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Sample records for progressive atlanto-axial subluxation

  1. Atlanto-axial subluxation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Thurlow, Robert D

    1988-01-01

    One of the causes of death in rheumatoid patients is cord compression following atlanto-axial subluxation. Dislocations in the cervical spine are common with patients who have rheumatoid arthritis. Anterior subluxation occurs in up to 35%, followed by vertical subluxation in 22.2%, lateral subluxation in 20.6% and rarely posterior subluxation. A case report is presented to illustrate such a complication. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4

  2. Pharyngeal abscess presenting with upper airway obstruction and atlanto-axial subluxation in a small infant.

    PubMed

    Brookes, A; Moriarty, A

    2000-05-01

    We describe an infant who presented with a combination of upper airway obstruction and atlanto-axial subluxation, secondary to a pharyngeal abscess resulting from cosmetic ear piercing. This combination posed a number of difficulties for the anasthetist and a detailed plan was formulated to prepare the child for anasthesia. PMID:10792140

  3. The surgical management of atlanto-axial subluxation in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Salem, Khalid M I; Radhakrishnan, Ajay; Behrbalk, Eyal; Boszczyk, B M

    2016-07-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a chronic condition affecting patients <16 years of age and can be associated with substantial morbidity. Atlanto-axial subluxation (AAS) is a known complication of JIA and can result in pain, reduced neck motion and neurological compromise. In this paper, we present the case of a 10-year old suffering with JIA and significant AAS; we discuss the management options and present the approach and outcome of treatment for this case. PMID:25427669

  4. Imaging of childhood torticollis due to atlanto-axial rotatory fixation.

    PubMed

    Maheshwaran, S; Sgouros, S; Jeyapalan, K; Chapman, S; Chandy, J; Flint, G

    1995-12-01

    Atlanto-axial rotatory fixation is a rare cause of childhood torticollis. It may occur spontaneously or may be associated with trauma, upper respiratory tract infection or congenital abnormality of the cervical spine. Presentation is usually with persistent torticollis and "cock robin" deformity of the neck. In this paper the radiological experience in three patients is presented. Investigations included plain radiographs, plain anteroposterior tomography, CT and MRI. Displacement of the lateral mass of the atlas and the eccentric position of the odontoid peg can be seen in the plain films. CT scan can exclude fractures and confirm atlanto-axial rotation. The superimposition of CT images is demonstrated as a way of diagnosing subluxation. MRI offers better soft tissue differentiation and allows assessment of the integrity of the transverse ligament. This has an important bearing on the prognosis and may influence surgical treatment. It is important to recognise the plain film features of this uncommon condition and confirm the diagnosis with CT or MRI. The treatment options are discussed with particular reference to long term outcome. PMID:8750947

  5. [Surgical treatment of atlanto-axial dislocation in a patient of athetoid cerebral palsy].

    PubMed

    Hojo, M; Nakahara, I; Tanaka, M; Oda, Y; Kikuchi, H

    1994-09-01

    The authors report a case of successful surgical treatment of atlanto-axial dislocation (AAD) secondary to athetoid cerebral palsy. A 61-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital in July 1993 complaining of progressive weakness in the right upper extremity and gait disturbance. She had been suffering from athetoid movements of her face, neck and arms due to cerebral palsy. Neurological examinations on admission revealed down-beat nystagmus on downward gazing, motor weakness of extremities, pallhypesthesia, hyperreflexia exaggerated in the right side and bilateral positive pathological reflexes. Lateral tomogram of the upper cervical spine demonstrated instability of the atlanto-axial joint, increased atlanto-dental interval (ADI) by 5.5 mm (in flexion), and narrowed canal at C1 level. Myelogram showed narrowed dural sac and angulation of the spinal cord at C1 level. A halo vest was applied two days before operation for reduction of the atlanto-axial junction and external fixation. She underwent posterior internal fixation using a Hartshill Ransford Loop combined with posterior decompression. This loop was secured to the occiput, C1, C2 and C3 by sublaminar wiring, and foramen magnum decompression and laminectomy of C1 were performed. Postoperative course was uneventful. Postoperative plain X-ray film, tomogram and computed tomography demonstrated good fixation (ADI was 2.5 mm) and excellent stability. There has been no problem during 6 months since the operation. It is known that involuntary movements in patients with athetoid cerebral palsy sometimes cause cervical spondylosis (especially at C3/4 and C4/5 level). Recently, AAD due to athetoid cerebral palsy has been reported. Almost every case of AAD secondary to athetoid cerebral palsy is combined with incompetence of the odontoid process.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8090275

  6. Atlanto-Axial Instability in Down Syndrome: A Need for Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, William D.

    1985-01-01

    The article is intended to provide educators and parents with a definition of atlanto-axial instability and dislocation (abnormal increase of mobility of the two upper cervical vertebrae) discuss related factors to causation, identify visible symptoms, review pertinent recommendations from the medical community, and comment on the disorder's…

  7. Surgical stabilization of the atlanto-occipital overlap with atlanto-axial instability in a dog.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Atsushi; Nishimura, Ryohei

    2016-05-01

    The atlanto-occipital (AO) overlap in combination with atlanto-axial (AA) instability was found in a dog. We hypothesized that ventral fixation of the AA junction can stabilize the atlas and prevent AO overlap by reviewing our past cases with AA instability. A standard ventral fixation of the AA junction using stainless k-wires and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was performed. The dog fully recovered, and no complication was noted. The results of the postoperative CT imaging supported our hypothesis. The ventral fixation of the AA junction is a feasible treatment option for similar cases, although craniocervical junction abnormalities (CJA) including AA instability are varied, and careful consideration is required for each case. PMID:27506088

  8. Unilateral atlanto-axial fractures in near side impact collisions: An under recognized entity in cervical trauma

    PubMed Central

    Lozen, Andrew M.; Pace, Jonathan; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Cusick, Joseph F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Nearside impact collisions presenting with lateral mass fractures of atlanto-axial vertebrae contralateral to the impact site represents a rare fracture pattern that does not correlate with previously described injury mechanism. We describe our clinical experience with such fractures and propose a novel description of biomechanical forces involved in this unique injury pattern. The findings serve to alert clinicians to potentially serious consequences of associated unrecognized and untreated vertebral artery injury. Material and Methods: In addition to describing our clinical experience with three of these fractures, a review of Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database was conducted to further characterize such fractures. A descriptive analysis of three recent lateral mass fractures of the atlanto-axial segment is coupled with a review of the CIREN database. A total of 4047 collisions were screened for unilateral fractures of atlas or axis. Information was screened for side of impact and data regarding impact velocity, occupant injuries and use of restraints. Results: Following screening of unilateral fractures of atlas and axis for direct side impacts, 41 fractures were identified. Cross referencing these cases for occurrence contralateral to side of impact identified four such fractures. Including our recent clinical experience, seven injuries were identified: Five C1 and two C2 fractures. Velocity ranged from 14 to 43 km/h. Two associated vertebral artery injuries were identified. Conclusions: Complexity of the atlanto-axial complex is responsible for a sequence of events that define load application in side impacts. This study demonstrates the vulnerability of vertebral artery to injury under unique translational forces and supports the use or routine screening for vascular injury. Diminished sensitivity of plain radiography in identifying these injuries suggests that computerized tomography should be used in all patients

  9. [C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation of atlanto-axial instability with tetraparesis in rheumatoid patient--case report].

    PubMed

    Chrzanowska, Anetta; Chrzanowski, Robert; Skura, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    A case of a 50-year-old patient with C1-C2 subluxation and concomitant neurological deficits in the course of rheumatoid arthritis has been described. In the article the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, consisting mainly of surgical treatment, have been presented. Indications for the surgery were: a rapid disease progression observed during the last six months, and tetraparesis. The authors propose the choice of applied surgical technique by taking into account difficulties consequential to the anatomy of this region, as well as additional complications regarding the chronic inflammation process. The use of transarticular screw fixation method, together with concurrent spinal cord decompression allowed the stabilization of C1-C2 subluxation and improvement of the neurological state of the patient. PMID:21591367

  10. Atlanto-Axial Instability in People with Down's Syndrome and its Impact on the Ability to Perform Sports Activities - A Review.

    PubMed

    Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Posłuszny, Adam; Saulicz, Edward; Doroniewicz, Iwona; Linek, Paweł; Wolny, Tomasz; Knapik, Andrzej; Rottermund, Jerzy; Żmijewski, Piotr; Cieszczyk, Paweł

    2015-11-22

    Atlanto-axial instability (AAI) is a developmental anomaly often occurring in persons with Down's syndrome (DS). According to various reports, AAI affects from 6.8 to 27% of the population with DS. The aim of this review was to illustrate the issue of AAI with regard to the progressively changing state of scientific knowledge. The extended distance between the rear surface of the frontal arcus of the C1 cervical vertebra and the anterior surface of C2 cervical vertebra dens (anterior atlanto-odontoid distance, AAOD) indicates the occurrence of AAI and is detectable through X-ray examination. Hypoplasia of the C2 dens, also detectable through X-ray examination, is another suggested risk factor for AAI. According to current data, the methodology of taking measurements is inconsistent, which leads to errors in interpretation. As research focusing on AAI was progressing, new data emerged from other studies on persons with DS, suggesting that neurological symptoms in persons with DS that indicated the occurrence of spinal cord compression were an important factor in medical imaging detection of AAI. One of the main arguments supporting this thesis is that in isolated cases spinal cord (SC) damage was noted during screening examinations conducted on a large population of subjects. Moreover, cases in which the neurological symptoms indicate spinal cord compression existed long before the occurrence of the actual damage also remain of significant importance. Therefore, it is necessary to promote neurological studies on persons with DS to enable early diagnosis of spinal cord compression and, at the same time, reduce the use of medical imaging in cases of neurological symptoms. PMID:26834869

  11. Atlanto-Axial Instability in People with Down’s Syndrome and its Impact on the Ability to Perform Sports Activities – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Posłuszny, Adam; Saulicz, Edward; Doroniewicz, Iwona; Linek, Paweł; Wolny, Tomasz; Knapik, Andrzej; Rottermund, Jerzy; Żmijewski, Piotr; Cieszczyk, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Atlanto-axial instability (AAI) is a developmental anomaly often occurring in persons with Down’s syndrome (DS). According to various reports, AAI affects from 6.8 to 27% of the population with DS. The aim of this review was to illustrate the issue of AAI with regard to the progressively changing state of scientific knowledge. The extended distance between the rear surface of the frontal arcus of the C1 cervical vertebra and the anterior surface of C2 cervical vertebra dens (anterior atlanto-odontoid distance, AAOD) indicates the occurrence of AAI and is detectable through X-ray examination. Hypoplasia of the C2 dens, also detectable through X-ray examination, is another suggested risk factor for AAI. According to current data, the methodology of taking measurements is inconsistent, which leads to errors in interpretation. As research focusing on AAI was progressing, new data emerged from other studies on persons with DS, suggesting that neurological symptoms in persons with DS that indicated the occurrence of spinal cord compression were an important factor in medical imaging detection of AAI. One of the main arguments supporting this thesis is that in isolated cases spinal cord (SC) damage was noted during screening examinations conducted on a large population of subjects. Moreover, cases in which the neurological symptoms indicate spinal cord compression existed long before the occurrence of the actual damage also remain of significant importance. Therefore, it is necessary to promote neurological studies on persons with DS to enable early diagnosis of spinal cord compression and, at the same time, reduce the use of medical imaging in cases of neurological symptoms. PMID:26834869

  12. Progressive hip joint subluxation in Saul-Wilson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chinen, Yasutsugu; Kaneshi, Takuya; Kamiya, Takeshi; Hata, Kenichiro; Nishimura, Gen; Kaname, Tadashi

    2015-11-01

    Saul-Wilson syndrome (SWS) is a rare congenital skeletal syndrome characterized by postnatal onset of short stature, relative microcephaly, frontal bossing, prominent eyes with shallow orbits, midface hypoplasia, cataract, and generalized skeletal changes, including spondylar dysplasia, overtubulation of the long bones with metaphyseal flaring and megaepiphyses, coxa valga, elbow deformity, and brachydactyly. We describe a boy with the overall clinical and radiological features fitting the characteristics of SWS, although cataract, elbow deformity, and overt brachydactyly were not seen. He presented with painful hip joint due to hip subluxation in late childhood, which exacerbated with age and ultimately, required surgical intervention. Awareness of this orthopedic complication in SWS is essential in the management of patients with SWS. PMID:26239279

  13. Congenital Absence of Posterior Elements of C2 Vertebra with Atlanto-Axial Dislocation and Basilar Invagination: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sudhir Kumar; Nemade, Pradip Sharad; Aggarwal, Rishi Anil; Bhoale, Sunil Krishna

    2016-02-01

    Developmental anomalies of the axis are commonly encountered, especially anomalies involving the odontoid process. Anomalies of the posterior elements are uncommon. We describe a unique case of agenesis of posterior elements of C2 with basilar invagination and atlanto-axial dislocation. An obese 8-year-old boy presented with symptoms of cervical myelopathy. Radiological workup revealed a craniovertebral junction anomaly with occipitalised atlas, absent posterior elements of axis, and hypertrophied C3 spinous process. Atlanto-axial instability and basilar invagination was present. Magnetic resonance angiography revealed hypoplastic left vertebral artery. Traction with cervical tongs failed to improve the alignment and symptoms. Anterior trans-oral release, followed by posterior decompression and custom-made instrumentation, was done. The patient recovered completely and was asymptomatic at the end of two years. X-ray and computed tomography scan demonstrated reduction of basilar invagination and maintenance of alignment. This is the first case to be reported of agenesis of posterior elements of axis associated with basilar invagination. One should look for this condition in patients with hypertrophied spinous process of C3. Utilization of hypoplastic pedicle of axis serves as an additional fixation point to increase the stability of the construct. PMID:26949474

  14. Congenital Absence of Posterior Elements of C2 Vertebra with Atlanto-Axial Dislocation and Basilar Invagination: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Sudhir Kumar; Nemade, Pradip Sharad; Bhoale, Sunil Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Developmental anomalies of the axis are commonly encountered, especially anomalies involving the odontoid process. Anomalies of the posterior elements are uncommon. We describe a unique case of agenesis of posterior elements of C2 with basilar invagination and atlanto-axial dislocation. An obese 8-year-old boy presented with symptoms of cervical myelopathy. Radiological workup revealed a craniovertebral junction anomaly with occipitalised atlas, absent posterior elements of axis, and hypertrophied C3 spinous process. Atlanto-axial instability and basilar invagination was present. Magnetic resonance angiography revealed hypoplastic left vertebral artery. Traction with cervical tongs failed to improve the alignment and symptoms. Anterior trans-oral release, followed by posterior decompression and custom-made instrumentation, was done. The patient recovered completely and was asymptomatic at the end of two years. X-ray and computed tomography scan demonstrated reduction of basilar invagination and maintenance of alignment. This is the first case to be reported of agenesis of posterior elements of axis associated with basilar invagination. One should look for this condition in patients with hypertrophied spinous process of C3. Utilization of hypoplastic pedicle of axis serves as an additional fixation point to increase the stability of the construct. PMID:26949474

  15. Irreducible Atlanto-Axial Dislocation in Neglected Odontoid Fracture Treated with Single Stage Anterior Release and Posterior Instrumented Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Ashok Keshav; Chaudhary, Kshitij Subhash

    2016-01-01

    It is a well-know fact that type 2 odontoid fractures frequently go into nonunion. If left untreated, patients may develop irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD). We describe the surgical management of two patients with neglected odontoid fractures and irreducible AAD treated with single stage anterior release followed by posterior instrumented fusion. Both patients presented with history of neglected trauma and progressive myelopathy. Traction under anesthesia failed to achieve reduction of AAD. Anterior release was done by trans-oral approach in one patient and retrophayngeal approach in the other. Posterior fixation was performed with transarticular screws in both the patients. Both patients had full neurological recovery and demonstrated fusion at follow-up. Anterior release followed by posterior instrumented correction may be an effective alternative to the traditional means of treating irreducible dislocations associated with neglected odontoid fractures. PMID:27114778

  16. Subluxation: dogma or science?

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C; Charlton, Keith H; Grod, Jaroslaw P; Perle, Stephen M; Sikorski, David; Winterstein, James F

    2005-01-01

    Subluxation syndrome is a legitimate, potentially testable, theoretical construct for which there is little experimental evidence. Acceptable as hypothesis, the widespread assertion of the clinical meaningfulness of this notion brings ridicule from the scientific and health care communities and confusion within the chiropractic profession. We believe that an evidence-orientation among chiropractors requires that we distinguish between subluxation dogma vs. subluxation as the potential focus of clinical research. We lament efforts to generate unity within the profession through consensus statements concerning subluxation dogma, and believe that cultural authority will continue to elude us so long as we assert dogma as though it were validated clinical theory. PMID:16092955

  17. Atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation in children.

    PubMed

    Neal, Kevin M; Mohamed, Ahmed S

    2015-06-01

    Atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation is a rare condition in which patients present with the acute onset of torticollis. Atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation represents a spectrum of disease from muscle spasm to a fixed mechanical block to reduction of the atlantoaxial complex. If left untreated, some cases may resolve spontaneously; however, other cases may result in the development of secondary changes in the bony anatomy of the atlantoaxial joint, leading to persistent deformity. Diagnosis of the condition is largely clinical but can be aided by various imaging modalities, including radiographs, dynamic CT scanning, three-dimensional CT reconstructions, or MRI. Consideration should always be given to infection or other inflammatory disease as an underlying, precipitating cause. Treatments include observation, the use a cervical collar and analgesics, halter or skeletal traction, and posterior fusion of C1-C2. The most important factor for success of conservative treatment is the time from the onset of symptoms to recognition and the initiation of treatment. PMID:26001430

  18. Conservative management of idiopathic anterior atlantoaxial subluxation without neurological deficits in an 83-year-old female: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Marchand, Andrée-Anne; Wong, Jessica J.

    2014-01-01

    Atlantoaxial subluxation that is not related to traumatic, congenital, or rheumatological conditions is rare and can be a diagnostic challenge. This case report details a case of anterior atlantoaxial subluxation in an 83-year-old female without history of trauma, congenital, or rheumatological conditions. She presented to the chiropractor with insidious neck pain and headaches, without neurological deficits. Radiographs revealed a widened atlantodental space (measuring 6 mm) indicating anterior atlantoaxial subluxation and potential sagittal atlantoaxial instability. Prompt detection and appropriate conservative management resulted in favourable long-term outcome at 13-months follow-up. Conservative management included education, mobilizations, soft tissue therapy, monitoring for neurological progression, and co-management with the family physician. The purpose of this case report is to heighten awareness of the clinical presentation of idiopathic anterior atlantoaxial subluxation without neurological deficits. Discussion will focus on the incidence, mechanism, clinical presentation, and conservative management of a complex case of anterior atlantoaxial subluxation. PMID:24587500

  19. Medial Patella Subluxation: Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Mark A.; Bollier, Mathew J.

    2015-01-01

    Medial patella subluxation is a disabling condition typically associated with previous patellofemoral instability surgery. Patients often describe achy pain with painful popping episodes. They often report that the patella shifts laterally, which occurs as the medial subluxed patella dramatically shifts into the trochlear groove during early knee flexion. Physical examination is diagnostic with a positive medial subluxation test. Nonoperative treatment, such as focused physical therapy and patellofemoral stabilizing brace, is often unsuccessful. Primary surgical options include lateral retinacular repair/imbrication or lateral reconstruction. Prevention is key to avoid medial patella subluxation. When considering patellofemoral surgery, important factors include appropriate lateral release indications, consideration of lateral retinacular lengthening vs release, correct MPFL graft placement and tension, and avoiding excessive medialization during tubercle transfer. This review article will analyze patient symptoms, diagnostic exam findings and appropriate treatment options, as well as pearls to avoid this painful clinical entity. PMID:26361441

  20. Successful conservative treatment of rheumatoid subaxial subluxation resulting in improvement of myelopathy, reduction of subluxation, and stabilisation of the cervical spine. A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Oostveen, J.; van de Laar, M. A F J; Geelen, J.; de Graaff, R.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To report the efficacy of conservative treatment with cervical traction and immobilisation with a Halo vest, in two consecutive rheumatoid arthritis patients with progressive cervical myelopathy caused by subaxial subluxation.
METHODS—Description of neurological symptoms and signs and findings in plain radiography (PR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine before and after treatment of the subaxial subluxation by traction and immobilisation with a Halo vest during four months.
RESULTS—During four months of traction and immobilisation neurological examination showed a considerable improvement of the signs and symptoms of cervical myelopathy. Afterwards PR and MRI of the cervical spine showed reduction of the subaxial subluxation. Eventually firm stabilisation was obtained in both patients without surgery of the cervical spine.
CONCLUSION—Cervical traction and immobilisation with a Halo vest can be considered as an independent conservative treatment in rheumatoid arthritis patients with cervical myelopathy caused by subaxial subluxation.

 Keywords: rheumatoid arthrits; rheumatoid subaxial subluxation PMID:10343530

  1. Subluxation and semantics: a corpus linguistics study

    PubMed Central

    Budgell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to analyze the curriculum of one chiropractic college in order to discover if there were any implicit consensus definitions of the term subluxation. Methods: Using the software WordSmith Tools, the corpus of an undergraduate chiropractic curriculum was analyzed by reviewing collocated terms and through discourse analysis of text blocks containing words based on the root ‘sublux.’ Results: It was possible to identify 3 distinct concepts which were each referred to as ‘subluxation:’ i) an acute or instantaneous injurious event; ii) a clinical syndrome which manifested post-injury; iii) a physical lesion, i.e. an anatomical or physiological derangement which in most instances acted as a pain generator. Conclusions: In fact, coherent implicit definitions of subluxation exist and may enjoy broad but subconscious acceptance. However, confusion likely arises from failure to distinguish which concept an author or speaker is referring to when they employ the term subluxation. PMID:27385839

  2. An Alternate Conservative Management of Shoulder Dislocations and Subluxations

    PubMed Central

    Sawa, Thomas M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents clinical observations/results of the application of an alternate method to traditional conservative management of subluxations and dislocations of the glenohumeral joint on major junior hockey players. The proposed program involves three stages: 1) rest and nutrition, 2) interferential current and faradic muscle stimulation, and 3) a traditional progressive-resistance weight-training program in conjunction with a specially designed orthosis. Current scientific theory on soft tissue healing and repair is reviewed as the backdrop to the proposed regimen. The resulting 100% success rate is compared to the success rate of conventional conservative therapeutic programs. The orthosis is a potentially useful therapeutic device permitting safe ranges of shoulder movement during the healing process, but scientific investigation is needed to determine the precise effect of the orthosis within the proposed therapy program. PMID:16558196

  3. Four-dimensional computed tomography and detection of dynamic capitate subluxation.

    PubMed

    Repse, Stephen E; Amis, Benjamin; Troupis, John M

    2015-06-01

    Midcarpal instability syndrome is often misdiagnosed, leading to delayed recognition, treatment and possibly poor clinical outcome. Four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT) has previously proved useful in assessment of the acromioclavicular joint and wrist motion, allowing clinicians and radiologists to gain an understanding of abnormalities in function as well as morphology, which often contribute to patient symptoms. We present the case of a 25-year-old male with no history of trauma who presents with several months of a right wrist clunk on both passive and active (load bearing) motion. Plain film and 1.5 Tesla MRI with intra-articular contrast demonstrates a normal appearance, without joint space, tendon or ligament disturbance. We further investigated this condition using a wide volume detector CT scanning technique (4D CT). Data from the patient's asymptomatic wrist was utilized as a comparison for this study. Assessment of cine movie files from the symptomatic wrist revealed abnormal subluxation of the capitate from the lunate when compared with the normal wrist, in which the capitate did not deviate from the concavity of the lunate and did not cross the perpendicular line from the superior pole of the lunate in any phase of motion, which we defined as capitate subluxation. 4D CT allows for detection of capitate subluxation in an earlier stage of disease progression, constituting earlier recognition and providing the opportunity for earlier treatment of the disease, potentially mitigating significant patient morbidity. We have been able to confidently identify capitate subluxation both visually (assessment of the sagittal RLC axis) and objectively (documentation of percent subluxation of the capitate beyond the superior pole of the lunate). We propose that 4D CT investigation of all functional carpal instability syndromes may be beneficial as this technique has the potential to significantly increase our knowledge of dynamic carpal bone abnormalities

  4. Pediatric Chiropractic Care: The Subluxation Question And Referral Risk.

    PubMed

    Homola, Samuel

    2016-02-01

    Chiropractors commonly treat children for a variety of ailments by manipulating the spine to correct a 'vertebral subluxation' or a 'vertebral subluxation complex' alleged to be a cause of disease. Such treatment might begin soon after a child is born. Both major American chiropractic associations - the International Chiropractic Association and the American Chiropractic Association - support chiropractic care for children, which includes subluxation correction as a treatment or preventive measure. I do not know of any credible evidence to support chiropractic subluxation theory. Any attempt to manipulate the immature, cartilaginous spine of a neonate or a small child to correct a putative chiropractic subluxation should be regarded as dangerous and unnecessary. Referral of a child to a chiropractor for such treatment should not be considered lest a bad outcome harms the child or leads to a charge of negligence or malpractice. PMID:26806448

  5. Concurrent occipital bone malformation and atlantoaxial subluxation in a neonatal harbor seal (Phoca vitulina).

    PubMed

    Dennison, Sophie E; Forrest, Lisa J; Fleetwood, Michelle L; Gulland, Frances M D

    2009-06-01

    A stranded male harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) neonate with progressive clinical signs of ataxia, tremors, and deteriorating consciousness was evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging for suspected cerebellar brain disease prior to euthanasia because of grave prognosis. Magnetic resonance imaging identified occipital bone dysplasia with cerebellar herniation and concurrent atlantoaxial subluxation with spinal cord compression. These imaging findings elucidated the cause of histopathology changes including gliosis of the cerebellum and axonal degeneration and dilation of myelin sheaths of the dorsal funiculus of the spinal cord. Occipital bone dysplasia and/ or atlantoaxial subluxation should be considered as differentials for abnormal neurologic signs in harbor seal neonates. Magnetic resonance imaging is a valuable modality for antemortem diagnosis. PMID:19569493

  6. PHYSICAL THERAPY INTERVENTION FOR MEDIAL PATELLOFEMORAL LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION AFTER REPEATED LATERAL PATELLAR SUBLUXATION/DISLOCATION

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Brianne; Vitale, Ashley; Apergis, Demitra; Wirth, Stephen; Grossman, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The incidence of patellar subluxation or dislocation has been documented up to 43/100,000 with females more prevalent then males. There are many contributing factors involving the hip, knee, and ankle that lead to patellar subluxation. A patellar position of lateral tilt with lateral glide may indicate weakness of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and adductors, increased tightness in the iliotibial band, and overpowering of the vastus lateralis. Patella alta can predispose an individual to lateral dislocation due to the patella placement outside of the femoral trochlear groove with a disadvantage of boney stability. Other factors that may cause the patella to laterally sublux or dislocate during a functional activity or sporting activity include a position of femoral external rotation, tibial internal rotation, and excessive contraction of the vastus lateralis. The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) aids in the prevention of a lateral patellar subluxation or dislocation. In cases where there is recurrent subluxation/dislocation and Magnetic Resonance Imaging confirms a MPFL tear, a reconstruction may be the treatment of choice. Purpose The purpose of this case series is to describe the post-surgical physical therapy management of MPFL reconstructions, outcomes using the Modified Cincinnati Knee Outcome Measure (MCKOM) and to propose staged physical therapy interventions for this pathology in the form of a treatment progression. Methods Post-operative management data and outcomes were retrospectively collected using a detailed chart review methodology from seven subjects who underwent MPFL reconstruction. Findings The Modified Cincinnati Knee Outcome Measure (MCKOM) was analyzed for each participant in four sections that were most important to the return and maintenance of participation in sport. At follow-up the mean scores for the seven subjects in Section 3 (instability) was 19.3/20, Section 4 (overall activity level) was 17.3/20, Section

  7. Peroneal tendon subluxation: the other lateral ankle injury.

    PubMed

    Roth, Jennifer A; Taylor, Walter C; Whalen, Joseph

    2010-11-01

    Ankle injuries are a frequent cause of patient visits to the emergency department and orthopaedic and primary care offices. Although lateral ligament sprains are the most common pathologic conditions, peroneal tendon subluxations occur with a similar inversion mechanism. Multiple grades of subluxation have been described with a recent addition of intrasheath subluxation. Magnetic resonance imaging is the best imaging modality to view the peroneal tendons at the retrofibular groove. Currently, point-of-care ultrasound is gaining clinical ground, especially for the dynamic viewing capability to capture an episodic subluxation. Although conservative treatment may be attempted for an acute injury, it has a low rate of success for the prevention of recurrent subluxation. Surgical procedures of various techniques have resulted in excellent recovery rates and faster return to play. The aim of this paper was to give a complete review of the current literature on peroneal tendon subluxation and to propose a clinical algorithm to help guide diagnosis and treatment. The goal of this study was to heighten clinical awareness to improve earlier detection and treatment of this sometimes elusive diagnosis. PMID:19945971

  8. Cervical cyst of the ligamentum flavum and C7-T1 subluxation: case report.

    PubMed

    Gazzeri, Roberto; Galarza, Marcelo; Gorgoglione, Leonardo; Bisceglia, Michele; D'Angelo, Vincenzo

    2005-10-01

    A patient with progressive gait disturbance resulting from a cyst of the cervical ligamentum flavum associated with C7-T1 listhesis is reported. Surgical removal of the cyst improved the patient's myelopathy. Intraspinal degenerative cysts are preferentially located in the lumbar region:unusual is the cervical localization. Differential diagnosis includes ligamentum flavum cyst, synovial and ganglion cysts. Association between degenerative intraspinal cysts and listhesis is discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first case of cyst of the ligamentum flavum associated with cervical subluxation. PMID:15981000

  9. Infantile developmental thoracolumbar kyphosis with segmental subluxation of the spine: report of five patients and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, S; Karampalis, C; Garrido, E; Tsirikos, A I

    2015-07-01

    Acute angulation at the thoracolumbar junction with segmental subluxation of the spine occurring at the level above an anteriorly hypoplastic vertebra in otherwise normal children is a rare condition described as infantile developmental thoracolumbar kyphosis. Three patient series with total of 18 children have been reported in the literature. We report five children who presented with thoracolumbar kyphosis and discuss the treatment algorithm. We reviewed the medical records and spinal imaging at initial clinical presentation and at minimum two-year follow-up. The mean age at presentation was eight months (two to 12). All five children had L2 anterior vertebral body hypoplasia. The kyphosis improved spontaneously in three children kept under monitoring. In contrast, the deformity was progressive in two patients who were treated with bracing. The kyphosis and segmental subluxation corrected at latest follow-up (mean age 52 months; 48 to 60) in all patients with near complete reconstitution of the anomalous vertebra. The deformity and radiological imaging on a young child can cause anxiety to both parents and treating physicians. Diagnostic workup and treatment algorithm in the management of infantile developmental thoracolumbar kyphosis is proposed. Observation is indicated for non-progressive kyphosis and bracing if there is evidence of kyphosis and segmental subluxation deterioration beyond walking age. Surgical stabilisation of the spine can be reserved for severe progressive deformities unresponsive to conservative treatment. PMID:26130356

  10. Patellar Subluxation With Early-Phase Synovial Chondromatosis of the Knee.

    PubMed

    Bashaireh, Khaldoon M

    2016-01-01

    Primary synovial chondromatosis is a rare, benign, monoarticular disease process that affects the synovial membrane of the joint, the synovial sheath, or the bursa around the joint. The etiology is unknown, but it has been associated with trauma in some cases. Although it is a benign lesion, if left untreated, it may lead to early secondary osteoarthritis of the joint. The knee joint is affected in 50% to 65% of cases, followed by the elbow and the hip. This article reports a 30-year-old active woman who presented to the author's clinic with a large infrapatellar mass that caused lateral subluxation of the patella, swelling, and episodic pain with crepitations 14 months after direct trauma to the knee. Clinical examination, magnetic resonance imaging, and arthroscopy revealed a large infrapatellar mass causing lateral subluxation of the patella with no loose bodies. Hoffa's disease, para-articular osteochondroma, and early-phase synovial chondromatosis were considered in the differential diagnosis. The histopathologic and clinical features were consistent with early synovial chondromatosis. The patient underwent local excision of the mass through a medial parapatellar arthrotomy. At 5 years of follow-up, she had no recurrence of the lesion or progression of the disease. Early diagnosis of synovial chondromatosis with local excision offers a reliable cure. However, long-term follow-up is advised because of the high recurrence rates as well as the risk of metaplastic transformation. PMID:26726983

  11. Acute Traumatic Ulnar Nerve Subluxation: A Case Report and Pathomechanism

    PubMed Central

    Gangadharan, Sangeet; Shetty, Padma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acute traumatic subluxation of the ulnar nerve at the cubital tunnel is rare or under-reported Case Report: A 31 year old Asian man presented with severe, radiating pain from the elbow to forearm, following a fall on his outstretched hand. He had swelling and severe tenderness at the posteromedial aspect of the elbow. Pain aggravated with elbow flexion beyond 80 degrees. There was no neurological deficit. Dynamic ultrasound demonstrated subluxation of ulnar nerve with elbow flexion. Broad arm sling immobilization was given for three weeks. At final follow up, he was asymptomatic with full range of pain free motion at the elbow. Conclusion: Our case report summarizes the presentation, management and pathomechanism of a rare clinical entity. PMID:27299098

  12. The pathogenesis of congenital radial head dislocation/subluxation.

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M; Abou Al-Shaar, Hussam; Alkattan, Wael M

    2016-07-15

    The pathogenesis of congenital radial head dislocation/subluxation is unknown and has not been previously investigated. In this review, we explore the pathogenesis and define five different primary insults: collagen abnormalities, abnormal endochondral ossification of the developing growth plate, abnormalities of forearm ossification outside the growth plate, disproportionate growth of the radius and ulna, and altered HOX D expression/activity. Finally, the clinical relevance of our review is discussed. PMID:27050104

  13. Whiplash Patients with Cervicogenic Headache After Lateral Atlanto-Axial Joint Pulsed Radiofrequency Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Nicholas HL; Halim, Willy; Evers, Andrea WM; Vissers, Kris CP

    2012-01-01

    Background: Whiplash patients regard cervicogenic headache (CEH) as the most burdensome symptom of their condition. Sufferers experience a significant degree of disability from headache, associated neck pain and disability, and sleep disturbance. Lateral C1/2 joint pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) treatment has been shown to produce significant relief from headache in patients with CEH. Objectives: The objective of this retrospective questionnaire study of 45 consecutive whiplash patients with CEH who had undergone antero-lateral atlantoaxial joint pulsed radiofrequency treatment (AA PRF) was to evaluate the treatment’s long-term effects on pain-related disability and health-related quality of life. Patients and Methods: Four questionnaires were sent to all 45 patients who had undergone AA PRF: 1) The short form-36 (SF-36); 2) The neck disability index (NDI); 3) The medical outcome scale-sleep scale (MOS-SS); 4) The headache impact test-6 (HIT-6). All 45 patients received AA PRF under fluoroscopic guidance. PRF treatment was conducted at 45 V with a pulsed frequency of 4 Hz and a pulsed width of 10 ms for 4 minutes . Results: Patients who responded to the procedure reported lower pain scores at 2, 6, and 12 months of follow-up compared to nonresponders. More important, patients reported marked improvements in headache impact (P < 0.01), neck-disability scores (P < 0.01), awakening due to headache (P < 0.01), and sleep problems (9-item; P < 0.05) on the MOS-SS. Responders to the procedure also reported a significantly higher health-related quality of life in terms of bodily pain (P < 0.05) and health change (P < 0.01) on the SF-36. Conclusions: In light of the inherent limitations of our retrospective study, AA PRF treatment can only be tentatively viewed as a promising treatment modality for whiplash patients with CEH and is subject to validation in future studies. PMID:24904786

  14. Not your typical torticollis: a case of atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Kosar; Abdo, Motea Mohamad; AlNajjar, Firas Jaafar Kareem; Abbo, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A 9-year-old boy was pushed while carrying a heavy backpack. He had no fall or direct trauma to his neck. After a few hours from the incident, he presented with neck pain and torticollis. However, somewhat atypical for torticollis, he was not able to rotate his face to the neutral position. There were no neurological deficits. Concerned by his inability to rotate his neck, the clinician suggested CT of the upper cervical spine, which demonstrated rotary subluxation of the atlantoaxial junction. The patient was taken to the operating theatre. Reduction was performed under general anaesthesia. He did well and was back to school in the following days. PMID:24667946

  15. A retinacular sling for subluxing tendons of the first extensor compartment. A case report.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, R; Britton, J M

    2000-04-01

    Over-zealous release of the first dorsal compartment of the wrist for de Quervain's disease or other lesions such as ganglia, may result in volar subluxation of the tendons of abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis. This is usually asymptomatic, but may occasionally become disabling. We describe an operation using part of the extensor retinaculum to stabilise such a subluxation. PMID:10813183

  16. Feasibility and Complications between Phacoemulsification and Manual Small Incision Surgery in Subluxated Cataract.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ruchi; Kamal, Saurabh; Kumar, Sushil; Kishore, Jugal; Malik, K P S; Angmo Bodh, Sonam; Bansal, Smriti; Singh, Madhu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the feasibility of cataract surgery with implantation of endocapsular supporting devices and intraocular lens (IOL) in subluxated cataract in phacoemulsification and manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS). Design. Prospective randomized intervention case series consisting of 60 eyes with visually significant subluxated cataract. Method. The patients were randomly distributed between the two groups equally. The main outcome measure was implantation of in-the-bag IOL, requirement of additional procedure and complications, if any. Results. Capsular bag retention in subluxated lenses is possible in 90% cases in phacoemulsification versus 76.67% cases in MSICS (P = 0.16). Both groups, achieved similar best corrected visual acuity (P = 0.73), although additional procedures, intraoperative, and postoperative complications were more common in MSICS. Conclusions. Achieving intact capsulorhexis and nuclear rotation in MSICS may be difficult in cases with large nucleus size and severe subluxation, but subluxated cataracts can be effectively managed by both phacoemuslification and MSICS. PMID:22523646

  17. Atlantoaxial Subluxation after Pyogenic Spondylitis around the Odontoid Process.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Atsushi; Yagi, Mitsuru; Takemitsu, Masakazu; Machida, Masafumi; Asazuma, Takashi; Ichimura, Shoichi

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. A case report and review of the literature. Objective. The aim of this study was to describe the conservative management of pyogenic spondylitis around the odontoid process. Summary of Background Data. Atlantoaxial subluxation after pyogenic spondylitis is rare. The therapeutic approach to infection of the upper cervical spine is controversial. Methods. Medical chart and radiological images of a 76-year-old male patient were retrospectively reviewed. Radiography revealed atlantoaxial subluxation, and an abscess was seen around the odontoid process on magnetic resonance images. Intravenous antibiotics and a halo vest were used to treat the patient. We then observed the patient's conservative treatment course. Results. C-reactive protein levels returned to normal 4 weeks after administration of the intravenous antibiotics. The patient's muscle weakness also completely recovered 8 weeks after administration of the intravenous antibiotics. Because the patient was able to walk without any support, surgical treatment was not necessary. Conclusions. Pyogenic spondylitis of the upper cervical spine is a rare manifestation. Surgical or conservative treatment must be selected carefully based on the patient's symptoms. If early diagnosis and treatment can be provided to the patients, conservative treatment can be achieved. PMID:26090255

  18. Chronic neglected irreducible atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Padalkar, Pravin

    2016-01-01

    Atlantoaxial rotatory fixation (AARF) is a rare condition and delayed diagnosis. We report a case of chronic neglected atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation in adolescence child that was treated by serial skull traction followed by posterior fusing by method pioneered by Goel et al. A 15-year-old male presented with signs of high cervical myelopathy 2 years after trauma to neck childhood. There was upper cervical kyphosis, direct tenderness over C2 spinous process, atrophy of both hand muscles with weakness in grip strength. Reflexes in upper and lower extremities were exaggerated. Imaging showed Type 3 (Fielding and Hawkins) rotatory atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD). Treatment options available were 1. Staged anterior Transoral release & reduction followed by posterior fusion described by Govender and Kumar et al, 2. Posterior open reduction of joint and fusion, 3. Occipitocervical fusion with decompression. Our case was AARF presented to us with almost 2-year post injury. Considering complications associated with anterior surgery and posterior open reduction, we have opted for closed reduction by serially applying weight to skull traction under closed neurological monitoring. We have serially increased weight up to 15 kg over a period of 1 week before. We have achieved some reduction which was confirmed by traction lateral radiographs and computerized axial tomography scan. Residual subluxation corrected intra-operatively indirectly by using reduction screws in Goel et al. procedure. Finally performed for C1-C2 fusion to take care of Instability. We like to emphasis here role of closed reduction even in delayed and neglected cases.

  19. Hemorrhagic Synovial Cyst Associated with Rheumatoid Atlantoaxial Subluxation

    PubMed Central

    Sheen, Jae Jon; Seo, Dong Kwang; Choi, Seung Ho

    2013-01-01

    Synovial cyst on prevertebral space of C1-2 joint is rare but may be associated hemorrhagic event. We describe a case of a 72-year-old woman who presented with sudden severe headache in her left occipital area with dyspnea. She had rheumatoid arthritis for 14-years. Large hemorrhagic cystic mass was seen around prevertebral space of the atlantoaxial joint on the left side on cervical MRI (magnetic resonance image) and it obstructed the nasopharyngeal cavity. Aspiration of the cystic lesion was performed via transoral approach, followed by posterior occipito-cervical fusion. The specimen was xanthochromic, suggesting old hemorrhage. The patient was tolerable on her postoperative course and showed good respiration and relieved headache. We suggest that repeated microtrauma due to atalantoaxial subluxation associated with rheumatoid arthritis as a main cause of hemorrhagic event on the cyst. PMID:24757465

  20. Ultrasound of Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Tendon Subluxation in a Tennis Player.

    PubMed

    Spicer, Paul J; Romesberg, Amanda; Kamineni, Srinath; Beaman, Francesca D

    2016-06-01

    Wrist pain is common among competitive tennis players. Subluxation of the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendon has gained recognition as a cause of ulnar-side wrist pain in athletes. In tennis, the wrist is forcibly flexed, supinated, and ulnar deviated. These repetitive motions stress the ECU tendon stabilizers allowing tendon subluxation from the ulnar groove, especially in cases of anatomic variations such as a shallow groove. We present the presurgical and postsurgical imaging findings of recurrent ECU tendon subluxation in an elite tennis player. PMID:27233073

  1. Atlantoaxial Subluxation due to an Os Odontoideum in an Achondroplastic Adult: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Rahimizadeh, Abolfazl; Soufiani, Housain F.; Hassani, Valiolah; Rahimizadeh, Ava

    2015-01-01

    The authors report the first example of an adult achondroplastic dwarf with progressive quadriparesis secondary to atlantoaxial subluxation as a consequence of an os odontoideum. Actually, craniocervical region is a frequent site of compression and myelopathy in achondroplasia particularly in children as a result of small foramen magnum and hypertrophied opisthion. Moreover, very rarely in achondroplastic patients, coexistence of atlantoaxial instability as the sequel of os odontoideum can result in further compression of the already compromised cervicomedullary neural tissues, the scenario that has been reported only in five achondroplastic children. Herein, a 39-year-old achondroplastic male suffering such an extremely rare combination is presented. With C1-C2 screw rod instrumentation, atlas arch laminectomy, limited suboccipital craniectomy, and release of dural fibrous bands, reduction, decompression, and stabilization could be achieved properly resulting in steady but progressive recovery. PMID:26693369

  2. Atlantoaxial Subluxation due to an Os Odontoideum in an Achondroplastic Adult: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Rahimizadeh, Abolfazl; Soufiani, Housain F; Hassani, Valiolah; Rahimizadeh, Ava

    2015-01-01

    The authors report the first example of an adult achondroplastic dwarf with progressive quadriparesis secondary to atlantoaxial subluxation as a consequence of an os odontoideum. Actually, craniocervical region is a frequent site of compression and myelopathy in achondroplasia particularly in children as a result of small foramen magnum and hypertrophied opisthion. Moreover, very rarely in achondroplastic patients, coexistence of atlantoaxial instability as the sequel of os odontoideum can result in further compression of the already compromised cervicomedullary neural tissues, the scenario that has been reported only in five achondroplastic children. Herein, a 39-year-old achondroplastic male suffering such an extremely rare combination is presented. With C1-C2 screw rod instrumentation, atlas arch laminectomy, limited suboccipital craniectomy, and release of dural fibrous bands, reduction, decompression, and stabilization could be achieved properly resulting in steady but progressive recovery. PMID:26693369

  3. Postinfective skin contracture: a rare cause of fifth metatarsophalangeal joint subluxation

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Jatin; Mehtani, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Dislocation or subluxation of the metatarsophalangeal joint (MTP) is common and usually follows a traumatic event. Non-traumatic causes usually include inflammatory arthritis (rheumatoid arthritis), connective tissue disorders, crowded shoewear or flexor digitorum longus tendon contracture. We present a very unusual case of subluxation of the fifth MTP joint following a postboil skin contracture. The case was treated with the release of contracture by Z-plasty. It resulted in concentric reduction of the joint and normal skin healing. PMID:25199201

  4. Postinfective skin contracture: a rare cause of fifth metatarsophalangeal joint subluxation.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jatin; Mehtani, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Dislocation or subluxation of the metatarsophalangeal joint (MTP) is common and usually follows a traumatic event. Non-traumatic causes usually include inflammatory arthritis (rheumatoid arthritis), connective tissue disorders, crowded shoewear or flexor digitorum longus tendon contracture. We present a very unusual case of subluxation of the fifth MTP joint following a postboil skin contracture. The case was treated with the release of contracture by Z-plasty. It resulted in concentric reduction of the joint and normal skin healing. PMID:25199201

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of suspected vertebral instability associated with fracture or subluxation in eleven dogs.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Philippa; Beltran, Elsa; Dennis, Ruth; Taeymans, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of suspected instability in dogs with vertebral fractures or subluxations. Eleven dogs that had MRI examinations of the spine prior to surgical stabilization of vertebral fractures and/or subluxations were included in the study. Nine dogs also had survey radiographs. Four dogs had cervical fracture or fracture-subluxation and presented with tetraplegia with intact nociception (n = 2) or nonambulatory tetraparesis (n = 2). Seven dogs had thoracolumbar fracture-subluxation or subluxation and presented with paraplegia with intact nociception (n = 5) or nonambulatory paraparesis (n = 2). A three-compartment model was applied to the interpretation of both the radiographic and MRI studies. Radiography identified compartmental disruption consistent with spinal instability in seven out of the nine cases radiographed. In MRI studies, rupture of the supportive soft tissue structures and/or fracture in at least two compartments could be visualized. Nine cases had spinal cord changes on MRI including signal intensity changes, swelling, compression, and intramedullary hemorrhage. Paravertebral muscle intensity changes were also visible at each trauma site. Magnetic resonance imaging provided helpful information on the location and extent of damage to supportive soft tissue structures and enabled assessment of spinal cord injury in this group of dogs with surgically confirmed vertebral fractures and subluxations. PMID:22703283

  6. Prediction of motor outcome by shoulder subluxation at early stage of stroke

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sung Ho; Yi, Ji Hyun; Chang, Chul Hoon; Jung, Young Jin; Kim, Seong Ho; Lee, Jun; Seo, Jeong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We attempted to determine whether shoulder subluxation at the early stage of stroke can predict motor outcome in relation to the corticospinal tract (CST) state on diffusion tensor tractography. Fifty-nine stroke patients with severe hemiparesis were recruited. The patients were classified according to the distance of shoulder subluxation (group A: ≥2 cm, group B: <2 cm) and the affected CST on diffusion tensor tractography at the first evaluation (CST type A—the CST was discontinued at the stroke lesion; CST type B—the integrity of the CST was preserved). Motor function of the patients was evaluated twice (first: beginning of rehabilitation—24.1 ± 16.6 days; second: discharge after first rehabilitation—58.5 ± 24.1 days) using the Medical Research Council score, Motricity Index, and Modified Brunnstrom Classification. Regarding the improvement of the Medical Research Council for the finger extensor and upper Motricity Index, the order in terms of better recovery was as follows: group B–type B, group A–type B, group B–type A, and group A–type A (P < 0.05). The distance of shoulder subluxation showed significant correlation with improvement of the finger extensor (moderate negative correlation, r = −0.37) and improvement of the Modified Brunnstrom Classification (weak negative correlation, r = −0.29) (P < 0.05). The presence of shoulder subluxation at the early stage of stroke can be a predictor of motor outcome of the affected upper extremity and the degree of shoulder subluxation can be a predictor of the motor function of the affected hand. Therefore, our results suggest that shoulder subluxation in relation to the affected CST state at the early stage of stroke can be a prognostic factor for motor outcome. PMID:27512873

  7. Use of the term subluxation in publications during the formative years of the chiropractic profession

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Claire

    2011-01-01

    The term subluxation has come to have different meanings for different health care professions in the United States for over the past century. This controversy has resulted in some contention both internal and external to the chiropractic profession. Some current factions within the chiropractic profession hold the term subluxation to be synonymous with the identity of chiropractic itself; however, this term was not solely used by chiropractic during its formative years. The purpose of this article is to look at uses of the term by various professions (osteopathy, medicine, and chiropractic) at the turn of the century, a time in which the chiropractic profession was developing. PMID:22693477

  8. Rotatory subluxation of the metacarpophalangeal index finger joint: a case report.

    PubMed

    Teo, Ken; Berger, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of rotatory subluxation of the metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ) of the finger. A 40-year-old man sustained an open injury to his index finger following an explosive injury. Radiographs showed rotatory subluxation of the index finger MCPJ. The index finger extensor digitorium was found interposed in the MCPJ, with a complete tear of the radial collateral ligament. Treatment was by open reduction and repair of the collateral ligament and the extensor tendon. A high level of clinical suspicion is needed to diagnose this entity. PMID:23413862

  9. Thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis with unilateral subluxation of the spine and postoperative lumbar spondylolisthesis in Hunter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Simon B; Tsirikos, Athanasios I

    2016-03-01

    Surgical correction for kyphoscoliosis is increasingly being performed for patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS). Reported case series have predominantly included patients with Type I (Hurler) and Type IV (Morquio) MPS. To their knowledge, the authors describe the first case report of surgical management of thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis in Hunter syndrome (MPS Type II) and the rare occurrence of lumbar spondylolisthesis following surgical stabilization. A 12-year-old boy with Hunter syndrome presented with severe thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis and no associated symptoms. Spinal radiographs demonstrated kyphosis of 48° (T11-L3) and scoliosis of 22° (T11-L3) with an anteriorly hypoplastic L-1 vertebra. The deformity progressed to kyphosis of 60° and scoliosis of 42° prior to surgical intervention. Spinal CT scans identified left T12-L1 facet subluxation, causing anterior rotatory displacement of the spine proximal to L-1 and bilateral L-5 isthmic spondylolysis with no spondylolisthesis. A combined single-stage anterior and posterior instrumented spinal arthrodesis from T-9 to L-4 was performed. Kyphosis and scoliosis were corrected to 4° and 0°, respectively. Prolonged ventilator support and nasogastric feedings were required for 3 months postoperatively. At 2.5 years following surgery, the patient was asymptomatic, mobilizing independently, and had achieved a solid spinal fusion. However, he had also developed a Grade II spondylolisthesis at L4-5; this was managed nonoperatively in the absence of symptoms or further deterioration of the spondylolisthesis to the 3.5-year postoperative follow-up visit. Satisfactory correction of thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis in Hunter syndrome can be achieved by combined anterior/posterior instrumented arthrodesis. The risk of developing deformity or instability in motion segments adjacent to an instrumented fusion may be greater in patients with MPS related to the underlying connective tissue disorder. PMID:26588497

  10. Atlanto-axial approach for cervical myelography in a Thoroughbred horse with complete fusion of the atlanto-occipital bones.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Monica; Dimock, Abigail N; Wisner, Erik R; Prutton, Jamie W; Madigan, John E

    2014-11-01

    A 2-year-old Thoroughbred gelding with clinical signs localized to the first 6 spinal cord segments (C1 to C6) had complete fusion of the atlanto-occipital bones which precluded performing a routine myelogram. An ultrasound-assisted myelogram at the intervertebral space between the atlas and axis was successfully done and identified a marked extradural compressive myelopathy at the level of the atlas and axis, and axis and third cervical vertebrae. PMID:25392550

  11. Atlanto-axial approach for cervical myelography in a Thoroughbred horse with complete fusion of the atlanto-occipital bones

    PubMed Central

    Aleman, Monica; Dimock, Abigail N.; Wisner, Erik R.; Prutton, Jamie W.; Madigan, John E.

    2014-01-01

    A 2-year-old Thoroughbred gelding with clinical signs localized to the first 6 spinal cord segments (C1 to C6) had complete fusion of the atlanto-occipital bones which precluded performing a routine myelogram. An ultrasound-assisted myelogram at the intervertebral space between the atlas and axis was successfully done and identified a marked extradural compressive myelopathy at the level of the atlas and axis, and axis and third cervical vertebrae. PMID:25392550

  12. Passive Rotation Range of Motion and Shoulder Subluxation: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Stanish, William; Kozey, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    Background Conflicting reports of range of motion (ROM) findings exist related to shoulder instability. Knowledge of range of motion findings among individuals with shoulder subluxation may aid in diagnosis and facilitate appropriate management. Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare passive rotation ROM and determine if a symptom-provoking activity alters ROM between patients with shoulder subluxations and healthy controls. Methods Seventeen symptomatic patients with shoulder subluxations and 14 healthy controls between the ages of 18 and 35 years were recruited. Lateral and medial rotation ROM measures were taken using a universal goniometer. Symptoms were assessed using a 10cm visual analog scale (VAS). Each group performed a symptom-provoking activity, and VAS and ROM measures were repeated. Results A two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures on pre/post activity demonstrated lower medial rotation measures for the instability group, but no differences for lateral rotation or total range (p < 0.05). A “warm-up” effect was noted, with greater ROM found in each group post activity, with a greater increase noted among controls. Analysis of the ratio of lateral rotation to medial rotation ROM found a significantly greater ratio in the instability group. VAS pain scores were greater in the instability group. Conclusion Shoulder subluxation is not necessarily associated with increased rotation ROM, therefore total ROM findings should not be used to screen for instability. Imbalances in rotation ROM may be associated with symptomatic shoulder instability and may have implications for treatment. PMID:21509102

  13. The California Tri-pull Taping Method in the Treatment of Shoulder Subluxation After Stroke: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Subhasish; Hayner, Kate A; Arumugam, Narkeesh; Goyal, Manu; Midha, Divya; Arora, Ashima; Sharma, Sorabh; Kumar, Senthil P

    2016-01-01

    Background: Shoulder subluxation is a frequent occurrence in individuals following a stroke. Although various methods of treatment are available, none of them address all possible consequences of the subluxation pain, limited range of motion, the subluxation, and decreased functional use of the arm. Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of California tri-pull taping (CTPT) method on shoulder subluxation, pain, active shoulder flexion, and upper limb functional recovery after stroke. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized control study on 30 participants. All participants received conventional neurorehabilitation 5 days a week over 6 weeks. Half of the participants also received the CTPT. Pre- and post-assessment scores were taken on all participants for the amount of shoulder subluxation, pain, active shoulder flexion, and functional recovery. Results: The CTPT method demonstrated a significant reduction of pain in the treatment group from baseline, a significant improvement in active shoulder flexion and a significant improvement in proximal arm function as measured on the proximal subscale on the Fugl-Meyer upper extremity functional Scale but not the distal or total Fugl-Meyer subscales. Shoulder subluxation was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The CTPT method is an effective treatment for the hemiplegic subluxed shoulder. PMID:27213141

  14. One-stage open reduction of an old cervical subluxation: case report.

    PubMed

    Barrenechea, Ignacio J

    2014-12-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective The recommended treatment of cervical subluxation is currently closed or open reduction. These treatments are better accomplished in the acute setting, when muscular and ligamentous laxity allows the required maneuvers to realign the dislocated segments. However, subsets of patients are still being treated subacutely. The majority of the literature addressing subacute subluxations reports treatment through "front and back" approaches, many of them performed in two, three, or even four stages. Other authors recommend days or weeks of traction to reduce the subluxation, followed by anterior or posterior approaches. Herein, we present a one-stage open posterior surgical treatment of a 2-month standing C5-C6 subluxation with "jumped facets," describing a useful technique to reduce these challenging cases without the need of traction or multistage procedures. Methods After opening and exposing the posterior elements, we performed a wide C5-6 bilateral foraminotomy; we then put lateral mass screws and rods from C4 to C6. Resembling the technique used in the reduction of high-grade lumbar spondylolisthesis, we used a rod reducer to bring back the C5 screw head toward the rod, thus realigning the lateral mass screw heads and reducing the subluxation. Results No changes were observed in the motor evoked or somatosensory potentials during this maneuver. Following an uneventful procedure, the patient was transferred to the postanesthetic care unit and discharged 3 days later. Conclusions This open single-stage posterior approach dramatically reduces operating time. This technique could be added into the decision-making armamentarium for cases without disk herniation. PMID:25396107

  15. Odontoid upward migration in rheumatoid arthritis. An analysis of 45 patients with "cranial settling".

    PubMed

    Menezes, A H; VanGilder, J C; Clark, C R; el-Khoury, G

    1985-10-01

    Lack of correlation between the severity of rheumatoid subluxation of the upper cervical vertebrae and supposed absence of neurological damage has led to the erroneous supposition that this finding is innocuous. Incomplete autopsy studies in rheumatoid arthritis have failed to recognize the cause of death, despite previously proven dramatic occipito-atlanto-axial dislocations. The most feared entity of rheumatoid basilar invagination, namely "cranial settling," is poorly understood. Between 1978 and 1984, the authors treated 45 rheumatoid arthritis patients who were symptomatic with "cranial settling." This consisted of vertical odontoid penetration through the foramen magnum (9 to 33 mm), occipito-atlanto-axial dislocation, lateral atlantal mass erosion, downward telescoping of the anterior arch of C-1 on the axis, and rostral rotation of the posterior arch of C-1 producing ventral and dorsal cervicomedullary junction compromise. Cervicomedullary junction dysfunction has mistakenly been called "entrapment neuropathy," "progression of disease," or "vasculitis." Occipital pain occurred in all 45 patients, myelopathy in 36, blackout spells in 24, brain-stem signs in 17, and lower cranial nerve palsies in 10. Four patients had prior tracheostomies. Four previously asymptomatic patients with "cranial settling" presented acutely quadriplegic. The factors governing treatment were reducibility and direction of encroachment determined by skeletal traction and myelotomography. Transoral odontoidectomy was performed in seven patients with irreducible pathology. All patients underwent occipitocervical bone fusion (with C-1 decompression if needed) and acrylic fixation. Improvement occurred during traction, implying that compression might be the etiology for the neurological signs. There were no complications. Thus, "cranial settling" is a frequent complication of rheumatoid arthritis; although it is poorly recognized, it has serious implications and is treatable. PMID:4032013

  16. Atlantoaxial Rotatory Subluxation after Removal of a Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt in the Supine-Lateral Position.

    PubMed

    Hashide, Shusei; Aihara, Yasuo; Nagahara, Ayumi; Mitsuyama, Tetsuryu; Okada, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation (AARS) is an uncommon disease with a greater prevalence in children than adults. So far there has only been one report of AARS after surgery related to ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting. We present a new case of AARS closed reduction treatment after VP shunt removal in an 8-year-old girl with wound pain on the back of her head and torticollis after surgery. Her head was rotated in the spine-lateral position during surgery. The diagnosis of AARS was established by 3D-computed tomography. The rotatory subluxation was cured after cervical traction therapy. The successful closed reduction was the consequence of early detection and conservative treatment, which are important constituents in the management of AARS. PMID:26202450

  17. Postero-lateral subluxation of the superior tibio-fibular joint.

    PubMed Central

    Gillham, N R; Villar, R N

    1989-01-01

    Foot drop resulting from subluxation of the superior tibio-fibular joint is described in a female dancer. Spontaneous resolution of the nerve injury occurred over two months with no residual joint instability. Expectant management is recommended for this injury. The potential for this unusual injury, in a wide variety of sports, is pointed out. Images Figure 1a and b Figure 2a and b PMID:2620239

  18. Single level arthrodesis as treatment for midcervical fracture subluxation: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Harrington, James F; Park, Michael C

    2007-02-01

    Although many different techniques exist for fusion of midcervical facet fracture dislocations, limiting arthrodesis to a single level could have a theoretical advantage: fewer fused segments could lessen long-term negative effects of fusion on adjacent segments. Therefore, we prospectively treated 22 consecutive patients with midcervical fracture dislocation without vertebral body fracture with single level arthrodesis even if anterior/posterior surgery were required. Twelve patients with unilateral facet subluxation underwent anterior cervical discectomy, distraction reduction with Caspar posts (AESCULAP, Tuttlingen, Germany) with allograft fusion and anterior cervical plating. Ten patients with any component of bilateral facet subluxation underwent anterior cervical discectomy, distraction reduction with Caspar posts, allograft fusion and plating followed by posterior lateral mass plating. No patients demonstrated worsening of nerve root or spinal cord function postoperatively. Interbody stability occurred in all cases. Only complications were 4 cases of pneumonia, 1 case of wound leakage, and 1 case of superficial wound infection. Good reduction was achieved for both unilateral and bilateral facet fractures. Single level interbody arthrodesis is safe and effective strategy with both unilateral and bilateral facet fractures. Single level arthrodesis may also offer long-term benefit compared with multilevel fusions. PMID:17285051

  19. Case Report of a Traumatic Atlantoaxial Rotatory Subluxation with Bilateral Locked Cervical Facets: Management, Treatment, and Outcome.

    PubMed

    Hawi, Nael; Alfke, Dirk; Liodakis, Emmanouil; Omar, Mohamed; Krettek, Christian; Müller, Christian Walter; Meller, Rupert

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to report a rare case of isolated traumatic atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation without ligamentous injury. Management consisted of analgesia, sedation, and application of a halo skull traction device. After removing halo skull traction, full reduction and recovery were achieved without instability. PMID:27190664

  20. Case Report of a Traumatic Atlantoaxial Rotatory Subluxation with Bilateral Locked Cervical Facets: Management, Treatment, and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Hawi, Nael; Alfke, Dirk; Liodakis, Emmanouil; Omar, Mohamed; Krettek, Christian; Müller, Christian Walter; Meller, Rupert

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to report a rare case of isolated traumatic atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation without ligamentous injury. Management consisted of analgesia, sedation, and application of a halo skull traction device. After removing halo skull traction, full reduction and recovery were achieved without instability. PMID:27190664

  1. Results of intraocular lens implantation with capsular tension ring in subluxated crystalline or cataractous lenses in children

    PubMed Central

    Das, Pranab; Ram, Jagat; Brar, Gagandeep Singh; Dogra, Mangat R

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of intraocular lens (IOL) implantation using capsular tension ring (CTR) in subluxated crystalline or cataractous lenses in children. Setting: Tertiary care setting Materials and Methods: We prospectively studied 18 eyes of 15 children with subluxation of crystalline or cataractous lenses between 90° up to 210° after phacoemulsification, CTR and IOL implantation. Each child was examined for IOL centration, zonular dehiscence and posterior capsular opacification (PCO). Results: Age of the patient ranged between five to 15 years. Out of 18 eyes, seven had traumatic and 11 had spontaneous subluxation of crystalline or cataractous lens. Phacoemulsification was successfully performed with CTR implantation in the capsular bag. Intraoperative zonular dialysis occurred in two eyes. Anterior vitrectomy was performed in six eyes to manage vitreous prolapse. IOL implanted was polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) in eight eyes, hydrophobic acrylic in seven and hydrophilic acrylic in three. Follow-up ranged from 24 months to 72 months. Sixteen eyes had a best corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Nine eyes developed significant PCO and were managed with Neodymium Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser posterior capsulotomy. One eye with acrylic IOL in the capsular bag had IOL dislocation after two years which was managed with vitrectomy and secondary trans-scleral fixation of IOL. Conclusions: Phacoaspiration with CTR implantation makes capsular bag IOL fixation possible in most of the eyes with subluxated crystalline or cataractous lenses. PCO still remains a challenge in children with successful phacoaspiration with CTR implantation PMID:19861744

  2. Evaluation of Publicly Available Documents to Trace Chiropractic Technique Systems That Advocate Radiography for Subluxation Analysis: A Proposed Genealogy

    PubMed Central

    Young, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate publicly available information of chiropractic technique systems that advocate radiography for subluxation detection to identify links between chiropractic technique systems and to describe claims made of the health effects of the osseous misalignment component of the chiropractic subluxation and radiographic paradigms. Methods The Internet and publicly available documents were searched for information representing chiropractic technique systems that advocate radiography for subluxation detection. Key phrases including chiropractic, x-ray, radiography, and technique were identified from a Google search between April 2013 and March 2014. Phrases in Web sites and public documents were examined for any information about origins and potential links between these techniques, including the type of connection to BJ Palmer, who was the first chiropractor to advocate radiography for subluxation detection. Quotes were gathered to identify claims of health effects from osseous misalignment (subluxation) and paradigms of radiography. Techniques were grouped by region of the spine and how they could be traced back to B.J Palmer. A genealogy model and summary table of information on each technique were created. Patterns in year of origination and radiographic paradigms were noted, and percentages were calculated on elements of the techniques’ characteristics in comparison to the entire group. Results Twenty-three techniques were identified on the Internet: 6 full spine, 17 upper cervical, and 2 techniques generating other lineage. Most of the upper cervical techniques (14/16) traced their origins to a time when the Palmer School was teaching upper cervical technique, and all the full spine techniques (6/6) originated before or after this phase. All the technique systems’ documents attributed broad health effects to their methods. Many (21/23) of the techniques used spinal realignment on radiographs as one of their outcome

  3. Atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation as a cause of torticollis in a 5-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Bagouri, Elmunzar; Deshmukh, Sandeep; Lakshmanan, Palaniappan

    2014-01-01

    Many patients present to the emergency department complaining of a sore or stiff neck and lateral flexion of the neck with contralateral rotation. Under the pressure of the breaching time and busy shifts some of the patients are discharged to the care of their general practitioners without adequate investigations. While most of the cases are due to benign causes, torticollis can be due to many congenital and acquired pathologies, some of which may need further investigation and urgent management. Atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS), tumours of the base of the skull and infections are among these causes. Delayed diagnosis may lead to worsening neurology and complicate the management. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl who presented to our fracture clinic with a fractured clavicle and torticollis; her subsequent investigations confirmed the diagnosis of AAS. Our patient responded to non-operative treatment and improved with no neurological complications. PMID:24832710

  4. Atlantooccipital subluxation in a neonate with Down's syndrome. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Trumble, E R; Myseros, J S; Smoker, W R; Ward, J D; Mickell, J J

    1994-01-01

    Atlantooccipital subluxation (AOS) occurs in up to 63% of patients with Down's syndrome. However, presenting symptoms and the age at which preoperative screening becomes necessary have not been clearly delineated. Recently, a 16-day-old female with Down's syndrome and AOS presented to our institution. Following patent ductus arteriosus ligation, her neurological examination revealed trace movement, few spontaneous respirations, and left lower extremity clonus. Cervical spine radiographs revealed significant AOS. She was reduced and underwent a fusion from the occiput to C2. She gradually regained full strength and sensation. This case is the youngest example of AOS related to Down's syndrome described. It emphasizes the need for preoperative screening of all patients with Down's syndrome. PMID:7947311

  5. Influence of the application of inelastic taping on shoulder subluxation and pain changes in acute stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Heo,, Min-Yeong; Kim,, Cheol-Yong; Nam, Chan-Woo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact on the shoulder joints of performing inelastic taping and bed physical therapy for acute stroke. [Subjects and Methods] The intervention was conducted for eight weeks with an experimental group of 18 stroke patients who received bed physical therapy and inelastic taping and a control group of 18 stroke patients who received only bed physical therapy. [Results] After the intervention, the subluxation degree of the experimental group, which received bed physical therapy and inelastic taping, was found to be significantly different from that of the control group, which received only bed physical therapy. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the application of inelastic taping for acute stroke patients was confirmed to be effective at reducing shoulder subluxation and pain, and was confirmed to be a good physical therapy intervention, based on its efficacy. PMID:26696705

  6. Microperforation prolotherapy: a novel method for successful nonsurgical treatment of atraumatic spontaneous anterior sternoclavicular subluxation, with an illustrative case

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Alvin; McAleer, Scott; Hinz, Marty

    2011-01-01

    Background Surgical repair of an atraumatic spontaneous anterior subluxation of the sternoclavicular joint (herein referred to as the “SCJ”) is often associated with poor outcome expectations. With traditional treatment, successful conservative therapy usually incorporates major lifestyle alterations. This manuscript discusses a novel approach known as “microperforation prolotherapy”. To illustrate the technique, the care of a patient who benefitted from this treatment is reviewed. Purpose To present a novel form of treatment with an illustrative case that demonstrates the potential efficacy of microperforation prolotherapy of the SCJ. Patient and methods A novel approach to treatment of bilateral subluxation of the sternoclavicular joint with microperforation prolotherapy is discussed. The clinical course of a 21-year-old male with bilateral subluxation of the SCJ, which seriously hampered the patient’s athletic and daily living activities, is used as a backdrop to the discussion. Results Following microperforation prolotherapy, the instability of the SCJ was replaced by full stability, complete range of motion, and the opportunity to engage in all of the athletic endeavors previously pursued. There is no scar or other cosmetic defect resulting from the treatment received. Conclusion Anterior sternoclavicular joint subluxation has a poor record of complete recovery with surgical procedures or conservative measures with regard to providing restoration of full lifestyle function. This manuscript documents a novel microperforation prolotherapy treatment that induced healing and restored full stability to the ligament structures responsible for the condition in a completely safe and effective fashion, allowing the patient to resume full lifestyle activities without restriction. The exceptional response to treatment noted here is encouragement for further studies. PMID:24198570

  7. Peroneus Brevis Attrition & Longitudinal Split Tear without Subluxation and Associated Hypertrophy of Peronal Tubercle” – Treatment of an Uncommon Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Mukesh; Singh, Varun; Bhargava, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Peroneus brevis tendinitis with its attritional longitudinal split rupture without any subluxation from peroneal groove and associated enlarged peroneal tubercle is un common presentation. Case Report: A 40 year old female presented with moderate swelling and tenderness over the lateral and dorso-lateral aspect of left ankle with history of old trauma to ankle with swelling, persistant pain and difficulty in walking. On physical examination during passive eversion and inversion the excursion of the peroneal tendons was painful. Most tender point was just posterior to the tip of the fibula. During surgery we found the intact superior peroneal ligament with both peroneal tendons placed at normal site without subluxation, tendon sheath was inflamed and swollen, on further dissection we could see the attrition of inner surface of the peroneus brevis and a 2 cm longitudinal split tear of the same. Conclusion: Although rare but peroneus brevis tendon attrition and tear can occur without subluxation from peronal groove. Refractory ankle pain on lateral aspect presenting with on and off swelling should arise suspicion of peroneal tendon tear. Correct diagnosis and proper surgical repair can produce excellent results.

  8. Radiological assessment of irreducible posterolateral knee subluxation after dislocation due to interposition of the vastus medialis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Paulin, Emilie; Boudabbous, Sana; Nicodème, Jean-Damien; Arditi, Daniel; Becker, Christoph

    2015-06-01

    Knee dislocation is a serious and relatively uncommon traumatism that every emergency room is supposed to diagnose and treat rapidly. Most of the time these dislocations reduce spontaneously or with closed reduction. If a subluxation persists, an incarceration of soft tissue in the joint must be suspected. Irreducible knee subluxations after dislocation are rare entities better described in the orthopaedic than in the radiological literature. However, the initial radiological assessment is an important tool to obtain the correct diagnosis, to detect neurovascular complications, and to plan the most suitable treatment. In cases of delayed diagnosis, the functional prognosis of the joint and even the limb may be seriously compromised primarily because of vascular lesions. Thereby, vascular imaging is essential in cases of dislocation of the knee, and we will discuss the role of angiography and the more recent use of computed tomography angiography or magnetic resonance angiography. Our patient presented with an irreducible knee subluxation due to interposition of the vastus medialis, and we will review the classical clinical presentation and 'do not miss' imaging findings on conventional radiography, computed tomography angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Finally, we will also report the classical imaging pathway indicated in knee dislocation, with a special emphasis on the irreducible form. PMID:25560996

  9. Patient-reported outcomes following a physiotherapy rehabilitation programme for atraumatic posterior shoulder subluxation

    PubMed Central

    Mackie, Ann; Wallace, W Angus

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of research that describes the patient-reported benefits of physiotherapy rehabilitation for atraumatic posterior instability despite non-operative treatment being considered the initial treatment of choice. This retrospective case series review describes the patient-reported outcomes following a physiotherapy rehabilitation programme for atraumatic posterior shoulder instability. Methods Nineteen consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of atraumatic posterior shoulder subluxation completed our physiotherapy programme. All patients completed Oxford Instability Shoulder scores (OISS) and Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI) scores before and after physiotherapy intervention. Results Patients reported a statistically significant clinical improvement in the main outcome measures following physiotherapy intervention. The OISS showed a mean improvement of 18.6 points, whereas the WOSI score showed a mean improvement of 37.2%. Following physiotherapy rehabilitation, all patients reported that their shoulder did not prevent them from performing their work/studies or their chosen hobbies/sports. Conclusions Our results support the view that specialized physiotherapy rehabilitation is a valuable treatment option for atraumatic posterior shoulder instability and reveal significant clinically important improvements in patient-reported outcomes.

  10. The Prevalence and Role of Low Lying Peroneus Brevis Muscle Belly in Patients with Peroneal Tendon Pathologies: A Potential Source for Tendon Subluxation

    PubMed Central

    Mirmiran, Roya; Squire, Chad; Wassell, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A low lying peroneus brevis muscle belly is a rare anomaly. There are few published studies that support presence of this anomaly as an etiology for peroneal tendon tear. However, the association between a low lying peroneus muscle belly (LLMB) and tendon subluxation is not well explored. In this retrospective study, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and intraoperative findings of 50 consecutive patients undergoing a primary peroneal tendon surgery, in a five year period, were assessed. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI, in comparison to intraoperative findings for identifying peroneal tendon disease was investigated. Presence of associated peroneal tendon pathologies in patients with and without LLMB was compared. Sensitivity of MRI was high in identifying peroneal tenosynovitis (81.58%) and tear (85.71%). Although the sensitivity of MRI for detecting a LLMB (3.23%) and tendon subluxation (10.00%) was low, MRI had high specificity at 94.74% and 100%, respectively. Intraoperatively, LLMB was seen in 62.00% of patients with chronic lateral ankle pain and was associated with 64.52% cases of tenosynovitis, 29.03% cases of tendon subluxation, and 80.65% cases of peroneus brevis tendon tear. While presence of a LLMB did not show any statistically significant association with peroneus brevis tendon subluxation, among the 10 patients with intraoperatively observed tendon subluxation, 9 had a concomitant LLMB. More studies with a larger patient population are needed to better study the role of a low lying muscle belly as a mass occupying lesion resulting in peroneal tendon subluxation. PMID:25998478

  11. Prevalence and Role of a Low-Lying Peroneus Brevis Muscle Belly in Patients With Peroneal Tendon Pathologic Features: A Potential Source of Tendon Subluxation.

    PubMed

    Mirmiran, Roya; Squire, Chad; Wassell, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A peroneus brevis low-lying muscle belly (LLMB) is a rare anomaly. A few published studies have supported the presence of this anomaly as an etiology for a peroneal tendon tear. However, the association between a peroneus brevis LLMB and tendon subluxation has not been well explored. In the present retrospective study, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and intraoperative findings of 50 consecutive patients undergoing primary peroneal tendon surgery during a 5-year period were assessed. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI compared with the intraoperative findings for identifying peroneal tendon disease were investigated. The presence of associated peroneal tendon pathologic features in patients with and without a peroneus brevis LLMB was also compared. The sensitivity of MRI was high for identifying peroneal tenosynovitis (81.58%) and tear (85.71%). Although the sensitivity of MRI for detecting a peroneus brevis LLMB (3.23%) and tendon subluxation (10.00%) was low, MRI had high specificity at 94.74% and 100%, respectively. Intraoperatively, a peroneus brevis LLMB was seen in 62.00% of the patients with chronic lateral ankle pain and was associated with 64.52% of the patients with tenosynovitis, 29.03% of those with tendon subluxation, and 80.65% of those with a peroneus brevis tendon tear. Although the presence of a peroneus brevis LLMB did not show any statistically significant association with peroneus brevis tendon subluxation, of the 10 patients with intraoperatively observed tendon subluxation, 9 had a concomitant peroneus brevis LLMB. More studies with larger patient populations are needed to better investigate the role of a peroneus brevis LLMB as a mass-occupying lesion resulting in peroneal tendon subluxation. PMID:25998478

  12. Effects of Brain-Computer Interface-controlled Functional Electrical Stimulation Training on Shoulder Subluxation for Patients with Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yun Young; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Byoung Hee

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of brain-computer interface (BCI)-controlled functional electrical stimulation (FES) training on shoulder subluxation of patients with stroke. Twenty subjects were randomly divided into two groups: the BCI-FES group (n = 10) and the FES group (n = 10). Patients in the BCI-FES group were administered conventional therapy with the BCI-FES on the shoulder subluxation area of the paretic upper extremity, five times per week during 6 weeks, while the FES group received conventional therapy with FES only. All patients were assessed for shoulder subluxation (vertical distance, VD; horizontal distance, HD), pain (visual analogue scale, VAS) and the Manual Function Test (MFT) at the time of recruitment to the study and after 6 weeks of the intervention. The BCI-FES group demonstrated significant improvements in VD, HD, VAS and MFT after the intervention period, while the FES group demonstrated significant improvements in HD, VAS and MFT. There were also significant differences in the VD and two items (shoulder flexion and abduction) of the MFT between the two groups. The results of this study suggest that BCI-FES training may be effective in improving shoulder subluxation of patients with stroke by facilitating motor recovery. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26876690

  13. Progressive bone and joint abnormalities of the spine and lower extremities in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Morrell, David S; Pearson, J Michael; Sauser, Donald D

    2002-01-01

    Bone and joint changes in cerebral palsy result from muscle spasticity and contracture. The spine and the joints of the lower extremity are most commonly affected. Scoliosis may progress rapidly and may continue after skeletal maturity. Increased thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis, spondylolisthesis, spondylolysis, and pelvic obliquity may accompany the scoliosis. Progressive hip flexion and adduction lead to windswept deformity, increased femoral anteversion, apparent coxa valga, subluxation, deformity of the femoral head, hip dislocation, and formation of a pseudoacetabulum. In the knee, flexion contracture, patella alta, and patellar fragmentation are the most commonly seen abnormalities. Recurvatum deformity can also develop in the knee secondary to contracture of the rectus femoris muscle. Progressive equinovalgus and equinovarus of the foot and ankle are associated with rocker-bottom deformity and subluxation of the talonavicular joint. Early recognition of progressive deformity in patients with cerebral palsy allows timely treatment and prevention of irreversible change. PMID:11896216

  14. Simultaneous Volar Dislocation of Distal Interphalangeal Joint and Volar Fracture-Subluxation of Proximal Interphalangeal Joint of Little Finger: A New Mechanism of Injury.

    PubMed

    Mozaffarian, Kamran; Bayatpour, Abdollah; Vosoughi, Amir Reza

    2016-10-01

    Simultaneous volar dislocation of distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint and volar fracture-subluxation of proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint of the same finger has not been reported yet. A 19-year-old man was referred due to pain on the deformed left little finger after a ball injury. Radiographs showed volar dislocation of the DIP joint and dorsal lip fracture of the middle phalanx with volar subluxation of PIP joint of the little finger. This case was unique in terms of the mechanism of injury which was hyperflexion type in two adjacent joints of the same finger. The patient was treated by closed reduction of DIP joint dislocation and open reduction and internal fixation of the PIP joint fracture-subluxation and application of dorsal external fixator due to instability. Finally, full flexion of the PIP joint and full extension of the DIP joint were obtained but with 10 degree extension lag at the PIP joint and DIP joint flexion ranging from 0 degree to 30 degrees. Some loss of motion in small joints of the fingers after hyperflexion injuries should be expected. PMID:27595966

  15. Posterior Fixation for Atlantoaxial Subluxation in a Case with Complex Anomaly of Persistent First Intersegmental Artery and Assimilation in the C1 Vertebra

    PubMed Central

    Umebayashi, Daisuke; Hara, Masahito; Nakajima, Yasuhiro; Nishimura, Yusuke; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    We report a very rare case of atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS) with persistent first intersegmental artery (PFIA) and assimilation in the atlas (C1) vertebra. This case demonstrates the difficulty of deciding on a surgical strategy for complex anomalies. A 63-year-old man presented with gait disturbance, neck pain, and severe dysesthesia in his left arm. Past history included a whiplash injury. Dynamic X-ray studies demonstrated an irreducible AAS and assimilation of C1. This subluxation was slightly deteriorated in an extended position. A three-dimensional computed tomography angiography (3DCTA) indicated that the PFIA was located on the left side. We performed a C1 posterior arch resection and C1 lateral mass–axis pedicle screw (C1LM–C2PS) fixation using the modified technique of skewering the occipital condyle and C1 lateral mass. The patient had no postoperative morbidity and his symptoms disappeared immediately after operation. Complex anomalies cause difficulty in determining surgical strategy although several surgical methods for simple craniovertebral junction anomaly have been reported. To avoid significant morbidities associated with vertebral artery injury, surgical strategies for these complex conditions are discussed. The modified technique of a C1 lateral mass screw penetrating the occipital condyle is a viable treatment option. PMID:24097089

  16. Recurrence of cervical spine instability in rheumatoid arthritis following previous fusion: can disease progression be prevented by early surgery?

    PubMed

    Agarwal, A K; Peppelman, W C; Kraus, D R; Pollock, B H; Stolzer, B L; Eisenbeis, C H; Donaldson, W F

    1992-09-01

    In a retrospective study, 110 patients with rheumatoid arthritis who had cervical spine fusion were evaluated for recurrence of cervical spine instability and resultant need for further surgery. Recurrence of cervical instability was correlated with initial radiographic abnormality, primary surgical procedure and interval between the 2 surgeries. There were 55 patients who had atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS) and required C1-C2 fusion as primary surgery. Three of these patients (5.5%) developed subaxial subluxation (SAS) and had a second procedure after a mean interval of 9 years. Twenty-two patients had AAS with superior migration of the odontoid (AAS-SMO) and had initial surgery of occiput-C3 fusion. Eight of these patients (36%) developed SAS and had a second surgery after a mean interval of 2.6 years. Of the 19 patients with primary radiographic deformity of SAS, one required further surgery for subluxation of an adjacent superior vertebra after a period of 6 years. Fourteen patients had combined deformity of AAS-SMO-SAS, and one required further surgery for SAS after an interval of 22 months. Recurrence of cervical instability following a previous fusion occurred in 15% of these 110 patients. It was seen in 5.5% of patients with initial deformity of AAS vs 36% of patients with AAS-SMO. No patients with C1-C2 fusion for AAS progressed to develop superior migration of the odontoid. We conclude that early C1-C2 fusion for AAS before development of SMO decreases the risk of further progression of cervical spine instability. The pattern of progression of cervical spine involvement, as discussed in the literature, is reviewed. PMID:1433002

  17. Effect of tibial tuberosity advancement on cranial tibial subluxation in the feline cranial cruciate deficient stifle joint: An ex vivo experimental study.

    PubMed

    Retournard, M; Bilmont, A; Asimus, E; Palierne, S; Autefage, A

    2016-08-01

    The effects of Tibial Tuberosity Advancement (TTA) on Cranial Tibial Subluxation (CTS) and Tibial Rotation Angle (TRA) were evaluated in a model of feline Cranial Cruciate Ligament (CrCL)-deficient stifle joint. Ten hindlimbs of adult cats were used. Quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles were simulated using cables, turnbuckles and a spring. An axial load of 30% body weight was applied. The stifle and talocrural joint angles were adjusted to 120°. Patellar tendon angle (PTA), CTS and TRA were measured radiographically before and after CrCL section, after TTA and after additional advancement by 1 and 2mm. CrCL section resulted in a CTS of 8.1±1.5mm and a TRA of 18.4±5.7 °. After TTA, PTA was significantly decreased from 99.1±1.7° to 89.1±0.7°; CTS and TRA did not change significantly (7.8±1.0mm and 15.9±5.7° respectively). Additional advancement of the tibial tuberosity by 1mm did not significantly affect CTS and TRA. Additional advancement of the tibial tuberosity by 2mm significantly reduced the PTA to 82.9±0.9°. A significant decrease of CTS (6.9±1.3mm) and TRA (14.7±3.6°) was also observed. A lack of stabilization of the CrCL deficient stifle was observed after TTA in this model of the feline stifle. Even though the validity of the model can be questioned, simple transposition of the technique of TTA from the cat to the dog appeared hazardous. PMID:27474002

  18. Patellar subluxation. A recent history.

    PubMed

    Hughston, J C

    1989-04-01

    For 15 years (1955 to 1970), I was plowing "new ground" pretty much by myself. When you plow behind an old mule and hit a stump hole full of cottonmouth moccasins, you have to get on the move in a hurry and figure out some solution to the predicament or you won't get your corn planted. So, I was not treating the overweight, knock-kneed, loose-jointed, teenaged girl, but the young boy or girl who thought that he or she was an athlete and had dreams of being a star. If rehabilitation did not work, then I thought a lateral release, an Elmslie, and nothing short of a full reconstruction would solve the problem. One had to develop as much vastus medialis obliquus power as this dysplastic muscle could generate, had to transfer the strong vastus lateralis to a more central pull, and, with the distal reconstruction, correct any patella alta and Q-angle abnormality. One had to give the knee every possible advantage in order to serve an athlete. As Hippocrates so wisely noted, one needed to study the athlete to know, with appropriate modifications, what is best for every patient, young or old. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, many fine young orthopedists were stimulated by the information of the AAOS postgraduate courses in sports medicine. They, after having gained further through their own experiences, have become the major contributors to our increasing knowledge of the patellofemoral joint, especially in athletes, and many of these fine "young" (now a little older) orthopedists are now the contributors to this issue. They are giving you their experiences, knowledge, and lessons. A close and repeated study of their information must be combined with compassion for your patient. Then, only experience will develop the desired fine tuning. PMID:2752433

  19. [Neurologic manifestations in mucopolysaccharidoses].

    PubMed

    Héron, B

    2014-06-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are progressive multisystem lysosomal storage diseases caused by defective catabolism of complex molecules, namely the glycosaminoglycans and their consequent accumulation in tissues. Of the 7 clinical types representing 11 different enzyme deficiencies, only MPS III (Sanfilippo syndromes A, B, C and D) and severe forms of MPS I (Hurler's syndrome), MPS II (severe Hunter syndrome) and MPS VII (severe Sly syndrome) give rise to progressive cerebral disease. Neurosensory complications (hearing impairment, retinopathy and optic atrophy) can also occur in some types. Carpal (or even tarsal) tunnel syndrome is a common complication of the MPS, except for MPS III and MPS IV. Hydrocephalus due to abnormal circulation or resorption of cerebrospinal fluid, chronic spinal compression may occur as complications of MPS I, II and VII and also in MPS IV and VI. Atlanto-axial instability may be observed in type IV and I. PMID:25063379

  20. Dysspondyloenchondromatosis (DSC) associated with COL2A1 mutation: Clinical and radiological overlap with spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia-Strudwick type (SEMD-S).

    PubMed

    Merrick, Blair; Calder, Alistair; Wakeling, Emma

    2015-12-01

    Dysspondyloenchondromatosis (DSC) is a rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by enchondroma-like lesions and anisospondyly. The former leads to discrepancies in limb length, and the latter, to progressive kyphoscoliosis. Two recent cases have highlighted the genetic heterogeneity of DSC, one demonstrating the presence and, the other, the absence of a COL2A1 mutation. This may have important clinical implications, for example, screening for complications including atlanto-axial instability associated with type II collagenopathies, as well as long-term patient management. We report on a case with radiographic features of DSC with overlap into the type II collagenopathy spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type, who was found to carry a novel heterozygous mutation in the COL2A1 gene. Testing for COL2A1 mutations should be performed in all patients with radiological features of DSC. Further research is needed to identify the underlying molecular cause in cases where no COL2A1 mutation is identified. PMID:26250472

  1. Incontinence in Intellectual Disability: An Under Recognized Cause.

    PubMed

    Nair, Lal Devayanivasudevan; Sagayaraj, Benjamin; V T T, Rajan; Kumar, Radha

    2015-09-01

    Many children with Down syndrome may develop urinary incontinence during adolescence or nearing adulthood. Most often low mental ability, behavioural issues, urinary tract infection, hypothyroidism, atlanto-axial subluxation or sexual abuse may be suspected to be the reason. We report a case of Down syndrome with tethered cord syndrome (TCS) and Lipoma of Filum terminale with Cauda equina in normal position, as a cause of bowel and bladder incontinence. The need for operating with Cauda Equina in normal position is debated. But a conscious decision was taken to operate and the incontinence improved markedly which was documented by using a standardized questionnaire (King's questionnaire) and thereby making a difference in the child's life. A literature search did not result in any case of Down syndrome with tethered cord syndrome and secondary incontinence as presentation. Considering the possibility of TCS as a cause of incontinence, often neglected even in normal children, careful evaluation and correction of such problems will make a difference in the life of many intellectually disabled children. Incontinence should not be casually attributed to intellectual disability without ruling out other causes. PMID:26500975

  2. Quadriplegia in a child following adenotonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, J; Tandon, M S; Singh, D; Ganjoo, P

    2013-05-01

    Neurological deterioration in a child following routine surgery, although rare, has potentially life threatening consequences. We report the case of a child who, following adentonsillectomy, developed quadriplegia and acute respiratory distress due to previously undetected atlanto-axial instability. Patients with atlanto-axial instability often have mild or non-specific symptoms, despite severe cervical cord compression. Subtle manifestations may be ignored or attributed to other disease processes, which render patients with undiagnosed atlanto-axial instability at risk of serious neurological injury during general anaesthesia, particularly at the time of laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. PMID:23316777

  3. EDITORIAL: Catalysing progress Catalysing progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Examples of the merits of blue-sky research in the history of science are legion. The invention of the laser, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, is an excellent example. When it was invented it was considered to be 'a solution waiting for a problem', and yet the level to which it has now infiltrated our day-to-day technological landscape speaks volumes. At the same time it is also true to say that the direction of research is also at times rightly influenced by the needs and concerns of the general public. Over recent years, growing concerns about the environment have had a noticeable effect on research in nanotechnology, motivating work on a range of topics from green nanomaterial synthesis [1] to high-efficiency solar cells [2] and hydrogen storage [3]. The impact of the world's energy consumption on the welfare of the planet is now an enduring and well founded concern. In the face of an instinctive reluctance to curtail habits of comfort and convenience and the appendages of culture and consumerism, research into renewable and more efficient energy sources seem an encouraging approach to alleviating an impending energy crisis. Fuel cells present one alternative to traditional combustion cells that have huge benefits in terms of the efficiency of energy conversion and the limited harmful emissions. In last week's issue of Nanotechnology, Chuan-Jian Zhong and colleagues at the State University of New York at Binghamton in the USA presented an overview of research on nanostructured catalysts in fuel cells [4]. The topical review includes insights into the interactions between nanoparticles and between nanoparticles and their substrate as well as control over the composition and nanostructure of catalysts. The review also serves to highlight how the flourishing of nanotechnology research has heralded great progress in the exploitation of catalysts with nanostructures ingeniously controlled to maximize surface area and optimize energetics for synthesis

  4. EDITORIAL: Catalysing progress Catalysing progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Examples of the merits of blue-sky research in the history of science are legion. The invention of the laser, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, is an excellent example. When it was invented it was considered to be 'a solution waiting for a problem', and yet the level to which it has now infiltrated our day-to-day technological landscape speaks volumes. At the same time it is also true to say that the direction of research is also at times rightly influenced by the needs and concerns of the general public. Over recent years, growing concerns about the environment have had a noticeable effect on research in nanotechnology, motivating work on a range of topics from green nanomaterial synthesis [1] to high-efficiency solar cells [2] and hydrogen storage [3]. The impact of the world's energy consumption on the welfare of the planet is now an enduring and well founded concern. In the face of an instinctive reluctance to curtail habits of comfort and convenience and the appendages of culture and consumerism, research into renewable and more efficient energy sources seem an encouraging approach to alleviating an impending energy crisis. Fuel cells present one alternative to traditional combustion cells that have huge benefits in terms of the efficiency of energy conversion and the limited harmful emissions. In last week's issue of Nanotechnology, Chuan-Jian Zhong and colleagues at the State University of New York at Binghamton in the USA presented an overview of research on nanostructured catalysts in fuel cells [4]. The topical review includes insights into the interactions between nanoparticles and between nanoparticles and their substrate as well as control over the composition and nanostructure of catalysts. The review also serves to highlight how the flourishing of nanotechnology research has heralded great progress in the exploitation of catalysts with nanostructures ingeniously controlled to maximize surface area and optimize energetics for synthesis

  5. Progressive supranuclear palsy

    MedlinePlus

    Dementia-nuchal dystonia; Richardson-Steele-Olszewski syndrome; Palsy - progressive supranuclear ... Progressive supranuclear palsy is a condition that causes symptoms similar to those of Parkinson disease . It involves damage to many cells ...

  6. Progressive Pigmentary Purpura

    MedlinePlus

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Progressive Pigmentary Purpura Share | Progressive pigmentary purpura (we will call it PPP) is a group ... conditions ( Schamberg's disease , Lichenoid dermatitis of Gourgerot-Blum, purpura annularis telangiectodes of Majocchi and Lichen aureus). Schamberg's ...

  7. Secondary Student Progress Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC.

    The Secondary Student Progress Plan aims to provide uniform educational expectations for successful course completion and progress toward graduation beginning with grade 7 in school year 1984-85. Arranged in outline form, the plan shows the course of study for grades 7-12, guidelines for evaluating and reporting student progress, promotion…

  8. Reconstructing Progressive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Andy

    2013-01-01

    The work of Colonel Francis W. Parker, the man whom Dewey called "the father of progressive education," provides a starting point for reconstructing the loose ambiguities of progressive education into a coherent social and educational philosophy. Although progressives have claimed their approach is more humane and sensitive to children, we need…

  9. THE CANCER PROGRESS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cancer Progress Report 2001 is about our Nation's progress against cancer. The information was gathered through a collaborative effort with other key agencies and groups, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Cancer Society. Data on this site...

  10. Progression in Measuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Margaret; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a study by British researchers that attempted to describe progression in learning in terms of a common framework for all students. Elementary school students completed periodic interviews while being taught measurement skills. Results found a wide spread of attainment in measurement in each age range but less clear progression between…

  11. Ligamentous laxity across C0-C1-C2 complex. Axial torque-rotation characteristics until failure.

    PubMed

    Goel, V K; Winterbottom, J M; Schulte, K R; Chang, H; Gilbertson, L G; Pudgil, A G; Gwon, J K

    1990-10-01

    The axial torque until failure of the ligamentous occipito-atlanto-axial complex (C0-C1-C2) subjected to axial angular rotation (theta) was characterized using a biaxial MTS system. A special fixture and gearbox that permitted right axial rotation of the specimen until failure without imposing any additional constraints were designed to obtain the data. The average values for the axial rotation and torque at the point of maximum resistance were, respectively, 68.1 degrees and 13.6 N-m. The specimens offered minimal resistance (approximately 0.5 N-m), up to an average axial rotation of 21 degrees across the complex. The torque-angular rotation (T-theta) curve can be divided into four regions: regions of least and steadily increasing resistances, a transition zone that connects these two regions, and the increasing resistance region to the point of maximum resistance. The regions of least and steadily increasing resistances may be represented by two straight lines with average slopes of 0.028 and 0.383 N-m/degree, respectively. Post-test dissection of the specimens disclosed the following. The point of maximum resistance corresponded roughly to the value of axial rotation at which complete bilateral rotary dislocation of the C1-C2 facets occurred. The types of injuries observed were related to the magnitude of axial rotation imposed on a specimen during testing. Soft-tissue injuries alone (like stretch/rupture of the capsular ligaments, subluxation of the C1-C2 facets, etc.) were confined to specimens rotated up to or close to the point of maximum resistance. The specimens that were subjected to rotations up to the point of maximum resistance of the curve spontaneously reduced completely on removal from the testing apparatus. Spontaneous reduction was not possible for specimens tested slightly beyond their points of maximum resistance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2263977

  12. C1-2 posterior arthrodesis technique with a left segmental and right transarticular fixation. A hybrid novel (Kotil) technique

    PubMed Central

    Kotil, Kadir; Muslumanoglu, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The most commonly used techniques for C1-C2 posterior arthrodesis are Goel and Magerl fixation techniques. Due to the anatomical variations of the region, the prior determination of the surgical technique might be hard. Right side Magerl, left side Goel's C1-C2 posterior arthrodesis case is presented as a new surgical combination technique used due to anatomical difficulties. Materials and Methods: Posterior C1-C2 arthrodesis operation was indicated for a 56-year-old female patient for the treatment of atlanto-axial subluxation caused by os odontoideum. First it was fixed from the nondominant arterial side (right vertebral artery) with Magerl (transarticular) technique. The left side was not suitable for the anatomical transarticular fixation, and the contralateral Goel fixation technique (segmental) was performed. Eventually, right side transarticular left side segmental fixation techniques were combined in one patient for the first time and C1-C2 fusion combination technique was presented. Results: Both Goel and Magerl techniques of C1-C2 posterior fusion techniques were successfully used simultaneously. The operation was initiated with Magerl technique with one screw on the nondominant side. The contralateral side was not suitable for Magerl technique therefore we changed to Goel's technique. Although, fluoroscopy was used 3 times as much during the introduction of the Drill with Magerl technique, twice as much operative time was spent during hemostasis and bleeding, preparation of the C1 entry point, and the reconstruction of polyaxial screws for Goel technique. No neurovascular complications were occurred during both procedures. Discussion: Combination of two C1-C2 posterior fusion techniques, Goel and Magerl, in suitable cases caused by anatomical or other reasons appears to be an alternative surgical procedure that protects the patient from complications. For a collection of better data, other studies that include large numbers of patients with

  13. Rapidly Progressive Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Geschwind, Michael D.; Shu, Huidy; Haman, Aissa; Sejvar, James J.; Miller, Bruce L.

    2009-01-01

    In contrast with more common dementing conditions that typically develop over years, rapidly progressive dementias can develop subacutely over months, weeks, or even days and be quickly fatal. Because many rapidly progressive dementias are treatable, it is paramount to evaluate and diagnose these patients quickly. This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding of the major categories of RPD and outlines efficient approaches to the diagnosis of the various neurodegenerative, toxic-metabolic, infectious, autoimmune, neoplastic, and other conditions that may progress rapidly. PMID:18668637

  14. Progress for the Paralyzed

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: NIBIB Robotics Progress for the Paralyzed Past Issues / Spring 2013 ... Paralyzed —The expanding options for paralyzed individuals include: robotic arms spinal cord stimulation improved prosthetic limbs restored ...

  15. Progress and promise.

    PubMed

    Kamphaus, Randy W

    2012-12-01

    This editorial introduces the current issue of the journal School Psychology Quarterly (SPQ).There has been an impressive and promising progress of school psychology science has been reflected in every issue of SPQ, including the current one. PMID:23294232

  16. Orion Progress - Spring 2010

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA and contractor teams are designing, building and testing the next generation human spacecraft Orion. Progress on Orion is highlighted by employees working on the project, along with video of t...

  17. CHEMICALS IN PROGRESS BULLETIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemicals in Progress Bulletin is a quarterly newsletter which highlights regulatory and program activities of the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. Regular features and news items include the existing chemicals program, new chemicals program, pollution prevention activi...

  18. Progressive cone dystrophies.

    PubMed

    François, J; De Rouck, A; De Laey, J J

    1976-01-01

    Patients with progressive generalized cone dystrophy often present nystagmus (or strabism) and complain of photophobia, decrease in visual acuity or disturbances in colour perception. The most classic fundus abnormality is the bull's eye maculopathy or a pallor of the optic disc. Minimal macular changes are sometimes seen, which may progress to a bull's eye type of macular degeneration. The photopic ERG is always very affected, whereas at first the scotopic ERG seems normal. Progressive deterioration of the visual functions is accompanied by increasing fundus lesions and rod involvement, as suggested by the modifications of the dark adaptation curve and the scotopic ERG. However, the progression of typical generalized cone dysfunction is very slow. On the contrary, in some cases of so-called Stargardt's disease with peripheral participation, a very rapid progression has been observed. In such cases a normal ERG does not necessarily mean that the disease will remain localized to the macular area. No definite prognosis can be made on one single ERG. In 3 cases with sector pigmentary retinopathy the photopic ERG was more affected than the scotopic ERG. However, these cases are probably primary cone-rod dystrophies. Although there is no electrophysiological control, our clinical impression is that the evolution, if possible, is very slow. PMID:1066593

  19. Progressive multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ontaneda, Daniel; Fox, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose to Review To highlight the pathological features and clinical aspects of progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS). To highlight results of clinical trial experience to date and review ongoing clinical trials and perspective new treatment options. Explain the challenges of clinical trial design in PMS. Recent Findings MS has been identified as a chronic immune mediated disease, and the progressive phase of the disease appears to have significant neurodegenerative mechanisms. The classification of the course of PMS has been re-organized into categories of active vs. inactive inflammatory disease and the presence vs. absence of gradual disease progression. This differentiation allows clearer conceptualization of PMS and possibly even more efficient recruitment of PMS subjects into clinical trials. Clinical trial experience to date in PMS has been negative with anti-inflammatory medications used in relapsing MS. Simvastatin was recently tested in a phase II trial and showed a 43% reduction on annualized atrophy progression in secondary progressive MS. Ongoing PMS trials are currently being conducted with the phosphodiesterase inhibitor ibudilast, S1P modulator siponimod, and anti-B-cell therapy ocrelizumab. Several efforts for development of outcome measures in PMS are ongoing. Summary PMS represents a significant challenge, as the pathogenesis of the disease is not well understood, no validated outcome metrics have been established, and clinical trial experience to date has been disappointing. Advances in the understanding of the disease and lessons learned in previous clinical trials are paving the way for successful development of disease modifying agents for this disease. PMID:25887766

  20. Progressive supranuclear palsy: progression and survival.

    PubMed

    Arena, Julieta E; Weigand, Stephen D; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Hassan, Anhar; Eggers, Scott D; Höglinger, Günter U; Litvan, Irene; Josephs, Keith A

    2016-02-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by postural instability and falls, vertical supranuclear gaze palsy, parkinsonism with poor levodopa response, pseudobulbar palsy, and frontal release signs. The natural history of the disease has been previously described. However, the time frame of appearance of clinical milestones and how these symptoms may relate to survival in PSP are unknown. The primary objective was to determine the prevalence of symptoms at different stages of PSP and to estimate the time of appearance of clinical symptoms characteristic of the disease. Second, we determined the association between clinical symptoms and survival. We prospectively studied 35 PSP patients during assessments scheduled every 6 months for up to 2 years. We estimated symptoms prevalence and the association between symptoms and survival. The median age of onset was 65.9 years (IQR 60.6-70.0), and the median time from onset to first assessment was 3.0 years (IQR 2.4-3.9). The most commonly reported symptoms at baseline were: motor (100%) followed by cognitive/behavioral (89%), systemic and bulbar (80%), and sleep disturbances (60%). Slowness of movement, falls, neck stiffness and difficulty looking up/down had high prevalence from baseline, while balance and gait impairment were less common at baseline but increased in prevalence over time. The presence of sleep disturbances, and possibly hallucinations, was associated with increased death risk. Improved recognition of the clinical spectrum and milestones of PSP advances knowledge of the disease, helps earlier diagnosis, and allows prognostic predictions. PMID:26705121

  1. Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Collin; Manousakis, Georgios; Lee, Michael S

    2016-06-01

    Progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO), marked by progressive bilateral ptosis and diffuse reduction in ocular motility, represents a finding of mitochondrial myopathy rather than a true diagnosis. PEO often occurs with other systemic features of mitochondrial dysfunction that can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Accurate and early recognition of PEO is paramount for the optimal care of these patients. We present an evidence-based review of the presenting neuro-ophthalmic features, differential diagnosis, diagnostic tools, systemic implications, and treatment options for isolated PEO and other PEO-associated mitochondrial syndromes. PMID:27072953

  2. MCNP Progress & Performance Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Forrest B.; Bull, Jeffrey S.; Rising, Michael Evan

    2015-04-14

    Twenty-eight slides give information about the work of the US DOE/NNSA Nuclear Criticality Safety Program on MCNP6 under the following headings: MCNP6.1.1 Release, with ENDF/B-VII.1; Verification/Validation; User Support & Training; Performance Improvements; and Work in Progress. Whisper methodology will be incorporated into the code, and run speed should be increased.

  3. MEASURING POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The workshop, "Measuring Pollution Prevention Progress," was held in Salem, MA, March 31 - April 2, 1993. he purpose of this workshop was to present the latest significant research and practical findings related to pollution prevention measurement from ongoing and recently comple...

  4. [Progressive hearing loss].

    PubMed

    Reiss, M; Reiss, G

    2000-01-01

    Progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is defined as hearing loss of unknown etiology with fairly high-speed progression. Its diagnostic criteria consist of the following: that it is 1) progressive, 2) with bilateral involvement, and 3) of unknown etiology. Due to recent advances in diagnostics, imaging and management, SNHL has gained much interest from otologists in the last few years. They provide new insight into the physiology and pathophysiology of hearing. SNHL which is sudden in onset, fluctuating, and/or progressive complicates medical management, hearing aid selection, and individualized educational planning for a hearing-impaired patient. Existing hypotheses on the etiology of SNHL are judged on experimental, clinical, laboratory and radiological evidence. Cardiovascular and rheologic diseases, hereditary disorders, immunological phenomena, infections, environmental causes like noise, ototoxic drugs and industrial substances and systemic maladies must be included in the diagnostic reflections. Potential concepts of treatment include rheologic medications and corticosteroids. Hearing aids and timely cochlear implant operation are further possible forms of treatment. PMID:10893764

  5. Progressive Myoclonus Epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Kälviäinen, Reetta

    2015-06-01

    The progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs) comprise a group of rare and heterogeneous disorders defined by the combination of action myoclonus, epileptic seizures, and progressive neurologic deterioration. Neurologic deterioration may include progressive cognitive decline, ataxia, neuropathy, and myopathy. The gene defects for the most common forms of PME (Unverricht-Lundborg disease, Lafora disease, several forms of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, myoclonus epilepsy with ragged-red fibers [MERRF], and type 1 and 2 sialidoses) have been identified. The prognosis of a PME depends on the specific disease. Lafora disease, the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, and the neuronopathic form of Gaucher disease have an invariably fatal course. In contrast, Unverricht-Lundborg disease has a much slower progression, and with adequate care many patients have a normal life span. The specific diseases that cause PME are diagnosed by recognition of their age of onset, the associated clinical symptoms, the clinical course, the pattern of inheritance, and by special investigations such as enzyme measurement, skin/muscle biopsy, or gene testing. PMID:26060909

  6. Basic Measures of Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Julia; Ling, Thomson; Moore, Eric; Halle, Tamara; Hair, Beth; Moore, Kris; Zaslow, Marty

    This document provides a compilation of measures of progress toward school readiness and three contributing conditions as used in several local, state, and national surveys. The report begins with a legend listing the surveys examined, their acronyms, and contact information. The remainder of the report, in tabular format, lists measures of…

  7. Mystery in Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Kristen

    1989-01-01

    Describes "Mystery in Progress," a traveling exhibit which traces the development of Predynastic Egypt. The exhibit provides a time line for Predynastic Egypt, depicts the history of the Hierakonpolis expedition, documents the formation of Egypt's first centralized nation state, and summarizes the emergence of a unified Egypt. (LS)

  8. 1992 PVUSA progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Ellyn, W.

    1992-12-31

    Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) is a national public-private partnership that is assessing and demonstrating the viability of utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) electric generating systems. This report updates the progress of the PVUSA project, reviews the status and performance of the various PV installations during 1992, and summarizes key accomplishments and conclusions from work to date.

  9. Assessing Pupils' Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollerton, Mike

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author explores what Assessing Pupils' Progress (APP) is about. He contends that the predilection for testing is a catastrophe as far as the teaching and learning of mathematics is concerned; it is an outcome of the drive for collecting so-called "data" on pupils. What those people, who should know better, either choose to…

  10. Learning Progressions & Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Joyce M.; de los Santos, Elizabeth X.; Anderson, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    Our society is currently having serious debates about sources of energy and global climate change. But do students (and the public) have the requisite knowledge to engage these issues as informed citizenry? The learning-progression research summarized here indicates that only 10% of high school students typically have a level of understanding…

  11. Progressive Response Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romero, V. J.; Swiler, L. P.

    2004-01-01

    Response surface functions are often used as simple and inexpensive replacements for computationally expensive computer models that simulate the behavior of a complex system over some parameter space. Progressive response surfaces are ones that are built up progressively as global information is added from new sample points in the parameter space. As the response surfaces are globally upgraded based on new information, heuristic indications of the convergence of the response surface approximation to the exact (fitted) function can be inferred. Sampling points can be incrementally added in a structured fashion, or in an unstructured fashion. Whatever the approach, at least in early stages of sampling it is usually desirable to sample the entire parameter space uniformly. At later stages of sampling, depending on the nature of the quantity being resolved, it may be desirable to continue sampling uniformly over the entire parameter space (Progressive response surfaces), or to switch to a focusing/economizing strategy of preferentially sampling certain regions of the parameter space based on information gained in early stages of sampling (Adaptive response surfaces). Here we consider Progressive response surfaces where a balanced indication of global response over the parameter space is desired.We use a variant of Moving Least Squares to fit and interpolate structured and unstructured point sets over the parameter space. On a 2-D test problem we compare response surface accuracy for three incremental sampling methods: Progressive Lattice Sampling; Simple-Random Monte Carlo; and Halton Quasi-Monte-Carlo sequences. We are ultimately after a system for constructing efficiently upgradable response surface approximations with reliable error estimates.

  12. Progressive compressive imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evladov, Sergei; Levi, Ofer; Stern, Adrian

    2012-06-01

    We have designed and built a working automatic progressive sampling imaging system based on the vector sensor concept, which utilizes a unique sampling scheme of Radon projections. This sampling scheme makes it possible to progressively add information resulting in tradeoff between compression and the quality of reconstruction. The uniqueness of our sampling is that in any moment of the acquisition process the reconstruction can produce a reasonable version of the image. The advantage of the gradual addition of the samples is seen when the sparsity rate of the object is unknown, and thus the number of needed measurements. We have developed the iterative algorithm OSO (Ordered Sets Optimization) which employs our sampling scheme for creation of nearly uniform distributed sets of samples, which allows the reconstruction of Mega-Pixel images. We present the good quality reconstruction from compressed data ratios of 1:20.

  13. Photovoltaic concentrator research progress

    SciTech Connect

    Arvizu, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper provides a review of progress in the DOE sponsored, Sandia managed Photovoltaic Concentrator Research Project. Research status, project goals and a discussion of concentrator economics is presented. Recent research accomplishments that will be discussed include 21% efficient baseline silicon cells by Applied Solar Energy Corporation and Sandia, 26% efficient GaAs cells by Varian Associates, and near 25% mechanically stacked multijunction GaAs/Si cells by Hughes Research, Applied Solar, and Sandia. In addition, improvements in breadboard module units (i.e. single lens/cell combination) such as a 19% GaAs unit by Varian and a near 17% silicon unit by ENTECH will be reviewed. This paper concludes that the photovoltaic concentrator option is making excellent progress toward competitive cost-effectiveness and provides a strong photovoltaic alternative.

  14. Progression of myopia.

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, R H

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myopia is an important public health problem because it is common and is associated with increased risk for chorioretinal degeneration, retinal detachment, and other vision-threatening abnormalities. In animals, ocular elongation and myopia progression can be lessened with atropine treatment. This study provides information about progression of myopia and atropine therapy for myopia in humans. METHODS: A total of 214 residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota (118 girls and 96 boys; median age, 11 years; range, 6 to 15 years) received atropine for myopia from 1967 through 1974. Control subjects were matched by age, sex, refractive error, and date of baseline examination to 194 of those receiving atropine. Duration of treatment with atropine ranged from 18 weeks to 11.5 years (median 3.5 years). RESULTS: Median follow-up from initial to last refraction in the atropine group (11.7 years) was similar to that in the control group (12.4 years). Photophobia and blurred vision were frequently reported, but no serious adverse effects were associated with atropine therapy. Mean myopia progression during atropine treatment adjusted for age and refractive error (0.05 diopters per year) was significantly less than that among control subjects (0.36 diopters per year) (P < .001). Final refractions standardized to the age of 20 years showed a greater mean level of myopia in the control group (3.78 diopters) than in the atropine group (2.79 diopters) (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The data support the view that atropine therapy is associated with decreased progression of myopia and that beneficial effects remain after treatment has been discontinued. PMID:8719698

  15. ISABELLE: a progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the ISABELLE project, which has the objective of constructing a high-energy proton colliding beam facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The major technical features of the intersecting storage accelerators with their projected performance are described. Application of over 1000 superconducting magnets in the two rings represents the salient characteristic of the machine. The status of the entire project, the technical progress made so far, and difficulties encountered are reviewed.

  16. Progress in Scientific Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N

    2004-11-15

    Visualization of observed data or simulation output is important to science and engineering. I have been particularly interested in visualizing 3-D structures, and report here my personal impressions on progress in the last 20 years in visualizing molecules, scalar fields, and vector fields and their associated flows. I have tried to keep the survey and list of references manageable, so apologize to those authors whose techniques I have not mentioned, or have described without a reference citation.

  17. Progress In Holographic Cinematography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smigielski, P.; Fagot, H.; Albe, F.

    1986-06-01

    Two important progresses were achieved for the first time: 1) recording of single exposure cineholograms of living bodies on a 126-mm film, at a frequency of 25 holograms per second. Limitations of 3-D movies by holography are described. 2) recording of double-exposure cineholograms of reflecting objects, a loudspeaker membrane and the vertex cranii of a bald-headed man. These experiments show the interest of interferometric cineholography for industrial applications.

  18. COSMIC monthly progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of January 1994. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are discussed. Marketing and customer service activities in this period are presented as is the progress report of NASTRAN maintenance and support. Tables of disseminations and budget summary conclude the report.

  19. Subtle lisfranc subluxation: results of operative and nonoperative treatment.

    PubMed

    Crates, John M; Barber, F Alan; Sanders, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    Subtle Lisfranc instability is typically a low-energy, twisting, axial-loading injury. The present study evaluated the operative treatment of subtle Lisfranc injuries after nonoperative failure. The data from consecutive patients with subtle Lisfranc instabilities were reviewed. Those in whom initial nonoperative treatment had failed underwent surgery. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) midfoot score was obtained initially, after nonoperative treatment, and, for those in whom nonoperative treatment had failed, after operative treatment. Of 36 patients enrolled, 16 (44.44%) were successfully treated nonoperatively, and 20 (55.56%) required surgery after nonoperative treatment had failed. Of those treated operatively, 9 (45%) were stabilized with dual screws and 11 (55%) with dual suture buttons. The mean follow-up period was 36 ± 12.2 months. The AOFAS scores significantly improved from the pre- to final post-treatment values. The overall mean pretreatment AOFAS score (62.8 ± 8.84) was significantly lower statistically than the mean overall post-treatment AOFAS score (91.3 ± 8.34; p < .0001). The mean AOFAS score before nonoperative treatment (61.9 ± 9.5) improved to a mean AOFAS score of 75.3 ± 15.8 after nonoperative treatment (p = .0029). The mean preoperative AOFAS score (63.5 ± 8.46) improved to a postoperative AOFAS score of 92.3 ± 8.43 (p < .0001). The mean AOFAS score before nonoperative treatment (61.9 ± 9.5) was not significantly different statistically from the mean preoperative AOFAS score (63.5 ± 8.46; p = .62). The mean AOFAS score after nonoperative treatment (75.3 ± 15.8) was lower than the mean postoperative AOFAS score (92.3 ± 8.43; p < .0001). Of the 9 feet stabilized with dual screws, 7 (77.78%) required screw removal during the observation period. Subtle Lisfranc injuries failing nonoperative treatment were successfully stabilized using either a dual screw or suture button technique. PMID:25746769

  20. Atlantoaxial subluxation and nasopharyngeal necrosis complicating suspected granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Anand; Holekamp, Terrence F; Diaz, Jason A; Zebala, Lukas; Brasington, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Granulomatosis polyangiitis (GPA, formerly Wegener granulomatosis) is a vasculitis that typically involves the upper respiratory tract, lungs, and kidneys. The 2 established methods to confirm a suspicion of GPA are the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) test and biopsy. However, ANCA-negative cases have been known to occur, and it can be difficult to find biopsy evidence of granulomatous disease.We report a case of suspected granulomatosis with polyangiitis limited to the nasopharynx. With a negative ANCA and no histological evidence, our diagnosis was founded on the exclusion of other diagnoses and the response to cyclophosphamide therapy. This case is unique because the patient's lesion resulted in atlantoaxial instability, which required a posterior spinal fusion at C1-C2. This is the first reported case of suspected GPA producing damage to the cervical spine and threatening the spinal cord. PMID:25807096

  1. Tuberculous altantoaxial subluxation: a case report with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Tarun; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar; Bahadur, Raj

    2014-06-01

    Involvement of upper cervical and craniovertebral junction is rare but might lead to lethal consequences if the diagnosis is delayed. We present a case of atlantoaxial joint tuberculosis, resulting in gross instability of the joint. The patient was treated with antitubercular medication combined with posterior decompression and transarticular screw fixation. Patient improved neurologically, and clinical and radiological improvements were maintained at the latest follow-up of 2 years. PMID:22535580

  2. Treatment of Congenital Aniridia Associated with Subluxated Infantile Cataract

    PubMed Central

    Jusufovic, Vahid; Cabric, Emir; Popovic-Beganovic, Allen; Musanovic, Zlatko; Zvornicanin, Jasmin

    2014-01-01

    A 5 year old boy was presented at Eye clinic University clinical center Tuzla with congenital aniridia in both eyes. Clinical examination revealed visual acuity of 0,08 without correction in right and 0.7 with -5.0 Dsph and -1.0 Dcyl Axx 109° in left eye. Opthalmologic examination showed bilateral aniridia associated with moderate cataract in the right and incipient cataract in the left eye. In the right eye, zonular weakness with incipient capsular displacement and esotropia of Δ6º, were noted. The patient underwent phacoemulsification, implantation of capsular tension ring and Artificial Iris implant in the capsular bag. Phacoemulsification went uneventful and early postoperative recovery was successful with no signs of aniridia-associated keratopathy development and normal values of intra ocular pressure. Patient was not motivated for operation of the left eye and it was corrected with soft contact lens. Six month after the operation visual acuity in the right eye improved to 0.9 with +1.25Dsph and maintained stable in left eye, with complete elimination of esotropia and signs of binocular vision restoration. Small incision cataract extraction with IOL and Artificial Iris implantation in one procedure can be used to correct congenital aniridia and cataract with significant visual function improvement. PMID:25568537

  3. Primary-Progressive MS (PPMS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... MS? Types of MS Primary progressive MS (PPMS) Primary progressive MS (PPMS) Share Smaller Text Larger Text Print In this article Overview PPMS is characterized by worsening neurologic function ( ...

  4. Rapidly Progressing Chagas Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Hollowed, John; McCullough, Matthew; Sanchez, Daniel; Traina, Mahmoud; Hernandez, Salvador; Murillo, Efrain

    2016-04-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the parasiteTrypanosoma cruzi, can cause a potentially life-threatening cardiomyopathy in approximately 10-40% of afflicted individuals. The decline in cardiac function characteristically progresses over the course of many years. We report a case of Chagas disease in which the patient experienced an atypical rapid deterioration to severe cardiomyopathy over the course of 16 months. This case argues the need for increased routine surveillance for patients with confirmedT. cruziinfection, who are determined to be at high-risk for worsening cardiomyopathy. PMID:26856912

  5. HSX progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    Brief statements on the progress of the design and construction of the HSX experiment are reported. Topics covered include the modular and auxiliary coil systems, the coil support structure, vacuum vessel, the ECH system, the magnet power supply and site. The proposed budget for Year 2 (August 1, 1994 through July 31, 1995) is presented. The effects of a flat funding profile (based on Year 2 budget level of $1137K) on out-years and the HSX project schedule are discussed. The stretching out of the program to accommodate the reduced funding profile should result in only a slight delay in HSX operations.

  6. PROGRESS ON STELLA EXPERIMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    KIMURA,W.D.; CAMPBELL,L.P.; GOTTSCHALK,S.C.; QUIMBY,D.C.; ROBINSON,K.E.; STEINHAUER,L.C.; BABZIEN,M.; BEN-ZVI,I.; GALLARDO,J.C.; KUSCHE,K.P.; POGORELSKY,I.V.; SKARITKA,J.; VAN STEENBERGEN,A.; YAKIMENKO,V.; CLINE,D.B.; HE,P.; LIU,Y.; FIORITO,R.B.; PANTELL,R.H.; RULE,D.W.; SANDWEISS,J.

    1999-03-01

    Progress is reported on the Staged Electron Laser Acceleration (STELLA) experiment, which has been assembled on the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The primary goal of STELLA is to demonstrate staging of the laser acceleration process by using the BNL inverse free electron laser (IFEL) as a prebuncher, which generates {approx} 1-{micro}m long microbunches, and accelerating these microbunches using an inverse Cerenkov acceleration (ICA) stage. Experimental runs are underway to recommission the IFEL and ICA systems separately, and reestablish the: microbunching process. Staging will then be examined by running both the IFEL and ICA systems together.

  7. MEIC Design Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y; Douglas, D; Hutton, A; Krafft, G A; Li, R; Lin, F; Morozov, V S; Nissen, E W; Pilat, F C; Satogata, T; Tennant, C; Terzic, B; Yunn, C; Barber, D P; Filatov, Y; Hyde, C; Kondratenko, A M; Manikonda, S L; Ostroumov, P N; Sullivan, M K

    2012-07-01

    This paper will report the recent progress in the conceptual design of MEIC, a high luminosity medium energy polarized ring-ring electron-ion collider at Jefferson lab. The topics and achievements that will be covered are design of the ion large booster and the ERL-circulator-ring-based electron cooling facility, optimization of chromatic corrections and dynamic aperture studies, schemes and tracking simulations of lepton and ion polarization in the figure-8 collider ring, and the beam-beam and electron cooling simulations. A proposal of a test facility for the MEIC electron cooler will also be discussed.

  8. Post Kalman progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnabend, David

    1995-01-01

    In a paper here last year, an idea was put forward that much greater performance could be obtained from an observer, relative to a Kalman filter if more general performance indices were adopted, and the full power spectra of all the noises were employed. The considerable progress since then is reported here. Included are an extension of the theory to regulators, direct calculation of the theory's fundamental quantities - the noise effect integrals - for several theoretical spectra, and direct derivations of the Riccati equations of LQG (Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian) and Kalman theory yielding new insights.

  9. Conceptions of Progress: How Is Progress Perceived? Mainstream versus Alternative Conceptions of Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Itay, Anat

    2009-01-01

    Progress is a powerful political concept, encompassing different and sometimes contradictory conceptions. This paper examines the results of a survey on progress conducted at the OECD World Forum entitled "Measuring and Fostering the Progress of Societies" held in Istanbul in June 2007. First, a distinction is drawn between the two approaches to…

  10. Progressive myoclonic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Satishchandra, P; Sinha, S

    2010-01-01

    Progressive myoclonic epilepsy (PME) is a disease complex and is characterized by the development of relentlessly progressive myoclonus, cognitive impairment, ataxia, and other neurologic deficits. It encompasses different diagnostic entities and the common causes include Lafora body disease, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, Unverricht-Lundborg disease, myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fiber (MERRF) syndrome, sialidoses, dentato-rubro-pallidal atrophy, storage diseases, and some of the inborn errors of metabolism, among others. Recent advances in this area have clarified molecular genetic basis, biological basis, and natural history, and also provided a rational approach to the diagnosis. Most of the large studies related to PME are from south India from a single center, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurological Sciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore. However, there are a few case reports and small series about Lafora body disease, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses and MERRF from India. We review the clinical and research experience of a cohort of PME patients evaluated at NIMHANS over the last two decades, especially the phenotypic, electrophysiologic, pathologic, and genetic aspects. PMID:20739785

  11. Rapidly Progressive Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Geschwind, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review This article presents a practical and informative approach to the evaluation of a patient with a rapidly progressive dementia (RPD). Recent Findings Prion diseases are the prototypical causes of RPD, but reversible causes of RPD might mimic prion disease and should always be considered in a differential diagnosis. Aside from prion diseases, the most common causes of RPD are atypical presentations of other neurodegenerative disorders, curable disorders including autoimmune encephalopathies, as well as some infections, and neoplasms. Numerous recent case reports suggest dural arterial venous fistulas sometimes cause RPDs. Summary RPDs, in which patients typically develop dementia over weeks to months, require an alternative differential than the slowly progressive dementias that occur over a few years. Because of their rapid decline, patients with RPDs necessitate urgent evaluation and often require an extensive workup, typically with multiple tests being sent or performed concurrently. Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, perhaps the prototypical RPD, is often the first diagnosis many neurologists consider when treating a patient with rapid cognitive decline. Many conditions other than prion disease, however, including numerous reversible or curable conditions, can present as an RPD. This chapter discusses some of the major etiologies for RPDs and offers an algorithm for diagnosis. PMID:27042906

  12. The Progressive Era.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    The American College of Dentists was founded in 1920 for the purpose of encouraging young dentists to continue study and to apply science to their practices. This ideal emerged in the Progressive Era, which lasted roughly from 1895 to 1920. The animating spirit of this period was that the human condition could be improved and that the way to achieve this was through science and the use of experts working together. The Progressive Era saw inventions, such as automobiles and airplanes, telephone and radio, that required mass production and brought people together. It also spawned many political and legislative innovations that we now take for granted. Among these are the Food and Drug Administration, the Department of Commerce, and the Federal Trade Commission. Workers' compensation and other social protections were introduced, as were city commissions; the income tax; women's suffrage; and initiative, referendum, and recall. Medicine, for the first time, became an effective way to treat disease as it developed a scientific foundation. PMID:16350929

  13. Progressive myoclonus epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Girard, Jean-Marie; Turnbull, Julie; Ramachandran, Nivetha; Minassian, Berge A

    2013-01-01

    The progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs) consist of a group of diseases with myoclonic seizures and progressive neurodegeneration, with onset in childhood and/or adolescence. Lafora disease is a neuronal glycogenosis in which normal glycogen is transformed into starch-like polyglucosans that accumulate in the neuronal somatodendritic compartment. It is caused by defects of two genes of yet unknown function, one encoding a glycogen phosphatase (laforin) and the other an ubiquitin E3 ligase (malin). Early cognitive deterioration, visual seizures affecting over half, and slowing down of EEG basic activity are three major diagnostic clues. Unverricht-Lundborg disease is presently thought to be due to damage to neurons by lysosomal cathepsins and reactive oxygen species due to absence of cystatin B, a small protein that inactivates cathepsins and, by ways yet unknown, quenches damaging redox compounds. Preserved cognition and background EEG activity, action myoclonus early morning and vertex spikes in REM sleep are the diagnostic clues. Sialidosis, with cherry-red spot, neuronopathic Gaucher disease, with paralysis of verticality, and ataxia-PME, with ataxia at onset in the middle of the first decade, are also lysosomal diseases. How the lysosomal defect culminates in myoclonus and epilepsy in these conditions remains unknown. PMID:23622396

  14. Cataract progression in India

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, M; Rahmathullah, R.; Blair, C.; Murphy, A.; Beck, R.; Wilkins, J.; Whitcher, J.; Smolin, G.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS—The study was undertaken to test the feasibility of using the LOCS III cataract grading scale in the field and to determine the rate of cataract progression over a 1 year period of time.
METHODS—For 150 subjects between the ages of 33 and 55 who attended the refraction clinic at Aravind Eye Hospital in Madurai, India, lens abnormalities were graded at the slit lamp using the LOCS III scale. One year later, 99 of the subjects were re-evaluated by the same methodology to assess the amount of lens change.
RESULTS—Interrater reliability was high. A change of 0.5 or more in lens colour, cortical, nuclear, or posterior subcapsular cataract was observed in at least one eye of 54% of the subjects.
CONCLUSION—The LOCS III grading scale is a feasible method for measuring lens changes in the field with the slit lamp. Cataract progression in India is rapid enough to permit intervention studies to be performed with relatively small numbers of subjects over a short period of time (that is, 600 subjects for 2 years).

 PMID:9486033

  15. Progressive Precision Surface Design

    SciTech Connect

    Duchaineau, M; Joy, KJ

    2002-01-11

    We introduce a novel wavelet decomposition algorithm that makes a number of powerful new surface design operations practical. Wavelets, and hierarchical representations generally, have held promise to facilitate a variety of design tasks in a unified way by approximating results very precisely, thus avoiding a proliferation of undergirding mathematical representations. However, traditional wavelet decomposition is defined from fine to coarse resolution, thus limiting its efficiency for highly precise surface manipulation when attempting to create new non-local editing methods. Our key contribution is the progressive wavelet decomposition algorithm, a general-purpose coarse-to-fine method for hierarchical fitting, based in this paper on an underlying multiresolution representation called dyadic splines. The algorithm requests input via a generic interval query mechanism, allowing a wide variety of non-local operations to be quickly implemented. The algorithm performs work proportionate to the tiny compressed output size, rather than to some arbitrarily high resolution that would otherwise be required, thus increasing performance by several orders of magnitude. We describe several design operations that are made tractable because of the progressive decomposition. Free-form pasting is a generalization of the traditional control-mesh edit, but for which the shape of the change is completely general and where the shape can be placed using a free-form deformation within the surface domain. Smoothing and roughening operations are enhanced so that an arbitrary loop in the domain specifies the area of effect. Finally, the sculpting effect of moving a tool shape along a path is simulated.

  16. Tumour progression and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Arvelo, Francisco; Sojo, Felipe; Cotte, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The two biological mechanisms that determine types of malignancy are infiltration and metastasis, for which tumour microenvironment plays a key role in developing and establishing the morphology, growth and invasiveness of a malignancy. The microenvironment is formed by complex tissue containing the extracellular matrix, tumour and non-tumour cells, a signalling network of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and proteases that control autocrine and paracrine communication among individual cells, facilitating tumour progression. During the development of the primary tumour, the tumour stroma and continuous genetic changes within the cells makes it possible for them to migrate, having to count on a pre-metastatic niche receptor that allows the tumour’s survival and distant growth. These niches are induced by factors produced by the primary tumour; if it is eradicated, the active niches become responsible for activating the latent disseminated cells. Due to the importance of these mechanisms, the strategies that develop tumour cells during tumour progression and the way in which the microenvironment influences the formation of metastasis are reviewed. It also suggests that the metastatic niche can be an ideal target for new treatments that make controlling metastasis possible. PMID:26913068

  17. Tumour progression and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Arvelo, Francisco; Sojo, Felipe; Cotte, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The two biological mechanisms that determine types of malignancy are infiltration and metastasis, for which tumour microenvironment plays a key role in developing and establishing the morphology, growth and invasiveness of a malignancy. The microenvironment is formed by complex tissue containing the extracellular matrix, tumour and non-tumour cells, a signalling network of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and proteases that control autocrine and paracrine communication among individual cells, facilitating tumour progression. During the development of the primary tumour, the tumour stroma and continuous genetic changes within the cells makes it possible for them to migrate, having to count on a pre-metastatic niche receptor that allows the tumour's survival and distant growth. These niches are induced by factors produced by the primary tumour; if it is eradicated, the active niches become responsible for activating the latent disseminated cells. Due to the importance of these mechanisms, the strategies that develop tumour cells during tumour progression and the way in which the microenvironment influences the formation of metastasis are reviewed. It also suggests that the metastatic niche can be an ideal target for new treatments that make controlling metastasis possible. PMID:26913068

  18. Primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Mesulam, Marsel

    2014-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a clinical syndrome diagnosed when three core criteria are met. First, there should be a language impairment (i.e., aphasia) that interferes with the usage or comprehension of words. Second, the neurological work-up should determine that the disease is neurodegenerative, and therefore progressive. Third, the aphasia should arise in relative isolation, without equivalent deficits of comportment or episodic memory. The language impairment can be fluent or non-fluent and may or may not interfere with word comprehension. Memory for recent events is preserved although memory scores obtained in verbally mediated tests may be abnormal. Minor changes in personality and behavior may be present but are not the leading factors that bring the patient to medical attention or that limit daily living activities. This distinctive clinical pattern is most conspicuous in the initial stages of the disease, and reflects a relatively selective atrophy of the language network, usually located in the left hemisphere. There are different clinical variants of PPA, each with a characteristic pattern of atrophy. The underlying neuropathological diseases are heterogeneous and can include Alzheimer’s disease as well as frontotemporal lobar degeneration. The clinician’s task is to recognize PPA and differentiate it from other neurodegenerative phenotypes, use biomarkers to surmise the nature of the underlying neuropathology, and institute the most fitting multimodal interventions. PMID:24707349

  19. Dystrophic calcinosis with both a huge calcified mass in the cervical spine and calcification in the chest wall in a patient with rheumatoid overlap syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tadashi; Hirakawa, Kei; Takaoka, Hirokazu; Iyama, Ken-Ichi

    2016-05-01

    Dystrophic calcinosis in soft tissue occurs in damaged or devitalized tissues in the presence of normal calcium and phosphorous metabolism. It is often noted in subcutaneous tissues in patients with collagen vascular diseases and may involve a relatively localized area or be widespread. A 74-year-old Japanese woman with an overlap of rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, and systemic sclerosis developed a huge tumor-like mass at the atlanto-axial vertebral joint region that caused severe cervical pain and difficulty in activities of daily living. She also had subcutaneous dystrophic calcification in the soft tissue of the chest wall. Calcinosis associated with systemic sclerosis is a well-recognized phenomenon, but a destructive paraspinal tumor in the cervical spine associated with overlap syndrome is extremely unique. Because calcinosis in spinal locations can be complicated by neurological involvement, patients with progressive symptoms may require surgical intervention. Surgical resection and biological therapy improved this patient's life and activities of daily living. Calcinosis is common in the conditions reviewed here, and different agents have been used for treatment. However, calcinosis management is poorly organized and lacks an accepted classification, systematic studies, and clinical therapeutic trials. The association of calcinosis and collagen vascular diseases is clinically and etiologically important. Although a combination of calcinosis and rheumatoid overlap syndrome is rare, various collagen vascular diseases may occur simultaneously. A perceptive diagnostic approach toward these diseases is critical, and early diagnosis and treatment are needed to prevent dystrophic calcinosis. PMID:24894107

  20. Bipartite Atlas with Os Odontoideum with Block Cervical Vertebrae: A Case Report with Emphasis on the "Overlooked" C1 Lateral Masses.

    PubMed

    Salunke, Pravin; Sahoo, Sushanta K; Mahajan, Anshu

    2015-01-01

    Though rare, a variety of bipartite atlas has been described. However, little has been mentioned about the hypoplastic C1 lateral masses in these cases. An unusual case of bipartite atlas, with hypoplastic lateral masses, os odontoideum and block vertebrae has been described with the surgical challenges encountered. The emphasis here is to study the C1 lateral masses and attempting C1-2 fusion before resorting to occipito-cervical fusion. A 42-year-old lady presented with progressive spastic quadriparesis. Radiology revealed blocked C2-5 vertebrae with os odontoideum with atlanto-axial dislocation with bifid anterior arch of atlas, hypoplastic C1 lateral masses (ill formed postero-inferior part) and posterior arch. Magnetic resonance imaging showed cervicomedullary compression. Reduction was achieved by opening the C1-2 joints posteriorly. Though bilateral C1-2 lateral mass fusion was attempted, we succeeded only on one side necessitating O-C2 fusion on the other. Patient improved neurologically, though neck movements were restricted. Partially formed (peg shaped) lateral mass of C1 suggests its development from more than one sclerotome. With normal superior facets of C1 lateral mass, an attempt should always be made at fusing the C1-2 joint rather than O-C2 in such cases to preserve some neck movements. PMID:26442555

  1. Radiologic comparison of erosive polyarthritis with prominent interphalangeal involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, R.H.; Bassett, L.W.; Theros, E.G.

    1982-05-01

    Psoriatic arthritis, Reiter's disease, and multicentric reticulohistiocytosis may manifest prominent interphalangeal joint and cutaneous involvement. All three disorders may also affect the sacroiliac joints and spine. Despite these similarities, there are basic radiologic differences enabling distinction between the three disorders. Erosive osteoarthritis must also be considered in the differential diagnosis of interphalangeal erosive arthritis. Psoriatic erosions are characteristically ill defined, often bilaterally asymmetrical, usually unaccompanied by significant osteoporosis, and frequently associated with florid proliferation of subperiosteal new bone. An unilateral polyarticular pattern, which often occurs in a single ray, is the most prevalent of several patterns of involvement. Reiter's disease exhibits many clinical and radiologic similarities to psoriatic arthritis, but in the former there tends to be selective involvement of the joints of the lower limbs and particularly the feet, with relative sparing of the hands and wrists, while in the latter the joints of the upper and lower limbs tend to be involved to an equal extent. Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis (MR). Lesions predominate in skin and synovium and result in sharply circumscribed, rapidly progressive, strikingly bilaterally symmetrical erosions spreading from joint margins to articular surfaces. Most or all of the diarthrodial joints may be affected, but interphalangeal joint predominance and early and severe atlanto-axial involvement are characteristic. Erosive osteoarthritis is characterized by interphalangeal subchondral erosions, accompanying periosteal new bone that is more subtle than that of psoriatic arthritis, and interphalangeal bony ankylosis that occurs with the same frequency as that of psoriatic arthritis.

  2. Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Adang, Laura; Berger, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a devastating demyelinating disease with significant morbidity and mortality and no effective, targeted therapies. It is most often observed in association with abnormalities of cell-mediated immunity, in particular human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but also occurs in association with lymphoproliferative diseases, certain immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory regimens, and other conditions. The etiologic agent of PML is a small, ubiquitous polyomavirus, the JC virus (JCV, also known as JCPyV), for which at least 50% of the adult general population is seropositive. PML results when JCV replicates within cerebral oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, leading to oligodendrocyte death and demyelination. Unfortunately, no treatments have been convincingly demonstrated to be effective, though some have been employed in desperation; treatment otherwise includes attempts to restore any immune system defect, such as the withdrawal of the causative agent if possible, and general supportive care. PMID:26918152

  3. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, John D.

    1986-01-01

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock, comprising passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feedstock to glucose; cooling said dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, then feeding said dilute acid stream serially through a plurality of prehydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose; and cooling the dilute acid stream containing glucose after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  4. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, J.D.

    1985-01-10

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process is disclosed for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock. It comprises passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with feed stock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feed stock to glucose. The cooled dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, serially fed through a plurality of pre-hydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose. The dilute acid stream containing glucose is cooled after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  5. Progress Towards International Repositories

    SciTech Connect

    McCombie, C.; Chapman, N.

    2002-02-27

    The nuclear fuel cycle is designed to be very international, with some specialist activities (e.g. fuel fabrication, reprocessing, etc.) being confined to a few countries. Nevertheless, political and public opposition has in the past been faced by proposals to internationalise the back-end of the cycle, in particular waste disposal. Attitudes, however, have been changing recently and there is now more acceptance of the general concept of shared repositories and of specific proposals such as that of Pangea. However, as for national facilities, progress towards implementation of shared repositories will be gradual. Moreover, the best vehicle for promoting the concept may not be a commercial type of organization. Consequently the Pangea project team are currently establishing a widely based Association for this purpose.

  6. Progressive Band Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Kevin; Chang, Chein-I

    2009-01-01

    Progressive band selection (PBS) reduces spectral redundancy without significant loss of information, thereby reducing hyperspectral image data volume and processing time. Used onboard a spacecraft, it can also reduce image downlink time. PBS prioritizes an image's spectral bands according to priority scores that measure their significance to a specific application. Then it uses one of three methods to select an appropriate number of the most useful bands. Key challenges for PBS include selecting an appropriate criterion to generate band priority scores, and determining how many bands should be retained in the reduced image. The image's Virtual Dimensionality (VD), once computed, is a reasonable estimate of the latter. We describe the major design details of PBS and test PBS in a land classification experiment.

  7. Progress in palaeotsunami research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, James; Chagué-Goff, Catherine; Nichol, Scott; Jaffe, Bruce; Dominey-Howes, Dale

    2012-01-01

    The study of palaeotsunamis preserved in the sedimentary record has developed over the past three decades to a point where the criteria used to identify these events range from well-tested and accepted to new methods yet to receive wide application. In this paper we review progress with the development of these criteria and identify opportunities for refinements and for extending their application to new settings. The emphasis here is on promoting the use of multiple proxies, selected to best match the context of the site or region of interest. Ultimately, this requires that palaeotsunami research must be a multidisciplinary endeavour and indeed, extend beyond the geological sciences of sedimentology and stratigraphy and, to include knowledge and approaches from field such as archaeology, anthropology and sociology. We also argue that in some instances, despite the use of multiple proxies, the evidence for tsunami inundation of a coast simply may not be preserved.

  8. Muon collider progress

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, Robert J. FNAL

    1998-08-01

    Recent progress in the study of muon colliders is presented. An international collaboration consisting of over 100 individuals is involved in calculations and experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of this new type of lepton collider. Theoretical efforts are now concentrated on low-energy colliders in the 100 to 500 GeV center-of-mass energy range. Credible machine designs are emerging for much of a hypothetical complex from proton source to the final collider. Ionization cooling has been the most difficult part of the concept, and more powerful simulation tools are now in place to develop workable schemes. A collaboration proposal for a muon cooling experiment has been presented to the Fermilab Physics Advisory Committee, and a proposal for a targetry and pion collection channel experiment at Brookhaven National Laboratory is in preparation. Initial proton bunching and space-charge compensation experiments at existing hadron facilities have occurred to demonstrate proton driver feasibility.

  9. Progress toward synthetic cells.

    PubMed

    Blain, J Craig; Szostak, Jack W

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of even the simplest known life forms makes efforts to synthesize living cells from inanimate components seem like a daunting task. However, recent progress toward the creation of synthetic cells, ranging from simple protocells to artificial cells approaching the complexity of bacteria, suggests that the synthesis of life is now a realistic goal. Protocell research, fueled by advances in the biophysics of primitive membranes and the chemistry of nucleic acid replication, is providing new insights into the origin of cellular life. Parallel efforts to construct more complex artificial cells, incorporating translational machinery and protein enzymes, are providing information about the requirements for protein-based life. We discuss recent advances and remaining challenges in the synthesis of artificial cells, the possibility of creating new forms of life distinct from existing biology, and the promise of this research for gaining a deeper understanding of the nature of living systems. PMID:24606140

  10. Progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Boeve, Bradley F

    2012-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative tauopathy which can manifest clinically in a variety of syndromes. In this review, the classic and most common variant syndrome -PSP-Richardson's syndrome (PSP-RS) -is the focus, with the core clinical features, varying cognitive/motor/neuropsychiatric/sleep manifestations, neuropsychological findings, and typical neuroimaging findings all reviewed. Management strategies are also discussed. Of particular interest are the recently commenced clinical trials involving agents which affect key steps in the presumed pathogenesis of the tauopathies. The distinctive and recognizable characteristics of PSP-RS and advent of clinical trials involving potential disease modifying agents underscore the importance of identifying patients with this disorder and encouraging their involvement in trials. PMID:22166432

  11. Sphingosylphosphorylcholine in cancer progress

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Hong-Wei; Jing, Qing-Chuan; Liu, Ping-Ping; Liu, Jing; Li, Wen-Jing; Zhao, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) is a naturally occurring bioactive sphingolipid in blood plasma, metabolizing from the hydrolysis of the membrane sphingolipid. It has been shown to exert multifunctional role in cell physiological regulation either as an intracellular second messenger or as an extracellular agent through G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Because of elevated levels of SPC in malicious ascites of patients with cancer, the role of SPC in tumor progression has prompted wide interest. The factor was reported to affect the proliferation and/or migration of many cancer cells, including pancreatic cancer cells, epithelial ovarian carcinoma cells, rat C6 glioma cells, neuroblastoma cells, melanoma cells, and human leukemia cells. This review covers current knowledge of the role of SPC in tumor. PMID:26550104

  12. Progress in Induction Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G J

    2000-09-27

    This presentation will be a broad survey of progress in induction technology over the past four years. Much work has been done on accelerators for hydrodynamic test radiography and other applications. Solid-state pulsers have been developed which can provide unprecedented flexibility and precision in pulse format and accelerating voltage for both ion and electron induction machines. Induction linacs can now be built which can operate with MHz repetition rates. Solid-state technology has also made possible the development of fast kickers for precision control of high current beams. New insulator technology has been developed which will improve conventional induction linacs in addition to enabling a new class of high gradient induction linacs.

  13. Progress in Stockholm talks

    SciTech Connect

    Borawski, J.

    1986-02-01

    Public interest focuses on whether the superpowers will eventually agree to reduce their strategic nuclear arsenals by 50% or better, and on whether Star Wars should be bargained away or preserved at all costs. Yet progress in arms control quietly proceeded in Stockholm at the multilateral Conference on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures and Disarmament in Europe (CDE), convened on January 17, 1984. The Conference examined ways to reduce the risks of war, but not arbitrarily lowering weapons levels or restricting the deployment of certain systems. Rather, the goal is to lower these risks by clarifying politico-military intentions and regulating the uses of military activities by means of confidence- and security-building measures. Through information exchange, observation, and inspection, along with operational restraints on military activities, these measure seek to diminish the opportunities for wars to start by surprise attack, miscalculation, or accident, and to inhibit the threat or indirect use of force for political intimidation. 2 references.

  14. 1992 PVUSA progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) is a national public-private partnership that is assessing and demonstrating the viability of utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) electric generating systems. This report updates the progress of the PVUSA project, reviews the status and performance of the various PV installations during 1992, and summarizes key accomplishments and conclusions from work to date. Fall PV module costs and rising environmental pressures could make PV a significant source of large-scale power within the next decade. However, utility acceptance of this technology requires knowledge of PV operational characteristics in a utility system and confidence in predicting PV performance, reliability, and economics. PVUSA consists of two types of demonstrations: Emerging Module Technologies (EMTs), which are unproven but promising state-of-the-art PV technologies in 20-kW (nominal) arrays; and Utility Scale (US) systems, which represent more mature PV technologies in 200- to 500-kW (nominal) turnkey systems.

  15. Predicting periodontitis progression?

    PubMed

    Ferraiolo, Debra M

    2016-03-01

    Data sourcesCochrane Library, Ovid, Medline, Embase and LILACS were searched using no language restrictions and included information up to July 2014. Bibliographic references of included articles and related review articles were hand searched. On-line hand searching of recent issues of key periodontal journals was performed (Journal of Clinical Periodontology, Journal of Dental Research, Journal of Periodontal Research, Journal of Periodontology, Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry).Study selectionProspective and retrospective cohort studies were used for answering the question of prediction since there were no randomised controlled trials on this topic. Risk of bias was assessed using the validated Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale for non-randomised studies. Cross-sectional studies were included in the summary of currently reported risk assessment tools but not for risk of progression of disease, due to the inability to properly assess bias in these types of studies. Titles and abstracts were scanned by two reviewers independently.Full reports were obtained for those articles meeting inclusion criteria or those with insufficient information in the title to make a decision. Any published risk assessment tool was considered. The tool was defined to include any composite measure of patient-level risk directed towards determining the probability for further disease progression in adults with periodontitis. Periodontitis was defined to include both chronic and aggressive forms in the adult population. Outcomes included changes in attachment levels and/or deepening of periodontal pockets in millimeters in study populations undergoing supportive periodontal therapy.Data extraction and synthesisData extraction was performed independently and in collaboration by two reviewers; completed evidence tables were reviewed by three reviewers. Studies were each given a descriptive summary to assess the quantity of data as well as further assessment of study variations

  16. Progressive upper limb prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Lake, Chris; Dodson, Robert

    2006-02-01

    The field of upper extremity prosthetics is a constantly changing arena as researchers and prosthetists strive to bridge the gap between prosthetic reality and upper limb physiology. With the further development of implantable neurologic sensing devices and targeted muscle innervation (discussed elsewhere in this issue), the challenge of limited input to control vast outputs promises to become a historical footnote in the future annals of upper limb prosthetics. Soon multidextrous terminal devices, such as that found in the iLimb system(Touch EMAS, Inc., Edinburgh, UK), will be a clinical reality (Fig. 22). Successful prosthetic care depends on good communication and cooperation among the surgeon, the amputee, the rehabilitation team, and the scientists harnessing the power of technology to solve real-life challenges. If the progress to date is any indication, amputees of the future will find their dreams limited only by their imagination. PMID:16517345

  17. Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Anshu

    2013-01-01

    Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) is a group of rare disorders which are caused by defect in bile secretion and present with intrahepatic cholestasis, usually in infancy and childhood. These are autosomal recessive in inheritance. The estimated incidence is about 1 per 50,000 to 1 per 100,000 births, although exact prevalence is not known. These diseases affect both the genders equally and have been reported from all geographical areas. Based on clinical presentation, laboratory findings, liver histology and genetic defect, these are broadly divided into three types—PFIC type 1, PFIC type 2 and PFIC type 3. The defect is in ATP8B1 gene encoding the FIC1 protein, ABCB 11 gene encoding BSEP protein and ABCB4 gene encoding MDR3 protein in PFIC1, 2 and 3 respectively. The basic defect is impaired bile salt secretion in PFIC1/2 whereas in PFIC3, it is reduced biliary phospholipid secretion. The main clinical presentation is in the form of cholestatic jaundice and pruritus. Serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is normal in patients with PFIC1/2 while it is raised in patients with PFIC3. Treatment includes nutritional support (adequate calories, supplementation of fat soluble vitamins and medium chain triglycerides) and use of medications to relieve pruritus as initial therapy followed by biliary diversion procedures in selected patients. Ultimately liver transplantation is needed in most patients as they develop progressive liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and end stage liver disease. Due to the high risk of developing liver tumors in PFIC2 patients, monitoring is recommended from infancy. Mutation targeted pharmacotherapy, gene therapy and hepatocyte transplantation are being explored as future therapeutic options. PMID:25755532

  18. Opportunity's Fast Progress Southward

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Opportunity's Traverse from Landing through Sol 413 Opportunity's Fast Progress Southward

    As of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's 413th martian day, or sol, (March 23, 2005), the robot had driven a total of 4.62 kilometers (2.87 miles) since. The red line on this image traces the rover's route. The base image is a mosaic combining images from the Mars Observer Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter, the Thermal Emission Imaging System on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter, and Opportunity's own Descent Image Motion Estimation System.

    The rover has been making rapid progress southward since it finished examining its jettisoned heat shield on sol 357 (Jan. 24, 2005, one year after landing). Scientists are eager for Opportunity to reach an area to the south called the 'Etched Terrain,' which appears mottled in the map's base images and might offer access to different layers of bedrock than what the rover has seen so far. See figure 1.

    As of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's 414th martian day, or sol, (March 24, 2005), the robot had driven a total of 4.81 kilometers (2.99 miles) since landing. In this two-month period, Opportunity drove 2.69 kilometers (1.67 miles). As landmarks along the route, it used craters that the rover team informally named for ships of historic voyages of exploration. See figure 2. Figures 1 and 2 are traverse maps overlaid on a mosaic of images from NASA's Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey orbiters and from Opportunity's descent camera. The scale bar in figure 1 at lower left is 2 kilometers (1.24 miles) long and the scale bar in figure 2 is 1 kilometer (0.62 mile) long.

  19. Dynamically prioritized progressive transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanford, Ronald

    1992-04-01

    Retrieval of image data from a centralized database may be subject to bandwidth limitations, whether due to a low-bandwidth communications link or to contention from simultaneous accesses over a high-bandwidth link. Progressive transmission can alleviate this problem by encoding image data so that any prefix of the data stream approximates the complete image at a coarse level of resolution. The longer the prefix, the finer the resolution. In many cases, as little at 1 percent of the image data may be sufficient to decide whether to discard the image, to permit the retrieval to continue, or to restrict retrieval to a subsection of the image. Our approach treats resolution not as a fixed attribute of the image, but rather as a resource which may be allocated to portions of the image at the direction of a user-specified priority function. The default priority function minimizes error by allocating more resolution to regions of high variance. The user may also point to regions of interest requesting priority transmission. More advanced target recognition strategies may be incorporated at the user's discretion. Multispectral imagery is supported. The user engineering implications are profounded. There is immediate response to a query that might otherwise take minutes to complete. The data is transmitted in small increments so that no single user dominates the communications bandwidth. The user-directed improvement means that bandwidth is focused on interesting information. The user may continue working with the first coarse approximations while further image data is still arriving. The algorithm has been implemented in C on Sun, Silicon Graphics, and NeXT workstations, and in Lisp on a Symbolics. Transmission speeds reach as high as 60,000 baud using a Sparc or 68040 processor when storing data to memory; somewhat less if also updating a graphical display. The memory requirements are roughly five bytes per image pixel. Both computational and memory costs may be reduced

  20. Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Davit-Spraul, Anne; Gonzales, Emmanuel; Baussan, Christiane; Jacquemin, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) refers to heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders of childhood that disrupt bile formation and present with cholestasis of hepatocellular origin. The exact prevalence remains unknown, but the estimated incidence varies between 1/50,000 and 1/100,000 births. Three types of PFIC have been identified and related to mutations in hepatocellular transport system genes involved in bile formation. PFIC1 and PFIC2 usually appear in the first months of life, whereas onset of PFIC3 may also occur later in infancy, in childhood or even during young adulthood. Main clinical manifestations include cholestasis, pruritus and jaundice. PFIC patients usually develop fibrosis and end-stage liver disease before adulthood. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity is normal in PFIC1 and PFIC2 patients, but is elevated in PFIC3 patients. Both PFIC1 and PFIC2 are caused by impaired bile salt secretion due respectively to defects in ATP8B1 encoding the FIC1 protein, and in ABCB11 encoding the bile salt export pump protein (BSEP). Defects in ABCB4, encoding the multi-drug resistant 3 protein (MDR3), impair biliary phospholipid secretion resulting in PFIC3. Diagnosis is based on clinical manifestations, liver ultrasonography, cholangiography and liver histology, as well as on specific tests for excluding other causes of childhood cholestasis. MDR3 and BSEP liver immunostaining, and analysis of biliary lipid composition should help to select PFIC candidates in whom genotyping could be proposed to confirm the diagnosis. Antenatal diagnosis can be proposed for affected families in which a mutation has been identified. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) therapy should be initiated in all patients to prevent liver damage. In some PFIC1 or PFIC2 patients, biliary diversion can also relieve pruritus and slow disease progression. However, most PFIC patients are ultimately candidates for liver transplantation. Monitoring of

  1. We Made Progress: Collective Epistemic Progress in Dialogue without Consensus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Clinton

    2013-01-01

    Class discussions about ethical, social, philosophical and other controversial issues frequently result in disagreement. This leaves a problem: has there been any progress? This article introduces and analyses the concept "collective epistemic progress" in order to resolve this problem. The analysis results in four main ways of…

  2. Progressive myoclonic epilepsies

    PubMed Central

    Michelucci, Roberto; Canafoglia, Laura; Striano, Pasquale; Gambardella, Antonio; Magaudda, Adriana; Tinuper, Paolo; La Neve, Angela; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Visani, Elisa; Panzica, Ferruccio; Avanzini, Giuliano; Tassinari, Carlo Alberto; Bianchi, Amedeo; Zara, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To define the clinical spectrum and etiology of progressive myoclonic epilepsies (PMEs) in Italy using a database developed by the Genetics Commission of the Italian League against Epilepsy. Methods: We collected clinical and laboratory data from patients referred to 25 Italian epilepsy centers regardless of whether a positive causative factor was identified. PMEs of undetermined origins were grouped using 2-step cluster analysis. Results: We collected clinical data from 204 patients, including 77 with a diagnosis of Unverricht-Lundborg disease and 37 with a diagnosis of Lafora body disease; 31 patients had PMEs due to rarer genetic causes, mainly neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. Two more patients had celiac disease. Despite extensive investigation, we found no definitive etiology for 57 patients. Cluster analysis indicated that these patients could be grouped into 2 clusters defined by age at disease onset, age at myoclonus onset, previous psychomotor delay, seizure characteristics, photosensitivity, associated signs other than those included in the cardinal definition of PME, and pathologic MRI findings. Conclusions: Information concerning the distribution of different genetic causes of PMEs may provide a framework for an updated diagnostic workup. Phenotypes of the patients with PME of undetermined cause varied widely. The presence of separate clusters suggests that novel forms of PME are yet to be clinically and genetically characterized. PMID:24384641

  3. PVUSA progress report, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Ellyn, W.; Jennings, C.

    1991-12-31

    Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) is a national public-private partnership that is assessing and demonstrating the viability of utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) electric generating systems. PVUSA participants include Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the California Energy Commission (CEC), and eight utilities and other agencies. This report updates the progress of the PVUSA project, reviews the status and performance of the various PV installations during 1991, and summarizes key findings and conclusions from work to date. PVUSA offers utilities hands-on experience needed to evaluate and utilize maturing PV technology. The project also provides manufacturers a test bed for their products, encourages technology improvement and cost reductions in PV modules and other system components, and establishes communication channels between utilities and the PV industry. The project consists of two types of demonstrations: Emerging Module Technology (EMT) arrays, which are unproven but promising state-of-the-art PV technologies in 20-kW (nominal) arrays; and Utility Scale (US) systems, which represent more mature PV technologies in 200- to 500-kW turnkey systems.

  4. Nuclear chemistry progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Viola, V.E.; Kwiatkowski, K.

    1993-08-01

    This is the annual progress report for the Indiana University nuclear chemistry program for the 1992/1993 year. Accomplishments include the construction, testing, and initial experimental runs of the Indiana Silicon Sphere (ISiS) 4{pi} charged particle detector. ISiS is designed to study energy dissipation and multifragmentation phenomena in light-ion-induced nuclear reactions at medium-to-high energies. Its second test run was to examine 3.6 GeV {sup 3}He beam reactions at Laboratoire National Saturne (LNS) in Saclay. The development and deployment of this system has occupied a great deal of the groups effort this reporting period. Additional work includes: calculations of isotopic IMF yields in the {sup 4}He + {sup 116,124}Sn reaction; cross sections for A = 6 - 30 fragments from the {sup 4}He + {sup 28}Si reaction at 117 and 198 MeV; charging effects of passivated silicon detectors; neck emission of intermediate-mass fragments in the fission of hot heavy nuclei.

  5. Progressive cavity pump

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.W.

    1989-04-04

    A progressive cavity pump is described, comprising: a first housing portion defining an inlet; a second housing portion attachable to the first housing portion and defining an outlet; a substantially elastomeric stator comprising an outer portion removably attached to the first and second housing portions, having a first end and a second end spaced from the first end, an inner portion defining a pumping chamber and spaced an annular end portion interconnecting the first ends of the outer and inner portions; a rotor disposed in the inner portion of the stator and extending through the pumping chamber for pumping fluid from the inlet to the outlet in response to rotation of the rotor; and an elongated member disposed in the housing portions and generally annularly between the inner and outer portions of the stator and longitudinally between the annular end portion of the stator and a portion of the second housing portion, the member being removable from the housing portions and separable from the stator.

  6. Progress of AMOLED technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joon Young

    2005-01-01

    We report the technical progress of AMOLED at Samsung SDI, comparing with other technologies. We introduce the voltage-compensational TFT circuit structure to improve the brightness uniformity of AMOLED, which is based on the low temperature poly-silicon. We have developed not only small molecule emitters (phosphorescence and fluorescence) but also polymeric emitters. From red and green phosphors, we achieved longer lifetime and higher efficiency than fluorophors. With the shadow mask patterning and the bottom-emission structure, 20,000-hour lifetime of QCIF device and the power consumption less than 150 mW at 100 cd/m2 (30% on condition) were obtained. In the case of the top-emission structure, we could get high efficiency also by maximizing the light out-coupling efficiency and enhance the color purity to the level of the NTSC. We have developed another patterning technology, "LITI: Laser Induced Thermal Imaging" and fabricated 17-inch full color AMOLED, which is the largest AMOLED based on the low temperature poly-Silicon.

  7. W7-X Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Gasparotto, M.; Erckmann, V.; Gardebrecht, W.; Rummel, Th.; Schauer, F.; Wanner, M.; Wegener, L.

    2005-04-15

    The WENDELSTEIN 7-X stellarator (W7-X) is the next step device in the stellarator line of IPP and is presently under construction at the Greifswald branch institute. The experiment aims at demonstrating the steady state capability of a stellarator machine at reactor relevant parameters. An important feature of W7-X is the high geometrical accuracy of the magnetic configuration which implies tight tolerances in the construction and assembly phases. The magnetic system consists of 50 non planar and 20 planar superconducting coils. Critical components are the coil support elements connecting the coil to the central mechanical structure and the inter-coil elements connecting the coils one to the other. Efficient thermal insulation of the superconducting coils is achieved by high vacuum and multi-layer insulation. The plasma vessel is composed of 10 half-modules welded together during the assembly phase. A 10 MW ECRH system with CW-capability operation at 140 GHz is required to meet the scientific objective of W7-X.The paper will report the recent progress on W7-X with particular emphasis on the components where high technology solutions have been applied.

  8. 1993 PVUSA progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) is a national public-private partnership that is assessing and demonstrating the viability of utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) electric generation systems and recent developments in module technology. This report updates the progress of the PVUSA project, review the status and performance of all PV installations during 1993, and summarizes key accomplishments and conclusions for the year. The PVUSA project has five objectives designed to narrow the gap between a large utility industry that is unfamiliar with PV, and a small PV industry that is aware of a potentially large utility market but unfamiliar with how to meet its requirements. The objectives are: to evaluate the performance, reliability, and cost of promising PV modules and balance-of-system (BOS) components side-by-side at a single location; to assess PV system operation and maintenance (O and M) in a utility setting; to compare PV technologies in diverse geographic areas; to provide US utilities with hands-on experience in designing, procuring, and operating PV systems; and to document and disseminate knowledge gained from the project.

  9. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This report summarizes experimental and theoretical work in basic nuclear physics carried out between October 1, 1995, the closing of our last Progress Report, and September 30, 1996 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder, under contracts DE-FG03-93ER-40774 and DE-FG03-95ER-40913 with the United States Department of Energy. The experimental contract supports broadly-based experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics. This report includes results from studies of Elementary Systems involving the study of the structure of the nucleon via polarized high-energy positron scattering (the HERMES experiment) and lower energy pion scattering from both polarized and unpolarized nucleon targets. Results from pion- and kaon-induced reactions in a variety of nuclear systems are reported under the section heading Meson Reactions; the impact of these and other results on understanding the nucleus is presented in the Nuclear Structure section. In addition, new results from scattering of high-energy electrons (from CEBAF/TJNAF) and pions (from KEK) from a broad range of nuclei are reported in the section on Incoherent Reactions. Finally, the development and performance of detectors produced by the laboratory are described in the section titled Instrumentation.

  10. Quarterly Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    David Gray; Glen Tomlinson

    1998-11-12

    The Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) at Pittsburgh contracted with the MJTRE Corporation to perform Research Guidance Studies that will assist the Center and other relevant offices in the Department of Energy in evaluating and prioritizing research in the areas of coal and natural gas conversion. MITRE was reorganized in December 1995, which resulted in the formation of Mitretek Systems Inc. Mitretek has been performing this work on MITRE's behalf awaiting completion of contract novation to Mitretek. The contract was novated in February 1998 to Mitretek Systems. The overall objectives of this contract are to provide support to DOE in the following areas: (1) technical and economic analyses of current and future coal-based energy conversion technologies and other similar emerging technologies such as coal-waste coprocessing, natural gas conversion, and biomass conversion technologies for the production of fuels, chemicals and electric power,(2) monitor progress in these technologies with respect to technical, economic, and environmental impact (including climate change), (3) conduct specific and generic project economic and technical feasibility studies based on these technologies, (4) identify long-range R&D areas that have the greatest potential for process improvements, and (5) investigate optimum configurations and associated costs for production of high quality energy products via refining and their performance in end-use applications.

  11. Progress in NASA Rotorcraft Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Johnson, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation reviews recent progress made under NASA s Subsonic Rotary Wing (SRW) propulsion research activities. Advances in engines, drive systems and optimized propulsion systems are discussed. Progress in wide operability compressors, modeling of variable geometry turbine performance, foil gas bearings and multi-speed transmissions are presented.

  12. The Progress of Nations, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This report summarizes the latest available statistics on international progress on children's well-being. Each of the report's sections contains a commentary, related statistics, and a discussion on progress and disparity in the section's particular area. Following a foreword by United Nations Secretary-General Kofi A. Annan, the sections of the…

  13. The Thermochronologist's Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeitler, P. K.

    2011-12-01

    We owe our current understanding of thermochronology less to a series of revolutionary insights than to a somewhat uneven intellectual pilgrimage that over fifty years has progressed in fits and starts. Though hampered at times by overenthusiasm, oversimplification, and misunderstandings, on balance the field advanced thanks to a blend of curiosity-driven research, tool-building motivated by new ideas about Earth science, and improvements in technology. But now that we've exploited most radiogenic systems and the major minerals that host them, and now that our models can devour CPU time along with the best of them, are we done? Have we reached peak thermochron? The answer of course is no, and papers in this session will demonstrate what new technologies and techniques might have to offer in the coming years. However, I will argue that the discipline as a whole has matured to a point where if thermochronology is to remain a mainstream tool as opposed to a weekend sport, we need to get serious about several challenges. The most fundamental challenge is that current geodynamic models (and even more complex models we can envision coding) have outpaced our meagre stockpile of kinetic calibrations, our understanding of detailed isotope systematics, and our ability to generate data with sufficient throughput. These issues will not be addressed adequately through the business-as-usual approach that brought us to our current knowledge, and some community effort will probably be needed to coordinate the hard work that will be required. But any serious attempt to answer important questions with accurate thermal histories that have low and well-defined uncertainties will require that we actually know the kinetics for the specific samples we are analyzing, that we fully understand scatter in the data, that we work with the large sample numbers that are required for some problems like landscape evolution, and that inversion tools fully explore the important aspects of both the

  14. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Venning, Freja A.; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T.

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multistep process, with each step involving intricate cross talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread is summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-)clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression. PMID:26539408

  15. Progressive Care of Obese Patients.

    PubMed

    Dambaugh, Lori A; Ecklund, Margaret M

    2016-08-01

    Obese patients have complex needs that complicate their care during hospitalization. These patients often have comorbid conditions, including hypertension, heart failure, obstructive sleep apnea, pressure ulcers, and difficulty with mobility. Obese patients may be well served in the progressive care setting because they may require more intensive nursing care than can be delivered in a general care unit. Progressive care nurses have core competencies that enable them to safely and effectively care for obese patients. A plan of care with interdisciplinary collaboration illustrates the integrative care for obese progressive care patients. (Critical Care Nurse 2016; 36[4]:58-63). PMID:27481802

  16. [Domestic violence: any progress?].

    PubMed

    Henrion, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Since the publication of the French national survey of violence against women in 2000, the fight against domestic violence has made steady progress. Knowledge of the phenomenon has significantly improved. A nationwide study of murders and manslaughters perpetrated by one partner of a couple against the other has been published annually since 2006. In 2012, domestic violence resulted in the deaths of 314 persons: 166 women, 31 men, 25 children, 9 collateral victims, 14 rivals, and two former spouses killed by their ex-fathers in law. In addition, 67 perpetrators committed suicide (51 men and3 women). The number of victims fluctuates from year to year but has remained fairly stable since 2006 (n=168). Legislation has improved significantly: eight new laws have been passed since 2004, all designed to protect women and to ensure that violent men are restrained and treated. New measures to inform and protect women have been implemented and others have been improved, such as the anonymous helpline (phone no 3919, "domestic violence information"). An inter-ministerial committee on the protection of women from violence and the prevention of human trafficking (MIPROF) was created on 3 January 2013. A website entitled "Stop violence against women " (Stop violences faites aux femmes) is now available. The "Imminent Danger" mobile phone system, designed to alert police if a suspected or known perpetrator breaches restraint conditions, will be extended to the entire country from January 2014. Referees charged with coordinating comprehensive long-tern care of women victims have been deployed at the county level. Information centers on the rights of women and families (CIDFF) now form a local nationwide network. Routine interviews with a midwife during the fourth month of pregnancy, focusing on the woman's emotional, economic and social conditions, have been implemented in 21 % of maternity units and should gradually be generalized. The authorities who have enforced the law have

  17. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... inhibitor, can do an even better job of preventing breast cancer than the SERMs. Aromatase inhibitors stop an enzyme ...

  18. Teaching Styles and Pupil Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Vincent; Baron, Joan

    1977-01-01

    Critically analyzes Neville Bennett's book "Teaching Styles and Pupil Progress," which found that formal teaching styles are more closely associated with student achievement in "basic skills" than are informal styles. (IRT)

  19. Progresses in proton radioactivity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, L. S.; Maglione, E.

    2016-07-01

    In the present talk, we will discuss recent progresses in the theoretical study of proton radioactivity and their impact on the present understanding of nuclear structure at the extremes of proton stability.

  20. Zolpidem in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Sandip K.

    2013-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by motor symptoms, postural instability, personality changes, and cognitive impairment. There is no effective treatment for this disorder. Reduced neurotransmission of GABA in the striatum and globus pallidus may contribute to the symptoms of motor and cognitive symptoms seen in PSP. Zolpidem is a GABA agonist of the benzodiazepine subreceptor BZ1. Here a nondiabetic, normotensive case of PSP is (Progressive Supranuclear Palsy) described, which showed improvement in swallowing, speech, and gaze paresis after zolpidem therapy and possible mechanism of actions are discussed. However, more trials are needed with large number of patients to confirm the effectiveness of zolpidem in progressive supranuclear palsy. PMID:23762677

  1. Secondary-Progressive MS (SPMS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... spite of the medication you are taking, the conversation with your MS care provider might be about ... SPMS is stable without activity or progression, the conversation with your MS care could focus on rehabilitation ...

  2. Progressive-Relapsing MS (PRMS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the disease process in MS and in MRI technology. Individuals who were previously diagnosed with progressive-relapsing MS would now be ... The National MS Society is Here to Help Need More Information? We ...

  3. Public Attitudes to Technological Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Eliot

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the probable changes in public attitudes toward science and technology as a result of the engineering accidents of 1979. Results of national polls conducted to identify public confidence in technological progress are included. (HM)

  4. Annual Progress report - General Task

    SciTech Connect

    Wesnousky, S.G.

    1993-09-30

    This report provides a summary of progress for the project {open_quotes}Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI).{close_quotes} A similar report was previously provided for the period of 1 October 1991 to 30 September 1992. The report initially covers the activities of the General Task and is followed by sections that describe the progress of the other ongoing tasks.

  5. Scientific progress as increasing verisimilitude.

    PubMed

    Niiniluoto, Ilkka

    2014-06-01

    According to the foundationalist picture, shared by many rationalists and positivist empiricists, science makes cognitive progress by accumulating justified truths. Fallibilists, who point out that complete certainty cannot be achieved in empirical science, can still argue that even successions of false theories may progress toward the truth. This proposal was supported by Karl Popper with his notion of truthlikeness or verisimilitude. Popper's own technical definition failed, but the idea that scientific progress means increasing truthlikeness can be expressed by defining degrees of truthlikeness in terms of similarities between states of affairs. This paper defends the verisimilitude approach against Alexander Bird who argues that the "semantic" definition (in terms of truth or truthlikeness alone) is not sufficient to define progress, but the "epistemic" definition referring to justification and knowledge is more adequate. Here Bird ignores the crucial distinction between real progress and estimated progress, explicated by the difference between absolute (and usually unknown) degrees of truthlikeness and their evidence-relative expected values. Further, it is argued that Bird's idea of returning to the cumulative model of growth requires an implausible trick of transforming past false theories into true ones. PMID:25051874

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Open All Close All Description Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy is a brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizures ( ...

  7. Progressive multiple sclerosis: characteristics and management.

    PubMed

    Hawker, Kathleen

    2011-05-01

    Progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) consists of 3 phenotypic subtypes: secondary progressive MS, primary progressive MS, and progressive relapsing MS. There has been a paucity of approved treatments for these subtypes possibly driven by irreversible neurodegeneration within the central nervous system and not amenable to drugs that target inflammation. This article reviews magnetic resonance imaging and clinical data that show that progression may occur early in the course of MS and specific subsets of progressive patients may respond to disease modifying drugs. PMID:21439451

  8. Defining secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lorscheider, Johannes; Buzzard, Katherine; Jokubaitis, Vilija; Spelman, Tim; Havrdova, Eva; Horakova, Dana; Trojano, Maria; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Girard, Marc; Duquette, Pierre; Prat, Alexandre; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Grand'Maison, François; Grammond, Pierre; Hupperts, Raymond; Alroughani, Raed; Sola, Patrizia; Boz, Cavit; Pucci, Eugenio; Lechner-Scott, Jeanette; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Iuliano, Gerardo; Van Pesch, Vincent; Granella, Franco; Ramo-Tello, Cristina; Spitaleri, Daniele; Petersen, Thor; Slee, Mark; Verheul, Freek; Ampapa, Radek; Amato, Maria Pia; McCombe, Pamela; Vucic, Steve; Sánchez Menoyo, José Luis; Cristiano, Edgardo; Barnett, Michael H; Hodgkinson, Suzanne; Olascoaga, Javier; Saladino, Maria Laura; Gray, Orla; Shaw, Cameron; Moore, Fraser; Butzkueven, Helmut; Kalincik, Tomas

    2016-09-01

    A number of studies have been conducted with the onset of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis as an inclusion criterion or an outcome of interest. However, a standardized objective definition of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis has been lacking. The aim of this work was to evaluate the accuracy and feasibility of an objective definition for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, to enable comparability of future research studies. Using MSBase, a large, prospectively acquired, global cohort study, we analysed the accuracy of 576 data-derived onset definitions for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and first compared these to a consensus opinion of three neurologists. All definitions were then evaluated against 5-year disease outcomes post-assignment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: sustained disability, subsequent sustained progression, positive disability trajectory, and accumulation of severe disability. The five best performing definitions were further investigated for their timeliness and overall disability burden. A total of 17 356 patients were analysed. The best definition included a 3-strata progression magnitude in the absence of a relapse, confirmed after 3 months within the leading Functional System and required an Expanded Disability Status Scale step ≥4 and pyramidal score ≥2. It reached an accuracy of 87% compared to the consensus diagnosis. Seventy-eight per cent of the identified patients showed a positive disability trajectory and 70% reached significant disability after 5 years. The time until half of all patients were diagnosed was 32.6 years (95% confidence interval 32-33.6) after disease onset compared with the physicians' diagnosis at 36 (35-39) years. The identified patients experienced a greater disease burden [median annualized area under the disability-time curve 4.7 (quartiles 3.6, 6.0)] versus non-progressive patients [1.8 (1.2, 1.9)]. This objective definition of secondary progressive multiple

  9. Why neurodegenerative diseases are progressive: uncontrolled inflammation drives disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hui-Ming; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are a group of chronic, progressive disorders characterized by the gradual loss of neurons in discrete areas of the central nervous system (CNS). The mechanism(s) underlying their progressive nature remains unknown but a timely and well-controlled inflammatory reaction is essential for the integrity and proper function of the CNS. Substantial evidence has documented a common inflammatory mechanism in various neurodegenerative diseases. We hypothesize that in the diseased CNS, interactions between damaged neurons and dysregulated, overactivated microglia create a vicious self-propagating cycle causing uncontrolled, prolonged inflammation that drives the chronic progression of neurodegenerative diseases. We further propose that dynamic modulation of this inflammatory reaction by interrupting the vicious cycle might become a disease-modifying therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:18599350

  10. Geothermal pipeline - progress and development update, geothermal progress monitor

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This document is a progress and development update and geothermal progress monitor prepared by the Geo-Heat Center at the Oregon Institute of Technology in Klamath Falls, Oregon. Several upcoming meetings in the field of geothermal energy and resource development are announced. Proposed and past geothermal activities within the Glass Mountain Known Geothermal Resource Area are also discussed. As of this date, there has been limited geothermal exploration in this area, however, two projects located in the near vicinity have been proposed within the last two years.

  11. Optics of progressive addition lenses.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, J E; Buri, M; Bailey, I L; Azus, J; Borish, I M

    1987-02-01

    The optical characteristics of the major progressive addition lenses were measured using an automated lensometer with a specially designed lens holder to simulate eye rotation. Measurements were made every 3 degrees (about 1.5 mm) and graphs of isospherical equivalent lines and isocylinder lines were developed. Generally the near zone of these lenses is narrower and lower than in bifocal or trifocal lenses. Distinct differences exist between the various progressive lenses. The width of the near zone, rate of power progression, amount of unwanted cylinder (level with the distance center), and clarity of the distance zone are compared for the various lenses. The optical measurements demonstrate an apparent trade-off between the size of the cylinder-free area of the lens and the amount of the cylinder. PMID:3826294

  12. Clinical management of progressive myopia

    PubMed Central

    Aller, T A

    2014-01-01

    Myopia has been increasing in prevalence throughout the world, reaching over 90% in some East Asian populations. There is increasing evidence that whereas genetics clearly have an important role, the type of visual environment to which one is exposed to likely influences the onset, progression, and cessation of myopia. Consequently, attempts to either modify the environment or to reduce the exposure of the eye to various environmental stimuli to eye growth through the use of various optical devices are well under way at research centers around the globe. The most promising of current treatments include low-percentage atropine, bifocal soft contact lenses, orthokeratology, and multifocal spectacles. These methods are discussed briefly and are then categorized in terms of their expected degree of myopia progression control. A clinical strategy is presented for selecting the most effective treatment for the appropriate type of patient at the optimal stage of refractive development to achieve the maximum control of myopia progression. PMID:24357844

  13. "Reading Progress": Historians and Public Literacy in the Progressive Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler-Kassner, Linda

    Controlling "literacy processes" was a concern of members of the dominant culture during the Progressive Era (about 1890-1917). Educators wanted to set students on the "right" course before formal schooling was over. Four history textbooks from the era share a general sense of what is required for public literacy, but they present multiple public…

  14. Measuring Progressions: Assessment Structures Underlying a Learning Progression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This article describes some of the underlying conceptualizations that have gone into the work of the BEAR Center in the development of learning progressions. The core of all of these developments has been the construct map, which is the first building block in the BEAR Assessment System (BAS). After introducing the concept of a learning…

  15. Thematic Progression in a Cardiologist's Text: Context, Frames and Progression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Robert T.

    Thematic progression (TP) is examined in the text of a communication between a cardiologist and a general practitioner concerning a patient, offering a clinical diagnosis of the patient's condition. Analysis of the discourse looks at the field, tenor, and mode of the communication as a context for TP. The methods of analysis are first described,…

  16. Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-12-01

    In support of the Obama Administration's Climate Action Plan, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Agriculture jointly released the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report, updating the federal government's progress to reduce methane emissions through biogas systems since the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap was completed by the three agencies in July 2014. The report highlights actions taken, outlines challenges and opportunities, and identifies next steps to the growth of a robust biogas industry.

  17. Shuttle Risk Progression by Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlin, Teri; Kahn, Joe; Thigpen, Eric; Zhu, Tony; Lo, Yohon

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the early mission risk and progression of risk as a vehicle gains insights through flight is important: . a) To the Shuttle Program to understand the impact of re-designs and operational changes on risk. . b) To new programs to understand reliability growth and first flight risk. . Estimation of Shuttle Risk Progression by flight: . a) Uses Shuttle Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SPRA) and current knowledge to calculate early vehicle risk. . b) Shows impact of major Shuttle upgrades. . c) Can be used to understand first flight risk for new programs.

  18. Continuous Progress Schools See the "Whole Child"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Jamie

    2008-01-01

    It has been called many names: Continuous Progress Format, Advancement Based on Competency (ABC), Continuous Progress Schools, and Continuous Progress Education. The idea of "Continuous Progress" refers to academic and developmental growth of students in a multi-age program. Students learn new materials as they are ready, regardless of their age,…

  19. Progress in Fuel Cell Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yasuzo

    Progress in fuel cell technologies is reviewed for this special issue. In the diversified society, the fuel cell technology is a significant and most promising field. The fuel cell technologies provide many variations for our uses and possibilities for our lives. Especially, some technological battles in the PEFC, SOFC and DMFC are excitedly interested us.

  20. Myopia: attempts to arrest progression

    PubMed Central

    Saw, S M; Gazzard, G; Au Eong, K-G; Tan, D T H

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have evaluated the efficacy of several interventions to decrease the progression of myopia. These include devices that alter the perception of the visual environment and pharmacological treatments. There is no conclusive evidence thus far that alteration of the pattern of spectacle wear, bifocals, ocular hypotensives, or contact lenses retards the progression of myopia. Several randomised clinical trials have demonstrated that the rate of progression of myopia is lower in children given atropine eye drops than those given placebo. However, atropine is associated with short term side effects such as photophobia and possible long term adverse events including light induced retinal damage and cataract formation. Other more selective antimuscarinic agents such as pirenzipine are presently being evaluated. Further well conducted randomised clinical trials with large sample sizes and adequate follow up designed to evaluate treatments to retard the progression of myopia should be conducted, since the identification of an effective intervention may have a greater public health impact on the burden and morbidity from myopia than the few treatments currently available. PMID:12386095

  1. Canadian ERTS program progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morley, L. W.; Mcquillan, A. K.

    1974-01-01

    Progress of the Canadian ERTS program is provided along with statistics on the production and role of ERTS images both from the CCRS in Ottawa and from the Prince Albert Saskatchewan satellite station. The types of products, difficulties of production and some of the main applications in Canada are discussed.

  2. The Future of Progressive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, William

    2008-01-01

    What David J. Ferrero has called "the Hundred Year's War between "progressives" and "traditionalists"" continues unabated in the twenty-first century. Undoubtedly, current initiatives in public education favor those who support traditional approaches, yet many critics believe inflexible state tests are restricting teachers' flexibility in…

  3. Measuring research progress in photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, B.; Mcguire, P.

    1986-01-01

    The role and some results of the project analysis and integration function in the Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project are presented. Activities included supporting the decision-making process, preparation of plans for project direction, setting goals for project activities, measuring progress within the project, and the development and maintenance of analytical models.

  4. Solar Energy: Progress and Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

    This report discusses many of the economic and policy questions related to the widespread introduction of solar power, presents recent progress in developing solar technologies and advancing their economic feasibility, and reviews some recommendations that have been made for achieving the early introduction and sustained application of solar…

  5. Civil Rights: Progress Report, 1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Robert A., Ed.; Alligood, Arlene, Ed.

    Contents of this comprehensive review of civil rights developments from 1968 to 1970 include: Introduction--civil rights 1970: progress continues, priority wanes; Legislative Background--20 years of civil rights; Commission Report--civil rights enforcement; a promise unfulfilled; Supreme Court Decision--key decision on busing, racial balance…

  6. The Vicissitudes of "Progressive Television."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Ien

    This document analyzes and evaluates dilemmas and difficulties in developing/implementing "progressive television," a kind of television that seeks to transgress the boundaries of dominant (mainstream) television by proposing a new constellation of television production and consumption. The ideal is described as a television that tries to…

  7. Progress in pulsed power fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Quintenz, J.P.; Adams, R.G.; Bailey, J.E.

    1996-07-01

    Pulsed power offers and efficient, high energy, economical source of x-rays for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research. We are pursuing two main approaches to ICF driven with pulsed power accelerators: intense light ion beams and z-pinches. This paper describes recent progress in each approach and plans for future development.

  8. Significant Ideas and Progressive Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gwen; Mitchell, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Ideas are not one-time "Eureka" moments, but are parts of concepts progressing forward. Sometimes years pass before ideas are implemented. They then resurface, connect with other ideas, and move policies ahead. Meanwhile, the idea remains alive in the field, influencing decisions and goals. Ideas build on one another when implemented. The field of…

  9. Grassroots Excellence: Problems and Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Kenneth H.

    The educational "excellence" movement is hindered by inconsistencies between goals and action and by difficulties in translating national and state goals into local policy; nonetheless, progress has occurred. Examples of "voodoo excellence," in which proposed policies will likely work against their stated objectives, are widespread. While…

  10. Progress Update: Stack Project Complete

    ScienceCinema

    Cody, Tom

    2012-06-14

    Progress update from the Savannah River Site. The 75 foot 293 F Stack, built for plutonium production, was cut down to size in order to prevent injury or release of toxic material if the structure were to collapse due to harsh weather.

  11. Progress Update: Stack Project Complete

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Progress update from the Savannah River Site. The 75 foot 293 F Stack, built for plutonium production, was cut down to size in order to prevent injury or release of toxic material if the structure were to collapse due to harsh weather.

  12. Ares I First Stage Progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasfield, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Building on the legacy of the Space Shuttle and other NASA space exploration initiatives, the propulsion for the Ares I First Stage will be a Shuttle derived reusable solid rocket motor. Significant progress has been made to date by the Ares First Stage Team. This brief status provides an update on the design and development of the Ares First Stage propulsion system.

  13. Geothermal Progress Monitor report No. 8. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    Geothermal Progress Monitor (GPM) Report Number 8 presents information concerning ongoing technology transfer activities and the mechanisms used to support these activities within geothermal R and D programs. A state-by-state review of major geothermal development activities for the reporting period 1 February 1983 through 31 July 1983 is provided. Recent drilling and exploration efforts and the current status of geothermal electric power plant development in the United States are summarized.

  14. Geothermal Progress Monitor report No. 5. Progress report, June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Updated information is presented on activities and progress in the areas of electric power plants, direct heat applications, deep well drilling, leasing of federal lands, legislative and regulatory actions, research and development, and others. Special attention is given in this report to 1980 highlights, particularly in the areas of electric and direct heat uses, drilling, and the Federal lands leasing program. This report also includes a summary of the DOE FY 1982 geothermal budget request to Congress.

  15. Damage Progression in Bolted Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnetyan, Levon; Chamis, Christos C.; Gotsis, Pascal K.

    1998-01-01

    Structural durability, damage tolerance, and progressive fracture characteristics of bolted graphite/epoxy composite laminates are evaluated via computational simulation. Constituent material properties and stress and strain limits are scaled up to the structure level to evaluate the overall damage and fracture propagation for bolted composites. Single and double bolted composite specimens with various widths and bolt spacings are evaluated. The effect of bolt spacing is investigated with regard to the structural durability of a bolted joint. Damage initiation, growth, accumulation, and propagation to fracture are included in the simulations. Results show the damage progression sequence and structural fracture resistance during different degradation stages. A procedure is outlined for the use of computational simulation data in the assessment of damage tolerance, determination of sensitive parameters affecting fracture, and interpretation of experimental results with insight for design decisions.

  16. Damage Progression in Bolted Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnetyan, Levon; Chamis, Christos; Gotsis, Pascal K.

    1998-01-01

    Structural durability,damage tolerance,and progressive fracture characteristics of bolted graphite/epoxy composite laminates are evaluated via computational simulation. Constituent material properties and stress and strain limits are scaled up to the structure level to evaluate the overall damage and fracture propagation for bolted composites. Single and double bolted composite specimens with various widths and bolt spacings are evaluated. The effect of bolt spacing is investigated with regard to the structural durability of a bolted joint. Damage initiation, growth, accumulation, and propagation to fracture are included in the simulations. Results show the damage progression sequence and structural fracture resistance during different degradation stages. A procedure is outlined for the use of computational simulation data in the assessment of damage tolerance, determination of sensitive parameters affecting fracture, and interpretation of experimental results with insight for design decisions.

  17. Cultural Neuroscience: Progress and Promise

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Cheon, Bobby K.; Pornpattanangkul, Narun; Mrazek, Alissa J.; Blizinsky, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    The nature and origin of human diversity has been a source of intellectual curiosity since the beginning of human history. Contemporary advances in cultural and biological sciences provide unique opportunities for the emerging field of cultural neuroscience. Research in cultural neuroscience examines how cultural and genetic diversity shape the human mind, brain and behavior across multiple time scales: situation, ontogeny and phylogeny. Recent progress in cultural neuroscience provides novel theoretical frameworks for understanding the complex interaction of environmental, cultural and genetic factors in the production of adaptive human behavior. Here, we provide a brief history of cultural neuroscience, theoretical and methodological advances, as well as empirical evidence of the promise of and progress in the field. Implications of this research for population health disparities and public policy are discussed. PMID:23914126

  18. Progress of MICE RFCC Module

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; Bowring, D.; DeMello, A.; Gourlay, S.; Green, M.; Li, N.; Niinikoski, T.; Pan, H.; Prestemon, S.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Bross, A.; Carcagno, R.; Kashikhin, V.; Sylvester, C.; Chen, A. B.; Guo, Bin; Li, Liyi; Xu, Fengyu; Cao, Y.; Sun, S.; Wang, Li; Yin, Lixin; Luo, Tianhuan; Summers, Don; Smith, B.; Radovinsky, A.; Zhukovsky, A.; Kaplan, D.

    2012-05-20

    Recent progress on the design and fabrication of the RFCC (RF and superconducting Coupling Coil) module for the international MICE (Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment) are reported. The MICE ionization cooling channel has two RFCC modules, each having four 201- MHz normal conducting RF cavities surrounded by one superconducting coupling coil (solenoid) magnet. The magnet is designed to be cooled by three cryocoolers. Fabrication of the RF cavities is complete; preparation for the cavity electro-polishing, low power RF measurements, and tuning are in progress at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Fabrication of the cold mass of the first coupling coil magnet has been completed in China and the cold mass arrived at LBNL in late 2011. Preparations for testing the cold mass are currently under way at Fermilab. Plans for the RFCC module assembly and integration are being developed and are described.

  19. Progress in front propagation research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fort, Joaquim; Pujol, Toni

    2008-08-01

    We review the progress in the field of front propagation in recent years. We survey many physical, biophysical and cross-disciplinary applications, including reduced-variable models of combustion flames, Reid's paradox of rapid forest range expansions, the European colonization of North America during the 19th century, the Neolithic transition in Europe from 13 000 to 5000 years ago, the description of subsistence boundaries, the formation of cultural boundaries, the spread of genetic mutations, theory and experiments on virus infections, models of cancer tumors, etc. Recent theoretical advances are unified in a single framework, encompassing very diverse systems such as those with biased random walks, distributed delays, sequential reaction and dispersion, cohabitation models, age structure and systems with several interacting species. Directions for future progress are outlined.

  20. Progress Toward National Aeronautics Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Carlo J.; Sehra, Arun K.

    1999-01-01

    NASA has made definitive progress towards achieving several bold U.S. goals in aeronautics related to air breathing engines. The advanced technologies developed towards these goals span applications from general aviation to large subsonic and supersonic aircraft. The proof of successful technology development is demonstrated through successful technology transfer to U.S. industry and projected fleet impact. Specific examples of progress are discussed that quantifies the achievement towards these goals. In addition, a more detailed vision for NASA aeronautics is defined and key strategic issues are explored which invite international and national debate and involvement especially in reduced environmental impact for subsonic and supersonic aircraft, dramatic new capabilities in general aviation engines, and reduced development cycle time and costs.

  1. Progress in imaging in rheumatology.

    PubMed

    Filippucci, Emilio; Di Geso, Luca; Grassi, Walter

    2014-10-01

    For decades, diagnostic imaging in rheumatology has used conventional radiography. Over the past 10 years, MRI and ultrasonography have clearly shown their potential in diagnostic imaging in rheumatology and their use is revolutionizing the management of chronic arthritis, revealing subclinical inflammation and predicting progression of joint damage. Although validation processes for these imaging modalities are still ongoing, several investigations have now established the positive correlation between subclinical synovitis and radiographic progression of joint damage. Despite the available evidence and the diagnostic potential, there remains a substantial proportion of rheumatologists for whom MRI and ultrasonography findings do not influence their clinical decision-making. This Perspectives will discuss the key issues related to diagnostic imaging in patients with chronic arthritis, outlining how new imaging techniques have evolved over the past two decades and presenting the most attractive technological advances in this field. PMID:25201383

  2. Gammasphere software development. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Piercey, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the nuclear physics group at Mississippi State University which were performed during 1993. Significant progress has been made in the focus areas: chairing the Gammasphere Software Working Group (SWG); assisting with the porting and enhancement of the ORNL UPAK histogramming software package; and developing standard formats for Gammasphere data products. In addition, they have established a new public ftp archive to distribute software and software development tools and information.

  3. Progress in advanced accelerator concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, A.M.

    1994-08-01

    A review is given of recent progress in this field, drawing heavily upon material presented at the Workshop on Advanced Accelerator Concepts, The Abbey, June 12--18, 1994. Attention is addressed to (1) plasma based concepts, (2) photo-cathodes, (3) radio frequency sources and Two-Beam Accelerators, (4) near and far-field schemes (including collective accelerators), (5) beam handling and conditioning, and (6) exotic collider concepts (such as photon colliders and muon colliders).

  4. Visual Analytics Technology Transition Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Scholtz, Jean; Cook, Kristin A.; Whiting, Mark A.; Lemon, Douglas K.; Greenblatt, Howard

    2009-09-23

    The authors provide a description of the transition process for visual analytic tools and contrast this with the transition process for more traditional software tools. This paper takes this into account and describes a user-oriented approach to technology transition including a discussion of key factors that should be considered and adapted to each situation. The progress made in transitioning visual analytic tools in the past five years is described and the challenges that remain are enumerated.

  5. Gammasphere software development. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Piercey, R.B.

    1993-05-01

    Activities of the nuclear physics group are described. Progress was made in organizing the Gammasphere Software Working Group, establishing a nuclear computing facility, participating in software development at Lawrence Berkeley, developing a common data file format, and adapting the ORNL UPAK software to run at Gammasphere. A universal histogram object was developed that defines a file format and provides for an objective-oriented programming model. An automated liquid nitrogen fill system was developed for Gammasphere (110 Ge detectors comprise the sphere).

  6. Recent progress of quantum annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Sei

    2015-03-10

    We review the recent progress of quantum annealing. Quantum annealing was proposed as a method to solve generic optimization problems. Recently a Canadian company has drawn a great deal of attention, as it has commercialized a quantum computer based on quantum annealing. Although the performance of quantum annealing is not sufficiently understood, it is likely that quantum annealing will be a practical method both on a conventional computer and on a quantum computer.

  7. Information Loss from Technological Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    Progress in electronics and optics offers faster computers, and rapid communication via the internet that is matched by ever larger and evolving storage systems. Instinctively one assumes that this must be totally beneficial. However advances in software and storage media are progressing in ways which are frequently incompatible with earlier systems and the economics and commercial pressures rarely guarantee total compatibility with earlier systems. Instead, the industries actively choose to force the users to purchase new systems and software. Thus we are moving forward with new technological variants that may have access to only the most recent systems and we will have lost earlier alternatives. The reality is that increased processing speed and storage capacity are matched by an equally rapid decline in the access and survival lifetime of older information. This pattern is not limited to modern electronic systems but is evident throughout history from writing on stone and clay tablets to papyrus and paper. It is equally evident in image systems from painting, through film, to magnetic tapes and digital cameras. In sound recording we have variously progressed from wax discs to vinyl, magnetic tape and CD formats. In each case the need for better definition and greater capacity has forced the earlier systems into oblivion. Indeed proposed interactive music systems could similarly relegate music CDs to specialist collections. The article will track some of the examples and discuss the consequences as well as noting that this information loss is further compounded by developments in language and changes in cultural views of different societies.

  8. Mathematical models of diabetes progression.

    PubMed

    De Gaetano, Andrea; Hardy, Thomas; Beck, Benoit; Abu-Raddad, Eyas; Palumbo, Pasquale; Bue-Valleskey, Juliana; Pørksen, Niels

    2008-12-01

    Few attempts have been made to model mathematically the progression of type 2 diabetes. A realistic representation of the long-term physiological adaptation to developing insulin resistance is necessary for effectively designing clinical trials and evaluating diabetes prevention or disease modification therapies. Writing a good model for diabetes progression is difficult because the long time span of the disease makes experimental verification of modeling hypotheses extremely awkward. In this context, it is of primary importance that the assumptions underlying the model equations properly reflect established physiology and that the mathematical formulation of the model give rise only to physically plausible behavior of the solutions. In the present work, a model of the pancreatic islet compensation is formulated, its physiological assumptions are presented, some fundamental qualitative characteristics of its solutions are established, the numerical values assigned to its parameters are extensively discussed (also with reference to available cross-sectional epidemiologic data), and its performance over the span of a lifetime is simulated under various conditions, including worsening insulin resistance and primary replication defects. The differences with respect to two previously proposed models of diabetes progression are highlighted, and therefore, the model is proposed as a realistic, robust description of the evolution of the compensation of the glucose-insulin system in healthy and diabetic individuals. Model simulations can be run from the authors' web page. PMID:18780774

  9. Genetics Home Reference: progressive osseous heteroplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... and muscle tissue. Bone that forms outside the skeleton is called heterotopic or ectopic bone. In progressive ... preventing bony tissue from being produced outside the skeleton. The GNAS gene mutations that cause progressive osseous ...

  10. Fluor Hanford Project Focused Progress at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    HANSON, R.D.

    2000-02-01

    Fluor Hanford is making significant progress in accelerating cleanup at the Hanford site. This progress consistently aligns with a new strategic vision established by the U.S. Department of Energy's Richland Operations Office (RL).

  11. Primary Progressive Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Youngsin; Duffy, Joseph R.; Josephs, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by progressive language dysfunction. The majority of primary progressive aphasia cases can be classified into three subtypes: non-fluent/agrammatic, semantic, and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia. Each variant presents with unique clinical features, and is associated with distinctive underlying pathology and neuroimaging findings. Unlike primary progressive aphasia, apraxia of speech is a disorder that involves inaccurate production of sounds secondary to impaired planning or programming of speech movements. Primary progressive apraxia of speech is a neurodegenerative form of apraxia of speech, and it should be distinguished from primary progressive aphasia given its discrete clinicopathological presentation. Recently, there have been substantial advances in our understanding of these speech and language disorders. Here, we review clinical, neuroimaging, and histopathological features of primary progressive aphasia and apraxia of speech. The distinctions among these disorders will be crucial since accurate diagnosis will be important from a prognostic and therapeutic standpoint. PMID:24234355

  12. Towards a Learning Progression of Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Knut; Viering, Tobias; Boone, William J.; Fischer, Hans E.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an empirical study on an initial learning progression of energy, a concept of central importance to the understanding of science. Learning progressions have been suggested as one vehicle to support the systematic and successful teaching of core science concepts. Ideally, a learning progression will provide teachers with a…

  13. Adult Learners: Pathways to Progression. FEDA Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisenberger, Anna; Sanders, John

    1997-01-01

    A study focused on facilitating progression for adults from nonvocational adult education to qualification-bearing courses in further education (FE) and studied their patterns of progression and which factors helped or hindered such progress. Information was collected from adult learners in 10 adult and FE organizations in Britain through a…

  14. Progression in prediagnostic Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Jason; Blekher, Tanya; Jackson, Jacqueline; Beristain, Xabier; Marshall, Jeanine; Hui, Siu; Wojcieszek, Joanne; Foroud, Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine rates of decline in individuals at risk for Huntington disease (HD). Methods 106 individuals at risk for HD completed a battery of neurocognitive, psychomotor and oculomotor tasks at two visits, approximately 2.5 years apart. Participants were classified as: (1) without the CAG expansion (normal controls, NC; n=68) or (2) with the CAG expansion (CAG+; n=38). The CAG+ group was further subdivided into those near to (near; n=19) or far from (far; n=19) their estimated age of onset. Longitudinal performance in the CAG+ group was evaluated with a repeated measures model with two main effects (time to onset, visit) and their interaction. Analysis of covariance was employed to detect differences in longitudinal performance in the three groups (NC, near and far). Results In the CAG+, the interaction term was significant (p≤0.02) for four measures (movement time, alternate button tapping, variability of latency for a memory guided task and percentage of errors for a more complex memory guided task), suggesting the rate of decline was more rapid as subjects approached onset. Longitudinal progression in the three groups differed for several variables (p<0.05). In most, the near group had significantly faster progression than NC; however, comparisons of the NC and far groups were less consistent. Conclusions Different patterns of progression were observed during the prediagnostic period. For some measures, CAG+ subjects closer to estimated onset showed a more rapid decline while for other measures the CAG+ group had a constant rate of decline throughout the prediagnostic period that was more rapid than in NC. PMID:19726414

  15. Nuclear spectroscopic studies. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, C.R.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1996-01-16

    This report describes progress in the experimental nuclear physics program of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. It presents findings related to properties of high-spin states, low-energy levels of nuclei far from stability, and high-energy heavy-ion physics, as well as a brief description of the Joint Institute of Heavy Ion Research (a collaboration between the University of Tennessee, Vanderbilt University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and its activities (particularly those of the last few years), and a list of publications. 89 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Progress toward hydrogen peroxide micropulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J C; Dittman, M D; Ledebuhr, A G

    1999-07-08

    A new self-pressurizing propulsion system has liquid thrusters and gas jet attitude control without heavy gas storage vessels. A pump boosts the pressure of a small fraction of the hydrogen peroxide, so that reacted propellant can controllably pressurize its own source tank. The warm decomposition gas also powers the pump and is supplied to the attitude control jets. The system has been incorporated into a prototype microsatellite for terrestrial maneuvering tests. Additional progress includes preliminary testing of a bipropellant thruster, and storage of unstabilized hydrogen peroxide in small sealed tanks.

  17. Biobehavioral Influences on Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Costanzo, Erin S.; Sood, Anil K.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis This review focuses on the contributions of stress-related behavioral factors to cancer growth and metastasis and the biobehavioral mechanisms underlying these relationships. We describe behavioral factors that are important in modulation of the stress response and the pivotal role of neuroendocrine regulation in the downstream alteration of physiological pathways relevant to cancer control, including the cellular immune response, inflammation, and tumor angiogenesis, invasion, and cell-signaling pathways. Consequences for cancer progression and metastasis, as well as quality of life, are delineated. Finally, behavioral and pharmacological interventions for cancer patients with the potential to alter these biobehavioral pathways are discussed. PMID:21094927

  18. Progress towards autonomous, intelligent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry; Heer, Ewald

    1987-01-01

    An aggressive program has been initiated to develop, integrate, and implement autonomous systems technologies starting with today's expert systems and evolving to autonomous, intelligent systems by the end of the 1990s. This program includes core technology developments and demonstration projects for technology evaluation and validation. This paper discusses key operational frameworks in the content of systems autonomy applications and then identifies major technological challenges, primarily in artificial intelligence areas. Program content and progress made towards critical technologies and demonstrations that have been initiated to achieve the required future capabilities in the year 2000 era are discussed.

  19. Recent cryocooler progress in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Y.

    1985-05-01

    The progress of cryocoolers and related devices in Japan is reviewed. The Japanese National Railways has developed the light weight 4 K on-board refrigerators since 1977 as part of the MAGLEV train program. Superconducting and cryogenic fundamental technology was examined which included high performance cryocooler, magnetic refrigerator and superfluid refrigeration. Space cryogenics such as the cooling systems of IR-detectors was studied. Cryocooler for special applications such as cryopump, NMR-CT and JJ devices was investigated. Compact heat exchangers, high performance regenerators and reliable compressors are investigated as a critical component technology.

  20. Progress of the LASSO experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serene, B. E. H.

    1981-01-01

    The LASSO (Later Synchronisation from Stationary Orbit) experiment, designed to demonstrate the feasibility of achieving time synchronization between remote atomic clocks with an accuracy of one nanosecond or better by using laser techniques for the first time is described. The experiment uses groundbased laser stations and the SIRIO-2 geostationary satellite to be launched towards the end of 1981. The qualification of the LASSO on-board equipment is discussed with a brief description of the electrical and optical test equipment used. The progress of the operational organization is included.

  1. Recent progress in tidal modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vial, F.; Forbes, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Recent contributions to tidal theory during the last five years are reviewed. Specific areas where recent progress has occurred include: the action of mean wind and dissipation on tides, interactions of other waves with tides, the use of TGCM in tidal studies. Furthermore, attention is put on the nonlinear interaction between semidiurnal and diurnal tides. Finally, more realistic thermal excitation and background wind and temperature models have been developed in the past few years. This has led to new month-to-month numerical simulations of the semidiurnal tide. Some results using these models are presented and compared with ATMAP tidal climatologies.

  2. [Progress in biosythesis of diaminopentane].

    PubMed

    Li, Dongxia; Li, Ming; Wang, Hongxin; Wang, Shuya; Lu, Fuping

    2014-02-01

    Air pollution and global warming are increasingly deteriorating. Large amounts of polyamides derived from fossil fuel sources are consumed around the world. Cadaverine is an important building monomer block of bio-based polyamides, thus biotechnological processes for these polymers possess enormous ecological and economical potential. Currently, the engineered strains for biological production of cadaverine are Corynebacterium glutamicum and Escherichia coli. We review here the latest research progress of biosynthesis of cadaverine including metabolism of cadaverine in microorganisms, key enzymes and transport proteins in cadaverine synthesis pathway, optimum pathways and cadaverine yields. PMID:24941739

  3. Recent Progress in SERS Biosensing

    PubMed Central

    Bantz, Kyle C.; Meyer, Audrey F.; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Im, Hyungsoon; Kurtuluş, Özge; Lee, Si Hoon; Lindquist, Nathan C.

    2011-01-01

    This perspective gives an overview of recent developments in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for biosensing. We focus this review on SERS papers published in the last 10 years and to specific applications of detecting biological analytes. Both intrinsic and extrinsic SERS biosensing schemes have been employed to detect and identify small molecules, nucleic acids, lipids, peptides, and proteins, as well as for in vivo and cellular sensing. Current SERS substrate technologies along with a series of advancements in surface chemistry, sample preparation, intrinsic/extrinsic signal transduction schemes, and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy are discussed. The progress covered herein shows great promise for widespread adoption of SERS biosensing. PMID:21509385

  4. MITRE progress report No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-23

    This progress report documents the major accomplishments on the two remaining SEAS tasks for the period of July 10 to August 8, 1980. The tasks are SEAS scenario runs, and SEAS management, documentation, maintenance and support. The scenario run work in this month period consisted of the completion of the TASE 6 scenario on the reference system, development of an ARMS baseline scenario and a run of the NEP2 scenario. The SEAS management, documentation, maintenance and support task continued at about a five person level during this period. A list of all the SEAS change requests that have been completed under this contract (since the procedures begin in March 1980) is contained in Table 1. Approximately forty additional change requests have been proposed. Some of these have been approved by the change control board and are in progress. Work has continued on several documents and some have been published. In addition to the ARMS design briefing on August 8, MITRE participated in two other design briefings during this month report period. These are the July 14 briefing on the guidance document and the July 23 briefing on the TECNET/MOBIL 1 Comparison and on the Graphics Preprocessor Design.

  5. Purinergic signaling in glioma progression.

    PubMed

    Braganhol, Elizandra; Wink, Márcia Rosângela; Lenz, Guido; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Among the pathological alterations that give tumor cells invasive potential, purinergic signaling is emerging as an important component. Studies performed in in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo glioma models indicate that alterations in the purinergic signaling are involved in the progression of these tumors. Gliomas have low expression of all E-NTPDases, when compared to astrocytes in culture. Nucleotides induce glioma proliferation and ATP, although potentially neurotoxic, does not evoke cytotoxic action on the majority of glioma cells in culture. The importance of extracellular ATP for glioma pathobiology was confirmed by the reduction in glioma tumor size by apyrase, which degrades extracellular ATP to AMP, and the striking increase in tumor size by over-expression of an ecto-enzyme that degrades ATP to ADP, suggesting the effect of extracellular ATP on the tumor growth depends on the nucleotide produced by its degradation. The participation of purinergic receptors on glioma progression, particularly P2X(7), is involved in the resistance to ATP-induced cell death. Although more studies are necessary, the purinergic signaling, including ectonucleotidases and receptors, may be considered as future target for glioma pharmacological or gene therapy. PMID:22879065

  6. [Growth and nonlinearity]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Savit, R.

    1993-12-31

    The research centered on the physics of growth. One particular focus was the spiral patterns seen in excitable media, such as the chemical reaction of Belousov and Zhabatinskii, and the aggregation of the slime mold, Dictyostelium Discoideum. Another area of interest is the statistical roughness of the growth front itself. For example, when growing thin films, the roughness of the surface is very important for the ultimate quality of the film. Besides its direct technological relevance, this problem is intimately connected to many fundamental problems in statistical physics. In addition work was done in the related area of statistical properties of flux-flow motion in superconductors. Substantial progress was also made on techniques and applications of the analysis of complex systems. Methods of time series analysis were generalized to the analysis of complex spatio-temporal patterns. In the examples studied most, turbulence and electroencephalograms, the spatio-temporal patterns are very complex and fleeting, and can easily be misken for random noise. Nevertheless, substantial progress was made in developing and applying methods to these systems that indicate the presence of nonrandom time-varying spatial patterns.

  7. Progressive Fracture of Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnetyan, Levon

    2001-01-01

    This report includes the results of a research in which the COmposite Durability STRuctural ANalysis (CODSTRAN) computational simulation capabilities were augmented and applied to various structures for demonstration of the new features and verification. The first chapter of this report provides an introduction to the computational simulation or virtual laboratory approach for the assessment of damage and fracture progression characteristics in composite structures. The second chapter outlines the details of the overall methodology used, including the failure criteria and the incremental/iterative loading procedure with the definitions of damage, fracture, and equilibrium states. The subsequent chapters each contain an augmented feature of the code and/or demonstration examples. All but one of the presented examples contains laminated composite structures with various fiber/matrix constituents. For each structure simulated, damage initiation and progression mechanisms are identified and the structural damage tolerance is quantified at various degradation stages. Many chapters contain the simulation of defective and defect free structures to evaluate the effects of existing defects on structural durability.

  8. LIFE: Recent Developments and Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Anklam, T M

    2011-04-08

    Test results from the NIF show excellent progress toward achieving ignition. Experiments designed to verify coupling of the laser energy to the fusion target have shown that the efficiency meets that needed for ignition. Several tests with the cryogenic targets needed for ignition have been performed, and world-record neutron output produced. The National Ignition Campaign is on schedule to meet its 2012 ignition milestone, with the next phase in the campaign due to start later this month. It has been a busy and very productive year. The NIF is in full 24/7 operations and has progressed markedly in the path toward ignition. The long-standing goal of the National Ignition Campaign to demonstrate ignition by the end of FY 2012 is on track. The LIFE plant design has matured considerably, and a delivery plan established based on close interactions with vendors. National-level reviews of fusion are underway, and are due to present initial findings later this year. A value proposition has been drafted for review. The LIFE project is ready to move into the delivery phase.

  9. Progress towards understanding baryon resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Crede, Volker; Roberts, Winston

    2013-07-01

    The composite nature of baryons manifests itself in the existence of a rich spectrum of excited states, in particular in the important mass region 1?2 GeV for the light-flavoured baryons. The properties of these resonances can be identified by systematic investigations using electromagnetic and strong probes, primarily with beams of electrons, photons, and pions. After decades of research, the fundamental degrees of freedom underlying the baryon excitation spectrum are still poorly understood. The search for hitherto undiscovered but predicted resonances continues at many laboratories around the world. Recent results from photo- and electroproduction experiments provide intriguing indications for new states and shed light on the structure of some of the known nucleon excitations. The continuing study of available data sets with consideration of new observables and improved analysis tools have also called into question some of the earlier findings in baryon spectroscopy. Other breakthrough measurements have been performed in the heavy-baryon sector, which has seen a fruitful period in recent years, in particular at the B factories and the Tevatron. First results from the large hadron collider indicate rapid progress in the field of bottom baryons. In this review, we discuss the recent experimental progress and give an overview of theoretical approaches.

  10. Progress on DCLL Blanket Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Clement; Abdou, M.; Katoh, Yutai; Kurtz, Richard J.; Lumsdaine, A.; Marriott, Edward P.; Merrill, Brad; Morley, Neil; Pint, Bruce A.; Sawan, M.; Smolentsev, S.; Williams, Brian; Willms, Scott; Youssef, M.

    2013-09-01

    Under the US Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology Development program, we have selected the Dual Coolant Lead Lithium concept (DCLL) as a reference blanket, which has the potential to be a high performance DEMO blanket design with a projected thermal efficiency of >40%. Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAF/M) steel is used as the structural material. The self-cooled breeder PbLi is circulated for power conversion and for tritium breeding. A SiC-based flow channel insert (FCI) is used as a means for magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop reduction from the circulating liquid PbLi and as a thermal insulator to separate the high-temperature PbLi (~700°C) from the helium-cooled RAF/M steel structure. We are making progress on related R&D needs to address critical Fusion Nuclear Science and Facility (FNSF) and DEMO blanket development issues. When performing the function as the Interface Coordinator for the DCLL blanket concept, we had been developing the mechanical design and performing neutronics, structural and thermal hydraulics analyses of the DCLL TBM module. We had estimated the necessary ancillary equipment that will be needed at the ITER site and a detailed safety impact report has been prepared. This provided additional understanding of the DCLL blanket concept in preparation for the FNSF and DEMO. This paper will be a summary report on the progress of the DCLL TBM design and R&Ds for the DCLL blanket concept.

  11. Progress in BazookaSPECT

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brian W.; Barber, H. Bradford; Furenlid, Lars R.; Moore, Stephen K.; Barrett, Harrison H.

    2010-01-01

    Recent progress on a high-resolution, photon-counting gamma-ray and x-ray imager called BazookaSPECT is presented. BazookaSPECT is an example of a new class of scintillation detectors based on integrating detectors such as CCD(charge-coupled device) or CMOS(complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) sensors. BazookaSPECT is unique in that it makes use of a scintillator in close proximity to a microchannel plate-based image intensifier for up-front optical amplification of scintillation light. We discuss progress made in bringing about compact BazookaSPECT modules and in real-time processing of event data using graphics processing units (GPUs). These advances are being implemented in the design of a high-resolution rodent brain imager called FastSPECT III. A key benefit of up-front optical gain is that any CCD/CMOS sensor can now be utilized for photon counting. We discuss the benefits and feasibility of using CMOS sensors as photon-counting detectors for digital radiography, with application in mammography and computed tomography (CT). We present as an appendix a formal method for comparing various photon-counting integrating detectors using objective statistical criteria. PMID:21297897

  12. Recent progress in henipavirus research.

    PubMed

    Halpin, Kim; Mungall, Bruce A

    2007-09-01

    Following the discovery of two new paramyxoviruses in the 1990s, much effort has been placed on rapidly finding the reservoir hosts, characterising the genomes, identifying the viral receptors and formulating potential vaccines and therapeutic options for these viruses, Hendra and Nipah viruses caused zoonotic disease on a scale not seen before with other paramyxoviruses. Nipah virus particularly caused high morbidity and mortality in humans and high morbidity in pig populations in the first outbreak in Malaysia. Both viruses continue to pose a threat with sporadic outbreaks continuing into the 21st century. Experimental and surveillance studies identified that pteropus bats are the reservoir hosts. Research continues in an attempt to understand events that precipitated spillover of these viruses. Discovered on the cusp of the molecular technology revolution, much progress has been made in understanding these new viruses. This review endeavours to capture the depth and breadth of these recent advances. PMID:17629946

  13. Probabilistic progressive buckling of trusses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, Shantaram S.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1991-01-01

    A three-bay, space, cantilever truss is probabilistically evaluated to describe progressive buckling and truss collapse in view of the numerous uncertainties associated with the structural, material, and load variables (primitive variables) that describe the truss. Initially, the truss is deterministically analyzed for member forces, and member(s) in which the axial force exceeds the Euler buckling load are identified. These member(s) are then discretized with several intermediate nodes and a probabilistic buckling analysis is performed on the truss to obtain its probabilistic buckling loads and respective mode shapes. Furthermore, sensitivities associated with the uncertainties in the primitive variables are investigated, margin of safety values for the truss are determined, and truss end node displacements are noted. These steps are repeated by sequentially removing the buckled member(s) until onset of truss collapse is reached. Results show that this procedure yields an optimum truss configuration for a given loading and for a specified reliability.

  14. Decomposable Mandrel Project. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Letts, S.A.; Fearon, E.; Allison, L.; Buckley, S.; Saculla, M.; Cook, R.

    1995-05-08

    We report on our progress in developing a new technology to produce both Nova and NIF scale capsules using a depolymerizable mandrel. In this technique we use poly({alpha}-methylstyrene) (PAMS) beads or shells as mandrels which are overcoated with plasma polymer. The poly({alpha}-methylstyrene) mandrel is then thermally depolymerized to gas phase monomer which diffuses away through the more thermally stable plasma polymer coating, leaving a hollow shell. Since our last report we have concentrated on characterization of the final shell. Starting with PAMS bead mandrels leads to distorted pyrolyzed shells because of thermally induced creep of the CH coating. We found that plasma polymer coatings on hollow shell mandrels shrink isotropically during pyrolysis and maintain sphericity. We are now concentrating our efforts on the use of microencapsulated shells to prepare targets with buried diagnostic layers or inner wall surface texture.

  15. Progressive Fracture of Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Minnetyan, Levon

    2008-01-01

    A new approach is described for evaluating fracture in composite structures. This approach is independent of classical fracture mechanics parameters like fracture toughness. It relies on computational simulation and is programmed in a stand-alone integrated computer code. It is multiscale, multifunctional because it includes composite mechanics for the composite behavior and finite element analysis for predicting the structural response. It contains seven modules; layered composite mechanics (micro, macro, laminate), finite element, updating scheme, local fracture, global fracture, stress based failure modes, and fracture progression. The computer code is called CODSTRAN (Composite Durability Structural ANalysis). It is used in the present paper to evaluate the global fracture of four composite shell problems and one composite built-up structure. Results show that the composite shells and the built-up composite structure global fracture are enhanced when internal pressure is combined with shear loads.

  16. Stepwise Progression of Embryonic Patterning.

    PubMed

    Sandler, Jeremy E; Stathopoulos, Angelike

    2016-07-01

    It is long established that the graded distribution of Dorsal transcription factor influences spatial domains of gene expression along the dorsoventral (DV) axis of Drosophila melanogaster embryos. However, the more recent realization that Dorsal levels also change with time raises the question of whether these dynamics are instructive. An overview of DV axis patterning is provided, focusing on new insights identified through quantitative analysis of temporal changes in Dorsal target gene expression from one nuclear cycle to the next ('steps'). Possible roles for the stepwise progression of this patterning program are discussed including (i) tight temporal regulation of signaling pathway activation, (ii) control of gene expression cohorts, and (iii) ensuring the irreversibility of the patterning and cell fate specification process. PMID:27230753

  17. Environmental tester development. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Tressler, R.E.

    1998-08-01

    The primary objective is to further develop the environmental tensometer toward commercialization by making key technical refinements, improving the controlling and data-logging software, and testing the system in a potential customer`s laboratory. Progress has been made in Tasks 1 (completed), Task 2 (one half completed), Task 4 (one half completed) of the original work plan. In this report a detailed description of the work completed on the second prototype is explained in detail. A second prototype of the Environmental Tester, a device capable of tensile tests of fibers in controlled environments and at high temperatures, has been designed and is currently being fabricated. The first prototype includes six integrated systems; the testing system, the furnace system, the vacuum system, the mass flow control system, and the computer data acquisition and control (CDAC) system.

  18. Gene therapy: progress and predictions

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Mary; Thrasher, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The first clinical gene delivery, which involved insertion of a marker gene into lymphocytes from cancer patients, was published 25 years ago. In this review, we describe progress since then in gene therapy. Patients with some inherited single-gene defects can now be treated with their own bone marrow stem cells that have been engineered with a viral vector carrying the missing gene. Patients with inherited retinopathies and haemophilia B can also be treated by local or systemic injection of viral vectors. There are also a number of promising gene therapy approaches for cancer and infectious disease. We predict that the next 25 years will see improvements in safety, efficacy and manufacture of gene delivery vectors and introduction of gene-editing technologies to the clinic. Gene delivery may also prove a cost-effective method for the delivery of biological medicines. PMID:26702034

  19. Progress on the Cluster Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kivelson, Margaret; Khurana, Krishan; Acuna, Mario (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Prof M. G. Kivelson and Dr. K. K. Khurana (UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles)) are co-investigators on the Cluster Magnetometer Consortium (CMC) that provided the fluxgate magnetometers and associated mission support for the Cluster Mission. The CMC designated UCLA as the site with primary responsibility for the inter-calibration of data from the four spacecraft and the production of fully corrected data critical to achieving the mission objectives. UCLA will also participate in the analysis and interpretation of the data. The UCLA group here reports its excellent progress in developing fully intra-calibrated data for large portions of the mission and an excellent start in developing inter-calibrated data for selected time intervals, especially extended intervals in August, 2001 on which a workshop held at ESTEC in March, 2002 focused. In addition, some scientific investigations were initiated and results were reported at meetings.

  20. Hidden progress: broadband plasmonic invisibility.

    PubMed

    Renger, Jan; Kadic, Muamer; Dupont, Guillaume; Aćimović, Srdjan S; Guenneau, Sébastien; Quidant, Romain; Enoch, Stefan

    2010-07-19

    One of the key challenges in current research into electromagnetic cloaking is to achieve invisibility at optical frequencies and over an extended bandwidth. There has been significant progress towards this using the idea of cloaking by sweeping under the carpet of Li and Pendry. Here, we show that we can harness surface plasmon polaritons at a metal surface structured with a dielectric material to obtain a unique control of their propagation. We exploit this control to demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally cloaking over an unprecedented bandwidth (650-900 nm). Our non-resonant plasmonic metamaterial is designed using transformational optics extended to plasmonics and allows a curved reflector to mimic a flat mirror. Our theoretical predictions are validated by experiments mapping the surface light intensity at a wavelength of 800 nm. PMID:20720959

  1. Progress in optical parametric oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, Y. X.; Byer, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that tunable coherent sources are very useful for many applications, including spectroscopy, chemistry, combustion diagnostics, and remote sensing. Compared with other tunable sources, optical parametric oscillators (OPO) offer the potential advantage of a wide wavelength operating range, which extends from 0.2 micron to 25 microns. The current status of OPO is examined, taking into account mainly advances made during the last decade. Attention is given to early LiNbO3 parametric oscillators, problems which have prevented wide use of parametric oscillators, the demonstration of OPO's using urea and AgGaS2, progress related to picosecond OPO's, a breakthrough in nanosecond parametric oscillators, the first demonstration of a waveguide and fiber parametric amplification and generation, the importance of chalcopyrite crystals, and theoretical work performed with the aim to understand the factors affecting the parametric oscillator performance.

  2. Progress towards diesel combustion modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Rutland, C.J.; Ayoub, N.; Han, Z.

    1995-12-31

    Progress on the development and validation of a CFD model for diesel engine combustion and flow is described. A modified version of the KIVA code is used for the computations, with improved submodels for liquid breakup, drop distortion and drag, spray/wall impingement with rebounding, sliding and breaking-up drops, wall heat transfer with unsteadiness and compressibility, multistep kinetics ignition and laminar-turbulent characteristic time combustion models, Zeldovich NOx formation, and soot formation with Nagle Strickland-Constable oxidation. The code also considers piston-cylinder-liner crevice flows and allows computations of the intake flow process in the realistic engine geometry with two moving intake valves. Significant progress has been made using a modified RNG {kappa}-{var_epsilon} turbulence model, and a multicomponent fuel vaporization model and a flamelet combustion model have been implemented. Model validation experiments have been performed using a single-cylinder heavy duty truck engine that features state-of-the-art high pressure electronic fuel injection and emissions instrumentation. In addition to cylinder pressure, heat release, and emissions measurements, new combustion visualization experiments have also been performed using an endoscope system that takes the place of one of the exhaust valves. Modifications to the engine geometry for optical access were minimal, thus ensuring that the results represent the actual engine. The intake flow CFD modeling results show that the details of the intake flow process influence the engine performance. Comparisons with the measured engine cylinder pressure, heat release, soot and NOx emission data, and the combustion visualization flame images show that the CFD model results are generally in good agreement with the experiments. In particular, the model is able to correctly predict the soot-NOx trade-off trend as a function of injection timing. 44 refs., 21 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Genetics of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Im, Sun Young; Kim, Young Eun; Kim, Yun Joong

    2015-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative syndrome that is clinically characterized by progressive postural instability, supranuclear gaze palsy, parkinsonism and cognitive decline. Pathologically, diagnosis of PSP is based on characteristic features, such as neurofibrillary tangles, neutrophil threads, tau-positive astrocytes and their processes in basal ganglia and brainstem, and the accumulation of 4 repeat tau protein. PSP is generally recognized as a sporadic disorder; however, understanding of genetic background of PSP has been expanding rapidly. Here we review relevant publications to outline the genetics of PSP. Although only small number of familial PSP cases have been reported, the recognition of familial PSP has been increasing. In some familial cases of clinically probable PSP, PSP pathologies were confirmed based on NINDS neuropathological diagnostic criteria. Several mutations in MAPT, the gene that causes a form of familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tauopathy, have been identified in both sporadic and familial PSP cases. The H1 haplotype of MAPT is a risk haplotype for PSP, and within H1, a sub-haplotype (H1c) is associated with PSP. A recent genome-wide association study on autopsyproven PSP revealed additional PSP risk alleles in STX6 and EIF2AK3. Several heredodegenerative parkinsonian disorders are referred to as PSP-look-alikes because their clinical phenotype, but not their pathology, mimics PSP. Due to the fast development of genomics and bioinformatics, more genetic factors related to PSP are expected to be discovered. Undoubtedly, these studies will provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of PSP and clues for developing therapeutic strategies. PMID:26413239

  4. Progress in nanotechnology for healthcare.

    PubMed

    Raffa, V; Vittorio, O; Riggio, C; Cuschieri, A

    2010-06-01

    This review based on the Wickham lecture given by AC at the 2009 SMIT meeting in Sinaia outlines the progress made in nano-technology for healthcare. It describes in brief the nature of nano-materials and their unique properties which accounts for the significant research both in scientific institutions and industry for translation into new therapies embodied in the emerging field of nano-medicine. It stresses that the potential of nano-medicine to make significant inroads for more effective therapies both for life-threatening and life-disabling disorders will only be achieved by high-quality life science research. The first generation of passive nano-diagnostics based on nanoparticle contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging is well established in clinical practice and new such contrast agents are undergoing early clinical evaluation. Likewise active (second generation) nano-therapies, exemplified by targeted control drug release systems are undergoing early clinical evaluation. The situation concerning other nano-materials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) is less advanced although considerable progress has been made on their coating for aqueous dispersion and functionalisation to enable carriage of drugs, genes and fluorescent markers. The main problem related to the clinical use of these nanotubes is that there is no consent among scientists on the fate of such nano-materials following injection or implantation in humans. Provided carbon nanotubes are manufactured to certain medical criteria (length around 1 mum, purity of 97-99% and low Fe content) they exhibit no cytotoxicity on cell cultures and demonstrate full bio-compatibility on in vivo animal studies. The results of recent experimental studies have demonstrated the potential of technologies based on CNTs for low voltage wireless electro-chemotherapy of tumours and for electro-stimulation therapies for cardiac, neurodegenerative and skeletal and visceral muscle

  5. [Treatments of progressive systemic sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Vayssairat, M; Abdoucheli-Baudot, N; Gaitz, J P

    2001-10-01

    Progressive Systemic Sclerosis (PSS) is still an incurable disease but there are treatments for it, and the list of proposed treatments is long. The methodology of trials concerning PSS is complex, due to the low prevalence of the disease and therefore its financial interest for pharmaceutical companies, the lack of simple end points for efficacy, and the large number of clinical expressions with various prognoses. These causes explain why most open studies are fiercely positive, and why controlled studies are so rare. The progress made during the last 10 years concern 1) the diagnosis, which is now made earlier due to capillaroscopy and antibody assays, especially of anticentromere antibodies, 2) better knowledge of the prognosis, due to the classification of PSS into limited and the diffuse forms which have different prognoses, and 3) the recognition of a serious complication of the disease, ie. pulmonary hypertension, which can now be detected by non-invasive methods. All these improvements will also improve the methodology of future trials of drugs for treating PSS. In this ocean of uncertainties, some treatments have a valid background, and 3 visceral locations of PSS can be efficiently treated: renal involvement, with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, respiratory involvement, with D-penicillamine, and pulmonary hypertension, with prostacyclin derivatives. Corticosteroids are suspected to increase the risk of renal complications. Calcium blockers are considered a useful symptomatic treatment of the associated Raynaud's phenomenon and of the risk of digital necrosis, and may also constitute a treatment of PSS itself. A recent trial conducted by the French Microcirculation Society and its acrosyndrome Study Group considered the effects of an oral derivative of prostacyclin. Beneficial effects were: a reduction of the risk of digital necroses, improved overall wellbeing, less necessity for hospitalizations, fewer giant capillaries, and a dramatic fall in

  6. Successful delayed non-operative management of C2 neurosynchondrosis fractures in a pediatric patient: a case report and review of management strategies and considerations for treatment.

    PubMed

    Shammassian, Berje; Wright, Christina Huang; Wright, James; Onwuzulike; Tomei, Krystal L

    2016-01-01

    Upper cervical synchondrosis fractures are the most common types of cervical fractures in the pediatric population less than 7 years of age (Blauth et al (Eur Spine J 5:63-70, 1996); Connolly et al (Pediatr Radiol 25(Suppl1):S129-133, 1995); Mandabach et al (Pediatr Neurosurg 19(5):225-232, 1993); Schippers et al (Acta Neurochir 138:524-530, 1990)) The vast majority occur through the dentocentral or basilar synchondrosis. We present the second reported case in recent literature of a unilateral neurosynchondrosis fracture. The patient, a 4-year-old male, was initially managed conservatively with a rigid cervical collar for a period of 3 months. Despite multiple counseling sessions with family, the patient remained poorly compliant with cervical immobilization. After 3 months, imaging demonstrated partial fusion with persistent anterolisthesis of C2 on C3. The decision was made to place the child in external halo fixation as an attempt to achieve fusion prior to committing to internal surgical fixation and the associated sequelae. Immobilization with a hard cervical collar is often first line treatment. In the case of failed fusion, debate exists regarding surgical fixation in children. Occipito-atlanto-axial fusion leads to permanent loss of a significant degree of flexion, extension, and rotatory movement. The pediatric population has a strong propensity to fuse; however, compliance is often a barrier to conservative treatment due to age-related behavioral practices. We demonstrate that even with initial failed fusion and progression of deformity while in a cervical collar, conservative management with external halo fixation can potentially obviate the need for internal fixation. PMID:26231564

  7. Let s make progress together!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriana, Mazare; Liliana, Gheorghian

    2015-04-01

    Let's make progress together! The "Theodor Balan" Secondary School in the urban area of Suceava County in northeastern Romania is involved in several different projects. In order to extend previous successful projects with the students, parents, teachers, businesses and local government representatives in science symposiums for civic projects within the concept of sustainable development, the school is continuing to develop various successful programs. "The battle" continues both in nature and in the classrooms, in order to preserve the environment and to discover new resources. To raise awareness about the importance of existing resources even at the level of individuals there is a constant concern for keeping up to date on what already exists and is well known, but at the same time to remove "barriers" and discover new horizons and resources. Scientific activities held in our school are an effective way to educate students and the community to which they belong. In our community, we discovered sources of drinking water polluted by nitrites from fertilizers used in agriculture. In order to inform and educate people in the area, our teachers have organized several educational activities. Its purpose was: -Knowledge of the importance of water for the environment and human health. -Reducing water pollution. Students have informed their families' about sustainable development acquired at school. In this way, the school manages to educate and change people's ideas. The ways and methods of adults' learning were practiced within a Grundtvig training course "It's never too late learning to learn" in February 2014, in Florence, Italy. The GIFT 2014 was a great occasion for the teachers and students, the county's educational department and the participants at the National Colloquia of Physics to discover new materials provided at the Conference and the latest news and topics in the world of science. The theme trips at the physics laboratories of "Alexandru Ioan Cuza

  8. Progress in carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Myles, K.M.; Krumpelt, M.; Roche, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Our objective is to increase both the life and power of the molten carbonate fuel (MCFC) by developing improved components and designs. Current activities are as follows: (1)Development of LiFeO{sub 2} and LiCoO{sub 2} cathodes for extended MCFC life, particularly in pressurized operation, where the present cathode, NiO, provides insufficient life (2) Development of distributed-manifold MCFC designs for increased volumetric power density and decreased temperature gradients (and, therefore, increased life) (3) Development of components and designs appropriate for high-power density operation (>2 kW/m{sup 2}and >100 kW/m{sup 3}in an integrated MCFC system) (4)Studies of pitting corrosion of the stainless-steel interconnects and aluminized seals now being employed in the MCFC (alternative components will also be studied). Each of these activities has the potential to reduce the MCFC system cost significantly. Progress in each activity will be presented during the poster session.

  9. MICE Spectrometer Magnet System Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Virostek, Steve P.

    2007-08-27

    The first magnets for the muon ionization cooling experimentwill be the tracker solenoids that form the ends of the MICE coolingchannel. The primary purpose of the tracker solenoids is to provide auniform 4 T field (to better than +-0.3 percent over a volume that is 1meter long and 0.3 meters in diameter) spectrometer magnet field for thescintillating fiber detectors that are used to analyze the muons in thechannel before and after ionization cooling. A secondary purpose for thetracker magnet is the matching of the muon beam between the rest of theMICE cooling channel and the uniform field spectrometer magnet. Thetracker solenoid is powered by three 300 amp power supplies. Additionaltuning of the spectrometer is provided by a pair of 50 amp power suppliesacross the spectrometer magnet end coils. The tracker magnet will becooled using a pair of 4 K pulse tube coolers that each provide 1.5 W ofcooling at 4.2 K. Final design and construction of the tracker solenoidsbegan during the summer of 2006. This report describes the progress madeon the construction of the tracker solenoids.

  10. Peptide Vaccine: Progress and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weidang; Joshi, Medha D.; Singhania, Smita; Ramsey, Kyle H.; Murthy, Ashlesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional vaccine strategies have been highly efficacious for several decades in reducing mortality and morbidity due to infectious diseases. The bane of conventional vaccines, such as those that include whole organisms or large proteins, appear to be the inclusion of unnecessary antigenic load that, not only contributes little to the protective immune response, but complicates the situation by inducing allergenic and/or reactogenic responses. Peptide vaccines are an attractive alternative strategy that relies on usage of short peptide fragments to engineer the induction of highly targeted immune responses, consequently avoiding allergenic and/or reactogenic sequences. Conversely, peptide vaccines used in isolation are often weakly immunogenic and require particulate carriers for delivery and adjuvanting. In this article, we discuss the specific advantages and considerations in targeted induction of immune responses by peptide vaccines and progresses in the development of such vaccines against various diseases. Additionally, we also discuss the development of particulate carrier strategies and the inherent challenges with regard to safety when combining such technologies with peptide vaccines. PMID:26344743

  11. Progress in laryngeal framework surgery.

    PubMed

    Isshiki, N

    2000-03-01

    This paper reviews progress in laryngeal framework surgery since it was first reported about 25 years ago. The success of this type of surgery requires both a basic knowledge of the physiology of phonation, in order to make decisions about the surgical procedure, and surgical skill, in order to accomplish the intended procedure successfully. The main reason for hoarseness is imperfect closure of the glottis, but the second most important reason for hoarseness, increased stiffness of the vocal fold, cannot be corrected by mere medialization of the vocal fold. Laryngeal framework surgery is different in concept from conventional surgery, which is intended to remove the lesion. Controversial points discussed here regarding type I thyroplasty include: (i) whether the cartilage window should be removed; (ii) materials for fixation of the window; and (iii) comparison of type I thyroplasty with arytenoid adduction. A new surgical treatment for spasmodic dysphonia and its results in three patients are described briefly. Surgery for raising the vocal pitch requires further improvement. In the future, laryngeal framework surgery will have wider application in treatment of dysphonias, such as asthenic voice due to atrophy in professional singers or aging, pitch problems in females and gender identity disorder and spasmodic dysphonia. PMID:11603755

  12. Progress on ITER Diagnostic Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David; Feder, Russ; Klabacha, Jonathan; Loesser, Doug; Messineo, Mike; Stratton, Brentley; Wood, Rick; Zhai, Yuhu; Andrew, Phillip; Barnsley, Robin; Bertschinger, Guenter; Debock, Maarten; Reichle, Roger; Udintsev, Victor; Vayakis, George; Watts, Christopher; Walsh, Michael

    2013-10-01

    On ITER, front-end components must operate reliably in a hostile environment. Many will be housed in massive port plugs, which also shield the machine from radiation. Multiple diagnostics reside in a single plug, presenting new challenges for developers. Front-end components must tolerate thermally-induced stresses, disruption-induced mechanical loads, stray ECH radiation, displacement damage, and degradation due to plasma-induced coatings. The impact of failures is amplified due to the difficulty in performing robotic maintenance on these large structures. Motivated by needs to minimize disruption loads on the plugs, standardize the handling of shield modules, and decouple the parallel efforts of the many parties, the packaging strategy for diagnostics has recently focused on the use of 3 vertical shield modules inserted from the plasma side into each equatorial plug structure. At the front of each is a detachable first wall element with customized apertures. Progress on US equatorial and upper plugs will be used as examples, including the layout of components in the interspace and port cell regions. Supported by PPPL under contract DE-AC02-09CH11466 and UT-Battelle, LLC under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. DOE.

  13. Progress in carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Krumpelt, M.; Roche, M.F.

    1995-08-01

    Our objective is to increase both the life and power of the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) by developing improved components and designs. Current activities are as follows: (1) Development of lithium ferrate (LiFeO{sub 2}) and lithium cobaltate (LiCoO{sub 2}) cathodes for extended MCFC life, particularly in pressurized operation, where the present cathode, NiO, provides insufficient life; (2) Development of distributed-manifold MCFC designs for increased volumetric power density and decreased temperature gradients (and, therefore, increased life); (3) Development of components and designs appropriate for high-power-density operation (>2 kW/m{sup 2} and >100 kW/m{sup 3} in an integrated MCFC system); and (4) Studies of pitting corrosion of the stainless-steel interconnects and aluminized seals now being employed in the MCFC (alternative components will also be studied). Each of these activities has the potential to reduce the MCFC system cost significantly. Progress in each activity will be presented during the poster session.

  14. Stillbirths: progress and unfinished business.

    PubMed

    Frøen, J Frederik; Friberg, Ingrid K; Lawn, Joy E; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Pattinson, Robert C; Allanson, Emma R; Flenady, Vicki; McClure, Elizabeth M; Franco, Lynne; Goldenberg, Robert L; Kinney, Mary V; Leisher, Susannah Hopkins; Pitt, Catherine; Islam, Monir; Khera, Ajay; Dhaliwal, Lakhbir; Aggarwal, Neelam; Raina, Neena; Temmerman, Marleen

    2016-02-01

    This first paper of the Lancet Series on ending preventable stillbirths reviews progress in essential areas, identified in the 2011 call to action for stillbirth prevention, to inform the integrated post-2015 agenda for maternal and newborn health. Worldwide attention to babies who die in stillbirth is rapidly increasing, from integration within the new Global Strategy for Women's, Children's and Adolescents' Health, to country policies inspired by the Every Newborn Action Plan. Supportive new guidance and metrics including stillbirth as a core health indicator and measure of quality of care are emerging. Prenatal health is a crucial biological foundation to life-long health. A key priority is to integrate action for prenatal health within the continuum of care for maternal and newborn health. Still, specific actions for stillbirths are needed for advocacy, policy formulation, monitoring, and research, including improvement in the dearth of data for effective coverage of proven interventions for prenatal survival. Strong leadership is needed worldwide and in countries. Institutions with a mandate to lead global efforts for mothers and their babies must assert their leadership to reduce stillbirths by promoting healthy and safe pregnancies. PMID:26794077

  15. Progress on the DPASS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, Sergei A.; Bogatu, I. N.; Svidzinski, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    A novel project to develop Disruption Prediction And Simulation Suite (DPASS) of comprehensive computational tools to predict, model, and analyze disruption events in tokamaks has been recently started at FAR-TECH Inc. DPASS will eventually address the following aspects of the disruption problem: MHD, plasma edge dynamics, plasma-wall interaction, generation and losses of runaway electrons. DPASS uses the 3-D Disruption Simulation Code (DSC-3D) as a core tool and will have a modular structure. DSC is a one fluid non-linear, time-dependent 3D MHD code to simulate dynamics of tokamak plasma surrounded by pure vacuum B-field in the real geometry of a conducting tokamak vessel. DSC utilizes the adaptive meshless technique with adaptation to the moving plasma boundary, with accurate magnetic flux conservation and resolution of the plasma surface current. DSC has also an option to neglect the plasma inertia to eliminate fast magnetosonic scale. This option can be turned on/off as needed. During Phase I of the project, two modules will be developed: the computational module for modeling the massive gas injection and main plasma respond; and the module for nanoparticle plasma jet injection as an innovative disruption mitigation scheme. We will report on this development progress. Work is supported by the US DOE SBIR grant # DE-SC0013727.

  16. Tragedy, utopia and medical progress

    PubMed Central

    Fredriksen, S

    2006-01-01

    In this article, tragedy and utopia are juxtaposed, and it is proposed that the problem of “medicalisation” is better understood in a framework of tragedy than in a utopian one. In utopia, it is presupposed that there is an error behind every setback and every side effect, whereas tragedy brings to light how side effects can be the result of irreconcilable conflicts. Medicalisation is to some extent the result of such a tragic conflict. We are given power by medical progress, but are also confronted with our fallibility, thus provoking insecurity. This situation is illustrated by the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Recent epidemiological investigations have shown that infants sleeping in a prone position have a 15–20 times higher risk of dying from SIDS than infants sleeping in a supine position. A simple means of preventing infant death is suggested by this discovery, but insecurity is also created. What else has been overlooked? Perhaps a draught, or wet diapers, or clothes of wool are just as dangerous as sleeping prone? Further investigations and precautions will be needed, but medicalisation prevails. PMID:16877623

  17. Hepatitis C: progress and problems.

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbert, J A

    1994-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV), a single-stranded RNA virus, is the major cause of posttransfusion hepatitis. HCV isolates differ in nucleotide and amino acid sequences. Nucleotide changes are concentrated in hypervariable regions and may be related to immune selection. In most immunocompetent persons, HCV infection is diagnosed serologically, using antigens from conserved regions. Amplification of RNA may be necessary to detect infection in immunosuppressed patients. Transmission by known parenteral routes is frequent; other means of spread are less common and may represent inapparent, percutaneous dissemination. Infection can lead to classical acute hepatitis, but most infected persons have no history of acute disease. Once infected, most individuals apparently remain carriers of the virus, with varying degrees of hepatocyte damage and fibrosis ensuing. Chronic hepatitis may lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, disease progression varies widely, from less than 2 years to cirrhosis in some patients to more than 30 years with only chronic hepatitis in others. Determinants important in deciding outcome are unknown. Alpha interferon, which results in sustained remission in selected patients, is the only available therapy. Long-term benefits from such therapy have not been demonstrated. Prevention of HCV infection by vaccination is likely to be challenging if ongoing viral mutation results in escape from neutralization and clearance. PMID:7834603

  18. Progressive fracture in composite structures

    SciTech Connect

    Chamis, C.C.; Murthy, P.L.N.; Minnetyan, L.

    1997-12-31

    In this paper an overview of the research activities related to an approach that has been developed independent of stress intensity factors and fracture toughness parameters is presented for the computational simulation of progressive fracture in polymer-matrix composite structures. The damage stages are quantified based on physics via composite mechanics while the degradation of the structural behavior is quantified via the finite element method. The approach accounts for all types of composite behavior, structures, load conditions, and fracture processes starting from damage initiation, to unstable propagation and to global structure collapse. Results of structural fracture in composite plates, shells and built-up structures are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and versatility of this approach. Parameters/guidelines are identified that can be used as criteria for structural fracture, inspection intervals, and retirement for cause. Generalization to structures made of any or combinations of materials are outlined, and lessons learned in undertaking the development of computational simulation approaches, in general, are summarized.

  19. Bioenergetic Progress and Heat Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotin, A. A.; Lamprecht, I.; Zotin, A. I.

    2001-07-01

    Progressing biological evolution is discussed in the framework of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. It is connected with an increase of the mass specific standard metabolism given by coefficient a in the allometric relation (1) between oxygen consumption rate and body mass of an animal. Three “heat barriers” are found in the course of such a bioenergetic evolution. The first heat barrier concerns an animal's overheating during active movement and is overcome by the development of thermoregulation and the appearance of homeothermic animals. A second barrier arises when the coefficient a reaches values connected with lethal body temperatures. The transition across this second heat barrier occurs as result of reasonable activities and the appearance of civilization. The third heat barrier will arise during the further development of human civilization, connected with a highly increased energy production and a fatal warming of the Earth atmosphere. The manner to overcome this barrier will probably depend on the assimilation of space and the establishment of energy consuming industries outside the Earth. The bioenergetic evolution discussed in this paper does not exclude other trends of evolution, e.g. increase of size, and does not mean to be the only aspect of biological evolution.

  20. An overview of osteocalcin progress.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinqiao; Zhang, Hongyu; Yang, Chao; Li, Yinghui; Dai, Zhongquan

    2016-07-01

    An increasing amount of data indicate that osteocalcin is an endocrine hormone which regulates energy metabolism, male fertility and brain development. However, the detailed functions and mechanism of osteocalcin are not well understood and conflicting results have been obtained from researchers worldwide. In the present review, we summarize the progress of osteocalcin studies over the past 40 years, focusing on the structure of carboxylated and undercarboxylated osteocalcin, new functions and putative receptors, the role of osteocalcin in bone remodeling, specific expression and regulation in osteoblasts, and new indices for clinical studies. The complexity of osteocalcin in completely, uncompletely and non-carboxylated forms may account for the discrepancies in its tertiary structure and clinical results. Moreover, the extensive expression of osteocalcin and its putative receptor GPRC6A imply that there are new physiological functions and mechanisms of action of osteocalcin to be explored. New discoveries related to osteocalcin function will assist its potential clinical application and physiological theory, but comprehensive investigations are required. PMID:26747614

  1. Progress in photovoltaic concentrator research

    SciTech Connect

    Arvizu, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent progress in photovoltaic concentrator research. In the past 18 months, several exciting new developments have been reported. Record efficiency concentrator silicon cells have been reported at Stanford University, with 28% efficient high resistivity cells, and at the University of New South Wales, with near 25% efficient low resistivity cells. Both groups also report record 22% one-sun efficiencies for these cells. Compound semiconductor cells have also made advances. Research on multijunction devices has led to a mechanically stacked concentrator cell with near 27% efficiency. Module improvements in commercial designs have taken the form of reduced cost and better component reliability. In addition, current research emphasis is on the development of new prototype modules that use the recent laboratory cell advances. Array efforts have centered around improving the tracking and control subsystems in accuracy, durability, and cost. Today, concentrator systems in high insolation areas are being offered at prices near $4/W/sub p/ ac for large MW sizes and at prices below those of flat plate systems ($8/W/sub p/) in hundred kW sizes. This paper will review these achievements and discuss the potential for concentrator technology to become a viable cost-effective bulk electrical power option.

  2. Progress in photovoltiac concentrator research

    SciTech Connect

    Arvizu, D.E.

    1986-10-01

    This paper reviews the recent progress in photovoltaic concentrator research. New record efficiency concentrator silicon cells have been reported at Stanford University, with 28% efficient high resistivity cells, and at the University of New South Wales, with near 25% efficient low resistivity cells. Both also report record 22% one-sun efficiencies. Compound semiconductor cells have also made advances. Research on multijunction devices has led to a mechanically stacked concentrator cell with near 27% efficiency. Module improvements have taken the form of reduced cost and better component reliability. In addition, a research emphasis is the development of new prototype modules that use the new laboratory cell advances. Array efforts have centered around improving the tracking and control subsystems in accuracy, durability, and cost. Today, concentrator systems in high insolation areas are being offered at prices near $4/W/sub p/ ac for large MW sizes and at prices below those of flat plate systems ($8/W/sub p/) in hundred kW sizes. This paper will review these achievements and discuss the potential for concentrator technology to become a viable cost-effective bulk electrical power option.

  3. Progress Toward Future Runway Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohr, Gary W.; Brown, Sherilyn A.; Atkins, Stephen; Eisenhawer, Stephen W.; Bott, Terrance F.; Long, Dou; Hasan, Shahab

    2011-01-01

    The runway is universally acknowledged as a constraining factor to capacity in the National Airspace System (NAS). It follows that investigation of the effective use of runways, both in terms of selection and assignment, is paramount to the efficiency of future NAS operations. The need to address runway management is not a new idea; however, as the complexities of factors affecting runway selection and usage increase, the need for effective research in this area correspondingly increases. Under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Airspace Systems Program, runway management is a key research area. To address a future NAS which promises to be a complex landscape of factors and competing interests among users and operators, effective runway management strategies and capabilities are required. This effort has evolved from an assessment of current practices, an understanding of research activities addressing surface and airspace operations, traffic flow management enhancements, among others. This work has yielded significant progress. Systems analysis work indicates that the value of System Oriented Runway Management tools is significantly increased in the metroplex environment over that of the single airport case. Algorithms have been developed to provide runway configuration recommendations for a single airport with multiple runways. A benefits analysis has been conducted that indicates the SORM benefits include supporting traffic growth, cost reduction as a result of system efficiency, NAS optimization from metroplex operations, fairness in aircraft operations, and rational decision making.

  4. Progress in Brucella vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    YANG, Xinghong; SKYBERG, Jerod A.; CAO, Ling; CLAPP, Beata; THORNBURG, Theresa; PASCUAL, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Brucella spp. are zoonotic, facultative intracellular pathogens, which cause animal and human disease. Animal disease results in abortion of fetuses; in humans, it manifests flu-like symptoms with an undulant fever, with osteoarthritis as a common complication of infection. Antibiotic regimens for human brucellosis patients may last several months and are not always completely effective. While there are no vaccines for humans, several licensed live Brucella vaccines are available for use in livestock. The performance of these animal vaccines is dependent upon the host species, dose, and route of immunization. Newly engineered live vaccines, lacking well-defined virulence factors, retain low residual virulence, are highly protective, and may someday replace currently used animal vaccines. These also have possible human applications. Moreover, due to their enhanced safety and efficacy in animal models, subunit vaccines for brucellosis show great promise for their application in livestock and humans. This review summarizes the progress of brucellosis vaccine development and presents an overview of candidate vaccines. PMID:23730309

  5. Recent progress in VSTOL technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, L.; Deckert, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    Progress in vertical and short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) aircraft technology, in particular, during the 1970 to 1980 period at Ames Research Center is discussed. Although only two kinds of V/STOL aircraft (the helicopter and the British direct lift Harrier) have achieved operational maturity, understanding of the technology has vastly improved during this 10 year period. To pursue an aggressive R and D program at a reasonable cost, it was decided to conduct extensive large scale testing in wind tunnel and flight simulation facilities, to develop low cost research aircraft using modified airframes or engines, and to involve other agencies and industry contractors in joint technical and funding arrangements. The STOL investigations include exploring STOL performance using the rotating cylinder flap concept, the augmentor wing, upon initiation of the Quiet Short Haul Research Aircraft program, the upper surface blown flap concept. The VTOL investigations were conducted using a tilt rotor aircraft, resulting in the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft. Direct jet lift is now being considered for application to future supersonic fighter aircraft.

  6. Progress in coherent laser radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable progress with coherent laser radar has been made over the last few years, most notably perhaps in the available range of high performance devices and components and the confidence with which systems may now be taken into the field for prolonged periods of operation. Some of this increasing maturity was evident at the 3rd Topical Meeting on Coherent Laser Radar: Technology and Applications. Topics included in discussions were: mesoscale wind fields, nocturnal valley drainage and clear air down bursts; airborne Doppler lidar studies and comparison of ground and airborne wind measurement; wind measurement over the sea for comparison with satellite borne microwave sensors; transport of wake vortices at airfield; coherent DIAL methods; a newly assembled Nd-YAG coherent lidar system; backscatter profiles in the atmosphere and wavelength dependence over the 9 to 11 micrometer region; beam propagation; rock and soil classification with an airborne 4-laser system; technology of a global wind profiling system; target calibration; ranging and imaging with coherent pulsed and CW system; signal fluctuations and speckle. Some of these activities are briefly reviewed.

  7. Progress in color night vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toet, Alexander; Hogervorst, Maarten A.

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of our recent progress and the current state-of-the-art techniques of color image fusion for night vision applications. Inspired by previously developed color opponent fusing schemes, we initially developed a simple pixel-based false color-mapping scheme that yielded fused false color images with large color contrast and preserved the identity of the input signals. This method has been successfully deployed in different areas of research. However, since this color mapping did not produce realistic colors, we continued to develop a statistical color-mapping procedure that would transfer the color distribution of a given example image to a multiband nighttime image. This procedure yields a realistic color rendering. However, it is computationally expensive and achieves no color constancy since the mapping depends on the relative amounts of the different materials in the scene. By applying the statistical mapping approach in a color look-up-table framework, we finally achieved both color constancy and computational simplicity. This sample-based color transfer method is specific for different types of materials in a scene and can be easily adapted for the intended operating theatre and the task at hand. The method can be implemented as a look-up-table transform and is highly suitable for real-time implementations.

  8. Computational Aeroelasticity: Success, Progress, Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, David M.; Liu, Danny D.; Huttsell, Lawrence J.

    2003-01-01

    The formal term Computational Aeroelasticity (CAE) has only been recently adopted to describe aeroelastic analysis methods coupling high-level computational fluid dynamics codes with structural dynamics techniques. However, the general field of aeroelastic computations has enjoyed a rich history of development and application since the first hand-calculations performed in the mid 1930 s. This paper portrays a much broader definition of Computational Aeroelasticity; one that encompasses all levels of aeroelastic computation from the simplest linear aerodynamic modeling to the highest levels of viscous unsteady aerodynamics, from the most basic linear beam structural models to state-of-the-art Finite Element Model (FEM) structural analysis. This paper is not written as a comprehensive history of CAE, but rather serves to review the development and application of aeroelastic analysis methods. It describes techniques and example applications that are viewed as relatively mature and accepted, the "successes" of CAE. Cases where CAE has been successfully applied to unique or emerging problems, but the resulting techniques have proven to be one-of-a-kind analyses or areas where the techniques have yet to evolve into a routinely applied methodology are covered as "progress" in CAE. Finally the true value of this paper is rooted in the description of problems where CAE falls short in its ability to provide relevant tools for industry, the so-called "challenges" to CAE.

  9. Progress at LAMPF: Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. Progress report, January-June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Allred, J.C.

    1981-09-01

    Progress at LAMPF is the semiannual progress report of the MP Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The report includes brief reports on research done at LAMPF by researchers from other institutions and Los Alamos divisions.

  10. Progress at LAMPF: Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. Progress report, July-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Allred, J.C.

    1981-03-01

    Progress at LAMPF is the semiannual progress report of the MP Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The report also includes brief reports on research done at LAMPF by researchers from other institutions and Los Alamos divisions.

  11. Progressive Education in Georgia: Tradition or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopaliani, Bella; Harnisch, Delwyn L.; Doliashvili, Nana; Guetterman, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Despite differences among progressive educators, they share the conviction that democracy means active participation by all citizens in the social, political, and economic decisions of their countries. The aim of this paper is to explore how Georgia is meeting goals and perspectives of progressive education by widely implementing civic education…

  12. 76 FR 57012 - Progress Reports Rules Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... of Prisons 28 CFR Part 524 RIN 1120-AB60 Progress Reports Rules Revision AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons... remove from regulations and/or modify two types of progress reports: Transfer reports and triennial reports. DATES: Comments are due by November 14, 2011. ADDRESSES: Submit comments to the Rules...

  13. 40 CFR 35.6650 - Progress reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Notwithstanding 40 CFR 31.41(b)(1), the reports shall be due within 60 days after the reporting period. The final progress report shall be due 90 days after expiration or termination of the Cooperative Agreement. (b) Content. The progress report must contain the following information: (1) An explanation of...

  14. 40 CFR 35.6650 - Progress reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Notwithstanding 40 CFR 31.41(b)(1), the reports shall be due within 60 days after the reporting period. The final progress report shall be due 90 days after expiration or termination of the Cooperative Agreement. (b) Content. The progress report must contain the following information: (1) An explanation of...

  15. Yemeni Student Characteristics and Language Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Ian C.

    A study was undertaken to identify useful methods for measuring progress in English language proficiency among students at the Yemen-America Language Institute (YALI) in Sana'a, Yemen. The study examined factors critical to such progress as well as the profiles of student attitudes and demographic characteristics. A questionnaire was administered…

  16. SuperB Progress Report: Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Grauges, E.; Donvito, G.; Spinoso, V.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Eigen, G.; Fehlker, D.; Helleve, L.; Carbone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Gabrielli, A.; Galli, D.; Giorgi, F.; Marconi, U.; Perazzini, S.; Sbarra, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valentinetti, S.; Villa, M.; Zoccoli, A.; /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U. /Caltech /Carleton U. /Cincinnati U. /INFN, CNAF /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /UC, Irvine /Taras Shevchenko U. /Orsay, LAL /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Frascati /INFN, Legnaro /Orsay, IPN /Maryland U. /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Pavia /Pavia U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Caltech /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /PNL, Richland /Queen Mary, U. of London /Rutherford /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome2 /Rome U.,Tor Vergata /INFN, Rome3 /Rome III U. /SLAC /Tel Aviv U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Padua /Trento U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /TRIUMF /British Columbia U. /Montreal U. /Victoria U.

    2012-02-14

    This report describes the present status of the detector design for SuperB. It is one of four separate progress reports that, taken collectively, describe progress made on the SuperB Project since the publication of the SuperB Conceptual Design Report in 2007 and the Proceedings of SuperB Workshop VI in Valencia in 2008.

  17. Solar Heating Systems: Progress Checks & Tests Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Joanne; And Others

    This manual contains Progress Checks and Tests for use in a Solar Heating Systems curriculum (see note). It contains master copies of all Progress Checks and Unit Tests accompanying the curriculum, organized by unit. (The master copies are to be duplicated by each school so that adequate copies are available for student use in a self-paced student…

  18. National Disability Policy: A Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Disability, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the National Council on Disability (NCD) Progress Report has been a retrospective review and analysis of Federal programs for people with disabilities. For this Progress Report, NCD members have chosen to depart from a retrospective approach, and, instead, will focus on the current status of the quality of life of people with…

  19. Basal ganglia germinoma with progressive cerebral hemiatrophy.

    PubMed

    Liu, E; Robertson, R L; du Plessis, A; Pomeroy, S L

    1999-04-01

    The authors describe a 7-year-old Chinese-American female with a germinoma of the basal ganglia who presented with progressive hemiparesis and cerebral hemiatrophy. The additional finding of markedly elevated antiphospholipid antibodies suggests the possibility of an autoimmune pathogenesis for the progressive cerebral atrophy, as well as the later development of cognitive decline, tics, and obsessive-compulsive behaviors. PMID:10328283

  20. Students' Progression in Understanding the Matter Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadenfeldt, Jan Christoph; Neumann, Knut; Bernholt, Sascha; Liu, Xiufeng; Parchmann, Ilka

    2016-01-01

    This study presents our attempt to elicit students' progression in understanding the matter concept. Past work has identified the big ideas about matter students need to understand, the many everyday understandings students hold about these ideas, and levels of understanding through which students progress in developing understanding of the big…

  1. Toward a Theory of Progressive Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Jurgen

    1997-01-01

    Reviews Hermann Rohrs' and Volker Lenhart's, "Progressive Education Across the Continents: A Handbook." Focusing on the internationalism of progressive education, the book describes how the theory behind that movement has evolved over the last hundred years. Briefly critiques some chapters and articles in the book. (MJP)

  2. Using Student Collaboration to Foster Progressive Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendrick, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Meaningful discussion helps students develop new knowledge about the world around them. "Progressive discourse" is talk that encourages people to develop a new understanding together. In this article, the author discusses how she used student collaboration to foster progressive discourse and describes assignments that engage her students in group…

  3. Progress in advanced high temperature materials technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Ault, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    Significant progress has recently been made in many high temperature material categories pertinent to such applications by the industrial community. These include metal matrix composites, superalloys, directionally solidified eutectics, coatings, and ceramics. Each of these material categories is reviewed and the current state-of-the-art identified, including some assessment, when appropriate, of progress, problems, and future directions.

  4. Progressive Associative Phonagnosia: A Neuropsychological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hailstone, Julia C.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Vestergaard, Martin D.; Patterson, Roy D.; Warren, Jason D.

    2010-01-01

    There are few detailed studies of impaired voice recognition, or phonagnosia. Here we describe two patients with progressive phonagnosia in the context of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Patient QR presented with behavioural decline and increasing difficulty recognising familiar voices, while patient KL presented with progressive prosopagnosia.…

  5. NUTRIENT REGULATION OF CELL CYCLE PROGRESSION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cell replication is tightly controlled in normal tissues and aberrant during disease progression, such as in tumorigenesis. The replication of cells can be divided into four distinct phases: Gap 1 (G1), synthesis (S), gap 2 (G2), and mitosis (M). The progression from one phase to the next is intrica...

  6. Progress in Stylistics: Theory, Statistics, Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milic, Louis

    1991-01-01

    Assesses the progress made in computational stylistics over the past 25 years. Discusses theoretical notions of style. Describes certain trends that emerge from relevant articles in conference proceedings and academic journals. Concludes there has been progress in the accumulation of data, the creation of databases and archives, and construction…

  7. Progress Maps. Assessment Resource Kit(ARK).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Geoff; Forster, Margaret

    A progress map describes the nature of development in an area of learning and thus serves as a frame of reference for monitoring individual growth. An essential feature of a progress map, which is an integral component of Developmental Assessment, is that it describes and illustrates developing competence. The first step in constructing a progress…

  8. Motivational Aspects of Moral Learning and Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curren, Randall

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses a puzzle about moral learning concerning its social context and the potential for moral progress: Won't the social context of moral learning shape moral perceptions, beliefs, and motivation in ways that will inevitably "limit" moral cognition, motivation, and progress? It addresses the relationships between…

  9. The Relevance of Learning Progressions for NAEP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Lorrie; Daro, Phil; Stancavage, Frances B.

    2013-01-01

    "Learning progressions" are one of the most important assessment design ideas to be introduced in the past decade. In the United States, several committees of the National Research Council (NRC) have argued for the use of learning progressions as a means to foster both deeper mastery of subject-matter content and higher level reasoning…

  10. 34 CFR 668.34 - Satisfactory progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Satisfactory progress. 668.34 Section 668.34 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Student Eligibility § 668.34 Satisfactory progress. (a) If a student is enrolled...

  11. Women's Gymnastics, Teaching and Learning Progressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiken, Gail

    1985-01-01

    Sport and movement skills taught in logical progressions aid in the mastery of prerequisite tasks which can increase success, decrease injuries, and can be used to set goals. Sample progressive lessons for tumbling, vaulting, uneven parallel bars, and balance beams are offered. (DF)

  12. 15 CFR 255.5 - Progress reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... LABORATORY STANDARDIZATION AND TESTING FOR QUALIFIED CITIZENS OF OTHER AMERICAN REPUBLICS § 255.5 Progress... Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF... progress in training and research at such intervals as the Director of the National Institute of...

  13. 15 CFR 255.5 - Progress reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... LABORATORY STANDARDIZATION AND TESTING FOR QUALIFIED CITIZENS OF OTHER AMERICAN REPUBLICS § 255.5 Progress... Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF... progress in training and research at such intervals as the Director of the National Institute of...

  14. 15 CFR 255.5 - Progress reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... LABORATORY STANDARDIZATION AND TESTING FOR QUALIFIED CITIZENS OF OTHER AMERICAN REPUBLICS § 255.5 Progress... Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF... progress in training and research at such intervals as the Director of the National Institute of...

  15. SARASOTA BAY 2000: A DECADE OF PROGRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sarasota Bay 2000: A Decade of Progress is produced by the Sarasota Bay National Estuary Program for the people of Manatee and Sarasota counties. This document presents information on the current condition of Sarasota Bay and the progress made in implementing the Comprehensive Co...

  16. Using CBM for Progress Monitoring in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Progress monitoring focuses on individualized decision making in general and special education with respect to academic skill development at the elementary grades. Progress monitoring is conducted frequently (at least monthly) and is designed to: (1) Estimate rates of improvement; (2) Identify students who are not demonstrating adequate progress…

  17. Progress in geophysical fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Allan R.

    Geophysical fluid dynamics deals with the motions and physics of the atmosphere, oceans and interior of the earth and other planets: the winds, the swirls, the currents that occur on myriads of scales from millimeter to climatological. Explanations of natural phenomena, basic processes and abstractions are sought. The rotation of the earth, the buoyancy of its fluids and the tendency towards large-scale turbulence characterize these flows. But geophysical fluid dynamics is importantly a part of modern fluid dynamics which is contributing to the development of nonlinear mechanics generally. Some general insights are emerging for nonlinear systems which must be regarded as partly deterministic and partly random or which are complex and aperiodic. Contributions from geophysical fluid dynamics come from its methodology, from the experience of examples, and from the perspective provided by its unique scale. Contributions have been made to turbulent, chaotic and coherently structured nonlinear process research. Turbulent vortices larger than man himself naturally invite detailed investigation and deterministic physical studies. Examples are storms in the atmosphere and large ring vortices spun off by the Gulf Stream current in mid-ocean. The statistics of these events determine critical aspects of the general circulations. Fluid dynamicists generally now know that it is often relevant or necessary to study local dynamical processes of typical eddies even though only the average properties of the flow are of interest; progress in understanding the turbulent boundary layer in pipes involves the study of millimeter-scale vortices. Weather-related studies were seminal to the construction of the new scientific field of chaos. Coherent vortices abound of which the Great Red Spot of Jupiter is a spectacular example. Geophysical fluid dynamicists have been among forefront researchers in exploiting the steadily increasing speed and capacity of modern computers. Supercomputers

  18. [Laboratory markers of melanoma progression].

    PubMed

    Bánfalvi, Teodóra; Edesné, Mariann B; Gergye, Mária; Udvarhelyi, Nóra; Orosz, Zsolt; Gilde, Katalin; Kremmer, Tibor; Ottó, Szabolcs; Tímár, József

    2003-01-01

    Extracellular tumour markers may have potential role in the follow-up of patients with malignant melanoma, in therapy monitoring and in prediction of prognosis. In our article circulating tumour markers in melanoma (melanoma inhibitory activity, lipid bound sialic acid, neuron specific enolase, TA90 immune complex, S-100B protein, 5-S-cysteinyldopa, tyrosinase, cytokines, metalloproteinases, LDH) were reviewed. Among laboratory melanoma markers the S-100B protein is the most investigated. S-100B protein has high specificity, appropriate sensitivity and proved to be significant prognostic factor independent from stages. High serum values are associated with shorter survival. However, before S-100B monitoring immunohistochemistry for the detection of S-100B is required. In the case of malignant melanomas with low expression serum S-100B monitoring may not be sensitive enough to follow disease progression. Although the serum concentration of 5-S-cysteinyldopa did not prove to be independent prognostic factor in our previous studies comprising the highest patient number in the literature, the marker was suggested for therapy monitoring. The survival analysis indicated that the elevated 5-S-cysteinyldopa level predicts shorter survival. In spite of the calculated low correlation between the two markers, parallel elevation of S-100B protein and 5-S-cysteinyldopa indicated shorter survival. On the basis of the literature LDH is the most appropriate tumour marker in stage IV to predict prognosis, but its sensitivity and specificity could not achieve that of S-100B protein. S-100B and LDH proved to be similarly reliable in respect to the clinical outcome. Determination of serum concentration of MIA and tyrosinase are also reliable markers in malignant melanoma. The other investigated markers are not well known yet or do not provide useful information to the clinicians. PMID:12704461

  19. Through tubing progressing cavity pump

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, A.E.

    1986-06-03

    A method is described of installing a progressing cavity pump assembly within a well, the pump assembly being of the type having a stator, a helical rotor located in the stator and rotated by a string of sucker rods extending through tubing to the surface. The method consists of: securing a tubular seating member to a lower end of the tubing and lowering the tubing into the well; mounting a seating member on a lower end of the pump assembly; mounting a rotor nipple to the upper end of the stator and a drive rod to the upper end of the rotor, and providing the rotor nipple and drive rod with engaging means that allows a selected amount of vertical movement of the rotor with respect to the stator; connecting the upper end of the drive rod to the sucker rods; lowering the pump assembly into the tubing on the sucker rods until the seating member on the pump assembly contacts the tubular seating member; continuing to lower the sucker rods without rotation, moving the rotor downward with respect to the stator and forcing the seating members together with the weight of the sucker rods applied to the stator through the engaging means; then moving the sucker rods and the rotor a selected distance upward while the stator remains stationary to position the top of the rotor above the stator a selected distance; then connecting the sucker rods at the surface to a rotary power source and rotating the sucker rods to cause the pump to operate.

  20. Progressive Neurodegeneration in Aspartylglycosaminuria Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Mononen, Ilkka; Heisterkamp, Nora; Groffen, John; Kaartinen, Vesa

    1998-01-01

    Aspartylglycosaminuria (AGU) is one of the most common lysosomal storage disorders in humans. A mouse model for AGU has been recently generated through targeted disruption of the glycosylasparaginase gene, and at a young age the glycosyl asparaginase-deficient mice demonstrated many pathological changes found in human AGU patients (Kaartinen V, Mononen I, Voncken J-W, Gonzalez-Gomez I, Heisterkamp N, Groffen J: A mouse model for aspartylglycosaminuria. Nat Med 1996, 2:1375–1378). Our current findings demonstrate that after the age of 10 months, the general condition of null mutant mice gradually deteriorated. They suffered from a progressive motoric impairment and impaired bladder function and died prematurely. A widespread lysosomal hypertrophy in the central nervous system was detected. This neuronal vacuolation was particularly severe in the lateral thalamic nuclei, medullary reticular nuclei, vestibular nuclei, inferior olivary complex, and deep cerebellar nuclei. The oldest animals (20 months old) displayed a clear neuronal loss and gliosis, particularly in those regions, where the most severe vacuolation was found. The severe ataxic gait of the older mice was likely due to the dramatic loss of Purkinje cells, intensive astrogliosis and vacuolation of neurons in the deep cerebellar nuclei, and the severe vacuolation of the cells in vestibular and cochlear nuclei. The impaired bladder function and subsequent hydronephrosis were secondary to involvement of the central nervous system. These findings demonstrate that the glycosylasparaginase-deficient mice share many neuropathological features with human AGU patients, providing a suitable animal model to test therapeutic strategies in the treatment of the central nervous system effects in AGU. PMID:9777961

  1. Nikon EUVL development progress update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Takaharu; Murakami, Katsuhiko; Suzuki, Kazuaki; Kohama, Yoshiaki; Morita, Kenji; Hada, Kazunari; Ohkubo, Yukiharu; Kawai, Hidemi

    2008-03-01

    Extreme Ultra Violet Lithography (EUVL) has been widely regarded as the lithography technology to succeed optical lithography. It is now considered as one of the most promising technologies below hp45nm node [1], following ArF immersion lithography considering trend of achievable process K1 factors. In this paper we would like to present our significant progress on the development of EUV exposure tool. There are several key important areas which should be developed to realize EUVL to be feasible, such as reflective mask, resist, and tool itself. The reflective mask features such characteristics as pellicle-less, ultra-smooth blank flatness and defect free. The resist should be of high sensitivity and small line edge roughness (LER) as well as fine resolution. EUV exposure tool itself consists of major modules such as EUV light source, projection optics, vacuum body, vacuum stages, and so on. Nikon has developed new polishing technologies such as ion-beam figuring and elastic emission machining, and new ultra high-precision interferometers for aspheric surface metrology. Our multi-layer coating technology has been also improved. High reflective Mo/Si multi layer coating has been successfully achieved and irradiation tests using synchrotron radiation have been conducted. Successful achievement of those developments enables us to produce full-field projection optics for EUVL process development tool called EUV1. The proto-type development of full-field projection optics has been successfully completed and its technical achievement has reflected into production optics. Preparation of complete set of production and metrology tools necessary for projection optics production was completed and all tools are now in full operation. Nikon has already developed dual pod reticle carrier for EUV1 tool. In parallel Nikon has been developing the same concept carrier for HVM in cooperation with Canon and Entegris. Regarding to EUV1 tool development, all modules of EUV1 such as full

  2. On Disciplinary Fragmentation and Scientific Progress

    PubMed Central

    Balietti, Stefano; Mäs, Michael; Helbing, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Why are some scientific disciplines, such as sociology and psychology, more fragmented into conflicting schools of thought than other fields, such as physics and biology? Furthermore, why does high fragmentation tend to coincide with limited scientific progress? We analyzed a formal model where scientists seek to identify the correct answer to a research question. Each scientist is influenced by three forces: (i) signals received from the correct answer to the question; (ii) peer influence; and (iii) noise. We observed the emergence of different macroscopic patterns of collective exploration, and studied how the three forces affect the degree to which disciplines fall apart into divergent fragments, or so-called “schools of thought”. We conducted two simulation experiments where we tested (A) whether the three forces foster or hamper progress, and (B) whether disciplinary fragmentation causally affects scientific progress and vice versa. We found that fragmentation critically limits scientific progress. Strikingly, there is no effect in the opposite causal direction. What is more, our results shows that at the heart of the mechanisms driving scientific progress we find (i) social interactions, and (ii) peer disagreement. In fact, fragmentation is increased and progress limited if the simulated scientists are open to influence only by peers with very similar views, or when within-school diversity is lost. Finally, disciplines where the scientists received strong signals from the correct answer were less fragmented and experienced faster progress. We discuss model’s implications for the design of social institutions fostering interdisciplinarity and participation in science. PMID:25790025

  3. Site Characterization Progress Report Number 21

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-30

    This is the 21 st progress report issued by the U.S. Department of Energy. This report provides a summary-level discussion of Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project progress. Accomplishments this period are presented in a format that identifies important progress achieved and conveys how that progress supports the near-term objectives in the U.S. Department of Energy's schedule. Greater detail is documented in the cited references and in deliverables listed in Appendix A to this report. This document provides a discussion of recently completed and ongoing activities conducted by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project during the six-month reporting period from April 1, 1999, through September 30, 1999. Some information presented herein is by necessity preliminary, because some deliverables and reports that support the discussions have not been finalized. Projected future deliverables and reports are listed in Appendix B and are noted in the text as works in progress. Appendix C lists the status of milestone reports referenced in previous progress reports commencing with Progress Report 17. A glossary of Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project-specific terms used in this report is given in Appendix D.

  4. On disciplinary fragmentation and scientific progress.

    PubMed

    Balietti, Stefano; Mäs, Michael; Helbing, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Why are some scientific disciplines, such as sociology and psychology, more fragmented into conflicting schools of thought than other fields, such as physics and biology? Furthermore, why does high fragmentation tend to coincide with limited scientific progress? We analyzed a formal model where scientists seek to identify the correct answer to a research question. Each scientist is influenced by three forces: (i) signals received from the correct answer to the question; (ii) peer influence; and (iii) noise. We observed the emergence of different macroscopic patterns of collective exploration, and studied how the three forces affect the degree to which disciplines fall apart into divergent fragments, or so-called "schools of thought". We conducted two simulation experiments where we tested (A) whether the three forces foster or hamper progress, and (B) whether disciplinary fragmentation causally affects scientific progress and vice versa. We found that fragmentation critically limits scientific progress. Strikingly, there is no effect in the opposite causal direction. What is more, our results shows that at the heart of the mechanisms driving scientific progress we find (i) social interactions, and (ii) peer disagreement. In fact, fragmentation is increased and progress limited if the simulated scientists are open to influence only by peers with very similar views, or when within-school diversity is lost. Finally, disciplines where the scientists received strong signals from the correct answer were less fragmented and experienced faster progress. We discuss model's implications for the design of social institutions fostering interdisciplinarity and participation in science. PMID:25790025

  5. Progressive hemifacial atrophy. A natural history study.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, M T; Spencer, M A

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe two very different natural history courses in 2 patients with hemifacial atrophy. Progressive hemifacial atrophy (Parry-Romberg syndrome, Romberg syndrome, PHA) is characterized by slowly progressive atrophy, frequently involving only one side of the face, primarily affecting the subcutaneous tissue and fat. The onset usually occurs during the first 2 decades of life. The cause and pathophysiology are unknown. Ophthalmic involvement is common, with progressive enophthalmos a frequent finding. Pupillary disturbances, heterochromia, uveitis, pigmentary disturbances of the ocular fundus, and restrictive strabismus have also been reported. Neurologic findings may be present, but the natural history and progression of ocular findings are often not described in the literature. METHODS: We studied the records and present findings of 2 patients with progressive hemifacial atrophy who were observed in our institution over a 10-year period. RESULTS: Both patients showed progression of ophthalmic findings, primarily on the affected side. One patient has had chronic uveitis with secondary cataract and glaucoma, in addition to retinal pigmentary changes. She also had a third-nerve paresis of the contralateral eye and mild seizure activity. The other patient had mild uveitis, some progression of unilateral retinal pigmentary changes, and a significant increase in hyperopia in the affected eye, in addition to hypotony at age 19 without a clear cause, but with secondary retinal and refractive changes. CONCLUSION: Ocular manifestations of progressive hemifacial atrophy are varied, but can progress from mild visual impairment to blindness. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3A FIGURE 3B FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:8719679

  6. Quantifying Disease Progression in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Neil G; Turner, Martin R; Vucic, Steve; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Shefner, Jeremy; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) exhibits characteristic variability of onset and rate of disease progression, with inherent clinical heterogeneity making disease quantitation difficult. Recent advances in understanding pathogenic mechanisms linked to the development of ALS impose an increasing need to develop strategies to predict and more objectively measure disease progression. This review explores phenotypic and genetic determinants of disease progression in ALS, and examines established and evolving biomarkers that may contribute to robust measurement in longitudinal clinical studies. With targeted neuroprotective strategies on the horizon, developing efficiencies in clinical trial design may facilitate timely entry of novel treatments into the clinic. PMID:25223628

  7. Tunneling progress on the Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hansmire, W.H.; Munzer, R.J.

    1996-06-01

    The current status of tunneling progress on the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is presented in this paper. The Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), a key part of the YMP, has been long in development and construction is ongoing. This is a progress report on the tunneling aspects of the ESF as of January 1, 1996. For purposes of discussion in this summary, the tunneling has progressed in four general phases. The paper describes: tunneling in jointed rock under low stress; tunneling through the Bow Ridge Fault and soft rock; tunneling through the Imbricate Fault Zone; and Tunneling into the candidate repository formation.

  8. Progressive bilateral thinning of the parietal bones

    SciTech Connect

    Cederlund, C.G.; Andren, L.; Olivecrona, H.

    1982-03-01

    Observation of a case of progressive bilateral parietal thinning within a period of 14 years induced us to study skull films of 3 636 consecutive patients. Parietal thinning was found in 86 patients (2.37%). It was more common in women, with a sex ratio of 1:1.9. The mean age of the females was 72 years, and that of the males 63 years. Previous skull films of 25 of these patients were available and showed progression in 10. It is concluded that parietal thinning is a slowly progressive disease of middle-aged and old patients and is not an anatomical variant or congenital dysplasia of the dipole.

  9. Theoretical problems in accelerator physics. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This is the second progress report submitted under the author`s current grant and covers progress made since the submission of the first progress report in August 1993. During this period the author has continued to spend approximately one half of his time at SLAC and most of the projects reported here were carried out in collaboration with individuals and groups at SLAC. Except where otherwise noted, reference numbers in the text refer to the attached list of current contract publications. Copies of the publications, numbered in agreement with the publication list, are included with this report.

  10. Epistemic Progress: A Construct for Understanding and Evaluating Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Clinton

    2012-01-01

    In this essay Clinton Golding introduces a new construct and area of research--epistemic progress--and argues that it can shed new light on educational inquiry. By clearly distinguishing progress through developing better ideas (epistemic progress) from progress through developing better inquiry skills (procedural progress), teachers and students…

  11. Nikon EUVL development progress update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Takaharu; Murakami, Katsuhiko; Suzuki, Kazuaki; Kohama, Yoshiaki; Morita, Kenji; Hada, Kazunari; Ohkubo, Yukiharu

    2007-03-01

    Extreme Ultra Violet Lithography (EUVL) has been widely regarded as the lithography technology to succeed optical lithography. It is now considered as one of the most promising technologies below hp45nm node [1], following ArF immersion lithography considering trend of achievable process K1 factors shown in Fig. 1. In this paper we would like to present significant progress on the development of EUV exposure tool. There are several key important areas which should be developed to realize EUVL to be feasible such as reflective mask, resist, and tool itself. The reflective mask features such characteristics as pellicle-less, ultra-smooth blank flatness and defect free. The resist should be of high sensitivity and small line edge roughness (LER) as well as fine resolution. EUV exposure tool itself consists of major modules such as EUV light source, projection optics, vacuum body, vacuum stages, and so on. As far as EUVL optics development is concerned, through the development of high-NA small-field EUV exposure system (HiNA) in conjunction with EUVA (Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography System Development Association) projects, we have developed new polishing technologies such as ion-beam figuring and elastic emission machining, and new ultra high-precision interferometers for aspheric surface metrology. Wave front sensor system has been also developed partly in EUVA project. A new wave front sensor system which can be used for evaluating the projection optics with EUV light has already been installed in New SUBARU synchrotron facility in University of Hyogo. Our multi-layer coating technology has been also improved. High reflective Mo/Si multi layer coating has been successfully achieved and irradiation tests using synchrotron radiation have been conducted [8]. Successful achievement of those developments enables us to produce full-field projection optics for EUVL process development tool called EUV1. Proto-type development of full-field projection optics has been

  12. FY 2011 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-28

    The FY 2011 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials focuses on the development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce light and heavy duty vehicle weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost.

  13. Hurricane Prediction: Progress and Problem Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Describes progress made in recent decades in predicting the track and landfall of hurricanes. Examines the problems of detecting, tracking, and describing tropical cyclones, and the difficulties which continue to complicate the matter of warning and evacuating coastal residents. (JR)

  14. Grief and Loss as Alzheimer's Progresses

    MedlinePlus

    ... or share your name. Grief and Loss as Alzheimer's Progresses Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print It ... and grief as their life is changed by Alzheimer's. You're entitled to these emotions and may ...

  15. Recent progress in polymer optical fibre gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Carroll, K.; Webb, D. J.; Bennion, I.; Kalli, K.; Emiliyanov, G.; Bang, O.; Kjær, E.; Peng, G. D.

    2008-04-01

    We describe our recent progress in polymer fibre Bragg grating technology, including the writing of the first FBGs in TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer, enhancements to photosensitivity brought about by dopants and studies on grating annealing.

  16. Study of heavy flavored particles. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This report discusses progress on the following topics: time-of- flight system; charmed baryon production and decays; D decays to baryons; measurement of sigma plus particles magnetic moments; and strong interaction coupling. (LSP)

  17. Basic Research and Progress against Pediatric Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    An infographic about the importance of basic research for making progress against childhood cancers. The graphic shows the research milestones that led to the development and approval of Unituxin to treat neuroblastoma, a cancer seen mainly in children.

  18. Pathophysiology and management of progressive renal disease.

    PubMed

    Brown, S A; Crowell, W A; Brown, C A; Barsanti, J A; Finco, D R

    1997-09-01

    Recently, the hypothesis that all renal diseases are inherently progressive and self-perpetuating has focused attention on adaptive changes in renal structure and function that occur whenever renal function is reduced. These glomerular adaptations to renal disease include increases in filtration rate, capillary pressure and size, and are referred to as glomerular hyperfiltration, glomerular hypertension and glomerular hypertrophy, respectively. Extrarenal changes, such as dietary phosphate excess, systemic hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, acidosis and hyperparathyroidism occur in animals with renal disease and may be contributors to progression of renal disease. Emphasis in the management of companion animals with renal disease has shifted to identifying, understanding and controlling those processes that play a role in the progression from early to end-stage renal failure. Advances made by veterinary nephrologists in the past 15 years permit resolution of old controversies, formulation of new hypotheses and discussion of unresolved issues about the nature of progressive renal disease in dogs and cats. PMID:9308397

  19. Progress Against Heart Deaths Starting to Wane

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_159623.html Progress Against Heart Deaths Starting to Wane, Report Warns Obesity, diabetes epidemics ... study warns that the rate of decline in deaths from heart disease and stroke has stalled. "It ...

  20. Imagine stopping the progression of Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Imagine stopping the progression of Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... I have friends and loved ones suffering from Alzheimer's. But I can imagine… and hope for… a ...

  1. Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium (PIERS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The third Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium (PIERS) was held 12-16 Jul. 1993, at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California. More than 800 presentations were made, and those abstracts are included in this publication.

  2. [Posterior cortical atrophy with progressive visual agnosia].

    PubMed

    Zarranz, J J; Lasa, A; Fernández, M; Lezcano, E; Pérez Bas, M; Varona, L; Ruiz, J; Beristain, X

    1995-03-01

    Interest in progressive focal cerebral syndromes associated with classical degenerative diseases has increased in recent years. Descriptions of posterior cortical atrophy with progressive visual agnosia are relatively rare. We present 5 patients (2 women) ranging in age between 57 and 72 years old. In all cases symptoms began and progressed with no known etiology. All cases were sporadic. The main clinical signs are difficulty in recognizing objects, colors, persons or places; topographical disorientation and visual memory alterations; alexia, simultagnosia, loss of ocular fixing and optic ataxia. Some patients presented other disturbances of praxis or memory and 2 progressed to global dementia. Language function was preserved and behavioral disturbances did not develop. The amplitude of the P100 visual evoked potential was low but latency was normal in 4 patients and prolonged in 1. Brain images showed atrophy and hypoperfusion in the parieto-occipital area. The neuropathology status of these patients is unknown. PMID:7756009

  3. Clinical Trials: Key to Medical Progress

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Clinical Trials: Key to Medical Progress Past Issues / Summer 2008 ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo iStock Clinical trials are research studies that test how well new ...

  4. Progressive Fracture of Fiber Composite Builtup Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gotsis, Pascal K.; Chamis, Christos C.; Minnetyan, Levon

    1996-01-01

    The damage progression and fracture of builtup composite structures was evaluated by using computational simulation to examine the behavior and response of a stiffened composite (0 +/- 45/90)(sub s6) laminate panel subjected to a bending load. The damage initiation, growth, accumulation, progression, and propagation to structural collapse were simulated. An integrated computer code (CODSTRAN) was augmented for the simulation of the progressive damage and fracture of builtup composite structures under mechanical loading. Results showed that damage initiation and progression have a significant effect on the structural response. Also investigated was the influence of different types of bending load on the damage initiation, propagation, and final fracture of the builtup composite panel.

  5. Regulation of terpene metabolism. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Croteau, R.

    1983-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following research areas: function of monoterpene catabolism; pathways and enzymes of monoterpene catabolism; ultrastructure of oil glands; pathways and enzymes of monoterpene biosynthesis; and regulation of metabolism in peppermints. (ACR)

  6. Genetics Home Reference: progressive supranuclear palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Progressive supranuclear palsy is also characterized by abnormal eye movements, which typically develop several years after the other movement problems first appear. Restricted up-and-down eye movement (vertical gaze palsy) is a hallmark of this ...

  7. Progress in the Development of Nanotheranostic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Honggang; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This thematic issue includes both review and research articles and is intended to provide an overview on the recent progress in the development of nanostructure-based therapeutic, diagnostic, and theranostic systems. PMID:27217827

  8. MTSAT Satellite Movie of Haiyan's Progression

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of MTSAT satellite data shows the progression of Super-Typhoon Haiyan on Nov. 7 from 0930 UTC to 1530 UTC as it began moving over the Philippines. Credit: University of Wisconsin, CI...

  9. Progress of the RERTR program in 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1999-09-29

    This paper describes the progress achieved by the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program in collaboration with its many international partners during 1999 and discusses planned activities for the coming year.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... cholestasis (PFIC) is a disorder that causes progressive liver disease, which typically leads to liver failure. In people ... The buildup of bile in liver cells causes liver disease in affected individuals. Signs and symptoms of PFIC ...

  11. Progress in Fully Automated Abdominal CT Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Automated analysis of abdominal CT has advanced markedly over just the last few years. Fully automated assessment of organs, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, muscle, bowel, spine, and tumors are some examples where tremendous progress has been made. Computer-aided detection of lesions has also improved dramatically. CONCLUSION This article reviews the progress and provides insights into what is in store in the near future for automated analysis for abdominal CT, ultimately leading to fully automated interpretation. PMID:27101207

  12. Theoretical nuclear structure. Progress report for 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarewicz, W.; Strayer, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    This research effort is directed toward theoretical support and guidance for the fields of radioactive ion beam physics, gamma-ray spectroscopy, and the interface between nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics. The authors report substantial progress in all these areas. One measure of progress is publications and invited material. The research described here has led to more than 25 papers that are published, accepted, or submitted to refereed journals, and to 25 invited presentations at conferences and workshops.

  13. Solar lease grant program. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    Progress on a lease program for the installation of a solar water heater with no installation charge is reported. Information on the announcement of the program, the selection of participants, the contractural agreement, progress on installation of equipment, monitoring, and evaluation is summarized. The status of the budget concerned with the program is announced. Forms used for applications for the program and an announcement from Resource Alternatives for Cilco customers are presented.

  14. Family Medicine Mandatory Assessment of Progress

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Fok-Han; Herold, Jodi; Iglar, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To report the results of a pilot in-training progress test, the Family Medicine Mandatory Assessment of Progress, taken by first- and second-year postgraduate family medicine trainees. Design Assessment of resident performance on a key-features approach multiple-choice progress test. Test questions were developed by competency content area experts. Setting University of Toronto in Ontario. Participants First- and second-year family medicine residents. Main outcome measures Construct validity was assessed based on performance on the test by first- and second-year residents, Canadian and international medical graduates, and residents with more or less than 1 month of relevant clinical experience. Results Pilot progress testing of family medicine residents (N = 255) at the University of Toronto revealed a significant 1.6% difference (P < .01) in mean scores between first- and second-year postgraduate family medicine trainees and achieved construct validity across many parameters studied. The agreement coefficients for residents being identified as the poorest performers ranged from 0.88 to 0.90 depending on the domain of practice assessed. Conclusion Competency-based progress testing using the key-features model is a valid means of assessing the progress of family medicine residents.

  15. Role of mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Chi; Tseng, Ling-Ming; Lee, Hsin-Chen

    2016-06-01

    Deregulated cellular energetics was one of the cancer hallmarks. Several underlying mechanisms of deregulated cellular energetics are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction caused by mitochondrial DNA mutations, mitochondrial enzyme defects, or altered oncogenes/tumor suppressors. In this review, we summarize the current understanding about the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer progression. Point mutations and copy number changes are the two most common mitochondrial DNA alterations in cancers, and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by chemical depletion of mitochondrial DNA or impairment of mitochondrial respiratory chain in cancer cells promotes cancer progression to a chemoresistance or invasive phenotype. Moreover, defects in mitochondrial enzymes, such as succinate dehydrogenase, fumarate hydratase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase, are associated with both familial and sporadic forms of cancer. Deregulated mitochondrial deacetylase sirtuin 3 might modulate cancer progression by regulating cellular metabolism and oxidative stress. These mitochondrial defects during oncogenesis and tumor progression activate cytosolic signaling pathways that ultimately alter nuclear gene expression, a process called retrograde signaling. Changes in the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species, Ca(2+), or oncometabolites are important in the mitochondrial retrograde signaling for neoplastic transformation and cancer progression. In addition, altered oncogenes/tumor suppressors including hypoxia-inducible factor 1 and tumor suppressor p53 regulate mitochondrial respiration and cellular metabolism by modulating the expression of their target genes. We thus suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in cancer progression and that targeting mitochondrial alterations and mitochondrial retrograde signaling might be a promising strategy for the development of selective anticancer therapy. PMID:27022139

  16. The neural basis of monitoring goal progress

    PubMed Central

    Benn, Yael; Webb, Thomas L.; Chang, Betty P. I.; Sun, Yu-Hsuan; Wilkinson, Iain D.; Farrow, Tom F. D.

    2014-01-01

    The neural basis of progress monitoring has received relatively little attention compared to other sub-processes that are involved in goal directed behavior such as motor control and response inhibition. Studies of error-monitoring have identified the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) as a structure that is sensitive to conflict detection, and triggers corrective action. However, monitoring goal progress involves monitoring correct as well as erroneous events over a period of time. In the present research, 20 healthy participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) while playing a game that involved monitoring progress toward either a numerical or a visuo-spatial target. The findings confirmed the role of the dACC in detecting situations in which the current state may conflict with the desired state, but also revealed activations in the frontal and parietal regions, pointing to the involvement of processes such as attention and working memory (WM) in monitoring progress over time. In addition, activation of the cuneus was associated with monitoring progress toward a specific target presented in the visual modality. This is the first time that activation in this region has been linked to higher-order processing of goal-relevant information, rather than low-level anticipation of visual stimuli. Taken together, these findings identify the neural substrates involved in monitoring progress over time, and how these extend beyond activations observed in conflict and error monitoring. PMID:25309380

  17. The neural basis of monitoring goal progress.

    PubMed

    Benn, Yael; Webb, Thomas L; Chang, Betty P I; Sun, Yu-Hsuan; Wilkinson, Iain D; Farrow, Tom F D

    2014-01-01

    The neural basis of progress monitoring has received relatively little attention compared to other sub-processes that are involved in goal directed behavior such as motor control and response inhibition. Studies of error-monitoring have identified the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) as a structure that is sensitive to conflict detection, and triggers corrective action. However, monitoring goal progress involves monitoring correct as well as erroneous events over a period of time. In the present research, 20 healthy participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) while playing a game that involved monitoring progress toward either a numerical or a visuo-spatial target. The findings confirmed the role of the dACC in detecting situations in which the current state may conflict with the desired state, but also revealed activations in the frontal and parietal regions, pointing to the involvement of processes such as attention and working memory (WM) in monitoring progress over time. In addition, activation of the cuneus was associated with monitoring progress toward a specific target presented in the visual modality. This is the first time that activation in this region has been linked to higher-order processing of goal-relevant information, rather than low-level anticipation of visual stimuli. Taken together, these findings identify the neural substrates involved in monitoring progress over time, and how these extend beyond activations observed in conflict and error monitoring. PMID:25309380

  18. B cells and antibodies in progressive multiple sclerosis: Contribution to neurodegeneration and progression.

    PubMed

    Fraussen, Judith; de Bock, Laura; Somers, Veerle

    2016-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by demyelination, axonal degeneration and gliosis. The progressive form of MS is an important research topic as not much is known about its underlying mechanisms and no therapy is available. Although progressive MS is traditionally considered to be driven by neurodegeneration, compartmentalized CNS inflammation is currently accepted as one of the driving processes behind neurodegeneration and progression. In this review, the involvement of B cells and antibodies in progressive MS is discussed. The identification of meningeal ectopic B cell follicles in secondary progressive MS (SPMS) patients and the successful use of B cell-depleting therapy in primary progressive MS (PPMS) patients have underlined the importance of B cells in progressive MS. Proof is also available for the role of antibodies in neurodegeneration and progression in MS. Here, oligoclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM) production and autoreactive antibodies are described, with a focus on antibodies directed against sperm-associated antigen 16 (SPAG16). Further research into the role of B cells and autoantibodies in MS progression can lead to novel prognostic and theranostic opportunities. PMID:27396817

  19. Patterns of attachment of the myodural bridge by the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao-Ying; Yu, Sheng-Bo; Li, Yun-Fei; Chi, Yan-Yan; Zheng, Nan; Gao, Hai-Bin; Luan, Bing-Yi; Zhang, Zhao-Xi; Sui, Hong-Jin

    2016-03-01

    The myodural bridge was first described by Hack in 1995 and was thought to be related to chronic cervicogenic headaches. For a long time, few studies revealed the patterns of the myodural bridge considering the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle. In this study, P45 plastination technology and anatomical dissection were performed on head specimens, and four different terminal region types of the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle were observed, including the posterior atlanto-occipital interspace, posterior arch of the atlas and posterior atlanto-axial interspace. We propose that the myodural complex structures in the posterior atlanto-occipital and posterior atlanto-axial interspace have cooperative effects on cerebrospinal fluid and work together. This force might be an important source for the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:25859757

  20. Comparison of Clinical Characteristics and Progression Rates of Bilaterally and Unilaterally Progressing Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Daun; Na, Jung Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the clinical characteristics of unilaterally progressing glaucoma (UPG) and simultaneously bilaterally progressing glaucoma (BPG) in medically treated cases. Methods Primary open angle glaucoma patients were classified as having UPG or BPG according to an assessment of optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer photographs and visual field analysis. Risk factors including the presence of systemic diseases (hypertension, diabetes, cerebrovascular accident, migraine, and dyslipidema) were compared between the UPG and BPG groups. Baseline characteristics and pre- and post-treatment intraocular pressure (IOP) were compared between the progressing eye (PE) and the non-progressing eye (NPE) within the same patient in the UPG group and between the faster progressing eye and the slower progressing eye in the BPG group. Results Among 343 patients (average follow-up period of 4.2 years), 43 were categorized into the UPG group and 31 into the BPG group. The prevalence of all analyzed systemic diseases did not differ between the two groups. PEs in the UPG group had more severe pathology in terms of baseline visual field parameters than NPEs (mean deviation -6.9 ± 5.7 vs. -2.9 ± 3.9 dB, respectively; p < 0.001). However, baseline IOP, mean follow-up IOP, and other clinical characteristics were not significantly different between the PE and the NPE in the UPG group. The progression rate was significantly higher in the faster progressing eye in patients with BPG than in the PE for patients with UPG (-3.43 ± 3.27 vs. -0.70 ± 1.26 dB/yr, respectively; p = 0.014). Conclusions There were no significant differences in the prevalence of systemic diseases between the UPG and BPG groups. Simultaneously bilaterally progressing patients showed much faster progression rates than those with a unilaterally progressing eye. PMID:25646059

  1. Infantile progressive bulbar palsy with deafness.

    PubMed

    Voudris, Konstantinos A; Skardoutsou, Angeliki; Vagiakou, Eleni A

    2002-10-01

    A 12-month-old boy with progressive cranial nerve palsies followed by ventilatory failure demanding artificial ventilation, generalized muscle weakness, and rapid progression to death at the age of 21 months is described. The patient had normal early development and also apparently normal hearing at presentation of illness but, after 6 months of the onset of the disease, hearing loss was documented by brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP). Although the initial clinical and laboratory findings of this infant could fit with the diagnosis of progressive childhood bulbar palsy or Fazio-Londe (FL) disease, the subsequent appearance of hearing loss suggests that this patient represents a case of progressive bulbar palsy with perceptive deafness or Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere (BVVL) syndrome. To our knowledge, this case of BVVL syndrome with severe clinical features and rapid deterioration leading to death is the youngest one reported in the literature. Furthermore, this case emphasizes the need for repeated auditory examinations, including the performance of BAEP in all cases, especially infants and young children with progressive bulbar palsy. PMID:12427524

  2. Nondestructive Evaluation Program. Progress in 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Dau, G.J.; Behravesh, M.M.; Liu, S.N.; Oldberg, T.; Avioli, M.J. Jr.; Scheibel, J.R.; Sharma, D.; Norris, D.M.; Tagart, S.W. Jr.; Griesbach, T.J.

    1986-05-01

    The increasing cost of equipment for power generating plants and the potential increases in productivity and safety available through rapidly developing Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) technology led EPRI to initiate a Nondestructive Evaluation Program in 1974. To date, the major focus has been on light water reactor inspection problems; however, increased application to other systems is now under way. This report presents a comprehensive review of the EPRI effort in the NDE area. Most of the report consists of contractor-supplied progress on each current project. An organizational plan of the program is presented in overview. In addition, organization from several viewpoint is presented, e.g., in-service inspection operators, R and D personnel, and utility representatives. As the seventh in a planned series of annual progress reports on EPRI-funded NDE activities, this report also serves as the proceedings of the EPRI Joint NDE/Structural Mechanics information meeting held in Palo Alto, California, on November 20-21, 1986. It summarizes progress made since the previous EPRI Special Report NP-3821-SR was issued in May 1985. Section 1 contains information about the program organization, and the sections that follow contains contractor-supplied progress reports of each current project. The progress reports are grouped by plant components - pipe, pressure vessel, steam generator and boiler tubes, and turbine. In addition, Part 6 is devoted to discussions of technology transfer.

  3. Nondestructive Evaluation Program: Progress in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Avioli, M.J. Jr.; Dau, G.J.; Edmonds, J.; Gehl, S.; Liu, S.N.; Stein, J.; Viswanathan, R.; Welty, C.S.

    1988-06-01

    The increasing cost of equipment for power generating plants and the potential increases in productivity and safety available through rapidly developing Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) technology led EPRI to initiate a Nondsetructive Evaluation Program in 1974. To date, the major focus has been on light water reactor inspection problems; however, increased application to other systems is now under way. This report presents a comprehensive review of the EPRI effort in the NDE area. Most of the report consists of contractor-supplied progress reports on each current project. An organization from several viewpoints is presented, e.g., in-service inspection operators, RandD personnel, and utility representatives. As the ninth in a planned series of annual progress reports of EPRI-funded NDE activities, this report also serves as the proceedings of the Eighth Annual EPRI NDE Information Meeting held in Palo Alto, California, on November 17-18, 1987. It summarizes significant progress made since the previous EPRI Special Report NP-4902-SR was issued in July 1987. Section 1 contains information about the program organization, and the sections that follow contain contractor-supplied progress reports on each current project. The progress reports are grouped by plant components/emdash/pipe, pressure vessel, steam generator and boiler tubes, and turbine. In addition, Part 6 is devoted to discussions of technology transfer. The individual reports have been cataloged separately.

  4. Assessing progression of keratoconus: novel tomographic determinants.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Joshua K; Belin, Michael W; Borgstrom, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Several methods have been described in the literature to both evaluate and document progression in keratoconus, but there is no consistent or clear definition of ectasia progression. The authors describe how modern corneal tomography, including both anterior and posterior elevation and pachymetric data can be used to screen for ectatic progression, and how software programs such as the Enhanced Reference Surface and the Belin-Ambrosio Enhanced Ectasia Display (BAD) can be employed to detect earlier changes. Additionally, in order to describe specific quantitative values that can be used as progression determinants, the normal noise measurement of the three parameters (corneal thickness at the thinnest point, anterior and posterior radius of curvature (ARC, PRC) taken from the 3.0 mm optical zone centered on the thinnest point), was assessed. These values were obtained by imaging five normal patients using three different technicians on three separate days. The 95 % and 80 % one-sided confidence intervals for all three parameters were surprisingly small (7.88/4.03 μm for corneal thickness, 0.024/0.012 mm for ARC, and 0.083/0.042 mm for PRC), suggesting that they may perform well as progression determinants. PMID:26973847

  5. Progress With Nonhuman Animal Models of Addiction.

    PubMed

    Crabbe, John C

    2016-09-01

    Nonhuman animals have been major contributors to the science of the genetics of addiction. Given the explosion of interest in genetics, it is fair to ask, are we making reasonable progress toward our goals with animal models? I will argue that our goals are changing and that overall progress has been steady and seems likely to continue apace. Genetics tools have developed almost incredibly rapidly, enabling both more reductionist and more synthetic or integrative approaches. I believe that these approaches to making progress have been unbalanced in biomedical science, favoring reductionism, particularly in animal genetics. I argue that substantial, novel progress is also likely to come in the other direction, toward synthesis and abstraction. Another area in which future progress with genetic animal models seems poised to contribute more is the reconciliation of human and animal phenotypes, or consilience. The inherent power of the genetic animal models could be more profitably exploited. In the end, animal research has continued to provide novel insights about how genes influence individual differences in addiction risk and consequences. The rules of the genetics game are changing so fast that it is hard to remember how comparatively little we knew even a generation ago. Rather than worry about whether we have been wasting time and resources asking the questions we have been, we should look to the future and see if we can come up with some new ones. The valuable findings from the past will endure, and the sidetracks will be forgotten. PMID:27588527

  6. Progressive Visual Analytics: User-Driven Visual Exploration of In-Progress Analytics.

    PubMed

    Stolper, Charles D; Perer, Adam; Gotz, David

    2014-12-01

    As datasets grow and analytic algorithms become more complex, the typical workflow of analysts launching an analytic, waiting for it to complete, inspecting the results, and then re-Iaunching the computation with adjusted parameters is not realistic for many real-world tasks. This paper presents an alternative workflow, progressive visual analytics, which enables an analyst to inspect partial results of an algorithm as they become available and interact with the algorithm to prioritize subspaces of interest. Progressive visual analytics depends on adapting analytical algorithms to produce meaningful partial results and enable analyst intervention without sacrificing computational speed. The paradigm also depends on adapting information visualization techniques to incorporate the constantly refining results without overwhelming analysts and provide interactions to support an analyst directing the analytic. The contributions of this paper include: a description of the progressive visual analytics paradigm; design goals for both the algorithms and visualizations in progressive visual analytics systems; an example progressive visual analytics system (Progressive Insights) for analyzing common patterns in a collection of event sequences; and an evaluation of Progressive Insights and the progressive visual analytics paradigm by clinical researchers analyzing electronic medical records. PMID:26356879

  7. Evaluating Rural Progress in Mathematics Achievement: Threats to the Validity of "Adequate Yearly Progress"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung

    2003-01-01

    This article examines major threats to the validity of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in the context of rural schools. Although rural students and their schools made significant academic progress in the past on national and state assessments, the current goal of AYP turns out to be highly unrealistic for them unless states set far lower…

  8. Work in Progress: Gender and Politics in Late Elizabethan Progress Entertainments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolkovich, Elizabeth Zeman

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the understudied dramatic genre of Elizabethan progress entertainments, the political ideologies it conveys, and especially the female alliances it enacts. Aristocrats staged these outdoor, episodic pageants on their country estates during Elizabeth I's summer "progress" visits, 1575-1602. While previous scholars…

  9. Progressive Compression of Volumetric Subdivision Meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Laney, D; Pascucci, V

    2004-04-16

    We present a progressive compression technique for volumetric subdivision meshes based on the slow growing refinement algorithm. The system is comprised of a wavelet transform followed by a progressive encoding of the resulting wavelet coefficients. We compare the efficiency of two wavelet transforms. The first transform is based on the smoothing rules used in the slow growing subdivision technique. The second transform is a generalization of lifted linear B-spline wavelets to the same multi-tier refinement structure. Direct coupling with a hierarchical coder produces progressive bit streams. Rate distortion metrics are evaluated for both wavelet transforms. We tested the practical performance of the scheme on synthetic data as well as data from laser indirect-drive fusion simulations with multiple fields per vertex. Both wavelet transforms result in high quality trade off curves and produce qualitatively good coarse representations.

  10. Mechanisms of progression of chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs in all age groups, including children. Regardless of the underlying cause, CKD is characterized by progressive scarring that ultimately affects all structures of the kidney. The relentless progression of CKD is postulated to result from a self-perpetuating vicious cycle of fibrosis activated after initial injury. We will review possible mechanisms of progressive renal damage, including systemic and glomerular hypertension, various cytokines and growth factors, with special emphasis on the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS), podocyte loss, dyslipidemia and proteinuria. We will also discuss possible specific mechanisms of tubulointerstitial fibrosis that are not dependent on glomerulosclerosis, and possible underlying predispositions for CKD, such as genetic factors and low nephron number. PMID:17647026

  11. Cerebral aneurysms: Formation, progression and developmental chronology

    PubMed Central

    Etminan, Nima; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Dreier, Rita; Bruckner, Peter; Torner, James C.; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Hänggi, Daniel; Macdonald, R. Loch

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UAIs) in the general population is up to 3%. Existing epidemiological data suggests that only a small fraction of UIAs progress towards rupture over the lifetime of an individual, but the surrogates for subsequent rupture and the natural history of UIAs are discussed very controversially at present. In case of rupture of an UIA, the case-fatality is up to 50%, which therefore continues to stimulate interest in the pathogenesis of cerebral aneurysm formation and progression. Actual data on the chronological development of cerebral aneurysm has been especially difficult to obtain and, until recently, the existing knowledge in this respect is mainly derived from animal or mathematical models or short-term observational studies. Here, we highlight the current data on cerebral aneurysm formation and progression as well as a novel approach to investigate the developmental chronology of cerebral aneurysms. PMID:24323717

  12. Whose progress? The language of global health.

    PubMed

    Laura Hall, Amy

    2006-06-01

    The barrier to global health most often noted in Western discourse is the enduring disparity of access to medical technologies. This assessment of the circumstances in global health fits well within a bioethic centered on the equitable distribution of access to medical goods. Yet through an interrogative consideration of two episodes in the marketing of progress, namely the Century of Progress Exposition in Chicago (1933-1934) and one post-war spin on atomic development in the National Geographic, I suggest that the language of medical advancement continues to trade on a division between civilized, rational, scientifically developed peoples and the atavism of peoples by whom Western science gauges its progress. I recommend unremittingly self-critical attention to the dynamics of language and legitimization used within the Western academy by those who seek ostensibly to be of use in regions (powerfully) labeled as "developing." PMID:16760105

  13. Yergason's Test: Discrepancies in Description and Implications for Diagnosing Biceps Subluxation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Robert W.; Sailor, Scott R.; Lentell, Gary; Tanner, Cary; Murray, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    Yergason described the case of a woman with bicipital pain that was confirmed with isolated forearm supination. Since publication of this respective case report in 1931, orthopedic assessment textbooks have provided a wide range of descriptions for Yergason's Test and what a positive sign implicates. Vast differences in hand placement, along with…

  14. Progression of coronary artery calcification at the crossroads: sign of progression or stabilization of coronary atherosclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Carrascosa, Patricia; Bruining, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) has been strongly established as an independent predictor of adverse events, with a significant incremental prognostic value over traditional risk stratification algorithms. CAC progression has been associated with a higher rate of events. In parallel, several randomized studies and meta-analysis have shown the effectiveness of statins to slow progression and even promote plaque regression. However, evidence regarding the effect of routine medical therapy on CAC has yielded conflicting results, with initial studies showing significant CAC regression, and contemporaneous data showing rather the opposite. Accordingly, there is currently a great controversy on whether progression of CAC is a sign of progression or stabilization of coronary artery disease (CAD). The finding of inexorable CAC progression despite the implementation of intensive contemporaneous medical therapy suggests that further understanding of this phenomenon should be undertaken before the implementation of CAC as a surrogate endpoint for longitudinal studies, or for prospective follow-up of patients under routine medical treatment. PMID:27280088

  15. Wavelet encoding and variable resolution progressive transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanford, Ronald P.

    1993-01-01

    Progressive transmission is a method of transmitting and displaying imagery in stages of successively improving quality. The subsampled lowpass image representations generated by a wavelet transformation suit this purpose well, but for best results the order of presentation is critical. Candidate data for transmission are best selected using dynamic prioritization criteria generated from image contents and viewer guidance. We show that wavelets are not only suitable but superior when used to encode data for progressive transmission at non-uniform resolutions. This application does not preclude additional compression using quantization of highpass coefficients, which to the contrary results in superior image approximations at low data rates.

  16. Chemokines in tumor development and progression

    SciTech Connect

    Mukaida, Naofumi; Baba, Tomohisa

    2012-01-15

    Chemokines were originally identified as mediators of the inflammatory process and regulators of leukocyte trafficking. Subsequent studies revealed their essential roles in leukocyte physiology and pathology. Moreover, chemokines have profound effects on other types of cells associated with the inflammatory response, such as endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Thus, chemokines are crucial for cancer-related inflammation, which can promote tumor development and progression. Increasing evidence points to the vital effects of several chemokines on the proliferative and invasive properties of tumor cells. The wide range of activities of chemokines in tumorigenesis highlights their roles in tumor development and progression.

  17. Macrophage Diversity Enhances Tumor Progression and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Binzhi; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

    2016-01-01

    There is persuasive clinical and experimental evidence that macrophages promote cancer initiation and malignant progression. During tumor initiation they create an inflammatory environment that is mutagenic and which promotes growth. As tumors progress to malignancy, macrophages stimulate angiogenesis, enhance tumor cell migration, invasion, and suppress anti-tumor immunity. At metastatic sites macrophages prepare the target tissue for arrival of tumor cells and then a different subpopulation of macrophages promotes tumor cell extravasation, survival, and subsequent growth. Specialized subpopulations of macrophages may represent important new therapeutic targets. PMID:20371344

  18. Determinants of health: a progressive political platform.

    PubMed

    Terris, M

    1994-01-01

    This paper is based on the statement in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion that "The fundamental conditions and resources for health are peace, shelter, education, food, income, a stable eco-system, sustainable resources, social justice and equity. Improvement in health requires a secure foundation in these basic prerequisites." It attempts to formulate a progressive political platform for a number of these prerequisites, offering a series of recommendations regarding education, employment, income, and housing, and urging that the proposed programs be funded by progressive taxation and major reductions in the military budget. PMID:8027361

  19. [Research progress of rectoanal inhibitory reflex].

    PubMed

    Yin, Shuhui; Zhao, Ke

    2015-12-01

    The understanding of rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR) is progressing for the latest 100 years. From the discovery of its important role in diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease to all aspects of its development, reflex pathways, neural regulation and physiological functions, there have been more in-depth explorations. It is now recognized that a number of other diseases also have a more specific performance of RAIR. It has become an important and indispensable part to anorectal manometry. Research progress of rectoanal inhibitory reflex is reviewed in this article. PMID:26704013

  20. Chemokines in tumor progression and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Sarvaiya, Purvaba J; Guo, Donna; Ulasov, Ilya; Gabikian, Patrik; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2013-12-01

    Chemokines play a vital role in tumor progression and metastasis. Chemokines are involved in the growth of many cancers including breast cancer, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer, melanoma, lung cancer, gastric cancer, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, colon cancer, non-small lung cancer, non-hodgkin's lymphoma, etc. The expression of chemokines and their receptors is altered in many malignancies and leads to aberrant chemokine receptor signaling. This review focuses on the role of chemokines in key processes that facilitate tumor progression including proliferation, senescence, angiogenesis, epithelial mesenchymal transition, immune evasion and metastasis. PMID:24259307

  1. Controlling myopia progression in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smith, Molly J; Walline, Jeffrey J

    2015-01-01

    Myopia is a common disorder, affecting approximately one-third of the US population and over 90% of the population in some East Asian countries. High amounts of myopia are associated with an increased risk of sight-threatening problems, such as retinal detachment, choroidal degeneration, cataracts, and glaucoma. Slowing the progression of myopia could potentially benefit millions of children in the USA. To date, few strategies used for myopia control have proven to be effective. Treatment options such as undercorrection of myopia, gas permeable contact lenses, and bifocal or multifocal spectacles have all been proven to be ineffective for myopia control, although one recent randomized clinical trial using executive top bifocal spectacles on children with progressive myopia has shown to decrease the progression to nearly half of the control subjects. The most effective methods are the use of orthokeratology contact lenses, soft bifocal contact lenses, and topical pharmaceutical agents such as atropine or pirenzepine. Although none of these modalities are US Food and Drug Administration-approved to slow myopia progression, they have been shown to slow the progression by approximately 50% with few risks. Both orthokeratology and soft bifocal contact lenses have shown to slow myopia progression by slightly less than 50% in most studies. Parents and eye care practitioners should work together to determine which modality may be best suited for a particular child. Topical pharmaceutical agents such as anti-muscarinic eye drops typically lead to light sensitivity and poor near vision. The most effective myopia control is provided by atropine, but is rarely prescribed due to the side effects. Pirenzepine provides myopia control with little light sensitivity and few near-vision problems, but it is not yet commercially available as an eye drop or ointment. Several studies have shown that lower concentrations of atropine slow the progression of myopia control with fewer side

  2. Recent progress on MAP kinase pathway inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Uehling, David E; Harris, Philip A

    2015-10-01

    The RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK, or ERK signaling pathway propagates signals through an intracellular signal transduction cascade. Since approximately one third of human cancers are impacted by mutations in the ERK signaling pathway, intensive efforts to develop drugs targeting members of this cascade are ongoing. While efforts to develop drugs aimed at inhibiting RAS are still at an early stage, substantial progress in discovering clinical drugs targeting RAF, MEK, and ERK have been made. This review will highlight the recent progress in this area. PMID:26298497

  3. Swine flu fibrosis: Regressive or progressive?

    PubMed

    Singh, Nishtha; Singh, Sheetu; Sharma, Bharat Bhushan; Singh, Virendra

    2016-01-01

    Swine flu influenza had spread the world over in 2009. The main pathology was bilateral pneumonia. Majority of these cases recovered from pneumonia fully. Though in some cases, pulmonary fibrosis was reported as a sequel. However, long-term progression of such pulmonary fibrosis is uncertain. We are hereby reporting two cases of swine flu that showed residual pulmonary fibrosis. The clinical and laboratory parameters were also recorded. In both the cases, radiological shadows and spirometric values did not show deterioration. We conclude that swine flu pulmonary fibrosis is not a progressive condition. PMID:27051116

  4. Geothermal progress monitor report No. 6

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Geothermal Progress Monitor Report No. 6 presents a state-by-state summary of the status of geothermal leasing, exploration, and development in major physiographic regions where geothermal resource potential has been identified. Recent state-specific activities are reported at the end of each state status report, while recent activities of a more general nature are summarized briefly in Part II of the report. A list of recent publications of potential interest to the geothermal community and a directory of contributors to the geothermal progress monitoring system are also included.

  5. Chemokines in tumor progression and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Sarvaiya, Purvaba J.; Guo, Donna; Ulasov, Ilya; Gabikian, Patrik; Lesniak, Maciej S.

    2013-01-01

    Chemokines play a vital role in tumor progression and metastasis. Chemokines are involved in the growth of many cancers including breast cancer, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer, melanoma, lung cancer, gastric cancer, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, colon cancer, non-small lung cancer and non-hodgkin's lymphoma among many others. The expression of chemokines and their receptors is altered in many malignancies and leads to aberrant chemokine receptor signaling. This review focuses on the role of chemokines in key processes that facilitate tumor progression including proliferation, senescence, angiogenesis, epithelial mesenchymal transition, immune evasion and metastasis. PMID:24259307

  6. 48 CFR 32.503-2 - Supervision of progress payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supervision of progress... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Progress Payments Based on Costs 32.503-2 Supervision of progress payments. (a) The extent of progress payments supervision, by prepayment review...

  7. 34 CFR 668.34 - Satisfactory academic progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Satisfactory academic progress. 668.34 Section 668.34... Satisfactory academic progress. (a) Satisfactory academic progress policy. An institution must establish a reasonable satisfactory academic progress policy for determining whether an otherwise eligible student...

  8. Progressive Image Coding by Hierarchical Linear Approximation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaolin; Fang, Yonggang

    1994-01-01

    Proposes a scheme of hierarchical piecewise linear approximation as an adaptive image pyramid. A progressive image coder comes naturally from the proposed image pyramid. The new pyramid is semantically more powerful than regular tessellation but syntactically simpler than free segmentation. This compromise between adaptability and complexity…

  9. The Mixed Economic Progress of Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoeni, Robert F.; And Others

    This report examines whether the economic well-being of male immigrants to the United States improves substantially over time, details differences in economic progress of immigrants from different countries of origin, and assesses the impact of educational attainment on immigrants' earnings. Analyses are based on Public Use Micro Samples of the…

  10. The Glass Ceiling: Progress and Persistent Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLlwain, Wendy M.

    2012-01-01

    It has been written that since 2001, there has not been any significant progress and the glass ceiling is still intact. Women are still underrepresented in top positions (Anonymous, 2004). If this is true, the glass ceiling presents a major barrier between women and their desire to advance into executive or senior management positions. In addition…

  11. Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia with inflammatory myopathy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Pu, Chuanqiang; Shi, Qiang; Wang, Qian; Cong, Lu; Liu, Jiexiao; Luo, Hongyu; Fei, Lingna; Tang, Wei; Yu, Shanshan

    2014-01-01

    Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia is one of mitochondrial disorders, characterized by ptosis, limitation of eye movement, variably severe bulbar muscle weakness and proximal limb weakness. Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia complicated with acquired disease is extremely rare. We report a 44 years old male patient with more than 20 years of chronic progressive bilateral ptosis and limitation of eye movements manifested dysarthria, dysphagia and neck muscle weakness for 3 years. The first muscle biopsy showed red-ragged fibers and cytochrome c oxidase negative fibers as well as inflammatory cells infiltration. Electron microscopy revealed paracrystalline inclusions. Mitochondrial genetic analysis demonstrated a large-scale mtDNA deletion of m.8470_13446del4977. The patient was treated with prednisone. In a three-year follow-up study, the second biopsy was performed. Before the treatment, except bilateral ptosis and external ophthalmopelgia, this patient presented bulbar muscle weakness and neck muscle weakness. After treated with prednisone, the symptoms of dysphagia, dysarthria and neck muscle weakness were significantly improved, and the second biopsy showed only mitochondrial myopathy pathology but the inflammations disappeared. Here, we report a patient with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia complicated with inflammatory myopathy and after treated with prednisone as myositis, he had a significant therapeutic effect. PMID:25674260

  12. Status and progress of the RERTR Program

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1993-12-31

    The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is described. The major events, findings, and activities of 1993 are reviewed after a brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program had achieved by the end of 1992 in collaboration with its many international partners.

  13. Nebraska Higher Education Progress Report, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska's Coordinating Commission for Postsecondary Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report provides the Nebraska Legislature with comparative statistics to monitor and evaluate progress toward achieving three key priorities for Nebraska's postsecondary education system: (1) Increase the number of students who enter postsecondary education in Nebraska; (2) Increase the percentage of students who enroll and successfully…

  14. Nebraska Higher Education Progress Report, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska's Coordinating Commission for Postsecondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report provides the Nebraska Legislature with comparative statistics to monitor and evaluate progress toward achieving "three key priorities" for Nebraska's postsecondary education system: (1) Increase the number of students who enter postsecondary education in Nebraska; (2) Increase the percentage of students who enroll and successfully…

  15. Staying True?: Progressive Leadership in Tough Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pignatelli, Frank

    2012-01-01

    A system of accountability in public schools predicated upon standardized testing accompanied by high-stakes consequences for leaders, as well as teachers and students, has posed a daunting challenge to educational leaders who align themselves with core tenets of progressive education. This essay explores what it might mean--and take--to stay true…

  16. The Effect of Mental Progression on Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Malia F.; Bar, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Mood affects the way people think. But can the way people think affect their mood? In the present investigation, we examined this promising link by testing whether mood is influenced by the presence or absence of associative progression by manipulating the scope of participants' information processing and measuring their subsequent mood. In…

  17. Recent Progress on Certain Quartic Diophantine Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, P. G.

    2008-01-01

    Wilhelm Ljunggren proved many results on quartic Diophantine equations of the form aX4-bY2 = c, with c∈{±1,-2,±4}. Noticeably absent from this set of values of c is c = 2. We describe some recent progress on this problem, and discuss some open problems which require further study.

  18. 15 CFR 255.5 - Progress reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Progress reports. 255.5 Section 255.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FELLOWSHIPS AND RESEARCH ASSOCIATES FELLOWSHIPS IN LABORATORY STANDARDIZATION AND TESTING...

  19. Energy in America: Progress and Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Petroleum Inst., Washington, DC.

    An overview of America's energy situation is presented with emphasis on recent progress, the risk of depending upon foreign oil, and policy choices. Section one reviews the energy problems of the 1970s, issues of the 1980s, concerns for the future, and choices that if made today could alleviate future problems. Section two examines past problems,…

  20. Indian Institute of Geomagnetism: Progress in research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Progress and aspects is the study of the geomagnetic variations in the Indian region on quiet and disturbed days, equatorial electrojet field, electromagnetic induction in the earth, magnetic pulsations, aeronomy, radio scintillations, magnetosphere and solar wind, and solar-terrestrial relationships were reported.

  1. Progressive Social Movements and Educational Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyon, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This article places policy development in the context of progressive social movements. It describes how social movements develop, and delineates some of the accomplishments of such contestation in U.S. history as well as in changes of education policy. The article closes by considering the possibilities and challenges of current social movement…

  2. Learning Progressions that Support Formative Assessment Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonzo, Alicia C.

    2011-01-01

    Black, Wilson, and Yao (this issue) lay out a comprehensive vision for the way that learning progressions (or other "road maps") might be used to inform and coordinate formative and summative purposes of assessment. As Black, Wilson, and others have been arguing for over a decade, the effective use of formative assessment has great potential to…

  3. Progress toward identification of gluonic states

    SciTech Connect

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1987-05-29

    Progress in the last two years toward identification of gluonic states is reviewed. Discovery of additional pseudoscalars tends to confirm the glueball interpretation of iota(1460). A variety of evidence indicates new physics in the J = 1 channel in the E mass region. 65 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Progress in Understanding Autism: 2007-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific progress is discussed in relation to clinical issues; genetic issues; environmental issues; and the state of play on psychological treatments. It is concluded that substantial gains in knowledge have been achieved during the last 3 years, and there have been some unexpected findings, but major puzzles remain. We should be hopeful of…

  5. The Progression of the College Admissions Professional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    In his sixteen years in college admissions, the author has evolved in his work, role, and mission. He began as an eager recruiter, excited to help high school students get into college; now he is a seasoned director committed to college access. As he reflects on his career, a five-stage progression merges: "learn," "execute," "lead," "contribute,"…

  6. 24 CFR 968.230 - Progress reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Progress reports. 968.230 Section 968.230 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  7. 24 CFR 968.230 - Progress reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Progress reports. 968.230 Section 968.230 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  8. [Recent progress in international public health].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Li, Liming

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the recent progress in international public health in terms of public health challenges, infectious diseases prevention and control, disease surveillance, chronic and non-communicable disease prevention and treatment, global health, health literacy and precision medicine for the purpose to provide reference for the improvement of public health in China. PMID:26822634

  9. Kinematics of Disease Progression in Bulbar ALS

    PubMed Central

    Yunusova, Yana; Green, Jordan; Lindstrom, Mary; Ball, Laura; Pattee, Gary; Zinman, Lorne

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the deterioration of lip and jaw movements during speech longitudinally in three individuals diagnosed with bulbar Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). The study was motivated by the need to understand the relationship between physiologic changes in speech movements and clinical measures of speech performance such as speaking rate and speech intelligibility. Movements of the lip and jaw were quantified with respect to their size (i.e., path distance measure), speed, and duration. The data revealed several changes in lip and jaw movement that coincided with ALS progression. In two out of three speakers, the changes in measures of path distance and speed anticipated the drop in speech intelligibility by approximately 3 months. With disease progression, increases in movement duration coincided with declines in speech intelligibility. Overall, the movement measures appeared to be sensitive to disease progression in ALS. Learning outcomes By the end of the manuscript, the reader should be able to: (1) describe the changes that occur in articulatory movements of the jaw and lower lip in ALS; (2) understand the relationship between physiologic measures of movement and speech intelligibility and speaking rate; (3) identify critical points in the disease progression and understand which quantitative measures reveal the state of the bulbar system at these time points. PMID:19683250

  10. Mycosis fungoides progression and chronic solvent exposure.

    PubMed

    Nikkels, Arjen F; Quatresooz, Pascale; Delvenne, Philippe; Balsat, Alain; Piérard, Gérald E

    2004-01-01

    The effect of repeated exposure to specific chemicals on the initiation or progression of mycosis fungoides (MF) remains unsettled. A patient with low-grade patch stage MF progressively developed MF plaques restricted to his arms, and a tumour on his right thigh. These areas were subject to repeated exposure to solvents. His thigh was indeed in close contact with his trousers pocket where he used to store a wiping rag drenched into white spirit and cellulosic thinner. Immunophenotyping these lesions revealed a dense LCA+, CD2+, CD3+, CD4+, CD5+, CD7+, CD45+, CD45RO+ T-cell infiltrate admixed with many factor XIIIa+ dendrocytes. T-cell receptor rearrangement analysis identified a monoclonal T-cell infiltrate. An internal work-up remained negative. Stopping further solvent exposure failed to improve his condition. Oral corticotherapy combined with low-dose interferon-alpha2a halted disease progression. This observation suggests that long-term solvent exposure may trigger MF and hasten its progression from the patch stage to the plaque and tumour stages. PMID:15057012

  11. Curriculum-Based Measurement for Reading Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Victoria Groves; Weishaar, Mary Konya

    2003-01-01

    This article suggests detailed steps to assist in the construction and implementation of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) to track reading progress. Information includes how to construct and organize a CBM, how to administer and score a CBM, how to use the information for instructional changes, and how to use data collected to inform parents…

  12. Basic Studies: A Description and Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Charles N.; And Others

    This is a description and a progress report of the Basic Studies Program at Tarrant County Junior College (Texas), a 1-year program in general education designed for students who rank in the lower quarter of their junior college class and who have experienced little academic success in the past. Communications, humanities, social science, natural…

  13. A progressive pericardial effusion caused by psittacosis.

    PubMed Central

    Page, S R; Stewart, J T; Bernstein, J J

    1988-01-01

    A patient developed signs of a progressive pericardial effusion over a period of eight days. Diagnostic and therapeutic pericardiocentesis was performed. Viral titres to psittacosis rose from less than 1:8 to greater than 1:256 indicating recent infection. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:3408623

  14. Private Pay Progression. Research Brief. Edition 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Jake

    2015-01-01

    While the issue of access to the professions is relatively well understood, there is limited understanding of the impact of entrants' backgrounds on success once in graduate employment. The research looks at the way social background continues to influence graduate pay and career progression once in professional employment. Key findings include:…

  15. The Progress of Education in Louisiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Sandra J.

    This document is a product of the Promoting Instructional Coherence Project. The paper describes the progress of education in Louisiana and is designed to help educators as they construct a comprehensive approach to teaching and learning. Louisiana typically ranks near the bottom of the 50 states on educational quality and effectiveness, and its…

  16. INDIAN RIVER LAGOON CCMP PROGRESS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In, 1996, Florida Governor Lawton Chiles And USEPA Administrator Carol Browner officially adopted the Indian River Lagoon CCMP. In it are dozens of actions, that if implemented would help maintain and improve the ecological integrity of the IRL. To evaluate the progress towards i...

  17. Progress in KEKB beam instrumentation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arinaga, Mitsuhiro; Flanagan, John W.; Fukuma, Hitoshi; Furuya, Takaaki; Hiramatsu, Shigenori; Ikeda, Hitomi; Ishii, Hitoshi; Kikutani, Eiji; Mitsuhashi, Toshiyuki; Mori, Kenji; Tejima, Masaki; Tobiyama, Makoto

    2013-03-01

    The paper describes several topics relating to the beam instrumentation systems at the KEKB B-factory (KEKB) from 2003 to the end of its operation. It covers 1) measurement of the tilt angle of a bunch caused by a crab cavity, 2) a diagnostic system for beam aborts, 3) bunch feedback and related systems, and 4) progress in the beam position monitor system.

  18. Decisions 1985, Directions 1984: Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Postsecondary Education, Montgomery.

    In 1984 and 1985, professional personnel from each college in Alabama were asked to assist the Alabama State Board of Education in resolving long-standing issues and concerns. This progress report summarizes the Alabama College System's accomplishments during this period. Following introductory comments by the chancellor and a list of the members…

  19. Progressive Education Standards: A Neuroscience Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, Patty

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a coherent and unique set of 12 standards, adopting a neuroscience framework for biologically based on school reform. This model of educational principles and practices aligns with the long-standing principles and practices of the Progressive Education Movement in the United States and the emerging principles of neuroscience.…

  20. Progress and challenges in cleaning up Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1997-08-01

    This paper presents captioned viewgraphs which briefly summarize cleanup efforts at the Hanford Site. Underground waste tank and spent nuclear fuel issues are described. Progress is reported for the Plutonium Finishing Plant, PUREX plant, B-Plant/Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility, and Fast Flux Test Facility. A very brief overview of costs and number of sites remediated and/or decommissioned is given.

  1. States' Progress toward High School Restructuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National High School Center, 2007

    2007-01-01

    As many Title I high schools approach their fifth year of failing to meet adequate yearly progress (AYP), states and districts are struggling to navigate the new waters of school restructuring as required by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001. This brief outlines the provisions of the law related to restructuring and includes strategies…

  2. Progress Testing: Critical Analysis and Suggested Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albanese, Mark; Case, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Educators have long lamented the tendency of students to engage in rote memorization in preparation for tests rather than engaging in deep learning where they attempt to gain meaning from their studies. Rote memorization driven by objective exams has been termed a steering effect. Progress testing (PT), in which a comprehensive examination…

  3. Rapid Progression of Coronary Atherosclerosis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Priyank; Bajaj, Sharad; Virk, Hartaj; Bikkina, Mahesh; Shamoon, Fayez

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is chronic disease, the prevalence of which has increased steadily as the population ages. Vascular injury is believed to be critical initiating event in pathogenesis of spontaneous atherosclerosis. Syndrome of accelerated atherosclerosis has been classically described in patients undergoing heart transplantation, coronary artery bypass graft, and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. In contrast to spontaneous atherosclerosis, denuding endothelial injury followed by thrombus formation and initial predominant smooth muscle cell proliferation is believed to be playing a significant role in accelerated atherosclerosis. There is no universal definition of rapid progression of atherosclerosis. However most studies describing the phenomenon have used the following definition: (i) > or = 10% diameter reduction of at least one preexisting stenosis > or = 50%, (ii) > or = 30% diameter reduction of a preexisting stenosis <50%, and (iii) progression of a lesion to total occlusion within few months. Recent studies have described the role of coronary vasospasm, human immunodeficiency virus, various inflammatory markers, and some genetic mutations as predictors of rapid progression of atherosclerosis. As research in the field of vascular biology continues, more factors are likely to be implicated in the pathogenesis of rapid progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:26823982

  4. Patient Debt Management and Student Academic Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Cheryl A.; Olswang, Steven G.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of patient debt management policies of dental programs is reported. The translation of a student's successful performance in a clinic setting to an academic failure based on a patient's failure to pay for services is not legally defendable. Fee collection should not be tied to student academic progress. (Author/MLW)

  5. Hydrogen from renewable resources. Monthly progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Rocheleau, R.E.

    1995-08-01

    This progress report updates two tasks. In the area of hydrogen production, photobiological production and photoelectrochemical production advances are discussed as well as thermochemical production of hydrogen from wet biomass. In the area of hydrogen storage, reversible catalytic dehydrogenation of cycloalkanes by polyhydride complexes and polyhydride systems engineering are presented.

  6. Implementing Graduation Counts: State Progress to Date

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Governors Association, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report provides information on states' progress in implementing the graduation rate all 50 governors agreed by signing the Graduation Counts Compact in 2005 to adopt. The governors undertook this commitment because they understand the imperative to gather more accurate, comparable data on how many of their students graduate from high school…

  7. Overregulation of conflicts hinders medical progress.

    PubMed

    Stossel, Thomas P

    2007-03-01

    The revolution in medicine and technology over the past few decades is largely the result of partnerships--or a "harmony of interests"--between private companies and entrepreneurial scientists and clinicians. Regulations to prevent conflicts of interest by restricting medical education, medical research, expert advisory functions, or researcher ownership of inventions may have the unintended consequence of slowing medical progress. PMID:17469469

  8. Women Reformers in the Progressive Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Judith

    1999-01-01

    Presents an overview of women in the Progressive Era, providing a glimpse at how women attempted to reform society and simultaneously change ideas about the role of women at the turn of the 20th century. Reviews the various roles of these women, such as suffragettes, individual freedom activists, and labor organizers. (CMK)

  9. Recent Progress in Optical Chemical Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Qazi, Hummad Habib; Mohammad, Abu Bakar bin; Akram, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Optical chemical sensors have promoted escalating interest in the determination of various pollutants in the environment, which are creating toxicity and may cause serious health problems. This review paper focuses particularly on the recent progress and developments in this field; the working principles and basic classes of optical chemical sensors have been briefly described. PMID:23443392

  10. Governmental Surveillance of Three Progressive Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Murry R.; Singleton, H. Wells

    Governmental interference with academic freedom is illustrated by F.B.I. surveillance of and unauthorized distribution of information about progressive educators John Dewey, George Counts, and Harold Rugg. These three educators attracted the attention of governmental agencies and special interest groups during the 1930s and 1940s because they…

  11. Avionics. Progress Record and Theory Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational-Technical Schools.

    This combination progress record and course outline is designed for use by individuals teaching a course in avionics that is intended to prepare students for employment in the field of aerospace electronics. Included among the topics addressed in the course are the following: shop practices, aircraft and the theory of flight, electron physics,…

  12. Developmental Progress in Institutional and Community Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokol-Kessler, Leslie E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Comparison of developmental growth for 104 matched pairs from mentally retarded residents of a public institution and of community living arrangements (CLA) revealed that CLA Ss showed significant developmental progress in reduction of maladaptive behavior while institutionalized Ss showed no change over 2 years. (Author/CL)

  13. Development and progression of colorectal neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Manne, Upender; Shanmugam, Chandrakumar; Katkoori, Venkat R.; Bumpers, Harvey L.; Grizzle, William E.

    2012-01-01

    A variety of genetic and molecular alterations underlie the development and progression of colorectal neoplasia (CRN). Most of these cancers arise sporadically due to multiple somatic mutations and genetic instability. Genetic instability includes chromosomal instability (CIN) and microsatellite instability (MSI), which is observed in most hereditary non-polyposis colon cancers (HNPCCs) and accounts for a small proportion of sporadic CRN. Although many biomarkers have been used in the diagnosis and prediction of the clinical outcomes of CRNs, no single marker has established value. New markers and genes associated with the development and progression of CRNs are being discovered at an accelerated rate. CRN is a heterogeneous disease, especially with respect to the anatomic location of the tumor, race/ethnicity differences, and genetic and dietary interactions that influence its development and progression and act as confounders. Hence, efforts related to biomarker discovery should focus on identification of individual differences based on tumor stage, tumor anatomic location, and race/ethnicity; on the discovery of molecules (genes, mRNA transcripts, and proteins) relevant to these differences; and on development of therapeutic approaches to target these molecules in developing personalized medicine. Such strategies have the potential of reducing the personal and socio-economic burden of CRNs. Here, we systematically review molecular and other pathologic features as they relate to the development, early detection, diagnosis, prognosis, progression, and prevention of CRNs, especially colorectal cancers (CRCs). PMID:22112479

  14. Status and progress of the RERTR Program

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1996-12-31

    The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is described. The major events, findings, and activities of 1996 are reviewed after a brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program had achieved by the end of 1995 in collaboration with its many international partners.

  15. Women and Education: Progress and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Margaret B.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the status of women's education throughout the world. Describes an increased access to education, progress through legislation, and women's studies. Emphasizes the concentration of women in education in the lower grades and teaching roles rather than in higher education or top administrative levels. Addresses problems such as sex role,…

  16. Arterial Remodeling Associates with CKD Progression

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Cédric; Karras, Alexandre; Laurent, Stéphane; Bozec, Erwan; Jacquot, Christian; Stengel, Bénédicte; Houillier, Pascal; Froissart, Marc; Boutouyrie, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    In CKD, large arteries remodel and become increasingly stiff. The greater pulsatile pressure reaching the glomerulus as a result of increased aortic stiffness could induce renal damage, suggesting that the stiffening and remodeling of large arteries could affect the progression of CKD. We measured carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, aortic pressure and carotid remodeling and stiffness parameters in 180 patients with CKD (mean measured GFR, 32 ml/min per 1.73 m2) and followed them prospectively for a mean of 3.1 years. During follow-up, carotid stiffness significantly increased (+0.28 ± 0.05 m/s; P < 0.0001) but aortic stiffness did not. Carotid intima-media thickness decreased significantly during follow-up and the internal diameter of the carotid increased, producing increased circumferential wall stress (+2.08 ± 0.43 kPa/yr; P < 0.0001). In a linear mixed model, circumferential wall stress significantly associated with faster GFR decline after adjustment for risk factors of cardiovascular disease and progression of CKD. In a multivariable Cox model, carotid circumferential wall stress and pulse pressure independently associated with higher risk for ESRD. None of the arterial stiffness parameters associated with progression of CKD. In conclusion, maladaptive remodeling of the carotid artery and increased pulse pressure independently associate with faster decline of renal function and progression to ESRD. PMID:21493771

  17. Making Progress as Leaders among University Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quah, Cheng Sim; Sim, Sandra Phek Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the overview of how individuals in their respective teams operated and contributed to their organization. This study also identified the salient characteristics of how the respondents made progress as leaders in their respective faculties or departments towards identifying directions for innovative future practice through…

  18. Casimir force in Schwarzschild metric: Progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Munawar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I report progress on both theoretical and experimental aspects. I describe two approaches to calculating putative effects of gravitational curvature on the Casimir force. The work I describe continues the quest to answer the question: do virtual field excitations follow geodesics?

  19. Education and the Logic of Economic Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilead, Tal

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few decades, the idea that education should function to promote economic progress has played a major role in shaping educational policy. So far, however, philosophers of education have shown relatively little interest in analysing this notion and its implications. The present article critically examines, from a philosophical…

  20. National Disability Policy: A Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Disability, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This National Council on Disability (NCD) annual progress report to the President and Congress covers the period December 2005 through December 2006. The report is divided into 13 chapters, each dealing with a major area of public policy. These subject-specific chapters are preceded by an introductory Major Trends section that identifies…

  1. Progress of Younger Children Learning Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Zhihong; Sisson, Keith; Kung, Hsiang-te

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out how young children can learn, understand, and progress in the Chinese language. This study focuses on 13 students between two and three years old. The data collection methods used classroom observation, benchmarks, and parent questionnaires about at home behavior. The data analysis used is qualitative…

  2. Measuring Client Progression in Adult Guidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearne, Lucy

    2007-01-01

    Currently, in the field of guidance, relevant stakeholders including guidance practitioners, educators and policy makers, have identified progression for adults in education and employment as one of the key outcomes of educational guidance. Lifelong guidance is now inextricably linked with lifelong learning as a mechanism to enhance individual…

  3. Better Plants Progress Update Fall 2013

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-23

    This Progress Update summarizes the significant energy saving achievements and cumulative cost savings made by these industry leaders from 2010-2012. The update also shares the plans and priorities over the next year for the Better Plants Program to continue to advance energy efficiency in the industrial sector.

  4. Thematic Progression Analysis in Teaching Explanation Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Xueqian

    2008-01-01

    Thematic Progression theory explains textual meanings of how experiential and interpersonal meanings are organized in a linear and coherent way. Employing the rationale of T-P theory, this article analyses a lesson plan of teaching Explanation, and shows that T-P analysis can be employed in teaching writing.

  5. Progress in extra-solar planet detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Progress in extra-solar planet detection is reviewed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) the definition of a planet; (2) the weakness of planet signals; (3) direct techniques - imaging and spectral detection; and (4) indirect techniques - reflex motion and occultations.

  6. Progress towards SAR based ecosystem analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, K. Jon; Sun, Guoqing

    1991-01-01

    Recent progress towards a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) based system for determining forest ecosystem attributes is discussed. Our SAR data processing and analysis sequence, from calibration through classification, is described. In addition, the usefulness of SAR image data for identifying ecosystem classes is discussed.

  7. Natural Language Information Retrieval: Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Carballo, Jose; Strzalkowski, Tomek

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the progress of the natural language information retrieval project, a joint effort led by GE (General Electric) Research, and its evaluation at the sixth TREC (Text Retrieval Conference). Discusses stream-based information retrieval, which uses alternative methods of document indexing; advanced linguistic streams; weighting; and query…

  8. Chemistry-Key to Our Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1976-01-01

    Address of Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg to the American Chemical Society banquet on August 31, 1976, San Francisco, California. Discussed are the contributions chemistry has made to human progress in the past and looks at some that it may add in the future. (Author/SL)

  9. Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 10-Point Initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES H) programs, and waste management activities at DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points involved conducting dent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special independent Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are more focused, concentrating on ES H management, ES H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.'' In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES H areas. This manual documents the processes to be used to perform the ES H Progress Assessments. It was developed based upon the lessons learned from Tiger Team Assessments, the two pilot Progress Assessments, and Progress Assessments that have been completed. The manual will be updated periodically to reflect lessons learned or changes in policy.

  10. Progress toward breeding for Verticillium wilt resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium wilt is a persistent and serious problem in potato production. Host plant resistance offers an attractive long-term control method. Breeding progress depends on access to germplasm carrying resistance genes. This study was carried out to identify sources of Verticillium wilt resistan...

  11. Automobile Course. Progress Record and Theory Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational-Technical Schools.

    This combination progress record and course outline is designed for use by individuals teaching a course in automobile repair. Included among the topics addressed in the course are the following: shop safety, engines, fuel and exhaust systems, electrical systems, crankcase lubrication systems, cooling systems, power transmission systems, steering…

  12. Reading Excellence Act (REA): A Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, David M.

    Three analyses were conducted for this progress report of the Reading Excellence Act as implemented in Alabama public schools. The first analysis involved third grade reading comprehension scores over the 3-year period (1999-2001). Overall, reading comprehension scores remained stable. Based on multiple criteria, schools that either failed to meet…

  13. Progress Toward Breeding for Verticillium Wilt Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium wilt is a persistent and serious problem in potato production. Host plant resistance offers an attractive long-term control method. Breeding progress depends on access to germplasm carrying resistance genes. This study was carried out to identify sources of Verticillium wilt resistan...

  14. Counseling on Campus: Client Persistence and Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Margaretha S.

    2012-01-01

    Two related studies addressed college students' persistence and progress in psychotherapy. In Study 1, using emotional health variables assessed at intake, students who persisted in counseling and demonstrated clinical improvement were compared with those who either did not return for their first session or who did return but stopped before…

  15. Measuring Well-Being and Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Acci, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Well-being is becoming a concept which is more and more involved in any world development consideration. A large amount of work is being carried out to study measurements of well-being, including a more holistic vision on the development and welfare of a country. This paper proposes an idea of well-being and progress being in equilibrium with each…

  16. Progress in kaon physics on the lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Weonjong

    2006-12-01

    We review recent progress in calculating kaon spectrum, pseudoscalar meson decay constants, B K , ɛ ɛ, K ππ matrix elements, kaon semileptonic form factors, and moments of kaon distribution amplitudes on the lattice. We also address the issue of how best to improve the staggered fermion formulation for the action and operators.

  17. A progressive pruritic rash with blisters.

    PubMed

    Overcash, Michael D; Ewald, Matt

    2016-05-01

    This article describes a patient with a progressive pruritic rash and fluid-filled blisters. A punch biopsy later confirmed the diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid, an inflammatory condition that most commonly occurs in older adults and is treated with corticosteroids. PMID:27124233

  18. Setting a research agenda for progressive multiple sclerosis: The International Collaborative on Progressive MS

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Alan; Baker, David; Baneke, Peer; Brown, Doug; Browne, Paul; Chandraratna, Dhia; Ciccarelli, Olga; Coetzee, Timothy; Comi, Giancarlo; Feinstein, Anthony; Kapoor, Raj; Lee, Karen; Salvetti, Marco; Sharrock, Kersten; Toosy, Ahmed; Zaratin, Paola; Zuidwijk, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant progress in the development of therapies for relapsing MS, progressive MS remains comparatively disappointing. Our objective, in this paper, is to review the current challenges in developing therapies for progressive MS and identify key priority areas for research. A collaborative was convened by volunteer and staff leaders from several MS societies with the mission to expedite the development of effective disease-modifying and symptom management therapies for progressive forms of multiple sclerosis. Through a series of scientific and strategic planning meetings, the collaborative identified and developed new perspectives on five key priority areas for research: experimental models, identification and validation of targets and repurposing opportunities, proof-of-concept clinical trial strategies, clinical outcome measures, and symptom management and rehabilitation. Our conclusions, tackling the impediments in developing therapies for progressive MS will require an integrated, multi-disciplinary approach to enable effective translation of research into therapies for progressive MS. Engagement of the MS research community through an international effort is needed to address and fund these research priorities with the ultimate goal of expediting the development of disease-modifying and symptom-relief treatments for progressive MS. PMID:22917690

  19. Setting a research agenda for progressive multiple sclerosis: the International Collaborative on Progressive MS.

    PubMed

    Fox, Robert J; Thompson, Alan; Baker, David; Baneke, Peer; Brown, Doug; Browne, Paul; Chandraratna, Dhia; Ciccarelli, Olga; Coetzee, Timothy; Comi, Giancarlo; Feinstein, Anthony; Kapoor, Raj; Lee, Karen; Salvetti, Marco; Sharrock, Kersten; Toosy, Ahmed; Zaratin, Paola; Zuidwijk, Kim

    2012-11-01

    Despite significant progress in the development of therapies for relapsing MS, progressive MS remains comparatively disappointing. Our objective, in this paper, is to review the current challenges in developing therapies for progressive MS and identify key priority areas for research. A collaborative was convened by volunteer and staff leaders from several MS societies with the mission to expedite the development of effective disease-modifying and symptom management therapies for progressive forms of multiple sclerosis. Through a series of scientific and strategic planning meetings, the collaborative identified and developed new perspectives on five key priority areas for research: experimental models, identification and validation of targets and repurposing opportunities, proof-of-concept clinical trial strategies, clinical outcome measures, and symptom management and rehabilitation. Our conclusions, tackling the impediments in developing therapies for progressive MS will require an integrated, multi-disciplinary approach to enable effective translation of research into therapies for progressive MS. Engagement of the MS research community through an international effort is needed to address and fund these research priorities with the ultimate goal of expediting the development of disease-modifying and symptom-relief treatments for progressive MS. PMID:22917690

  20. The spectrum of progressive derecho formation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guastini, Corey T.

    Progressive derechos are severe mesoscale convective systems that often form east of the Rocky Mountains during the warm season (May--August) and cause, by definition, straight-line wind damage along paths upwards of 400 km long. This study develops a subjective, seven-category classification scheme that spans the spectrum of progressive derecho formation environments from those dominated by robust upper-level ridges to those characterized by vigorous upper-level troughs. A climatology of 256 progressive derecho events is created for 1996--2013 and is categorized according to the developed classification scheme. Derecho initiation-relative composites are constructed for each of the seven groups using 0.5° Climate Forecast System Reanalysis data to document the environmental characteristics unique to each group as well as those shared among them. Finally, two in-depth case studies and five cursory case studies provide examples of the seven categories and reveal important nuances in mesoscale dynamic and thermodynamic structure inherent to all derecho cases. Results of the climatology show progressive derecho activity increases from 1 May through 1 July before decreasing again through the end of August and follows a northward trend in latitude from 1 May through 1 August before shifting slightly southward through the end of the warm season. Upslope flow in the vicinity of the Rocky Mountains initiates 28 percent of progressive derechos, upper-level troughs initiate 20 percent, 47 percent form in benign synoptic environments, and 5 percent are unclassifiable. Composite results show all progressive derecho initiation environments are marked by a long axis of instability caused by the overlap of high atmospheric moisture content and steep midlevel lapse rates, but the relative positions and strengths of upper-level troughs and ridges are crucial in determining how the instability axis develops and what its orientation in space will be. Case studies reveal instability

  1. Microgaps and Demineralization Progress around Composite Restorations.

    PubMed

    Turkistani, A; Nakashima, S; Shimada, Y; Tagami, J; Sadr, A

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the influence of adhesives and marginal sealing on demineralization progress using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Cavities (4 × 2 mm) were prepared in bovine incisors and restored using Clearfil SE Protect (SP), Bond Force (BF), Scotchbond Universal (SB), or G-Bond Plus (GB), followed by Estelite Flow Quick flowable composite. The control group received no adhesive (n = 10). After 3-d incubation in artificial saliva and 10,000 thermal cycles, gaps at enamel and dentin margins were measured at 8 locations on cross-sectional images obtained from each restoration using swept-source OCT at 1310-nm wavelength. Specimens were demineralized using acidified gel (pH = 4.5) for 5 wk and scanned every week to monitor the lesion progress at the same marginal locations. Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that demineralization period and adhesive type and their interaction had a significant effect on the lesion size in both substrates (P < 0.001). SP, BF, and SB had significantly lower enamel and dentin initial gaps than the control and GB (P < 0.05). Enamel lesion progress was slower in the fluoride-releasing adhesives SP and BF and significantly different from SB, GB, and the control (P < 0.001). SP and BF dentin lesions were significantly different from GB and the control (P < 0.001), but not from SB (P > 0.05). A significant positive correlation (P < 0.05) was found between initial gap length and formed lesion size in both substrates, which was stronger in enamel (r = 0.63) than dentin (r = 0.35). Microgaps forming at the margins of restorations depend on adhesives and significantly contribute to the progress of demineralization around the margins, while fluoride release may decrease the rate of progression. PMID:26082389

  2. Geothermal pipeline: Progress and development update from the geothermal progress monitor

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This document is a Progress and Development Update from the Geothermal Progress Monitor. It contains brief descriptions of progress made on varying projects involving the use of geothermal resources or research about geothermal systems. This article describes the following projects: Conversion of waste water to geothermal energy in Northern California, Hydrogen sulfide study in Hawaii, a new program at the Cerro Prieto geothermal resource in Mexico, geothermal heating of a Nevadan school, development of a geothermal fluid standard, and the broadcasting of geothermal teleconferences.

  3. Progression of logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia to apraxia and semantic memory deficits

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to the nature of neurodegenerative disorders, patients with primary progressive aphasia develop cognitive impairment other than aphasia as the disorder progresses. The progression of logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA), however, has not been well described. In particular, praxic disorders and semantic memory deficits have rarely been reported. Case presentations We report three patients in the initial stage of lvPPA who subsequently developed apraxia in the middle stage and developed clinically evident semantic memory deficits in the advanced stages. Conclusions The present case series suggests that some patients with lvPPA develop an atypical type of dementia with apraxia and semantic memory deficits, suggesting that these cases should be classified as a type of early-onset Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24176108

  4. Turbulence Modeling: Progress and Future Outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvin, Joseph G.; Huang, George P.

    1996-01-01

    Progress in the development of the hierarchy of turbulence models for Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes codes used in aerodynamic applications is reviewed. Steady progress is demonstrated, but transfer of the modeling technology has not kept pace with the development and demands of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. An examination of the process of model development leads to recommendations for a mid-course correction involving close coordination between modelers, CFD developers, and application engineers. In instances where the old process is changed and cooperation enhanced, timely transfer is realized. A turbulence modeling information database is proposed to refine the process and open it to greater participation among modeling and CFD practitioners.

  5. Prostate cancer progression. Implications of histopathology.

    PubMed Central

    Ware, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    This review examines selected areas of contemporary prostate cancer research in terms of the impact of prostatic cellular and histopathological heterogeneity. Prostate tumor progression is accompanied by dysregulation of multiple growth factor networks as well as disruption of normal patterns of cell-cell interactions. Molecular and cytogenetic studies demonstrate that prostate cancer results from the accumulation of several different genetic defects. No single event predominates, but modifications in tumor suppressor genes or functional elimination of the suppressor gene product are more common than activation of known oncogenes. Intratumor heterogeneity is also detectable at the genetic level. This further complicates efforts to correlate modifications at specific loci with progression or outcome. The development of new in vitro and in vivo systems for the study of human prostate cancer should increase our understanding of this complex disease. In each approach, knowledge of the histopathology of the normal and neoplastic prostate is essential. PMID:7977655

  6. Nontraditional families and childhood progress through school.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Michael J

    2010-08-01

    luse U.S. census data to perform the first large-sample, nationally representative tests of outcomes for children raised by same-sex couples. The results show that children of same-sex couples are as likely to make normal progress through school as the children of most other family structures. Heterosexual married couples are the family type whose children have the lowest rates of grade retention, but the advantage of heterosexual married couples is mostly due to their higher socioeconomic status. Children ofallfamily types (including children ofsame-sex couples) are far more likely to make normal progress through school than are children living in group quarters (such as orphanages and shelters). PMID:20879687

  7. Biobehavioral Approaches to Cancer Progression and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Lutgendorf, Susan K.; Andersen, Barbara L.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, there have been groundbreaking strides in our understanding of the multiple biological pathways by which psychosocial and behavioral factors can affect cancer progression. It is now clear that biobehavioral factors not only affect cellular immunity but both directly and indirectly modulate fundamental processes in cancer growth, including inflammation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. There is also an emerging understanding of how psychological and behavioral factors used in interventions can impact these physiological processes. This review outlines our current understanding of the physiological mechanisms by which psychological, social, and behavioral processes can affect cancer progression. The intervention literature is discussed, along with recommendations for future research to move the field of biobehavioral oncology forward. PMID:25730724

  8. Progress in molecular precursors for electronic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Buhro, W.E.

    1996-09-01

    Molecular-precursor chemistry provides an essential underpinning to all electronic-materials technologies, including photovoltaics and related areas of direct interest to the DOE. Materials synthesis and processing is a rapidly developing field in which advances in molecular precursors are playing a major role. This article surveys selected recent research examples that define the exciting current directions in molecular-precursor science. These directions include growth of increasingly complex structures and stoichiometries, surface-selective growth, kinetic growth of metastable materials, growth of size-controlled quantum dots and quantum-dot arrays, and growth at progressively lower temperatures. Continued progress in molecular-precursor chemistry will afford precise control over the crystal structures, nanostructures, and microstructures of electronic materials.

  9. Assessing reinforcers under progressive schedule requirements.

    PubMed Central

    Roane, H S; Lerman, D C; Vorndran, C M

    2001-01-01

    Recent research findings suggest that reinforcing stimuli may be differentially effective as response requirements increase. We extended this line of research by evaluating responding under increasing schedule requirements via progressive-ratio schedules and behavioral economic analyses. The differential effectiveness of preferred stimuli in treating destructive behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement also was examined. Results showed that one of two stimuli was associated with more responding under increasing schedule requirements for the 4 participants. Furthermore, stimuli associated with more responding under increasing schedule requirements generally were more effective in treating destructive behavior than stimuli associated with less responding. These data suggest that progressive-ratio schedules and behavioral economic analyses may be useful for developing a new technology for reinforcer identification. From a clinical perspective, these results suggest that two reinforcers may be similarly effective for low-effort tasks and differentially effective for high-effort tasks. PMID:11421308

  10. Anterior cruciate ligament rupture and osteoarthritis progression.

    PubMed

    Wong, James Min-Leong; Khan, Tanvir; Jayadev, Chethan S; Khan, Wasim; Johnstone, David

    2012-01-01

    Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) rupture is a common sporting injury that frequently affects young, athletic patients. Apart from the functional problems of instability, patients with ACL deficient knees also develop osteoarthritis. Although this is frequently cited as an indication for ACL reconstruction, the relationship between ACL rupture, reconstruction and the instigation and progression of articular cartilage degenerative change is controversial.The purpose of this paper is to review the published literature with regards ACL rupture and the multifactorial causes for osteoarthritis progression, and whether or not this is slowed or stopped by ACL reconstruction.There is no evidence in the published literature to support the view that ACL reconstruction prevents osteoarthritis, although it may prevent further meniscal damage. It must be recognised that this conclusion is based on the current literature which has substantial methodological limitations. PMID:22896777

  11. Nontraditional Families and Childhood Progress Through School

    PubMed Central

    ROSENFELD, MICHAEL J.

    2010-01-01

    I use U.S. census data to perform the first large-sample, nationally representative tests of outcomes for children raised by same-sex couples. The results show that children of same-sex couples are as likely to make normal progress through school as the children of most other family structures. Heterosexual married couples are the family type whose children have the lowest rates of grade retention, but the advantage of heterosexual married couples is mostly due to their higher socioeconomic status. Children of all family types (including children of same-sex couples) are far more likely to make normal progress through school than are children living in group quarters (such as orphanages and shelters). PMID:20879687

  12. An Expanded View of Progressive Cardiorenal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Re, Richard N

    2016-06-01

    Chronic renal diseases and congestive heart failure are progressive disorders, which cannot be completely controlled by established therapies. It has been argued that intracrine biology involving the formation of self-sustaining intracrine regulatory loops accounts for the progression of these disorders and for the inability of standard therapies to stop disease spread. The renin-angiotensin system is a prime candidate to be involved in any such process, and an amplifying role for mineralocorticoid activation is also consistent with this view. Here, the notion of intracrine participation in congestive heart failure and chronic renal disease is expanded to include consideration of the participation of other intracrines including transforming growth factor beta 1, parathyroid hormone-related protein and vascular endothelial growth factor among others. The possibility that intracrine expression patterns account for disease phenotypes is explored. The therapeutic implications of this view are discussed. PMID:27238929

  13. Roles for Growth Factors in Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Witsch, Esther; Sela, Michael; Yarden, Yosef

    2011-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, cells receive fate-determining signals from their tissue surroundings, primarily in the form of polypeptide growth factors. Integration of these extracellular signals underlies tissue homeostasis. Although departure from homeostasis and tumor initiation are instigated by oncogenic mutations rather than by growth factors, the latter are the major regulators of all subsequent steps of tumor progression, namely clonal expansion, invasion across tissue barriers, angiogenesis, and colonization of distant niches. Here, we discuss the relevant growth factor families, their roles in tumor biology, as well as the respective downstream signaling pathways. Importantly, cancer-associated activating mutations that impinge on these pathways often relieve, in part, the reliance of tumors on growth factors. On the other hand, growth factors are frequently involved in evolvement of resistance to therapeutic regimens, which extends the roles for polypeptide factors to very late phases of tumor progression and offers opportunities for cancer therapy. PMID:20430953

  14. Slowing progression of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Drawz, Paul E; Rosenberg, Mark E

    2013-12-01

    Early identification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) provides an opportunity to implement therapies to improve kidney function and slow progression. The goal of this article is to review established and developing clinical therapies directed at slowing progression. The importance of controlling blood pressure will be discussed along with the target blood pressure that should be achieved in CKD patients. Therapy directed at inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system remains the mainstay of treatment with single-agent inhibition of this system being as good as dual blockade with fewer adverse effects. Other therapies that may be used include correction of metabolic acidosis, dietary protein restriction, and new models for delivering care to patients with CKD. Emerging therapies targeting endothelin, uric acid, kidney fibrosis, and oxidant stress hold promise for the future. PMID:25019022

  15. The progressing cavity pump in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Gaymard, B.; Chanton, E. ); Puyo, P. )

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the principle and the design of the Progressing Cavity pump. It recalls the Moineau principle on which the pump works, describes the various parameters which define the pump and determine its performances. It shows the configuration used for oil production and indicates the range of practical performance that can be expected. The authors describe the results of three years of operations in Europe. Also discussed are two recently developed pump models which broaden significantly the area of operation of the Progressing Cavity Pump. The presentation of the high pressure pump includes a discussion of the effects of high viscosity on the pump operation and of the solutions offered to optimize this operation.

  16. Olympic Fisher Reintroduction Project: 2010 Progress Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, Jeffrey C.; Happe, Patti J.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Manson, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 progress report is a summary of the reintroduction, monitoring, and research efforts undertaken during the third year of the Olympic fisher reintroduction project. Jeffrey C. Lewis of Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Patti J. Happe of Olympic National Park, and Kurt J. Jenkins of U. S. Geological Survey are the principal investigators of the monitoring and research program associated with the reintroduction. David J. Manson of Olympic National Park is the lead biological technician.

  17. Olympic Fisher Reintroduction Project- 2009 Progress Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, Jeffrey C.; Happe, Patti J.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Manson, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 progress report is a summary of the reintroduction, monitoring, and research efforts undertaken during the first two years of the Olympic fisher reintroduction project. Jeffrey C. Lewis of Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Patti J. Happe of Olympic National Park, and Kurt J. Jenkins of U. S. Geological Survey are the principal investigators of the monitoring and research program associated with the reintroduction. David J. Manson of Olympic National Park is the lead biological

  18. Progress Towards Laser Cooling and Trapping Gadolinium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Upendra; Simien, Clayton

    2016-05-01

    Lanthanide elements are of interest because of their potential for investigating next generation optical clock transitions, novel non-S ground state ultracold collisions, and the physics of quantum degenerate dipolar gases. We present our progress towards laser cooling and trapping atomic Gadolinium (Gd). A magneto-optical trap is the first step towards precision measurements, ultracold collision studies, and for probing dipolar physics of Gd. The design, construction, and performance of the apparatus will be presented.

  19. Monthly progress report summary, September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This report consists of numerous progress reports on program support, systems analysis, materials handling, chemical and physical treatments, waste destruction and stabilization, off-gas treatment, and final waste form studies. The Mixed Waste Integrated Program has responsibility for the Department of Energy`s low-level radioactive waste and hazardous material mixture characterization, treatment, and disposal. The program is undergoing transition to the Mixed Waste Focus Area.

  20. Image Database Exploration: Progress and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fayyad, U.; Smyth, P.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the general problem of automated image database exploration, the particular aspects of image databases which distinguish them from other databases, and how this impacts the application of off-the-shelf learning algorithms to problems of this nature. Current progress will be illustrated using two large-scale image exploration projects at JPL. The paper concludes with a discussion of current and future challenges.

  1. Coordination: southeast continental shelf studies. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, D.W.

    1981-02-01

    The objectives are to identify important physical, chemical and biological processes which affect the transfer of materials on the southeast continental shelf, determine important parameters which govern observed temporal and spatial varibility on the continental shelf, determine the extent and modes of coupling between events at the shelf break and nearshore, and determine physical, chemical and biological exchange rates on the inner shelf. Progress in meeting these research objectives is presented. (ACR)

  2. Progress in research on Tourette syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Black, Kevin J.; Jankovic, Joseph; Hershey, Tamara; McNaught, Kevin St. P.; Mink, Jonathan W.; Walkup, John

    2014-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a heritable neuropsychiatric disorder commonly complicated by obsessions and compulsions, but defined by frequent unwanted movements (motor tics) and vocalizations (phonic tics) that develop in childhood or adolescence. In recent years, research on TS has progressed rapidly on several fronts. Inspired by the Fifth International Scientific Symposium on Tourette Syndrome, the articles in this special issue review advances in the phenomenology, epidemiology, genetics, pathophysiology, and treatment of TS. PMID:25436182

  3. [Progress on parasiticidal activity of anitimicrobial peptides].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ze-hua; Zhao, Jun-long

    2014-10-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are a kind of gene encoded, ribosome synthesized, small molecular polypeptides that have high efficiency, wide antibacterial spectrum, and low immunogenicity. Many studies have indicated that antimicrobial peptides can inhibit the growth of parasites or even kill them. This paper reviews the research progress on parasiticidal activity of the antimicrobial peptides in recent years, and presents the problems in the research. PMID:25726604

  4. Recent progress on CCDs for astronomical imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Groom, D.E.

    2000-02-28

    We review recent progress in the field, using as a framework a partial list of present limitations and problems: CCD and mosaic size, packing fraction in mosaics, red response and fringing, and intrinsic point-spread function due to lateral charge diffusion. Related topics such as orthogonal-transfer CCDs and the special requirements of adaptive-optics wavefront sensors are also discussed. Only cursory attention is given to other relevant issues, such as readout speed and anti-blooming techniques.

  5. Power Systems Development Facility progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Rush, R.E.; Hendrix, H.L.; Moore, D.L.; Pinkston, T.E.; Vimalchand, P.; Wheeldon, J.M.

    1995-11-01

    This is a report on the progress in design and construction of the Power Systems Development Facility. The topics of the report include background information, descriptions of the advanced gasifier, advanced PFBC, particulate control devices, and fuel cell. The major activities during the past year have been the final stages of design, procurement of major equipment and bulk items, construction of the facility, and the preparation for the operation of the Facility in late 1995.

  6. Recent Sikorsky R and D progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The recent activities and progress in four specific areas of Sikorsky's research and development program are summarized. Since the beginning of the S-76 design in 1974, Sikorsky has been aggressively developing the technology for using composite materials in helicopter design. Four specific topics are covered: advanced cockpit/controller efforts, fly-by-wire controls on RSRA/X-Wing, vibration control via higher harmonic control, and main rotor aerodynamic improvements.

  7. Cavernous sinus thrombosis progression from trismus

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jin Yong; Kim, Hyeon Min

    2015-01-01

    In the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, patients with trismus can be easily identified. If the cause of trismus is infection of the masticatory space near the pterygoid plexus, the possibility of cavernous sinus thrombosis should be considered. We report the case of a patient who presented with limited mouth opening and progressed to cavernous sinus thrombosis, along with a review of the relevant literature. PMID:25741468

  8. Recent Progress of Microfluidics in Translational Applications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zongbin; Han, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidics, featuring microfabricated structures, is a technology for manipulating fluids at the micrometer scale. The small dimension and flexibility of microfluidic systems are ideal for mimicking molecular and cellular microenvironment, and show great potential in translational research and development. Here, the recent progress of microfluidics in biological and biomedical applications, including molecular analysis, cellular analysis, and chip-based material delivery and biomimetic design is presented. The potential future developments in the translational microfluidics field are also discussed. PMID:27091777

  9. Conceptual and instrumental progress in dissolution DNP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jähnig, Fabian; Kwiatkowski, Grzegorz; Ernst, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    We discuss conceptual and instrumental progress in dissolution DNP since its introduction in 2003. In our view there are three critical steps in the dissolution DNP process: (i) The achievable polarization level in a sample. (ii) The time required to build up the polarization. (iii) The transfer of the sample to the measurement system with minimum loss of polarization. In this review we describe in detail these steps and the different methodological and instrumental implementations, which have been proposed to optimize them.

  10. The Ares Projects: Progress Toward Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, Phil

    2008-01-01

    Ares Projects are making great strides toward building a new generation of launch vehicles. Support ISS operations and human exploration of Moon and other destinations. Ares I-X flight test in 2009. Additional testing and development work is in progress. Ares launch vehicles continue on schedule to fulfill this strategic capability for the future. Capabilities will develop in environment of increasing challenges. NASA transitioning from performing space operations to expanding the Nation's frontiers.

  11. Some Recent Progress for Approximation Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawarabayashi, Ken-ichi

    We survey some recent progress on approximation algorithms. Our main focus is the following two problems that have some recent breakthroughs; the edge-disjoint paths problem and the graph coloring problem. These breakthroughs involve the following three ingredients that are quite central in approximation algorithms: (1) Combinatorial (graph theoretical) approach, (2) LP based approach and (3) Semi-definite programming approach. We also sketch how they are used to obtain recent development.

  12. Progress Report on the Deployment of MAGDAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, G.; Yumoto, K.

    2009-04-01

    As Japan’s leading contribution to the International Heliophysical Year (IHY), the Space Environment Research Center (SERC) of Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan is in the process of deploying globally 50 state-of-the-art magnetometers. In this brief article, we outline our progress to date (23 Sept 2007). We also briefly describe our magnetometer, which is able to send its data in near realtime to a central server, where data from all units can be compared with relative ease and quickness.

  13. [Clinical research progress in infantile nystagmus syndrome].

    PubMed

    Zong, Yao; Wang, Li-hua

    2013-07-01

    Infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) is an ocular motor disorder that presents at birth or early infancy. It is clinically characterized by involuntary and conjugated oscillation of the eyes, which often causes several complications such as amblyopia, lateral view, strabismus and torticollis. The etiology of INS is not fully understood, and this disease cannot be cured completely. This paper reviews the progress of research on the concept, etiology and pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, common examination methods, diagnosis and treatment of INS. PMID:24257363

  14. Thermal structures: Four decades of progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Earl A.

    1990-01-01

    Since the first supersonic flight in October 1947, the United States has designed, developed and flown flight vehicles within increasingly severe aerothermal environments. Over this period, major advances in engineering capabilities have occurred that will enable the design of thermal structures for high speed flight vehicles in the twenty-first century. Progress in thermal-structures is surveyed for the last four decades to provide a historical perspective for future efforts.

  15. 1995 PVUSA progress report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) is a national public-private partnership that is assessing and demonstrating the viability of utility-scale (US) photovoltaic (PV) electric generation systems and recent developments in PV module technology. This report updates the project`s progress, reviews the status and performance of the various PV installations during 1995, summarizes key accomplishments and conclusions, and serves as the final report under Pacific Gas and Electric Company`s project management.

  16. Thermal structures - Four decades of progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Earl A.

    1990-01-01

    Since the first supersonic flight in October 1947, the United States has designed, developed and flown flight vehicles within increasingly severe aerothermal environments. Over this period, major advances in engineering capabilities have occurred that will enable the design of thermal structures for high speed flight vehicles in the twenty-first century. This paper surveys progress in thermal-structures for the last four decades to provide a historical perspective for future efforts.

  17. Chromosome 6p amplification and cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Gda C; Zielenska, M; Prasad, M; Squire, J A

    2007-01-01

    Chromosomal imbalances represent an important mechanism in cancer progression. A clear association between DNA copy‐number aberrations and prognosis has been found in a variety of tumours. Comparative genomic hybridisation studies have detected copy‐number increases affecting chromosome 6p in several types of cancer. A systematic analysis of large tumour cohorts is required to identify genomic imbalances of 6p that correlate with a distinct clinical feature of disease progression. Recent findings suggest that a central part of the short arm of chromosome 6p harbours one or more oncogenes directly involved in tumour progression. Gains at 6p have been associated with advanced or metastatic disease, poor prognosis, venous invasion in bladder, colorectal, ovarian and hepatocellular carcinomas. Copy number gains of 6p DNA have been described in a series of patients who presented initially with follicle centre lymphoma, which subsequently transformed to diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Melanoma cytogenetics has consistently identified aberrations of chromosome 6, and a correlation with lower overall survival has been described. Most of the changes observed in tumours to date map to the 6p21–p23 region, which encompasses approximately half of the genes on all of chromosome 6 and one third of the number of CpG islands in this chromosome. Analyses of the genes that cluster to the commonly amplified regions of chromosome 6p have helped to identify a small number of molecular pathways that become deregulated during tumour progression in diverse tumour types. Such pathways offer promise for new treatments in the future. PMID:16790693

  18. Recent Progress of Microfluidics in Translational Applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zongbin; Han, Xin; Qin, Lidong

    2016-04-01

    Microfluidics, featuring microfabricated structures, is a technology for manipulating fluids at the micrometer scale. The small dimension and flexibility of microfluidic systems are ideal for mimicking molecular and cellular microenvironment, and show great potential in translational research and development. Here, the recent progress of microfluidics in biological and biomedical applications, including molecular analysis, cellular analysis, and chip-based material delivery and biomimetic design is presented. The potential future developments in the translational microfluidics field are also discussed. PMID:27091777

  19. Evolutionary Game Theory Analysis of Tumor Progression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Amy; Liao, David; Sturm, James; Austin, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Evolutionary game theory applied to two interacting cell populations can yield quantitative prediction of the future densities of the two cell populations based on the initial interaction terms. We will discuss how in a complex ecology that evolutionary game theory successfully predicts the future densities of strains of stromal and cancer cells (multiple myeloma), and discuss the possible clinical use of such analysis for predicting cancer progression. Supported by the National Science Foundation and the National Cancer Institute.

  20. Occupational injury prevention research: progress and priorities.

    PubMed

    Stout, N A; Linn, H I

    2002-12-01

    The twentieth century witnessed remarkable reductions in the number and rate of occupational fatalities and injuries. However, many preventable injuries and deaths still occur. Barriers to progress in occupational injury prevention are discussed, along with strategies for overcoming them. In mining, the frequency of death has dramatically declined over the century. The latest figures from the BLS indicate that less than 6000 worker deaths from injury occurred in 2000. Catastrophic events have prompted increased attention, resources, and action on workplace hazards and risks, resulting in sweeping changes, including new protective laws. Science based approaches to prevention have contributed to progress. Multidisciplinary collaboration among injury prevention researchers, and collaboration and cooperation among multiple sectors, have improved the relevance and application of injury prevention research and development. Barriers to further progress include lack of evaluation of the effectiveness of prevention strategies and technologies, including cost effectiveness; lack of widespread implementation of known, effective prevention; and lack of efficient transfer and implementation of prevention knowledge and products to the workplace. Evaluation and implementation of prevention efforts are most successfully achieved in partnership between researchers and the industry at risk, which requires outreach efforts on the part of the occupational research community. PMID:12460949