Casualty Insurance Company has maintained a stronghold on the nonstandard auto-insurance market (auto insurance for high-risk drivers). Progressive’s goals in the 1990s are to expand its insurance coverage to include standard and preferred customers (drivers with clean driving records and no accidents). The company never advertised before 1994; as a result, consumer awareness has been
Wullschleger, Stan D.; Difazio, Stephen P.
Microarrays have become an important technology for the global analysis of gene expression in humans, animals, plants, and microbes. Implemented in the context of a well-designed experiment, cDNA and oligonucleotide arrays can provide highthroughput, simultaneous analysis of transcript abundance for hundreds, if not thousands, of genes. However, despite widespread acceptance, the use of microarrays as a tool to better understand processes of interest to the plant physiologist is still being explored. To help illustrate current uses of microarrays in the plant sciences, several case studies that we believe demonstrate the emerging application of gene expression arrays in plant physiology weremore »selected from among the many posters and presentations at the 2003 Plant and Animal Genome XI Conference. Based on this survey, microarrays are being used to assess gene expression in plants exposed to the experimental manipulation of air temperature, soil water content and aluminium concentration in the root zone. Analysis often includes characterizing transcript profiles for multiple post-treatment sampling periods and categorizing genes with common patterns of response using hierarchical clustering techniques. In addition, microarrays are also providing insights into developmental changes in gene expression associated with fibre and root elongation in cotton and maize, respectively. Technical and analytical limitations of microarrays are discussed and projects attempting to advance areas of microarray design and data analysis are highlighted. Finally, although much work remains, we conclude that microarrays are a valuable tool for the plant physiologist interested in the characterization and identification of individual genes and gene families with potential application in the fields of agriculture, horticulture and forestry.« less
Nicolaisen, Mogens; Nyskjold, Henriette; Bertaccini, Assunta
Detection and identification of phytoplasmas is a laborious process often involving nested PCR followed by restriction enzyme analysis and fine-resolution gel electrophoresis. To improve throughput, other methods are needed. Microarray technology offers a generic assay that can potentially detect and differentiate all types of phytoplasmas in one assay. The present protocol describes a microarray-based method for identification of phytoplasmas to 16Sr group level. PMID:22987419
T. D. Lodha; J. Basak
Plant defense responses are mediated by elementary regulatory proteins that affect expression of thousands of genes. Over\\u000a the last decade, microarray technology has played a key role in deciphering the underlying networks of gene regulation in\\u000a plants that lead to a wide variety of defence responses. Microarray is an important tool to quantify and profile the expression\\u000a of thousands of
J. Hooyberghs; M. Baiesi; A. Ferrantini; E. Carlon
Test experiments of hybridization in DNA microarrays show systematic deviations from the equilibrium isotherms. We argue that these deviations are due to the presence of a partially hybridized long-lived state, which we include in a kinetic model. Experiments confirm the model predictions for the intensity vs. free energy behavior. The existence of slow relaxation phenomena has important consequences for the specificity of microarrays as devices for the detection of a target sequence from a complex mixture of nucleic acids.
Hooyberghs, J.; Baiesi, M.; Ferrantini, A.; Carlon, E.
Test experiments of hybridization in DNA microarrays show systematic deviations from the equilibrium isotherms. We argue that these deviations are due to the presence of a partially hybridized long-lived state, which we include in a kinetic model. Experiments confirm the model predictions for the intensity vs free-energy behavior. The existence of slow relaxation phenomena has important consequences for the specificity of microarrays as devices for the detection of a target sequence from a complex mixture of nucleic acids.
Roger D Canales; Yuling Luo; James C Willey; Bradley Austermiller; Catalin C Barbacioru; Cecilie Boysen; Kathryn Hunkapiller; Roderick V Jensen; Charles R Knight; Kathleen Y Lee; Yunqing Ma; Botoul Maqsodi; Adam Papallo; Elizabeth Herness Peters; Karen Poulter; Patricia L Ruppel; Raymond R Samaha; Leming Shi; Wen Yang; Lu Zhang; Federico M Goodsaid
We have evaluated the performance characteristics of three quantitative gene expression technologies and correlated their expression measurements to those of five commercial microarray platforms, based on the MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC) data set. The limit of detection, assay range, precision, accuracy and fold-change correlations were assessed for 997 TaqMan Gene Expression Assays, 205 Standardized RT (Sta)RT-PCR assays and 244 QuantiGene
Ewart, Tom; Raha, Sandeep; Kus, Dorothy; Tarnopolsky, Mark
Bacterial and viral pathogens are implicated in many severe autoimmune diseases, acting through such mechanisms as molecular mimicry, and superantigen activation of T-cells. For example, Helicobacter pylori, well known cause of stomach ulcers and cancers, is also identified in ischaemic heart disease (mimicry of heat shock protein 65), autoimmune pancreatitis, systemic sclerosis, autoimmune thyroiditis (HLA DRB1*0301 allele susceptibility), and Crohn's disease. Successful antibiotic eradication of H.pylori often accompanies their remission. Yet current diagnostic devices, and test-limiting cost containment, impede recognition of the linkage, delaying both diagnosis and therapeutic intervention until the chronic debilitating stage. We designed a 15 minute low cost 39 antigen microarray assay, combining autoimmune, viral and bacterial antigens1. This enables point-of-care serodiagnosis and cost-effective narrowly targeted concurrent antibiotic and monoclonal anti-T-cell and anti-cytokine immunotherapy. Arrays of 26 pathogen and 13 autoimmune antigens with IgG and IgM dilution series were printed in triplicate on epoxysilane covalent binding slides with Teflon well masks. Sera diluted 1:20 were incubated 10 minutes, washed off, anti-IgG-Cy3 (green) and anti-IgM-Dy647 (red) were incubated for 5 minutes, washed off and the slide was read in an ArrayWoRx(e) scanning CCD imager (Applied Precision, Issaquah, WA). As a preliminary model for the combined infectious disease-autoimmune diagnostic microarray we surveyed 98 unidentified, outdated sera that were discarded after Hepatitis B antibody testing. In these, significant IgG or IgM autoantibody levels were found: dsDNA 5, ssDNA 11, Ro 2, RNP 7, SSB 4, gliadin 2, thyroglobulin 13 cases. Since control sera showed no autoantibodies, the high frequency of anti-DNA and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies found in infected sera lend increased support for linkage of infection to subsequent autoimmune disease. Expansion of the antigen set with synthetic peptide sequences should reveal the shared bacterial/human epitopes involved.
Tarini, Beth A.; Konczal, Laura; Goldenberg, Aaron J.; Goldman, Edward B.; McCandless, Shawn E.
Background While single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chromosomal microarrays identify areas of small genetic deletions/duplications, they can also reveal regions of homozygosity indicative of consanguinity. As more non-geneticists order SNP microarrays, they must prepare for the potential ethical, legal and social issues that result from revelation of unanticipated consanguinity. Patient An infant with multiple congenital anomalies underwent SNP microarray testing. Results The results of the SNP microarray revealed several large regions of homozygosity that indicated identity by descent most consistent with a second or third degree relative mating (e.g., uncle/ niece, half brother/sister, first cousins). Mother was not aware of the test's potential to reveal consanguinity. When informed of the test results, she reluctantly admitted to being raped by her half-brother around the time of conception. Conclusions During the pre-testing consent process, providers should inform parents that SNP microarray testing could reveal consanguinity. Providers must also understand the psychological implications, as well as the legal and moral obligations, that accompany SNP microarray results that indicate consanguinity. PMID:23827427
Daly, Don S.; White, Amanda M.; Varnum, Susan M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Zangar, Richard C.
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a standard immunoassay to predict a protein concentration in a sample. Deploying ELISA in a microarray format permits simultaneous prediction of the concentrations of numerous proteins in a small sample. These predictions, however, are uncertain due to processing error and biological variability. Evaluating prediction error is critical to interpreting biological significance and improving the ELISA microarray process. Evaluating prediction error must be automated to realize a reliable high-throughput ELISA microarray system. Methods: In this paper, we present a statistical method based on propagation of error to evaluate prediction errors in the ELISA microarray process. Although propagation of error is central to this method, it is effective only when comparable data are available. Therefore, we briefly discuss the roles of experimental design, data screening, normalization and statistical diagnostics when evaluating ELISA microarray prediction errors. We use an ELISA microarray investigation of breast cancer biomarkers to illustrate the evaluation of prediction errors. The illustration begins with a description of the design and resulting data, followed by a brief discussion of data screening and normalization. In our illustration, we fit a standard curve to the screened and normalized data, review the modeling diagnostics, and apply propagation of error.
Patel, Viren C; Mondal, Kajari; Shetty, Amol Carl; Horner, Vanessa L; Bedoyan, Jirair K; Martin, Donna; Caspary, Tamara; Cutler, David J; Zwick, Michael E
Methods of genomic selection that combine high-density oligonucleotide microarrays with next-generation DNA sequencing allow investigators to characterize genomic variation in selected portions of complex eukaryotic genomes. Yet choosing which specific oligonucleotides to be use can pose a major technical challenge. To address this issue, we have developed a software package called MOPeD (Microarray Oligonucleotide Probe Designer), which automates the process of designing genomic selection microarrays. This web-based software allows individual investigators to design custom genomic selection microarrays optimized for synthesis with Roche NimbleGen's maskless photolithography. Design parameters include uniqueness of the probe sequences, melting temperature, hairpin formation, and the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms. We generated probe databases for the human, mouse, and rhesus macaque genomes and conducted experimental validation of MOPeD-designed microarrays in human samples by sequencing the human X chromosome exome, where relevant sequence metrics indicated superior performance relative to a microarray designed by the Roche NimbleGen proprietary algorithm. We also performed validation in the mouse to identify known mutations contained within a 487-kb region from mouse chromosome 16, the mouse chromosome 16 exome (1.7 Mb), and the mouse chromosome 12 exome (3.3 Mb). Our results suggest that the open source MOPeD software package and website (http://moped.genetics.emory.edu/) will make a valuable resource for investigators in their sequence-based studies of complex eukaryotic genomes. PMID:21379402
Sergeev, Nikolay; Distler, Margaret; Courtney, Shannon; Al-Khaldi, Sufian F; Volokhov, Dmitriy; Chizhikov, Vladimir; Rasooly, Avraham
Food-borne pathogens are a major health problem. The large and diverse number of microbial pathogens and their virulence factors has fueled interest in technologies capable of detecting multiple pathogens and multiple virulence factors simultaneously. Some of these pathogens and their toxins have potential use as bioweapons. DNA microarray technology allows the simultaneous analysis of thousands of sequences of DNA in a relatively short time, making it appropriate for biodefense and for public health uses. This paper describes methods for using DNA microarrays to detect and analyze microbial pathogens. The FDA-1 microarray was developed for the simultaneous detection of several food-borne pathogens and their virulence factors including Listeria spp., Campylobacter spp., Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin genes and Clostridium perfringens toxin genes. Three elements were incorporated to increase confidence in the microarray detection system: redundancy of genes, redundancy of oligonucleotide probes (oligoprobes) for a specific gene, and quality control oligoprobes to monitor array spotting and target DNA hybridization. These elements enhance the reliability of detection and reduce the chance of erroneous results due to the genetic variability of microbes or technical problems with the microarray. The results presented demonstrate the potential of oligonucleotide microarrays for detection of environmental and biodefense relevant microbial pathogens. PMID:15522583
Ammar, Ron; Smith, Andrew M; Heisler, Lawrence E; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey
Background Microarrays are an invaluable tool in many modern genomic studies. It is generally perceived that decreasing the size of microarray features leads to arrays with higher resolution (due to greater feature density), but this increase in resolution can compromise sensitivity. Results We demonstrate that barcode microarrays with smaller features are equally capable of detecting variation in DNA barcode intensity when compared to larger feature sizes within a specific microarray platform. The barcodes used in this study are the well-characterized set derived from the Yeast KnockOut (YKO) collection used for screens of pooled yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) deletion mutants. We treated these pools with the glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin as a test compound. Three generations of barcode microarrays at 30, 8 and 5 ?m features sizes independently identified the primary target of tunicamycin to be ALG7. Conclusion We show that the data obtained with 5 ?m feature size is of comparable quality to the 30 ?m size and propose that further shrinking of features could yield barcode microarrays with equal or greater resolving power and, more importantly, higher density. PMID:19825181
Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong
Nonspecific hybridization is currently a major concern with microarray technology. One of most effective approaches to estimating nonspecific hybridizations in oligonucleotide microarrays is the utilization of mismatch probes; however, this approach has not been used for longer oligonucleotide probes. Here, an oligonucleotide microarray was constructed to evaluate and optimize parameters for 50-mer mismatch probe design. A perfect match (PM) and 28 mismatch (MM) probes were designed for each of ten target genes selected from three microorganisms. The microarrays were hybridized with synthesized complementary oligonucleotide targets at different temperatures (e.g., 42, 45 and 50 C). In general, the probes with evenly distributed mismatches were more distinguishable than those with randomly distributed mismatches. MM probes with 3, 4 and 5 mismatched nucleotides were differentiated for 50-mer oligonucleotide probes hybridized at 50, 45 and 42 C, respectively. Based on the experimental data generated from this study, a modified positional dependent nearest neighbor (MPDNN) model was constructed to adjust the thermodynamic parameters of matched and mismatched dimer nucleotides in the microarray environment. The MM probes with four flexible positional mismatches were designed using the newly established MPDNN model and the experimental results demonstrated that the redesigned MM probes could yield more consistent hybridizations. Conclusions: This study provides guidance on the design of MM probes for long oligonucleotides (e.g., 50 mers). The novel MPDNN model has improved the consistency for long MM probes, and this modeling method can potentially be used for the prediction of oligonucleotide microarray hybridizations.
Eschenhagen, Thomas; Zimmermann, Wolfram H
To create an artificial heart is one of the most ambitious dreams of the young field of tissue engineering, a dream that, when publicly announced in 1999 (LIFE initiative around M. Sefton), provoked as much compassion as scepticism in the scientific and lay press. Today, it is fair to state that the field is still far away from having built the "bioartificial heart." Nevertheless, substantial progress has been made over the past 10 years, and a realistic perspective exists to create 3-dimensional heart muscle equivalents that may not only serve as experimental models but could also be useful for cardiac regeneration. PMID:16339494
Sobek, Jens; Aquino, Catharine; Schlapbach, Ralph
As the performance of microarray experiments is directly dependent on the quality of the materials, the suitability of the protocols, and the accuracy of the work performed, optimization of existing microarray workflows is needed in almost every experiment to achieve higher quality and meaningfulness of the generated data. In the following, we describe a workflow for the optimization of microarray processing parameters, based on the previously selected surface structure. Four simple model experiments with dye-labeled compounds is used to determine crucial experimental parameters including spotting concentration, spotting solution, immobilization efficiency, and blocking conditions even in cases where recommendations from the slide manufacturer or from the literature are missing. In this article, processing parameters for DNA, peptide, antibody, and carbohydrate microarrays are outlined. The applicability of the model experiments is demonstrated and described in detail on the example of short oligonucleotides. PMID:18220223
Sobek, Jens; Aquino, Catharine; Schlapbach, Ralph
Based on the selection of a suitable surface chemistry and bearing the option for optimization using a defined workflow, standard experimental protocols for the processing of microarrays can be used as starting points for a successful experiment. In Chapters 2 and 3, general quality considerations and the selection of surface chemistry have been discussed. A workflow for the selection of slide surface architectures and the optimization of microarray processing parameters also has been described. In the present article, processing parameters for DNA, peptide, antibody, and carbohydrate microarrays are outlined that serve as a first recommended step in the iterative establishment process. For a number of popular applications of microarray technology the outlined protocols can be applied to directly generate high-quality results. PMID:18220224
Genome-wide microarray technology has facilitated the systematic discovery of diagnostic biomarkers of cancers and other pathologies. However, meta-analyses of published arrays often uncover significant inconsistencies that hinder advances in clinical practice. Here we present an integrated microarray analysis framework, based on a genome-wide relative significance (GWRS) and genome-wide global significance (GWGS) model. When applied to five microarray datasets on melanoma published between 2000 and 2011, this method revealed a new signature of 200 genes. When these were linked to so-called ‘melanoma driver’ genes involved in MAPK, Ca2+, and WNT signaling pathways we were able to produce a new 12-gene diagnostic biomarker signature for melanoma (i.e., EGFR, FGFR2, FGFR3, IL8, PTPRF, TNC, CXCL13, COL11A1, CHP2, SHC4, PPP2R2C, and WNT4). We have begun to experimentally validate a subset of these genes involved in MAPK signaling at the protein level, including CXCL13, COL11A1, PTPRF and SHC4 and found these to be over-expressed in metastatic and primary melanoma cells in vitro and in situ compared to melanocytes cultured from healthy skin epidermis and normal healthy human skin. While SHC4 has been reported previously to be associated to melanoma, this is the first time CXCL13, COL11A1, and PTPRF have been associated with melanoma on experimental validation. Our computational evaluation indicates that this 12-gene biomarker signature achieves excellent diagnostic power in distinguishing metastatic melanoma from normal skin and benign nevus. Further experimental validation of the role of these 12 genes in a new signaling network may provide new insights into the underlying biological mechanisms driving the progression of melanoma. PMID:23638386
Chen, Iuan-bor D.; Rathi, Vinay K.; DeAndrade, Diana S.
The physiological functions of a tissue in the body are carried out by its complement of expressed genes. Genes that execute a particular function should be more specifically expressed in tissues that perform the function. Given this premise, we mined public microarray expression data to build a database of genes ranked by their specificity of expression in multiple organs. The database permitted the accurate identification of genes and functions known to be specific to individual organs. Next, we used the database to predict transcriptional regulators of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and validated two candidate genes. Based upon hypotheses regarding pathways shared between combinations of BAT or white adipose tissue (WAT) and other organs, we identified genes that met threshold criteria for specific or counterspecific expression in each tissue. By contrasting WAT to the heart and BAT, the two most mitochondria-rich tissues in the body, we discovered a novel function for the transcription factor ESRRG in the induction of BAT genes in white adipocytes. Because the heart and other estrogen-related receptor gamma (ESRRG)-rich tissues do not express BAT markers, we hypothesized that an adipocyte co-regulator acts with ESRRG. By comparing WAT and BAT to the heart, brain, kidney and skeletal muscle, we discovered that an isoform of the transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1) induces BAT markers in C2C12 myocytes in the presence of ESRRG. The results demonstrate a straightforward bioinformatic strategy to associate genes with functions. The database upon which the strategy is based is provided so that investigators can perform their own screens. PMID:23170034
Korucuoglu, Melike; Isci, Senol; Ozgur, Arzucan; Otu, Hasan H.
High Throughput Biological Data (HTBD) requires detailed analysis methods and from a life science perspective, these analysis results make most sense when interpreted within the context of biological pathways. Bayesian Networks (BNs) capture both linear and nonlinear interactions and handle stochastic events in a probabilistic framework accounting for noise making them viable candidates for HTBD analysis. We have recently proposed an approach, called Bayesian Pathway Analysis (BPA), for analyzing HTBD using BNs in which known biological pathways are modeled as BNs and pathways that best explain the given HTBD are found. BPA uses the fold change information to obtain an input matrix to score each pathway modeled as a BN. Scoring is achieved using the Bayesian-Dirichlet Equivalent method and significance is assessed by randomization via bootstrapping of the columns of the input matrix. In this study, we improve on the BPA system by optimizing the steps involved in “Data Preprocessing and Discretization”, “Scoring”, “Significance Assessment”, and “Software and Web Application”. We tested the improved system on synthetic data sets and achieved over 98% accuracy in identifying the active pathways. The overall approach was applied on real cancer microarray data sets in order to investigate the pathways that are commonly active in different cancer types. We compared our findings on the real data sets with a relevant approach called the Signaling Pathway Impact Analysis (SPIA). PMID:25036210
Oliver G. Staadt; Markus H. Gross
This paper describes some fundamental issues for robust implementations of progressively refined tetrahedralizations generated through sequences of edge collapses. We address the definition of appropriate cost functions and explain on various tests which are necessary to preserve the consis- tency of the mesh when collapsing edges. Although being considered a special case of progressive simplicial com- plexes (10), the results
16:960:690:02 - #35086 Special Topics: Exploration and Analysis of DNA Microarray and Protein Array. Amaratunga J. Cabrera. Exploration and Analysis of DNA. Microarray and Protein Array Data. Wiley 2003. (The experiments. A typical microarray experiment. Multi-channel cDNA microarrays. Oligonucleotide microarrays
Mirus, Justin E; Zhang, Yuzheng; Hollingsworth, Michael A; Solan, Joell L; Lampe, Paul D; Hingorani, Sunil R
Pancreas cancer, or pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, is the deadliest of solid tumors, with a five-year survival rate of <5%. Detection of resectable disease improves survival rates, but access to tissue and other biospecimens that could be used to develop early detection markers is confounded by the insidious nature of pancreas cancer. Mouse models that accurately recapitulate the human condition allow disease tracking from inception to invasion and can therefore be useful for studying early disease stages in which surgical resection is possible. Using a highly faithful mouse model of pancreas cancer in conjunction with a high-density antibody microarray containing ?2500 antibodies, we interrogated the pancreatic tissue proteome at preinvasive and invasive stages of disease. The goal was to discover early stage tissue markers of pancreas cancer and follow them through histologically defined stages of disease using cohorts of mice lacking overt clinical signs and symptoms and those with end-stage metastatic disease, respectively. A panel of seven up-regulated proteins distinguishing pancreas cancer from normal pancreas was validated, and their levels were assessed in tissues collected at preinvasive, early invasive, and moribund stages of disease. Six of the seven markers also differentiated pancreas cancer from an experimental model of chronic pancreatitis. The levels of serine/threonine stress kinase 4 (STK4) increased between preinvasive and invasive stages, suggesting its potential as a tissue biomarker, and perhaps its involvement in progression from precursor pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry of STK4 at different stages of disease revealed a dynamic expression pattern further implicating it in early tumorigenic events. Immunohistochemistry of a panel of human pancreas cancers confirmed that STK4 levels were increased in tumor epithelia relative to normal tissue. Overall, this integrated approach yielded several tissue markers that could serve as signatures of disease stage, including early (resectable), and therefore clinically meaningful, stages. PMID:25225358
Background The aim of this study was to identify key genes and novel potential therapeutic targets related to gastric cancer (GC) by comparing cancer tissue samples and healthy control samples using DNA microarray analysis. Methods Microarray data set GSE19804 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. Preprocessing and differential analysis were conducted with of R statistical software packages, and a number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained. Cluster analysis was also done with gene expression values. Functional enrichment analysis was performed for all the DEGs with DAVID tools. The significantly up- and downregulated genes were selected out and their interactors were retrieved with STRING and HitPredict, followed by construction of networks. For all the genes in the two networks, GeneCodis was chosen for gene function annotation. Results A total of 638 DEGs were identified, and we found that SPP1 and FABP4 were the markedly up- and downregulated genes, respectively. Cell cycle and regulation of proliferation were the most significantly overrepresented functional terms in up- and downregulated genes. In addition, extracellular matrix–receptor interaction was found to be significant in the SPP1-included interaction network. Conclusions A range of DEGs were obtained for GC. These genes not only provided insights into the pathogenesis of GC but also could develop into biomarkers for diagnosis or treatment. PMID:24093889
Xu, Feng; Wu, JinHui; Wang, ShuQi; Durmus, Naside Gozde; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Demirci, Utkan
Screening for effective therapeutic agents from millions of drug candidates is costly, time consuming, and often faces concerns due to the extensive use of animals. To improve cost effectiveness, and to minimize animal testing in pharmaceutical research, in vitro monolayer cell microarrays with multiwell plate assays have been developed. Integration of cell microarrays with microfluidic systems has facilitated automated and controlled component loading, significantly reducing the consumption of the candidate compounds and the target cells. Even though these methods significantly increased the throughput compared to conventional in vitro testing systems and in vivo animal models, the cost associated with these platforms remains prohibitively high. Besides, there is a need for three-dimensional (3D) cell-based drug-screening models which can mimic the in vivo microenvironment and the functionality of the native tissues. Here, we present the state-of-the-art microengineering approaches that can be used to develop 3D cell-based drug-screening assays. We highlight the 3D in vitro cell culture systems with live cell-based arrays, microfluidic cell culture systems, and their application to high-throughput drug screening. We conclude that among the emerging microengineering approaches, bioprinting holds great potential to provide repeatable 3D cell-based constructs with high temporal, spatial control and versatility. PMID:21725152
Zangar, Richard C.; Daly, Don S.; White, Amanda M.
A large gap currently exists between the ability to discover potential biomarkers and the ability to assess the real value of these proteins for cancer screening. One major challenge in biomarker validation is the inherent variability in biomarker levels. This variability stems from the diversity across the human population and the considerable molecular heterogeneity between individual tumors, even those that originate from a single tissue. Another major challenge with cancer screening is that most cancers are rare in the general population, meaning that the specificity of an assay must be very high if the number of false positive is not going to be much greater than the number of true positives. Because of these challenges with biomarker validation, it is necessary to analysis of thousands of samples before a clear idea of the utility of a screening assay can be determined. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) microarray technology can simultaneously quantify levels of multiple proteins and has the potential to accelerate biomarker validation. In this review, we discuss current ELISA microarray technology and the enabling advances needed to achieve the reproducibility and throughput that are required to evaluate cancer biomarkers.
Welham, Nathan V; Ling, Changying; Dawson, John A; Kendziorski, Christina; Thibeault, Susan L; Yamashita, Masaru
The vocal fold (VF) mucosa confers elegant biomechanical function for voice production but is susceptible to scar formation following injury. Current understanding of VF wound healing is hindered by a paucity of data and is therefore often generalized from research conducted in skin and other mucosal systems. Here, using a previously validated rat injury model, expression microarray technology and an empirical Bayes analysis approach, we generated a VF-specific transcriptome dataset to better capture the system-level complexity of wound healing in this specialized tissue. We measured differential gene expression at 3, 14 and 60 days post-injury compared to experimentally naïve controls, pursued functional enrichment analyses to refine and add greater biological definition to the previously proposed temporal phases of VF wound healing, and validated the expression and localization of a subset of previously unidentified repair- and regeneration-related genes at the protein level. Our microarray dataset is a resource for the wider research community and has the potential to stimulate new hypotheses and avenues of investigation, improve biological and mechanistic insight, and accelerate the identification of novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25592437
Xu, Feng; Wu, JinHui; Wang, ShuQi; Durmus, Naside Gozde; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Demirci, Utkan
Screening for effective therapeutic agents from millions of drug candidates is costly, time-consuming and often face ethical concerns due to extensive use of animals. To improve cost-effectiveness, and to minimize animal testing in pharmaceutical research, in vitro monolayer cell microarrays with multiwell plate assays have been developed. Integration of cell microarrays with microfluidic systems have facilitated automated and controlled component loading, significantly reducing the consumption of the candidate compounds and the target cells. Even though these methods significantly increased the throughput compared to conventional in vitro testing systems and in vivo animal models, the cost associated with these platforms remains prohibitively high. Besides, there is a need for three-dimensional (3D) cell based drug-screening models, which can mimic the in vivo microenvironment and the functionality of the native tissues. Here, we present the state-of-the-art microengineering approaches that can be used to develop 3D cell based drug screening assays. We highlight the 3D in vitro cell culture systems with live cell-based arrays, microfluidic cell culture systems, and their application to high-throughput drug screening. We conclude that among the emerging microengineering approaches, bioprinting holds a great potential to provide repeatable 3D cell based constructs with high temporal, spatial control and versatility. PMID:21725152
Ericsson, Olle; Pardali, Katerina; Landegren, Ulf
Patterns of protein interactions provide important insights in basic biology, and their analysis plays an increasing role in drug development and diagnostics of disease. We have established a scalable technique to compare two biological samples for the levels of all pairwise interactions among a set of targeted protein molecules. The technique is a combination of the proximity ligation assay with readout via dual tag microarrays. In the proximity ligation assay protein identities are encoded as DNA sequences by attaching DNA oligonucleotides to antibodies directed against the proteins of interest. Upon binding by pairs of antibodies to proteins present in the same molecular complexes, ligation reactions give rise to reporter DNA molecules that contain the combined sequence information from the two DNA strands. The ligation reactions also serve to incorporate a sample barcode in the reporter molecules to allow for direct comparison between pairs of samples. The samples are evaluated using a dual tag microarray where information is decoded, revealing which pairs of tags that have become joined. As a proof-of-concept we demonstrate that this approach can be used to detect a set of five proteins and their pairwise interactions both in cellular lysates and in fixed tissue culture cells. This paper provides a general strategy to analyze the extent of any pairwise interactions in large sets of molecules by decoding reporter DNA strands that identify the interacting molecules. PMID:22808155
.m. lipid concentration. Subcutaneous adipose tissue concentrations of oleic (18:1n-9) was greater in Wagyu steers than in Angus steers (P = 0.05). All monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) increased between the U.S. and Japanese endpoint, whereas slip points...
M. Adachi; L. Schneck; B. W. Volk
A remarkable progress has been made in investigations of sphingolipidoses in the last few decades. The term sphingolipidosis refers to a disease group in which the primary metabolic defect results in an abnormal tissue accumulation of sphingolipids. This group of compounds comprises the gangliosides, cerebrosides, sulphatides and sphingomyelins. Gangliosides are a class of complex lipids which, by definition, contain sialic
Yeo, Gene; Holste, Dirk; Kreiman, Gabriel; Burge, Christopher B
Background Alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS) is widely used by higher eukaryotes to generate different protein isoforms in specific cell or tissue types. To compare AS events across human tissues, we analyzed the splicing patterns of genomically aligned expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from libraries of cDNAs from different tissues. Results Controlling for differences in EST coverage among tissues, we found that the brain and testis had the highest levels of exon skipping. The most pronounced differences between tissues were seen for the frequencies of alternative 3' splice site and alternative 5' splice site usage, which were about 50 to 100% higher in the liver than in any other human tissue studied. Quantifying differences in splice junction usage, the brain, pancreas, liver and the peripheral nervous system had the most distinctive patterns of AS. Analysis of available microarray expression data showed that the liver had the most divergent pattern of expression of serine-arginine protein and heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein genes compared to the other human tissues studied, possibly contributing to the unusually high frequency of alternative splice site usage seen in liver. Sequence motifs enriched in alternative exons in genes expressed in the brain, testis and liver suggest specific splicing factors that may be important in AS regulation in these tissues. Conclusions This study distinguishes the human brain, testis and liver as having unusually high levels of AS, highlights differences in the types of AS occurring commonly in different tissues, and identifies candidate cis-regulatory elements and trans-acting factors likely to have important roles in tissue-specific AS in human cells. PMID:15461793
Ferraresso, Serena; Vitulo, Nicola; Mininni, Alba N; Romualdi, Chiara; Cardazzo, Barbara; Negrisolo, Enrico; Reinhardt, Richard; Canario, Adelino VM; Patarnello, Tomaso; Bargelloni, Luca
Background Aquaculture represents the most sustainable alternative of seafood supply to substitute for the declining marine fisheries, but severe production bottlenecks remain to be solved. The application of genomic technologies offers much promise to rapidly increase our knowledge on biological processes in farmed species and overcome such bottlenecks. Here we present an integrated platform for mRNA expression profiling in the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), a marine teleost of great importance for aquaculture. Results A public data base was constructed, consisting of 19,734 unique clusters (3,563 contigs and 16,171 singletons). Functional annotation was obtained for 8,021 clusters. Over 4,000 sequences were also associated with a GO entry. Two 60mer probes were designed for each gene and in-situ synthesized on glass slides using Agilent SurePrint™ technology. Platform reproducibility and accuracy were assessed on two early stages of sea bream development (one-day and four days old larvae). Correlation between technical replicates was always > 0.99, with strong positive correlation between paired probes. A two class SAM test identified 1,050 differentially expressed genes between the two developmental stages. Functional analysis suggested that down-regulated transcripts (407) in older larvae are mostly essential/housekeeping genes, whereas tissue-specific genes are up-regulated in parallel with the formation of key organs (eye, digestive system). Cross-validation of microarray data was carried out using quantitative qRT-PCR on 11 target genes, selected to reflect the whole range of fold-change and both up-regulated and down-regulated genes. A statistically significant positive correlation was obtained comparing expression levels for each target gene across all biological replicates. Good concordance between qRT-PCR and microarray data was observed between 2- and 7-fold change, while fold-change compression in the microarray was present for differences greater than 10-fold in the qRT-PCR. Conclusion A highly reliable oligo-microarray platform was developed and validated for the gilthead sea bream despite the presently limited knowledge of the species transcriptome. Because of the flexible design this array will be able to accommodate additional probes as soon as novel unique transcripts are available. PMID:19055773
Lam, Siew Hong; Mathavan, Sinnakarupan; Gong, Zhiyuan
The availability of microarray technology for zebrafish research has enabled the expression of tens of thousands of genes to be studied simultaneously in one experiment. The experiment usually involves measuring and comparing the relative abundance of tens of thousands of mRNA species in experimental samples obtained from mutant versus wild-type embryos, disease versus normal tissues, embryos/fish of different developmental stages, physiologic states, or from multiple treatments and/or time-points. A microarray experiment comprised of several stages can be divided into two distinct parts (i.e., the "wet-lab" and the "dry-lab"). The success of a microarray experiment hinges on the "wet-lab" procedures, which include technology that allows for generation of arrays with very high-density DNA where tens of thousands of genes are represented in an area smaller than a standard glass microscope slide, and procedures that enable extraction of high-quality RNA, efficient fluorescent labeling of nucleic acids, as well as specific hybridization of fluorescent labeled-samples with arrayed probes. This chapter describes these "wet-lab" procedures. "Dry-lab" procedures are described in the next chapter. PMID:19378105
Mancia, Annalaura; Lundqvist, Mats L; Romano, Tracy A; Peden-Adams, Margie M; Fair, Patricia A; Kindy, Mark S; Ellis, Blake C; Gattoni-Celli, Sebastiano; McKillen, David J; Trent, Harold F; Chen, Yian Ann; Almeida, Jonas S; Gross, Paul S; Chapman, Robert W; Warr, Gregory W
A microarray focused on stress response and immune function genes of the bottlenosed dolphin has been developed. Random expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were isolated and sequenced from two dolphin peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) cDNA libraries biased towards T- and B-cell gene expression by stimulation with IL-2 and LPS, respectively. A total of 2784 clones were sequenced and contig analysis yielded 1343 unigenes (archived and annotated at ). In addition, 52 dolphin genes known to be important in innate and adaptive immune function and stress responses of terrestrial mammals were specifically targeted, cloned and added to the unigene collection. The set of dolphin sequences printed on a cDNA microarray comprised the 1343 unigenes, the 52 targeted genes and 2305 randomly selected (but unsequenced) EST clones. This set was printed in duplicate spots, side by side, and in two replicates per slide, such that the total number of features per microarray slide was 19,200, including controls. The dolphin arrays were validated and transcriptomic profiles were generated using PBL from a wild dolphin, a captive dolphin and dolphin skin cells. The results demonstrate that the array is a reproducible and informative tool for assessing differential gene expression in dolphin PBL and in other tissues. PMID:17084893
van der Ven, Karlijn; Keil, Dorien; Moens, Lotte N; Van Leemput, Koen; van Remortel, Piet; De Coen, Wim M
Because of their environmental occurrence and high biological activity, human pharmaceuticals have received increasing attention from environmental and health agencies. A major bottleneck in their risk assessment is the lack of relevant and specific effect data. We developed an approach using gene expression analysis in quantifying adverse effects of neuroendocrine pharmaceuticals in the environment. We studied effects of mianserin on zebrafish (Danio rerio) gene expression using a brain-specific, custom microarray, with real-time polymerase chain reaction as confirmation. After exposure (0, 25, and 250 microg/L) for 2, 4, and 14 d, RNA was extracted from brain tissue and used for microarray hybridization. In parallel, we investigated the impact of exposure on egg production, fertilization, and hatching. After 2 d of exposure, microarray analysis showed a clear effect of mianserin on important neuroendocrine-related genes (e.g., aromatase and estrogen receptor), indicating that antidepressants can modulate neuroendocrine processes. This initial neuroendocrine effect was followed by a "late gene expression effect" on neuronal plasticity, supporting the current concept regarding the mode of action for antidepressants in mammals. Clear adverse effects on egg viability were seen after 14 d of exposure at the highest concentration tested. Based on the specific molecular impact and the effects on reproduction, we conclude that further investigation of the adverse effects on the brain-liver-gonad axis is needed for a correct ecological risk assessment of antidepressants. PMID:17022405
Background Studies of gene regulation often utilize genome-wide predictions of transcription factor (TF) binding sites. Most existing prediction methods are based on sequence information alone, ignoring biological contexts such as developmental stages and tissue types. Experimental methods to study in vivo binding, including ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq, can only study one transcription factor in a single cell type and under a specific condition in each experiment, and therefore cannot scale to determine the full set of regulatory interactions in mammalian transcriptional regulatory networks. Results We developed a new computational approach, PIPES, for predicting tissue-specific TF binding. PIPES integrates in vitro protein binding microarrays (PBMs), sequence conservation and tissue-specific epigenetic (DNase I hypersensitivity) information. We demonstrate that PIPES improves over existing methods on distinguishing between in vivo bound and unbound sequences using ChIP-seq data for 11 mouse TFs. In addition, our predictions are in good agreement with current knowledge of tissue-specific TF regulation. Conclusions We provide a systematic map of computationally predicted tissue-specific binding targets for 284 mouse TFs across 55 tissue/cell types. Such comprehensive resource is useful for researchers studying gene regulation. PMID:24238150
Nielsen, Ulrik B.; Cardone, Mike H.; Sinskey, Anthony J.; MacBeath, Gavin; Sorger, Peter K.
Signal transduction in mammalian cells is mediated by complex networks of interacting proteins. Understanding these networks at a circuit level requires devices to measure the amounts and activities of multiple proteins in a rapid and accurate manner. Ab microarrays have previously been applied to the quantification of labeled recombinant proteins and proteins in serum. The development of methods to analyze intracellular signaling molecules on microarrays would make Ab arrays widely useful in systems biology. Here we describe the fabrication of multiplex Ab arrays sensitive to the amounts and modification states of signal transduction proteins in crude cell lysates and the integration of these arrays with 96-well microtiter plate technology to create microarrays in microplates. We apply the Ab arrays to monitoring the activation, uptake, and signaling of ErbB receptor tyrosine kinases in human tumor cell lines. Data obtained from multicolor ratiometric microarrays correlate well with data obtained by using traditional approaches, but the arrays are faster and simpler to use. The integration of microplate and microarray methods for crude cell lysates should make it possible to identify and analyze small molecule inhibitors of signal transduction processes with unprecedented speed and precision. We demonstrate the future potential of this approach by characterizing the action of the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor PD153035 on cells by using Ab arrays; direct scale-up to array-based screening in 96- and 384-well plates should allow small molecules to be identified with specific inhibitory profiles against a signaling network. PMID:12876202
Ku, Wei-Chi; Lau, Wai Kwan; Tseng, Yu-Tien; Tzeng, Chi-Meng; Chiu, Sung-Kay
Microarray technology is a powerful tool to speed up genomics study, yet many technical aspects need to be improved. The hybridization reaction of microarray experiments is carried out for 16h or overnight in order to obtain reasonably strong signals for analysis in the presence of high salt buffer, like SSC. However, the quantitative aspect of microarray hybridization has seldom been investigated. In this study, we showed that higher overall signals from hybridization were achieved in a buffer system containing dextran sulfate, which can accelerate the kinetics of reaction by increasing the local concentration of the reactants. The dextran sulfate containing hybridization solution increases the reaction 4-fold (median) for cDNA microarray and 29-fold for oligonucleotide microarray. More importantly, the solution also provides a quantitative hybridization reaction, where the hybridization signals are proportional to the abundance of transcript added. The enhancement in the kinetics of hybridization is due to both dextran sulfate and formamide present in the solution, but the effect is not due to the higher temperature used during the reaction. With a slightly longer reaction time the hybridization reaction with the solution allows the detection of hybridization signals from rare transcripts that is not possible with regular hybridization buffers. With appropriate washing, the enhancement of kinetics by the solution does not increase the background signals at all, allowing higher signal-to-noise ratios to be achieved. PMID:15013421
Schax, Emilia; Walter, Johanna-Gabriela; Märzhäuser, Helene; Stahl, Frank; Scheper, Thomas; Agard, David A; Eichner, Simone; Kirschning, Andreas; Zeilinger, Carsten
Based on the importance of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease or malaria, inhibitors of these chaperons are needed. Today's state-of-the-art techniques to identify HSP inhibitors are performed in microplate format, requiring large amounts of proteins and potential inhibitors. In contrast, we have developed a miniaturized protein microarray-based assay to identify novel inhibitors, allowing analysis with 300 pmol of protein. The assay is based on competitive binding of fluorescence-labeled ATP and potential inhibitors to the ATP-binding site of HSP. Therefore, the developed microarray enables the parallel analysis of different ATP-binding proteins on a single microarray. We have demonstrated the possibility of multiplexing by immobilizing full-length human HSP90? and HtpG of Helicobacter pylori on microarrays. Fluorescence-labeled ATP was competed by novel geldanamycin/reblastatin derivatives with IC50 values in the range of 0.5 nM to 4 ?M and Z(*)-factors between 0.60 and 0.96. Our results demonstrate the potential of a target-oriented multiplexed protein microarray to identify novel inhibitors for different members of the HSP90 family. PMID:24667540
Wang, X H; Istepanian, Robert S H; Song, Yong Hua
Microarray imaging is considered an important tool for large scale analysis of gene expression. The accuracy of the gene expression depends on the experiment itself and further image processing. It's well known that the noises introduced during the experiment will greatly affect the accuracy of the gene expression. How to eliminate the effect of the noise constitutes a challenging problem in microarray analysis. Traditionally, statistical methods are used to estimate the noises while the microarray images are being processed. In this paper, we present a new approach to deal with the noise inherent in the microarray image processing procedure. That is, to denoise the image noises before further image processing using stationary wavelet transform (SWT). The time invariant characteristic of SWT is particularly useful in image denoising. The testing result on sample microarray images has shown an enhanced image quality. The results also show that it has a superior performance than conventional discrete wavelet transform and widely used adaptive Wiener filter in this procedure. PMID:15376907
Background Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo is formed, develops, and establishes developmental hierarchies of tissues. The recent advance in microarray technology made it possible to investigate the tissue specific patterns of gene expression and their relationship with tissue lineages. This study is focused on how tissue specific functions, tissue lineage, and cell differentiation are correlated, which is essential to understand embryonic development and organism complexity. Results We performed individual gene and gene set based analysis on multiple tissue expression data, in association with the classic topology of mammalian fate maps of embryogenesis. For each sub-group of tissues on the fate map, conservatively, differentially and correlatively expressed genes or gene sets were identified. Tissue distance was found to correlate with gene expression divergence. Tissues of the ectoderm or mesoderm origins from the same segments on the fate map shared more similar expression pattern than those from different origins. Conservatively expressed genes or gene sets define common functions in a tissue group and are related to tissue specific diseases, which is supported by results from Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analysis. Gene expression divergence is larger in certain human tissues than in the mouse homologous tissues. Conclusion The results from tissue lineage and gene expression analysis indicate that common function features of neighbor tissue groups were defined by the conservatively expressed genes and were related to tissue specific diseases, and differentially expressed genes contribute to the functional divergence of tissues. The difference of gene expression divergence in human and mouse homologous tissues reflected the organism complexity, i.e. distinct neural development levels and different body sizes. PMID:21172044
Lu, Chen; Wonsidler, Joshua L.; Li, Jianwei; Du, Yanming; Block, Timothy; Haab, Brian; Chen, Songming
In this study, we describe an effective protocol for use in a multiplexed high-throughput antibody microarray with glycan binding protein detection that allows for the glycosylation profiling of specific proteins. Glycosylation of proteins is the most prevalent post-translational modification found on proteins, and leads diversified modifications of the physical, chemical, and biological properties of proteins. Because the glycosylation machinery is particularly susceptible to disease progression and malignant transformation, aberrant glycosylation has been recognized as early detection biomarkers for cancer and other diseases. However, current methods to study protein glycosylation typically are too complicated or expensive for use in most normal laboratory or clinical settings and a more practical method to study protein glycosylation is needed. The new protocol described in this study makes use of a chemically blocked antibody microarray with glycan-binding protein (GBP) detection and significantly reduces the time, cost, and lab equipment requirements needed to study protein glycosylation. In this method, multiple immobilized glycoprotein-specific antibodies are printed directly onto the microarray slides and the N-glycans on the antibodies are blocked. The blocked, immobilized glycoprotein-specific antibodies are able to capture and isolate glycoproteins from a complex sample that is applied directly onto the microarray slides. Glycan detection then can be performed by the application of biotinylated lectins and other GBPs to the microarray slide, while binding levels can be determined using Dylight 549-Streptavidin. Through the use of an antibody panel and probing with multiple biotinylated lectins, this method allows for an effective glycosylation profile of the different proteins found in a given human or animal sample to be developed. Introduction Glycosylation of protein, which is the most ubiquitous post-translational modification on proteins, modifies the physical, chemical, and biological properties of a protein, and plays a fundamental role in various biological processes1-6. Because the glycosylation machinery is particularly susceptible to disease progression and malignant transformation, aberrant glycosylation has been recognized as early detection biomarkers for cancer and other diseases 7-12. In fact, most current cancer biomarkers, such as the L3 fraction of ?-1 fetoprotein (AFP) for hepatocellular carcinoma 13-15, and CA199 for pancreatic cancer 16, 17 are all aberrant glycan moieties on glycoproteins. However, methods to study protein glycosylation have been complicated, and not suitable for routine laboratory and clinical settings. Chen et al. has recently invented a chemically blocked antibody microarray with a glycan-binding protein (GBP) detection method for high-throughput and multiplexed profile glycosylation of native glycoproteins in a complex sample 18. In this affinity based microarray method, multiple immobilized glycoprotein-specific antibodies capture and isolate glycoproteins from the complex mixture directly on the microarray slide, and the glycans on each individual captured protein are measured by GBPs. Because all normal antibodies contain N-glycans which could be recognized by most GBPs, the critical step of this method is to chemically block the glycans on the antibodies from binding to GBP. In the procedure, the cis-diol groups of the glycans on the antibodies were first oxidized to aldehyde groups by using NaIO4 in sodium acetate buffer avoiding light. The aldehyde groups were then conjugated to the hydrazide group of a cross-linker, 4-(4-N-MaleimidoPhenyl)butyric acid Hydrazide HCl (MPBH), followed by the conjugation of a dipeptide, Cys-Gly, to the maleimide group of the MPBH. Thus, the cis-diol groups on glycans of antibodies were converted into bulky none hydroxyl groups, which hindered the lectins and other GBPs bindings to the capture antibodies. This blocking procedure makes the GBPs and lectins bind only to the glycans of captured proteins. After this chemically bl
Cell replication is tightly controlled in normal tissues and aberrant during disease progression, such as in tumorigenesis. The replication of cells can be divided into four distinct phases: Gap 1 (G1), synthesis (S), gap 2 (G2), and mitosis (M). The progression from one phase to the next is intrica...
Raspoet, R; Appia-Ayme, C; Shearer, N; Martel, A; Pasmans, F; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Thompson, A; Van Immerseel, F
Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis has developed the potential to contaminate table eggs internally, by colonization of the chicken reproductive tract and internalization in the forming egg. The serotype Enteritidis has developed mechanisms to colonize the chicken oviduct more successfully than other serotypes. Until now, the strategies exploited by Salmonella Enteritidis to do so have remained largely unknown. For that reason, a microarray-based transposon library screen was used to identify genes that are essential for the persistence of Salmonella Enteritidis inside primary chicken oviduct gland cells in vitro and inside the reproductive tract in vivo. A total of 81 genes with a potential role in persistence in both the oviduct cells and the oviduct tissue were identified. Major groups of importance include the Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1 and 2, genes involved in stress responses, cell wall, and lipopolysaccharide structure, and the region-of-difference genomic islands 9, 21, and 40. PMID:25281378
Hanson, Eric H; Niemeyer, Debra M; Folio, Les; Agan, Brian K; Rowley, Robb K
Outbreaks of central nervous system (CNS) diseases result in significant productivity and financial losses, threatening peace and wartime readiness capabilities. To meet this threat, rapid clinical diagnostic tools for detecting and identifying CNS pathogens are needed. Current tools and techniques cannot efficiently deal with CNS pathogen diversity; they cannot provide real-time identification of pathogen serogroups and strains, and they require days, sometimes weeks, for examination of tissue culture. Rapid and precise CNS pathogen diagnostics are needed to provide the opportunity for tailored therapeutic regimens and focused preventive efforts to decrease morbidity and mortality. Such diagnostics are available through genetic and genomic technologies, which have the potential for reducing the time required in serogroup or strain identification from 500+ hours for some viral cultures to less than 3 hours for all pathogens. In the near future, microarray diagnostics and future derivations of these technologies will change the paradigm used for outbreak investigations and will improve health care for all. PMID:15379069
Raspoet, R.; Appia-Ayme, C.; Shearer, N.; Martel, A.; Pasmans, F.; Haesebrouck, F.; Ducatelle, R.; Thompson, A.
Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis has developed the potential to contaminate table eggs internally, by colonization of the chicken reproductive tract and internalization in the forming egg. The serotype Enteritidis has developed mechanisms to colonize the chicken oviduct more successfully than other serotypes. Until now, the strategies exploited by Salmonella Enteritidis to do so have remained largely unknown. For that reason, a microarray-based transposon library screen was used to identify genes that are essential for the persistence of Salmonella Enteritidis inside primary chicken oviduct gland cells in vitro and inside the reproductive tract in vivo. A total of 81 genes with a potential role in persistence in both the oviduct cells and the oviduct tissue were identified. Major groups of importance include the Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1 and 2, genes involved in stress responses, cell wall, and lipopolysaccharide structure, and the region-of-difference genomic islands 9, 21, and 40. PMID:25281378
Ogata, Yorimasa; Matsui, Sari; Kato, Ayako; Zhou, Liming; Nakayama, Yohei; Takai, Hideki
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by specific bacteria and viruses. Local, systemic, and environmental factors affect the rate of disease progression. Immune responses to bacterial products, and the subsequent production of inflammatory cytokines, are crucial in the destruction of periodontal tissue. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small RNAs that control various cell processes by negatively regulating protein-coding genes. In this study, we compared miRNA expression in inflamed and noninflamed gingival tissues from Japanese dental patients. Total RNAs were isolated from inflamed and noninflamed gingival tissues. miRNA expression profiles were examined by an miRNA microarray, and the data were analyzed by GeneSpring GX, Ingenuity Pathways Analysis, and the TargetScan databases. Observed miRNA expression levels in inflamed gingiva were confirmed by real-time PCR. The three most overexpressed (by >2.72-fold) miRNAs were hsa-miR-150, hsa-miR-223, and hsa-miR-200b, and the three most underexpressed (by <0.39-fold) miRNAs were hsa-miR-379, hsa-miR-199a-5p, and hsa-miR-214. In IPA analysis, hsa-miR-150, hsa-miR-223, and hsa-miR-200b were associated with inflammatory disease, organismal injury, abnormalities, urological disease, and cancer. The present findings suggest that miRNAs are associated with chronic periodontitis lesions in Japanese. PMID:25500922
Yokota, Mitsuru; Ishii, Genichiro; Saito, Norio; Aoyagi, Kazuhiko; Sasaki, Hiroki; Ochiai, Atsushi
Backgrounds Peritoneal invasion in colon cancer is an important prognostic factor. Peritoneal invasion can be objectively identified as periotoneal elastic laminal invasion (ELI) by using elastica stain, and the cancer microenvironment formed by the peritoneal invasion (CMPI) can also be observed. Cases with ELI more frequently show distant metastasis and recurrence. Therefore, CMPI may represent a particular milieu that facilitates tumor progression. Pathological and biological investigations into CMPI may shed light on this possibly distinctive cancer microenvironment. Methods We analyzed area-specific tissue microarrays to determine the pathological features of CMPI, and propagated subperitoneal fibroblasts (SPFs) and submucosal fibroblasts (SMFs) from human colonic tissue. Biological characteristics and results of gene expression profile analyses were compared to better understand the peritoneal invasion of colon cancer and how this may form a special microenvironment through the interaction with SPFs. Mouse xenograft tumors, derived by co-injection of cancer cells with either SPFs or SMFs, were established to evaluate their active role on tumor progression and metastasis. Results We found that fibrosis with alpha smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) expression was a significant pathological feature of CMPI. The differences in proliferation and gene expression profile analyses suggested SPFs and SMFs were distinct populations, and that SPFs were characterized by a higher expressions of extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated genes. Furthermore, compared with SMFs, SPFs showed more variable alteration in gene expressions after cancer-cell-conditioned medium stimulation. Gene ontology analysis revealed that SPFs-specific upregulated genes were enriched by actin-binding or contractile-associated genes including ?-SMA encoding ACTA2. Mouse xenograft tumors derived by co-injection of cancer cells with SPFs showed enhancement of tumor growth, metastasis, and capacity for tumor formation compared to those derived from co-injection with cancer cells and SMFs. Conclusions CMPI is a special microenvironment, and interaction of SPFs and cancer cells within CMPI promote tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:24505356
Wang, Tian-Tian; Tavera-Mendoza, Luz Elisa; Laperriere, David; Libby, Eric; MacLeod, Naomi Burton; Nagai, Yoshihiko; Bourdeau, Veronique; Konstorum, Anna; Lallemant, Benjamin; Zhang, Rui; Mader, Sylvie; White, John H
1alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] regulates calcium homeostasis and controls cellular differentiation and proliferation. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a ligand-regulated transcription factor that recognizes cognate vitamin D response elements (VDREs) formed by direct or everted repeats of PuG(G/T)TCA motifs separated by 3 or 6 bp (DR3 or ER6). Here, we have identified direct 1,25(OH)2D3 target genes by combining 35,000+ gene microarrays and genome-wide screens for consensus DR3 and ER6 elements, and DR3 elements containing single nucleotide substitutions. We find that the effect of a nucleotide substitution on VDR binding in vitro does not predict VDRE function in vivo, because substitutions that disrupted binding in vitro were found in several functional elements. Hu133A microarray analyses, performed with RNA from human SCC25 cells treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 and protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, identified more than 900 regulated genes. VDREs lying within -10 to +5 kb of 5'-ends were assigned to 65% of these genes, and VDR binding was confirmed to several elements in vivo. A screen of the mouse genome identified more than 3000 conserved VDREs, and 158 human genes containing conserved elements were 1,25(OH2)D3-regulated on Hu133A microarrays. These experiments also revealed 16 VDREs in 11 of 12 genes induced more than 10-fold in our previous microarray study, five elements in the human gene encoding the epithelial calcium channel TRPV6, as well as novel 1,25(OH2)D3 target genes implicated in regulation of cell cycle progression. The combined approaches used here thus provide numerous insights into the direct target genes underlying the broad physiological actions of 1,25(OH)2D3. PMID:16002434
Holloway, Andrew J; Oshlack, Alicia; Diyagama, Dileepa S; Bowtell, David DL; Smyth, Gordon K
Background Concerns are often raised about the accuracy of microarray technologies and the degree of cross-platform agreement, but there are yet no methods which can unambiguously evaluate precision and sensitivity for these technologies on a whole-array basis. Results A methodology is described for evaluating the precision and sensitivity of whole-genome gene expression technologies such as microarrays. The method consists of an easy-to-construct titration series of RNA samples and an associated statistical analysis using non-linear regression. The method evaluates the precision and responsiveness of each microarray platform on a whole-array basis, i.e., using all the probes, without the need to match probes across platforms. An experiment is conducted to assess and compare four widely used microarray platforms. All four platforms are shown to have satisfactory precision but the commercial platforms are superior for resolving differential expression for genes at lower expression levels. The effective precision of the two-color platforms is improved by allowing for probe-specific dye-effects in the statistical model. The methodology is used to compare three data extraction algorithms for the Affymetrix platforms, demonstrating poor performance for the commonly used proprietary algorithm relative to the other algorithms. For probes which can be matched across platforms, the cross-platform variability is decomposed into within-platform and between-platform components, showing that platform disagreement is almost entirely systematic rather than due to measurement variability. Conclusion The results demonstrate good precision and sensitivity for all the platforms, but highlight the need for improved probe annotation. They quantify the extent to which cross-platform measures can be expected to be less accurate than within-platform comparisons for predicting disease progression or outcome. PMID:17118209
Jacobson, M; Andersson, M; Lindberg, R; Fossum, C; Jensen-Waern, M
This field study explored the cytokine expression in intestinal tissue and serum from 19 diarrhoeic and 9 healthy pigs in herds with a long-time history of Lawsonia intracellularis-infection. The disease, proliferative enteropathy (PE), is associated with diarrhoea and poor performance in growers and haemorrhagic diarrhoea and sudden death in finisher pigs, but the immunopathology is poorly understood. Histopathology, demonstration of L. intracellularis and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in intestinal tissue by PCR, and detection of serum antibodies to L. intracellularis, were performed. The presence of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-?, IFN-?, TNF-? and TGF-? in sera was determined by immunoassays, and intestinal mRNA expression of these cytokines plus IL-12p40 was determined by qPCR. Intestinal specimens from pigs with intestinal adenomatosis (n=2), proliferative haemorrhagic enteropathy or swine dysentery (n=2), and controls (n=2) were analysed by a genome wide porcine microarray. The clinical signs of PE were not always supported by the subsequent analyses, and the presence of PCV2 may have contributed to an increased mRNA expression for IFN-? in intestinal specimens from some pigs. The limited gene expression in the microarray analyses and the limited expression of cytokines in both sera and intestines, indicate that the immune response is poorly activated in the initial course of an infection with L. intracellularis. However, the gene encoding for insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) was up-regulated in two pigs with prominent mucosal proliferation. PMID:21741782
Rouillard, Jean-Marie; Gulari, Erdogan
OligoArrayDb is a comprehensive database containing pangenomic oligonucleotide microarray probe sets designed for most of the sequenced genomes that are not covered by commercial catalog arrays. The availability of probe sequences, associated with custom microarray fabrication services offered by many companies and cores presents the unequalled possibility to perform microarray experiments on most of the sequenced organisms. OligoArrayDb contains more than 2.8 probes per gene in average for more than 600 organisms, mostly archaea and bacteria strains available from public database. On average, 98% of the annotated genes have at least one probe which is predicted to be specific to its intended target in >94% of the cases. OligoArrayDb is weekly updated as new sequenced genomes become available. Probe sequences, in addition to a comprehensive set of annotations can be downloaded from this database. OligoArrayDb is publicly accessible online at http://berry.engin.umich.edu/oligoarraydb. PMID:18948290
Cummings, C. A.; Relman, D. A.
Complete genomic sequences of microbial pathogens and hosts offer sophisticated new strategies for studying host-pathogen interactions. DNA microarrays exploit primary sequence data to measure transcript levels and detect sequence polymorphisms, for every gene, simultaneously. The design and construction of a DNA microarray for any given microbial genome are straightforward. By monitoring microbial gene expression, one can predict the functions of uncharacterized genes, probe the physiologic adaptations made under various environmental conditions, identify virulence-associated genes, and test the effects of drugs. Similarly, by using host gene microarrays, one can explore host response at the level of gene expression and provide a molecular description of the events that follow infection. Host profiling might also identify gene expression signatures unique for each pathogen, thus providing a novel tool for diagnosis, prognosis, and clinical management of infectious disease. PMID:10998383
Varnum, Susan M.; Woodbury, Ronald L.; Zangar, Richard C.
Protein microarrays permit the simultaneous measurement of many proteins in a small sample volume and therefore provide an attractive approach for the quantitative measurement of proteins in biological fluids, including serum. This chapter describes a microarray ELISA assay. Capture antibodies are immobilized onto a glass surface, the covalently attached antibodies bind a specific antigen from a sample overlaying the array. A second, biotinylated antibody that recognizes the same antigen as the first antibody but at a different epitope is then used for detection. Detection is based upon an enzymatic signal enhancement method known as tyramide signal amplification (TSA). By coupling a microarray-ELISA format with the signal amplification of tyramide deposition, the assay sensitivity is as low as sub-pg/ml.
Shawn E. Levy (Vanderbilt University Medical Center; Department of Biomedical Informatics, Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics REV)
Genomic profiling provides insights into drug evaluation for diseases without defined molecular mechanisms or cellular assays. Levy provides a brief background in the development of microarray analysis and discussion of the application of this technique to pharmacogenomics. Highlighted is the microarray analysis of primary human neurons treated with antidepressants, antipsychotics, or opioid receptor agonists, demonstrating that these classes of drugs can be properly categorized by using two different statistical analysis methods: classification tree and random forest. Not only is microarray analysis valuable for drug evaluation and leading candidate development, but the genes identified as markers for the various drug classifications point to new directions for research into the underlying pathways responsible for human diseases, such as depression and psychosis.
A hybrid machine learning model of the principal component analysis and neural network is described for the continuous microarray gene expression time series. The methodology can model numerically the continuous gene expression time series. The proposed model can give us the extracted features from the gene expressions time series with higher prediction accuracies. It can help practitioners to gain a better understanding of a cell cycle, and to find the dependency of genes, which is useful for drug discoveries. In this chapter, we describe the background, the machine learning algorithms, and then the application of the hybrid machine learning in the microarray analysis. The machine learning model is compared with other popular continuous prediction methods. Based on the results of two public microarray datasets, the hybrid method outperforms the other continuous prediction methods.
Irigoien, I; Fernandez, E; Vives, S; Arenas, C
Microarray technology is increasingly being applied in biological and medical research to address a wide range of problems. Cluster analysis has proven to be a very useful tool for investigating the structure of microarray data. This paper presents a program for clustering microarray data, which is based on the so call path-distance. The algorithm gives in each step a partition in two clusters and no prior assumptions on the structure of clusters are required. It assigns each object (gene or sample) to only one cluster and gives the global optimum for the function that quantifies the adequacy of a given partition of the sample into k clusters. The program was tested on experimental data sets, showing the robustness of the algorithm. PMID:18825964
Le Brese, Christopher; Zou, Ju Jia
DNA microarray image processing has vast potential in the measurement of mass gene expression. A common approach to processing microarrays consists of spot identification, spot segmentation, and information extraction. We are concerned with spot identification. We aim to tackle the problem of identifying spots in rotated and skewed arrays via an automated process. The method proposed is composed of three steps, namely, array orientation calculation based on the Hough transform, affine calculation and correction, and gridding. The method is able to correctly identify spots in a microarray that has been rotated or skewed at an angle between 0 and +/-30 deg and corrupted by various types of noise such as high-intensity streaks, Gaussian noise, and salt-and-pepper noise.
Wang, Xuewei; Wu, Ming; Li, Zheng; Chan, Christina
The detection and analysis of steady-state gene expression has become routine. Time-series microarrays are of growing interest to systems biologists for deciphering the dynamic nature and complex regulation of biosystems. Most temporal microarray data only contain a limited number of time points, giving rise to short-time-series data, which imposes challenges for traditional methods of extracting meaningful information. To obtain useful information from the wealth of short-time series data requires addressing the problems that arise due to limited sampling. Current efforts have shown promise in improving the analysis of short time-series microarray data, although challenges remain. This commentary addresses recent advances in methods for short-time series analysis including simplification-based approaches and the integration of multi-source information. Nevertheless, further studies and development of computational methods are needed to provide practical solutions to fully exploit the potential of this data. PMID:18605994
A successful biodefense strategy relies upon any combination of four approaches. A nation can protect its troops and citizenry first by advanced mass vaccination, second, by responsive ring vaccination, and third, by post-exposure therapeutic treatment (including vaccine therapies). Finally, protection can be achieved by rapid detection followed by exposure limitation (suites and air filters) or immediate treatment (e.g., antibiotics, rapid vaccines and iodine pills). All of these strategies rely upon or are enhanced by microarray technologies. Microarrays can be used to screen, engineer and test vaccines. They are also used to construct early detection tools. While effective biodefense utilizes a variety of tactical tools, microarray technology is a valuable arrow in that quiver. PMID:15525220
Fuchs, J.; Fiche, J.-B.; Buhot, A.; Calemczuk, R.; Livache, T.
DNA microarrays find applications in an increasing number of domains where more quantitative results are required. DNA being a charged polymer, the repulsive interactions between the surface of the microarray and the targets in solution are increasing upon hybridization. Such electrostatic penalty is generally reduced by increasing the salt concentration. In this article, we present equilibrium-melting curves obtained from dedicated physicochemical experiments on DNA microarrays in order to get a better understanding of the electrostatic penalty incurred during the hybridization reaction at the surface. Various salt concentrations have been considered and deviations from the commonly used Langmuir adsorption model are experimentally quantified for the first time in agreement with theoretical predictions. PMID:20858434
Fuchs, J; Fiche, J-B; Buhot, A; Calemczuk, R; Livache, T
DNA microarrays find applications in an increasing number of domains where more quantitative results are required. DNA being a charged polymer, the repulsive interactions between the surface of the microarray and the targets in solution are increasing upon hybridization. Such electrostatic penalty is generally reduced by increasing the salt concentration. In this article, we present equilibrium-melting curves obtained from dedicated physicochemical experiments on DNA microarrays in order to get a better understanding of the electrostatic penalty incurred during the hybridization reaction at the surface. Various salt concentrations have been considered and deviations from the commonly used Langmuir adsorption model are experimentally quantified for the first time in agreement with theoretical predictions. PMID:20858434
Robert Caesar; Monia Manieri; Thomas Kelder; Mark Boekschoten; Chris Evelo; Michael Müller; Teake Kooistra; Saverio Cinti; Robert Kleemann; Christian A. Drevon; Alessandro Bartolomucci
Depot-dependent differences in adipose tissue physiology may reflect specialized functions and local interactions between adipocytes and surrounding tissues. We combined time-resolved microarray analyses of mesenteric- (MWAT), subcutaneous- (SWAT) and epididymal adipose tissue (EWAT) during high-fat feeding of male transgenic ApoE3Leiden mice with histology, targeted lipidomics and biochemical analyses of metabolic pathways to identify differentially regulated processes and site-specific functions. EWAT