Science.gov

Sample records for progressive cultural politics

  1. The Text and Cultural Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Michael W.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses ways of approaching text and textbooks as embodiments of a larger process of cultural politics, focusing on the analysis of the relationships involved in their production, contexts, use, and reading. Newer forms of analysis that emphasize the politics of how students actually create meanings around texts are reviewed. (SLD)

  2. Culture, politics and ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Moray, N

    2000-07-01

    The beginning of a new century is an appropriate moment to consider the role of ergonomics in relation to the problems facing society. To help solve these serious global problems, ergonomics needs to be open to new disciplines, particularly those in the social sciences. Also, it may be difficult to generalize research on human-centred sociotechnical design without taking into account national characteristics, economics and political constraints. Currently there is more interest than ever in what ergonomics has to offer, but to deliver its promise requires a much broader approach than is usual. By adopting such new approaches one may help solve both the problems of the overdeveloped postindustrial societies and those of the societies of the Third World, where a new approach to work and economics may provide an improved chance for development given the recent changes in global economic policy. PMID:10929822

  3. Political Parody and Public Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hariman, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Parody and related forms of political humor are essential resources for sustaining democratic public culture. They do so by exposing the limits of public speech, transforming discursive demands into virtual images, setting those images before a carnivalesque audience, and celebrating social leveling while decentering all discourses within the…

  4. Cross Cultural Varieties of Politeness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hondo, Junko; Goodman, Bridget

    2001-01-01

    The treatment of politeness features is particularly revealing of the complex dynamics that language teachers face given the cultural variety present in schools and colleges. Along with its positive contributions to the learning environment, the growing student diversity poses a significant challenge for both students and educators. This paper…

  5. The Text and Cultural Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Michael W.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that textbooks legitimate selective forms of knowledge underlying supposedly democratic reforms heavily influenced by conservative economic/political forces and eclipsing the historical experiences and cultural expression of the less powerful. Views textbooks as part of social construction of reality. Calls for politicized, multiple…

  6. Political Culture as Context for Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahler-Larsen, Peter; Schwandt, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    One way to understand the context of evaluation is in terms of its interaction with political culture. That culture includes citizens' views of the role of government and of evaluation and the history of the polity. This chapter illustrates the relationship of political culture and evaluation by means of two accounts of Danish political culture.…

  7. Politeness Principle in Cross-Culture Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yongliang

    2008-01-01

    As we all know, different people hold different views about politeness. To be polite, Leech thinks you should follow "Politeness Principle" while Levinson suggests paying attention to others' "Face Wants". Sometimes what the Chinese people considered to be polite may not be true according to western culture. In order to…

  8. Politics Between Economy and Culture. Introductory Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokkan, Stein

    The introductory statement to the plenary session of the Ninth World Congress of the International Political Science Association announces the first of two major themes, politics between economy and culture. This theme is described as investigating the culture-economy dialectic at all levels of politics -- global, territorial, national, community,…

  9. Alienation and Expectation in American Political Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranney, Austin

    The concept of political alienation in American culture is examined in light of evidence gathered by social scientists. Political alienation is interpreted to include a wide variety of attitudes and behaviors such as cynicism, outraged idealism, apathy, violent protest, powerlessness, and revolutionary zeal. To minimize conceptual ambiguities of…

  10. Determinants of health: a progressive political platform.

    PubMed

    Terris, M

    1994-01-01

    This paper is based on the statement in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion that "The fundamental conditions and resources for health are peace, shelter, education, food, income, a stable eco-system, sustainable resources, social justice and equity. Improvement in health requires a secure foundation in these basic prerequisites." It attempts to formulate a progressive political platform for a number of these prerequisites, offering a series of recommendations regarding education, employment, income, and housing, and urging that the proposed programs be funded by progressive taxation and major reductions in the military budget. PMID:8027361

  11. Feyerabend on politics, education, and scientific culture.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Ian James

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to offer a sympathetic reconstruction of the political thought of Paul Feyerabend. Using a critical discussion of the idea of the 'free society' it is suggested that his political thought is best understood in terms of three thematic concerns-liberation, hegemony, and the authority of science-and that the political significance of those claims become clear when they are considered in the context of his educational views. It emerges that Feyerabend is best understood as calling for the grounding of cognitive and cultural authorities-like the sciences-in informed deliberation, rather than the uncritical embrace of prevailing convictions. It therefore emerges that a free society is best understood as one of epistemically responsible citizenship rather than epistemically anarchistic relativism of the 'anything goes' sort-a striking anticipation of current debates about philosophy of science in society. PMID:27269271

  12. The cultural politics of eating in Shenzhen.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the 1980s and early 1990s, construction in Shenzhen symbolized both the transformation of Chinese socialism and the concomitant integration of Chinese society into global capitalist networks. This article tells the story of Shenzhen from the perspective of this first generation of immigrants, the so-called Old Shenzheners, who use nostalgia about food to define, debate, and ultimately retreat from conversations about what Shenzhen culture was and what it ought to be. Their food nostalgia is part of a larger cultural tradition of Chinese alimentary politics and has allowed Shenzheners to indigenize capitalist globalization to make the city their own. Old Shenzheners' food nostalgia represents an important moment in the Chinese transition to a post socialist political economy, redefining what it means to be both Chinese and global in a post–cold war world order. PMID:21539046

  13. Cultural Neuroscience: Progress and Promise

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Cheon, Bobby K.; Pornpattanangkul, Narun; Mrazek, Alissa J.; Blizinsky, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    The nature and origin of human diversity has been a source of intellectual curiosity since the beginning of human history. Contemporary advances in cultural and biological sciences provide unique opportunities for the emerging field of cultural neuroscience. Research in cultural neuroscience examines how cultural and genetic diversity shape the human mind, brain and behavior across multiple time scales: situation, ontogeny and phylogeny. Recent progress in cultural neuroscience provides novel theoretical frameworks for understanding the complex interaction of environmental, cultural and genetic factors in the production of adaptive human behavior. Here, we provide a brief history of cultural neuroscience, theoretical and methodological advances, as well as empirical evidence of the promise of and progress in the field. Implications of this research for population health disparities and public policy are discussed. PMID:23914126

  14. Working through a psychotherapy group's political cultures.

    PubMed

    Ettin, Mark F; Cohen, Bertram D

    2003-10-01

    Macropolitical evolution, starting with authoritarian monarchism, has moved through anarchistic transitions either to the totalitarianism of fascism and communism or to liberal and social democracy. We posit analogous micropolitical development in process-oriented therapy groups: "dependence" and "counterdependence" corresponding to monarchism and anarchism; and "independence" and "interdependence" to liberal and social democracy, respectively. Transition from counterdependence to independence and interdependence may be: (1) facilitated through group members' cooperative experience of rebellion, or (2) blocked by collective identification, the internalization of dystopian or utopian fantasies that coalesce as "group-self" perceptions. We explore how group therapists work clinically with and through these several "political cultures" in the service of group and self transformation. PMID:14562523

  15. Making the Global City, Making Inequality: The Political Economy and Cultural Politics of Chicago School Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Pauline

    2002-01-01

    Discusses current Chicago, Illinois, school reform in the context of economic restructuring, the drive to become a "global city," and the cultural politics of race. Focuses on high stakes testing and accountability. Suggests that education policies are part of a cultural politics of race aimed at the control and regulation of African American and…

  16. (Im)Politeness in Cross-Cultural Encounters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Juliane

    2012-01-01

    In this article I will first discuss the notions of "politeness" and "impoliteness" including a multilevel model of politeness and impoliteness that relates universal levels to culture- and language-specific ones. Given this framework and my earlier postulation of a set of parameters along which members of two linguacultures differ in terms of…

  17. Linking Politics and People: The Historiography of the Progressive Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diner, Steven J.

    1999-01-01

    Explains that in order to write a book on the Progressive Era that can compete with the plethora of books already on this topic, the author combined two common strategies used when approaching his book: (1) examining the politics of the period; and (2) analyzing the people and their experiences with social change. (CMK)

  18. Black Hair Culture, Politics and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dash, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Since the period of black enslavement in the Americas, Diaspora people have used their bodies as a canvas on which to articulate their presence as subjects. This propensity to use the body as a key medium of creative and political expression emerged from an amalgam of African retentions and new, grounded syncretisms in the West. It was further…

  19. Cultural Politics and Education. The John Dewey Lecture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Michael W.

    As the conservative restoration movement gains power in the educational arena, public schooling itself has come under attack. This book analyzes current educational debates and critiques the rightist proposals for change. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction to cultural politics and education, and addresses hegemonic cultures. Chapter 2 examines…

  20. Culture, Prevention, and the Politics of Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Elizabeth M.

    2007-01-01

    The following article is a response to Adams's (2007 [this issue]) and Griffin and Miller's (2007 [this issue]) reactions to the Major Contribution articles presented on Culturally Relevant Prevention. Each reaction article identifies important implications for engaging in culturally relevant prevention efforts that are relevant to developing this…

  1. Work in Progress: Gender and Politics in Late Elizabethan Progress Entertainments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolkovich, Elizabeth Zeman

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the understudied dramatic genre of Elizabethan progress entertainments, the political ideologies it conveys, and especially the female alliances it enacts. Aristocrats staged these outdoor, episodic pageants on their country estates during Elizabeth I's summer "progress" visits, 1575-1602. While previous scholars…

  2. The Culture of Administration, the Process of Schooling and the Politics of Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Richard

    Theoretical analysis of educational administration as presented by advocates of corporate culture is inappropriately applied to the analysis of schooling. The corporate culture model has diverged from the "New Sociology of Education" approach, which interprets administrative processes as cultural politics (Bates 1983). That "corporate culture" is…

  3. The demand to progress: critical nostalgia in LGBTQ cultural memory.

    PubMed

    de Szegheo Lang, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that, while representations of tragic lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) histories are disseminated widely, positive aspects of the past must be largely pushed out of the cultural imaginary to support a vision of the present in which sexual rights and freedoms have been achieved. It proposes that this view relies on a linear progress narrative wherein the experiences of LGBTQ people are held as consistently improving over time. In considering the construction of cultural memory through popular media and art, it claims a nostalgic turn to the past as a useful political tool for dismantling the pacifying aspects of the present. PMID:25760997

  4. Governing Educational Desire: Culture, Politics, and Schooling in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipnis, Andrew B.

    2011-01-01

    Parents in China greatly value higher education for their children, but the intensity and effects of their desire to achieve this goal have largely gone unexamined--until now. "Governing Educational Desire" explores the cultural, political, and economic origins of Chinese desire for a college education as well as its vast consequences, which…

  5. Stealing Innocence: Youth, Corporate Power, and the Politics of Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    This book looks at the way corporate cultures is encroaching on children's lives. It explores three myths prevalent in society: (1) that the triumph of democracy is equal to the triumph of the market; (2) that children are unaffected by power and politics; and (3) that teaching and learning are no longer linked to improving the world. The book…

  6. Cultural Descriptions as Political Cultural Acts: An Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Interculturality may be something normal which everyone possesses to a degree. However, dominant neo-essentialist theories of culture give the impression that we are too different to easily cross-cultural boundaries. These theories support the development of academic disciplines and the need for professional certainty in intercultural training.…

  7. Peak Politics: Resource Scarcity and Libertarian Political Culture in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider-Mayerson, Matthew

    My dissertation uses the "peak oil" movement as a lens to analyze the convergence of apocalyptic environmental thinking and libertarian political culture in the recent United States. The "peak oil" movement was a twenty-first century American social movement of Americans who came to believe that oil depletion and other environmental problems would lead to the imminent collapse of global industrial society. Dedicated adherents developed a rich subculture, primarily online, and prepared themselves for the "post-carbon" future by conserving energy, changing occupations, and even purchasing land. Drawing on surveys of over 1,500 participants, ethnographic research, discourse analysis of peak oil websites and literary analysis of subcultural fiction, my research reveals a group of mostly white, male, liberal Americans struggling with the perceived threat of economic, environmental and geopolitical decline while the country undergoes a broad shift in political culture: the continued rise of libertarian ideals, accelerated by the influence of Internet technology. I view this apocalyptic subculture in the context of petroleum dependence, eco-apocalyptic discourses, the environmental discourse of "limits to growth," white masculinity, climate change, and the influence of conservative individualism on American political culture.

  8. Music Education in Shanghai from 1895 to 1945: The Cultural Politics of Singing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the development of music education in China and the integration of cultural politics and nationalism, using Shanghai, twentieth-century China's most developed city, as a case study; it examines the historical and political processes in Shanghai's music education to show what is cultural about politics and what is political…

  9. Cultures of Death and Politics of Corpse Supply

    PubMed Central

    Buklijas, Tatjana

    2008-01-01

    Summary Nineteenth-century Vienna is well known to medical historians as a leading centre of medical research and education, offering easy access to patients and corpses to students from all over the world. This article seeks to explain how this enviable supply with cadavers was achieved, why it provoked so little opposition at a time when Britain and the United States saw widespread protests against dissection, and how it was threatened from mid-century. To understand permissive Viennese attitudes we need to place them in a longue durée history of death and dissection, and to pay close attention to the city’s political geography as it was transformed into a major imperial capital. The tolerant stance of the Roman Catholic Church, strong links to Southern Europe and the weak position of individuals in the absolutist state all contributed to an idiosyncratic anatomical culture. But as the fame of the Vienna medical school peaked in the later 1800s, the increased demand created by rising student numbers combined with intensified interdisciplinary competition to produce a shortfall that professors found increasingly difficult to meet. Around 1900, new religious groups and mass political parties challenged the long-standing anatomical practice by refusing to supply cadavers and making dissection into an instrument of political struggle. This study of the material preconditions for anatomy at one of Europe’s most influential medical schools provides a contrast to the dominant Anglo-American histories of death and dissection. PMID:18791297

  10. La culture politique du Mouvement Quebec Francais [The Political Culture of the "French Quebec Movement"].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turcotte, Denis

    This study of the "Mouvement Quebec Francais (MQF)" covers the period from March 1971 through Spring 1974. The fundamental postulate of the study is that if the political culture is internalized by individuals, it is at the same time borne by groups. The study of groups represents, therefore, a good vehicle to reveal the most significant…

  11. Political Culture or Professional Underdevelopment?: Identity and Leadership among Afro-American and African Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwankwo, Robert L.

    Defining political culture as a fundamental, culturally important value system that forms a context in which media content judgments and other professional behaviors can be described or evaluated in a meaningful way, this paper analyses two minority press systems as they relate to their political culture contexts. The two systems are the black…

  12. Christianity, Islam, and Political Culture: Lessons from Sub-Saharan Africa in Comparative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, Robert A.

    Many theorists have argued that western Christianity and Islam affect political culture in different ways, and that western Christianity is more conducive to the rise of a democratic culture than is Islam. This paper argues that the difference between Christianity and Islam in terms of the type of political culture they encourage, is largely…

  13. African American Women's Breastfeeding Experiences: Cultural, Personal, and Political Voices.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Becky; Wambach, Karen; Domain, Elaine Williams

    2015-07-01

    The low rate of breastfeeding among African American women in the United States is a poorly understood, persistent disparity. Our purpose in this study was to gain an understanding of how African American women experience breastfeeding in the context of their day-to-day lives. The Sequential-Consensual Qualitative Design (SCQD), a 3-stage qualitative methodology aimed at exploring the cultural, personal, and political context of phenomena, was used to explore the experiences of African American women who felt successful with breastfeeding. An integration of qualitative content analysis and Black feminist theory was used to analyze the data. Themes that emerged from Stage-2 data analysis included self-determination, spirituality and breastfeeding, and empowerment. In Stage 3 of the study, participant recommendations regarding breastfeeding promotion and support initiatives for African American breastfeeding were categorized into three themes, including engaging spheres of influence, sparking breastfeeding activism, and addressing images of the sexual breast vs. the nurturing breast. PMID:25288408

  14. Whose Citizenship Education? Hong Kong from a Spatial and Cultural Politics Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Thomas Kwan-choi

    2007-01-01

    Citizenship (education) is "de facto" a political and spatial concept and should be considered in local, national, and global contexts. Adopting a spatial and cultural politics perspective and with the dynamic formation of Hong Kong's citizenship education as a case study, this article tries to illustrate the politics at three different levels. It…

  15. Towards a "Critical Cultural Political Economy" Account of the Globalising of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Susan L.; Dale, Roger

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines the basis of an alternative theoretical approach to the study of the globalisation of "education"--a Critical, Cultural Political Economy of Education (CCPEE) approach. Our purpose here is to bring this body of concepts--critical, cultural, political, economy--into our interrogation of globalising projects and…

  16. Political Change in a School District Leading to Cultural Change in a High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Donald B.; Johnson-Howard, Debra

    To construct the outlines of a theoretical model relating contextual political change in a school district to cultural organizational change in a school within the district, a political change in a specific school district and the resultant cultural change in one of the district's high schools were analyzed. The school district, chosen to ensure a…

  17. Democratic Politics and the Culture of American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merelman, Richard M.

    1980-01-01

    Addresses arguments about the "hidden curriculum" of the schools and outlines the conflict between democratic politics and "the basic shape of schooling." Available from The American Political Science Association, 1527 New Hampshire Ave., N.W., Washington, DC 20036. (IRT)

  18. Anger and Political Culture: A Time for Outrage!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the role of political anger in democracy. It reviews the work of Stephane Hessel before examining the role and reception of anger in classical and modern thought. The author identifies two main traditions within which the concept of political anger can be located: revolutionary violence of the Marxist tradition and the…

  19. Academic Science, Cultural Intransigence, and Devious Educo-Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikenhead, Glen S.

    2010-01-01

    In the context of educational soundness, a case is made for distinguishing between two overlapping concepts: academic science and relevant science. In the context of political reality, a case is made for a science educator to hone strategies that co-opt, circumvent, or marginalize political adversaries before they do the same to you.

  20. Political and Cultural Determinants of Educational Policymaking: The Case of Native Hawaiians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benham, Maenette K. P.; Heck, Ronald H.

    A political-cultural model explores the educational process and its impact on Native Hawaiians over a 140-year period. The theoretical model suggests that core political values are transmitted to educational policy and school-related activities, and thereby impact the social, economic, and academic status of Native Hawaiians. Three historical case…

  1. The Relationship between Islam and Democracy in Turkey: Employing Political Culture as an Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toros, Emre

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade the agenda of local and global politics is heavily marked by the encounter of two powerful currents, namely democracy and political Islam. On the one hand Islam as a religion itself is facing a cultural dialectic between a modern and an authentic form, producing a synthesis which is only to be criticized again by a new…

  2. The Politics of Language: Conflict, Identity, and Cultural Pluralism in Comparative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Carol L.

    This book examines the ways in which people belonging to different language and cultural communities live together in the same political community, and how political and structural tensions arise to divide them along language lines. It analyzes the historical background and recent controversy over language in the United States, then compares the…

  3. e-Democracy: The Political Culture of Tomorrow's Citizens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilis, Triantafillou; Dimitris, Kalogeras

    The aim of this study is to investigate how Internet influences the political-social behavior of the members of the School Community. In order to do so we questioned students (tomorrow's citizens) and teachers of secondary schools and analyzed their understanding about e-democracy issues. The research is held by the department of Telecommunication Systems & Networks, Nafpaktos Branch of the Technological Educational Institute of Messolonghi with the participation of students and teachers from the Region of Western Greece. It was observed that Internet offers new possibilities for people's participation in the political process. The results show that students feel more confident against technology and Democracy in contrast to their teachers.

  4. Changing Classroom Cultures: Anti-Racism, Politics and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Debbie

    Schools are developing effective forms of antiracist education and finding ways to empower minorities. This book examines possible strategies for antiracism education in England, particularly in predominantly white primary schools, and the macro- and micro-political factors influencing their development. Case studies of schools and teaching…

  5. Cultural Flashpoint: The Politics of Teacher Education Reform in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Paul F.

    2013-01-01

    The publication of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009 (Cosgrove et al., 2010; Perkins et al., 2010) reading literacy results heralded a crisis of confidence in educational standards in Ireland. This article examines the national and international context of teacher education reform and the politics of the policy…

  6. Politics, Culture, and School Curriculum: The Struggles in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the Hong Kong (HK) school curriculum, especially the general curriculum for civic education and other social subjects, in relation to the political events of the 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration, the 1989 Tiananmen Square Incident, and the return of HK's sovereignty from the United Kingdom (UK) to the…

  7. Cultural Politics in Revolution: Teachers, Peasants, and Schools in Mexico, 1930-1940.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Mary Kay

    In the 1930s, Mexican rural schools became arenas for cultural politics--the process of articulating and disputing definitions of culture, from national identity to the broader sense of social behavior and meaning. Created in 1921, the Secretaria de Educacion Publica (SEP) set up federal rural schools to nationalize and modernize rural peasants.…

  8. Ludic Ontology: Play's Relationship to Language, Cultural Forms, and Transformative Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    S?????hields, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    The author defines play as something beyond culture and its quotidian practices, discussing play as an embodied, affective experience that cannot be fully conveyed using conventional language. She looks at notions of play in the political philosophy and cultural criticism of the late-modern thinkers of late-capitalist society and notes that,…

  9. The Cultural and Emotional Politics of Teacher-Parent Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasky, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Interviewed elementary and secondary teachers regarding the emotions of teaching and educational change, examining how the culture and organization of teaching influenced experiences and emotions teachers reported in interacting with parents. Results suggest that the culture and organization of teaching influence teachers' values, discourses, and…

  10. Study Progress on Tissue Culture of Maize Mature Embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongzhen; Cheng, Jun; Cheng, Yanping; Zhou, Xioafu

    It has been paid more and more attention on maize tissue culture as it is a basic work in maize genetic transformation, especially huge breakthrough has been made in maize tissue culture utilizing mature embryos as explants in the recent years. This paper reviewed the study progress on maize tissue culture and plant regeneration utilizing mature embryos as explants from callus induction, subculture, plant regeneration and browning reduction and so on.

  11. Smoke and mirrors - the politics and culture of air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    E. Melanie DuPuis

    2004-01-15

    From the coal factory chimneys in Manchester, England in the late nineteenth century to the smog hanging over Los Angeles, USA in the late twentieth century, air pollution has long been one of the greatest threats to our environment. In this important collection of original essays, the leading environmental scientists and social scientists examine the politics of air pollution policies and help us to understand the ways these policies have led to, idiosyncratic, effective, ineffective, and even disastrous choices about what we choose to put into and take out of the air. Offering historical, contemporary and cross-national perspectives, this volume provides a refreshing new approach to understanding how air pollution policies have evolved over time.

  12. A Translocal Perspective: Mustang Images in the Cultural, Economic and Political Landscape.

    PubMed

    Dalke, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Translocal spaces are created out of the process of globalization whereby interventions such as electronic media and migration radically change social relations and breakdown the isomorphism of space, place, and culture [1]. This approach is useful in examining the controversy surrounding the mustang. This paper explores how different social constructions influence the management of mustangs as they move between the local and national level. At each cultural level, political, economic, and environmental issues converge encouraging the emphasis of some cultural constructions over others. These socially constructed images give insight into what the mustang means to a post-industrial culture and it may simultaneously contribute to the animal's eventual demise. PMID:26486212

  13. Backlash Pedagogy: Language and Culture and the Politics of Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Kris D.; Asato, Jolynn; Santos, Maria; Gotanda, Neil

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the ways that backlash pedagogy, a centerpiece of educational reform, accepts substantial inequality as a neutral baseline for educational practice and reform and, simultaneously, enshrines the status quo. The analysis draws on several theoretical lenses (cultural-historical activity theory, critical race theory, and ethnographic…

  14. When politics froze fashion: the effect of the Cultural Revolution on naming in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Obukhova, Elena; Zuckerman, Ezra W; Zhang, Jiayin

    2014-09-01

    The authors examine the popularity of boys' given names in Beijing before and after the onset of the Cultural Revolution to clarify how exogenous and endogenous factors interact to shape fashion. Whereas recent work in the sociology of culture emphasizes the importance of endogenous processes in explaining fashion, their analysis demonstrates two ways in which politics shaped cultural expression during the Cultural Revolution: by promoting forms of expression reflecting prevailing political ideology and by limiting individuals' willingness to act differently. As argued by Lieberson and developed further in this article, the second condition is important because endogenous fashion cycles require a critical mass of individuals who seek to differentiate themselves from common practice. Exogenous factors can influence the operation of the endogenous factors. The authors discuss the implications of their study for understanding the nature of conformity under authoritarian regimes and social conditions supporting individual expression. PMID:25811071

  15. Mentoring of Women Faculty: The Role of Organizational Politics and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Sharon K.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on a key finding of a phenomenological study on the mentoring experiences of women faculty. The study revealed the political climate of the organization as an essential attribute of this experience. Women faculty identified organizational culture and gender issues that affected the mentoring they received. This study suggests…

  16. Speaking "Out of Place": YouTube Documentaries and Viewers' Comment Culture as Political Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Marcelina

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the comment culture that accompanies documentary films on YouTube as a site of (geo) political education. It considers how viewers try to teach each other about the proper "place" of critique in response to the global, national, and local rhetoric featured in one environmental documentary film. YouTube viewers use…

  17. Learning from Popular Culture: The "Politics" of Competitive Reality Television Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyer, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Reality television programming has become a pervasive part of popular culture. Although such programming may seem to be mindless entertainment, it can serve as a tool to introduce political lessons in the classroom. This article examines how the concepts of alliance behavior and strategic voting can be explored by using the television program…

  18. Explaining the Expansion of Feminist Ideas: Cultural Diffusion or Political Struggle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the expansion of feminist ideas as both a conceptual and a political issue. It focuses on two major theories of social change, world culture theory (WCT) and world system analysis (WSA), comparing and contrasting how they frame gender as a factor shaping society, how they account for the diffusion of feminist ideas and how…

  19. Political and Cultural Nationalism in Education. The Ideas of Rousseau and Herder Concerning National Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiborg, Susanne

    2000-01-01

    Jean Jacques Rousseau in France and Johann Gottfied Herder in Germany both emphasized the role of education in building the nation-state. However, Rousseau focused on shaping the national character through citizenship education and political socialization in public schools, while Herder saw a national identity evolving from a common culture and…

  20. Cultural Capital and the Political Orientations of the Younger Generation of the Russian and Polish Intelligentsia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarycki, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    This article completes the cycle of studies that present the results of a survey of the attitudes and values of college students in the higher educational institutions of Moscow and Warsaw in the context of the problems and subject matter of cultural capital. It presents an analysis of the sphere of active political involvement and the cultural…

  1. Cultural, Socio-Economic and Political Influences on Special Education in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiakor, Festus E.

    The paper describes the present state of education in Nigeria with emphasis on the cultural, socio-economic, and political influences affecting special education. After a brief summary of education in Nigeria since independence (1960), the paper looks at problems identified in special education and at Section 8, that portion of the National Policy…

  2. The Politics of Inquiry: Education Research and the "Culture of Science"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baez, Benjamin; Boyles, Deron

    2009-01-01

    In "The Politics of Inquiry", Benjamin Baez and Deron Boyles critique recent trends in education research to argue against the "culture of science." Using the National Research Council's 2002 report "Scientific Research in Education" as a point of departure, they contend that the entire discourse on education science reflects a number of distinct…

  3. The Cultural Politics of Constructivist Pedagogies: Teacher Education Reform in the United Republic of Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrus, Frances

    2009-01-01

    This article examines recent educational reforms in Tanzania by looking at the cultural politics of pedagogical change in secondary and teacher education. It presents an ethnography of a teachers college founded on the principles of social constructivism in a country where formalistic, teacher-centered pedagogy is the norm. Using data collected…

  4. Political Culture and the Exercise of Power: Combined Effects on Policymaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Kathleen Kelley

    How implicit assumptions govern the process of policymaking, and how those implicit assumptions are simultaneously consistent with both the political culture of the state and with behaviors that are effective in achieving desired policy outcomes are investigated in this paper. Interview data were gathered from policymakers and analyzed to discover…

  5. Political Culture, Schooling and Subaltern Groups in the Brazilian Empire (1822-1850)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Faria Filho, Luciano Mendes; Fonseca, Marcus Vinicius

    2010-01-01

    This paper articulates the concepts of political culture, schooling and slavery in order to comprehend the process of instituting modern schools in Brazil, during the period immediately after Independence in 1822. With a view to this, it takes as its starting point the strategies and proposals of different groups disputing the direction of the…

  6. State Political Culture, Higher Education Spending Indicators, and Undergraduate Graduation Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Ronald H.; Lam, Wendy S.; Thomas, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Issues concerning higher education today (e.g., rising costs, declining public trust, changing state economics) have created new demands for postsecondary institutions to demonstrate their productivity. We examine whether differences in states' political cultures (i.e., underlying traditions, values, and public policy choices) are reflected…

  7. Indians Weaving in Cyberspace Indigenous Urban Youth Cultures, Identities and Politics of Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez Quispe, Luz

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at analyzing how contemporary urban Aymara youth hip hoppers and bloggers are creating their identities and are producing discourses in texts and lyrics to contest racist and colonial discourses. The research is situated in Bolivia, which is currently engaged in a cultural and political revolution supported by Indigenous…

  8. Cultural and Political Vignettes in the English Classroom: Problem-Posing, Problem-Solving, and the Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darvin, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    One way to merge imagination with problem-posing and problem-solving in the English classroom is by asking students to respond to "cultural and political vignettes" (CPVs). CPVs are cultural and political situations that are presented to students so that they can practice the creative and essential decision-making skills that they will need to use…

  9. A Clash of Cultures: Improving the "Fit" between Evaluative Independence and the Political Requirements of a Democratic Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chelimsky, Eleanor

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a plenary address wherein the author talks about cultural clashes, about what happens when evaluation meets politics. In her address, the author talks about the kinds of clashes that occur on a regular basis between evaluative independence and the political culture it challenges, along with possible ways to predict, parry, or…

  10. Teacher collaboration and curriculum construction: Political, cultural, and structural contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esterle, Rochelle Eda Penn

    This longitudinal case study is the story of one high school's efforts to implement curriculum reform and the profound effect of local circumstances on reform ideologies. What began as a study of inter- and intradisciplinary collaborative science curriculum integration became the study of a systemic failure to modify cultural practices. Poritical, economic, and structural measures initiated to facilitate reform ultimately represent inherent conflicts of interest which undermine the reform effort. This research exposes obstacles that are deeply embedded within the school's governance, the beliefs and knowledge of teachers, and the culture of schools. The study site is both a new entity and a new concept: a specialized math/science high school located on a state university campus; the school recruits underrepresented students to become acclimated to university coursework and culture. To date, the school has maintained an exceptional record of college and university placements. The school is governed by a partnership representing the university, the corporate sector, and 11 surrounding K-12 school districts. Free from the regularities of a traditional high school, the school appears to be ideally situated for innovation. The principle innovations at this school relate to its organizational structure--heterogeneous student groupings, cooperative group work, curriculum integration, block scheduling, and concurrent university coursework. For teachers, grade level teams replace departments as the dominant unit for professional, curricular, and social interactions. Within teacher teams, collaboration centers around ongoing student problems and policies, subordinating academic content and significant interdisciplinary connections. Without active discipline-based departments and curricular leadership, however, this research finds an absence of academic direction and accountability.

  11. Shared Cultural History as a Predictor of Political and Economic Changes among Nation States.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Luke J; Passmore, Sam; Richard, Paul M; Gray, Russell D; Atkinson, Quentin D

    2016-01-01

    Political and economic risks arise from social phenomena that spread within and across countries. Regime changes, protest movements, and stock market and default shocks can have ramifications across the globe. Quantitative models have made great strides at predicting these events in recent decades but incorporate few explicitly measured cultural variables. However, in recent years cultural evolutionary theory has emerged as a major paradigm to understand the inheritance and diffusion of human cultural variation. Here, we combine these two strands of research by proposing that measures of socio-linguistic affiliation derived from language phylogenies track variation in cultural norms that influence how political and economic changes diffuse across the globe. First, we show that changes over time in a country's democratic or autocratic character correlate with simultaneous changes among their socio-linguistic affiliations more than with changes of spatially proximate countries. Second, we find that models of changes in sovereign default status favor including socio-linguistic affiliations in addition to spatial data. These findings suggest that better measurement of cultural networks could be profoundly useful to policy makers who wish to diversify commercial, social, and other forms of investment across political and economic risks on an international scale. PMID:27110713

  12. Shared Cultural History as a Predictor of Political and Economic Changes among Nation States

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Luke J.; Passmore, Sam; Richard, Paul M.; Gray, Russell D.; Atkinson, Quentin D.

    2016-01-01

    Political and economic risks arise from social phenomena that spread within and across countries. Regime changes, protest movements, and stock market and default shocks can have ramifications across the globe. Quantitative models have made great strides at predicting these events in recent decades but incorporate few explicitly measured cultural variables. However, in recent years cultural evolutionary theory has emerged as a major paradigm to understand the inheritance and diffusion of human cultural variation. Here, we combine these two strands of research by proposing that measures of socio-linguistic affiliation derived from language phylogenies track variation in cultural norms that influence how political and economic changes diffuse across the globe. First, we show that changes over time in a country’s democratic or autocratic character correlate with simultaneous changes among their socio-linguistic affiliations more than with changes of spatially proximate countries. Second, we find that models of changes in sovereign default status favor including socio-linguistic affiliations in addition to spatial data. These findings suggest that better measurement of cultural networks could be profoundly useful to policy makers who wish to diversify commercial, social, and other forms of investment across political and economic risks on an international scale. PMID:27110713

  13. Cultural Adaptations of Behavioral Health Interventions: A Progress Report

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To reduce health disparities, behavioral health interventions must reach subcultural groups and demonstrate effectiveness in improving their health behaviors and outcomes. One approach to developing such health interventions is to culturally adapt original evidence-based interventions. The goals of the paper are to (a) describe consensus on the stages involved in developing cultural adaptations, (b) identify common elements in cultural adaptations, (c) examine evidence on the effectiveness of culturally enhanced interventions for various health conditions, and (d) pose questions for future research. Method Influential literature from the past decade was examined to identify points of consensus. Results There is agreement that cultural adaptation can be organized into five stages: information gathering, preliminary design, preliminary testing, refinement, and final trial. With few exceptions, reviews of several health conditions (e.g., AIDS, asthma, diabetes) concluded that culturally enhanced interventions are more effective in improving health outcomes than usual care or other control conditions. Conclusion Progress has been made in establishing methods for conducting cultural adaptations and providing evidence of their effectiveness. Future research should include evaluations of cultural adaptations developed in stages, tests to determine the effectiveness of cultural adaptations relative to the original versions, and studies that advance our understanding of cultural constructs’ contributions to intervention engagement and efficacy. PMID:22289132

  14. Contesting the Politics of Culture, Rewriting the Boundaries of Inclusion: Working for Social Justice with Muslim and Arab Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu El-Haj, Thea R.

    2002-01-01

    Recommends that educational anthropologists publicly attack the ideological purposes to which the concept of culture has been deployed following the September 11 attacks, noting the importance of supporting schools, communities, and the media in addressing the power and politics of race and religion in contemporary social and political contexts.…

  15. A Translocal Perspective: Mustang Images in the Cultural, Economic and Political Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Dalke, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary This study, based on ten years of ethnographic and archival research, explores the complexity of the mustang in the United States. Images are explored to show how one unique animal is manipulated to advance political, social and economic agendas using a theoretical framework that combines elements of praxis and globalization theory. Abstract Translocal spaces are created out of the process of globalization whereby interventions such as electronic media and migration radically change social relations and breakdown the isomorphism of space, place, and culture [1]. This approach is useful in examining the controversy surrounding the mustang. This paper explores how different social constructions influence the management of mustangs as they move between the local and national level. At each cultural level, political, economic, and environmental issues converge encouraging the emphasis of some cultural constructions over others. These socially constructed images give insight into what the mustang means to a post-industrial culture and it may simultaneously contribute to the animal's eventual demise. PMID:26486212

  16. Patenting, morality and human embryonic stem cell science: bioethics and cultural politics in Europe.

    PubMed

    Salter, Brian

    2007-05-01

    As the recent experience of the European Patent Office graphically demonstrates, there is an inherent political tension between the individual ownership rights necessary for the operation of an international market in human embryonic stem cell science and the communal values of the many cultures in which such markets operate. This report examines the basis of the conflict between patenting and morality at national and international levels, the manifestation of those tensions in European patenting policy, and the contribution of bioethics to the attempt by European institutions to develop a governance response. PMID:17511566

  17. Femicide and colonization: between the politics of exclusion and the culture of control.

    PubMed

    Shalhoub-Kervorkian, Nadera; Daher-Nashif, Suhad

    2013-03-01

    This article explores the murder of women and girls, which we name it Femicide, among the Palestinian community living in Israel. Specifically, it analyzes how the dialectic interrelationship between informal and formal legal-social systems constructs the murders of Palestinian women. The data revealed that femicide is a crime empowered by the wider context of colonization and the increasing spatial segregation of Palestinian communities. The study confirms the need to move beyond simplistic "cultural" explanations of femicide, and pay closer attention to the ways in which the structure, politics and economy of death function in colonized spaces and contexts. PMID:23676446

  18. The Cultural Politics of Mixed-Income Schools and Housing: A Racialized Discourse of Displacement, Exclusion, and Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Pauline

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I examine the contested and racially coded cultural politics of creating mixed-income schools in mixed-income communities. Policymakers claim deconcentrating low-income people will reduce poverty and improve education. However, based on activist research in Chicago, I argue these policies are grounded in "culture of poverty"…

  19. Who's Afraid of Sex at School? The Politics of Researching Culture, Religion and Sexuality at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Louisa; Rasmussen, Mary Lou; Quinlivan, Kathleen; Aspin, Clive; Sanjakdar, Fida; Brömdal, Annette

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the methodological politics of researching at the intersections of sexuality, culture and religion in secondary schools. It draws on experiences during a project concerned with how to address cultural and religious diversity in sexuality education in Australia and New Zealand. The paper focuses on two methodological sticking…

  20. Cultures of death and politics of corpse supply: anatomy in Vienna, 1848-1914.

    PubMed

    Buklijas, Tatjana

    2008-01-01

    Nineteenth-century Vienna is well known to medical historians as a leading center of medical research and education, offering easy access to patients and corpses to students from all over the world. The author seeks to explain how this enviable supply of cadavers was achieved, why it provoked so little opposition at a time when Britain and the United States saw widespread protests against dissection, and how it was threatened from mid-century onward. To understand permissive Viennese attitudes, we need to place them in a longue durée history of death and dissection and to pay close attention to the city's political geography as it was transformed into a major imperial capital. The tolerant stance of the Roman Catholic Church, strong links to Southern Europe, and the weak position of individuals in the absolutist state all contributed to an idiosyncratic anatomical culture. But as the fame of the Vienna medical school peaked in the later 1800s, the increased demand created by rising numbers of students combined with intensified interdisciplinary competition to produce a shortfall that professors found increasingly difficult to meet. Around 1900, new religious groups and mass political parties challenged long-standing anatomical practice by refusing to supply cadavers and making dissection into an instrument of political struggle. This study of the material preconditions for anatomy at one of Europe's most influential medical schools provides a contrast to the dominant Anglo-American histories of death and dissection. PMID:18791297

  1. Access to Elementary Education in India: Politics, Policies and Progress. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 44

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Angela W.

    2010-01-01

    This monograph examines progress in, and policies for, access to elementary education over the past 60 years, the role played by political factors in the process of policy formulation and implementation and the drivers and inhibitors of the implementation of reforms in elementary education in recent years in India. Drawing on interviews and…

  2. Cultural politics: Linguistic identity and its role as gatekeeper in the science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton-Brown, Bryan Anthony

    This dissertation investigated how participation in the cultural practices of science classrooms creates intrapersonal conflict for ethnic minority students. Grounded in research perspectives of cultural anthropology, sociocultural studies of science education, and critical pedagogy, this study examined the cultural tensions encountered by minority students as they assimilate into the culture of the science classroom. Classroom interaction was viewed from the perspective of instructional congruence---the active incorporation of students' culture into science pedagogy. Ogbu's notion of "oppositional identity", Fordham's "fictive kinship", Bahktin's "antidialogics", and Freire's "critical consciousness" were brought together to examine how members of marginalized cultures develop non-normative behaviors as a means of cultural resistance. Choice of genre for public discourse was seen as a political act, representing students' own cultural affiliations. Conducted in a diverse Southern Californian high school with an annual population of over 3,900 students, this study merged ethnographic research, action research, and sociolinguistic discourse analysis. Post hoc analysis of videotaped classroom activities, focus group interviews, and samples of student work revealed students' discursive behavior to shift as a product of the context of their discursive exchanges. In whole class discussions students explained their understanding of complex phenomena to classmates, while in small group discussions they favored brief exchanges of group data. Four domains of discursive identities were identified: Opposition Status, Maintenance Status, Incorporation Status, and Proficiency Status. Students demonstrating Opposition Status avoided use of science discourse. Those students who demonstrated Maintenance Status were committed to maintaining their own discursive behavior. Incorporation Status students were characterized by an active attempt to incorporate science discourse into

  3. Beyond the "Cultural Turn": The Politics of Recognition versus the Politics of Redistribution in the Field of Intercultural Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zotzmann, Karin; Hernández-Zamora, Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s the field of language teaching and learning has emphasised the interplay between language, culture and identity and promotes both communicative and intercultural competencies. This mirrors a general trend in the social sciences after the so-called "cultural turn" which brought about a concentration on culture, identity…

  4. Outlining social physics for modern societies—locating culture, economics, and politics: The Enlightenment reconsidered

    PubMed Central

    Iberall, A. S.

    1985-01-01

    A groundwork is laid for a formulation of the modern human social system as a field continuum. As in a simple material physical field, the independent implied relationships of materials or processes in flux have to be based on local conservations of mass, energy, and momentum. In complex fields, the transport fluctuations of momentum are transformed into action modes (e.g., [unk] pdq = ΣHi = H, a characteristic quantum of action over a characteristic cycle time). In complex living systems, a fourth local conservation of population number, the demographic variable, has to be added as a renormalized variable. Modern man, settled in place via agriculture, urbanized, and engaged largely in trade and war, invents a fifth local conservation—value-in-trade, the economic variable. The potentials that drive these five fluxes are also enumerated. Among the more evident external and internal physical-chemical potentials, the driving potentials include a sheaf of internal potential-like components that represent the command-control system emergent as politics. In toto, culture represents the social solvent with the main processes of economics and politics being driven by a social pressure. PMID:16593594

  5. Democratization of Education as Prerequisite for Social Economic and Cultural Progress in a Multi-Cultural Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madumere, S. C.; Olisaemeka, B. U.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on democratization of education as a prerequisite for social, economic and cultural progress in a multi-cultural society, such as Nigeria. Attempt was made to define and explain the major concepts in the paper. Education was explained as an instrument of democracy and as function of socialization, culture and economic…

  6. Cell Cycle Progression of Human Cells Cultured in Rotating Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, Kelsey

    2009-01-01

    Space flight has been shown to alter the astronauts immune systems. Because immune performance is complex and reflects the influence of multiple organ systems within the host, scientists sought to understand the potential impact of microgravity alone on the cellular mechanisms critical to immunity. Lymphocytes and their differentiated immature form, lymphoblasts, play an important and integral role in the body's defense system. T cells, one of the three major types of lymphocytes, play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They can be distinguished from other lymphocyte types, such as B cells and natural killer cells by the presence of a special receptor on their cell surface called T cell receptors. Reported studies have shown that spaceflight can affect the expression of cell surface markers. Cell surface markers play an important role in the ability of cells to interact and to pass signals between different cells of the same phenotype and cells of different phenotypes. Recent evidence suggests that cell-cycle regulators are essential for T-cell function. To trigger an effective immune response, lymphocytes must proliferate. The objective of this project is to investigate the changes in growth of human cells cultured in rotating bioreactors and to measure the growth rate and the cell cycle distribution for different human cell types. Human lymphocytes and lymphoblasts will be cultured in a bioreactor to simulate aspects of microgravity. The bioreactor is a cylindrical culture vessel that incorporates the aspects of clinostatic rotation of a solid fluid body around a horizontal axis at a constant speed, and compensates gravity by rotation and places cells within the fluid body into a sustained free-fall. Cell cycle progression and cell proliferation of the lymphocytes will be measured for a number of days. In addition, RNA from the cells will be isolated for expression of genes related in cell cycle regulations.

  7. Political, Economic, Socio-Cultural, and Educational Challenges of Administering a Sino-US Joint Venture Campus in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturgut, Osman

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the political, economic, socio-cultural, and educational challenges of administering a Sino-U.S. joint-venture campus in the People's Republic of China. China American University (CAU) is an educational joint venture between China Investment Company (CIC) and American University (AU) in the U.S. that resulted in…

  8. Situated Performances in a Graduate Teacher Education Course: An Inquiry into the Impact of Cultural and Political Vignettes (CPVs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darvin, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    This inquiry investigates teachers' perceptions regarding the impact of Cultural and Political Vignettes (CPVs) and situated performance activities in their graduate teacher education course, Literacy Instruction for Diverse Learners, at a large urban university in New York City. The study involved a pedagogical strategy that the author created…

  9. Images of American Indians in Environmental Education: Anthropological Reflections on the Politics and History of Cultural Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willow, Anna J.

    2010-01-01

    For hundreds of years, North America's colonizers worked systematically to eradicate the indigenous cultural practices, religious beliefs, and autonomous political systems many venerate. This article illustrates that imperialist nostalgia underlies and directs portrayals of American Indians in environmental education today. Whether unconsciously…

  10. The Effects of Political Culture of Fear on Student Perceptions of Leadership in Student-Faculty Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed, Amin Marei Mosa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of a political culture of fear and power distance on student perceptions regarding the leader-member exchange theory (LMX) relationship with faculty, and their perceptions of nature of leadership in Libyan business schools. 650 Faculty members and students from business school in seven Libyan…

  11. Culture and Educational Policy in Hawai'i: The Silencing of Native Voices. Sociocultural, Political, and Historical Studies in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benham, Maenette K. P. Ah Nee; Heck, Ronald H.

    This book provides a critical assessment of Native Hawaiian education. It focuses on the historical, political, and cultural contexts producing institutionalized structures that kept Hawaiians marginalized in the schools and wider society. It also looks at current attempts of Native Hawaiians to reclaim a part of their lands and self-determination…

  12. Parenting Style as a Moderator of Effects of Political Violence: Cross-Cultural Comparison of Israeli Jewish and Arab Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slone, Michelle; Shechner, Tomer; Farah, Oula Khoury

    2012-01-01

    This study examined cross-cultural differences in the moderating function of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting styles for Jewish and Arab Israeli children exposed to political violence. Respondents were parents and children aged 10-11 from 94 families (42 Arab, 52 Jewish). Parents completed the Parenting Styles and Dimensions…

  13. Cultural Persistence, Political Resistance, and Hope in the Community and School-Based Art of a Puerto Rican Diaspora Neighborhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker-Raymond, Eli; Rosario-Ramos, Enid M.; Rosario, Maria L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe themes of cultural persistence, political resistance, and hope in the art of one Puerto Rican neighborhood in the Midwestern United States. The themes are described across three contexts: community mural art, poetry from students in an alternative high school, and poetry from seventh grade students in a neighborhood middle…

  14. Canadian and US Adult Learning (1945-1970) and the Cultural Politics and Place of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Andre P.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the problematic relationship between public education and adult education in the United States and Canada since World War II, the shift in understanding of adult education as social education, and the rise of cultural politics in lifelong learning in postindustrial society. (SK)

  15. "I Don't Feel Comfortable Reading Those Books in My Classroom": A Qualitative Study of the Impact of Cultural and Political Vignettes in a Teacher Education Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darvin, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    This article chronicles a qualitative study of the impact of a pedagogical practice called cultural and political vignettes (CPVs) on graduate students enrolled in a teacher education course. CPVs are cultural and political "situations" that are presented to teachers so that they can practice the decision-making skills that they will use in the…

  16. Socio-economic-political-cultural aspects in malaria control programme implementation in southern India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S K; Patil, Rajan R; Tiwari, S N

    2012-01-01

    Objective. A Socio-economic-political-cultural (SEPC) study was undertaken under the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) initiative to understand the process of programme implementation and how far in the changing malaria context, the broader environment has been understood and programme components have undergone changes. Material and Methods. Two studies were carried out; first in four villages under the primary health unit (PHU) Banavaralu in Tiptur Taluka in September 2002 and the second one in April 2003 in four villages in Chitradurga district, namely, Kappagere, Kellodu in Hosadurga Taluka, and Vani Vilas Puram and Kathrikenhally in Hiriyur Taluka. Focus group discussion and key interviews were adopted to collect the qualitative data. Results. Gender discrimination and lack of empowerment of women came out strongly in social analysis. In the rural elected bodies called Panchayats, the concept of health committees was not known. Health committees as one of the important statutory committees under every Panchayat were nonexistent in reality in these villages. Financial difficulties at Grama Panchayat level and also meager budget allocation for health have led to indifferent attitude of Panchayat members towards health. It was observed that there were generally no specific cultural practices in relation to malaria cure. Cultural and traditional practices in malaria-related issues were not predominant in the community except for some sporadic instances. Conclusion and Recommendation. SEPC study is an important indicator in malaria control programme. It is ultimately the community that takes the major decision directly or indirectly and the health authority must guide them in right direction. PMID:22701778

  17. Going down to the local: incorporating social organisation and political culture into assessments of decentralised health care.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, S; Medeiros, R L; Oliveira, P H; de Almeida, R D

    2000-08-01

    The social organisation and political culture of the society in which an organisation is embedded can have major effects on the way in which organisational policy is implemented and on how that organisation functions. Research on health sector reforms has paid scant attention to this aspect. If the claims made for decentralised management in the health sector are to be evaluated seriously, it is critical to develop concepts and methods to evaluate not only the formal organisation and the outputs of the health system, but also the aspects of local social organisation and political culture within which that local health system is embedded that may mediate their relationship. The paper explores three cases of district health systems in Northeast Brazil in order to identify aspects of local social organisation and political culture that appear to influence the implementation of the reforms and thereby potentially impact upon the quality of the care provided. The results of the study indicate the importance that aspects of local social organisation and political culture may exert on the operations of a decentralised health system. Key aspects identified are: the space for autonomy; the space for local voice in political life; personalized and institutionalised influences on autonomy and local voice; differences of involvement of health staff with the district; different spaces of acceptable practice and accountability. These factors are seen to moderate the intent of the health reforms at all stages in their implementation. Three possibilities are discussed for the nature of the interaction in terms of cause and effect between the formal organisation of the health system and its local context. Seeing this relationship as one of a dialogue offers some cautious optimism for the potential of the reform agenda. The paper closes with suggestions on how to take this line of research forward. PMID:10868675

  18. [Progress in microbial co-culture--A review].

    PubMed

    Xu, Deyang; Wang, Lili; Du, Chunmei

    2015-09-01

    We reviewed the history and applications of microorganism co-cultivation in food, agriculture, industry and sewage purification, and summarized ecology relationships between co-culture microorganisms. Joint mixed culture, sequence mixed culture and immobilized cells mixed culture have been used widely and lots of achievements have been made, for example, obtaining metabolites that are difficult to achieve or too low production in pure culture, transforming traditional fermentation industry, producing energy substance, improving substrate utilization ratio, expanding the scope of substrates and degrading toxic substances. Research reports indicate there are many ecology relationships between microorganisms, such as collaborative metabolism, induction effect, quorum sensing and gene transfer. The ecological interplay mechanism of co-culture microorganisms should have a further research, which will lay the foundation for developing applications of microorganism co-culture. PMID:26762021

  19. Culturally Relevant Political Education: Using Immigration as a Catalyst for Civic Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journell, Wayne; Castro, Erin L.

    2011-01-01

    Latino students, in particular, often feel alienated from politics, especially at the federal level, and this political disengagement often correlates with the immigrant status of students or their families. However, recent research suggests that the amount and quality of social studies coursework taken by immigrant students can reverse these…

  20. "Fear of a Black Planet": Rap Music and Black Cultural Politics in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Tricia

    1991-01-01

    Explores the exercise of institutional and ideological power over rap music and fans, how artists and fans respond to that context, and the complex relationships between rap's political economy and the sociologically based crime discourse that frames it. Rap's poetic voice is a political expression of the Black experience. (JB)

  1. The Border Crossed Us: Education, Hospitality Politics, and the Social Construction of the "Illegal Immigrant"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, Dennis Carlson explores some of the implications of Derrida's "hospitality politics" in helping articulate a progressive response to a rightist cultural politics in the United States of policing national, linguistic, and other borders. He applies the concept of hospitality politics to a critical analysis of the social construction…

  2. Alianza Bilingue Cultural Progress Inventory. Revised September 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Lilia; And Others

    The continuum was developed to provide: (1) a uniform measure of student progress and (2) a progress inventory of the ABC Unified School District's Bilingual Multicultural Program. Six components of the Bilingual Multicultural Curriculum are considered in this management system: Spanish Oral Language Development Objectives, Spanish Reading…

  3. The Politics of Undergraduate Curricula in a Downsizing Culture: A Primer for Department Chairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickson, Mark, III

    1996-01-01

    Discusses some problems associated with curricular matters in communication departments. Offers suggestions for dealing with the problems. Discusses departmental philosophical decisions (theory versus skills, developing curriculum, internal politics and curriculum, and curriculum overexpansion); understanding upper-level administration…

  4. Embryo culture in teratological surveillance and serum proteins in development. Progress report, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, N.W.

    1980-07-01

    Research progress for the period 1979-1980 is reported. The feasibility of using rat embryo cultures to test the teratogenic activity of serum was studied. The mechanisms regulating the synthesis of serum proteins were investigated. (ACR)

  5. Genetic fallout in biocultural landscapes: molecular imperialism and the cultural politics of (not) seeing transgenes in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Christophe Bonneuil; Foyer, Jean; Wynne, Brian

    2014-12-01

    This article explores the trajectory of the global controversy over the introgression (or not) of transgenes from genetically modified maize into Mexican indigenous maize landraces. While a plurality of knowledge-making processes were deployed to render transgenes visible or invisible, we analyze how a particular in vitro based DNA-centered knowledge came to marginalize other forms of knowledge, thus obscuring other bio-cultural dimensions key to the understanding of gene flow and maize diversity. We show that dominant molecular norms of proof and standards of detection, which co-developed with the world of industrial monocropping and gene patenting, discarded and externalized non-compliant actors (i.e. complex maize genomes, human dimensions of gene flow). Operating in the name of high science, they hence obscured the complex biological and cultural processes that maintain crop diversity and enacted a cultural-political domination over the world of Mexican landraces and indigenous communities. PMID:25608443

  6. The Role of Confucian Cultural Values and Politics in Planning Educational Programs for Adults in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Kiung; Cervero, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    Program planning activities are not culturally neutral but are replete with various cultural values and affected by them. This qualitative study was conducted in Korea and examines how cultural values influence educational planning in Korea. Specifically, the study was to examine how Confucian cultural values play out in educational planning in…

  7. Progress in the development of shrimp cell cultures in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kasornchandra, J; Khongpradit, R; Ekpanithanpong, U; Boonyaratpalin, S

    1999-01-01

    Primary shrimp cell cultures were developed from lymphoid organ and ovaries of black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, in double-strength Leibovitz's L-15 medium supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum, 1% glucose, 5 g/L NaCl, 15% shrimp meat extract. The optimum conditions for primary culture in vitro were obtained in L-15 medium with an osmolality of approximately 730 +/- 10 mmol/kg, a temperature range of 25--28 degrees C and incubation in a normal atmosphere. However, basal medium supplemented with 0.01% cholesterol could enhance good growth and cells performance initiated from lymphoid organ. Both epithelial-like and fibroblastic- like cells were observed from those organs within 2 days incubation. Within 3 days, 80% confluent monolayers were obtained from the lymphoid organ while cultures from other tissues required 5 days. Cultures were maintained for at least 43 days. Only cells from lymphoid organ could be subcultured and confluent monolayers achieved within 10 days post-spilt. Healthy cultures of the lymphoid cells did not persist beyond the third passage. Application of these primary shrimp cell cultures for studying pathogenic viruses of shrimp in vitro will be discussed. PMID:10627677

  8. "Human Potential" and Progressive Pedagogy: A Long Cultural History of the Ambiguity of "Race" and "Intelligence"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oland, Trine

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the cultural constructs of progressive pedagogy in Danish school pedagogy and its emerging focus on the child's human potential from the 1920s to the 1950s. It draws on Foucault's notion of "dispositifs" and the "elements of history," encircling a complex transformation of continuity and discontinuity of progressive pedagogy.…

  9. Globalisation and the Cultural Politics of Educational Change: The Controversy over Teaching of English in West Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scrase, Timothy J.

    2002-09-01

    (Globalisation and the Cultural Politics of Educational Change: The Controversy over the Teaching of English in West Bengal) - This article deals with the articulation of educational policy, cultural politics, and social class in the era of globalization. It analyses the policy of the Government of West Bengal to remove the teaching of English from the primary school syllabus in the state in the early 1980s and its subsequent reintroduction from the beginning of the school year in 2000. The author argues that English is a crucial component of the middle classes' cultural capital and is essential to their future employment success, especially in a globalising work environment. This is supported by interviews conducted during 1998/1999 with middle-class Bengalis. For governments of postcolonial, developing societies, this dispute highlights an essential dichotomy between, on the one hand, the ideal of broad-based educational policies and, on the other hand, the need to prepare children for employment at home and abroad in the context of globalisation.

  10. Politics, Religion and Social Connections: Pillars for Progression among Primary Teachers in Jamaica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Perceptions about teacher progression among Jamaica's primary schoolteachers should force society to stop and ask itself several questions. Are these perceptions accurate? If not, how did these perceptions emerge and what can national leaders and those in positions of authority do to "manage" if not resolve these perceptions? If there is…

  11. Endgame for polio eradication? Options for overcoming social and political factors in the progress to eradicating polio.

    PubMed

    Ganapathiraju, Pavan V; Morssink, Christiaan B; Plumb, James

    2015-01-01

    In 1988, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was launched with the goal of eradicating polio by the year 2000. After 25 years, several dynamics still challenge this large public health campaign with new cases of polio being reported annually. We examine the roots of this initiative to eradicate polio, its scope, the successes and setbacks during the last 25 years and reflect on the current state of affairs. We examine the social and political factors that are barriers to polio eradication. Options are discussed for solving the current impasse of polio eradication: using force, respecting individual freedoms and gaining support from those vulnerable to fundamentalist 'propaganda'. The travails of the GPEI indicate the need for expanding the Convention on the Rights of the Child to address situations of war and civic strife. Such a cultural and structural reference will provide the basis for global stakeholders to engage belligerent local actors whose local political conflicts are barriers to the eradication of polio. Disregard for these actors will result in stagnation of polio eradication policy, delaying eradication beyond 2018. PMID:25643129

  12. Governing Extraterritorial Pollutants: Cultural, Environmental and Political Implications of Atmoshere-Surface Exchangeable Pollutants in the Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation is part of a series of talks focused on ASEPs. This presentation will focus on the cultural, environmental and political implications of ASEPs in the Great Lakes. In particular, I examine how Indigenous communities in Keweenaw Bay are adversely impacted by extraterritorial pollutants such as ASEPs, both because their territory is fixed geopolitically, and because their ways of life is reliant on the consumption of fish, which, in recent years have become polluted with ASEPs - particularly PCBs and Mercury. This presentation explores the new innovations in governance that are attempting to ameliorate these issues.

  13. Cultural Adaptations of Behavioral Health Interventions: A Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera, Manuel, Jr.; Castro, Felipe G.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Toobert, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To reduce health disparities, behavioral health interventions must reach subcultural groups and demonstrate effectiveness in improving their health behaviors and outcomes. One approach to developing such health interventions is to culturally adapt original evidence-based interventions. The goals of the article are to (a) describe…

  14. Nurse Education in Higher Education: Understanding Cultural Barriers to Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miers, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Review of nursing education research revealed cultural factors that contribute to nursing's lack of equal status in higher education: antiintellectualism in nursing and academic denigration of practice. These factors are linked to the history of women's education, separation between intellectual and practical, and the low status of caring in the…

  15. "Made in Germany": The Politics of Teaching German Popular Culture in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahnke, Corinna; Stehle, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In North American universities, pop culture increasingly appears in the German Studies classroom to "spice up" the curriculum. But what is conveyed and taught and how is it inserted into the curriculum and into the US cultural context? This article explores three examples of popular culture in the German Studies classroom: representations of the…

  16. Complicating the "Soccer Mom:" The Cultural Politics of Forming Class-Based Identity, Distinction, and Necessity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Using Pierre Bourdieu's theories of social class differentiation and class reproduction, this paper provides an analysis of class-based identity politics in contemporary suburban America. Through a critical ethnography of the emergent, American, upper-middle-class "soccer mom" phenomenon, this study contributes to a growing body of research that…

  17. Aboriginal Education with Anti-Racist Education: Building Alliances across Cultural and Racial Identity Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Denis, Verna

    2007-01-01

    A critical race analysis could provide both Aboriginal students and their university student advisors with knowledge to understand and potentially challenge the effects and processes of racialization that have historically, legally, and politically divided Aboriginal communities and families. Coalition and alliances can be made within and across…

  18. Educational Policymaking in the Tanzanian Postcolony: Authenticity, Accountability, and the Politics of Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    In this article I explore the political event of the Tanzanian government's interdiction of a prominent educational civil society organization in order to theorize the emerging policy heterarchy in Tanzania. In the context of the ensuing public debate about the interdiction, I ask two questions: (1) what tensions are emerging from the…

  19. The Teaching of Business French in Its Interaction with Legal, Economic, Political and Cultural Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branan, Elisabeth Girod

    One approach to teaching business French is to familiarize students with true business situations and to help students realize that business interacts with a body of laws and within a political and socioeconomic environment. On the first day of class, students are divided into groups of two or three, and each group becomes an enterprise with a…

  20. New Girlhood and Lost Boys: Analysing the Cultural Politics of Gender and Education through Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nairn, Karen; Wyn, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    The "coming of age" films "Bend it like Beckham," "Whale Rider" and "Harry Potter" feature distinctive narratives about girlhood and boyhood that provide a perspective on the changing historical and political context of gendered identity construction in the new millennium. The early 2000s represented a…

  1. Comment on Richard Merelman's "Democratic Politics and the Culture of American Education."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, M. Kent

    1980-01-01

    If for no other reason than the strong association between education and democratic values, we must give the education system some credit for the commitment of educated people to those values. Available from The American Political Science Association, 1527 New Hampshire Ave., N.W., Washington, DC 20036. (Author/IRT)

  2. (Re)Searching Culture in Foreign Language Textbooks, or the Politics of Hide and Seek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canale, Germán

    2016-01-01

    Textbooks are curriculum artefacts that embody particular ideologies and legitimise specific types of knowledge [Apple, M. W. (1982). "Education and power." Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul; Apple, M. W., & Christian-Smith, L. K. (1991). "The politics of the textbook." In M. W. Apple & L. K. Christian-Smith (Eds.),…

  3. An Epistemic Frame Analysis of Neoliberal Culture and Politics in the US, UK, and the UAE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.; Samier, Eugenie A.; Brindley, Sue; English, Fenwick W.; Carr, Nora K.

    2013-01-01

    Neoliberalism is a loosely knit bricolage from economics, politics, and various forms of reactionary populism that can be envisioned as a kind of epistemic frame in which largely counterrevolutionary forces engage in the "creative destruction" of institutional frameworks and powers, forging divisions across society that include labor and social…

  4. The Folk Performance of Chicano and the Cultural Limits of Political Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limon, Jose E.

    This paper focuses on problematic nature of the term "chicano" within the United States-Mexican community, and expecially in Texas. A revisionist thesis is discussed in two parts: (1) the conversion of this folk name into a public, ideologically expressive symbol in the 1960's did not achieve its intended purpose of political unification; and (2)…

  5. Women in Politics: Some Historical and Cultural Aspects of Voting Patterns and Possible Influences on Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peggy A.; Smith, Alan D.

    The early and formative years of women's involvement in the political structure of the United States was filled with high hopes, especially issues related to women and children. Educational reform was one of the major goals that women hoped to achieve. As demonstrated by an in-depth look at the 1920 National Convention of the Republican Party,…

  6. The political collapse of Chichén Itzá in climatic and cultural context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoggarth, Julie A.; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Culleton, Brendan J.; Ebert, Claire E.; Masson, Marilyn A.; Kennett, Douglas J.

    2016-03-01

    Chichén Itzá dominated the political landscape of the northern Yucatán during the Terminal Classic Period (AD 800-1000). Chronological details of the rise and fall of this important polity are obscure because of the limited corpus of dated hieroglyphic records and by a restricted set of radiocarbon dates for the site. Here we compile and review these data and evaluate them within the context of political and climatic change in northern Yucatán at the end of the Classic period. The available data point to the end of elite activity at Chichén Itzá around AD 1000, a century after the collapse of Puuc Maya cities and other interior centers. Evidence supports a population shift in the eleventh century towards some coastal locations during a time associated with the end of monumental construction and art at Chichén Itzá. Our results suggest that regional political disintegration came in two waves. The first was the asynchronous collapse of multiple polities between AD 850 and 925 associated with a regional drying trend and punctuated by a series of multi-decadal droughts in the ninth and tenth centuries. The second wave was the political collapse at Chichén Itzá that coincides with the longest and most severe drought recorded in regional climate records between AD 1000 and 1100. This is a time that some scholars have characterized as a "dark age" across the northern Maya lowlands. Political developments during the Postclassic period (AD 1000-1517) correspond with a return to higher rainfall. These patterns support a strong relationship between political disintegration and climatic stress in the Maya lowlands. This research employs Bayesian radiocarbon models in conjunction with calendar dates on carved monuments and climate proxies to evaluate the rise and fall of Maya political centers and serves as an example of the impact of climate change on rainfall-dependent societies in Mesoamerica.

  7. Politics of science: Progress toward prevention of the dementia-Alzheimer's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Khachaturian, Zaven S; Khachaturian, Ara S

    2015-01-01

    There exist many challenges hampering the discovery and development of effective interventions to prevent dementia. Three major trends have now intersected to influence the emerging interest in disease modifying therapies that may delay or halt dementia. The three crucial factors shaping this current focus are: (1) the emergence of the longevity revolution and the impact of a aging society, (2) the effects of the US Federal investment in research in advancing knowledge about the neurobiology of aging and dementia, and (3) the problem of US legislators and health policy makers to balance the allocation of evermore scarce research funding resources. The purpose of this essay is to provide a survey of the politics of science and to describe efforts to correctly manage the high level of expectations of both the patient and research communities. The perspective offered reviews the history and evolution of the ideas to treat or prevent dementia and Alzheimer's disease as a national strategic goal. The aim is to evaluate the interplay between science and formulation of public policy for setting research priority. We use the history of developing US National Institute of Aging's extramural research programs on brain aging and Alzheimer's disease (Khachaturian, 2006; 2007) as an initial case study. PMID:26054567

  8. Language and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chimombo, Moira

    1999-01-01

    Surveys the interrelationship between language and politics. Touches on the context of political discourse, or political culture and ideology in new and old democracies and the reemerging manifestations of totalitarianism, censorship, and linguistic imperialism; then examines selected linguistic features of political discourse and their…

  9. Three necessary conditions for progress in low-level waste management: Political commitment, managerial skill, and public involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltshire, S.

    1989-11-01

    Since the late 1970`s many people have worked hard to resolve the question of how this nation will manage its low-level radioactive waste. However, many problems persist. No new disposal facilities have been built since the early 1970`s and some states do not appear to be making much headway on the problem. The current alignment of states in compacts may lead to the designation of more sites than necessary, thus wasting resources and sites that might be used for something else and causing dissension and disruption in more communities than is really necessary. However, progress has been made: low-level waste is on the political agenda in an effective way in many states; much more management attention and skill are being devoted to waste management; and more experience has increased the understanding and skill necessary for management and government officials to be able to involve the public effectively in waste management decision-making. What conditions have produced this progress? What has been learned from ten years of work on the problem? How can these lessons be applied to future decisions, including those about the cleanup and isolation of defense waste? The paper attempts to answer these questions.

  10. Automobile Politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, Matthew

    2006-11-01

    The car, and the range of social and political institutions which sustain its dominance, play an important role in many of the environmental problems faced by contemporary society. But in order to understand the possibilities for moving towards sustainability and 'greening cars', it is first necessary to understand the political forces that have made cars so dominant. This book identifies these forces as a combination of political economy and cultural politics. From the early twentieth century, the car became central to the organization of capitalism and deeply embedded in individual identities, providing people with a source of value and meaning but in a way which was broadly consistent with social imperatives for mobility. Projects for sustainability to reduce the environmental impacts of cars are therefore constrained by these forces but must deal with them in order to shape and achieve their goals. Addresses the increasingly controversial debate on the place of the car in contemporary society and its contribution to environmental problems Questions whether automobility is sustainable and what political, social and economic forces might prevent this Will appeal to scholars and advanced students from a wide range of disciplines including environmental politics, political economy, environmental studies, cultural studies and geography

  11. Critical Hip-Hop Language Pedagogies: Combat, Consciousness, and the Cultural Politics of Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alim, H. Samy

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses two long-standing tensions in the education of linguistically marginalized youth: (a) the cultural tension, or cultural combat, that such students engage in as they form their linguistic identities, and (b) the tensions between the development of critical language pedagogies and the lack of their broader implementation due…

  12. The Politics of IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamin, Leon J.

    1975-01-01

    Traces social, cultural, economic, and political history shaping intelligence testing with respect to an inheritable intelligence level to conclude that interpretation of IQ has always been in a social and political context. (DW)

  13. Politics, culture, and the legitimacy of disease: the case of Buerger's disease.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Stephen J; Bresler, Scott C; Granter, Scott R

    2016-09-01

    Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) or Buerger's disease is a rare form of vasculitis with distinctive clinical and pathological features that carries significant morbidity, often leading to amputation, and is strongly associated with tobacco smoking. Despite its distinctive clinicopathological characteristics, the existence of TAO as an entity sui generis was challenged for many years as it languished in relative obscurity. Then, as societal attitudes towards smoking changed, TAO not only became accepted as a disease entity, it quite literally became a poster child to illustrate the ills of smoking. Herein, we examine the history of TAO to illustrate the power of societal attitudes and politics in shaping medicine. PMID:27188859

  14. Essential veterinary education in the cultural, political and biological complexities of international trade in animals and animal products.

    PubMed

    Brown, C C

    2009-08-01

    Globalisation has changed the veterinary profession in many ways and academic institutes may need to re-tool to help future professionals deal with the changes in a successful and productive way. The remarkably expanded and expanding volume of trade and traffic in animals and animal products means that to be effective veterinarians must grasp some of the complexities inherent in this trade. Being able to engage productively in cross-cultural dialogue will be important in negotiations over livestock shipments and also within the context of the delivery of medical services to companion animals in societies that are becoming increasingly diverse. Understanding the political landscapes that influence trade decisions will help to expedite agreements and facilitate the transfer of goods and materials that involve animal health. Disease emergence will continue to occur, and an awareness of the factors responsible and the response measures to undertake will help to contain any damage. PMID:20128459

  15. Ku I Ke Ao: Hawaiian Cultural Identity and Student Progress at Kamehameha Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stender, Robert Holoua

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between Hawaiian cultural identity and student progress at Kamehameha Elementary School (KES) is the focal point of this study. As the student demographics continue to evolve at Kamehameha Schools, most recently with increasing numbers of children coming from orphan and indigent backgrounds, teachers want greater understanding of…

  16. Transformative World Language Learning: An Approach for Environmental and Cultural Sustainability and Economic and Political Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulah, Jason

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author responds to the Modern Language Association's report, "Foreign Languages and Higher Education: New Structures for a Changed World" (2007) by arguing for an explicit and interdisciplinary transformative world language learning approach toward environmental and cultural sustainability and economic and political…

  17. True to the Language Game: African American Discourse, Cultural Politics, and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilyard, Keith

    2011-01-01

    In "True to the Language Game", Keith Gilyard, one of the major African American figures to emerge in language and cultural studies, makes his most seminal work available in one volume. This collection of new and previously published essays contains Gilyard's most relevant scholarly contributions to deliberations about linguistic diversity,…

  18. "Crack in the Pavement": Pedagogy as Political and Moral Practice for Educating Culturally Competent Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the reception of Indigenous perspectives and knowledges in university curricula and educators' social responsibility to demonstrate cultural competency through their teaching and learning practices. Drawing on tenets of critical race theory, Indigenous standpoint theory and critical pedagogies, this paper argues that the…

  19. Computers in Education: Social, Political, and Historical Perspectives. Media Education Culture Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muffoletto, Robert, Ed.; Knupfer, Nancy Nelson, Ed.

    This book is a collection of new works that inquire into the nature of media and technology as found and practiced in the social world of schooling. It creates a forum for investigating the social, institutional, historical, and epistemological relationships between media, education, culture, and technology. Contributions to the book include:…

  20. Political and Cultural Dimensions of Organizing Learning around Funds of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ares, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    O'Connor and Penuel (2010) argue that viewing research in education as a human science requires explicit attention to social, cultural, historical, and institutional dimensions of human activity, to the agency of participants in learning research, and to the importance of incorporating "emic" perspectives that shift the voice of the representation…

  1. The Politics of Implementing Local Cultures in Music Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate how the national development of Taiwan has shaped the context of music learning through the development of local cultures in current education reform. Through the examination of relevant literature, official documents, websites and a selection of music education publications that are commonly…

  2. How (Not) to Feel: Culture and the Politics of Emotion in the American Parenting Advice Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    This interpretive critique of the US parenting advice literature explores the underlying cultural values and assumptions concerning emotion and power that are revealed in discourses on child behavior management. The analysis reveals a clear emphasis on the pedagogical and therapeutic role of an emotionally knowledgeable parent in relation to a…

  3. The Politics of Resistance to Workplace Cultural Diversity Education for Health Service Providers: An Australian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study has as its focus an exploration of health service providers' perceptions and experiences of the processes and implications of delivering workplace cultural diversity education for staff. Data were obtained from conducting in-depth individual and focus group interviews with a purposeful sample of 137 healthcare professionals,…

  4. I Can See the Apocalypse Now: News, Politics and Postmodern Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetzlaff, David

    Journalistic practice in the United States has gone through a number of changes in recent history, much of it because of television. The significance of these changes might be better understood with a theory on the social function of news and its relationship to the postmodern culture. News is considered in some way as the ground material of…

  5. Cross-Cultural Differences in Polite Epistemic Modal Use in American English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youmans, Madeleine

    2001-01-01

    Compared the use of selected epistemic modals in the English speech of Chicano barrio residents and Anglo visitors to the community. Transcribed conversations served as the database. Discusses the epistemic modal functions used the most disparately between groups. Differences are shown to relate to cross-culturally different uses of epistemic…

  6. Sex, secularism and religious influence in US politics.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Elizabeth; Jakobsen, Janet R

    2010-01-01

    Through an analysis of alliances between secular and religious actors in US politics and a specific case study on anti-trafficking policy, we show that the intertwining of religion and politics in the US comes from two sources: 1) the secular political and cultural institutions of American public life that have developed historically out of Protestantism, and which predominantly operate by presuming Protestant norms and values; and 2) the direct influence on US politics of religious groups and organisations, particularly in the past quarter-century of lobby groups and political action committees identified with conservative evangelical Christianity. The sources of policies that promote gender and sexual inequality in the US are both secular and religious and we conclude that it is inaccurate to assume that religious influence in politics is necessarily conservative or that more secular politics will necessarily be more progressive than the religious varieties. PMID:20857575

  7. English as a Medium of Instruction in East Asia's Higher Education Sector: A Critical Realist Cultural Political Economy Analysis of Underlying Logics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kedzierski, Matt

    2016-01-01

    As discourses of globalisation and the knowledge-based economy become increasingly influential in both policy-making and in public debates about education, employability and national competitiveness--the choice of language in the classroom takes on a strategic importance. The paper employs a critical realist Cultural Political Economy lens to…

  8. Access to Basic Education in Ghana: Politics, Policies and Progress. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Angela W.

    2010-01-01

    This monograph examines the history and politics of educational reform in Ghana. Using data from interviews conducted with senior policy-makers, implementers and researchers, as well as documentary sources, to explore the drivers and inhibitors of change at the political, bureaucratic and grass-roots levels. The monograph explores the nature of…

  9. Three-dimensional cultures modeling premalignant progression of human breast epithelial cells: role of cysteine cathepsins.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Stefanie R; Sameni, Mansoureth; Blum, Galia; Bogyo, Matthew; Sloane, Bonnie F; Moin, Kamiar

    2012-12-01

    The expression of the cysteine protease cathepsin B is increased in early stages of human breast cancer.To assess the potential role of cathepsin B in premalignant progression of breast epithelial cells, we employed a 3D reconstituted basement membrane overlay culture model of MCF10A human breast epithelial cells and isogenic variants that replicate the in vivo phenotypes of hyper plasia(MCF10AneoT) and atypical hyperplasia (MCF10AT1). MCF10A cells developed into polarized acinar structures with central lumens. In contrast, MCF10AneoT and MCF10AT1 cells form larger structures in which the lumens are filled with cells. CA074Me, a cell-permeable inhibitor selective for the cysteine cathepsins B and L,reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of MCF10A, MCF10AneoT and MCF10AT1 cells in 3D culture. We detected active cysteine cathepsins in the isogenic MCF10 variants in 3D culture with GB111, a cell-permeable activity based probe, and established differential inhibition of cathepsin B in our 3D cultures. We conclude that cathepsin B promotes proliferation and premalignant progression of breast epithelial cells. These findings are consistent with studies by others showing that deletion of cathepsin B in the transgenic MMTV-PyMT mice, a murine model that is predisposed to development of mammary cancer, reduces malignant progression. PMID:23667900

  10. Neoliberalism and indigenous knowledge: Māori health research and the cultural politics of New Zealand's "National Science Challenges".

    PubMed

    Prussing, Erica; Newbury, Elizabeth

    2016-02-01

    In 2012-13 the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE) in New Zealand rapidly implemented a major restructuring of national scientific research funding. The "National Science Challenges" (NSC) initiative aims to promote greater commercial applications of scientific knowledge, reflecting ongoing neoliberal reforms in New Zealand. Using the example of health research, we examine the NSC as a key moment in ongoing indigenous Māori advocacy against neoliberalization. NSC rhetoric and practice through 2013 moved to marginalize participation by Māori researchers, in part through constructing "Māori" and "science" as essentially separate arenas-yet at the same time appeared to recognize and value culturally distinctive forms of Māori knowledge. To contest this "neoliberal multiculturalism," Māori health researchers reasserted the validity of culturally distinctive knowledge, strategically appropriated NSC rhetoric, and marshalled political resources to protect Māori research infrastructure. By foregrounding scientific knowledge production as an arena of contestation over neoliberal values and priorities, and attending closely to how neoliberalizing tactics can include moves to acknowledge cultural diversity, this analysis poses new questions for social scientific study of global trends toward reconfiguring the production of knowledge about health. Study findings are drawn from textual analysis of MBIE documents about the NSC from 2012 to 2014, materials circulated by Māori researchers in the blogosphere in 2014, and ethnographic interviews conducted in 2013 with 17 Māori health researchers working at 7 sites that included university-based research centers, government agencies, and independent consultancies. PMID:26735331

  11. Telling our story. Catholics can cultivate genuine hope by emphasizing the human dimension in culture and politics.

    PubMed

    Steinfels, M O

    1992-05-01

    In the West the experience of modernity frequently leads people to ask whether they are running things or things are running them. The answer lies in the connection between modernity and religious tradition. Are there useful and constructive and effective ways of thinking about the task of our living as though what Jesus taught and did makes sense, makes sense in a modern world that thinks and acts as if it has or will soon have all answers? Perhaps everything will turn out all right, but such optimism should not be confused with hope. As Vaclav Havel explains, hope "is not the conviction that something will turn out well, but the certainty that something makes sense, regardless of how it turns out." To cultivate a perspective from which things can make sense, Catholics need to find a way to tell their story so that it has relevance in the modern world. In particular, Catholics must find stories that will account for the shift that had been building in our culture over centuries but that the Church only fully acknowledged during the papacy of John XXIII. To some extent, the stories will have to offer a counterstatement to the unintended negative effects of certain facets of the modern agenda. The stories will have to address the overemphasis on individuality that has resulted from the democratization of politics and culture, the uncritical belief that change is always for the better, and the modern world's power to overwhelm our ability to think critically about it. Finally, the stories will have to return a human dimension to economic and cultural life. PMID:10117400

  12. Unique Rural District Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Tod Allen

    2009-01-01

    The politics of rural educational leadership are both intense and concentrated. Rural educational leaders need to be savvy and politically skilled if they are to inspire educational stakeholders and accomplish organizational objectives. The local school system is an organization with a political culture that can be characterized as a competitive…

  13. The doctor as businessman: the changing politics of a cultural icon.

    PubMed

    Stone, D A

    1997-04-01

    From just after the Civil War, when medicine began to professionalize, until the late 1970s, doctors and policy makers believed that clinical judgment should not be influenced by the financial interests of doctors. Physicians were highly entrepreneurial, and organized medicine fought to preserve their entrepreneurial interests, but the moral norm that justified their autonomy from state regulation was a strict separation of clinical judgment and pecuniary interests. Under managed care, the old norm is reversed. A good doctor takes financial considerations into account in making clinical decisions. Theoretically, doctors should consider measures of cost to society, but in practice, the payment systems of managed care plans induce doctors to consider the impact of each clinical decision on their own income. Because doctors share the risks of insuring patients with managed care plans, they have the same incentives as insurers to avoid patients who are expensively sick. The new cultural image of doctors as entrepreneurs masks their considerable loss of clinical autonomy under managed care. It also serves to persuade doctors to accept managed care arrangements and to persuade insurance consumers and patients to accept reduced benefits from employers and the government. PMID:9159715

  14. Political Corruption in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Steven R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)

  15. Culture, corporation and collective action: The Department of Energy's American Indian consultation program on the Nevada Test Site in political ecological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halmo, David Brian

    In the western United States, Numic-speaking Indian peoples wield more power today than ever before. Following centuries of depopulation, land and resource loss, and directed change interventions aimed at assimilating them into mainstream society, they are revitalizing traditional culture and renewing their claims to lands and resources by demanding equal participation in national-level activities that affect land and resources that were once under their control. In 1994, representatives of Numic Indian tribes representing three ethnic groups involved in consultation with the U.S. Department of Energy on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) decided by consensus to "incorporate" themselves as the Consolidated Group of Tribes and Organizations (CGTO) to defend their common interests in and claims to NTS lands and resources. What caused 16 distinct, autonomous, sovereign American Indian tribal entities to incorporate themselves as a corporate organization? Using a political ecology perspective, this study examines the social, cultural and political processes operating at multiple levels of analysis and applies social and cultural theories of (1) ethnic cultural persistence, (2) the emergence and evolution of collective action groups for defending cultural interests in "common property," (3) the role of corporate and organizational structure and culture in the articulation of social relations between contending groups, and (4) the related shifts or changes in the distribution of structural power as a result of changing policy environments to a case study-based ethnographic analysis of an ongoing program of American Indian consultation.

  16. The development of a functionally relevant cell culture model of progressive human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Weaver, V M; Howlett, A R; Langton-Webster, B; Petersen, O W; Bissell, M J

    1995-06-01

    Normal mammary homeostasis, and by implication tumorigenesis, are dependent upon the dynamic interplay between epithelial cells, stromal components and the extracellular matrix. To study the evolution of human breast cancer, a functionally relevant cell culture model is required which recognizes the complexity of the mammary gland's microenvironment. The development of an appropriate breast epithelial cancer cell model will be dependent on the ability to recreate the 'normal' and 'neoplastic' tissue microenvironment in culture. Towards this goal, a 3-dimensional extracellular matrix (ECM) assay, employing a reconstituted basement membrane, has been developed which allows for the rapid and accurate discrimination of normal and neoplastic cells when cultured. To investigate stromal/epithelial cell interactions, we have developed a tumor environment assay which essentially mirrors the tumor microenvironment histologically. The use of a novel, near diploid, human breast epithelial cell line, HMT-3522, which has transformed spontaneously with passage in culture, together with these 3-dimensional culture assays is expected to provide meaningful markers of initiation and progression. PMID:7495986

  17. Microfluidic culture models to study the hydrodynamics of tumor progression and therapeutic response.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Cara; Rylander, Marissa Nichole

    2013-08-01

    The integration of tissue engineering strategies with microfluidic technologies has enabled the design of in vitro microfluidic culture models that better adapt to morphological changes in tissue structure and function over time. These biomimetic microfluidic scaffolds accurately mimic native 3D microenvironments, as well as permit precise and simultaneous control of chemical gradients, hydrodynamic stresses, and cellular niches within the system. The recent application of microfluidic in vitro culture models to cancer research offers enormous potential to aid in the development of improved therapeutic strategies by supporting the investigation of tumor angiogenesis and metastasis under physiologically relevant flow conditions. The intrinsic material properties and fluid mechanics of microfluidic culture models enable high-throughput anti-cancer drug screening, permit well-defined and controllable input parameters to monitor tumor cell response to various hydrodynamic conditions or treatment modalities, as well as provide a platform for elucidating fundamental mechanisms of tumor physiology. This review highlights recent developments and future applications of microfluidic culture models to study tumor progression and therapeutic targeting under conditions of hydrodynamic stress relevant to the complex tumor microenvironment. PMID:23616255

  18. Culture and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulbright, Harriet Mayor

    1999-01-01

    The best chance for solving the problems of environmental degradation and resource depletion comes through harnessing communications and education. Distance education vectored by new information technologies are powerful supplements to traditional methods of education and will propagate the synthesis of leadership and liberal education for…

  19. Why Should We Have Political Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velthuis, Ruud

    2002-01-01

    Political education prepares citizens for political, social, economic, and cultural participation. Democratic citizenship is learned formally, nonformally, and informally. A thematic and problem-oriented approach to political education should highlight the various roles of citizens. (SK)

  20. Cell cycle progression in irradiated endothelial cells cultured from bovine aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, D.B.; Drab, E.A.; Ward, W.F.; Bauer, K.D.

    1988-11-01

    Logarithmically growing endothelial cells from bovine aortas were exposed to single doses of 0-10 Gy of 60Co gamma rays, and cell cycle phase distribution and progression were examined by flow cytometry and autoradiography. In some experiments, cells were synchronized in the cell cycle with hydroxyurea (1 mM). Cell number in sham-irradiated control cultures doubled in approximately 24 h. Estimated cycle stage times for control cells were 14.4 h for G1 phase, 7.2 h for S phase, and 2.4 h for G2 + M phase. Irradiated cells demonstrated a reduced distribution at the G1/S phase border at 4 h, and an increased distribution in G2 + M phase at 24 h postirradiation. Autoradiographs of irradiated cells after continuous (3H)thymidine labeling indicated a block in G1 phase or at the G1/S-phase border. The duration of the block was dose dependent (2-3 min/cGy). Progression of the endothelial cells through S phase after removal of the hydroxyurea block also was retarded by irradiation, as demonstrated by increased distribution in early S phase and decreased distribution in late S phase. These results indicate that progression of asynchronous cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells through the DNA synthetic cycle is susceptible to radiation inhibition at specific sites in the cycle, resulting in redistribution and partial synchronization of the population. Thus aortic endothelial cells, diploid cells from a normal tissue, resemble many immortal cell types that have been examined in this regard in vitro.

  1. Nondestructive evaluation of progressive neuronal changes in organotypic rat hippocampal slice cultures using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fengqiang; Song, Yu; Dryer, Alexandra; Cogguillo, William; Berdichevsky, Yevgeny; Zhou, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Three-dimensional tissue cultures have been used as effective models for studying different diseases, including epilepsy. High-throughput, nondestructive techniques are essential for rapid assessment of disease-related processes, such as progressive cell death. An ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence microscopy (UHR-OCM) system with ∼1.5  μm axial resolution and ∼2.3  μm transverse resolution was developed to evaluate seizure-induced neuronal injury in organotypic rat hippocampal cultures. The capability of UHR-OCM to visualize cells in neural tissue was confirmed by comparison of UHR-OCM images with confocal immunostained images of the same cultures. In order to evaluate the progression of neuronal injury, UHR-OCM images were obtained from cultures on 7, 14, 21, and 28 days in vitro (DIVs). In comparison to DIV 7, statistically significant reductions in three-dimensional cell count and culture thickness from UHR-OCM images were observed on subsequent time points. In cultures treated with kynurenic acid, significantly less reduction in cell count and culture thickness was observed compared to the control specimens. These results demonstrate the capability of UHR-OCM to perform rapid, label-free, and nondestructive evaluation of neuronal death in organotypic hippocampal cultures. UHR-OCM, in combination with three-dimensional tissue cultures, can potentially prove to be a promising tool for high-throughput screening of drugs targeting various disorders. PMID:25750928

  2. Do committees ru(i)n the bio-political culture? On the democratic legitimacy of bioethics committees.

    PubMed

    Friele, Minou Bernadette

    2003-08-01

    Bioethical and bio-political questions are increasingly tackled by committees, councils, and other advisory boards that work on different and often interrelated levels. Research ethics committees work on an institutional or clinical level; local advisory boards deal with biomedical topics on the level of particular political regions; national and international political advisory boards try to answer questions about morally problematic political decisions in medical research and practice. In accordance with the increasing number and importance of committees, the quality of their work and their functional status are being subjected to more and more scrutiny. Besides overall criticism regarding the quality of their work, particular committees giving political advice are often suspected of being incompatible with democratic values, such as respect for affected parties, representation of diverse values and transparency in the decision-making processes. Based on the example of the German National Ethics Council, whose inauguration caused a still ongoing debate on the aims and scopes of committees in general, this paper discusses: (1) the requirements of modern democratic societies in dealing with complex scientific-technical problems; (2) the composition and organisation of committees working as political advisory boards; and (3) the appointment procedures and roles of laymen and experts, and here in particular of ethicists, who may legitimately be taken on by a committee. I will argue that bioethics committees do not necessarily endanger democratic values, but can considerably improve their realisation in democratic decision-making procedures--if, and only if, they do not act as substitutes for parliamentarian processes, but help prepare parliamentarian processes to be organised as rationally as possible. PMID:14567389

  3. In Vitro Co-Culture Models of Breast Cancer Metastatic Progression towards Bone.

    PubMed

    Arrigoni, Chiara; Bersini, Simone; Gilardi, Mara; Moretti, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Advanced breast cancer frequently metastasizes to bone through a multistep process involving the detachment of cells from the primary tumor, their intravasation into the bloodstream, adhesion to the endothelium and extravasation into the bone, culminating with the establishment of a vicious cycle causing extensive bone lysis. In recent years, the crosstalk between tumor cells and secondary organs microenvironment is gaining much attention, being indicated as a crucial aspect in all metastatic steps. To investigate the complex interrelation between the tumor and the microenvironment, both in vitro and in vivo models have been exploited. In vitro models have some advantages over in vivo, mainly the possibility to thoroughly dissect in controlled conditions and with only human cells the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the metastatic progression. In this article we will review the main results deriving from in vitro co-culture models, describing mechanisms activated in the crosstalk between breast cancer and bone cells which drive the different metastatic steps. PMID:27571063

  4. "Second class loss": political culture as a recovery barrier--the families of terrorist casualties' struggle for national honors, recognition, and belonging.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Udi

    2014-01-01

    Israeli families of terrorist victims have undertaken initiatives to include their dearest in the national pantheon. The objections opposed the penetration of "second-class loss" into the symbolic closure of heroic national bereavement. The "hierarchy of bereavement" is examined through the lens of political culture organized around the veneration held for the army fallen and their families, which has symbolic as well as rehabilitative outcomes. Families of civilian terror victims claims for similar status and treatment had to frame their loss as national in the eyes of the social policy. The article claimed linkage between collective memory and rehabilitation. PMID:24521041

  5. Pedagogical and Political Encounters in Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Primary Classrooms: Examples from Quebec, Canada, and Gauteng, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breton-Carbonneau, Gabrielle; Cleghorn, Ailie; Evans, Rinelle; Pesco, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Comparative research in multilingual urban primary schools indicates that the pedagogical and political goals of schooling may operate at cross-purposes. Classroom observations and teacher interview-discussions were conducted in classes for immigrant children in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, where the language of instruction is French, and in classes…

  6. "Race" and Early Childhood Education: An International Approach to Identity, Politics, and Pedagogy. Critical Cultural Studies of Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac Naughton, Glenda, Ed.; Davis, Karina, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This book explores the prominence of "race" in the lives of young children and their early childhood educators. It critiques the often presumed racial innocence of young children and shows instead how young children actively engage with the politics of race as they form their own identities. It challenges early childhood educators to engage with…

  7. Political Relationship and Narrative Knowledge: A Critical Analysis of School Authoritarianism. Critical Studies in Education and Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armitage, Peter B.

    This book describes the amalgamation of an English grammar school and secondary school into a comprehensive school. It employs techniques found in microsociology to discuss the background of the two schools and record the social and political practices behind the event and their relation to good educational practices. The text emphasizes a…

  8. Ethnicity and Nonelectoral Political Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrinkle, Robert D.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes data from the Latino National Political Survey to examine whether nonelectoral political participation by Latino subgroups (Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cuban Americans) can be explained on the basis of culture, socioeconomic status, or mobilization (political activism). Mobilization offered the strongest explanation for…

  9. Business Culture and the Death of Public Education: Mayor Bloomberg, David Steiner, and the Politics of Corporate "Leadership"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a case study of how a business culture imposes modes of educational leadership on a public school system in New York City that has little if any concerns for empowering children, teachers, and the communities. The article provides a counter-narrative that serves to dispel the notion that the culture of educational empowerment…

  10. The winds of change revisited: progress towards building a culture of evidence-based dentistry.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Robert J; McCann, Ann L; Schneiderman, Emet D; Dechow, Paul C

    2015-05-01

    In 2008, Texas A&M University Baylor College of Dentistry launched a comprehensive four-year curriculum in evidence-based dentistry (EBD) along with a series of faculty development initiatives to create an EBD culture. The aim of this study was to determine the institution's success in achieving this goal. The assessment tool used was the PEAK instrument, which measures respondents' EBD Practices, Experience, Attitudes, and Knowledge. Two EBD-trained classes of students and one class untrained in EBD (approximately 100 students in each class) were assessed annually. The faculty were assessed before and after completion of the initiative. Nearly all students responded, with samples ranging from 87 to 102; the faculty response rates were 53% (62/117) in 2009 and 66% in 2013 (81/123). In the results, the trained students scored significantly higher in knowledge than the untrained students at each of the first three PEAK administrations (p≤0.001). Regarding confidence in appraising a research report, the first trained group significantly gained in appropriate use of statistical tests (p<0.001), while the second trained group significantly gained in this aspect and five others (p≤0.032). At the final PEAK administration, the second trained group agreed more than the untrained group that EBD was important for the practice of dentistry (p<0.001). Faculty comfort level with reading peer-reviewed articles increased significantly from 2009 to 2013 (p=0.039). Faculty members who participated in the summer EBD Fundamentals course (n=28) had significantly higher EBD knowledge scores than those who did not participate (p=0.013), and their EBD attitudes and practices were more positive (p<0.05). Students and faculty trained in EBD were more knowledgeable and exhibited more positive attitudes, supporting a conclusion that the college has made substantial progress towards achieving an EBD culture. PMID:25941143

  11. The Winds of Change Revisited: Progress Towards Building a Culture of Evidence-Based Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, Robert J.; McCann, Ann L.; Schneiderman, Emet D.; Dechow, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, Texas A&M University Baylor College of Dentistry launched a comprehensive four-year curriculum in evidence-based dentistry (EBD) along with a series of faculty development initiatives to create an EBD culture. The aim of this study was to determine the institution's success in achieving this goal. The assessment tool used was the PEAK instrument, which measures respondents’ EBD Practices, Experience, Attitudes, and Knowledge. Two EBD-trained classes of students and one class untrained in EBD (approximately 100 students in each class) were assessed annually. The faculty were assessed before and after completion of the initiative. Nearly all students responded, with samples ranging from 87 to 102; the faculty response rates were 53% (62/117) in 2009 and 66% in 2013 (81/123). In the results, the trained students scored significantly higher in knowledge than the untrained students at each of the first three PEAK administrations (p≤0.001). Regarding confidence in appraising a research report, the first trained group significantly gained in appropriate use of statistical tests (p<0.001), while the second trained group significantly gained in this aspect and five others (p≤0.032). At the final PEAK administration, the second trained group agreed more than the untrained group that EBD was important for the practice of dentistry (p<0.001). Faculty comfort level with reading peer-reviewed articles increased significantly from 2009 to 2013 (p=0.039). Faculty members who participated in the summer EBD Fundamentals course (n=28) had significantly higher EBD knowledge scores than those who did not participate (p=0.013), and their EBD attitudes and practices were more positive (p<0.05). Students and faculty trained in EBD were more knowledgeable and exhibited more positive attitudes, supporting a conclusion that the college has made substantial progress towards achieving an EBD culture. PMID:25941143

  12. Transformational leadership, transnational culture and political competence in globalizing health care services: a case study of Jordan's King Hussein Cancer Center

    PubMed Central

    Moe, Jeffrey L; Pappas, Gregory; Murray, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Background Following the demise of Jordan's King Hussein bin Talal to cancer in 1999, the country's Al-Amal Center was transformed from a poorly perceived and ineffectual cancer care institution into a Western-style comprehensive cancer center. Renamed King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC), it achieved improved levels of quality, expanded cancer care services and achieved Joint Commission International accreditation under new leadership over a three-year period (2002–2005). Methods An exploratory case research method was used to explain the rapid change to international standards. Sources including personal interviews, document review and on-site observations were combined to conduct a robust examination of KHCC's rapid changes. Results The changes which occurred at the KHCC during its formation and leading up to its Joint Commission International (JCI) accreditation can be understood within the conceptual frame of the transformational leadership model. Interviewees and other sources for the case study suggest the use of inspirational motivation, idealized influence, individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation, four factors in the transformational leadership model, had significant impact upon the attitudes and motivation of staff within KHCC. Changes in the institution were achieved through increased motivation and positive attitudes toward the use of JCI continuous improvement processes as well as increased professional training. The case study suggests the role of culture and political sensitivity needs re-definition and expansion within the transformational leadership model to adequately explain leadership in the context of globalizing health care services, specifically when governments are involved in the change initiative. Conclusion The KHCC case underscores the utility of the transformational leadership model in an international health care context. To understand leadership in globalizing health care services, KHCC suggests culture is broader

  13. [Medical politics. Graffiti].

    PubMed

    Fugelli, P

    1991-03-20

    If doctors want to play a role in future health promotion, they have to leave their citadel, and come closer to life and society. Modern preventive medicine cannot be dissociated from basic political, cultural and religious values and processes. Genetic counseling and engineering, influencing lifestyle, community intervention and changing the health culture among patients and doctors all require ethical and political competence rather than traditional medical skills. The author advocates the development of a new discipline, medical politics, with two major commitments: -To define basic health rights -To study the public health consequences of political systems and decisions. In a polemic and provocative style the article enlightens the potentials and dangers associated with an expanded concept of preventive medicine. PMID:2042221

  14. The bid, the lead-up, the event and the legacy: global cultural politics and hosting the Olympics.

    PubMed

    Rowe, David

    2012-06-01

    Hosting mega sport events, especially the Olympics, demands an extensive engagement with global civil society given the voluntary, highly mediated exposure of host cities and nations to the world. The philosophy of Olympism requires ethical authority in demonstrating 'fitness' to host the Games, so demanding intensive strategic image management. Offensive and defensive mobilization of image-dependent 'species of power' in the field of sport (in a Bourdieusian sense) in conducting 'wars of position and movement' (following Gramsci) within global civil society are, then, crucial features of competitive manoeuvres around staging major sport events. The main empirical focus of this article is on the case of the Sydney 2000 ('Millennial') Games, in illustrating the socio-political dynamics of bidding and hosting in the context of a major civil societal matter of concern - Australia's continuing failure to achieve reconciliation with, and equality for, its indigenous peoples. Ironically, though, it was in the domain of human rights that Sydney had an advantage over its closest competitor in the 1993 bidding process - China. The strategies deployed to secure the consent of Australian Aborigines to the Games are addressed in analysing the means by which the Sydney 2000 Games avoided major disruption and international criticism. A second, briefer case analysis is then presented of the disputation concerning Beijing's successful bid for the 2008 Olympics, which saw them influentially described by one (US) political activist as the 'Genocide Games' and the subject of international protests surrounding the Torch Relay. It is concluded that the contrasting levels of public, mediated discord in these two Olympiads in which human rights were key issues related, significantly though not exclusively, to the Chinese authorities' difficulties in 'winning consent' through strategic incorporation of the most conspicuous, non-state oppositional forces within Western-dominated global

  15. Transforming the Culture of Schools: Yup'ik Eskimo Examples. Sociocultural, Political, and Historical Studies in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Jerry; Mohatt, Gerald V.

    This book demonstrates that an indigenous teachers' group has the potential to transform the culture of schooling. Personal narratives by Yup'ik Eskimo teachers speak directly to issues of equity and school transformation. Their struggles represent the beginning of a slow process by a group of Yup'ik teachers (Ciulistet) and university colleagues…

  16. Young People Assert and Forge Cultural Identities in the Course of Their Political Activisim within Alternative Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhimji, Fazila

    2007-01-01

    This article examines African American, Latina/o, and White high school students' assertions of cultural and ethnic identities as they struggle for their educational rights in Los Angeles and Philadelphia. In doing so, this study illustrates the ways in which alternative spaces outside the formal context of schools facilitate expressions,…

  17. Rethinking Research Processes and Praxis in the Social Studies: The Cultural Politics of Methodology in Text Evaluation Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillabough, Jo-Anne; McAlpine, Lynn

    1996-01-01

    Outlines problems associated with using mainstream research methods for evaluating the representation of marginalized cultural groups in social studies textbooks. Describes an alternative method and ethnographic format for assessing textbooks that uses evaluation criteria developed in cooperation with marginalized people. Includes extensive…

  18. Beyond Comfort Zones in Multiculturalism. Confronting the Politics of Privilege. Critical Studies in Education and Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sandra, Ed.; Solis, Jose, Ed.

    Demystifying some of the implications of multiculturalism might allow the opportunity to ground the field in the basic exercise of cultural affirmation, self-determination. Contributors to this book affirm that self-determination and moving beyond the comfort zones to which multiculturalism has advanced are essential to seeing multiculturalism as…

  19. Schulwahlfreiheit kontra Chancengleichheit: Amerikanische politische Kultur und die Selbstblockierung der amerikanischen Schulreform (Free Choice of School Versus Equal Opportunities: American Political Culture and the Self-Obstruction of the American School Reform).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Heinz-Dieter

    1996-01-01

    Interprets the persistent difficulties in revitalizing U.S. public education and in implementing "world standards" in the context of deep-seated conflicts in U.S. political culture. Argues that the conflict between individual liberty and equality is behind the polarization of imperatives such as "choice" and "equality" or "excellence" and…

  20. The Egyptian Press: An Historical View of Its Importance in Political Movements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, John

    This report traces the development of the Egyptian press, from its origin with the arrival of the first printing press in 1789 to the present free press policies of Anwar Sadat. Because political struggle and social reform have accompanied the educational and cultural progress of Egypt, the news publications have traditionally been utilitarian.…

  1. Office Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann

    2008-01-01

    People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…

  2. Establishment of 3D Co-Culture Models from Different Stages of Human Tongue Tumorigenesis: Utility in Understanding Neoplastic Progression

    PubMed Central

    Sawant, Sharada; Dongre, Harsh; Singh, Archana Kumari; Joshi, Shriya; Costea, Daniela Elena; Mahadik, Snehal; Ahire, Chetan; Makani, Vidhi; Dange, Prerana; Sharma, Shilpi; Chaukar, Devendra; Vaidya, Milind

    2016-01-01

    To study multistep tumorigenesis process, there is a need of in-vitro 3D model simulating in-vivo tissue. Present study aimed to reconstitute in-vitro tissue models comprising various stages of neoplastic progression of tongue tumorigenesis and to evaluate the utility of these models to investigate the role of stromal fibroblasts in maintenance of desmosomal anchoring junctions using transmission electron microscopy. We reconstituted in-vitro models representing normal, dysplastic, and malignant tissues by seeding primary keratinocytes on either fibroblast embedded in collagen matrix or plain collagen matrix in growth factor-free medium. The findings of histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy analyses of the three types of 3D cultures showed that the stratified growth, cell proliferation, and differentiation were comparable between co-cultures and their respective native tissues; however, they largely differed in cultures grown without fibroblasts. The immunostaining intensity of proteins, viz., desmoplakin, desmoglein, and plakoglobin, was reduced as the disease stage increased in all co-cultures as observed in respective native tissues. Desmosome-like structures were identified using immunogold labeling in these cultures. Moreover, electron microscopic observations revealed that the desmosome number and their length were significantly reduced and intercellular spaces were increased in cultures grown without fibroblasts when compared with their co-culture counterparts. Our results showed that the major steps of tongue tumorigenesis can be reproduced in-vitro. Stromal fibroblasts play a role in regulation of epithelial thickness, cell proliferation, differentiation, and maintenance of desmosomalanchoring junctions in in-vitro grown tissues. The reconstituted co-culture models could help to answer various biological questions especially related to tongue tumorigenesis. PMID:27501241

  3. Embryo culture in teratological surveillance and serum proteins in development. Progress report, 1981-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, N.W.

    1982-08-01

    Major efforts have focused on three areas: the teratogenic effects of anticonvulsants and thalidomide in monkeys and rats; the teratogenic risks of occupational and environmental exposures as well as cigarette smoke on rat embryo cultures; and the use of rat embryo cultures to detect teratological and reproductive risks. (ERB)

  4. High CD49f expression is associated with osteosarcoma tumor progression: a study using patient-derived primary cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Penfornis, Patrice; Cai, David Z; Harris, Michael R; Walker, Ryan; Licini, David; Fernandes, Joseph D A; Orr, Griffin; Koganti, Tejaswi; Hicks, Chindo; Induru, Spandana; Meyer, Mark S; Khokha, Rama; Barr, Jennifer; Pochampally, Radhika R

    2014-08-01

    Overall prognosis for osteosarcoma (OS) is poor despite aggressive treatment options. Limited access to primary tumors, technical challenges in processing OS tissues, and the lack of well-characterized primary cell cultures has hindered our ability to fully understand the properties of OS tumor initiation and progression. In this study, we have isolated and characterized cell cultures derived from four central high-grade human OS samples. Furthermore, we used the cell cultures to study the role of CD49f in OS progression. Recent studies have implicated CD49f in stemness and multipotency of both cancer stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells. Therefore, we investigated the role of CD49f in osteosarcomagenesis. First, single cell suspensions of tumor biopsies were subcultured and characterized for cell surface marker expression. Next, we characterized the growth and differentiation properties, sensitivity to chemotherapy drugs, and anchorage-independent growth. Xenograft assays showed that cell populations expressing CD49f(hi) /CD90(lo) cell phenotype produced an aggressive tumor. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrated that inhibiting CD49f decreased the tumor-forming ability. Furthermore, the CD49f(hi) /CD90(lo) cell population is generating more aggressive OS tumor growth and indicating this cell surface marker could be a potential candidate for the isolation of an aggressive cell type in OSs. PMID:24802970

  5. High CD49f expression is associated with osteosarcoma tumor progression: a study using patient-derived primary cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Penfornis, Patrice; Cai, David Z; Harris, Michael R; Walker, Ryan; Licini, David; Fernandes, Joseph D A; Orr, Griffin; Koganti, Tejaswi; Hicks, Chindo; Induru, Spandana; Meyer, Mark S; Khokha, Rama; Barr, Jennifer; Pochampally, Radhika R

    2014-01-01

    Overall prognosis for osteosarcoma (OS) is poor despite aggressive treatment options. Limited access to primary tumors, technical challenges in processing OS tissues, and the lack of well-characterized primary cell cultures has hindered our ability to fully understand the properties of OS tumor initiation and progression. In this study, we have isolated and characterized cell cultures derived from four central high-grade human OS samples. Furthermore, we used the cell cultures to study the role of CD49f in OS progression. Recent studies have implicated CD49f in stemness and multipotency of both cancer stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells. Therefore, we investigated the role of CD49f in osteosarcomagenesis. First, single cell suspensions of tumor biopsies were subcultured and characterized for cell surface marker expression. Next, we characterized the growth and differentiation properties, sensitivity to chemotherapy drugs, and anchorage-independent growth. Xenograft assays showed that cell populations expressing CD49fhi/CD90lo cell phenotype produced an aggressive tumor. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrated that inhibiting CD49f decreased the tumor-forming ability. Furthermore, the CD49fhi/CD90lo cell population is generating more aggressive OS tumor growth and indicating this cell surface marker could be a potential candidate for the isolation of an aggressive cell type in OSs. PMID:24802970

  6. Women, Politics, Elections, and Citizenship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Gerald R.

    2000-01-01

    Outlines the historical development of women's legal and political status in the United States, focusing on suffrage, the three "waves" of women's movements, and access to elected office. Discusses three impediments of electing women candidates to public office: (1) solidarity; (2) political culture; and (3) the impact of the single-member…

  7. [Political psychology].

    PubMed

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects. PMID:23587541

  8. Prejudice and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Charles P.; Felknor, Bruce L.

    This monograph, written in 1960, examines the part prejudice played in politics throughout our national history. Part I of the monograph discusses "The Colonial Era." The immigrants that populated the new nation brought with them varied cultural heritages and different religious faiths. Soon the colonial pattern of religious prejudice reflected…

  9. Islam and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forte, David F.

    1984-01-01

    Law is central to Islamic civilization. The classical law (the Shari'a) is the standard by which political action is measured. The history of the Shari'a and how it has influenced the world view and the cultural identity of Arab countries are examined. (RM)

  10. Novel Phenotypic Fluorescent Three-Dimensional Co-Culture Platforms for Recapitulating Tumor in vivo Progression and for Personalized Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Changge; Man, Yan-Gao; Cuttitta, Frank; Stetler-Stevenson, William; Salomon, David; Mazar, Andrew; Kulesza, Piotr; Rosen, Steve; Avital, Itzhak; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Jewett, Anahid; Jiang, Bin; Mulshine, James

    2013-01-01

    Because three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models are more accurate than 2D cell culture models and faster and cheaper than animal models, they have become a prospective trend in the biomedical and pharmaceutical fields, especially for personalized and targeted therapies. Because appropriate 3D models can be customized to mimic the in vivo microenvironment wherein various cell populations grow within an intricate but well organized extracellular matrix (ECM), they can accurately recapitulate physiological and pathophysiological progressions. The majority of cancers are carcinomas, which originate from epithelial cells, and dynamically interact with non-malignant cells including stromal cells (fibroblasts), vascular cells (endothelial cells and pericytes), immune cells (macrophages and mast cells), and the ECM. Employing a tumor monoclonal colony, tumor xenograft or patient cancer biopsy into an in vivo-like microenvironment, the native signaling pathways, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, and cell phenotypes are preserved and our fluorescent phenotypic 3D co-culture platforms can then accurately recapitulate the tumor in vivo scenario including tumor induced angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis. In this paper, we describe a robust and standardized method to co-culture a tumor colony or biopsy with different cell populations, e.g., endothelial cells, immune cells, pericytes, etc. The procedures for recovering cells from the co-culture for molecular analyses, imaging, and analyzing are also described. We selected ECM solubilized extract derived from Engelbreth-Holm-Swam sarcoma cells. Because the 3D co-culture platforms can provide drug chemosensitivity data within 9 days that is equivalent to the results generated from mouse tumor xenograft models in 50 days, the 3D co-culture platforms are more accurate, efficient, and cost-effective and may replace animal models in the near future to predict drug efficacy, personalize therapies, prevent drug resistance

  11. Covering Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Ryan; Wind, Andrew; Trevidi, Neema

    2000-01-01

    Presents four articles considering: (1) the media's role in the coverage of politics; (2) the influence of photography particularly in terms of the president; (3) an event where an Iowa student had a chance to work with professionals while covering politics; and (4) considering scholastic reporters covering national candidates as they learn and…

  12. NAC, Tiron and Trolox Impair Survival of Cell Cultures Containing Glioblastoma Tumorigenic Initiating Cells by Inhibition of Cell Cycle Progression

    PubMed Central

    Stigliani, Sara; Carra, Elisa; Monteghirfo, Stefano; Longo, Luca; Daga, Antonio; Dono, Mariella; Zupo, Simona; Giaretti, Walter; Castagnola, Patrizio

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are metabolism by-products that may act as signaling molecules to sustain tumor growth. Antioxidants have been used to impair cancer cell survival. Our goal was to determine the mechanisms involved in the response to antioxidants of a human cell culture (PT4) containing glioblastoma (GBM) tumorigenic initiating cells (TICs). ROS production in the absence or presence of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), tiron, and trolox was evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM). The effects of these antioxidants on cell survival and apoptosis were evaluated by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay (MTT) and FCM. The biological processes modulated by these drugs were determined by oligonucleotide microarray gene expression profiling. Our results showed that NAC, tiron and trolox impaired PT4 cell survival, had minor effects on ROS levels and caused wide deregulation of cell cycle genes. Furthermore, tiron and trolox caused inhibition of cell survival in two additional cell cultures containing TICs, FO-1 and MM1, established from a melanoma and a mesothelioma patient, respectively. NAC, instead, impaired survival of the MM1 cells but not of the FO-1 cells. However, when used in combination, NAC enhanced the inhibitory effect of PLX4032 (BRAF V600E inhibitor) and Gefitinib (EGFR inhibitor), on FO-1 and PT4 cell survival. Collectively, NAC, tiron and trolox modulated gene expression and impaired the growth of cultures containing TICs primarily by inhibiting cell cycle progression. PMID:24587218

  13. Recent Progress in Endothelial Progenitor Cell Culture Systems: Potential for Stroke Therapy

    PubMed Central

    TAKIZAWA, Shunya; NAGATA, Eiichiro; NAKAYAMA, Taira; MASUDA, Haruchika; ASAHARA, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) participate in endothelial repair and angiogenesis due to their abilities to differentiate into endothelial cells and to secrete protective cytokines and growth factors. Consequently, there is considerable interest in cell therapy with EPCs isolated from peripheral blood to treat various ischemic injuries. Quality and quantity-controlled culture systems to obtain mononuclear cells enriched in EPCs with well-defined angiogenic and anti-inflammatory phenotypes have recently been developed, and increasing evidence from animal models and clinical trials supports the idea that transplantation of EPCs contributes to the regenerative process in ischemic organs and is effective for the therapy of ischemic cerebral injury. Here, we briefly describe the general characteristics of EPCs, and we review recent developments in culture systems and applications of EPCs and EPC-enriched cell populations to treat ischemic stroke. PMID:27041632

  14. Political Culture versus Socioeconomic Approaches to Predicting Police Strength in U.S. Police Agencies: Results of a Longitudinal Study, 1993 to 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Jihong; Ren, Ling; Lovrich, Nicholas P.

    2012-01-01

    A variety of theories have emerged that offer plausible explanations, one from the political institutional perspective and others from sociological perspective. There has been renewed interest in the effect of local political structure on police strength in the policing literature. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to assess the two main…

  15. Recent Progress in the Diagnosis of Pathogenic Candida Species in Blood Culture.

    PubMed

    Phoompoung, Pakpoom; Chayakulkeeree, Methee

    2016-06-01

    Candidemia has become an emerging invasive fungal disease. Prompt treatment with appropriate antifungal agent is crucial to reduce the mortality of candidemia. The conventional blood culture method, which is considered the gold standard for candidemia diagnosis, has a low sensitivity and is time-consuming to perform. Recently, several novel advanced diagnostic methods that have a higher sensitivity and a shorter turnaround time than the conventional blood culture method have been developed for the early detection of Candida in blood samples or in blood culture broth. Most of these newer methods were developed using various molecular techniques, such as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization, and a number of DNA-based techniques including in-house and commercial polymerase chain reactions. In this article, we review and summarize the novel molecular methods that have been recently used for the detection and identification of Candida organisms in blood specimens. PMID:27003437

  16. Political News and Political Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertges, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with mass media in modern democratic societies, using the example of Israeli news reports in German television (TV) news. Central to this interest are processes of mediating politics: political socialisation and education; that is to say, empowering citizens via TV news to participate in democratic processes. The article…

  17. Inhabiting Latino Politics: How Colleges Shape Students' Political Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Daisy Verduzco

    2015-01-01

    To comply with ideals of multiculturalism and diversity, postsecondary institutions incorporate Latino students into distinct campus cultures. These cultures influence how students interact with one another, the university community at large, and communities outside of campus, ultimately shaping how students inhabit Latino politics. Drawing on…

  18. Towards Social Progress and Post-Imperial Modernity? Colonial Politics of Literacy in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, 1946-1956

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seri-Hersch, Iris

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the politics of literacy in late colonial Sudan. Drawing upon hitherto untapped archival sources in English and Arabic, it focuses on two key questions: What were the purposes and uses of literacy in the eyes of colonial authorities? What means were used to spread literacy skills among Sudanese people? Positioning these…

  19. Progress in the development of gelling agents for improved culturability of microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Das, Nabajit; Tripathi, Naveen; Basu, Srijoni; Bose, Chandra; Maitra, Susmit; Khurana, Sukant

    2015-01-01

    Gelling agents are required for formulating both solid and semisolid media, vital for the isolation of microorganisms. Gelatin was the first gelling agent to be discovered but it soon paved the way for agar, which has far superior material qualities. Source depletion, issues with polymerase-chain-reaction and inability to sustain extermophiles etc., necessitate the need of other gelling agents. Many new gelling agents, such as xantham gum, gellan gum, carrageenan, isubgol, and guar gum have been formulated, raising the hopes for the growth of previously unculturable microorganisms. We evaluate the progress in the development of gelling agents, with the hope that our synthesis would help accelerate research in the field. PMID:26257708

  20. Tafazzin knockdown interrupts cell cycle progression in cultured neonatal ventricular fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    He, Quan; Wang, Miao; Harris, Nicole; Han, Xianlin

    2013-11-01

    Mutation of the mitochondrial protein tafazzin causes dilated cardiomyopathy in Barth syndrome. Previous studies have shown that tafazzin knockdown promotes hypertrophy of neonatal cardiac myocytes. The current investigation was designed to show whether tafazzin knockdown affects cardiac fibroblast proliferation and collagen secretion, which contribute to fibrosis in dilated cardiomyopathy. In primary cultures of neonatal ventricular fibroblasts (NVFs) transduced with a tafazzin short hairpin RNA adenovirus, tafazzin knockdown increased production of reactive oxygen species and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and induced protein and DNA synthesis via cell cycle regulators. It also reduced intracellular ATP, activated AMPK, and caused multinucleation, hypertrophy, and enhanced collagen secretion. We concluded that tafazzin knockdown interrupts the NVF cell cycle and this in turn may contribute to fibrosis and dilated cardiomyopathy in Barth syndrome. PMID:23997105

  1. Stem cell properties in cell cultures from different stage of melanoma progression.

    PubMed

    Magnoni, Cristina; Giudice, Stefania; Pellacani, Giovanni; Bertazzoni, Giorgia; Longo, Caterina; Veratti, Eugenia; Morini, Daria; Benassi, Luisa; Vaschieri, Cristina; Azzoni, Paola; De Pol, Anto; Seidenari, Stefania; Tomasi, Aldo; Pollio, Annamaria; Ponti, Giovanni

    2014-03-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is an extremely heterogenous human cancer. The most aggressive melanoma may contain deregulated cells with undifferentiated/stem cell-like phenotype. A critical mechanism by which melanoma cells enhance their invasive capacity is the dissolution of the intercellular adhesion and the acquisition of mesenchymal features as a part of an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of a stem cell-like population in human melanomas by means of melanocytic cell culture analysis obtained from distinct histotypes of primary and metastatic malignant melanoma. Patients with advanced melanoma >2 cm in diameter and/or >300 mm surface were enrolled. The melanoma cells were isolated from skin biopsies of lentigo maligna melanoma, superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma, and metastatic melanoma. The colony forming unit assay and alkaline phosphatase stain were evaluated. Cells were subsequently cultured and maintained in different media to evaluate their ability to differentiate into osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry analysis were performed to evaluate antigenic markers CD90, CD73, CD105, CD146, CD20, CD166, and Nestin. This study confirms that melanoma can include heterogenous cell populations with the ability both to self-renew and to a give rise to differentiated progeny. Melanoma cells displayed intratumoral heterogeneity and dynamic antigen phenotypes. Histologically, transitions from normal skin to melanoma were associated with a gradual increase in the expression of CD146, CD20, CD133, Nestin, and CD73. These molecular profiles could be further analyzed and, in the future, used for the development of novel biomolecular targeted-therapy approaches. PMID:23702651

  2. Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Twelve conference papers on cultural aspects of second language instruction include: "Towards True Multiculturalism: Ideas for Teachers" (Brian McVeigh); Comparing Cultures Through Critical Thinking: Development and Interpretations of Meaningful Observations" (Laurel D. Kamada); "Authority and Individualism in Japan and the USA" (Alisa Woodring);…

  3. The U.S. Culture Collection Network Lays the Foundation for Progress in Preservation of Valuable Microbial Resources.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, Kevin; Alvarez, Anne; Bennett, Rick; Bokati, Deepak; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Brown, Daniel; Bull, Carolee T; Coffey, Michael; Dreaden, Tyler; Duke, Clifford; Dye, Greg; Ehmke, Erin; Eversole, Kellye; Fenstermacher, Kristi; Geiser, David; Glaeser, Jessie A; Greene, Stephanie; Gribble, Lisa; Griffith, M Patrick; Hanser, Kathryn; Humber, Richard; Johnson, Barbara W; Kermode, Anthony; Krichevsky, Micah; Laudon, Matt; Leach, Jan; Leslie, John; May, Meghan; Melcher, Ulrich; Nobles, David; Fonseca, Natalia Risso; Robinson, Sara; Ryan, Matthew; Scott, James; Silflow, Carolyn; Vidaver, Anne; Webb, Kimberly M; Wertz, John E; Yentsch, Sara; Zehr, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    The U.S. Culture Collection Network was formed in 2012 by a group of culture collection scientists and stakeholders in order to continue the progress established previously through efforts of an ad hoc group. The network is supported by a Research Coordination Network grant from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and has the goals of promoting interaction among collections, encouraging the adoption of best practices, and protecting endangered or orphaned collections. After prior meetings to discuss best practices, shared data, and synergy with genome programs, the network held a meeting at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation (NCGRP) in Fort Collins, Colorado in October 2015 specifically to discuss collections that are vulnerable because of changes in funding programs, or are at risk of loss because of retirement or lack of funding. The meeting allowed collection curators who had already backed up their resources at the USDA NCGRP to visit the site, and brought collection owners, managers, and stakeholders together. Eight formal collections have established off-site backups with the USDA-ARS, ensuring that key material will be preserved for future research. All of the collections with backup at the NCGRP are public distributing collections including U.S. NSF-supported genetic stock centers, USDA-ARS collections, and university-supported collections. Facing the retirement of several pioneering researchers, the community discussed the value of preserving personal research collections and agreed that a mechanism to preserve these valuable collections was essential to any future national culture collection system. Additional input from curators of plant and animal collections emphasized that collections of every kind face similar challenges in developing long-range plans for sustainability. PMID:26976729

  4. Estrogen inhibits cell cycle progression and retinoblastoma phosphorylation in rhesus ovarian surface epithelial cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Jay W.; Stouffer, Richard L.; Rodland, Karin D.

    2003-10-31

    Estrogen promotes the growth of some ovarian cancer cells at nanomolar concentrations, but has been shown to inhibit growth of normal ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells at micromolar concentrations (1μg/ml). OSE cells express the estrogen receptor (ER)-α, and are the source of 90% of various cancers. The potential sensitivity of OSE cells to estrogen stresses the importance of understanding the estrogen-dependent mechanisms at play in OSE proliferation and transformation, as well as in anticancer treatment. We investigated the effects of estradiol on cell proliferation in vitro, and demonstrate an intracellular locus of action of estradiol in cultured rhesus ovarian surface epithelial (RhOSE) cells. We show that ovarian and breast cells are growth-inhibited by micromolar concentration of estradiol and that this inhibition correlates with estrogen receptor expression. We further show that normal rhesus OSE cells do not activate ERK or Akt in response to estradiol nor does estradiol block the ability of serum to stimulate ERK or induce cyclin D expression. Contrarily, estradiol inhibits serum-dependent retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation and blocks DNA synthesis. This inhibition does not formally arrest cells and is reversible within hours of estrogen withdrawal. Our data are consistent with growth inhibition by activation of Rb and indicate that sensitivity to hormone therapy in anticancer treatment can be modulated by cell cycle regulators downstream of the estrogen receptor.

  5. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research. PMID:27298633

  6. Degradation of mix hydrocarbons by immobilized cells of mix culture using a trickle fluidized bed reactor. Annual progress report, June 1992--May 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Chapatwala, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    The microorganisms, capable of degrading mix hydrocarbons were isolated from the soil samples collected from the hydrocarbon contaminated sites. The mix cultures were immobilized in calcium alginate solution in the form of beads. A trickle fluidized bed air-uplift-type reactor designed to study the degradation of mix hydrocarbons was filled with 0.85% normal saline containing the immobilized cells of mix culture. The immobilized beads were aerated with CO{sub 2}-free air at 200 ml/min. The degradation of different concentrations of hydrocarbons in the presence/absence of commercially available fertilizers by the immobilized cells of mix culture is now in progress.

  7. Effect of diet on ability of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGFA) isoforms to alter follicular progression in bovine ovarian cortical cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of changes in diet on ability of VEGFA isoforms to alter follicle progression in bovine ovarian cortex cultures. Our hypothesis was that diet would affect the magnitude of VEGFA isoform actions on follicular development. Heifers (n = 30) receiv...

  8. Political polarization

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Avinash K.; Weibull, Jörgen W.

    2007-01-01

    Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality. PMID:17452633

  9. Political bugs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    Certain decisions, problems, and successes are selected to recall the great impact of the 1950s on the history of rocketry, and particularly the inauguration of the space age. In reviewing the history of the Redstone, Juno, and Jupiter, some of the largest stepping stones to space, problems stand out in three areas: technical or engineering, management, and political.

  10. Academic Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William R.

    The internal politics of colleges and the influence of a current emphasis on efficiency on the traditional independence of the academician are analyzed. It is suggested that the academician does not work in the same differentiated, and therefore interdependent, way as someone in industry or a bureaucracy. Academic activity is segmented, which…

  11. Politics 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Abraham

    1977-01-01

    This article expresses some last thoughts from Abraham Maslow on his vision of humanistic psychology. He suggests that the two main problems of creating the good person and the good society are interwoven inextricably. He gives some social and political mechanisms which would enhance desirable personal growth and considers the main tasks of…

  12. The Expanding State and the U.S. "Civic Culture": The Changing Character of Political Participation and Legitimation in the Post-War U.S. Polity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamens, David H.; Jepperson, Ronald L.

    Provided is an integrated sketch of systematic changes in patterns of political participation and legitimation, and suggestions for where one might begin to look for the sources of such change. Following an introductory section, section 2 reviews time-series data on electoral participation, party identifications, and attitudes toward electoral…

  13. Asian American Interethnic Relations and Politics. Asians in America: The Peoples of East, Southeast, and South Asia in American Life and Culture Series, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Franklin, Ed.

    The articles in this anthology address the complex subject of interethnic relations and Asian American politics, transcending ideas of Asian Americans as the model minority. The articles are: (1) "Opening the American Mind and Body: The Role of Asian American Studies" (Shirley Hume); (2) "Surviving Democracy's 'Mistake": Japanese Americans and the…

  14. ``Political'' Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzak Hopkins, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Politics and policy affect all of us, both as scientists and as citizens, and issues ranging from laboratory budgets to arms control treaties clearly require research problem-solving skills and technical expertise. There is a critical role for scientists in each aspect of the political system, and in fact, we as a society need more scientists to take part in politics. Furthermore, the research we pursue has important societal applications and is fascinating! We have a right and a responsibility to share our scientific knowledge not only with each other, but with the general public as well. So, why are we as a community of scientists reticent in the public arena, hesitant to enter politics, and even at times unsupportive of our peers who transition into governmental roles? In this time of fiscal constraint, when difficult research funding (and de-funding) choices are regularly being made, we as scientists must step up to the plate, reach across the aisle, and explain why what we do is fascinating, inspiring, and important, not just to us, but to society as a whole. A range of policy-relevant roles exists inside and outside the laboratory, such as Congressional Fellowships. Each year the Congressional Fellowships program brings together approximately thirty scientists at all stages of their careers to serve as scientific advisors in a variety of offices in the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives. Although the jump from lab to lobbying meetings can be frustrating, the transition can also be intriguing. Firsthand experience with the ``how'' and ``why'' (or lack thereof) of politics and policy is invaluable and provides a unique opportunity to expand and broaden one's background. The opportunity to work on Capitol Hill is unparalleled, particularly because our nation has a definite need for scientists with the inclination and interest to inform and develop policy. But, whatever role you decide to take, from contributing scientific news to local publications to

  15. ADULT EDUCATION AND SWEDISH POLITICAL LEADERSHIP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERICKSON, HERMAN

    IN AN ATTEMPT TO EVALUATE THE INFLUENCE OF ADULT EDUCATION ON SWEDISH POLITICAL LEADERSHIP AND ON SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC PROGRESS IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY, INFORMATION WAS GATHERED ON THE EDUCATION OF POLITICAL AND LABOR LEADERS. AMONG MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT, 66 PERCENT OF THE TOTAL, 79 PERCENT OF THE SOCIAL DEMOCRATS, 87 PERCENT OF AGRARIANS, 41…

  16. Cultural History and Cultural Materialism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Ronald

    1990-01-01

    Historicism critiques cultural history and cultural materialism as a methodology for literary analysis. Questions the finality of interpretation, how original values change, and whether dramatic history implies actual history. Using Shakespearean plays, analyzes the power and politics of a play in relation to its audience; posits that cultural…

  17. Section on AIDS: the politics of survival. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Krieger, N; Margo, G

    1990-01-01

    In one short decade, the politics of AIDS has become the politics of survival. In a world whose social order is changing before our eyes, AIDS insistently brings new meaning to the age-old question of what it is we must do to survive--as individuals, as families, as communities, as nations, as members of an interdependent world. The goal of this Special Section is to promote frank discussion, from an explicitly progressive perspective, of what it will take to stop the AIDS epidemic and deal with the devastation it has already wrought. Articles by AIDS researchers, service providers, and activists from around the world will address the numerous social, political, economic, and cultural factors that affect both the spread of AIDS and the social response to the epidemic. Topics to be considered in this and future issues of the Journal include: AIDS and community survival in the United States; women and AIDS, particularly in economically underdeveloped countries; the politics and economics of AIDS interventions in Latin America and the Caribbean; and the growing international AIDS industry. PMID:2265876

  18. Reconciliation and Pedagogy. Postcolonial Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahluwalia, Pal, Ed.; Atkinson, Stephen, Ed.; Bishop, Peter, Ed.; Christie, Pam, Ed.; Hattam, Robert, Ed.; Matthews, Julie, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Reconciliation is one of the most significant contemporary challenges in the world today. In this innovative new volume, educational academics and practitioners across a range of cultural and political contexts examine the links between reconciliation and critical pedagogy, putting forward the notion that reconciliation projects should be regarded…

  19. Perspectives on Student Political Activism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a historical and international overview of student political movements. Discusses the sporadic nature of student activism, effects of mass media attention and government response, characteristics of activist leaders and participants, and the cultural and educational impact of student protest in Third World and industrialized countries.…

  20. The Political Persuasion of Librarianship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsall, William F.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses liberalism in America, with emphasis on the liberal commitment to individualism. The political values of librarians are considered in this context, and it is argued that, although librarians perpetuate the myth that librarianship is apolitical, it reflects a general American culture that consists primarily of liberal tenets. (25…

  1. Science, politics, and health in the brave new world of pharmaceutical carcinogenic risk assessment: Technical progress or cycle of regulatory capture?

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, John; Ballinger, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    The carcinogenicity (cancer-inducing potential) of pharmaceuticals is an important risk factor for health when considering whether thousands of patients on drug trials or millions/billions of consumers in the marketplace should be exposed to a new drug. Drawing on fieldwork involving over 50 interviews and documentary research spanning 2002–2010 in Europe and the US, and on regulatory capture theory, this article investigates how the techno-regulatory standards for carcinogenicity testing of pharmaceuticals have altered since 1998. It focuses on the replacement of long-term carcinogenicity tests in rodents (especially mice) with shorter-term tests involving genetically-engineered mice (GEM). Based on evidence regarding financial/organizational control, methodological design, and interpretation of the validation and application of these new GEM tests, it is argued that regulatory agencies permitted the drug industry to shape such validation and application in ways that prioritized commercial interests over the need to protect public health. Boundary-work enabling industry scientists to define some standards of public-health policy facilitated such capture. However, as the scientific credibility of GEM tests as tools to protect public health by screening out carcinogens became inescapably problematic, a regulatory resurgence, impelled by reputational concerns, exercised more control over industry’s construction and use of the tests, The extensive problems with GEM tests as public-health protective regulatory science raises the spectre that alterations to pharmaceutical carcinogenicity-testing standards since the 1990s may have been boundary-work in which the political project of decreasing the chance that companies’ products are defined as carcinogenic has masqueraded as techno-science. PMID:22784375

  2. Power, expertise and the limits of representative democracy: genetics as scientific progress or political legitimation in carcinogenic risk assessment of pharmaceuticals?

    PubMed

    Abraham, John; Ballinger, Rachel

    2012-04-01

    In modern 'representative' democratic states, the legitimacy of governments' actions rests on their publicly declared commitment to protect the interests of their citizens. Regarding the pharmaceutical sector in most democracies, new drug products are developed and marketed by a capitalist industry, whose member firms, via shareholders, have commercial interests in expanding product sales. In those democracies, states have established government agencies to regulate the pharmaceutical industry on behalf of citizens. State legislatures, such as the US Congress and European Parliaments, have charged government drug regulatory agencies with the legal responsibility to protect public health. Yet, this paper argues that government drug regulatory agencies in the EU, Japan, and USA have permitted the pharmaceutical industry to reshape the regulatory guidance for carcinogenic risk assessment of pharmaceuticals in ways that are not techno-scientifically defensible as bases for improved, or even equivalent, protection of public health, compared with the previous techno-regulatory standards. By adopting the industry's agenda of streamlining carcinogenicity testing in order to accelerate drug development and regulatory review, it is contended that these regulatory agencies have allowed the techno-regulatory standards for carcinogenic risk assessment to be loosened in ways that are presented as scientific progress resulting from new genetics, but for which there is little evidence of progress in public health protection. PMID:22109906

  3. Auto-catalysed progression of aneuploidy explains the Hayflick limit of cultured cells, carcinogen-induced tumours in mice, and the age distribution of human cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Rasnick, D

    2000-01-01

    Evidence continues to accumulate that aneuploidy, an imbalance in the number of chromosomes, is responsible for the characteristic phenotypes of cancer, including the abnormal cellular size and morphology of cancer cells, the appearance of tumour-associated antigens, as well as the high levels of membrane-bound and secreted proteins responsible for invasiveness and loss of contact inhibition. Aneuploidy has also been demonstrated to be the self-perpetuating source of the karyotypic instability of cancer cells. Here it is shown that the auto-catalysed progression of aneuploidy explains the kinetics of the finite lifetime of diploid cells in culture, the time course of the appearance of papillomas and carcinomas in benzo[a]pyrene-treated mice, and the age-dependence of human cancers. Modelling studies indicate that the ease of spontaneous transformation of mouse cells in culture may be due to a chaotic progression of aneuploidy. Conversely, the strong preference towards senescence and resistance to transformation of human cells in culture may be the result of a non-chaotic progression of aneuploidy. Finally, a method is proposed for quantifying the aneuploidogenic potencies of carcinogens. PMID:10839979

  4. IGF-1R signaling is essential for the proliferation of cultured mouse spermatogonial stem cells by promoting the G2/M progression of the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Si; Wang, Xiuxia; Wu, Yujian; Han, Chunsheng

    2015-02-15

    Culture of mouse spermatogonial stem cells (mSSCs) contributes to understanding the mechanisms of mammalian spermatogenesis. Several key growth factors such as GDNF and FGF2 have been known to be essential for the proliferation of cultured mSSCs. However, additional factors regulating SSC proliferation remain to be identified. In this study, we report that IGF-1R signaling is required for the proliferation of cultured mSSCs by promoting the G2/M progression of the cell cycle. IGF-1 and its receptor IGF-1R are expressed in cultured mSSCs as well as in isolated Sertoli cells and interstitial cells. Blockage of IGF-1R signaling either by knockdown of IGF-1R or by the IGF-1R-specific inhibitor picropodophyllin (PPP) significantly reduced the proliferation of mSSCs, increased their apoptosis, and impaired their stem cell activity in an insulin-independent manner. PPP treatment of mSSCs blocked the G2/M progression. In contrast, both GDNF withdrawal and FGF2 signaling blockade decreased the entry of mSSCs into their S phases. Consistently, IGF-1 promoted the G2/M progression of thymidine-treated mSSCs, which were arrested at G1/S boundary synchronously; while GDNF and/or FGF2 stimulated their entry into the S phase. Moreover, IGF-1 activated the phosphorylation of AKT but not that of ERK1/2 in mSSCs. These results indicate that IGF-1R signaling stimulates the proliferation of mSSCs using a distinct mechanism from those by GDNF and FGF2, and will contribute to the establishment of a chemically defined culture system. PMID:25356638

  5. Styling the revolution: masculinities, youth, and street politics in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doreen

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the changes to urban political culture in Jakarta, Indonesia, from 1998 to the present. By tracing the contributions of youth activists, and middle-class university students in particular, to the production of the street as a political and public space, the author demonstrates to what extent the democratized post-Suharto era naturalizes the place of youth in nationalist politics. Central to this inquiry of youth identity formation is the elision of class and gender as analytical categories. Student movements in 1998 and after have relied on a specific masculine style that draws on both the authenticity of nationalist historical narratives and the street as the domain of the People, and in the process masks potentially contentious class and gender differences among progressive activists. PMID:22175079

  6. Political Reactance and Political Reality: A Theory of Political Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Samuel

    The research investigated political and psychological reactance among adolescents. Political reactance is interpreted to include feelings of political alienation and distrust. Psychological reactance is defined as behavior by an individual in response to reduction or threatened reduction of freedom. A model was created which expanded existing…

  7. American Political Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehlinger, Howard D.; Patrick, John J.

    This text presents high school students with up-to-date findings of social scientists about political behavior in order to increase their political knowledge and sophistication. Case studies which describe the various political activities of typical citizens and political leaders are used throughout the work. Simulations, games, political attitude…

  8. The symphony of the damned: racial discourse, complex political emergencies and humanitarian aid.

    PubMed

    Duffield, M

    1996-09-01

    This paper concerns the manner in which the West is responding to protracted political crises beyond its borders. It examines the conceptual world-view that aid agencies bring to complex emergencies and which shapes action. The paper provides an analysis of developmentalism. That is, the currently dominant idea of development which is an adapted form of multiculturalism. It is based on the empowerment of cultural differences and the relativisation of progress. As a variant of multiculturalism, developmentalism is part of Western racial discourse. In terms of understanding conflict, it establishes a mirror-image relationship with new rascist ideas premised on cultural pluralism inevitably leading to social breakdown, violence and anarchy. To the contrary, with its functional view of social harmony, libertine developmentalism claims that even unresolved political crisis constitutes a development opportunity. Developmentalism, like culturalism generally, is incapable of analysing power. It therefore cannot understand the effects and significance of its own organisational forms. Moreover, since the absence of power translates into operational neutrality in a war zone, it is also unable to analyse the nature of new political formations emerging in the global periphery. That is, the so-called weak or failed states, warlords and so on. This functional ignorance has allowed a widespread incorporation of humanitarian aid into the fabric of political violence. Developmentalism is an essential underpinning for the growing organisational accommodation to ongoing conflict and eroding standards of justice and accountability. PMID:8854455

  9. Diversity and the Political Function of Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skeie, Geir

    2006-01-01

    Questions about the relationship between religion and politics are discussed with particular focus on the consequences for religious education. Norway is taken as an example of a country where increasing cultural diversity challenges traditional politics of religion. In the present climate of conflicting views on the role of religion in politics,…

  10. "These Are Issues that Should Not Be Raised in Black and White": The Culture of Progress Reporting and the Doctorate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mewburn, Inger; Tokareva, Ekaterina; Cuthbert, Denise; Sinclair, Jennifer; Barnacle, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports findings from Australian research into student, academic and administrative staff understandings of the role and efficacy of periodic progress reports designed to monitor the progress of higher-degree-by-research candidates. Major findings are that confusion of the purpose and ultimate audience of these reports is linked to less…

  11. Culture, territories, and confidence in food: an anthropological view on health in the context of environmental pollution and socio-political tension.

    PubMed

    Bargès, Anne

    2008-07-01

    Pollutants in the environment as well as potential risks to human health and health policies are leading to profound changes in the food chain. Whether dietary patterns and medical interventions are accepted, depends on the cultural and territorial anchorage of the populations, their socio-cultural past as well as scientific uncertainty and modalities of objectification of social actors. Controversies, debates, and the media influence governance. Local and minority experiences open up global perspectives. This paper focuses on the necessary contextualization of events at the crossroads of various social sciences. The exposure of fish-eating native people to methylmercury in Canada is used as an example. PMID:18374451

  12. The Cultural Transformation of a Native American Family and Its Tribe, 1763-1995: A Basket of Apples. Sociocultural, Political, and Historical Studies in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spring, Joel

    This book describes the impact of U.S. government social, cultural and educational policies on a Native American family and its tribe--the Choctaw--from 1763 to 1995. The book intertwines a personal quest for family roots in Choctaw tribal history with traditional historical methodology to examine the direct relationship between educational…

  13. From "Culturally Deprived" to "At Risk": The Politics of Popular Expression and Educational Inequality in the United States, 1960-1985

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Sylvia L. M.; Rury, John L.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the terms "culturally deprived" and "disadvantaged" in light of their popular use in the sixties and following decades, particularly in the ethnic and mainstream press. These expressions represented an effort to explain differences in educational attainment and academic achievement along lines of social class, race, and…

  14. Education and Violence: The Schools' Micro-Politics and the Macro-Politics in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tshabangu, Icarbord

    2008-01-01

    This study examined forms of violence in Zimbabwean schools and sought to draw an analogy with the country's macro-politics. Key interrelationships emerged which painted an endemic culture of violence. Over three hundred (300) students and eighty, (80) teachers submitted 2-3 page-written accounts on their schools' micro-politics. Thirty, (30)…

  15. Teaching Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magrath, Douglas R.

    The study of a foreign language is the study of another culture. Cultural involvement begins as learners progress from grammar to the actual use of language. Culture includes the ideas, customs, skills, arts, and tools of a people and influences both cognitive and affective behavior. It should be introduced as part of the total language…

  16. Education and Economic, Political, and Social Change in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huong, Pham Lan; Fry, Gerald W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the complex relations among history, education, political economy, and social change in Vietnam. Vietnam has a long history of education and a literate culture. The evolution of Vietnamese culture and society is characterized by both persistence and change. Social and political persistence and change have been…

  17. Co-constructing cultural landscapes for disciplinary learning in and out of school: the next generation science standards and learning progressions in action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdova, Ralph A.; Balcerzak, Phyllis

    2015-12-01

    The authors of this study are teacher-researchers, the first is a university researcher and former third and fourth grade teacher, while the second author is a university-based science educator. They report findings from a community-based study that Ralph, the first author, and his students conducted across two academic years (2001-2003) in order to illustrate the ways in which the next generation science standards and learning progressions can be appropriated as social-constructed practices inside and outside of school. The authors argue that what constitutes science learning in school is not a `state of grace' dictated by standards. Rather, becoming a scientist within a community of learners is a cultural phenomenon that teachers and students co-construct and as such teachers can approach the next generation science standards and learning progressions as opportunities to create intentional, disciplinary practice-based learning communities inside and outside of school.

  18. Review Essay: Good Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neckerman, Kathryn M.

    2000-01-01

    Examines two books, "The Color of School Reform: Race, Politics, and the Challenge of Urban Education" and "Black Social Capital: The Politics of School Reform in Baltimore," both of which apply urban regime theory to a new policy arena, reconsider the role of business in local school politics, bring politics into institutionalist analysis of…

  19. Talking Politics, Practicing Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Mary Pat

    2008-01-01

    The message emerging from a recent research series on youth civic and political participation is clear: today's youth are not disengaged from associational and small "p" political life, but they are increasingly disenchanted with formal political institutions and practices. Generation Y (those born after 1979) has less formal political knowledge…

  20. The politics of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, F; Rapp, R

    1991-01-01

    The topic of human reproduction encompasses events throughout the human and especially female life-cycle as well as ideas and practices surrounding fertility, birth, and child care. Most of the scholarship on the subject, up through the 1960s, was based on cross-cultural surveys focused on the beliefs, norms, and values surrounding reproductive behaviors. Multiple methodologies and subspecialties, and fields like social history, human biology, and demography were utilized for the analysis. The concept of the politics of reproduction synthesizes local and global perspectives. The themes investigated include: the concept of reproduction, population control, and the internationalization of state and market interests (new reproductive technologies); social movements and contested domains; medicalization and its discontents; fertility and its control; adolescence and teen pregnancy; birth; birth attendants; the construction of infancy and the politics of child survival; rethinking the demographic transition; networks of nurturance; and meanings of menopause. The medicalization of reproduction is a central issue of studies of birth, midwifery, infertility, and reproductive technologies. Scholars have also analyzed different parts of the female life-cycle as medical problems. Other issues worth analysis include the internationalization of adoption and child care workers; the crisis of infertility of low-income and minority women who are not candidates for expensive reproductive technologies; the concerns of women at high risk for HIV whose cultural status depends on their fertility; questions of reproduction concerning, lesbians and gay men (artificial insemination and discrimination in child rearing); the study of menopause; and fatherhood. New discourse analysis is used to analyze state eugenic policies; conflicts over Western neocolonial influences in which women's status as childbearers represent nationalist interests; fundamentalist attacks on abortion rights; and

  1. Effect of X irradiation on the progression of mouse 10T1/2 cells released from density-inhibited cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasawa, H.; Robertson, J.B.; Arundel, C.S.; Little, J.B.

    1984-03-01

    When mouse C3H 10T1/2 cells were allowed to reach the density-inhibited plateau phase of growth, 0-3% of the cells were in the S phase as determined by pulse-labeling indices and about 90% of cells were in the G/sub 1/ phase as determined by flow microfluorometry (FMF). Density-inhibited cultures were exposed to moderate doses of X ray; immediately after X irradiation the cultures were trypsinized and the cells were subcultured at low density in fresh medium. FMF profiles and pulse and continuous-labeling indices were studied. It was determined by pulse-labeling indices that the cell population which was released from the plateau-phase cultures remained in the G/sub 1/ phase longer than the duration of the normal G/sub 1/ phase in exponentially growing cells. When plateau-phase cultures were irradiated with 400 rad before subculture, the cells moved into the S phase approximately 4 hr later than did nonirradiated cells. Despite the G/sub 1//S delay, both irradiated and nonirradiated cell populations showed a similar rate of progression through the S phase. As determined by cumulative labeling indices, the fraction of cells which remained in G/sub 1/ up to 120 hr post-subculture (G/sub 1/ block) increased linearly with X-ray doses. There was no measurable X-ray-induced G/sub 1/ delay or G/sub 1/ block in cells irradiated after subculture at the G/sub 1//S border during semi-synchronous growth.

  2. Politics and the Movie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funderburk, Charles

    1978-01-01

    Explains how the use of feature-length motion pictures, combined with interesting readings, can generate enthusiasm, discussion, and analysis of basic political ideas, concepts, and values. Reviews costs and identifies specific movies and readings on various political topics. (AV)

  3. Socio-Cultural Appraisals on the Greek Non-Compulsory Secondary Education: An Analysis on the Education Provided for the Immigrant Foreign and the Repatriated Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liambas, Anastasios; Tourtouras, Christos; Kaskaris, Ioannis

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of an empirical sociological research project, still in progress, we will draw on a series of critical issues raised on the promise and possibility of the cultural studies in education: to get below the surface, to enhance theory or even to contribute at the level of institutional/political interference towards the central theme…

  4. Policy Research and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane

    1988-01-01

    Explores what it means to do research intended to be relevant for public policy. Argues against perception of policy research as politically neutral technical exercise. Discusses political implications of methodology. Discusses research examples to illustrate point. Discusses implications for how research might be used in political process.…

  5. Political Education in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dag, Nilgun; Sozer, Mehmet Akif; Sel, Burcu

    2015-01-01

    Political education is a term with negative associations and triggering prejudiced approaches and discourses--maybe some paranoid thoughts--like "keep politics away from education!" in the minds of several people. This article deals with "political education" phenomenon almost never discussed and made subject to scientific…

  6. Tracking Politics with POWER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…

  7. Conceptions of Progress: How Is Progress Perceived? Mainstream versus Alternative Conceptions of Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Itay, Anat

    2009-01-01

    Progress is a powerful political concept, encompassing different and sometimes contradictory conceptions. This paper examines the results of a survey on progress conducted at the OECD World Forum entitled "Measuring and Fostering the Progress of Societies" held in Istanbul in June 2007. First, a distinction is drawn between the two approaches to…

  8. Contested identities: gendered politics, gendered religion in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shaheed, Farida

    2010-01-01

    In Pakistan, the self-serving use of Islam by more secular elements alongside politico-religious ones facilitated the latter's increasing influence and the conflation and intricate interweaving of Islam and Pakistani nationhood. A paradigm shift under Zia's martial law revamped society as much as state laws, producing both religiously defined militias and aligned civil society groups. Examining the impact on women of fusing religion and politics, this paper argues that women become symbolic markers of appropriated territory in the pursuit of state power, and that the impact of such fusing, different for differently situated women, needs to be gauged in societal terms as well as in terms of state dynamics. Questioning the positing of civil society as a self-evident progressive desideratum, the paper concludes that gender equality projects seeking reconfigurations of power cannot be effective without vigorously competing in the creation of knowledge, culture and identity. PMID:20857565

  9. Political Science and Political Geography: Neglected Areas, Areas for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laponce, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Since at least the 1950s, political scientists have tended to ignore the possible contributions of political geography to political science because of a move away from considering spatial factors on political structure. Political scientists need to use more information from geography to enhance their understanding of political power and conflict.…

  10. On medicine and politics.

    PubMed Central

    Krakauer, E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between medicine and politics, between medical management of the human body and governmental management of the body politic. It argues that the increasing complexity both of society and of governmental administration of society in the modern age has made it impossible completely to separate medicine from politics. It demonstrates that, along with great potential for social benefit, "medico-politics" brought with it great danger; much harm has been done purportedly to heal the body politic. The paper concludes by suggesting a way for physicians to minimize this danger. Images FIG. 1 PMID:1285451