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Sample records for prohormone processing sites

  1. Manipulation of stretch-induced atriopeptin prohormone release and processing in the perfused rat heart.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, T; Toki, Y; Siegel, N; Gierse, J K; Needleman, P

    1988-01-01

    Atriopeptin (AP) is stored as the prohormone AP-126 [atrial natriuretic factor-(1-26)] in atrial granules. Cultured atrial myocytes synthesize and release only prohormone into the medium. HPLC analysis of the coronary venous effluent of media from perfused rat hearts subjected to right atrial stretch indicated the presence of the C-terminal mature hormone AP-28 [atrial natriuretic factor-(99-126)] and little or no prohormone. Absence of calcium from the perfusion medium increased total AP release and surprisingly blocked the proteolytic cleavage of the prohormone. Similarly, addition of the proteolytic inhibitor aprotinin to the perfusion medium suppressed the processing of the endogenous AP-126 released by atrial stretch. Aprotinin would be restricted to the extracellular space, which is therefore implicated as the site of prohormone processing. This suggestion was validated by the demonstration that the perfused rat heart could readily cleave exogenous prohormone to mature hormone, a process blocked by aprotinin. Hypothetically, the stimulus-release-processing event initiated by atrial stretch may require the concerted action of the synthetic cell (i.e., atrial myocyte) and a processing cell or site (e.g., the adjacent atrial mesenchymal cell) for the production of the mature AP-28, which is the circulating molecular form of this endocrine system. Images PMID:2973064

  2. Processing of thyrotropin-releasing hormone prohormone (pro-TRH) generates a biologically active peptide, prepro-TRH-(160-169), which regulates TRH-induced thyrotropin secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Bulant, M; Roussel, J P; Astier, H; Nicolas, P; Vaudry, H

    1990-01-01

    Rat thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) prohormone contains five copies of the TRH progenitor sequence Gln-His-Pro-Gly linked together by connecting sequences whose biological activity is unknown. Both the predicted connecting peptide prepro-TRH-(160-169) (Ps4) and TRH are predominant storage forms of TRH precursor-related peptides in the hypothalamus. To determine whether Ps4 is co-released with TRH, rat median eminence slices were perifused in vitro. Infusion of depolarizing concentrations of KCl induced stimulation of release of Ps4- and TRH-like immunoreactivity. The possible effect of Ps4 on thyrotropin release was investigated in vitro using quartered anterior pituitaries. Infusion of Ps4 alone had no effect on thyrotropin secretion but potentiated TRH-induced thyrotropin release in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the occurrence of specific binding sites for 125I-labeled Tyr-Ps4 in the distal lobe of the pituitary was demonstrated by binding analysis and autoradiographic localization. These findings indicate that these two peptides that arise from a single multifunctional precursor, the TRH prohormone, act in a coordinate manner on the same target cells to promote hormonal secretion. These data suggest that differential processing of the TRH prohormone may have the potential to modulate the biological activity of TRH. Images PMID:2162041

  3. Processing of thyrotropin-releasing hormone prohormone (pro-TRH) generates a biologically active peptide, prepro-TRH-(160-169), which regulates TRH-induced thyrotropin secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Bulant, M.; Vaudry, H. ); Roussel, J.P.; Astier, H. ); Nicolas, P. )

    1990-06-01

    Rat thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) prohormone contains five copies of the TRH progenitor sequence Gln-His-Pro-Gly linked together by connecting sequences whose biological activity is unknown. Both the predicted connecting peptide prepro-TRH-(160-169) (Ps4) and TRH are predominant storage forms of TRH precursor-related peptides in the hypothalamus. To determine whether Ps4 is co-released with TRH, rat median eminence slices were perfused in vitro. Infusion of depolarizing concentrations of KCl induced stimulation of release of Ps4- and TRH-like immunoreactivity. The possible effect of Ps4 on thyrotropin release was investigated in vitro using quartered anterior pituitaries. Infusion of Ps4 alone had no effect on thyrotropin secretion but potentiated TRH-induced thyrotropin release in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the occurrence of specific binding sites for {sup 125}I-labeled Tyr-Ps4 in the distal lobe of the pituitary was demonstrated by binding analysis and autoradiographic localization. These findings indicate that these two peptides that arise from a single multifunctional precursor, the TRH prohormone, act in a coordinate manner on the same target cells to promote hormonal secretion. These data suggest that differential processing of the TRH prohormone may have the potential to modulate the biological activity of TRH.

  4. The synthesis and properties of peptidylmethylsulphonium salts with two cationic residues as potential inhibitors of prohormone processing.

    PubMed Central

    Zumbrunn, A; Stone, S; Shaw, E

    1988-01-01

    Peptidylmethylsulphonium salts incorporating consecutive basic residues at the C-terminus of the peptidyl portion such as -Arg-Arg-, -Arg-Lys-, -Lys-Lys- and -Lys-Arg- were synthesized and examined as proteinase inhibitors. Serine proteinases with a specificity directed towards hydrolysis at cationic residues were found to be unaffected by these derivatives. On the other hand, cysteine proteinases, cathepsin B and, in particular, clostripain were readily inactivated by affinity labelling. The reagents thus are of promise for the study of prohormone processing promoted by cysteine proteinases. PMID:3223967

  5. Interaction of Drosophila melanogaster prohormone convertase 2 and 7B2. Insect cell-specific processing and secretion.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J R; Siekhaus, D E; Fuller, R S; Taghert, P H; Lindberg, I

    2000-06-01

    The prohormone convertases (PCs) are an evolutionarily ancient group of proteases required for the maturation of neuropeptide and peptide hormone precursors. In Drosophila melanogaster, the homolog of prohormone convertase 2, dPC2 (amontillado), is required for normal hatching behavior, and immunoblotting data indicate that flies express 80- and 75-kDa forms of this protein. Because mouse PC2 (mPC2) requires 7B2, a helper protein for productive maturation, we searched the fly data base for the 7B2 signature motif PPNPCP and identified an expressed sequence tag clone encoding the entire open reading frame for this protein. dPC2 and d7B2 cDNAs were subcloned into expression vectors for transfection into HEK-293 cells; mPC2 and rat 7B2 were used as controls. Although active mPC2 was detected in medium in the presence of either d7B2 or r7B2, dPC2 showed no proteolytic activity upon coexpression of either d7B2 or r7B2. Labeling experiments showed that dPC2 was synthesized but not secreted from HEK-293 cells. However, when dPC2 and either d7B2 or r7B2 were coexpressed in Drosophila S2 cells, abundant immunoreactive dPC2 was secreted into the medium, coincident with the appearance of PC2 activity. Expression and secretion of dPC2 enzyme activity thus appears to require insect cell-specific posttranslational processing events. The significant differences in the cell biology of the insect and mammalian enzymes, with 7B2 absolutely required for secretion of dPC2 and zymogen conversion occurring intracellularly in the case of dPC2 but not mPC2, support the idea that the Drosophila enzyme has specific requirements for maturation and secretion that can be met only in insect cells. PMID:10749852

  6. amontillado, the Drosophila homolog of the prohormone processing protease PC2, is required during embryogenesis and early larval development.

    PubMed Central

    Rayburn, Lowell Y M; Gooding, Holly C; Choksi, Semil P; Maloney, Dhea; Kidd, Ambrose R; Siekhaus, Daria E; Bender, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Biosynthesis of most peptide hormones and neuropeptides requires proteolytic excision of the active peptide from inactive proprotein precursors, an activity carried out by subtilisin-like proprotein convertases (SPCs) in constitutive or regulated secretory pathways. The Drosophila amontillado (amon) gene encodes a homolog of the mammalian PC2 protein, an SPC that functions in the regulated secretory pathway in neuroendocrine tissues. We have identified amon mutants by isolating ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS)-induced lethal and visible mutations that define two complementation groups in the amon interval at 97D1 of the third chromosome. DNA sequencing identified the amon complementation group and the DNA sequence change for each of the nine amon alleles isolated. amon mutants display partial embryonic lethality, are defective in larval growth, and arrest during the first to second instar larval molt. Mutant larvae can be rescued by heat-shock-induced expression of the amon protein. Rescued larvae arrest at the subsequent larval molt, suggesting that amon is also required for the second to third instar larval molt. Our data indicate that the amon proprotein convertase is required during embryogenesis and larval development in Drosophila and support the hypothesis that AMON acts to proteolytically process peptide hormones that regulate hatching, larval growth, and larval ecdysis. PMID:12586710

  7. Differential localization of prohormone convertases PC1 and PC2 in two distinct types of secretory granules in rat pituitary gonadotrophs.

    PubMed

    Uehara, M; Yaoi, Y; Suzuki, M; Takata, K; Tanaka, S

    2001-04-01

    Prohormone convertases PC1 and PC2 are endoproteases involved in prohormone cleavage at pairs of basic amino acids. There is a report that prohormone convertase exists in the rat anterior pituitary gonadotrophs, where it had previously been considered that proprotein processing does not take place. In addition to luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, rat pituitary gonadotrophs contain chromogranin A (CgA) and secretogranin II (SgII), two members of the family of granin proteins, which have proteolytic sites in their molecules. In the present study we examined whether there is a close correlation between subcellular localization of prohormone convertases and granin proteins. Ultrathin sections of rat anterior pituitary were immunolabeled with anti-PC1 or -PC2 antisera and then stained with immunogold. Immunogold particles for PC1 were exclusively found in large, lucent secretory granules, whereas those for PC2 were seen in both large, lucent and small, dense granules. The double-immunolabeling also demonstrated colocalization of PC2 and SgII in small, dense granules and of PC1, PC2, and CgA in large, lucent granules. These immunocytochemical results suggest that PC2 may be involved in the proteolytic processing of SgII and that both PC1 and PC2 may be necessary to process CgA. PMID:11383885

  8. Specificity of prohormone convertase endoproteolysis of progastrin in AtT-20 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, C J; Sawada, M; Guo, Y J; Finniss, S; Yamada, T

    1995-01-01

    Biologically active peptide hormones are synthesized from larger precursor proteins by a variety of posttranslational processing reactions. Endoproteolytic cleavage at the Lys74-Lys75 dibasic processing site of progastrin is the major determinant for the relative distribution of gastrin heptadecapeptide and tetratriacontapeptide in tissues. Thus, we explored the ability of two prohormone convertases, PC1/PC3 and PC2, to cleave this important site within progastrin. We expressed wild-type human gastrin cDNA and mutant cDNAs in which the Lys74Lys75 site was changed to Lys74Arg75, Arg74Arg75, and Arg74Lys75 residues in AtT-20 cells. Because AtT-20 cells express Pc1/PC3 but not PC2, we also coexpressed a cDNA encoding PC2 in both wild-type and mutant gastrin-producing AtT-20 cells. Wild-type Lys74Lys75 and mutant Arg74Arg75 progastrin processing sites were efficiently cleaved in AtT-20 cells only after coexpression of PC2. Mutant Lys74Arg75 progastrin was readily processed in cells in the presence or absence of PC2 coexpression, but, in contrast, mutant Arg74Lys75 progastrin was inefficiently cleaved regardless of PC2 coexpression. Northern analysis revealed the presence of PC2 but not PC1/ PC3 in canine antral gastrin-producing G cells. These data suggest that PC2 but not PC1/PC3 is responsible for the cleavage of the Lys74Lys75 site in wild-type progastrin. Images PMID:7657815

  9. Morphine treatment selectively regulates expression of rat pituitary POMC and the prohormone convertases PC1/3 and PC2

    PubMed Central

    Anghel, Adrian; Paez Espinosa, Enma V.; Stuart, Ronald C.; Lutfy, Kabirullah; Nillni, Eduardo A.; Friedman, Theodore C.

    2013-01-01

    The prohormone convertases, PC1/3 and PC2 are thought to be responsible for the activation of many prohormones through processing including the endogenous opioid peptides. We propose that maintenance of hormonal homeostasis can be achieved, in part, via alterations in levels of these enzymes that control the ratio of active hormone to prohormone. In order to test the hypothesis that exogenous opioids regulate the endogenous opioid system and the enzymes responsible for their biosynthesis, we studied the effect of short-term morphine or naltrexone treatment on pituitary PC1/3 and PC2 as well as on the level of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), the precursor gene for the biosynthesis of the endogenous opioid peptide, beta-endorphin. Using ribonuclease protection assays, we observed that morphine down-regulated and naltrexone up-regulated rat pituitary PC1/3 and PC2 mRNA. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis confirmed that the protein levels changed in parallel with the changes in mRNA levels and were accompanied by changes in the levels of phosphorylated cyclic-AMP response element binding protein. We propose that the alterations of the prohormone processing system may be a compensatory mechanism in response to an exogenous opioid ligand whereby the organism tries to restore its homeostatic hormonal milieu following exposure to the opioid, possibly by regulating the levels of multiple endogenous opioid peptides and other neuropeptides in concert. PMID:23891651

  10. Immunoreactive prohormone atrial natriuretic peptides 1-30 and 31-67 - Existence of a single circulating amino-terminal peptide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yu-Ming; Whitson, Peggy A.; Cintron, Nitza M.

    1990-01-01

    Sep-Pak C18 extraction of human plasma and radioimmunoassay using antibodies which recognize atrial natriuretic peptide (99-128) and the prohormone sequences 1-30 and 31-67 resulted in mean values from 20 normal subjects of 26.2 (+/- 9.2), 362 (+/- 173) and 368 (+/- 160) pg/ml, respectively. A high correlation coefficient between values obtained using antibodies recognizing prohormone sequences 1-30 and 31-67 was observed (R = 0.84). Extracted plasma immunoreactivity of 1-30 and 31-67 both eluted at 46 percent acetonitrile. In contrast, chromatographic elution of synthetic peptides 1-30 and 31-67 was observed at 48 and 39 percent acetonitrile, respectively. Data suggest that the radioimmunoassay of plasma using antibodies recognizing prohormone sequences 1-30 and 31-67 may represent the measurement of a unique larger amino-terminal peptide fragment containing antigenic sites recognized by both antisera.

  11. Gene organization and alternative splicing of human prohormone convertase PC8.

    PubMed Central

    Goodge, K A; Thomas, R J; Martin, T J; Gillespie, M T

    1998-01-01

    The mammalian Ca2+-dependent serine protease prohormone convertase PC8 is expressed ubiquitously, being transcribed as 3.5, 4.3 and 6.0 kb mRNA isoforms in various tissues. To determine the origin of these various mRNA isoforms we report the characterization of the human PC8 gene, which has been previously localized to chromosome 11q23-24. Consisting of 16 exons, the human PC8 gene spans approx. 27 kb. A comparison of the position of intron-exon junctions of the human PC8 gene with the gene structures of previously reported prohormone convertase genes demonstrated a divergence of the human PC8 from the highly conserved nature of the gene organization of this enzyme family. The nucleotide sequence of the 5'-flanking region of the human PC8 is reported and possesses putative promoter elements characteristic of a GC-rich promoter. Further supporting the potential role of a GC-rich promoter element, multiple transcriptional initiation sites within a 200 bp region were demonstrated. We propose that the various mRNA isoforms of PC8 result from the inclusion of intronic sequences within transcripts. PMID:9820811

  12. Mutant PAX6 downregulates prohormone convertase 2 expression in mouse islets.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Cao, Wenwan; Zhou, Shixin; Shen, Liang; Wen, Jinhua

    2013-11-01

    Transcriptional factor paired box 6 (PAX6) is very important for the development of the eyes, central nervous system, and pancreas. PAX6 mutations are associated with a diabetic phenotype and abnormal glucose metabolism. Our previous study showed that PAX6 directly bound to and activated the prohormone convertase 1/3 (Pc1/3) gene promoter and subsequently regulated proinsulin processing. Prohormone convertase 2 (PC2) is the essential enzyme for pancreatic proinsulin processing. To study the regulation of PAX6 in Pc2 expression, we did research on the pancreas of Pax6 R266Stop mutant mice, where truncated mutations happened in the C-terminal of the PAX6 protein. Our studies showed that the mutant PAX6 protein was stable and regulated the activity of Pc2 promoter as shown by luciferase activity assays. We found that the wild-type PAX6 protein imparts a transcriptional effect, and the mutant PAX6 can also regulate the downstream molecules. The results provide new insights into the mechanism of truncated PAX6 in regulating the functions of the pancreas and endocrine system. PMID:24047795

  13. Inhibition of Prohormone Convertases PC1/3 and PC2 by 2,5-Dideoxystreptamine Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Vivoli, Mirella; Caulfield, Thomas R.; Martínez-Mayorga, Karina; Johnson, Alan T.; Jiao, Guan-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The prohormone convertases PC1/3 and PC2 are eukaryotic serine proteases involved in the proteolytic maturation of peptide hormone precursors and are implicated in a variety of pathological conditions, including obesity, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, we screened 45 compounds obtained by derivatization of a 2,5-dideoxystreptamine scaffold with guanidinyl and aryl substitutions for convertase inhibition. We identified four promising PC1/3 competitive inhibitors and three PC2 inhibitors that exhibited various inhibition mechanisms (competitive, noncompetitive, and mixed), with sub- and low micromolar inhibitory potency against a fluorogenic substrate. Low micromolar concentrations of certain compounds blocked the processing of the physiological substrate proglucagon. The best PC2 inhibitor effectively inhibited glucagon synthesis, a known PC2-mediated process, in a pancreatic cell line; no cytotoxicity was observed. We also identified compounds that were able to stimulate both 87 kDa PC1/3 and PC2 activity, behavior related to the presence of aryl groups on the dideoxystreptamine scaffold. By contrast, inhibitory activity was associated with the presence of guanidinyl groups. Molecular modeling revealed interactions of the PC1/3 inhibitors with the active site that suggest structural modifications to further enhance potency. In support of kinetic data suggesting that PC2 inhibition probably occurs via an allosteric mechanism, we identified several possible allosteric binding sites using computational searches. It is noteworthy that one compound was found to both inhibit PC2 and stimulate PC1/3. Because glucagon acts in functional opposition to insulin in blood glucose homeostasis, blocking glucagon formation and enhancing proinsulin cleavage with a single compound could represent an attractive therapeutic approach in diabetes. PMID:22169851

  14. Synthetic Small-Molecule Prohormone Convertase 2 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Kowalska, Dorota; Liu, Jin; Appel, Jon R.; Ozawa, Akihiko; Nefzi, Adel; Mackin, Robert B.; Houghten, Richard A.; Lindberg, Iris

    2009-01-01

    The proprotein convertases are believed to be responsible for the proteolytic maturation of a large number of peptide hormone precursors. Although potent furin inhibitors have been identified, thus far, no small-molecule prohormone convertase 1/3 or prohormone convertase 2 (PC2) inhibitors have been described. After screening 38 small-molecule positional scanning libraries against recombinant mouse PC2, two promising chemical scaffolds were identified: bicyclic guanidines, and pyrrolidine bis-piperazines. A set of individual compounds was designed from each library and tested against PC2. Pyrrolidine bis-piperazines were irreversible, time-dependent inhibitors of PC2, exhibiting noncompetitive inhibition kinetics; the most potent inhibitor exhibited a Ki value for PC2 of 0.54 μM. In contrast, the most potent bicyclic guanidine inhibitor exhibited a Ki value of 3.3 μM. Cross-reactivity with other convertases was limited: pyrrolidine bis-piperazines exhibited Ki values greater than 25 μM for PC1/3 or furin, whereas the Ki values of bicyclic guanidines for these other convertases were more than 15 μM. We conclude that pyrrolidine bis-piperazines and bicyclic guanidines represent promising initial leads for the optimization of therapeutically active PC2 inhibitors. PC2-specific inhibitors may be useful in the pharmacological blockade of PC2-dependent cleavage events, such as glucagon production in the pancreas and ectopic peptide production in small-cell carcinoma, and to study PC2-dependent proteolytic events, such as opioid peptide production. PMID:19074544

  15. The CACREP Site Visit Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Courtland C.

    2013-01-01

    An important step in the CACREP review process is the campus site visit. The visit involves a team, usually from comparable institutions, coming to a campus for a review of the counselor training program(s). The role of the team is to be the CACREP Board's representative on campus to verify the self-study. In this article, the author reviews…

  16. Hereditary error in epidermal growth factor prohormone metabolism in a rat model of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, J; Eysselein, V

    1993-12-30

    Normal Sprague Dawley (SPRD) rats of both sexes secrete an 165 kDa EGF prohormone in urine. Sexually mature Hannover-Sprague Dawley rats (Han:SPRD) heterozygous males and females with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) secrete a prohormone of similar molecular mass in urine. The male, but not the female, also secretes two variant prohormone isoforms with molecular masses close to 200 kDa. Both the 165 and 200 kDa EGF prohormone isoforms are totally absent, in urine, at 11 months of age in male but not in female heterozygous Han:SPRD rats. At this age, the male kidneys exhibit numerous cysts filled with colorless fluids and these fluids contain abundant quantities of a 66 kDa EGF prohormone metabolite. Homozygous Han:SPRD rats which are born with cystic disease secrete only trace amounts of 165 kDa EGF prohormone in their urine while their normal looking littermates secrete the 165 kDa EGF prohormone in abundant quantities. The cyst fluids of homozygous rats contain trace amounts of 165 and 154 kDa EGF prohormone isoforms while the 66 kDa EGF prohormone metabolites present in abundant quantities. The massive amounts of 66 kDa EGF prohormone metabolite in cyst fluids of PKD rats suggests that EGF prohormone and its isoforms undergo aberrant proteolysis in association with cyst pathogenesis both in heterozygous and homozygous kidneys. The specific retention of the 66 kDa EGF prohormone metabolite within the cyst suggests that this molecule may function as a cystogen. PMID:8280123

  17. Activation and routing of membrane-tethered prohormone convertases 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Bruzzaniti, A; Marx, R; Mains, R E

    1999-08-27

    Many peptide hormones and neuropeptides are processed by members of the subtilisin-like family of prohormone convertases (PCs), which are either soluble or integral membrane proteins. PC1 and PC2 are soluble PCs that are primarily localized to large dense core vesicles in neurons and endocrine cells. We examined whether PC1 and PC2 were active when expressed as membrane-tethered proteins, and how tethering to membranes alters the biosynthesis, enzymatic activity, and intracellular routing of these PCs. PC1 and PC2 chimeras were constructed using the transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic domain of the amidating enzyme, peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM). The membrane-tethered PCs were rerouted from large dense core vesicles to the Golgi region. In addition, the chimeras were transiently expressed at the cell surface and rapidly internalized to the Golgi region in a fashion similar to PAM. Membrane-tethered PC1 and PC2 exhibited changes in pro-domain maturation rates, N-glycosylation, and in the pH and calcium optima required for maximal enzymatic activity against a fluorogenic substrate. In addition, the PC chimeras efficiently cleaved endogenous pro-opiomelanocortin to the correct bioactive peptides. The PAM transmembrane domain/cytoplasmic domain also prevented stimulated secretion of pro-opiomelanocortin products in AtT-20 cells. PMID:10455138

  18. Contaminant Attenuation Processes at Mining Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored natural attenuation is sometimes used in combination with active treatment technologies to achieve site-specific remediation objectives. The global imprint of acid drainage problems at mining sites, however, is a clear reminder that in most cases natural processes are ...

  19. Prohormone convertase 2 activity is increased in the hippocampus of Wfs1 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Tein, Karin; Kasvandik, Sergo; Kõks, Sulev; Vasar, Eero; Terasmaa, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mutations in WFS1 gene cause Wolfram syndrome, which is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic nerve atrophy, and deafness. The WFS1 gene product wolframin is located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Mice lacking this gene exhibit disturbances in the processing and secretion of peptides, such as vasopressin and insulin. In the brain, high levels of the wolframin protein have been observed in the hippocampus, amygdala, and limbic structures. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Wfs1 knockout (KO) on peptide processing in mouse hippocampus. A peptidomic approach was used to characterize individual peptides in the hippocampus of wild-type and Wfs1 KO mice. Results: We identified 126 peptides in hippocampal extracts and the levels of 10 peptides differed between Wfs1 KO and wild-type mice at P < 0.05. The peptide with the largest alteration was little-LEN, which level was 25 times higher in the hippocampus of Wfs1 KO mice compared to wild-type mice. Processing (cleavage) of little-LEN from the Pcsk1n gene product proSAAS involves prohormone convertase 2 (PC2). Thus, PC2 activity was measured in extracts prepared from the hippocampus of Wfs1 KO mice. The activity of PC2 in Wfs1 mutant mice was significantly higher (149.9 ± 2.3%, p < 0.0001, n = 8) than in wild-type mice (100.0 ± 7.0%, n = 8). However, Western blot analysis showed that protein levels of 7B2, proPC2 and PC2 were same in both groups, and so were gene expression levels. Conclusion: Processing of proSAAS is altered in the hippocampus of Wfs1-KO mice, which is caused by increased activity of PC2. Increased activity of PC2 in Wfs1 KO mice is not caused by alteration in the levels of PC2 protein. Our results suggest a functional link between Wfs1 and PC2. Thus, the detailed molecular mechanism of the role of Wfs1 in the regulation of PC2 activity needs further investigation. PMID:26379490

  20. METAL ATTENUATION PROCESSES AT MINING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this Issue Paper is to provide scientists and engineers responsible for assessing remediation technologies with background information on MNA processes at mining-impacted sites. The global magnitude of the acid drainage problem is clear evidence that in most cases...

  1. Deficiency of prohormone convertase dPC2 (AMONTILLADO) results in impaired production of bioactive neuropeptide hormones in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Christian; Herbert, Henrik; Kahnt, Jörg; Bender, Michael; Rhea, Jeanne M

    2011-08-01

    Peptide hormones synthesized by secretory neurons in the CNS are important regulators of physiology, behavior, and development. Like other neuropeptides, they are synthesized from larger precursor molecules by a specific set of enzymes. Using a combination of neurogenetics, immunostainings, and direct mass spectrometric profiling, we show that the presence of Drosophila prohormone convertase 2 encoded by the gene amontillado (amon) is a prerequisite for the proper processing of neuropeptide hormones from the major neurohemal organs of the CNS. A loss of amon correlates with a loss of neuropeptide hormone signals from the larval ring gland and perisympathetic organs. Neuropeptide hormone signals were still detectable in the adult corpora cardiaca of older amon-deficient flies which were amon heat-shock-rescued until eclosion. A semiquantification by direct peptide profiling using stable isotopic standards showed, however, that their neuropeptide hormone levels are strongly reduced. Targeted expression of GFP under the control of amon regulatory regions revealed a co-localization with the investigated peptide hormones in secretory neurons of the brain and ventral nerve cord. The lack of AMON activity resulted in a deficiency of L3 larva to enter the wandering phase. In conclusion, our findings provide the first direct evidence that AMON is a key enzyme in the production of neuropeptides in the fruitfly. PMID:21138435

  2. 10 CFR 960.3-2 - Siting process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Siting process. 960.3-2 Section 960.3-2 Energy DEPARTMENT... REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2 Siting process. The siting process begins with site screening for the identification of potentially acceptable sites. This process was completed for purposes of...

  3. 10 CFR 960.3-2 - Siting process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Siting process. 960.3-2 Section 960.3-2 Energy DEPARTMENT... REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2 Siting process. The siting process begins with site screening for the identification of potentially acceptable sites. This process was completed for purposes of...

  4. 10 CFR 960.3-2 - Siting process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Siting process. 960.3-2 Section 960.3-2 Energy DEPARTMENT... REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2 Siting process. The siting process begins with site screening for the identification of potentially acceptable sites. This process was completed for purposes of...

  5. 10 CFR 960.3-2 - Siting process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Siting process. 960.3-2 Section 960.3-2 Energy DEPARTMENT... REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2 Siting process. The siting process begins with site screening for the identification of potentially acceptable sites. This process was completed for purposes of...

  6. 10 CFR 960.3-2 - Siting process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Siting process. 960.3-2 Section 960.3-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2 Siting process. The siting process begins with site...

  7. Ghrelin, ghrelin-O-acyl transferase, nucleobindin-2/nesfatin-1 and prohormone convertases in the pancreatic islets of Sprague Dawley rats during development.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Haneesha; Gasner, Michaela; Ramesh, Naresh; Unniappan, Suraj

    2016-06-01

    Ghrelin and nesfatin-1 are regulators of blood glucose and energy balance. Prohormone convertases (PCs) enable processing of ghrelin and nesfatin-1 from its precursors. An acylation, enabled by ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT) is critical for many of the biological actions of ghrelin. To date, there is no research on the developmental expression of GOAT, and the co-expression of both NUCB2/nesfatin-1 and prohormone convertases in the pancreas. The objective of this research was to immunolocalize ghrelin, GOAT, NUCB2/nesfatin-1, PC1/3 and PC2 in the pancreas during fetal and postnatal periods of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats using immunohistochemical analysis. GOAT mRNA in the rat pancreas during development was also determined. In the pancreas, not all islet cells immunopositive for GOAT are immunoreactive for ghrelin on postnatal (P) days 20, 27 and adult. GOAT mRNA expression in the pancreas at P27 was higher than the expression levels in rest of the developmental stages tested. Both PC1/3 and PC2 are co-expressed with NUCB2/nesfatin-1 on embryonic (E) day E21, P13, P20. While similar co-localization was also found in P27 for NUCB2/nesfatin-1 and PC1/3, NUCB2/nesfatin-1 and PC2 were found in distinct populations of cells in P27. Some ghrelin and GOAT positive cells stained for nesfatin-1 as well. Meanwhile, no co-localization of somatostatin and glucaon with nesfatin-1 was found in the pancreas of SD rats. Our findings suggest that the endocrine pancreas can produce and process precursors of ghrelin and nesfatin-1 to make bioactive forms of both peptides. PMID:27071923

  8. Mutational analysis of predicted interactions between the catalytic and P domains of prohormone convertase 3 (PC3/PC1)

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Kazuya; Lipkind, Gregory M.; Zhou, An; Zhu, Xiaorong; Kuznetsov, Andrey; Philipson, Louis; Gardner, Paul; Zhang, Chunling; Steiner, Donald F.

    2003-01-01

    The subtilisin-like prohormone convertases (PCs) contain an essential downstream domain (P domain), which has been predicted to have a β-barrel structure that interacts with and stabilizes the catalytic domain (CAT). To assess possible sites of hydrophobic interaction, a series of mutant PC3–enhanced GFP constructs were prepared in which selected nonpolar residues on the surface of CAT were substituted by the corresponding polar residues in subtilisin Carlsberg. To investigate the folding potential of the isolated P domain, signal peptide–P domain–enhanced GFP constructs with mutated and/or truncated P domains were also made. All mutants were expressed in βTC3 cells, and their subcellular localization and secretion were determined. The mutants fell into three main groups: (i) Golgi/secreted, (ii) ER/nonsecreted, and (iii) apoptosis inducing. The destabilizing CAT mutations indicate that the side chains of V292, T328, L351, Q408, H409, V412, and F441 and nonpolar fragments of the side chains of R405 and W413 form a hydrophobic patch on CAT that interacts with the P domain. We also have found that the P domain can fold independently, as indicated by its secretion. Interestingly, T594, which is near the P domain C terminus, was not essential for P domain secretion but is crucial for the stability of intact PC3. T594V produced a stable enzyme, but T594D did not, which suggests that T594 participates in important hydrophobic interactions within PC3. These findings support our conclusion that the catalytic and P domains contribute to the folding and thermodynamic stability of the convertases through reciprocal hydrophobic interactions. PMID:12721373

  9. 60 YEARS OF POMC: From the prohormone theory to pro-opiomelanocortin and to proprotein convertases (PCSK1 to PCSK9).

    PubMed

    Chrétien, Michel; Mbikay, Majambu

    2016-05-01

    Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), is a polyprotein expressed in the pituitary and the brain where it is proteolytically processed into peptide hormones and neuropeptides with distinct biological activities. It is the prototype of multipotent prohormones. The prohormone theory was first suggested in 1967 when Chrétien and Li discovered γ-lipotropin and observed that (i) it was part of β-lipotropin (β-LPH), a larger polypeptide characterized 2 years earlier and (ii) its C-terminus was β-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (β-MSH). This discovery led them to propose that the lipotropins might be related biosynthetically to the biologically active β-MSH in a precursor to end product relationship. The theory was widely confirmed in subsequent years. As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of the sequencing of β-LPH, we reflect over the lessons learned from the sequencing of those proteins; we explain their extension to the larger POMC precursor; we examine how the theory of precursor endoproteolysis they inspired became relevant for vast fields in biology; and how it led, after a long and arduous search, to the novel proteolytic enzymes called proprotein convertases. This family of nine enzymes plays multifaceted functions in growth, development, metabolism, endocrine, and brain functions. Their genetics has provided many insights into health and disease. Their therapeutic targeting is foreseeable in the near future. Thus, what started five decades ago as a theory based on POMC fragments, has opened up novel and productive avenues of biological and medical research, including, for our own current interest, a highly intriguing hypocholesterolemic Gln152His PCSK9 mutation in French-Canadian families. PMID:26762158

  10. The prohormone theory and the proprotein convertases: it is all about serendipity.

    PubMed

    Chrétien, Michel

    2011-01-01

    When I became a physician and an endocrinologist in the early 1960s, peptide hormone sequencing was still in its infancy; it was also far removed from my immediate interests. Through chance encounters with prominent teachers and mentors, I later became increasingly convinced that elucidation of the primary sequence of peptide hormones is key to understanding their production as well as their functions in human health and disease. My interest for pituitary hormones led me to discover that the sequence of β-melanocyte-stimulating hormone was contained within that γ and β-lipotropins and could be released from the latter by limited endoproteolysis. This prohormone theory became the leitmotiv of my career as a clinician/scientist. Through serendipity and the efforts of many laboratories including mine, this theory has now been widely confirmed, extended to various precursor proteins and implicated in many diseases. It has led to our discovery of the proprotein convertases. PMID:21805236

  11. The neuroendocrine polypeptide 7B2 is an endogenous inhibitor of prohormone convertase PC2.

    PubMed Central

    Martens, G J; Braks, J A; Eib, D W; Zhou, Y; Lindberg, I

    1994-01-01

    The subtilisin-like prohormone convertase PC2 and the polypeptide 7B2 (an intracellularly cleaved protein of unknown function) are both selectively present in the regulated secretory pathway of neurons and endocrine cells. Here we demonstrate that intact recombinant 7B2 is a potent inhibitor of PC2 and prevents proPC2 cleavage in vitro, whereas the 7B2 cleavage product is virtually inactive. The PC2-related proteinase PC1/PC3 is not inhibited by 7B2. Furthermore, the carboxyl-terminal half of the 7B2 protein sequence is distantly related to the so-called potato inhibitor I family (which includes subtilisin inhibitors). Our findings indicate that 7B2 is a physiological inhibitor of PC2 and may provide alternative avenues for the manipulation of peptide hormone levels. Images PMID:8016065

  12. Enzymatic activity of soluble and membrane tethered peptide pro-hormone convertase 1.

    PubMed

    Bruzzaniti, Angela; Mains, Richard E

    2002-05-01

    Pro-hormone convertases PC1 and PC2 perform endoproteolytic cleavages of precursors in peptide-containing secretory granules. PC1 and PC2 are soluble, secreted with bioactive peptides. Evolutionarily related PCs have membrane tethers, not secreted. We tethered PC1 to the transmembrane-cytoplasmic domains (CD) of a granule enzyme (peptidylglycine-alpha-amidating monooxygenase; PAM) and Golgi-localized PC8. The tethered PC1 is far more stable to elevated temperature and denaturants than soluble PC1, and more active. Both tethers allow PC1 to visit the cell surface transiently, cleaving soluble molecules outside the cell. Both membrane-bound PC1 chimeras cleave membrane PAM into soluble active fragments when PAM is expressed on adjacent cells. PMID:12084516

  13. The Nutrient and Energy Sensor Sirt1 Regulates the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis by Altering the Production of the Prohormone Convertase 2 (PC2) Essential in the Maturation of Corticotropin-releasing Hormone (CRH) from Its Prohormone in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Toorie, Anika M; Cyr, Nicole E; Steger, Jennifer S; Beckman, Ross; Farah, George; Nillni, Eduardo A

    2016-03-11

    Understanding the role of hypothalamic neuropeptides and hormones in energy balance is paramount in the search for approaches to mitigate the obese state. Increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity leads to increased levels of glucocorticoids (GC) that are known to regulate body weight. The axis initiates the production and release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Levels of active CRH peptide are dependent on the processing of its precursor pro-CRH by the action of two members of the family of prohormone convertases 1 and 2 (PC1 and PC2). Here, we propose that the nutrient sensor sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) regulates the production of CRH post-translationally by affecting PC2. Data suggest that Sirt1 may alter the preproPC2 gene directly or via deacetylation of the transcription factor Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1). Data also suggest that Sirt1 may alter PC2 via a post-translational mechanism. Our results show that Sirt1 levels in the PVN increase in rats fed a high fat diet for 12 weeks. Furthermore, elevated Sirt1 increased PC2 levels, which in turn increased the production of active CRH and GC. Collectively, this study provides the first evidence supporting the hypothesis that PVN Sirt1 activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and basal GC levels by enhancing the production of CRH through an increase in the biosynthesis of PC2, which is essential in the maturation of CRH from its prohormone, pro-CRH. PMID:26755731

  14. Drug-induced liver injury secondary to testosterone prohormone dietary supplement use.

    PubMed

    Hoedebecke, Kyle; Rerucha, Caitlyn; Maxwell, Kimberly; Butler, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplementation has become progressively more prevalent, with over half of the American population reporting use of various products. An increased incidence of supplement use has been reported in the military especially within Special Operations Forces (SOF) where training regimens rival those of elite athletes. Federal regulations regarding dietary supplements are minimal, allowing for general advertisement to the public without emphasis on the potentially harmful side effects. Subsequent medical care for these negative effects causes financial burden on the military in addition to the unit?s loss of an Operator and potential mission compromise. This report reviews a case of an Operator diagnosed with drug-induced liver injury secondary to a testosterone prohormone supplement called Post Cycle II. Clinical situations like this emphasize the necessity that SOF Operators and clinicians be aware of the risks and benefits of these minimally studied substances. Providers should also be aware of the Human Performance Resource Center for Health Information and Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database supplement safety ratings as well as the Food and Drug Administration?s MedWatch and Natural Medicines WATCH, to which adverse reactions should be reported. PMID:24227554

  15. Geographic Information Processings for Astronomical Site Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, N.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, M. Y.

    2015-01-01

    The geographic information is of great importance for the site survey of ground-based telescopes. Especially, an effective utilization of the geographic information system (GIS) has been one of the most significant methods for the remote analysis of modern site survey. The astronomical site survey should give consideration to the following geographical conditions: a large relative fall, convenient traffic conditions, and far away from populated areas. Taking into account of the convenience of construction and maintenance of the observatories as well as the living conditions of the scientists-in-residence, the optimum candidate locations may meet the conditions to be at a altitude between 3000 m and 5000 m and within one-hour drive from villages/towns. In this paper, as an example, we take the regions of the Great Baicao mountain ridge at Dayao county in Yunnan province to research the role of the GIS for site survey task. The results indicate that the GIS can provide accurate and intuitive data for us to understand the three dimensional landforms, rivers, roads, villages, and the distributions of the electric power as well as to forecast the tendency of the population and city development around. According to the analysis based on the GIS, we find that the top of the Great Baicao mountain ridge is flat and droughty. There are few inhabitants to distribute around the place while the traffic conditions are convenient. Moreover, it is a natural conservation area protected by the local government, and no industry with pollution sources exists in this region. Its top is 1500 m higher than the nearby village 10 km away, and 1800 m higher than the town center 50 km away. The Great Baicao mountain ridge is definitely an isolated peak in the area of the Yi nationality of Yunnan. Therefore, the GIS data analysis is a very useful for the remote investigation stage for site survey, and the GIS is the indispensable source for modern astronomical site survey.

  16. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1980, the U.S. Congress passed the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), also known as Superfund. to protect human health and the environment from uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. CERCLA was amended by the Superfund Amendments and R...

  17. Facility Siting as a Decision Process at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wike, L.D.

    2001-07-24

    This document is based upon previous site selection exercises conducted for a variety of proposed facilities. It develops the logic and basis for the methods employed, and standardizes the process and terminology for future site selection efforts.

  18. Wind Energy Deployment Process and Siting Tools (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.

    2015-02-01

    Regardless of cost and performance, some wind projects cannot proceed to completion as a result of competing multiple uses or siting considerations. Wind energy siting issues must be better understood and quantified. DOE tasked NREL researchers with depicting the wind energy deployment process and researching development considerations. This presentation provides an overview of these findings and wind siting tools.

  19. Enhancing knowledge of rangeland ecological processes with benchmark ecological sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A benchmark ecological site is one that has the greatest potential to yield data and information about ecological functions, processes, and the effects of management or climate changes on a broad area or critical ecological zone. A benchmark ecological site represents other similar sites in a major ...

  20. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: ZENOGEM™ WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zenon Environmental System's ZenoGem™ Wastewater Treatment Process treats aqueous media contaminated with volatile/semi-volatile organic compounds. This technology combines aerobic biological treatment to remove biodegradable organic compounds with ultrafiltration to separate res...

  1. HYNOL PROCESS ENGINEERING: PROCESS CONFIGURATION, SITE PLAN, AND EQUIPMENT DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the design of the hydropyrolysis reactor system of the Hynol process. (NOTE: A bench scale methanol production facility is being constructed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of producing methanol from biomass using the Hynol process. The plant is bein...

  2. Process for determining the remediation category of hazardous substance sites

    SciTech Connect

    Sieben, A.K.

    1994-12-31

    An evaluation process has been developed that aids in selecting the appropriate remediation category of hazardous substance sites. Three general remediation categories have been established: No further Action: Potential Early Action: and Defer for RI/FS or Transition/Decontamination and Decommissioning. This evaluation method is a preliminary screening process only and will not identify the most appropriate remediation alternative for each site. The remedy selection process can proceed only after a remediation category is determined for each site. All sites are evaluated at a preliminary screening level to determine the general remediation category. After the first screen, a secondary evaluation is performed on both the PEA sites and the DEFER sites. For PEAs, this secondary evaluation will incorporate additional specific factors, such as a screening level risk assessment. For the DEFER sites feasibility factors will be used to distinguish between the sites which should undergo a normal RI/FS and the sites which will be recommended to be remediated in association with D&D of buildings. Ultimately, all of the sites will be placed into one of four remediation categories.

  3. Correct implementation of the Argonne Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) process for preremedial site investigations.

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, J. C.; Cook, S.; Sedivy, R.; Walker, J. L.

    1997-12-12

    The Argonne Expedited Site Characterization (ANL ESC) methodology, developed by Argonne National Laboratory and popularly known as ESC, is an effective, cost- and time-saving approach for technically successful preremedial site characterizations. The major objective of the ANL ESC is to determine whether a site containing contamination requires remediation. The methodology is equivalent to a CERCLA RI/FS or a RCRA RFI/CMS investigation. The ANL ESC methodology is an interactive, integrated process emphasizing the use of existing data, multiple complementary characterization methods, and on-site decision making to optimize site investigations. The ANL ESC is the basis for the expedited site characterization standard of the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials). The methodology has been registered under the service mark QuickSite{trademark} to offer both clients and providers a mechanism for ensuring that they receive the ANL ESC methodology developed by Argonne. The ANL ESC is a flexible process and is neither site nor contaminant dependent. It can be tailored to fit the unique characteristics that distinguish one site from the next, in contrast to the traditional approach of making all sites conform to the same rigid, inflexible investigation regimen. The ANL ESC has been applied successfully to remedial site investigations of landfills with multiple contaminants in the southwestern US for the Department of Interior (DOI), to former grain storage facilities in the Midwest for the Commodity Credit Corporation of the Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA), to weapons production facilities in Texas for the Department of Energy (DOE), and to closing and active military bases in several locations for the Department of Defense (DOD). The process can be applied both at sites that have seen little investigation and at sites that have undergone numerous previous site characterizations without reaching closure. In the latter case (e.g., at many DOE and DOD sites

  4. Expression and localization of prohormone convertase PC1 in the calcitonin-producing cells of the bullfrog ultimobranchial gland.

    PubMed

    Yaoi, Yuichi; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tomura, Hideaki; Kurabuchi, Shingo; Sasayama, Yuichi; Tanaka, Shigeyasu

    2003-11-01

    We examined the expression and localization of the prohormone convertases, PC1 and PC2, in the ultimobranchial gland of the adult bullfrog using immunohistochemical (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) techniques. In the ultimobranchial gland, PC1-immunoreactive cells were columnar, and were present in the follicular epithelium. When serial sections were immunostained with anti-calcitonin, anti-CGRP, anti-PC1, and anti-PC2 sera, PC1 was found only in the calcitonin/CGRP-producing cells. No PC2-immunopositive cells were detected. In the ISH, PC1 mRNA-positive cells were detected in the follicle cells in the ultimobranchial gland. No PC2 mRNA-positive cells were detected. RT-PCR revealed expression of the mRNAs of PC1 and the PC2 in the ultimobranchial gland. However, very little of the PC2 mRNA is probably translated because no PC2 protein was detected either by IHC staining or by Western blotting analysis. We conclude that the main prohormone convertase that is involved in the proteolytic cleavage of procalcitonin in the bullfrog is PC1. PMID:14566018

  5. Expression and Localization of Prohormone Convertase PC1 in the Calcitonin-producing Cells of the Bullfrog Ultimobranchial Gland

    PubMed Central

    Yaoi, Yuichi; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tomura, Hideaki; Kurabuchi, Shingo; Sasayama, Yuichi; Tanaka, Shigeyasu

    2003-01-01

    We examined the expression and localization of the prohormone convertases, PC1 and PC2, in the ultimobranchial gland of the adult bullfrog using immunohistochemical (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) techniques. In the ultimobranchial gland, PC1-immunoreactive cells were columnar, and were present in the follicular epithelium. When serial sections were immunostained with anti-calcitonin, anti-CGRP, anti-PC1, and anti-PC2 sera, PC1 was found only in the calcitonin/CGRP-producing cells. No PC2-immunopositive cells were detected. In the ISH, PC1 mRNA-positive cells were detected in the follicle cells in the ultimobranchial gland. No PC2 mRNA-positive cells were detected. RT-PCR revealed expression of the mRNAs of PC1 and the PC2 in the ultimobranchial gland. However, very little of the PC2 mRNA is probably translated because no PC2 protein was detected either by IHC staining or by Western blotting analysis. We conclude that the main prohormone convertase that is involved in the proteolytic cleavage of procalcitonin in the bullfrog is PC1. PMID:14566018

  6. SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE CF SYSTEMS ORGANIC EXTRACTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CF Systems Organic Extraction Process was used to remove PCBs from contaminated sediment dredged from the New Bedford Harbor. This work was done as part of a field demonstration under EPA's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. The purpose of the SITE p...

  7. Correct implementation of the Argonne QuickSite{sup SM} process for preremedial site investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, J.C.; Walker, J.L.

    1997-10-01

    Expedited site characterization (ESC), developed by Argonne National Laboratory, is an interactive, integrated process emphasizing the use of existing data of sufficient quality, multiple complementary characterization methods, and on-site decision making to optimize environmental site investigations. The Argonne ESC is the basis for the provisional ESC standard guide of the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials). QuickSite{sup SM} is the implementation package developed by Argonne to facilitate ESC of sites contaminated with hazardous wastes. At various sites, Argonne has successfully implemented QuickSite{sup SM} and demonstrated the technical superiority of the ESC process over traditional methodologies guided by statistics and random-sampling approaches. A key feature in the success of QuickSite{sup SM} investigations is achieving an understanding of the subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic controls and processes at a site before extensive sampling efforts begin. The QuickSite{sup SM} investigation at the Tustin Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) in California will be used to illustrate the importance of understanding these potential controls in minimizing sampling activities and correctly predicting potential contaminant migration patterns for risk assessment.

  8. Expedited Site Characterization: A rapid, cost-effective process for preremedial site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, J.C.; Walker, J.L.; Jennings, T.V.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Hastings, B.; Meyer, W.T.; Rose, C.M.; Rosignolo, C.L.

    1993-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a unique, cost- and time-effective, technically innovative process for preremedial site characterization, referred to as Expedited Site Characterization (ESC). The cost of the ESC field sampling process ranges from 1/10 to 1/5 of the cost of traditional site characterization. The time required for this ESC field activity is approximately 1/30 of that for current methods. Argonne`s preremedial site investigations based on this approach have been accepted by the appropriate regulatory agencies. The ESC process is flexible and neither site nor contaminant dependent. The process has been successfully tested and applied in site investigations of multiple contaminated landfills in New Mexico (for the US Department of the Interior`s Bureau of Land Management [BLM]) and at former grain storage facilities in Nebraska and Kansas, contaminated with carbon tetrachloride (for the Department of Agriculture`s Commodity Credit Corporation [CCC/USDA]). A working demonstration of this process was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development as a model of the methodology needed to accelerate site characterizations at DOE facilities. This report describes the application of the process in New Mexico, Nebraska and Kansas.

  9. THE SITE DEMONSTRATION OF CHEMFIX SOLIDIFICATION/ STABILIZATION PROCESS AT THE PORTABLE EQUIPMENT SALVAGE COMPANY SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration of the GHEMFIX solidification/stabilization process was conducted under the United States Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. The demonstration was conducted in March 1989, at the Portable Equipment Sa...

  10. Mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure decreases the circulating concentrations of the N-terminus and C-terminus of the atrial natriuretic factor prohormone.

    PubMed

    Vesely, D L; Salmon, J S

    1990-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) decreases urine output and urinary sodium excretion. The influence of PEEP during controlled mechanical ventilation on the circulating concentrations of the N-terminus and C-terminus of the atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) prohormone which both contain natriuretic and diuretic peptides was investigated in 7 patients with acute respiratory failure. The 98 amino acid (aa) N-terminus, the midportion of the N-terminus consisting of aa 31-67 of the 126 aa ANF prohormone (i.e., pro ANF 31-67) and the C-terminus (aa 99-126; ANF) were found to be significantly (p less than 0.05; ANOVA) elevated compared to 54 healthy volunteers during acute respiratory failure prior to institution of PEEP. With institution of 10 cm of H2O of PEEP all 7 patients had a significant (p less than 0.05) decrease in the circulating concentrations of pro ANFs 1-98, 31-67 and ANF. These findings suggest that the increased thoracic pressure secondary to PEEP which reduces venous return and lowers atrial filling pressure results in a decreased release of the N-terminus and C-terminus of the ANF prohormone. This decrease in the N-terminus and C-terminus of the ANF prohormone appears to represent a physiologic mechanism for restoration of intravascular volume, secondary to decreased sodium excretion. PMID:2151585

  11. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: PINTAIL SYSTEMS INC'S AQUEOUS BIOCYANIDE PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field treatability study of an innovative biological treatment technology for cyanide destruction and metals immobilizaton from an aqueous mine process stream was held at the Echo Bay/McCoy Cove mine site in Nevada. The Aqueous Biocyanide Process, developed and operated by Pint...

  12. Comprehensive Integrated Planning Process for the Oak Ridge Operations Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC; Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation; Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc.

    1999-09-01

    This plan is intended to assist the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor personnel in implementing a comprehensive integrated planning process consistent with DOE Order 430.1A, "Life Cycle Asset Management," and Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) Order 430 on sites under the jurisdiction of DOE-ORO. Those sites are the Oak Ridge Reservation, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, in Paducah, Kentucky; and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, in Piketon, Ohio. DOE contractors at these sites are charged with developing and producing this plan, which is referred to as simply the Comprehensive Integrated Plan.

  13. Facility siting as a decision process at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wike, L.D.

    1995-12-31

    Site selection for new facilities at Savannah River Site (SRS) historically has been a process dependent only upon specific requirements of the facility. While this approach is normally well suited to engineering and operational concerns, it can have serious deficiencies in the modern era of regulatory oversight and compliance requirements. There are many issues related to the site selection for a facility that are not directly related to engineering or operational requirements; such environmental concerns can cause large schedule delays and budget impact,s thereby slowing or stopping the progress of a project. Some of the many concerns in locating a facility include: waste site avoidance, National Environmental Policy Act requirements, Clean Water Act, Clean Air Act, wetlands conservation, US Army Corps of Engineers considerations, US Fish and Wildlife Service statutes including threatened and endangered species issues, and State of South Carolina regulations, especially those of the Department of Health and Environmental Control. In addition, there are SRS restrictions on research areas set aside for National Environmental Research Park (NERP), Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Savannah River Forest Station, University of South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, Southeastern Forest Experimental Station, and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) programs. As with facility operational needs, all of these siting considerations do not have equal importance. The purpose of this document is to review recent site selection exercises conducted for a variety of proposed facilities, develop the logic and basis for the methods employed, and standardize the process and terminology for future site selection efforts.

  14. Processes Impacting Atmosphere-Surface Exchanges at Arctic Terrestrial Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, Ola; Grachev, Andrey; Konopleva, Elena; Cox, Chris; Stone, Robert; Crepinsek, Sara; Shupe, Matthew; Uttal, Taneil

    2015-04-01

    Surface energy fluxes are key to the annual cycle of near-surface and soil temperature and biologic activity in the Arctic. While these energy fluxes are undoubtedly changing to produce the changes observed in the Arctic ecosystem over the last few decades, measurements have generally not been available to quantify what processes are regulating these fluxes and what is determining the characteristics of these annual cycles. The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has established, or contributed to the establishment of, several terrestrial "supersites" around the perimeter of the Arctic Ocean at which detailed measurements of atmospheric structure, surface fluxes, and soil thermal properties are being made. These sites include Barrow, Alaska; Eureka and Alert, Canada; and Tiksi, Russia. Atmospheric structure measurements vary, but include radiosoundings at all sites and remote sensing of clouds at two sites. Additionally, fluxes of sensible heat and momentum are made at all of the sites, while fluxes of moisture and CO2 are made at two of the sites. Soil temperatures are also measured in the upper 120 cm at all sites, which is deep enough to define the soil active layer. The sites have been operating between 3 years (Tiksi) and 24 years (Barrow). While all sites are located north of 71° N, the summer vegetation range from lush tundra grasses to rocky soils with little vegetation. This presentation will illustrate some of the atmospheric processes that are key for determining the annual energy and temperature cycles at these sites, and some of the key characteristics that lead to differences in, for instance, the length of the summer soil active layer between the sites. Atmospheric features and processes such as cloud characteristics, snowfall, downslope wind events, and sea-breezes have impacts on the annual energy cycle. The presence of a "zero curtain" period, when autumn surface temperature remains approximately constant at the freezing point

  15. Description of a Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex for the Hanford Site`s radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Nyman, D.H.; Wolfe, B.A.; Hoertkorn, T.R.

    1993-05-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site has changed from defense nuclear materials production to that of waste management/disposal and environmental restoration. ne Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex (MPSC) is being designed to process discarded waste tank internal hardware contaminated with mixed wastes, failed melters from the vitrification plant, and other Hanford Site high-level solid waste. The MPSC also will provide interim storage of other radioactive materials (irradiated fuel, canisters of vitrified high-level waste [HLW], special nuclear material [SNM], and other designated radioactive materials).

  16. Hydrogen purifiers go to Savannah River Site to process tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.

    1996-12-31

    The Johnson Matthey Fabricated Equipment group has been awarded a contract to supply the United States government Savannah River Site (SRS) with six additional ultra-high purity hydrogen purifier systems specially designed to process tritium in support of national defense programs. The purifiers employ palladium membrane diffusion technology.

  17. Choosing a municipal landfill site by analytic network process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banar, Mufide; Kose, Barbaros Murat; Ozkan, Aysun; Poyraz Acar, Ilgin

    2007-04-01

    In this study, analytic network process (ANP), one of the multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) tools has been used to choose one of the four alternative landfill sites for the city of Eskisehir, Turkey. For this purpose, Super Decision Software has been used and benefit opportunity cost and risk (BOCR) analysis has been done to apply ANP. In BOCR analysis, each alternative site has been evaluated in terms of its benefits, costs and risks; the opportunity cluster has been examined under the benefit cluster. In this context, technical, economical and social assessments have been done for the site selection of sanitary landfill. Also, results have been compared with analytic hierarchy process (AHP) which is another MCDM technique used in the study conducted before. Finally, the current site has been determined as the most appropriate site in both methods. These methods have not been commonly used in the discipline of environmental engineering but it is believed to be an important contribution for decision makers.

  18. Controllable Magnetization Processes Induced by Nucleation Sites in Permalloy Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying-Jiun Chen,; Chia-Jung Hsu,; Chun-Neng Liao,; Hao-Ting Huang,; Chiun-Peng Lee,; Yi-Hsun Chiu,; Tzu-Yun Tung,; Mei-Feng Lai,

    2010-02-01

    Different arrangements of notches as nucleation sites are demonstrated experimentally and numerically to effectively control the magnetization processes of permalloy rings. In the ring with notches at the same side with respect to field direction, two same-helicity vortex domain walls in the onion state lead to two-step switching going through flux-closure state; in the ring with diagonal notches two opposite-helicity vortex domain walls lead to one-step switching skipping flux-closure state. The switching processes are repeatable in contrast to rings without notches where helicites of two vortex domain walls are random so the switching processes can not be controlled.

  19. Astrophysical site(s) of r-process elements in galactic chemodynamical evolution model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Yutaka; Ishimaru, Yuhri; Saitoh, Takayuki R.; Fujii, Michiko S.; Hidaka, Jun; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2016-02-01

    Astrophysical site(s) of rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) is (are) not identified yet. Although core-collapse supernovae have been regarded as one of the possible candidates of the astrophysical site of r-process, nucleosynthesis studies suggest that serious difficulties in core-collapse supernovae to produce heavy elements with mass number of ≳110. Recent studies show that neutron star mergers (NSMs) can synthesize these elements due to their neutron rich environment. Some chemical evolution studies of the Milky Way halo, however, hardly reproduce the observed star-to-star scatters of the abundance ratios of r-process elements (e.g., Eu) in extremely metal-poor stars. This is because of their low rate (˜ 10-4 yr-1 for a Milky Way size galaxy) and long merger time (≳ 100 Myr). This problem might be solved if the stars in the Galactic halo are consisted of the stars formed in dwarf galaxies where the star formation efficiencies were very low. In this study, we carry out numerical simulations of galactic chemo-dynamical evolution using an N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. We construct detailed chemo-dynamical evolution model for the Local Group dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) assuming that the NSMs are the major source of r-process elements. Our models successfully reproduce the observed dispersion in [Eu/Fe] as a function of [Fe/H] if we set merger time of NSMs, ≲ 300 Myr with the Galactic NSM rate of ˜ 10-4 yr-1. In addition, our results are consistent with the observed metallicity distribution of dSphs. In the early phase (≲1 Gyr) of galaxy evolution is constant due to low star formation efficiency of dSphs. This study supports the idea that NSMs are the major site of r-process nucleosynthesis.

  20. Measurement of secretory vesicle pH reveals intravesicular alkalinization by vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 resulting in inhibition of prohormone cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Blackmore, Colin G; Varro, Andrea; Dimaline, Rod; Bishop, Lisa; Gallacher, David V; Dockray, Graham J

    2001-01-01

    The acidic interior of neuroendocrine secretory vesicles provides both an energy gradient for amine-proton exchangers (VMATs) to concentrate small transmitter molecules, for example catecholamines, and an optimal pH for the prohormone convertases which cleave hormone precursors. There is evidence that VMAT activity modulates prohormone cleavage, but in the absence of measurements of pH in secretory vesicles in intact cells, it has not been possible to establish whether these effects are attributable to raised intravesicular pH due to proton transport through VMATs. Clones were generated of the hamster insulinoma cell line HIT-T15 expressing a pH-sensitive form of green fluorescent protein (GFP-F64L/S65T) targeted to secretory vesicles, with and without co-expression of VMAT2. In order to study prohormone cleavage, further clones were generated that expressed preprogastrin with and without co-expression of VMAT2. Confocal microscopy of GFP fluorescence indicated that the pH in the secretory vesicles was 5.6 in control cells, compared with 6.6 in cells expressing VMAT2; the latter was reduced to 5.8 by the VMAT inhibitor reserpine. Using a pulse-chase labelling protocol, cleavage of 34-residue gastrin (G34) was found to be inhibited by co-expression with VMAT2, and this was reversed by reserpine. Similar effects on vesicle pH and G34 cleavage were produced by ammonium chloride. We conclude that VMAT expression confers the linked abilities to store biogenic amines and modulate secretory vesicle pH over a range influencing prohormone cleavage and therefore determining the identity of regulatory peptide secretory products. PMID:11251044

  1. Remote video radioactive process evaluation, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.

    1990-12-31

    Specialized miniature low cost video equipment has been effectively used in a number of remote, radioactive, and contaminated environments at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The equipment and related techniques have reduced the potential for personnel exposure to both radiation and physical hazards. The valuable process information thus provided would not have otherwise been available for use in improving the quality of operation at SRS.

  2. Remote video radioactive process evaluation, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.

    1990-01-01

    Specialized miniature low cost video equipment has been effectively used in a number of remote, radioactive, and contaminated environments at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The equipment and related techniques have reduced the potential for personnel exposure to both radiation and physical hazards. The valuable process information thus provided would not have otherwise been available for use in improving the quality of operation at SRS.

  3. A model for the structure of the P domains in the subtilisin-like prohormone convertases

    PubMed Central

    Lipkind, Gregory M.; Zhou, An; Steiner, Donald F.

    1998-01-01

    The proprotein convertases are a family of at least seven calcium-dependent endoproteases that process a wide variety of precursor proteins in the secretory pathway. All members of this family possess an N-terminal proregion, a subtilisin-like catalytic module, and an additional downstream well-conserved region of ≈150 amino acid residues, the P domain, which is not found in any other subtilase. The pro and catalytic domains cannot be expressed in the absence of the P domains; their thermodynamic instability may be attributable to the presence of large numbers of negatively charged Glu and Asp side chains in the substrate binding region for recognition of multibasic residue cleavage sites. Based on secondary structure predictions, we here propose that the P domains consist of 8-stranded β-barrels with well-organized inner hydrophobic cores, and therefore are independently folded components of the proprotein convertases. We hypothesize further that the P domains are integrated through strong hydrophobic interactions with the catalytic domains, conferring structural stability and regulating the properties and activity of the convertases. A molecular model of these interdomain interactions is proposed in this report. PMID:9636145

  4. THE COLD AND DARK PROCESS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, J; William Austin, W; Cathy Sizemore, C

    2007-01-31

    The deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of a facility exposes D&D workers to numerous hazards. One of the more serious hazards is coming into contact to hazardous energy sources (e.g. electrical, pressurized steam). At the Savannah River Site (SRS) a formal process for identifying and eliminating sources of hazardous energy was developed and is called ''Cold & Dark''. Several ''near miss'' events involving cutting of energized conductors during D&D work in buildings thought to be isolated identified the need to have a formal process to identify and isolate these potentially hazardous systems. This process was developed using lessons learned from D&D activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) in Colorado. The Cold & Dark process defines an isolation boundary (usually a building perimeter) and then systematically identifies all of the penetrations through this boundary. All penetrations that involve hazardous energy sources are then physically air-gapped. The final product is a documented declaration of isolation performed by a team involving operations, engineering, and project management. Once the Cold & Dark declaration is made for a building work can proceed without the usual controls used in an operational facility (e.g. lockout/tagout, arc flash PPE). It is important to note that the Cold & Dark process does not remove all hazards from a facility. Work planning and controls still need to address hazards that can be present from such things as chemicals, radiological contamination, residual liquids, etc., as well as standard industrial hazards.

  5. The OSIRIS-REx Mission Sample Site Selection Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beshore, Edward C.; Lauretta, Dante

    2014-11-01

    In September of 2016, the OSIRIS-REx (Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, REgolith eXplorer) spacecraft will depart for asteroid (101955) Bennu, and in doing so, will turn an important corner in the exploration of the solar system. After arriving at Bennu in the fall of 2018, OSIRIS-REx will undertake a program of observations designed to select a site suitable for retrieving a sample that will be returned to the Earth in 2023. The third mission in NASA’s New Frontiers program, OSIRIS-REx will return over 60 grams from Bennu’s surface.OSIRIS-REx is unique because the science team will have an operational role to play in preparing data products needed to select a sample site. These include products used to ensure flight system safety — topographic maps and shape models, temperature measurements, maps of hazards — as well as assessments of sampleability and science value. The timing and production of these will be presented, as will the high-level decision-making tools and processes for the interim and final site selection processes.

  6. Actinide solution processing at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1039, for radioactive solution removal and processing at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado. The proposal for solution removal and processing is in response to independent safety assessments and an agreement with the State of Colorado to remove mixed residues at Rocky Flats and reduce the risk of future accidents. Monthly public meetings were held during the scoping and preparation of the EA. The scope of the EA included evaluations of alternative methods and locations of solution processing. A comment period from February 20, 1995 through March 21, 1995 was provided to the public and the State of Colorado to offer written comment on the EA. Comments were received from the State of Colorado and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A response to the agency comments is included in the Final EA.

  7. ExoMars 2018 Landing Site Selection Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vago, Jorge L.; Kminek, Gerhard; Rodionov, Daniel

    The ExoMars 2018 mission will include two science elements: a Rover and a Surface Platform. The ExoMars Rover will carry a comprehensive suite of instruments dedicated to geology and exobiology research named after Louis Pasteur. The Rover will be able to travel several kilometres searching for traces of past and present signs of life. It will do this by collecting and analysing samples from outcrops, and from the subsurface—down to 2-m depth. The very powerful combination of mobility with the ability to access locations where organic molecules can be well preserved is unique to this mission. After the Rover will have egressed, the ExoMars Surface Platform will begin its science mission to study the surface environment at the landing location. This talk will describe the landing site selection process and introduce the scientific, planetary protection, and engineering requirements that candidate landing sites must comply with in order to be considered for the mission.

  8. The Cold and Dark Process at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, John C.; Willis, Michael L.

    2008-01-15

    The deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of a facility exposes D and D workers to numerous hazards. One of the more serious hazards is coming into contact to hazardous energy sources (e.g. electrical, pressurized steam). At the Savannah River Site (SRS) a formal process for identifying and eliminating sources of hazardous energy was developed and is called 'Cold and Dark'. Several 'near miss' events involving cutting of energized conductors during D and D work in buildings thought to be isolated identified the need to have a formal process to identify and isolate these potentially hazardous systems. This process was developed using lessons learned from D and D activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) in Colorado. The Cold and Dark process defines an isolation boundary (usually a building perimeter) and then systematically identifies all of the penetrations through this boundary. All penetrations that involve hazardous energy sources are then physically air-gapped. The final product is a documented declaration of isolation performed by a team involving operations, engineering, and project management. Once the Cold and Dark declaration is made for a building work can proceed without the usual controls used in an operational facility (e.g. lockout/tag-out, arc flash PPE). It is important to note that the Cold and Dark process does not remove all hazards from a facility. Work planning and controls still need to address hazards that can be present from such things as chemicals, radiological contamination, residual liquids, etc., as well as standard industrial hazards. Savannah River Site experienced 6 electrical events prior to declaring a facility 'cold and dark' and has had zero electrical events after 'cold and dark' declaration (263 facilities to date). The formal Cold and Dark process developed at SRS has eliminated D and D worker exposures to hazardous energy sources. Since the implementation of the process there have been no

  9. EPA site demonstration of the Biotrol Soil Washing Process

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, M.K.; Skovronek, H.S.; Ellis, W.D.

    1992-01-01

    A pilot-scale soil washing process, patented by BioTrol, was demonstrated on soil that was contaminated by wood treating waste. The BioTrol Soil Washing was demonstrated in a treatment train sequence with two other pilot-scale units of BioTrol technologies for treatment of waste streams from the soil washer. The three technologies of the treatment train were: The BioTrol Soil Washer (BSW), the BioTrol Aqueous Treatment System (BATS), and the Slurry Bioreactor (SBR). The BioTrol processes were evaluated on pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which were the primary soil contaminants at the site. The sandy site soil, consisting of less than 10% of fines, was well suited for treatment by soil washing. The BSW successfully separated the feed soil (100% by weight) into 83% of washed soil, 10% of woody residues, and 7% of fines. The soil washer achieved up to 89% removal of PCP and PAHs, based on the difference between their levels in the feed soil and in the washed soil. The BATS degraded up to 94% of PCP in the process water from soil washing. The SBR achieved over 90% removals of PCP and 70-90% removals of PAHs, respectively from the soil washing. Cost of a commercial-scale soil washing, assuming use of all three technologies, was estimated to be $168 per ton of treated soil.

  10. Processes affecting the remediation of chromium-contaminated sites.

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, C D; Wittbrodt, P R

    1991-01-01

    The remediation of chromium-contaminated sites requires knowledge of the processes that control the migration and transformation of chromium. Advection, dispersion, and diffusion are physical processes affecting the rate at which contaminants can migrate in the subsurface. Heterogeneity is an important factor that affects the contribution of each of these mechanisms to the migration of chromium-laden waters. Redox reactions, chemical speciation, adsorption/desorption phenomena, and precipitation/dissolution reactions control the transformation and mobility of chromium. The reduction of CrVI to CrIII can occur in the presence of ferrous iron in solution or in mineral phases, reduced sulfur compounds, or soil organic matter. At neutral to alkaline pH, the CrIII precipitates as amorphous hydroxides or forms complexes with organic matter. CrIII is oxidized by manganese dioxide, a common mineral found in many soils. Solid-phase precipitates of hexavalent chromium such as barium chromate can serve either as sources or sinks for CrVI. Adsorption of CrVI in soils increases with decreasing chromium concentration, making it more difficult to remove the chromium as the concentration decreases during pump-and-treat remediation. Knowledge of these chemical and physical processes is important in developing and selecting effective, cost-efficient remediation designs for chromium-contaminated sites. PMID:1935849

  11. Temporal dynamics of biogeochemical processes at the Norman Landfill site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Bhavna; Mohanty, Binayak P.; McGuire, Jennifer T.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2013-10-01

    The temporal variability observed in redox sensitive species in groundwater can be attributed to coupled hydrological, geochemical, and microbial processes. These controlling processes are typically nonstationary, and distributed across various time scales. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate biogeochemical data sets from a municipal landfill site to identify the dominant modes of variation and determine the physical controls that become significant at different time scales. Data on hydraulic head, specific conductance, δ2H, chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and nonvolatile dissolved organic carbon were collected between 1998 and 2000 at three wells at the Norman Landfill site in Norman, OK. Wavelet analysis on this geochemical data set indicates that variations in concentrations of reactive and conservative solutes are strongly coupled to hydrologic variability (water table elevation and precipitation) at 8 month scales, and to individual eco-hydrogeologic framework (such as seasonality of vegetation, surface-groundwater dynamics) at 16 month scales. Apart from hydrologic variations, temporal variability in sulfate concentrations can be associated with different sources (FeS cycling, recharge events) and sinks (uptake by vegetation) depending on the well location and proximity to the leachate plume. Results suggest that nitrate concentrations show multiscale behavior across temporal scales for different well locations, and dominant variability in dissolved organic carbon for a closed municipal landfill can be larger than 2 years due to its decomposition and changing content. A conceptual framework that explains the variability in chemical concentrations at different time scales as a function of hydrologic processes, site-specific interactions, and/or coupled biogeochemical effects is also presented.

  12. Temporal dynamics of biogeochemical processes at the Norman Landfill site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arora, Bhavna; Mohanty, Binayak P.; McGuire, Jennifer T.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2013-01-01

    The temporal variability observed in redox sensitive species in groundwater can be attributed to coupled hydrological, geochemical, and microbial processes. These controlling processes are typically nonstationary, and distributed across various time scales. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate biogeochemical data sets from a municipal landfill site to identify the dominant modes of variation and determine the physical controls that become significant at different time scales. Data on hydraulic head, specific conductance, δ2H, chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and nonvolatile dissolved organic carbon were collected between 1998 and 2000 at three wells at the Norman Landfill site in Norman, OK. Wavelet analysis on this geochemical data set indicates that variations in concentrations of reactive and conservative solutes are strongly coupled to hydrologic variability (water table elevation and precipitation) at 8 month scales, and to individual eco-hydrogeologic framework (such as seasonality of vegetation, surface-groundwater dynamics) at 16 month scales. Apart from hydrologic variations, temporal variability in sulfate concentrations can be associated with different sources (FeS cycling, recharge events) and sinks (uptake by vegetation) depending on the well location and proximity to the leachate plume. Results suggest that nitrate concentrations show multiscale behavior across temporal scales for different well locations, and dominant variability in dissolved organic carbon for a closed municipal landfill can be larger than 2 years due to its decomposition and changing content. A conceptual framework that explains the variability in chemical concentrations at different time scales as a function of hydrologic processes, site-specific interactions, and/or coupled biogeochemical effects is also presented.

  13. A complete remediation process for a uranium-contaminated site and application to other sites

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, C.F.V.; Lu, N.; Kitten, H.D.; Williams, M.; Turney, W.R.J.R.

    1998-12-31

    During the summer of 1996 the authors were able to test, at the pilot scale, the concept of leaching uranium (U) from contaminated soils. The results of this pilot scale operation showed that the system they previously had developed at the laboratory scale is applicable at the pilot scale. The paper discusses these results, together with laboratory scale results using soil from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), Ohio. These FEMP results show how, with suitable adaptations, the process is widely applicable to other sites. The purpose of this paper is to describe results that demonstrate remediation of uranium-contaminated soils may be accomplished through a leach scheme using sodium bicarbonate.

  14. Targeting and Processing of Site-specific DNA Interstrand Crosslinks

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Karen M.

    2010-01-01

    DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) are among the most cytotoxic types of DNA damage, and thus ICL-inducing agents such as cyclophosphamide, melphalan, cisplatin, psoralen and mitomycin C have been used clinically as anti-cancer drugs for decades. ICLs can also be formed endogenously as a consequence of cellular metabolic processes. ICL-inducing agents continue to be among the most effective chemotherapeutic treatments for many cancers; however, treatment with these agents can lead to secondary malignancies, in part due to mutagenic processing of the DNA lesions. The mechanisms of ICL repair have been characterized more thoroughly in bacteria and yeast than in mammalian cells. Thus, a better understanding the molecular mechanisms of ICL processing offers the potential to improve the efficacy of these drugs in cancer therapy. In mammalian cells it is thought that ICLs are repaired by the coordination of proteins from several pathways, including nucleotide excision repair (NER), base excision repair (BER), mismatch repair (MMR), homologous recombination (HR), translesion synthesis (TLS), and proteins involved in Fanconi anemia (FA). In this review, we focus on the potential functions of NER, MMR, and HR proteins in the repair of and response to ICLs in human cells and in mice. We will also discuss a unique approach, using psoralen covalently linked to triplex-forming oligonucleotides to direct ICLs to specific sites in the mammalian genome. PMID:20196133

  15. Site-specific analysis of radiological and physical parameters for cobbly soils at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The remedial action at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site is being performed under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 [Public Law (PL) 95-6041]. Under UMTRCA, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with the responsibility of developing appropriate and applicable standards for the cleanup of radiologically contaminated land and buildings at 24 designated sites, including the Gunnison, Colorado, inactive processing site. The remedial action at the processing site will be conducted to remove the tailings and contaminated materials to meet the EPA bulk soil cleanup standards for surface and subsurface soils. The site areas disturbed by remedial action excavation will be either contoured or backfilled with radiologically uncontaminated soil and contoured to restore the site. The final contours will produce a final surface grade that will create positive drainage from the site.

  16. Aeolin Features and Processes at the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Kraft, Michael; Sullivan, Robert; Wilson, Gregory; Bridges, Nathan; Herkenhoff, Ken; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Malin, Michael; Ward, Wes

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder landing site contains abundant features attributed to aeolian, or wind, processes. These include wind tails, drift deposits, duneforms of various types, ripplelike features, and ventifacts (the first clearly seen on Mars). Many of these features are consistant with formation involving sand-size particles. Although some features, such as dunes, could develop from saltating sand-size aggregates of finer grains, the discovery of ventifact flutes cut in rocks strongly suggests that at least some of the grains are crystalline, rather than aggregates. Excluding the ventifacts, the orientations of the wind-related features correlate well with the orientations of bright wind steaks seen on Viking Orbiter images in the general area. They also correlate with wind direction predictions from the NASA-Ames General Circulation Model (GCM) which show that the strongest winds in the area occur in the northern hemisphere winter and are directed toward 209 degrees.

  17. Aeolian features and processes at the Mars Pathfinder landing site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeley, Ronald; Kraft, Michael; Sullivan, Robert; Wilson, Gregory; Bridges, Nathan; Herkenhoff, Ken; Kuzmin, Ruslan O.; Malin, Michael; Ward, Wes

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder landing site contains abundant features attributed to aeolian, or wind, processes. These include wind tails, drift deposits, duneforms of various types, ripplelike features, and ventifacts (the first clearly seen on Mars). Many of these features are consistant with formation involving sand-size particles. Although some features, such as dunes, could develop from saltating sand-size aggregates of finer grains, the discovery of ventifact flutes cut in rocks strongly suggests that at least some of the grains are crystalline, rather than aggregates. Excluding the ventifacts, the orientations of the wind-related features correlate well with the orientations of bright wind steaks seen on Viking Orbiter images in the general area. They also correlate with wind direction predictions from the NASA-Ames General Circulation Model (GCM) which show that the strongest winds in the area occur in the northern hemisphere winter and are directed toward 209°. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Molecular cloning and tissue expression of the insulin-like growth factor II prohormone in the bony fish Cottus scorpius.

    PubMed

    Loffing-Cueni, D; Schmid, A C; Reinecke, M

    1999-01-01

    The cDNA encoding pro-IGF-II of an advanced teleost fish, Cottus scorpius (Scorpaeniformes), the daddy sculpin, was isolated from liver by RT-PCR and molecular cloning. Like other IGFs, the deduced 168 amino acid peptide contains B-, C-, A-, D-, and E-domains and six cysteine residues (CysB9, CysB21, CysA6, CysA7, CysA11, and CysA20) necessary for the maintenance of tertiary structure. At the amino acid level, the sculpin IGF-II prohormone exhibits 85-92% homology to pro-IGF-II of other bony fish but only 51% homology to human. The mature sculpin IGF-II peptide comprises 70 amino acids. Its A-, B-, and D-domains exhibit homologies as high as 91, 91, and 100%, respectively, when compared with the other bony fish species studied. The high sequence homologies may indicate a particular physiological impact of IGF-II in bony fish. RT-PCR followed by Southern blotting revealed an IGF-II mRNA transcript of the expected size in liver, pyloric and splenic islets, stomach, small and large intestine, kidney, gill, testis, ovary, brain, and heart. The local production of IGF-II in many organs indicates that IGF-II is involved in organ-specific functions in a paracrine/autocrine manner. Furthermore, the results show that all bony fish organs which have been demonstrated to express IGF-I mRNA also express IGF-II mRNA. PMID:9882541

  19. Cloning of a neoteleost (Oreochromis mossambicus) pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) cDNA reveals a deletion of the gamma-melanotropin region and most of the joining peptide region: implications for POMC processing.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Danielson, P; Sollars, C; Alrubaian, J; Balm, P; Dores, R M

    1999-12-01

    A signature feature of tetrapod pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is the presence of three melantropin (MSH) coding regions (alpha-MSH, beta-MSH, gamma-MSH). The MSH duplication events occurred early during the radiation of the jawed vertebrates well over 400 million years ago. However, in at least one order of modern bony fish (subdivision Teleostei; order Salmoniformes; i.e. salmon and trout) the gamma-MSH sequence has been deleted from POMC. To determine whether the gamma-MSH deletion has occurred in other teleost orders, a POMC cDNA was cloned from the pituitary of the neoteleost Oreochromis mossambicus (order Perciformes). In O. mossambicus POMC, the deletion is more extensive and includes the gamma-MSH sequence and most of the joining peptide region. Because the salmoniform and perciform teleosts do not share a direct common ancestor, the gamma-MSH deletion event must have occurred early in the evolution of the neoteleost fishes. The post-translational processing of O. mossambicus POMC occurs despite the fact that the proteolytic recognition sequence, (R/K)-Xn-(R/K) where n can be 0, 2, 4, or 6, a common feature in mammalian neuropeptide and polypeptide hormone precursors, is not present at several cleavage sites in O. mossambicus POMC. These observations would indicate that either the prohormone convertases in teleost fish use distinct recognition sequences or vertebrate prohormone convertases are capable of recognizing a greater number of primary sequence motifs around proteolytic cleavage sites. PMID:10698113

  20. The Cold Land Process Experiment's (CLPX) Local Scale Observation Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, J. P.; Cline, D.; Elder, K.; Davis, R. E.; Pomeroy, J.; Koh, Y.; Armstrong, R.; Koike, T.; McDonald, K.

    2002-12-01

    The Local Scale Observation Site (LSOS) is the smallest study site of the Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) and is located within the Fraser Meso-cell Study Area (MSA), near the Fraser Experimental Forest Headquarters Facility, in Fraser, Colorado USA. The 100- x 100-m site consists of a small, open field, a managed dense canopy, and an open, mixed age canopy. Unlike the other components of the experiment, which focus on spatial distributions at relatively brief "snapshots" in time, measurements at the local-scale site focused on the temporal domain. Measurements made at the LSOS were designed to produce a comprehensive assessment of the snow, soil, and vegetation characteristics viewed by the ground-based remote sensing instruments. The objective of ground-based microwave remote sensing was to collect time series of active and passive microwave spectral signatures over snow, soil, and forest, coincident with intensive physical characterization of these features. Ground-based remote sensing instruments included Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radars operating over multiple microwave bandwidths, the Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer (GBMR-7) (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) Simulator; channels 18.7, 23.8, 36.5, and 89.0-GHz), and in 2003, an L/C/X/Ku-band scatterometer radar system. Snow and soil measurements included standard snow physical properties, snow surface roughness, snow depth transects, and soil moisture. The stem and canopy temperature, and xylem flux of several trees within the area, were monitored continuously. Two micrometeorological towers, one located in the open snow area and the other in the forested area, monitored ambient conditions and provided forcing data sets for 1-D snow/soil models. Arrays of radiometers (0.3-3 μm) and a scanning thermal radiometer (8-12 μm) characterized the variability of radiative receipt in the forests. These measurements, together with the ground-based remote sensing, provide the

  1. Site-specific analysis of radiological and physical parameters for cobbly soils at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The remedial action at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site is being performed under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. Under UMTRCA, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with the responsibility of developing appropriate and applicable standards for the cleanup of radiologically contaminated land and buildings at 24 designated sites, including the Gunnison, Colorado, inactive processing site. Section 108 of Public Law 95-604 states that the US Department of Energy (DOE) shall ``select and perform remedial actions at the designated processing sites and disposal sites in accordance with the general standards`` prescribed by the EPA. Regulations governing the required remedial action at inactive uranium processing sites were promulgated by the EPA in 1983 and are contained in 40 CFR Part 192 (1993), Health and Environmental Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings. This document describes the radiological and physical parameters for the remedial action of the soil.

  2. Fuel quality/processing study. Volume 4: On site processing studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, G. E., Jr.; Cutrone, M.; Doering, H.; Hickey, J.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel treated at the turbine and the turbine exhaust gas processed at the turbine site are studied. Fuel treatments protect the turbine from contaminants or impurities either in the upgrading fuel as produced or picked up by the fuel during normal transportation. Exhaust gas treatments provide for the reduction of NOx and SOx to environmentally acceptable levels. The impact of fuel quality upon turbine maintenance and deterioration is considered. On site costs include not only the fuel treatment costs as such, but also incremental costs incurred by the turbine operator if a turbine fuel of low quality is not acceptably upgraded.

  3. Dose assessment for process water tunnels at Hanford Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Kamboj, S.; Yu, C.; LePoire, D.; Environmental Assessment

    2000-01-01

    The RESRAD-BUILD and RESRAD computer codes were used for dose assessment of the 105-C Process Water Tunnels at the Hanford Site. The evaluation assessed three different exposure scenarios: recreational use, tunnel maintenance worker, and residential use. The recreationist and maintenance worker scenarios were evaluated by using RESRAD-BUILD, a computer model for analyzing the radiological doses resulting from remediation and occupancy of structures contaminated with radioactive material. The recreationist was assumed to use the tunnels as an overnight shelter for eight hours per day for one week. The maintenance worker was assumed to spend 20 hours per year working in the tunnel. Six exposure pathways were considered for both scenarios in dose assessment. The gradual removal of surface contamination over time and ingrowth of decay products were considered in calculating the dose at different times. The maximum dose would occur immediately after the release and was estimated to be 1.9 mrem/yr for the recreationist and 0.9 mrem/yr for the maintenance worker. The residential scenario was evaluated by using the probabilistic RESRAD code. It was assumed that total activity from the tunnels would be brought into the near-surface layer by future human activities. Eight exposure pathways were considered. The maximum yearly dose for this very unlikely scenario would occur immediately after the release and was less than 4 mrem/yr for the maximally exposed individual. The assessment demonstrates that both codes are suitable for nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning sites, where buildings and structures with residual radioactivity must be evaluated to facilitate property transfer or release.

  4. Summary of some feasibility studies for site-specific solar industrial process heat

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Some feasibility studies for several different site specific solar industrial process heat applications are summarized. The followng applications are examined. Leather Tanning; Concrete Production: Lumber and Paper Processing; Milk Processing; Molding, Curing or Drying; Automobile Manufacture; and Food Processing and Preparation. For each application, site and process data, system design, and performance and cost estimates are summarized.

  5. Amino-Terminal Fragment of the Prohormone Brain-type Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP) in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Solus, Joseph; Chung, Cecilia P.; Oeser, Annette; Avalos, Ingrid; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Shintani, Ayumi; Raggi, Paolo; Sokka, Tuulikki; Pincus, Theodore; Stein, C. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Objective Increased concentrations of amino-terminal prohormone brain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but little is known about their relationship to chronic inflammation. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have chronic inflammation, increased arterial stiffness and accelerated coronary atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that NT-proBNP concentrations are elevated in patients with RA, and are associated with coronary artery calcification and markers of inflammation. Methods In 159 subjects with RA (90 patients with early RA and 69 patients with longstanding RA) without heart failure and 88 control subjects, we measured serum concentrations of NT-proBNP, interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and coronary calcification. Results NT-proBNP concentrations were elevated in patients with long-standing RA [median (IQR): 142.8 (54.8–270.5) pg/mL] and those with early RA [58.1 (19.4–157.6) pg/mL] compared to controls [18.1 (3.2–46.0) pg/mL, P<0.001]. In patients with RA, NT-proBNP concentrations were associated with age (ρ=0.35, P<0.001), IL-6 (ρ=0.33, P<0.001), TNF-α (ρ=0.23, P=0.003), CRP (ρ=0.21, P=0.01), coronary calcium score (ρ=0.30, P<0.001), systolic blood pressure (ρ=0.30, p<0.001), and disease activity (ρ=0.29, P<0.001). After adjustment for age, race and sex the associations between NT-proBNP concentrations and disease activity (P<0.001), TNF-α (P<0.001), IL-6 (P=0.04) and CRP concentrations (P=0.02) remained significant, but those with systolic blood pressure (P=0.10) and coronary calcium score (P=0.27) were attenuated. Conclusions NT-proBNP concentrations are increased in patients with RA without clinical heart failure and may indicate subclinical cardiovascular disease and a chronic inflammatory state. PMID:18759301

  6. Toxic School Sites in Los Angeles: Weaknesses in the Site Acquisition Process. Special Report of the Joint Legislative Audit Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Legislature, Sacramento. Joint Legislative Audit Committee.

    A special report of the California Legislature's Joint Legislative Audit Committee addresses the school site acquisition process to attempt to discern how the system has allowed a minimum of nine Los Angeles public schools to be built on toxic lands. The report examines two such sites, the Jefferson Middle School (JMS) and the combined elementary…

  7. Site Transition Process Upon Cleanup Completion. Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-19

    After environmental remediation is completed at a site and there is no continuing mission, responsibility for the site and the associated records are transferred to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management for post-closure management. Where residual hazards (e.g., disposal cells, ground water contamination) remain, active long-term surveillance and maintenance will be required to ensure protection of human health and the environment.

  8. Wyoming's industrial siting permit process and environmental impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyman, Eric L.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of management of industrial residuals can be reduced through a rational system for siting and planning major industrial facilities. In the United States, Wyoming has moved in the direction of establishing a one-stop permitting system that provides important information for air and water quality planning and solid waste management with a minimum of regulatory overlap. This paper describes Wyoming's Industrial Development Information and Siting Act of 1975 and suggests ways in which the Wyoming permitting system can be improved and applied elsewhere.

  9. Radiological audit of remedial action activities at the processing site, transfer site, and Cheney disposal site Grand Junction, Colorado: Audit date, August 9--11, 1993. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project`s Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) performed a radiological audit of the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), MK-Ferguson and CWM Federal Environmental Services, Inc., at the processing site, transfer site, and Cheney disposal site in Grand Junction, Colorado. Jim Hylko and Bill James of the TAC conducted this audit August 9 through 11, 1993. Bob Cornish and Frank Bosiljevec represented the US Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents one programmatic finding, eleven site-specific observations, one good practice, and four programmatic observations.

  10. Site selection and characterization for historic low-level radioactive wastes in Ontario, Co-operative Siting Process

    SciTech Connect

    Paktunc, A.D.

    1993-12-31

    The Co-operative Siting Process is a non-confrontational way to site a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) management facility in Ontario. The facility will be designed to accommodate approximately 880,000 m{sup 3} of LLRW. Four sets of general facility concepts, appropriate for the physical and chemical characteristics of the wastes and the general site conditions, are being considered. These include engineered mounds, shallow burial in trenches, burial in open pit with previous surround, and intermediate depth rock disposal concepts. The communities interested in offering a site are located in the Canadian Shield where the topography is dominated by rolling hills with reliefs of up to 50 meters and hydrogeological conditions are primarily controlled by fractures in the rock and by the types and distribution of glacial sediments. Climatic conditions can be classified as humid-continental. The objective of site characterization activity is to assess the suitability of potential sites for long-term containment of LLRW in the geosphere and their safe isolation from the biosphere. An initial phase involves exploratory studies designed to reduce larger areas to smaller areas and eventually to candidate sites. The second phase involves site-specific studies designed to maximize the changes of identifying more than one site for different facility requirements and complying with the regulatory requirements and performance expectations.

  11. Launch Site Computer Simulation and its Application to Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sham, Michael D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of computer simulation, the Lockheed developed STS Processing Model, and the application of computer simulation to a wide range of processes. The STS Processing Model is an icon driven model that uses commercial off the shelf software and a Macintosh personal computer. While it usually takes one year to process and launch 8 space shuttles, with the STS Processing Model this process is computer simulated in about 5 minutes. Facilities, orbiters, or ground support equipment can be added or deleted and the impact on launch rate, facility utilization, or other factors measured as desired. This same computer simulation technology can be used to simulate manufacturing, engineering, commercial, or business processes. The technology does not require an 'army' of software engineers to develop and operate, but instead can be used by the layman with only a minimal amount of training. Instead of making changes to a process and realizing the results after the fact, with computer simulation, changes can be made and processes perfected before they are implemented.

  12. ECOMAT INC. BIOLOGICAL DENIFTRICATION PROCESS; SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EcoMat, Inc. of Hayward, California (EcoMat) has developed an ex situ anoxic biofilter biodenitrification (BDN) process. The process uses specific biocarriers and bacteria to treat nitrate-contaminated water and employs a patented reactor that retains biocarrier within the syste...

  13. APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT: SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION TEST SOLIDITECH, INC. SOLIDIFICATION/ STABILIZATION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Applications Analysis Report evaluates the Soliditech, Inc., solidification/ stabilization process for the on-site treatment of waste materials. The Soliditech process mixes and chemically treats waste material with Urrichem (a proprietary reagent), additives, pozzolanic mat...

  14. Enhanced bioremediation of PAH contaminated soils from coal processing sites

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, M.M.; Lee, S.

    1995-12-31

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are a potential hazard to health due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic nature and acute toxicity and there is an imminent need for remediation of PAH contaminated soils abounding the several coke oven and town gas sites. Aerobic biological degradation of PAHs is an innovative technology and has shown high decontamination efficiencies, complete mineralization of contaminants, and is environmentally safe. The present study investigates the remediation of PAH contaminated soils achieved using Acinetobacter species and fungal strain Phanerochaete Chrysosporium. The soil used for the experiments was an industrially contaminated soil obtained from Alberta Research Council (ARC) primary cleanup facility, Alberta, Canada. Soil characterization was done using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to qualitatively and quantitatively determine the contaminants in the soil. Artificially contaminated soil was also used for some experiments. All the experiments were conducted under completely mixed conditions with suitable oxygen and nutrient amendments. The removal efficiency obtained for various PAHs using the two microorganisms was compared.

  15. Process Description for the Retrieval of Earth Covered Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    DEROSA, D.C.

    2000-01-13

    This document describes process and operational options for retrieval of the contact-handled suspect transuranic waste drums currently stored below grade in earth-covered trenches at the Hanford Site. Retrieval processes and options discussed include excavation, container retrieval, venting, non-destructive assay, criticality avoidance, incidental waste handling, site preparation, equipment, and shipping.

  16. EPA SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE BIOTROL SOIL WASHING PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot-scale soil washing process, patented by BioTrol, Inc., was demonstrate on soil contaminated by wood treating waste, primarily pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote-derived polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although soil washing was the main object of this demonstra...

  17. Aeolian Processes at the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, R.; Bell, J. F., III; Calvin, W.; Fike, D.; Golombek, M.; Greeley, R.; Grotzinger, J.; Herkenhoff, K.; Jerolmack, D.; Malin, M.

    2005-01-01

    The traverse of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity across its Meridiani Planum landing site has shown that wind has affected regolith by creating drifts, dunes, and ubiquitous ripples, by sorting grains during aeolian transport, by forming bright wind streaks downwind from craters seen from orbit, and by eroding rock with abrading, wind-blown material. Pre-landing orbiter observations showed bright and dark streaks tapering away from craters on the Meridiani plains. Further analysis of orbiter images shows that major dust storms can cause bright streak orientations in the area to alternate between NW and SE, implying bright wind streak materials encountered by Opportunity are transient, potentially mobilized deposits. Opportunity performed the first in situ investigation of a martian wind streak, focusing on a bright patch of material just outside the rim of Eagle crater. Data from Pancam, the Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES), the Alpha-Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS), and the Mossbauer spectrometer either are consistent with or permit an air fall dust interpretation. We conclude that air fall dust, deposited in the partial wind shadow of Eagle crater, is responsible for the bright streak seen from orbit, consistent with models involving patchy, discontinuous deposits of air fall dust distributed behind obstacles during periods of atmospheric thermal stability during major dust storms.

  18. Stability of choice in the honey bee nest-site selection process.

    PubMed

    Nevai, Andrew L; Passino, Kevin M; Srinivasan, Parthasarathy

    2010-03-01

    We introduce a pair of compartment models for the honey bee nest-site selection process that lend themselves to analytic methods. The first model represents a swarm of bees deciding whether a site is viable, and the second characterizes its ability to select between two viable sites. We find that the one-site assessment process has two equilibrium states: a disinterested equilibrium (DE) in which the bees show no interest in the site and an interested equilibrium (IE) in which bees show interest. In analogy with epidemic models, we define basic and absolute recruitment numbers (R(0) and B(0)) as measures of the swarm's sensitivity to dancing by a single bee. If R(0) is less than one then the DE is locally stable, and if B(0) is less than one then it is globally stable. If R(0) is greater than one then the DE is unstable and the IE is stable under realistic conditions. In addition, there exists a critical site quality threshold Q(*) above which the site can attract some interest (at equilibrium) and below which it cannot. We also find the existence of a second critical site quality threshold Q(**) above which the site can attract a quorum (at equilibrium) and below which it cannot. The two-site discrimination process, in which we examine a swarm's ability to simultaneously consider two sites differing in both site quality and discovery time, has a stable DE if and only if both sites' individual basic recruitment numbers are less than one. Numerical experiments are performed to study the influences of site quality on quorum time and the outcome of competition between a lower quality site discovered first and a higher quality site discovered second. PMID:19932704

  19. TWRS tank waste pretreatment process development hot test siting report

    SciTech Connect

    Howden, G.F.; Banning, D.L.; Dodd, D.A.; Smith, D.A.; Stevens, P.F.; Hansen, R.I.; Reynolds, B.A.

    1995-02-01

    This report is the sixth in a series that have assessed the hot testing requirements for TWRS pretreatment process development and identified the hot testing support requirements. This report, based on the previous work, identifies specific hot test work packages, matches those packages to specific hot cell facilities, and provides recommendations of specific facilities to be employed for the pretreatment hot test work. Also identified are serious limitations in the tank waste sample retrieval and handling infrastructure. Recommendations are provided for staged development of 500 mL, 3 L, 25 L and 4000 L sample recovery systems and specific actions to provide those capabilities.

  20. Seismic reflection processing for characterization of a hazardous waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Z.-M.; Doll, W.E.

    1997-03-01

    Seismic reflection data have been acquired by the Kansas Geological Survey near the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee, to assist in the selection of ground water monitoring well locations. The data were recorded in uncorrelated format to allow flexibility in enhancement of stacked images. During the summer of 1996, five of the thirteen seismic reflection lines acquired were processed. An unconventional correlation procedure, ``Vibroseis Whitening`` (VSW) (Coruh and Costain, 1983) has been applied to produce improved seismic sections. Refraction statics corrections, which remove the detrimental effect of an irregular weathered layer, have also been utilized to improve the seismic sections. The seismic data were stacked using the velocities obtained from a standard semblance velocity analysis tool. Locations and orientations of faults or fault zones can be interpreted from these stacked sections, and they are in agreement with the interpretations of the surface mapping in the area. This paper concludes that VSW and refraction statics can be important to near-surface swept source seismic data processing.

  1. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)] to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The proposed remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 162 ac (66 ha) of soils at the processing and disposal sites; however, 133 ac (55 ha) of these soils at and adjacent to the processing site are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. If supplemental standards are approved by the NRC and state of Colorado, approximately 112 ac (45 ha) of contaminated soils adjacent to the processing site would not be cleaned up. This area is steeply sloped. The cleanup of this contamination would have adverse environmental consequences and would be potentially hazardous to remedial action workers. Another 220 ac (89 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed during the remedial action. The final disposal site would result in approximately 57 ac (23 ha) being removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use.

  2. Transport processes investigation: A necessary first step in site scale characterization plans

    SciTech Connect

    Roepke, C.; Glass, R.J.; Brainard, J.; Mann, M.; Kriel, K.; Holt, R.; Schwing, J.

    1995-03-01

    We propose an approach, which we call the Transport Processes Investigation or TPI, to identify and verify site-scale transport processes and their controls. The TPI aids in the formulation of an accurate conceptual model of flow and transport, an essential first step in the development of a cost effective site characterization strategy. The TPI is demonstrated in the highly complex vadose zone of glacial tills that underlie the Fernald Environmental Remediation Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio. As a result of the TPI, we identify and verify the pertinent flow processes and their controls, such as extensive macropore and fracture flow through layered clays, which must be included in an accurate conceptual model of site-scale contaminant transport. We are able to conclude that the classical modeling and sampling methods employed in some site characterization programs will be insufficient to characterize contaminant concentrations or distributions at contaminated or hazardous waste facilities sited in such media.

  3. Two citizen task forces and the challenge of the evolving nuclear waste siting process

    SciTech Connect

    Peelle, E.B.

    1990-01-01

    Siting any nuclear waste facility is problematic in today's climate of distrust toward nuclear agencies and fear of nuclear waste. This study compares and contrasts the siting and public participation processes as two citizen task forces dealt with their difficult responsibilities. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Canada's Deep Geological Repository for Used Nuclear Fuel - Geo-scientific Site Evaluation Process - 13117

    SciTech Connect

    Blyth, Alec; Ben Belfadhel, Mahrez; Hirschorn, Sarah; Hamilton, Duncan; McKelvie, Jennifer

    2013-07-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management (APM), the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of APM is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable rock formation at a depth of approximately 500 meters (m) (1,640 feet [ft]). In May 2010, the NWMO published a nine-step site selection process that serves as the road map to decision-making on the location for the deep geological repository. The safety and appropriateness of any potential site will be assessed against a number of factors, both technical and social in nature. The selected site will be one that can be demonstrated to be able to safely contain and isolate used nuclear fuel, protecting humans and the environment over the very long term. The geo-scientific suitability of potential candidate sites will be assessed in a stepwise manner following a progressive and thorough site evaluation process that addresses a series of geo-scientific factors revolving around five safety functions. The geo-scientific site evaluation process includes: Initial Screenings; Preliminary Assessments; and Detailed Site Evaluations. As of November 2012, 22 communities have entered the site selection process (three in northern Saskatchewan and 18 in northwestern and southwestern Ontario). (authors)

  5. The search for the site of the r-process. [rapid neutron capture in stellar nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, John J.; Cameron, A. G. W.; Truran, J. W.; Sneden, Christopher

    1986-01-01

    A number of sites have been suggested for the r-process, including neutronized cores of exploding supernovae, jets of neutronized matter ejected from the collapse of rotating magnetized stellar cores, the helium and carbon zones of stars undergoing supernova explosions, and helium core flashes in low-mass stars. Despite much work and many advances in nuclear physics, the site or sites of the r-process is still unknown. Observations of metal-poor stars in the halo of the Galaxy indicate r-process production early in the history of the Galaxy and provide important constraints on galactic nucleosynthesis. Further observations of metal-poor stars, along with advances in understanding the nuclear properties of neutron-rich nuclei and improved astrophysical models of stars in the late stages of evolution, should help to identify the site of the r-process.

  6. Technology Demonstration Summary Site Program Demonstration Test Soliditech Inc Solidification-stabilization Process

    EPA Science Inventory

    The major objective of the Soliditech, Inc., SITE demonstration was to develop reliable performance and cost information about the Soliditech solidification, stabilization technology. The Soliditech process mixes hazardous waste materials with Portland cement or pozzolanic m...

  7. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado: Revision 5

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    Title 1 of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law (PL) 95-604, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial action at the inactive Naturita, Colorado, uranium processing site to reduce the potential health effects from the radioactive materials at the site and at vicinity properties associated with the site. Title 2 of the UMTRCA authorized the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or agreement state to regulate the operation and eventual reclamation of active uranium processing sites. The uranium mill tailings at the site were removed and reprocessed from 1977 to 1979. The contaminated areas include the former tailings area, the mill yard, the former ore storage area, and adjacent areas that were contaminated by uranium processing activities and wind and water erosion. The Naturita remedial action would result in the loss of 133 acres (ac) of contaminated soils at the processing site. If supplemental standards are approved by the NRC and the state of Colorado, approximately 112 ac of steeply sloped contaminated soils adjacent to the processing site would not be cleaned up. Cleanup of this contamination would have adverse environmental consequences and would be potentially hazardous to remedial action workers.

  8. Review of New York state low-level radioactive waste siting process

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This book reviews the efforts of New York State to site a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It evaluates the nature, sources, and quality of the data, analyses, and procedures used by the New York State Siting Commission in its decision-making process, which identified five potential sites for low-level waste disposal. Finally, the committee offers a chapter highlighting the lessons in siting low-level radioactive waste facilities that can be learned from New York State`s experience.

  9. Exposure pathway evaluations for sites that processed asbestos-contaminated vermiculite.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Barbara A; Dearwent, Steve M; Durant, James T; Dyken, Jill J; Freed, Jennifer A; Moore, Susan McAfee; Wheeler, John S

    2005-01-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is currently evaluating the potential public health impacts associated with the processing of asbestos-contaminated vermiculite at various facilities around the country. Vermiculite ore contaminated with significant levels of asbestos was mined and milled in Libby, Montana, from the early 1920s until 1990. The majority of the Libby ore was then shipped to processing facilities for exfoliation. ATSDR initiated the National Asbestos Exposure Review (NAER) to identify and evaluate exposure pathways associated with these processing facilities. This manuscript details ATSDR's phased approach in addressing exposure potential around these sites. As this is an ongoing project, only the results from a selected set of completed site analyses are presented. Historical occupational exposures are the most significant exposure pathway for the site evaluations completed to date. Former workers also probably brought asbestos fibers home on their clothing, shoes, and hair, and their household contacts may have been exposed. Currently, most site-related worker and community exposure pathways have been eliminated. One community exposure pathway of indeterminate significance is the current exposure of individuals through direct contact with waste rock brought home for personal use as fill material, driveway surfacing, or soil amendment. Trace levels of asbestos are present in soil at many of the sites and buried waste rock has been discovered at a few sites; therefore, future worker and community exposure associated with disturbing on-site soil during construction or redevelopment at these sites is also a potential exposure pathway. PMID:15881979

  10. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium Processing Site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law (PL) 95-604, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial action at the Naturita, Colorado, uranium processing site to reduce the potential health effects from the radioactive materials at the site and at vicinity properties associated with the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards for the UMTRCA that contain measures to control the contaminated materials and to protect groundwater quality. Remedial action at the Naturita site must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of Colorado. The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to either the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)] to the southeast, or a licensed non-DOE disposal facility capable of handling RRM. At either disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed Dry Flats disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This report discusses environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action.

  11. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal sits, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)) to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal sits would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The proposed remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 162 ac (66 ha) of soils at the processing and disposal sites; however, 133 ac (55 ha) of these soils at and adjacent to the processing site are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. If supplemental standards are approved by the NRC and state of Colorado, approximately 112 ac (45 ha) of contaminated soils adjacent to the processing site would not be cleaned up. This area is steeply sloped. The cleanup of this contamination would have adverse environmental consequences and would be potentially hazardous to remedial action workers. Another 220 ac (89 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed during the remedial action. The final disposal site would result in approximately 57 ac (23 ha) being removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use.

  12. Intestinal Bile Acid Composition Modulates Prohormone Convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) Expression and Consequent GLP-1 Production in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Kohkichi; Watanabe, Mitsuhiro; Sugizaki, Taichi; Irie, Jun-ichiro; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    Besides an established medication for hypercholesterolemia, bile acid binding resins (BABRs) present antidiabetic effects. Although the mechanisms underlying these effects are still enigmatic, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) appears to be involved. In addition to a few reported mechanisms, we propose prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3), an essential enzyme of GLP-1 production, as a potent molecule in the GLP-1 release induced by BABRs. In our study, the BABR colestimide leads to a bile acid-specific G protein-coupled receptor TGR5-dependent induction of PC1/3 gene expression. Here, we focused on the alteration of intestinal bile acid composition and consequent increase of total TGR5 agonistic activity to explain the TGR5 activation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that nuclear factor of activated T cells mediates the TGR5-triggered PC1/3 gene expression. Altogether, our data indicate that the TGR5-dependent intestinal PC1/3 gene expression supports the BABR-stimulated GLP-1 release. We also propose a combination of BABR and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor in the context of GLP-1-based antidiabetic therapy. PMID:26789236

  13. EPA SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL WASTE TECHNOLOGIES/GEO-CON IN SITU STABILIZATION/ SOLIDIFICATION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an EPA evaluation of the first field demonstration of an in situ stabilization/solidification process for contaminated soil under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. Demonstration of this process was a joint effort of two vendors...

  14. SITE DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN - ENHANCED IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION PROCESS, EARTH TECH, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA conducted an evaluation of the Enhanced In-situ Bioremediation process, a biostimulation technology developed by the USDOE at the Westinghouse Savannah River Plant site in Aiken, SC. DOE has licensed the process to Earth Tech, Inc. The evaluation described in this bulle...

  15. Final Report - Independent Verification Survey Activities at the Seperations Process Research Unit Sites, Niskayuna, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Evan Harpenau

    2011-03-15

    The Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) complex located on the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) site in Niskayuna, New York, was constructed in the late 1940s to research the chemical separation of plutonium and uranium (Figure A-1). SPRU operated as a laboratory scale research facility between February 1950 and October 1953. The research activities ceased following the successful development of the reduction oxidation and plutonium/uranium extraction processes. The oxidation and extraction processes were subsequently developed for large scale use by the Hanford and Savannah River sites (aRc 2008a). Decommissioning of the SPRU facilities began in October 1953 and continued through the 1990s.

  16. Active-Site Hydration and Water Diffusion in Cytochrome P450cam: A Highly Dynamic Process

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Yinglong; Baudry, Jerome Y

    2011-01-01

    Long-timescale molecular dynamics simulations (300 ns) are performed on both the apo- (i.e., camphor-free) and camphor-bound cytochrome P450cam (CYP101). Water diffusion into and out of the protein active site is observed without biased sampling methods. During the course of the molecular dynamics simulation, an average of 6.4 water molecules is observed in the camphor-binding site of the apo form, compared to zero water molecules in the binding site of the substrate-bound form, in agreement with the number of water molecules observed in crystal structures of the same species. However, as many as 12 water molecules can be present at a given time in the camphor-binding region of the active site in the case of apo-P450cam, revealing a highly dynamic process for hydration of the protein active site, with water molecules exchanging rapidly with the bulk solvent. Water molecules are also found to exchange locations frequently inside the active site, preferentially clustering in regions surrounding the water molecules observed in the crystal structure. Potential-of-mean-force calculations identify thermodynamically favored trans-protein pathways for the diffusion of water molecules between the protein active site and the bulk solvent. Binding of camphor in the active site modifies the free-energy landscape of P450cam channels toward favoring the diffusion of water molecules out of the protein active site.

  17. Processing Tritiated Water at the Savannah Rivver Site: A Production Scale Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Sessions, K

    2004-11-04

    The Palladium Membrane Reactor (PMR) process was installed in the Tritium Facilities at the Savannah River Site to perform a production-scale demonstration for the recovery of tritium from tritiated water adsorbed on molecular sieve (zeolite). Unlike the current recovery process that utilizes magnesium, the PMR offers a means to process tritiated water in a more cost effective and environmentally friendly manner. The design and installation of the large-scale PMR process was part of a collaborative effort between the Savannah River Site and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The PMR process operated at the Savannah River Site between May 2001 and April 2003. During the initial phase of operation the PMR processed thirty-four kilograms of tritiated water from the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The water was processed in fifteen separate batches to yield approximately 34,400 liters (STP) of hydrogen isotopes. Each batch consisted of round-the-clock operations for approximately nine days. In April 2003 the reactor's palladium-silver membrane ruptured resulting in the shutdown of the PMR process. Reactor performance, process performance and operating experiences have been evaluated and documented. A performance comparison between PMR and current magnesium process is also documented.

  18. 10 CFR Appendix III to Part 960 - Application of the System and Technical Guidelines During the Siting Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Siting Process III Appendix III to Part 960 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE... 960—Application of the System and Technical Guidelines During the Siting Process 1. This appendix... decision points of the siting process. The decision points, as referenced in the table, are defined...

  19. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.E.; Pechmann, J.H.K.; Knox, J.N.; Estes, R.A.; McGregor, J.H.; Bailey, K.

    1988-12-01

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory has completed 10 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site. This progress report examines water quality studies on streams peripheral to the DWPF construction site and examines the effectiveness of refuge ponds'' in ameliorating the effects of construction on local amphibians. Individual papers on these topics are indexed separately. 93 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs. (MHB)

  20. Development of an Informational Web Site for Recruiting Research Participants: Process, Implementation, and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Hershberger, Patricia E.; Kavanaugh, Karen; Hamilton, Rebekah; Klock, Susan C.; Merry, Lisa; Olshansky, Ellen; Pierce, Penny F.

    2013-01-01

    Internet-based research is increasing, yet there is little known about recruitment approaches that target the Internet. Investigators have been slow to discuss how to plan, develop, and enhance recruitment using the Internet when well-concealed or disparate populations, sensitive topics, or qualitative methods are interspersed into the aims of the study. The twofold purpose of this paper is to 1.) highlight the major steps and strategies undertaken to develop and implement an innovative web site for recruiting high-genetic-risk couples who were considering preimplantation genetic diagnosis use, and 2.) present the recruitment results and lessons learned based on enrollment, self-evaluation, and descriptive data. The web site was developed using a five-step process designed by the investigators. A significant step in the process was determining the web site objectives, which were enacted through contextual and design decisions, and also by incorporating a brief video and study logo into the web site. The recruitment results indicate that of the 22 participant couples, ~82% were recruited via the Internet versus traditional recruitment approaches (i.e., clinics, newsletters) and that the majority of couples viewed the web site prior to enrolling in the study. In conclusion, developing a web site using the five-step process can facilitate recruitment. PMID:21709545

  1. Plutonium production story at the Hanford site: processes and facilities history

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-20

    This document tells the history of the actual plutonium production process at the Hanford Site. It contains five major sections: Fuel Fabrication Processes, Irradiation of Nuclear Fuel, Spent Fuel Handling, Radiochemical Reprocessing of Irradiated Fuel, and Plutonium Finishing Operations. Within each section the story of the earliest operations is told, along with changes over time until the end of operations. Chemical and physical processes are described, along with the facilities where these processes were carried out. This document is a processes and facilities history. It does not deal with the waste products of plutonium production.

  2. Implementation of an integrated CERCLA-NEPA environmental process at a FUSRAP site

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, J.S.; Beskid, N.J.; Robertson, R.C.; Atkin, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 and its amendment in 1986 through the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) have significantly affected the environmental compliance process. Remedial actions at contaminated sites now must satisfy the requirements of not only the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) but also CERCLA, as amended. For planning and conducting remedial actions under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), the US Department of Energy has developed and implemented an integrated process aimed at satisfying the requirements of both NEPA and CERCLA, as amended. The integrated approach involves a single, comprehensive environmental process that results in a single set of documentation. The process is streamlined, efficient, and cost effective and it minimizes confusion to the public. This paper discusses the need for, and the elements of, the integrated process as applied to FUSRAP sites. The implementation of the process is illustrated through a case study of FUSRAP sites in Tonawanda, New York. 5 figs.

  3. Comparisons of mercury sources and atmospheric mercury processes between a coastal and inland site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Irene; Zhang, Leiming; Blanchard, Pierrette; Dalziel, John; Tordon, Rob; Huang, Jiaoyan; Holsen, Thomas M.

    2013-03-01

    Comparisons of mercury sources and atmospheric mercury processes were conducted between a coastal and inland site in northeastern North America. Identifying sources of atmospheric Hg is essential for understanding what is potentially contributing to Hg bioaccumulation at these two sites. A data set consisting of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), particle-bound mercury, ozone, trace gases, particulate ions, and meteorological data were analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA), absolute principal component scores (APCS), and back trajectories. The PCA factors representing gaseous Hg condensation on particles during winter and combustion and industrial sources were found at both sites. However, the PCA factor for combustion/industrial sources was not found in 2010 at either site, likely because of SO2 emissions reductions from coal utilities from 2008 to 2010. Using APCS and back trajectories, the combustion/industrial factor at the coastal site was narrowed down to shipping ports along the Atlantic coast. Hg sources affecting coastal sites are different from those affecting inland sites because of the influence of marine airflows. GEM evasion from the ocean was evident from a PCA factor containing GEM, relative humidity, wind speed, and precipitation along with significantly higher contributions of this source (APCS) from oceanic trajectories compared to land/coastal trajectories. Analysis of the effects of ozone and water vapor mixing ratio on %GOM/total gaseous mercury suggest that Hg-Br photochemistry occurred at lower ozone concentrations (<40 ppb) at the coastal site and the absence of free troposphere transport of GOM.

  4. Islets of Langerhans from prohormone convertase-2 knockout mice show α-cell hyperplasia and tumorigenesis with elevated α-cell neogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Huw B; Reens, Jaimini; Brocklehurst, Simon R; Betts, Catherine J; Bickerton, Sue; Bigley, Alison L; Jenkins, Richard P; Whalley, Nicky M; Morgan, Derrick; Smith, David M

    2014-01-01

    Antagonism of the effects of glucagon as an adjunct therapy with other glucose-lowering drugs in the chronic treatment of diabetes has been suggested to aggressively control blood glucose levels. Antagonism of glucagon effects, by targeting glucagon secretion or disabling the glucagon receptor, is associated with α-cell hyperplasia. We evaluated the influence of total glucagon withdrawal on islets of Langerhans using prohormone convertase-2 knockout mice (PC2-ko), in which α-cell hyperplasia is present from a young age and persists throughout life, in order to understand whether or not sustained glucagon deficit would lead to islet tumorigenesis. PC2-ko and wild-type (WT) mice were maintained drug-free, and cohorts of these groups sampled at 3, 12 and 18 months for plasma biochemical and morphological (histological, immunohistochemical, electron microscopical and image analytical) assessments. WT mice showed no islet tumours up to termination of the study, but PC2-ko animals displayed marked changes in islet morphology from α-cell hypertrophy/hyperplasia/atypical hyperplasia, to adenomas and carcinomas, these latter being first encountered at 6–8 months. Islet hyperplasias and tumours primarily consisted of α-cells associated to varying degrees with other islet endocrine cell types. In addition to substantial increases in islet neoplasia, increased α-cell neogenesis associated primarily with pancreatic duct(ule)s was present. We conclude that absolute blockade of the glucagon signal results in tumorigenesis and that the PC2-ko mouse represents a valuable model for investigation of islet tumours and pancreatic ductal neogenesis. PMID:24456331

  5. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-14:1 Process Sewer, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-005

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-02-22

    The 100-B-14:1 subsite encompasses the former process sewer main associated with the 105-B Reactor Building, 108-B Chemical Pumphouse and Tritium Separation Facility, 184-B Boiler House and the 100-B water treatment facilities, as well as the feeder lines associated with the 108-B facility, formerly discharging to the 116-B-7 Outfall Structure. The subsite has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  6. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Pechmann, J.H.K.; Scott, D.E.; McGregor, J.H.; Estes, R.A.; Chazal, A.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was built on the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the mid-1980's. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 12 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Research conducted by the SREL has focused primarily on four questions related to these wetlands: (1) Prior to construction, what fauna and flora were present at the DWPF site and at similar, yet undisturbed, alternative sites (2) By comparing the Carolina bay at the DWPF site (Sun Bay) with an undisturbed control Carolina bay (Rainbow Bay), what effect is construction having on the organisms that inhabited the DWPF site (3) By comparing control streams with streams on the periphery of the DWPF site, what effect is construction having on the peripheral streams (4) How effective have efforts been to lessen the impacts of construction, both with respect to erosion control measures and the construction of refuge ponds'' as alternative breeding sites for amphibians that formerly bred at Sun Bay Through the long-term census-taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has begun to evaluate the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. Similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive Orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10CFR1022).

  7. Analytic hierarchy process helps select site for limestone quarry expansion in Barbados.

    PubMed

    Dey, Prasanta Kumar; Ramcharan, Eugene K

    2008-09-01

    Site selection is a key activity for quarry expansion to support cement production, and is governed by factors such as resource availability, logistics, costs, and socio-economic-environmental factors. Adequate consideration of all the factors facilitates both industrial productivity and sustainable economic growth. This study illustrates the site selection process that was undertaken for the expansion of limestone quarry operations to support cement production in Barbados. First, alternate sites with adequate resources to support a 25-year development horizon were identified. Second, technical and socio-economic-environmental factors were then identified. Third, a database was developed for each site with respect to each factor. Fourth, a hierarchical model in analytic hierarchy process (AHP) framework was then developed. Fifth, the relative ranking of the alternate sites was then derived through pair wise comparison in all the levels and through subsequent synthesizing of the results across the hierarchy through computer software (Expert Choice). The study reveals that an integrated framework using the AHP can help select a site for the quarry expansion project in Barbados. PMID:17854976

  8. Photochemical processing of organic aerosol at nearby continental sites: contrast between urban plumes and regional aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slowik, J. G.; Brook, J.; Chang, R. Y.-W.; Evans, G. J.; Hayden, K.; Jeong, C.-H.; Li, S.-M.; Liggio, J.; Liu, P. S. K.; McGuire, M.; Mihele, C.; Sjostedt, S.; Vlasenko, A.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2011-03-01

    As part of the BAQS-Met 2007 field campaign, Aerodyne time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometers (ToF-AMS) were deployed at two sites in southwestern Ontario from 17 June to 11 July 2007. One instrument was located at Harrow, ON, a rural, agriculture-dominated area approximately 40 km southeast of the Detroit/Windsor/Windsor urban area and 5 km north of Lake Erie. The second instrument was located at Bear Creek, ON, a rural site approximately 70 km northeast of the Harrow site and 50 km east of Detroit/Windsor. Positive matrix factorization analysis of the combined organic mass spectral dataset yields factors related to secondary organic aerosol (SOA), direct emissions, and a factor tentatively attributed to the reactive uptake of isoprene and/or condensation of its early generation reaction products. This is the first application of PMF to simultaneous AMS measurements at different sites, an approach which allows for self-consistent, direct comparison of the datasets. Case studies are utilized to investigate processing of SOA from (1) fresh emissions from Detroit/Windsor and (2) regional aerosol during periods of inter-site flow. A strong correlation is observed between SOA/excess CO and photochemical age as represented by the NOx/NOy ratio for Detroit/Windsor outflow. Although this correlation is not evident for more aged air, measurements at the two sites during inter-site transport nevertheless show evidence of continued atmospheric processing by SOA production. However, the rate of SOA production decreases with airmass age from an initial value of ~10.1 μg m-3 ppmvCO-1 h-1 for the first ~10 h of plume processing to near-zero in an aged airmass (i.e. after several days). The initial SOA production rate is comparable to the observed rate in Mexico City over similar timescales.

  9. Savannah River Site Salt Processing Project: FY2002 Research and Development Program Plan, Rev. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, Harry D.; Leugemors, Robert K.; Schlahta, Stephan N.; Fink, Samuel D.; Thompson, Major C.; Walker, Darrell D.

    2001-12-10

    This Plan describes the technology development program for alpha/strontium removal and Caustic Side Solvent Extraction cesium removal in FY2002. Crystalline Silicotitanate and Small Tank Tetratphenylborate Precipitation are discussed as possible backup technologies. Previous results are summarized in the Savannah River Site Salt Processing Project Research and Development Summary Report.

  10. 77 FR 38033 - Notice of Establishment of a Commodity Import Approval Process Web Site

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ...We are announcing the creation of a new Plant Protection and Quarantine Web site that will provide stakeholders with information about the commodity import approval process for plants and plant products and give them the opportunity to consult with us on risk assessments as they are being drafted. We are doing this in response to stakeholder requests for more information about the commodity......

  11. EPA SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE TERRA VAC IN SITU VACUUM EXTRACTION PROCESS IN GROVELAND, MASSACHUSETTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an EPA evaluation of the patented Terra Vac, Inc.'s in situ vacuum extraction process that was field-demonstrated on a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated soil in Groveland, MA, under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. he Terra...

  12. Process-based index modeling of landscape vulnerability to off-site agrichemical movement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    dentifying areas vulnerable to off-site agrichemical movement and surface and ground water contamination through conventional data collection is labor-intensive, costly and time-consuming. To promote efficient agrichemical use and protect water resources, a process-based index model was developed to...

  13. Process-based modeling of landscape vulnerability to off-site pesticide transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying areas vulnerable to off-site agrichemical movement and surface and ground water contamination through conventional data collection is labor-intensive, costly and time-consuming. To promote efficient pesticide use and protect water resources, a process-based index model was developed to a...

  14. Final audit report of remedial action construction at the UMTRA Project, Grand Junction, Colorado, processing site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This final audit report (FAR) for remedial action at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project processing site consists of a summary of the radiological surveillances/ audits, the quality assurance (QA) in-process surveillances, and the QA final close-out inspection performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC). The FAR also summarizes other surveillances performed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). To summarize, a total of one finding and 127 observations were noted during DOE/TAC audit and surveillance activities. The NRC noted general site-related observations during the OSCRs. Follow-up to responses required from MK-Ferguson for the DOE/TAC finding and observations indicated that all issues related to the Grand Junction processing site were resolved and closed out to the DOE`s satisfaction. The NRC OSCRs resulted in no issues related to the Grand Junction processing site requiring a response from MK-Ferguson.

  15. Savannah River Site Salt Processing Project: FY2002 Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, Harry D.; Leugemors, Robert K.; Schlahta, Stephan N.; Fink, Samuel D.; Thompson, Major C.; Walker, Darrell D.

    2001-10-31

    This Plan describes the technology development program for alpha/strontium removal and Caustic Side Solvent Extraction cesium removal in FY2002. Crystalline Silicotitanate and Small Tank Tetratphenylborate Precipitation are discussed as possible backup technologies. Previous results are summarized in the Savannah River Site Salt Processing Project Research and Development Summary Report

  16. Overview of Fiscal Year 2002 Research and Development for Savannah River Site's Salt Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    H. D. Harmon, R. Leugemors, PNNL; S. Fink, M. Thompson, D. Walker, WSRC; P. Suggs, W. D. Clark, Jr

    2003-02-26

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste program is responsible for storage, treatment, and immobilization of high-level waste for disposal. The Salt Processing Program (SPP) is the salt (soluble) waste treatment portion of the SRS high-level waste effort. The overall SPP encompasses the selection, design, construction and operation of treatment technologies to prepare the salt waste feed material for the site's grout facility (Saltstone) and vitrification facility (Defense Waste Processing Facility). Major constituents that must be removed from the salt waste and sent as feed to Defense Waste Processing Facility include actinides, strontium, cesium, and entrained sludge. In fiscal year 2002 (FY02), research and development (R&D) on the actinide and strontium removal and Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) processes transitioned from technology development for baseline process selection to providing input for conceptual design of the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The SPP R&D focused on advancing the technical maturity, risk reduction, engineering development, and design support for DOE's engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contractors for the Salt Waste Processing Facility. Thus, R&D in FY02 addressed the areas of actual waste performance, process chemistry, engineering tests of equipment, and chemical and physical properties relevant to safety. All of the testing, studies, and reports were summarized and provided to the DOE to support the Salt Waste Processing Facility, which began conceptual design in September 2002.

  17. Site-specific investigations on aquifer thermal energy storage for space and process cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. R.

    1991-08-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has completed three preliminary site-specific feasibility studies that investigated aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) for reducing space and process cooling costs. Chilled water stored in an ATES system could be used to meet all or part of the process and/or space cooling loads at the three facilities investigated. Seasonal or diurnal chill ATES systems could be significantly less expensive than a conventional electrically-driven, load-following chiller system at one of the three sites, depending on the cooling water loop return temperature and presumed future electricity escalation rate. For the other two sites investigated, a chill ATES system would be economically competitive with conventional chillers if onsite aquifer characteristics were improved. Well flow rates at one of the sites were adequate, but the expected thermal recovery efficiency was too low. The reverse of this situation was found at the other site, where the thermal recovery efficiency was expected to be adequate, but well flow rates were too low.

  18. DNA damage processing by human 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase mutants with the occluded active site.

    PubMed

    Lukina, Maria V; Popov, Alexander V; Koval, Vladimir V; Vorobjev, Yuri N; Fedorova, Olga S; Zharkov, Dmitry O

    2013-10-01

    8-Oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase (OGG1) removes premutagenic lesion 8-oxoguanine (8-oxo-G) from DNA and then nicks the nascent abasic (apurinic/apyrimidinic) site by β-elimination. Although the structure of OGG1 bound to damaged DNA is known, the dynamic aspects of 8-oxo-G recognition are not well understood. To comprehend the mechanisms of substrate recognition and processing, we have constructed OGG1 mutants with the active site occluded by replacement of Cys-253, which forms a wall of the base-binding pocket, with bulky leucine or isoleucine. The conformational dynamics of OGG1 mutants were characterized by single-turnover kinetics and stopped-flow kinetics with fluorescent detection. Additionally, the conformational mobility of wild type and the mutant OGG1 substrate complex was assessed using molecular dynamics simulations. Although pocket occlusion distorted the active site and greatly decreased the catalytic activity of OGG1, it did not fully prevent processing of 8-oxo-G and apurinic/apyrimidinic sites. Both mutants were notably stimulated in the presence of free 8-bromoguanine, indicating that this base can bind to the distorted OGG1 and facilitate β-elimination. The results agree with the concept of enzyme plasticity, suggesting that the active site of OGG1 is flexible enough to compensate partially for distortions caused by mutation. PMID:23955443

  19. Nature of the sites involved in the process of cesium desorption from vermiculite.

    PubMed

    Dzene, Liva; Tertre, Emmanuel; Hubert, Fabien; Ferrage, Eric

    2015-10-01

    Three particle size fractions of sodium-saturated vermiculite (10-20, 1-2 and 0.1-0.2 μm), differing only in their ratios of external-to-total sorption sites, were used to probe the nature of the sites involved in desorption of cesium ions. The sorption was investigated for initial aqueous concentrations of cesium ranging from 5.6×10(-4) to 1.3×10(-2) mol/L, and the cesium desorption was probed by exchange with ammonium ions. The results showed that (1) the amounts of desorbed cesium were strongly dependent on the particle size for a given initial aqueous cesium concentration and (2) the amounts of desorbed cations (Na(+) and Cs(+)) strongly decreased with increasing initial cesium aqueous concentration, irrespective of the particle size investigated. Quantitative analysis of these results suggested that cesium ions sorbed on external (edge+basal) sorption sites can be desorbed by ammonium ions. As a contrast, most of cesium ions sorbed on interlayer sites remain fixed due to the collapse of the structure under aqueous conditions. This study provides important information, such as the nature of the sites involved in the exchange process, when the thermodynamic formalism is considered to describe the ion-exchange process involving cesium and high-charge swelling clay minerals in polluted soil environments. PMID:26073847

  20. Snow Cover Depletion and Soil Moisture Recharge at Three Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) Meteorological Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holcombe, J. D.; Elder, K.; Davis, R. E.

    2003-12-01

    With increasing concern regarding water supply in arid and semiarid regions, knowledge of water resources in the Earth's cold regions is critical. Snow-cover depletion and soil moisture recharge are elements used in hydrologic modeling and climate modeling, as well as remote sensing applications. Modeled snow-cover depletion and soil moisture recharge are important parameters in hydrologic forecasting. We evaluate the ability of a one-dimensional mass and energy balance model (SNTHERM.89) to predict snow-cover depletion and to test the accuracy of Fast All season Soil STrength (FASST) in modeling the evolution of soil moisture recharge based on data from three NASA Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) sites. The objective is to evaluate the model's ability to predict observations at three CLPX sites: Buffalo Pass (near Steamboat Springs, CO); St. Louis Creek (in the Fraser Experimental Forest, CO); and Illinois River (located in North Park, CO). The three sites were chosen for their diverse climatic and physiographic differences. The Buffalo Pass site has a deep snowpack with discontinuous forest cover dominated by Englemann spruce (Picea englemannii) and alpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa). The St. Louis site has a moderate snowpack depth and forest cover dominated by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). The Illinois River site is irrigated grassland with no forest cover.

  1. Canada's Deep Geological Repository For Used Nuclear Fuel -The Geoscientific Site Evaluation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschorn, S.; Ben Belfadhel, M.; Blyth, A.; DesRoches, A. J.; McKelvie, J. R. M.; Parmenter, A.; Sanchez-Rico Castejon, M.; Urrutia-Bustos, A.; Vorauer, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management, the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. In May 2010, the NWMO published and initiated a nine-step site selection process to find an informed and willing community to host a deep geological repository for Canada's used nuclear fuel. The site selection process is designed to address a broad range of technical and social, economic and cultural factors. The suitability of candidate areas will be assessed in a stepwise manner over a period of many years and include three main steps: Initial Screenings; Preliminary Assessments; and Detailed Site Characterizations. The Preliminary Assessment is conducted in two phases. NWMO has completed Phase 1 preliminary assessments for the first eight communities that entered into this step. While the Phase 1 desktop geoscientific assessments showed that each of the eight communities contains general areas that have the potential to satisfy the geoscientific safety requirements for hosting a deep geological repository, the assessment identified varying degrees of geoscientific complexity and uncertainty between communities, reflecting their different geological settings and structural histories. Phase 2 activities will include a sequence of high-resolution airborne geophysical surveys and focused geological field mapping to ground-truth lithology and structural features, followed by limited deep borehole drilling and testing. These activities will further evaluate the site's ability to meet the safety functions that a site would need to ultimately satisfy in order to be considered suitable. This paper provides an update on the site evaluation process and describes the approach, methods and criteria that are being used to conduct the geoscientific Preliminary Assessments.

  2. New Systems for Waste Processing of Tritium-Containing Gases at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Poore, A.S.; Jacobs, W.D.

    2005-07-15

    A project to relocate and consolidate tritium processing activities from old, second generation buildings to newer buildings was initiated in the late 1990's at the Savannah River Site. The new waste gas processing systems located in the newer facility utilize recent technology, including metal getters, an innovative permeator design, and TCAP (Thermal Cycling Absorption Process) technology for removal of residual tritium prior to releasing the effluent to the environment. Startup testing results (using protium and deuterium) and corresponding lessons learned for these systems are presented. These systems have since successfully completed tritium startup testing and are operational.

  3. Archaeological horizons and fluvial processes at the Lower Paleolithic open-air site of Revadim (Israel).

    PubMed

    Marder, Ofer; Malinsky-Buller, Ariel; Shahack-Gross, Ruth; Ackermann, Oren; Ayalon, Avner; Bar-Matthews, Miryam; Goldsmith, Yonaton; Inbar, Moshe; Rabinovich, Rivka; Hovers, Erella

    2011-04-01

    In this paper we present new data pertaining to the paleo-landscape characteristics at the Acheulian site of Revadim, on the southern coastal plain of Israel. Sedimentological, isotopic, granulometric and micromorphological studies showed that the archaeological remains accumulated in an active fluvial environment where channel action, overbank flooding and episodic inundation occurred. Measurements of total organic matter and its carbon isotopic composition indicate that the hominin activity at the site started at a period of relatively drier conditions, which coincided with erosion of the preceding soil sequence. This process led to the formation of a gently-undulating topography, as reconstructed by a GIS model. Later deposition documents relatively wetter conditions, as indicated by carbon isotopic composition. Formation processes identified at the site include fluvial processes, inundation episodes that resulted in anaerobic conditions and formation of oxide nodules, as well as small-scale bioturbation and later infiltration of carbonate-rich solutions that resulted in the formation of calcite nodules and crusts. The combination of micro-habitats created favorable conditions that repeatedly drew hominins to the area, as seen by a series of super-imposed archaeological horizons. This study shows that site-specific paleo-landscape reconstructions should play an important role in understanding regional variation among hominin occupations and in extrapolating long-term behavioral patterns during the Middle Pleistocene. PMID:20304463

  4. Spatio-temporal evolution of biogeochemical processes at a landfill site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, B.; Mohanty, B. P.; McGuire, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Predictions of fate and transport of contaminants are strongly dependent on spatio-temporal variability of soil hydraulic and geochemical properties. This study focuses on time-series signatures of hydrological and geochemical properties at different locations within the Norman landfill site. Norman Landfill is a closed municipal landfill site with prevalent organic contamination. Monthly data at the site include specific conductance, δ18O, δ2H, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and anions (chloride, sulfate, nitrate) from 1998-2006. Column scale data on chemical concentrations, redox gradients, and flow parameters are also available on daily and hydrological event (infiltration, drainage, etc.) scales. Since high-resolution datasets of contaminant concentrations are usually unavailable, Wavelet and Fourier analyses were used to infer the dominance of different biogeochemical processes at different spatio-temporal scales and to extract linkages between transport and reaction processes. Results indicate that time variability controls the progression of reactions affecting biodegradation of contaminants. Wavelet analysis suggests that iron-sulfide reduction reactions had high seasonal variability at the site, while fermentation processes dominated at the annual time scale. Findings also suggest the dominance of small spatial features such as layered interfaces and clay lenses in driving biogeochemical reactions at both column and landfill scales. A conceptual model that caters to increased understanding and remediating structurally heterogeneous variably-saturated media is developed from the study.

  5. A mitogenic peptide amide encoded within the E peptide domain of the insulin-like growth factor IB prohormone.

    PubMed Central

    Siegfried, J M; Kasprzyk, P G; Treston, A M; Mulshine, J L; Quinn, K A; Cuttitta, F

    1992-01-01

    We have identified an amino acid sequence within the E peptide of the insulin-like growth factor IB (IGF-IB) precursor that is biologically active and designated this peptide insulin-like growth factor IB-(103-124) E1 amide (IBE1). Its existence was predicted by a flanking Gly-Lys-Lys-Lys, a signal sequence for sequential proteolytic cleavage and peptidyl C-terminal amidation. A synthetic analog of the predicted IBE1 peptide, designated Y-23-R-NH2, was generated with tyrosine added at position 0. This peptide at 2-20 nM had growth-promoting effects on both normal and malignant human bronchial epithelial cells. Y-23-R-NH2 bound to specific high-affinity receptors (Kd = 2.8 +/- 1.4 x 10(-11) M) present at 1-2 x 10(4) binding sites per cell. Ligand binding was not inhibited by recombinant insulin or recombinant IGF-I. Furthermore, a monoclonal antibody antagonist to the IGF-I receptor (alpha IR3) did not suppress the proliferative response induced by Y-23-R-NH2. In addition, C-terminal amidation was shown to be important in receptor recognition since the free-acid analog of IBE1 (Y-23-R-OH) did not effectively compete for binding and was not a potent agonist of proliferation. Immunoblot analysis of human lung tumor cell line extracts using an antibody raised against Y-23-R-NH2 detected a low molecular mass band of approximately 5 kDa, implying that a protein product is produced that has immunological similarity to IBE1. Extracts of human, mammalian, and avian livers analyzed on an immunoblot with the anti-Y-23-R-NH2 antibody contained proteins of approximately 21 kDa that were specifically recognized by the antiserum and presumably represent an IGF-I precursor molecule. This implies that in species where an IGF-I mRNA with homology to the human IGF-IB E domain has not yet been described, an alternate mRNA must be produced that contains a sequence similar to that of the midportion of the human IGF-IB E domain. Our findings demonstrate that IBE1 is a growth factor that

  6. Lessons learned from the Siting Process of an Interim Storage Facility in Spain - 12024

    SciTech Connect

    Lamolla, Meritxell Martell

    2012-07-01

    On 29 December 2009, the Spanish government launched a site selection process to host a centralised interim storage facility for spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. It was an unprecedented call for voluntarism among Spanish municipalities to site a controversial facility. Two nuclear municipalities, amongst a total of thirteen municipalities from five different regions, presented their candidatures to host the facility in their territories. For two years the government did not make a decision. Only in November 30, 2011, the new government elected on 20 November 2011 officially selected a non-nuclear municipality, Villar de Canas, for hosting this facility. This paper focuses on analysing the factors facilitating and hindering the siting of controversial facilities, in particular the interim storage facility in Spain. It demonstrates that involving all stakeholders in the decision-making process should not be underestimated. In the case of Spain, all regional governments where there were candidate municipalities willing to host the centralised interim storage facility, publicly opposed to the siting of the facility. (author)

  7. Detection of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites using satellite remote sensing and digital image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrie, Robert K.

    2011-11-01

    Satellite remote sensing is playing an increasingly important role in the detection and documentation of archaeological sites. Surveying an area from the ground using traditional methods often presents challenges due to the time and costs involved. In contrast, the multispectral synoptic approach afforded by the satellite sensor makes it possible to cover much larger areas in greater spectral detail and more cost effectively. This is especially the case for larger scale regional surveys, which are helping to contribute to a better understanding of ancient Egyptian settlement patterns. This study presents an overview of satellite remote sensing data products, methodologies, and image processing techniques for detecting lost or undiscovered archaeological sites with reference to Egypt and the Near East. Key regions of the electromagnetic spectrum useful for site detection are discussed, including the visible near-infrared (VNIR), shortwave infrared (SWIR), thermal infrared (TIR), and microwave (radar). The potential of using Google Earth as both a data provider and a visualization tool is also examined. Finally, a case study is presented for detecting tell sites in Egypt using Landsat ETM+, ASTER, and Google Earth imagery. The results indicated that principal components analysis (PCA) was successfully able to detect and differentiate tell sites from modern settlements in Egypt's northwestern Nile Delta region.

  8. Prohormone convertase 2 (PC2) null mice have increased mu opioid receptor levels accompanied by altered morphine-induced antinociception, tolerance and dependence.

    PubMed

    Lutfy, K; Parikh, D; Lee, D L; Liu, Y; Ferrini, M G; Hamid, A; Friedman, T C

    2016-08-01

    Chronic morphine treatment increases the levels of prohormone convertase 2 (PC2) in brain regions involved in nociception, tolerance and dependence. Thus, we tested if PC2 null mice exhibit altered morphine-induced antinociception, tolerance and dependence. PC2 null mice and their wild-type controls were tested for baseline hot plate latency, injected with morphine (1.25-10mg/kg) and tested for antinociception 30min later. For tolerance studies, mice were tested in the hot plate test before and 30min following morphine (5mg/kg) on day 1. Mice then received an additional dose so that the final dose of morphine was 10mg/kg on this day. On days 2-4, mice received additional doses of morphine (20, 40 and 80mg/kg on days 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively). On day 5, mice were tested in the hot plate test before and 30min following morphine (5mg/kg). For withdrawal studies, mice were treated with the escalating doses of morphine (10, 20, 40 and 80mg/kg) for 4days, implanted with a morphine pellet on day 5 and 3 days later injected with naloxone (1mg/kg) and signs of withdrawal were recorded. Morphine dose-dependently induced antinociception and the magnitude of this response was greater in PC2 null mice. Tolerance to morphine was observed in wild-type mice and this phenomenon was blunted in PC2 null mice. Withdrawal signs were also reduced in PC2 null mice. Immunohistochemical studies showed up-regulation of the mu opioid receptor (MOP) protein expression in the periaqueductal gray area, ventral tegmental area, lateral hypothalamus, medial hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and somatosensory cortex in PC2 null mice. Likewise, naloxone specific binding was increased in the brains of these mice compared to their wild-type controls. The results suggest that the PC2-derived peptides may play a functional role in morphine-induced antinociception, tolerance and dependence. Alternatively, lack of opioid peptides led to up-regulation of the MOP and altered morphine

  9. Finding of No Significant Impact, proposed remediation of the Maybell Uranium Mill Processing Site, Maybell, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0347) on the proposed surface remediation of the Maybell uranium mill processing site in Moffat County, Colorado. The mill site contains radioactively contaminated materials from processing uranium ore that would be stabilized in place at the existing tailings pile location. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Public Law 91-190 (42 U.S.C. {section}4321 et seq.), as amended. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  10. Simulation of the job processing performance at an ALICE Tier-2 site with MONARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zach, Č.; Betev, L.; Adamová, D.; ALICE Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The MONARC (MOdels of Networked Analysis at Regional Centers) framework has been developed and designed with the aim to provide a tool for realistic simulations of large scale distributed computing systems, with a special focus on the Grid systems of the experiments at the CERN LHC. In this paper, we describe a usage of the MONARC framework and tools for a simulation of the job processing performance at an ALICE Tier-2 site.

  11. Three different prohormones yield a variety of Hydra-RFamide (Arg-Phe-NH2) neuropeptides in Hydra magnipapillata.

    PubMed Central

    Darmer, D; Hauser, F; Nothacker, H P; Bosch, T C; Williamson, M; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1998-01-01

    The freshwater polyp Hydra is the most frequently used model for the study of development in cnidarians. Recently we isolated four novel Arg-Phe-NH2 (RFamide) neuropeptides, the Hydra-RFamides I-IV, from Hydra magnipapillata. Here we describe the molecular cloning of three different preprohormones from H. magnipapillata, each of which gives rise to a variety of RFamide neuropeptides. Preprohormone A contains one copy of unprocessed Hydra-RFamide I (QWLGGRFG), II (QWFNGRFG), III/IV [(KP)HLRGRFG] and two putative neuropeptide sequences (QLMSGRFG and QLMRGRFG). Preprohormone B has the same general organization as preprohormone A, but instead of unprocessed Hydra-RFamide III/IV it contains a slightly different neuropeptide sequence [(KP)HYRGRFG]. Preprohormone C contains one copy of unprocessed Hydra-RFamide I and seven additional putative neuropeptide sequences (with the common N-terminal sequence QWF/LSGRFGL). The two Hydra-RFamide II copies (in preprohormones A and B) are preceded by Thr residues, and the single Hydra-RFamide III/IV copy (in preprohormone A) is preceded by an Asn residue, confirming that cnidarians use unconventional processing signals to generate neuropeptides from their precursor proteins. Southern blot analyses suggest that preprohormones A and B are each coded for by a single gene, whereas one or possibly two closely related genes code for preprohormone C. Northern blot analyses and in situ hybridizations show that the gene coding for preprohormone A is expressed in neurons of both the head and foot regions of Hydra, whereas the genes coding for preprohormones B and C are specifically expressed in neurons of different regions of the head. All of this shows that neuropeptide biosynthesis in the primitive metazoan Hydra is already rather complex. PMID:9601069

  12. Processes of attenuation of dissolved arsenic downstream from historic gold mine sites, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Haffert, Laura; Craw, Dave

    2008-11-01

    Mine and processing sites in the mesothermal gold deposits of the Reefton gold field, New Zealand, generate extremely high dissolved As concentrations (up to 59 mg/L). Attenuation of these waters takes place by at least one of the three mechanisms: (1) precipitation of the secondary arsenic mineral scorodite, (2) chemisorption onto iron oxyhydroxide (HFO) and (3) dilution with regional catchment water. The presence and effectiveness of these mechanisms vary among the three studied catchments. A strong physiochemical control on arsenic attenuation was identified due to a chemical gradient within the gold field itself and processing methods, which can generate site specific arsenic minerals, such as arsenolite. Precipitation of scorodite only occurs in the presence of dissolving arsenolite, which is a roasting by-product present at two of the studied sites. Abundant HFO is generated in the pyritic mesothermal part of the gold field, and here chemisorption onto HFO is the dominant attenuation process. In the non-pyritic part of the gold field, HFO is mainly produced as a result of ankerite dissolution but only where sufficiently exposed mineralised rock is present. In the absence of significant adsorption sites, dissolved As is attenuated only via less effective dilution and ecosystem guidelines are exceeded over kilometres downstream from the mineralised zone until drainage waters are diluted by regional catchment water. Catchment morphology was identified as a major control on dilution. Despite the presence of strong As point sources upstream, mine-related As contributes <10% to the regional As river load in all three catchments. On a regional scale As mobility across a wide range of pH regimes reveals a strong control of scorodite, which has already been observed locally. PMID:18691740

  13. Totally Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process with Langmuir Kinetics depending on the Occupancy of the Neighboring Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichiki, Shingo; Sato, Jun; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2016-04-01

    We generalize the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with Langmuir kinetics (TASEP-LK). In the original TASEP-LK, when a site on the lattice is empty, a particle is attached at a certain rate, whereas the particle is detached at a certain rate when the site is occupied. In the extended TASEP-LK, the rates of attachment and detachment depend on the occupancy of the neighboring sites. In particular, we consider the case where the attachment rate and detachment rate are equal in each state of the neighboring sites. We analytically study a density profile using a mean-field approximation. Then, the results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations. We find in detail that the characteristic of the density profile is changed by manipulating each attachment and detachment parameter. It is showed that the position of a domain wall, which is fixed in the original model, changes depending on the inflow and outflow rates when the rates at the right and left boundaries are the same.

  14. Hanford Integrated Planning Process: 1993 Hanford Site-specific science and technology plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This document is the FY 1993 report on Hanford Site-specific science and technology (S&T) needs for cleanup of the Site as developed via the Hanford Integrated Planning Process (HIPP). It identifies cleanup problems that lack demonstrated technology solutions and technologies that require additional development. Recommendations are provided regarding allocation of funding to address Hanford`s highest-priority technology improvement needs, technology development needs, and scientific research needs, all compiled from a Sitewide perspective. In the past, the S&T agenda for Hanford Site cleanup was sometimes driven by scientists and technologists, with minimal input from the ``problem owners`` (i.e., Westinghouse Hanford Company [WHC] staff who are responsible for cleanup activities). At other times, the problem-owners made decisions to proceed with cleanup without adequate scientific and technological inputs. Under both of these scenarios, there was no significant stakeholder involvement in the decision-making process. One of the key objectives of HIPP is to develop an understanding of the integrated S&T requirements to support the cleanup mission, (a) as defined by the needs of the problem owners, the values of the stakeholders, and the technology development expertise that exists at Hanford and elsewhere. This requires a periodic, systematic assessment of these needs and values to appropriately define a comprehensive technology development program and a complementary scientific research program. Basic to our success is a methodology that is defensible from a technical perspective and acceptable to the stakeholders.

  15. Geochemical information and isotopic ratios in pinpointing the rates of contamination processes generated at mine sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turunen, Kaisa; Kittilä, Anniina; Backnäs, Soile; Pasanen, Antti; Hendriksson, Nina

    2015-04-01

    The isotopic composition of water is an important fingerprinting method for tracing recharge sources, distribution processes and possible hydraulic connections of mine waters. However, since, the isotopes alone do not indicate the contamination derived from mining activities; also a set of geochemical analysis of harmful substance in water is acquired. This complex approach will allow a detailed insight in migration of potentially harmful substances, their reactions, mixing and dilution in ground and surface waters. The data can be applied also when comparing geogenic and anthropogenic emissions. Isotopic methods are rather new approach to estimate mining related emissions in Finland and thus, a novel approach of isotopic methods for investigation and monitoring of migration of harmful substances from mine sites are tested in two mine sites in Finland. The aim of this study is to assess the emission sources, flow paths and interaction between mine waters, groundwater and surface waters. A set of isotopic data, including S, Li, Mg, U, Sr, Pb, O, and H, will be combined with chemical information and physical parameters of water in order to assess the source and extent of possible contamination as well as the rates of processes that generate or at best attenuate the contamination. The results obtained from water analyses and field measurements will be used in hydrogeochemical modelling for the prediction of chemical transformation and long-term impacts of mining at study site and its surroundings.

  16. Sequence variation between 462 human individuals fine-tunes functional sites of RNA processing.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Pedro G; Oti, Martin; Barann, Matthias; Wieland, Thomas; Ezquina, Suzana; Friedländer, Marc R; Rivas, Manuel A; Esteve-Codina, Anna; Rosenstiel, Philip; Strom, Tim M; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Guigó, Roderic; Sammeth, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the cost-efficiency of sequencing technologies enabled the combined DNA- and RNA-sequencing of human individuals at the population-scale, making genome-wide investigations of the inter-individual genetic impact on gene expression viable. Employing mRNA-sequencing data from the Geuvadis Project and genome sequencing data from the 1000 Genomes Project we show that the computational analysis of DNA sequences around splice sites and poly-A signals is able to explain several observations in the phenotype data. In contrast to widespread assessments of statistically significant associations between DNA polymorphisms and quantitative traits, we developed a computational tool to pinpoint the molecular mechanisms by which genetic markers drive variation in RNA-processing, cataloguing and classifying alleles that change the affinity of core RNA elements to their recognizing factors. The in silico models we employ further suggest RNA editing can moonlight as a splicing-modulator, albeit less frequently than genomic sequence diversity. Beyond existing annotations, we demonstrate that the ultra-high resolution of RNA-Seq combined from 462 individuals also provides evidence for thousands of bona fide novel elements of RNA processing-alternative splice sites, introns, and cleavage sites-which are often rare and lowly expressed but in other characteristics similar to their annotated counterparts. PMID:27617755

  17. Dynamic Disturbance Processes Create Dynamic Lek Site Selection in a Prairie Grouse.

    PubMed

    Hovick, Torre J; Allred, Brady W; Elmore, R Dwayne; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D; Hamilton, Robert G; Breland, Amber

    2015-01-01

    It is well understood that landscape processes can affect habitat selection patterns, movements, and species persistence. These selection patterns may be altered or even eliminated as a result of changes in disturbance regimes and a concomitant management focus on uniform, moderate disturbance across landscapes. To assess how restored landscape heterogeneity influences habitat selection patterns, we examined 21 years (1991, 1993-2012) of Greater Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido) lek location data in tallgrass prairie with restored fire and grazing processes. Our study took place at The Nature Conservancy's Tallgrass Prairie Preserve located at the southern extent of Flint Hills in northeastern Oklahoma. We specifically addressed stability of lek locations in the context of the fire-grazing interaction, and the environmental factors influencing lek locations. We found that lek locations were dynamic in a landscape with interacting fire and grazing. While previous conservation efforts have treated leks as stable with high site fidelity in static landscapes, a majority of lek locations in our study (i.e., 65%) moved by nearly one kilometer on an annual basis in this dynamic setting. Lek sites were in elevated areas with low tree cover and low road density. Additionally, lek site selection was influenced by an interaction of fire and patch edge, indicating that in recently burned patches, leks were located near patch edges. These results suggest that dynamic and interactive processes such as fire and grazing that restore heterogeneity to grasslands do influence habitat selection patterns in prairie grouse, a phenomenon that is likely to apply throughout the Greater Prairie-Chicken's distribution when dynamic processes are restored. As conservation moves toward restoring dynamic historic disturbance patterns, it will be important that siting and planning of anthropogenic structures (e.g., wind energy, oil and gas) and management plans not view lek locations as static

  18. Dynamic Disturbance Processes Create Dynamic Lek Site Selection in a Prairie Grouse

    PubMed Central

    Hovick, Torre J.; Allred, Brady W.; Elmore, R. Dwayne; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D.; Hamilton, Robert G.; Breland, Amber

    2015-01-01

    It is well understood that landscape processes can affect habitat selection patterns, movements, and species persistence. These selection patterns may be altered or even eliminated as a result of changes in disturbance regimes and a concomitant management focus on uniform, moderate disturbance across landscapes. To assess how restored landscape heterogeneity influences habitat selection patterns, we examined 21 years (1991, 1993–2012) of Greater Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido) lek location data in tallgrass prairie with restored fire and grazing processes. Our study took place at The Nature Conservancy’s Tallgrass Prairie Preserve located at the southern extent of Flint Hills in northeastern Oklahoma. We specifically addressed stability of lek locations in the context of the fire-grazing interaction, and the environmental factors influencing lek locations. We found that lek locations were dynamic in a landscape with interacting fire and grazing. While previous conservation efforts have treated leks as stable with high site fidelity in static landscapes, a majority of lek locations in our study (i.e., 65%) moved by nearly one kilometer on an annual basis in this dynamic setting. Lek sites were in elevated areas with low tree cover and low road density. Additionally, lek site selection was influenced by an interaction of fire and patch edge, indicating that in recently burned patches, leks were located near patch edges. These results suggest that dynamic and interactive processes such as fire and grazing that restore heterogeneity to grasslands do influence habitat selection patterns in prairie grouse, a phenomenon that is likely to apply throughout the Greater Prairie-Chicken’s distribution when dynamic processes are restored. As conservation moves toward restoring dynamic historic disturbance patterns, it will be important that siting and planning of anthropogenic structures (e.g., wind energy, oil and gas) and management plans not view lek locations as

  19. Evaluation of Sources of Nitrate Beneath Food Processing Wastewater-Application Sites near Umatilla, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frans, Lonna; Paulson, Anthony; Richerson, Phil; Striz, Elise; Black, Curt

    2009-01-01

    Water samples from wells were collected beneath and downgradient of two food-processing wastewater-application sites near Umatilla, Oregon. These samples were analyzed for nitrate stable isotopes, nutrients, major ions, and age-dating constituents to determine if nitrate-stable isotopes can be used to differentiate food-processing waste from other potential sources of nitrate. Major-ion data from each site were used to determine which samples were associated with the recharge of the food-processing wastewater. End-member mixing analysis was used to determine the relative amounts of each identified end member within the samples collected from the Terrace Farm site. The delta nitrogen-15 (delta 15N) of nitrate generally ranged between +2 and +9 parts per thousand and the delta oxygen-18 (delta 18O) of nitrate generally ranged between -2 and -7 parts per thousand. None of the samples that were determined to be associated with the wastewater were different from the samples that were not affected by the wastewater. The nitrate isotope values measured in this study are also characteristic of ammonium fertilizer, animal and human waste, and soil nitrate; therefore, it was not possible to differentiate between food-processing wastewater and the other nitrate sources. Values of delta 15N and delta 18O of nitrate provided no more information about the sources of nitrate in the Umatilla River basin than did a hydrologic and geochemical understanding of the ground-water system derived from interpreting water-level and major-ion chemistry data.

  20. High-level waste processing at the Savannah River Site: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.E.; Bennett, W.M.; Elder, H.H.; Lee, E.D.; Marra, S.L.; Rutland, P.L.

    1997-09-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC mg began immobilizing high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass in 1996. Currently, the radioactive glass is being produced as a ``sludge-only`` composition by combining washed high-level waste sludge with glass frit. The glass is poured in stainless steel canisters which will eventually be disposed of in a permanent, geological repository. To date, DWPF has produced about 100 canisters of vitrified waste. Future processing operations will, be based on a ``coupled`` feed of washed high-level waste sludge, precipitated cesium, and glass frit. This paper provides an update of the processing activities completed to date, operational/flowsheet problems encountered, and programs underway to increase production rates.

  1. Process centrifuge operating problems and equipment failures in canyon reprocessing facilities at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Durant, W.S.; Baughman, D.F.

    1990-03-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) maintains a compilation of operating problems and equipment failures that have occurred in the fuel reprocessing areas of the Savannah River Site (SRS). At present, the data bank contains more than 230,000 entries ranging from minor equipment malfunctions to incidents with the potential for injury or contamination of personnel, or for economic loss. The data bank has been used extensively for a wide variety of purposes, such as failure analyses, trend analyses, and preparation of safety analyses. Typical of the data are problems associated with the canyon process centrifuges. This report contains a compilation of the centrifuge operating problems and equipment failures primarily as an aid to organizations with related equipment. Publication of these data was prompted by a number of requests for this information by other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. 11 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. A case study of optimization in the decision process: Siting groundwater monitoring wells

    SciTech Connect

    Cardwell, H.; Huff, D.; Douthitt, J.; Sale, M.

    1993-12-01

    Optimization is one of the tools available to assist decision makers in balancing multiple objectives and concerns. In a case study of the siting decision for groundwater monitoring wells, we look at the influence of the optimization models on the decisions made by the responsible groundwater specialist. This paper presents a multi-objective integer programming model for determining the location of monitoring wells associated with a groundwater pump-and-treat remediation. After presenting the initial optimization results, we analyze the actual decision and revise the model to incorporate elements of the problem that were later identified as important in the decision-making process. The results of a revised model are compared to the actual siting plans, the recommendations from the initial optimization runs, and the initial monitoring network proposed by the decision maker.

  3. Evaluation of Mineral Deposits Along the Little Wind River, Riverton, WY, Processing Site

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Sam; Dam, Wiliam

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) began reassessing the former Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site area for potential contaminant sources impacting groundwater. A flood in 2010 along the Little Wind River resulted in increases in groundwater contamination (DOE 2013).This investigation is a small part of continued efforts by DOE and other stakeholders to update human health and ecological risk assessments, to make a comprehensive examination of all exposure pathways to ensure that the site remains protective through established institutional controls. During field inspections at the Riverton Site in 2013, a white evaporitic mineral deposit was identified along the bank of the Little Wind River within the discharge zone of the groundwater contamination plume. In December 2013, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel collected a sample for analysis by X-ray fluorescence (Figure 1 shows the type of material sampled). The sample had a uranium concentration of approximately 64 to 73 parts per million. Although the uranium in this mineral deposit is within the expected range for evaporatic minerals in the western United States (SRNL 2014), DOE determined that additional assessment of the mineral deposit was warranted. In response to the initial collection and analysis of a sample of the mineral deposit, DOE developed a work plan (Work Plan to Sample Mineral Deposits Along the Little Wind River, Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site [DOE 2014]) to further define the extent of these mineral deposits and the concentration of the associated contaminants (Appendix A). The work plan addressed field reconnaissance, mapping, sampling, and the assessment of risk associated with the mineral deposits adjacent to the Little Wind River.

  4. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [ 1 0 kilometers (km)] to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 164 ac (66 ha) of soils, but 132 ac (53 ha) of these soils are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. Another 154 ac (62 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed. Approximately 57 ac (23 ha) of open range land would be permanently removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use. The removal of the contaminated materials would affect the 1 00-year floodplain of the San Miguel River and would result in the loss of riparian habitat along the river. The southwestern willow flycatcher, a Federal candidate species, may be affected by the remedial action, and the use of water from the San Miguel River ``may affect`` the Colorado squawfish, humpback chub, bonytail chub, and razorback sucker. Traffic levels on State Highways 90 and 141 would be increased during the remedial action, as would the noise levels along these transportation routes. Measures for mitigating the adverse environmental impacts of the proposed remedial action are discussed in Section 6.0 of this environmental assessment (EA).

  5. OPERATIONS REVIEW OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROCESS - 11327

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Poirier, M.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.; Brown, S.; Geeting, M.

    2011-02-07

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is removing liquid radioactive waste from its Tank Farm. To treat waste streams that are low in Cs-137, Sr-90, and actinides, SRS developed the Actinide Removal Process and implemented the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). The Actinide Removal Process contacts salt solution with monosodium titanate to sorb strontium and select actinides. After monosodium titanate contact, the resulting slurry is filtered to remove the monosodium titanate (and sorbed strontium and actinides) and entrained sludge. The filtrate is transferred to the MCU for further treatment to remove cesium. The solid particulates removed by the filter are concentrated to {approx} 5 wt %, washed to reduce the sodium concentration, and transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility for vitrification. The CSSX process extracts the cesium from the radioactive waste using a customized solvent to produce a Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS), and strips and concentrates the cesium from the solvent with dilute nitric acid. The DSS is incorporated in grout while the strip acid solution is transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility for vitrification. The facilities began radiological processing in April 2008 and started processing of the third campaign ('MarcoBatch 3') of waste in June 2010. Campaigns to date have processed {approx}1.2 million gallons of dissolved saltcake. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel performed tests using actual radioactive samples for each waste batch prior to processing. Testing included monosodium titanate sorption of strontium and actinides followed by CSSX batch contact tests to verify expected cesium mass transfer. This paper describes the tests conducted and compares results from facility operations. The results include strontium, plutonium, and cesium removal, cesium concentration, and organic entrainment and recovery data. Additionally, the poster describes lessons learned during operation

  6. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Beranich, S.; Berger, N.; Bierley, D.; Bond, T.M.; Burt, C.; Caldwell, J.A.; Dery, V.A.; Dutcher, A.; Glover, W.A.; Heydenburg, R.J.; Larson, N.B.; Lindsey, G.; Longley, J.M.; Millard, J.B.; Miller, M.; Peel, R.C.; Persson-Reeves, C.H.; Titus, F.B.; Wagner, L.

    1989-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), to clean up the Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, uraniferous lignite processing sites to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at these sites. Remedial action at these sites must be performed in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standards promulgated for the remedial action and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The inactive Belfield uraniferous lignite processing site is one mile southeast of Belfield, North Dakota. The inactive Bowman uraniferous lignite processing site at the former town of Griffin, is seven miles northwest of Bowman, North Dakota and 65 road miles south of Belfield. Lignite ash from the processing operations has contaminated the soils over the entire 10.7-acre designated Belfield site and the entire 12.1-acre designated Bowman site. Dispersion of the ash has contaminated an additional 20.6 acres surrounding the Belfield processing site and an additional 59.2 acres surrounding the Bowman processing site. The proposed remedial action is to relocate the contaminated materials at the Belfield processing site to the Bowman processing/disposal site for codisposal with the Bowman contaminated soils. The environmental impacts assessed in this EA were evaluated for the proposed remedial action and the no action alternative and demonstrate that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment and would be performed in compliance with applicable environmental laws. The no action alternative would not be consistent with the intent of Public Law 95-604 and would not comply with the EPA standards. 48 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Reactive transport modeling of the clogging process at Maqarin natural analogue site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Haibing; Kosakowski, Georg; Berner, Urs; Kulik, Dmitrii A.; Mäder, Urs; Kolditz, Olaf

    The Maqarin site in Jordan has been investigated for three decades as a natural analogue for the long term changes of materials in contact with hyper-alkaline solutions. Similar processes are expected in radioactive waste disposal sites, where cement based materials are in contact with natural rocks or other e.g. clay based materials. In this context, a numerical reactive transport model was used to study local geochemical alterations and induced porosity changes for the Maqarin marl rock in contact with the hyper-alkaline solution. The geochemical setup for the rock mineralogy and the pore water was calibrated to match measurements from the Maqarin site. The setup includes several clay and zeolite minerals, considers cation exchange processes, and a state-of-the-art model for cement phases. Similar to earlier calculations by Steefel and Lichtner (1998) who used a much simpler geochemical model, the pore clogging occurred after several hundred years at a distance of 5-10 mm from the contact to the hyper-alkaline solution. In our calculations, this was caused by a massive precipitation of ettringite and C-S-H minerals. We performed a sensitivity study by varying the intrinsic diffusion coefficient, the Archie's law exponential factor, and the mineral surface area available for dissolution and precipitation. We found that the dissolution of clay minerals controls the availability of Al, which is needed for ettringite and C-S-H phase precipitation. Thus, the amount and kinetically controlled dissolution of clay minerals controls the spatial and temporal evolution of porosity changes. The simulations reveal that neither cation exchange processes nor the formation of zeolite minerals strongly influence the geochemical evolution of the system.

  8. Mutations within the propeptide, the primary cleavage site or the catalytic site, or deletion of C-terminal sequences, prevents secretion of proPC2 from transfected COS-7 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, N A; Shennan, K I; Cutler, D F; Docherty, K

    1997-01-01

    PC2 is a neuroendocrine endoprotease involved in the processing of prohormones and proneuropeptides. PC2 is synthesized as a proenzyme which undergoes proteolytic maturation within the cellular secretory apparatus. Cleavage occurs at specific sites to remove the N-terminal propeptide. The aim of the present study was to investigate structural requirements for the transfer of proPC2 through the secretory pathway. A series of mutant proPC2 constructs were transfected into COS-7 cells and the fate of the expressed proteins followed by pulse-chase analysis and immunocytochemistry. Human PC2 was secreted relatively slowly, and appeared in the medium primarily as proPC2 (75 kDa), together with much lower amounts of a processed intermediate (71 kDa) and mature PC2 (68 kDa). Mutations within the primary processing site or the catalytic triad caused the protein to accumulate intracellularly, whereas deletion of part of the propeptide, the P-domain or the C-terminal regions also prevented secretion. Immunocytochemistry showed that wild-type hPC2 was localized mainly in the Golgi, whereas two representative mutants showed a distribution typical of proteins resident in the endoplasmic reticulum. The results suggest that proenzyme processing is not essential for secretion of PC2, but peptides containing mutations that affect the ability of the propeptide (and cleavage sites) to fold within the catalytic pocket are not transferred beyond the early stages of the secretory pathway. C-terminal sequences may be involved in stabilizing such conformations. PMID:9020868

  9. Lightning protection for the process canyons at the Savannah River site

    SciTech Connect

    McAfee, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has performed Lightning Studies for the existing Process Canyons at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These studies were initiated to verify the lightning protection systems for the facilities and to compare the installations to the National Fire Protection (NFPA) Standard 780, Lighting Protection Code, 1992. The original study of the F-Canyon was initiated to develop answers to concerns raised by the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB). Once this study was completed it was determined that a similar study for H-Canyon would be prudent; followed by an evaluation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Vitrification Building (S-Canyon). This paper will provide an overview of the nature of lightning and the principals of lightning protection. This will provide the reader with a basic understanding of the phenomena of lighting and its potential for damaging structures, components, and injuring personnel in or near the structure.

  10. Site-specific growth of ZnO nanowires from patterned Zn via compatible semiconductor processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, J. B. K.; Boothroyd, C. B.; Thong, J. T. L.

    2008-05-01

    An alternative method for site-selective growth of ZnO nanowires without the use of an Au catalyst or a ZnO thin-film seed layer is presented. Using conventional lithography and metallization semiconductor processing steps, regions for selective nanowire growth are defined using Zn, which acts as a self-catalyst for subsequent ZnO nanowire growth via a simple thermal oxidation process. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction reveal that the nanowires grown by this technique are single-crystalline wurtzite ZnO. Room temperature photoluminescence exhibits strong ultraviolet emission from these nanowires, indicating good optical properties. A series of experiments was conducted to elucidate the unique growth behavior of these nanowires directly from the Zn grains and a growth model is proposed.

  11. Remedial investigation of the High-Explosives (HE) Process Area, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, N.B.; Lamarre, A.L.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents the results of a Remedial Investigation (RI) to define the extent of high explosives (HE) compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in the soil, rocks, and ground water of the HE Process Area of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300 Facility. The report evaluates potential public health environmental risks associated with these compounds. Hydrogeologic information available before February 15, 1990, is included; however, chemical analyses and water-level data are reported through March 1990. This report is intended to assist the California Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB)--Central Valley Region and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in evaluating the extent of environmental contamination of the LLNL HE Process Area and ultimately in designing remedial actions. 90 refs., 20 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Biogeochemical Process Comparison of the Five USGS Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budget (WEBB) Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanley, J. B.; Peters, N. E.; Aulenbach, B. T.; Blum, A. E.; Campbell, D. H.; Clow, D. W.; Larsen, M. C.; Mast, M. A.; Stallard, R. F.; Troester, J. W.; Walker, J. F.; Webb, R. M.; White, A. F.

    2001-12-01

    Input - output budgets (in wet deposition and streamwater) have been constructed for water and major solutes at the five USGS Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budget (WEBB) sites for the period 1992-97 (Peters et al., 2000). In this poster we interpret the net chemical fluxes to identify the controlling biogeochemical processes, as influenced by the strong physical and biological contrasts (climate, geology, physiography, and vegetation types) in the five diverse environments. The five sites are: Allequash Creek, Wisconsin (low-relief humid continental forest); Andrews Creek, Colorado (cold alpine, taiga/tundra, and subalpine boreal forest); Icacos River, Puerto Rico (lower montane, wet tropical forest); Panola Mountain, Georgia (humid subtropical piedmont forest); and Sleepers River, Vermont (humid northern hardwood forest). Base cations and Si produced by chemical weathering displayed a net export at each site. The magnitude and stoichiometry of export reflects mineralogy, climate (temperature and rainfall), and water residence time in the subsurface. The lowest and highest mass export generally was for Andrews Creek and Icacos River, respectively, consistent with their extreme mean annual temperatures (0/degC in Colorado to 21/degC in Puerto Rico) and the limited residence time of meltwater at Andrews Creek. Calcite in bedrock at the three coldest watersheds caused somewhat higher relative export of Ca, especially at Sleepers River where calcite weathering is a dominant control on stream chemistry. In contrast, the high Mg content of the volcaniclastic rocks at Icacos River and glacial deposits at Allequash Creek caused disproportionately high Mg export relative to the other sites. Relatively high Na export at Panola Mountain and K export at Sleepers River are probably caused by plagioclase and biotite weathering, respectively. SO4 is retained at the two warmest sites, Panola Mountain and Icacos River. SO4 adsorption is known to limit SO4- export in highly

  13. Radionuclide transfer in marine coastal ecosystems, a modelling study using metabolic processes and site data.

    PubMed

    Konovalenko, L; Bradshaw, C; Kumblad, L; Kautsky, U

    2014-07-01

    This study implements new site-specific data and improved process-based transport model for 26 elements (Ac, Ag, Am, Ca, Cl, Cm, Cs, Ho, I, Nb, Ni, Np, Pa, Pb, Pd, Po, Pu, Ra, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tc, Th, U, Zr), and validates model predictions with site measurements and literature data. The model was applied in the safety assessment of a planned nuclear waste repository in Forsmark, Öregrundsgrepen (Baltic Sea). Radionuclide transport models are central in radiological risk assessments to predict radionuclide concentrations in biota and doses to humans. Usually concentration ratios (CRs), the ratio of the measured radionuclide concentration in an organism to the concentration in water, drive such models. However, CRs vary with space and time and CR estimates for many organisms are lacking. In the model used in this study, radionuclides were assumed to follow the circulation of organic matter in the ecosystem and regulated by radionuclide-specific mechanisms and metabolic rates of the organisms. Most input parameters were represented by log-normally distributed probability density functions (PDFs) to account for parameter uncertainty. Generally, modelled CRs for grazers, benthos, zooplankton and fish for the 26 elements were in good agreement with site-specific measurements. The uncertainty was reduced when the model was parameterized with site data, and modelled CRs were most similar to measured values for particle reactive elements and for primary consumers. This study clearly demonstrated that it is necessary to validate models with more than just a few elements (e.g. Cs, Sr) in order to make them robust. The use of PDFs as input parameters, rather than averages or best estimates, enabled the estimation of the probable range of modelled CR values for the organism groups, an improvement over models that only estimate means. Using a mechanistic model that is constrained by ecological processes enables (i) the evaluation of the relative importance of food and water

  14. Exploring the Feasibility of Multi-Site Flow Cytometric Processing of Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue with Centralized Data Analysis for Multi-Site Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Ian; Anton, Peter A.; Elliott, Julie; Cranston, Ross D.; Duffill, Kathryn; Althouse, Andrew D.; Hawkins, Kevin L.; De Rosa, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the development of a standardized approach to the collection of intestinal tissue from healthy volunteers, isolation of gut associated lymphoid tissue mucosal mononuclear cells (MMC), and characterization of mucosal T cell phenotypes by flow cytometry was sufficient to minimize differences in the normative ranges of flow parameters generated at two trial sites. Forty healthy male study participants were enrolled in Pittsburgh and Los Angeles. MMC were isolated from rectal biopsies using the same biopsy acquisition and enzymatic digestion protocols. As an additional comparator, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were collected from the study participants. For quality control, cryopreserved PBMC from a single donor were supplied to both sites from a central repository (qPBMC). Using a jointly optimized standard operating procedure, cells were isolated from tissue and blood and stained with monoclonal antibodies targeted to T cell phenotypic markers. Site-specific flow data were analyzed by an independent center which analyzed all data from both sites. Ranges for frequencies for overall CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, derived from the qPBMC samples, were equivalent at both UCLA and MWRI. However, there were significant differences across sites for the majority of T cell activation and memory subsets in qPBMC as well as PBMC and MMC. Standardized protocols to collect, stain, and analyze MMC and PBMC, including centralized analysis, can reduce but not exclude variability in reporting flow data within multi-site studies. Based on these data, centralized processing, flow cytometry, and analysis of samples may provide more robust data across multi-site studies. Centralized processing requires either shipping of fresh samples or cryopreservation and the decision to perform centralized versus site processing needs to take into account the drawbacks and restrictions associated with each method. PMID:26010577

  15. Use of a marker organism in poultry processing to identify sites of cross-contamination and evaluate possible control measures.

    PubMed

    Mead, G C; Hudson, W R; Hinton, M H

    1994-07-01

    1. Nine different sites at a poultry processing plant were selected in the course of a hazard analysis to investigate the degree of microbial cross-contamination that could occur during processing and the effectiveness of possible control measures. 2. At each site, carcases, equipment or working surfaces were inoculated with a non-pathogenic strain of nalidixic acid-resistant Escherichia coli K12; transmission of the organism among carcases being processed was followed qualitatively and, where appropriate, quantitatively. 3. The degree of cross-contamination and the extent to which it could be controlled by the proposed measures varied from one site to another. PMID:7953779

  16. Rates of processing of the high mannose oligosaccharide units at the three glycosylation sites of mouse thyrotropin and the two sites of free alpha-subunits

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, Y.; Perkel, V.S.; Magner, J.A.

    1988-09-01

    We have determined the structures of high mannose (Man) oligosaccharide units at individual glycosylation sites of mouse TSH. Mouse thyrotropic tumor tissue was incubated with D-(2-/sup 3/H)Man with or without (/sup 14/C)tyrosine ((/sup 14/C) Tyr) for 2, 3, or 6 h, and for a 3-h pulse followed by a 2-h chase. TSH heterodimers or free alpha-subunits were obtained from homogenates using specific antisera. After reduction and alkylation, subunits were treated with trypsin. The tryptic fragments were then loaded on a reverse phase HPLC column to separate tryptic fragments bearing labeled oligosaccharides. The N-linked oligosaccharides were released with endoglycosidase-H and analyzed by paper chromatography. Man9GlcNac2 and Man8GlcNac2 units predominated at each time point and at each specific glycosylation site, but the processing of high Man oligosaccharides differed at each glycosylation site. The processing at Asn23 of TSH beta-subunits was slower than that at Asn56 or Asn82 of alpha-subunits. The processing at Asn82 was slightly faster than that at Asn56 for both alpha-subunits of TSH heterodimers and free alpha-subunits. The present study demonstrates that the early processing of oligosaccharides differs at the individual glycosylation sites of TSH and free alpha-subunits, perhaps because of local conformational differences.

  17. The Working Contract between the On-Site Mentor and School Counseling Students during Internship--Contents and Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazovsky, Rivka; Shimoni, Aviva

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on the working contract between the on-site mentor and school-based counseling interns within the specific context of the on-site mentoring role, underlining the importance of the contract as a framework for empowering internship and mentoring. Guidelines concerning the main contents and processes needed for outlining an…

  18. 10 CFR Appendix III to Part 960 - Application of the System and Technical Guidelines During the Siting Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application of the System and Technical Guidelines During the Siting Process III Appendix III to Part 960 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. III Appendix III to...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix III to Part 960 - Application of the System and Technical Guidelines During the Siting Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Application of the System and Technical Guidelines During the Siting Process III Appendix III to Part 960 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. III Appendix III to...

  20. 10 CFR Appendix III to Part 960 - Application of the System and Technical Guidelines During the Siting Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application of the System and Technical Guidelines During the Siting Process III Appendix III to Part 960 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. III Appendix III to...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix III to Part 960 - Application of the System and Technical Guidelines During the Siting Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application of the System and Technical Guidelines During the Siting Process III Appendix III to Part 960 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. III Appendix III to...

  2. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  3. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  4. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  5. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  6. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  7. CHEMICAL STABILIZATION OF MIXED ORGANIC AND METAL COMPOUNDS - EPA SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION OF THE SILICATE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In November 1990, the Silicate Technology Corporation`s (STC) proprietary process for treating soil contaminated with toxic semivolatile organic and inorganic contaminants was evaluated in a Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) field demonstration at the Selma Pressu...

  8. CHEMICAL STABILIZATION OF MIXED ORGANIC AND METAL COMPOUNDS - EPA SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION OF THE SILICATE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In November 1990, the Silicate Technology Corporation's (STC) proprietary process for treating soil contaminated with toxic semi-volatile organic and inorganic contaminants was evaluated in a Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) field demonstration at the Selma Press...

  9. INSTALLATION OF BUBBLERS IN THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITED DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.; Iverson, D.

    2010-12-08

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC assumed the liquid waste contract at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the summer of 2009. The main contractual agreement was to close 22 High Level Waste (HLW) tanks in eight years. To achieve this aggressive commitment, faster waste processing throughout the SRS liquid waste facilities will be required. Part of the approach to achieve faster waste processing is to increase the canister production rate of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) from approximately 200 canisters filled with radioactive waste glass per year to 400 canisters per year. To reach this rate for melter throughput, four bubblers were installed in the DWPF Melter in the late summer of 2010. This effort required collaboration between SRR, SRR critical subcontractor EnergySolutions, and Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, including the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The tasks included design and fabrication of the bubblers and related equipment, testing of the bubblers for various technical issues, the actual installation of the bubblers and related equipment, and the initial successful operation of the bubblers in the DWPF Melter.

  10. Critical Protection Item classification for a waste processing facility at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ades, M.J.; Garrett, R.J.

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes the methodology for Critical Protection Item (CPI) classification and its application to the Structures, Systems and Components (SSC) of a waste processing facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The WSRC methodology for CPI classification includes the evaluation of the radiological and non-radiological consequences resulting from postulated accidents at the waste processing facility and comparison of these consequences with allowable limits. The types of accidents considered include explosions and fire in the facility and postulated accidents due to natural phenomena, including earthquakes, tornadoes, and high velocity straight winds. The radiological analysis results indicate that CPIs are not required at the waste processing facility to mitigate the consequences of radiological release. The non-radiological analysis, however, shows that the Waste Storage Tank (WST) and the dike spill containment structures around the formic acid tanks in the cold chemical feed area and waste treatment area of the facility should be identified as CPIs. Accident mitigation options are provided and discussed.

  11. Tracing long-term vadose zone processes at the Nevada Test Site, USA

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, James R.; Tompson, Andrew F. B.

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear weapons testing programme of the USA has released radionuclides to the subsurface at the Nevada Test Site. One of these tests has been used to study the hydrological transport of radionuclides for over 25 years in groundwater and the deep unsaturated zone. Ten years after the weapon’s test, a 16 year groundwater pumping experiment was initiated to study the mobility of radionuclides from that test in an alluvial aquifer. The continuously pumped groundwater was released into an unlined ditch where some of the water infiltrated into the 200 m deep vadose zone. The pumped groundwater had well-characterized tritium activities that were utilized to trace water migration in the shallow and deep vadose zones. Within the near-surface vadose zone, tritium levels in the soil water are modelled by a simple one-dimensional, analytical wetting front model. In the case of the near-surface soils at the Cambric Ditch experimental site, water flow and salt accumulation appear to be dominated by rooted vegetation, a mechanism not included within the wetting front model. Simulation results from a two-dimensional vadose groundwater flow model illustrate the dominance of vertical flow in the vadose zone and the recharge of the aquifer with the pumped groundwater. The long-time series of hydrological data provides opportunities to understand contaminant transport processes better in the vadose zone with an appropriate level of modelling. PMID:21785525

  12. Tritium processing at the Savannah River Site (SRS): Present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Ortman, M.S.; Heung, L.K.; Nobile, A.; Rabun, R.L. III.

    1989-01-01

    Tritium handling equipment and methods at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facilities have been continually improved since tritium processing operations began in 1955. Several new technologies were introduced into the Tritium Facilities in the 1980's. One of these is the use of fluidless, mechanical pumps (Normetex and Metal Bellows) to replace mercury pumps. A second is the use of metal hydride technology to store, purify, isotopically separate, pump, and compress hydrogen isotopes. Metal hydrides, such as La-Ni-Al alloys and Pd loaded on kieselguhr, offer significant flexibility and size advantages compared with conventional tritium handling technology, such as gas tanks, thermal diffusion columns, and mechanical compressors. Metal hydrides have been used in the Tritium Facilities since 1984 with the most important application of this technology being planned for the Replacement Tritium Facility, a $140 million facility scheduled for completion in 1990 and startup in 1991. 11 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Geochemical and radiological characterization of soils from former radium processing sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.

    1984-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from former radium processing sites in Denver, CO, and East Orange, NJ. Particle-size separations and radiochemical analyses of selected samples showed that while the greatest contents of both 226Ra and U were generally found in the finest (< 45 ??m) fraction, the pattern was not always of progressive increase in radionuclide content with decreasing particle size. Leaching tests on these samples showed a large portion of the 225Ra and U to be soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid. Radon-emanation coefficients measured for bulk samples of contaminated soil were about 20%. Recovery of residual uranium and vanadium, as an adjunct to any remedial action program, appears unlikely due to economic considerations.

  14. Processing of peptide and hormone precursors at the dibasic cleavage sites.

    PubMed

    Rholam, Mohamed; Fahy, Christine

    2009-07-01

    Many functionally important cellular peptides and proteins, including hormones, neuropeptides, and growth factors, are synthesized as inactive precursor polypeptides, which require post-translational proteolytic processing to become biologically active polypeptides. This is achieved by the action of a relatively small number of proteases that belong to a family of seven subtilisin-like proprotein convertases (PCs) including furin. In view of this, this review focuses on the importance of privileged secondary structures and of given amino acid residues around basic cleavage sites in substrate recognition by these endoproteases. In addition to their participation in normal cell functions, PCs are crucial for the initiation and progress of many important diseases. Hence, these proteases constitute potential drug targets in medicine. Accordingly, this review also discusses the approaches used to shed light on the cleavage preference and the substrate specificity of the PCs, a prerequisite to select which PCs are promising drug targets in each disease. PMID:19300906

  15. Effects of natural attenuation processes on groundwater contamination caused by abandoned waste sites in Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerndorff, Helmut; Kühn, Stephan; Minden, Thomas; Orlikowski, Dagmar; Struppe, Thomas

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this research project is to identify, characterize and quantify natural attenuation (NA) processes in groundwater affected by emissions of abandoned waste disposal sites in Berlin-Kladow/Gatow, Germany. It is part of the funding priority called KORA established by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) to explore the extent to which NA can be used for remedial purposes for varied forms of soil and groundwater contamination. Information on the emission behaviour of individual parameters is generated on the basis of hydrogeochemical comparison of 20 years old and new data. Using groundwater-modelling and CFC-analysis, information on the transport and retention of pollutants in groundwater is compiled. The microbial colonization of contaminated aquifers is characterized by molecular biological methods [polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)] to differentiate between contaminated and not contaminated zones.

  16. Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. ); Coats, D.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct a study of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites, B1B and 1M. The results of that study are presented in this report. 40 refs., 27 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-C-9:1 Main Process Sewer Collection Line, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-012

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-06-11

    The 100-C-9:1 main process sewer pipeline, also known as the twin box culvert, was a dual reinforced process sewer that collected process effluent from the 183-C and 190-C water treatment facilities, discharging at the 132-C-2 Outfall. For remedial action purposes, the 100-C-9:1 waste site was subdivided into northern and southern sections. The 100-C-9:1 subsite has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  18. Independent assessment to continue improvement: Implementing statistical process control at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, T.A.; Lo, J.C.

    1994-11-01

    A Quality Assurance independent assessment has brought about continued improvement in the PUREX Plant surveillance program at the Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. After the independent assessment, Quality Assurance personnel were closely involved in improving the surveillance program, specifically regarding storage tank monitoring. The independent assessment activities included reviewing procedures, analyzing surveillance data, conducting personnel interviews, and communicating with management. Process improvement efforts included: (1) designing data collection methods; (2) gaining concurrence between engineering and management, (3) revising procedures; and (4) interfacing with shift surveillance crews. Through this process, Statistical Process Control (SPC) was successfully implemented and surveillance management was improved. The independent assessment identified several deficiencies within the surveillance system. These deficiencies can be grouped into two areas: (1) data recording and analysis and (2) handling off-normal conditions. By using several independent assessment techniques, Quality Assurance was able to point out program weakness to senior management and present suggestions for improvements. SPC charting, as implemented by Quality Assurance, is an excellent tool for diagnosing the process, improving communication between the team members, and providing a scientific database for management decisions. In addition, the surveillance procedure was substantially revised. The goals of this revision were to (1) strengthen the role of surveillance management, engineering and operators and (2) emphasize the importance of teamwork for each individual who performs a task. In this instance we believe that the value independent assessment adds to the system is the continuous improvement activities that follow the independent assessment. Excellence in teamwork between the independent assessment organization and the auditee is the key to continuing improvement.

  19. LLRW disposal site selection process. Southeast Compact -- State of North Carolina: A combined technical and public information approach

    SciTech Connect

    Snider, F.G.; Amick, D.C.; Khoury, S.G.; Stowe, C.H.; Guichard, P.

    1989-11-01

    The State of North Carolina has been designated to host the second commercial low level radioactive waste disposal facility for the Southeast Compact. The North Carolina facility is to be operational on January 1, 1993, concurrent with the closing of the present facility in Barnwell, South Carolina. The NC Low Level Radioactive Waste Management Authority and its contractor, Ebasco Services Incorporated, initiated the site selection process in July of 1988. The present schedule calls for the identification of two or more sites for detailed characterization in the latter half of 1989. The site selection process is following two concurrent and parallel paths. The first is the technical site screening process, which is focusing the search for a suitable site by the systematic application of state and federal laws and regulations regarding exclusion and suitability factors. In a parallel effort, the NCLL Radioactive Waste Management Authority has embarked on an extensive public information program. In addition to newsletters, fact sheets, brochures, video tapes, and news releases, a total of six regional meetings and 26 public forums have been held across the state. A total of 4,764 people attended the forums, 1,241 questions were asked, and 243 public statements were made. The combination of a systematic, defensible technical siting process and the concurrent release of information and numerous statewide public meetings and forums is proving to be an effective strategy for the eventual identification of sites that are both technically suitable and publicly acceptable.

  20. Report of ground water monitoring for expansion of the golf course, Salt Lake City, Utah, vitro processing site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    To determine the potential impacts of the proposed golf course expansion on the south side of the Vitro site, ground water data from the UMTRA Vitro processing site were evaluated in response to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office request. Golf in the Round, Inc., has proposed an expansion of the present driving range to include a 9-hole golf course on the UMTRA Vitro processing site, which is owned by the Central Valley Water Reclamation Facility (CVWRF). An expanded golf course would increase irrigation and increase the amount of water that could infiltrate the soil, recharging the unconfined aquifer. Increased water levels in the aquifer could alter the ground water flow regime; contaminants in the shallow ground water could then migrate off the site or discharge to surface water in the area. Dewatering of the unconfined aquifer on CVWRF property could also impact site contaminant migration; a significant amount of ground water extraction at CVWRF could reduce the amount of contaminant migration off the site. Since 1978, data have been collected at the site to determine the distribution of tailings materials (removed from the site from 1985 to 1987) and to characterize the presence and migration of contaminants in sediments, soils, surface water, and ground water at the former Vitro processing site. Available data suggest that irrigating an expanded golf course may cause contamination to spread more rapidly within the unconfined aquifer. The public is not at risk from current Vitro processing site activities, nor is risk expected due to golf course expansion. However, ecological risk could increase with increased surface water contamination and the development of ground water seeps.

  1. Surface and subsurface cleanup protocol for radionuclides, Gunnison, Colorado, UMTRA project processing site. Final [report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Surface and subsurface soil cleanup protocols for the Gunnison, Colorado, processing sits are summarized as follows: In accordance with EPA-promulgated land cleanup standards (40 CFR 192), in situ Ra-226 is to be cleaned up based on bulk concentrations not exceeding 5 and 15 pCi/g in 15-cm surface and subsurface depth increments, averaged over 100-m{sup 2} grid blocks, where the parent Ra-226 concentrations are greater than, or in secular equilibrium with, the Th-230 parent. A bulk interpretation of these EPA standards has been accepted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and while the concentration of the finer-sized soil fraction less than a No. 4 mesh sieve contains the higher concentration of radioactivity, the bulk approach in effect integrates the total sample radioactivity over the entire sample mass. In locations where Th-230 has differentially migrated in subsoil relative to Ra-226, a Th-230 cleanup protocol has been developed in accordance with Supplemental Standard provisions of 40 CFR 192 for NRC/Colorado Department of Health (CDH) approval for timely implementation. Detailed elements of the protocol are contained in Appendix A, Generic Protocol from Thorium-230 Cleanup/Verification at UMTRA Project Processing Sites. The cleanup of other radionuclides or nonradiological hazards that pose a significant threat to the public and the environment will be determined and implemented in accordance with pathway analysis to assess impacts and the implications of ALARA specified in 40 CFR 192 relative to supplemental standards.

  2. Analysis of the Proteolytic Processing of ABCA3: Identification of Cleavage Site and Involved Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Nicole; Galetskiy, Dmitry; Rauch, Daniela; Wittmann, Thomas; Marquardt, Andreas; Griese, Matthias; Zarbock, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Rationale ABCA3 is a lipid transporter in the limiting membrane of lamellar bodies in alveolar type II cells. Mutations in the ABCA3 gene cause respiratory distress syndrome in new-borns and childhood interstitial lung disease. ABCA3 is N-terminally cleaved by an as yet unknown protease, a process believed to regulate ABCA3 activity. Methods The exact site where ABCA3 is cleaved was localized using mass spectrometry (MS). Proteases involved in ABCA3 processing were identified using small molecule inhibitors and siRNA mediated gene knockdown. Results were verified by in vitro digestion of a synthetic peptide substrate mimicking ABCA3’s cleavage region, followed by MS analysis. Results We found that cleavage of ABCA3 occurs after Lys174 which is located in the proteins’ first luminal loop. Inhibition of cathepsin L and, to a lesser extent, cathepsin B resulted in attenuation of ABCA3 cleavage. Both enzymes showed activity against the ABCA3 peptide in vitro with cathepsin L being more active. Conclusion We show here that, like some other proteins of the lysosomal membrane, ABCA3 is a substrate of cathepsin L. Therefore, cathepsin L may represent a potential target to therapeutically influence ABCA3 activity in ABCA3-associated lung disease. PMID:27031696

  3. Chemical and mineralogical characterization of chromite ore processing residue from two recent Indian disposal sites.

    PubMed

    Matern, Katrin; Kletti, Holger; Mansfeldt, Tim

    2016-07-01

    Chromite ore processing residue (COPR) is a hazardous waste. Nevertheless, deposition of COPR in uncontrolled surface landfills is still common practice in some countries. Whereas old (between at least 40 and 180 years) COPR from the temperate zone has been intensively investigated, information on COPR in other regions is restricted. Relatively young (<25 years) COPR samples obtained from two abandoned landfill sites in India were investigated by a modified total microwave digestion method, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to determine their chemical and mineralogical nature. By the use of microwave digestion with acid mixtures of HNO3, H3PO4, and HBF4 (5:3:2 vol), COPR was completely dissolved and element contents similar to those obtained by X-ray fluorescence were found. Total Cr contents of the two COPR accounted for 81 and 74 g kg(-1), of which 20 and 13% were present in the carcinogenic hexavalent form (CrVI). Apart from the common major mineral phases present in COPR reported earlier, a further Cr host mineral, grimaldiite [CrO(OH)], could be identified by XRPD and SEM. Additionally, well soluble Na2CrO4 was present. Improving the effectiveness of chromite ore processing and preventing the migration of Cr(VI) into water bodies are the main challenges when dealing with these COPR. PMID:27111471

  4. Chemistry of proposed calcination/dissolution processing of Hanford Site tank wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    Plans exist to separate radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in south central Washington State into low-level and high-level fractions, and to immobilize the separate fractions in high-integrity vitrified forms for long-term disposal. Calcination with water dissolution has been proposed as a possible treatment for achieving low/high-level separation. Chemistry development activities conducted since 1992 with simulated and genuine tank waste show that calcination/dissolution destroys organic carbon and converts nitrate and nitrite to hydroxide and benign offgases. The process also dissolves significant quantities of bulk chemicals (aluminum, chromium, and phosphate), allowing their redistribution from the high-level to the low-level fraction. Present studies of the chemistry of calcination/dissolution processing of genuine wastes, conducted in the period October 1993 to September 1994, show the importance of sodium fluoride phosphate double salt in controlling phosphate dissolution. Peptization of waste solids is of concern if extensive washing occurs. Strongly oxidizing conditions imposed by calcination reactions were found to convert transition metals to soluble anions in the order chromate > manganate > > ferrate. In analogy with manganese behavior, plutonium dissolution, presumably by oxidation to more soluble anionic species, also occurs by calcination/dissolution. Methods to remove plutonium from the product low-level solution stream must be developed.

  5. Preliminary Safety Analysis of the Gorleben Site: Safety Concept and Application to Scenario Development Based on a Site-Specific Features, Events and Processes (FEP) Database - 13304

    SciTech Connect

    Moenig, Joerg; Beuth, Thomas; Wolf, Jens; Lommerzheim, Andre; Mrugalla, Sabine

    2013-07-01

    Based upon the German safety criteria, released in 2010 by the Federal Ministry of the Environment (BMU), a safety concept and a safety assessment concept for the disposal of heat-generating high-level waste have both been developed in the framework of the preliminary safety case for the Gorleben site (Project VSG). The main objective of the disposal is to contain the radioactive waste inside a defined rock zone, which is called containment-providing rock zone. The radionuclides shall remain essentially at the emplacement site, and at the most, a small defined quantity of material shall be able to leave this rock zone. This shall be accomplished by the geological barrier and a technical barrier system, which is required to seal the inevitable penetration of the geological barrier by the construction of the mine. The safe containment has to be demonstrated for probable and less probable evolutions of the site, while evolutions with very low probability (less than 1 % over the demonstration period of 1 million years) need not to be considered. Owing to the uncertainty in predicting the real evolution of the site, plausible scenarios have been derived in a systematic manner. Therefore, a comprehensive site-specific features, events and processes (FEP) data base for the Gorleben site has been developed. The safety concept was directly taken into account, e.g. by identification of FEP with direct influence on the barriers that provide the containment. No effort was spared to identify the interactions of the FEP, their probabilities of occurrence, and their characteristics (values). The information stored in the data base provided the basis for the development of scenarios. The scenario development methodology is based on FEP related to an impairment of the functionality of a subset of barriers, called initial barriers. By taking these FEP into account in their probable characteristics the reference scenario is derived. Thus, the reference scenario describes a

  6. US Department of Energy wind turbine candidate site program: the regulatory process

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, M.R.; York, K.R.

    1982-06-01

    Sites selected in 1979 as tentative sites for installation of a demonstration MOD-2 turbine are emphasized. Selection as a candidate site in this program meant that the US Department of Energy (DOE) designated the site as eligible for a DOE-purchased and installed meteorological tower. The regulatory procedures involved in the siting and installation of these meteorological towers at the majority of the candidate sites are examined. An attempt is also made, in a preliminary fashion, to identify the legal and regulatory procedures that would be required to put up a turbine at each of these candidate sites. The information provided on each of these sites comes primarily from utility representatives, supplemented by conversations with state and local officials. The major findings are summarized on the following: federal requirements, state requirements, local requirements, land ownership, wind rights, and public attitudes.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF SUBSURFACE FATE OF MONOETHANOLAMINE AT SOUR GAS PROCESSING PLANT SITES-PHASE III

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Sorensen

    1999-02-01

    Alkanolamines are commonly used by the natural gas industry to remove hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and other acid gases from the natural gas in which they occur (''sour'' gas if hydrogen sulfide is present). At sour gas-processing plants, as at all plants that use alkanolamines for acid gas removal (AGR), spills and on-site management of wastes containing alkanolamines and associated reaction products have occasionally resulted in subsurface contamination that is presently the focus of some environmental concern. In 1994, the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) initiated a three-phase program to investigate the natural attenuation processes that control the subsurface transport and fate of the most commonly used alkanolamine in Canada, monoethanolamine (MEA). Funding for the MEA research program was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP), Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd. (CanOxy), Gas Research Institute (GRI), Environment Canada, and the National Energy Board of Canada. The MEA research program focused primarily on examining the biodegradability of MEA and MEA-related waste materials in soils and soil-slurries under a variety of environmentally relevant conditions, evaluating the mobility of MEA in soil and groundwater and the effectiveness of bioremediation techniques for removing contaminants and toxicity from MEA-contaminated soil. The presently inactive Okotoks sour gas-processing plant, owned by CanOxy in Alberta, Canada, was the source of samples and field data for much of the laboratory-based experimental work and was selected to be the location for the field-based efforts to evaluate remediation techniques. The objective of the research program is to provide the natural gas industry with ''real world'' data and insights developed under laboratory and field conditions regarding the effective and environmentally sound use of biological methods for the remediation of soil

  8. Deciphering site formation processes through soil micromorphology at Contrebandiers Cave, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Aldeias, Vera; Goldberg, Paul; Dibble, Harold L; El-Hajraoui, Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Contrebandiers Cave preserves a Late Pleistocene sequence containing Middle Stone Age (MSA) so-called Maghrebian Mousterian and Aterian occupations, spanning from ∼126 to 95 ka (thousands of years ago), followed by spatially restricted Iberomaurusian industries. Micromorphological analyses, complemented by instrumental mineralogical identification and fabric orientation, allowed for the reconstruction of the main site formation processes at the site. Initial deposition is characterized by local reworking of marine shelly sands dating to Marine Isotopic Stage 5e (MIS5e). The subsequent stratification reveals sedimentary dynamics predominantly associated with gravity-driven inputs and contributions from weathering of the encasing bedrock, at the same time that anthropogenic sediments were being accumulated. The allochthonous components reflect soil degradation and vegetation changes around the cave during the last interglacial. Human occupations seems to be somewhat ephemeral in nature, with some stratigraphic units apparently lacking archaeological components, while in others the human-associated deposits (e.g., burned bones, charcoal, and ashes) can be substantial. Ephemeral breaks in sedimentation and/or erosion followed by stabilization are mainly discernible microscopically by the presence of phosphatic-rich laminae interpreted as short-lived surfaces, peaks of increased humidity and colonization by plants. More substantial erosion affects the uppermost Aterian layers, presumably due to localized reconfigurations of the cave's roof. The subsequent Iberomaurusian deposits are not in their primary position and are associated with well-sorted silts of aeolian origin. While the effects of chemical diagenesis are limited throughout the whole stratigraphic sequence, physical bioturbation (e.g., by wasps, rodents, and earthworms) is more pervasive and leads to localized movement of the original sedimentary particles. PMID:24650737

  9. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Remedial action selection report, Attachment 2, Geology report: Preliminary final

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Included in the RAP is this Remedial Action Selection Report (RAS), which serves two purposes. First, it describes the activities that are proposed by the DOE to accomplish remediation and long-term stabilization and control of the radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Second, this document and the rest of the RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the state of Colorado, and the NRC, become Appendix B of the cooperative agreement between the DOE and the State of Colorado.

  10. EPA SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL WASTE TECHNOLOGIES/GEO-CON IN SITU STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION PROCESS IN HIALEAH, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an EPA evaluation of the first field demonstration of an in situ stabilization/solidification process for contaminated soil under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. emonstration of this process was a joint effort of two vendors:...

  11. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:12, 1.8-m (72-in.) Main Process Sewer Pipeline, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-034

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2008-04-29

    The 100-F-26:12 waste site was an approximately 308-m-long, 1.8-m-diameter east-west-trending reinforced concrete pipe that joined the North Process Sewer Pipelines (100-F-26:1) and the South Process Pipelines (100-F-26:4) with the 1.8-m reactor cooling water effluent pipeline (100-F-19). In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  12. Applying a decision process for long-term stewardship planning at a US Department of Energy site.

    SciTech Connect

    Hocking, E. K.; Smiley, S. L.

    2002-05-14

    Long-term stewardship (LTS) can be defined as the system of activities needed to protect human health and the environment from hazards left remaining at a site as a result of a cleanup decision. Although the general consensus has been that remediation decisions and LTS decisions should be made conjointly, the general practice has been to separate them. This bifurcation can result in LTS plans that are difficult to implement and enforce and disproportionately costly for the benefit they provide. Worse still, they can be ineffective and result in harmful exposures to humans and the environment. Sites that have not yet made cleanup decisions and that can still integrate LTS planning into that decision making would benefit from a process built on a systematic review of the LTS risks and costs associated with remedial alternatives that include allowing on-site residual contamination. Sites that must develop LTS plans in response to previously determined cleanup decisions are even more in need of a process that involves close scrutiny of the risks and costs of possible LTS plan components. An LTS planning decision process usable by both categories of sites has been developed and is being used at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Mound site. In addition to facilitating LTS planning, the process demonstrated the need to integrate the work of LTS planners, remediation decision makers, and LTS technology developers and deployers.

  13. The synthesis of inhibitors for processing proteinases and their action on the Kex2 proteinase of yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Angliker, H; Wikstrom, P; Shaw, E; Brenner, C; Fuller, R S

    1993-01-01

    Peptidyl chloromethane and sulphonium salts containing multiple Arg and Lys residues were synthesized as potential inhibitors of prohormone and pro-protein processing proteinases. The potencies of these compounds were assayed by measuring the kinetics of inactivation of the yeast Kex2 proteinase, the prototype of a growing family of eukaryotic precursor processing proteinases. The most potent inhibitor, Pro-Nvl-Tyr-Lys-Arg-chloromethane, was based on cleavage sites in the natural Kex2 substrate pro-alpha-factor. This inhibitor exhibited a Ki of 3.7 nM and a second-order inactivation rate constant (k2/Ki) of 1.3 x 10(7) M-1.s-1 comparable with the value of kcat./Km obtained with Kex2 for the corresponding peptidyl methylcoumarinylamide substrate. The enzyme exhibited sensitivity to the other peptidyl chloromethanes over a range of concentrations, depending on peptide sequence and alpha-amino decanoylation, but was completely resistant to peptidyl sulphonium salts. Kinetics of inactivation by these new inhibitors of a set of 'control' proteinases, including members of both the trypsin and subtilisin families, underscored the apparent specificity of the compounds most active against Kex2 proteinase. PMID:8328974

  14. Aeolian processes at the Mars Exploration Rover Meridiani Planum landing site.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, R; Banfield, D; Bell, J F; Calvin, W; Fike, D; Golombek, M; Greeley, R; Grotzinger, J; Herkenhoff, K; Jerolmack, D; Malin, M; Ming, D; Soderblom, L A; Squyres, S W; Thompson, S; Watters, W A; Weitz, C M; Yen, A

    2005-07-01

    The martian surface is a natural laboratory for testing our understanding of the physics of aeolian (wind-related) processes in an environment different from that of Earth. Martian surface markings and atmospheric opacity are time-variable, indicating that fine particles at the surface are mobilized regularly by wind. Regolith (unconsolidated surface material) at the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site has been affected greatly by wind, which has created and reoriented bedforms, sorted grains, and eroded bedrock. Aeolian features here preserve a unique record of changing wind direction and wind strength. Here we present an in situ examination of a martian bright wind streak, which provides evidence consistent with a previously proposed formational model for such features. We also show that a widely used criterion for distinguishing between aeolian saltation- and suspension-dominated grain behaviour is different on Mars, and that estimated wind friction speeds between 2 and 3 m s(-1), most recently from the northwest, are associated with recent global dust storms, providing ground truth for climate model predictions. PMID:16001061

  15. Modeling unsaturated flow and transport processes at the Busted Butte Field Test Site, Nevada.

    PubMed

    Tseng, P-H; Soll, W E; Gable, C W; Turin, H J; Bussod, G Y

    2003-01-01

    A numerical model was used to simulate the flow and transport processes at the Busted Butte Field Test Site for the purpose of quantifying the effects of hydrogeologic conditions beneath the potential Yucca Mountain repository horizon. In situ experiments were conducted on a 10 x 10 x 7 m block comprising a layered Topopah Springs/Calico Hills formation with two imbedded faults. Tracer solution was continuously injected in eight parallel boreholes arranged on two horizontal planes. Twelve collection boreholes were emplaced perpendicular to the injection holes and were both horizontal and inclined. Solution samples were collected regularly using a sampling assembly consisting of an inverted membrane and sorbing-paper sampling pads. Comparisons between measurements and predictions show that, except for the occasional drops of concentrations observed in the field, the current model is able to capture the general characteristics of the system with varying levels of agreement using laboratory-measured mean hydraulic properties. Simulation results and field observations revealed a capillary-driven flow in the system. Good quantitative agreement is generally observed for near-field boreholes, however, this agreement deteriorates and the simulated solute concentration is underestimated at boreholes farther away from the injection points. Increasing the spatial resolution of the simulation improves the model predictions only to a limited extent. Scaling issues may need to be considered to describe flow and transport events, as the travel distance becomes large. PMID:12714297

  16. Aeolian processes at the Mars Exploration Rover Meridiani Planum landing site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, R.; Banfield, D.; Bell, J.F., III; Calvin, W.; Fike, D.; Golombek, M.; Greeley, R.; Grotzinger, J.; Herkenhoff, K.; Jerolmack, D.; Malin, M.; Ming, D.; Soderblom, L.A.; Squyres, S. W.; Thompson, S.; Watters, W.A.; Weitz, C.M.; Yen, A.

    2005-01-01

    The martian surface is a natural laboratory for testing our understanding of the physics of aeolian (wind-related) processes in an environment different from that of Earth. Martian surface markings and atmospheric opacity are time-variable, indicating that fine particles at the surface are mobilized regularly by wind. Regolith (unconsolidated surface material) at the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site has been affected greatly by wind, which has created and reoriented bedforms, sorted grains, and eroded bedrock. Aeolian features here preserve a unique record of changing wind direction and wind strength. Here we present an in situ examination of a martian bright wind streak, which provides evidence consistent with a previously proposed formational model for such features. We also show that a widely used criterion for distinguishing between aeolian saltation- and suspension-dominated grain behaviour is different on Mars, and that estimated wind friction speeds between 2 and 3 m s-1, most recently from the northwest, are associated with recent global dust storms, providing ground truth for climate model predictions.

  17. Fluvial processes in Ma'adim Vallis and the potential of Gusev crater as a high priority site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrol, Nathalie; Landheim, Ragnild; Greeley, Ronald; Farmer, Jack

    1994-01-01

    According to exobiology site selection criteria for Mars, the search for potential extinct/extant water dependent life should focus on sites were water flowed and ponded. The Ma'adim Vallis/Gusev crater system is of high priority for exobiology research, because it appears to have involved long term flooding, different periods and rates of sedimentation, and probable episodic ponding. The topics covered include the following: evidence of nonuniform fluvial processes and early overflooding of the plateau and ponding.

  18. Feed Acceptance for the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, R.A.; Elder, H.H.

    1998-03-01

    The DWPF at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) began radioactive operations in December of 1995. The High Level Waste Tank Farm at SRS contains approximately thirty three million gallons of salt, supernate, and insoluble sludge wastes accumulated during more than three decades of weapons manufacture. In the DWPF, the radioactive components from this waste will ultimately be processed into a stable, borosilicate glass for long-term storage in a geological repository.The feeds to the DWPF are pretreated in a number of steps. Insoluble sludges, primarily aluminum, iron and other transition metals, are combined from several tanks, treated by caustic dissolution of aluminum and washed to remove soluble salts; these materials are removed to increase waste loading in the glass produced by the DWPF.The water soluble radioactive species in the salt and supernate, primarily cesium and actinides, are precipitated by sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) or adsorbed onto sodium titanate. The resulting solids are also washed to remove excessive soluble salts before feeding to the DWPF. The soluble species removed by washing are disposed of as low level radioactive waste in a concrete form known as Saltstone. The presentation includes a brief overview of the High Level Waste system, pretreatment, and disposition of the various streams.The washed tetraphenylborate precipitates of cesium and potassium are hydrolyzed by copper catalyzed formic acid hydrolysis in the Salt Processing Cell (SPC) to yield soluble formates, boric acid, benzene and minor organic byproducts.The benzene and most of the organic byproducts are then steam stripped. The resulting aqueous hydrolysis product, including the still insoluble actinides adsorbed onto sodium titanate, is combined in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) with the insoluble sludge which has been treated with nitric acid and formic acid to remove mercury and to adjust the glass redox. Borosilicate glass frit is added and

  19. Shallow Structure Characterization at a Groundwater Contamination Site: Seismic Processing and Tomographic Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fradelizio, G.; Gao, F.; Levander, A.; Zelt, C. A.

    2005-12-01

    In order to image the heterogeneities in a shallow (less then 20 meters) buried paleo-channel where groundwater is severely contaminated by trichloroethylene (TCE), two vertical seismic profiles (VSP) and a seismic profile between the two boreholes (VSP-surface) were acquired. The surficial lithology consists of a mix of Quaternary sands and gravels overlying an incised clay layer acting as structural/stratigraphic trap for the polluting DNAPLs (dense nonaqueous phase liquids). The high-resolution data were processed following a standard seismic processing scheme, and inverted using traveltime and waveform tomography methods. The tomographic velocity models were subsequently utilized to depth migrate the VSP-surface data, both post-stack and pre-stack using explicit finite-difference extrapolators. In addition, Q values were estimated for the area of interest, directly from the imaginary part of the tomographic velocities, and using spectral ratio methods on the VSP data. Since the shallow structures can be characterized mechanically to some degree in terms of physical properties such as seismic velocity, the reflection seismic migrated images can be directly compared to the waveform tomography velocity models, given that the two methods produce results with comparable resolution. Generally, a reasonably good agreement exists between the results of the two different methodologies, keeping in mind that the migrated image shows impedance contrasts, whereas the waveform tomography measures velocity fluctuations directly. Both seismic and tomography images suggest that the geological structure in the target area is considerably more complex and heterogeneous than a simple layer of alluvium over an eroded clay layer, as is also suggested by lithology logs. The heterogeneity in the target area suggests that a conventional reflection processing sequence including CMP stacking and post-stack migration may be compromised because of large lateral velocity variations. As we

  20. Low temperature adsorption and site-conversion process of CO on the Ni(111) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniya, Atsushi; Isomura, Noritake; Hirata, Hirohito; Watanabe, Yoshihide

    2012-12-01

    Low-temperature (25 K) adsorption states and the site conversion of adsorbed CO between the ontop and the hollow sites on Ni(111) were studied by means of temperature programmed desorption and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy. The activation energy and pre-exponential factor of desorption were estimated to be 1.2 eV and 2.6 × 1013 s- 1, respectively, in the limit of zero coverage. At low coverage, CO molecules preferentially adsorbed at the hollow sites below 100 K. With increasing temperature, the ontop sites were also occupied. Using a van't Hoff plot, the enthalpy and the entropy differences between the hollow and ontop CO were estimated to be 36 meV and 0.043 meV K- 1, respectively, and the vibrational entropy difference was estimated to be 0.085 meV K- 1. The positive entropy difference was the result of the low-energy frustrated translational mode of the ontop CO, which was estimated to be 4.6 ± 0.3 meV. With the harmonic approximation, the upper limit of the activation energy of site hopping from ontop sites to hollow sites was estimated to be 61 meV. In addition, it was suggested that the activation energy of hollow-to-hollow site hopping via a bridge site was less than 37 meV.

  1. Identifiability of the unrooted species tree topology under the coalescent model with time-reversible substitution processes, site-specific rate variation, and invariable sites.

    PubMed

    Chifman, Julia; Kubatko, Laura

    2015-06-01

    The inference of the evolutionary history of a collection of organisms is a problem of fundamental importance in evolutionary biology. The abundance of DNA sequence data arising from genome sequencing projects has led to significant challenges in the inference of these phylogenetic relationships. Among these challenges is the inference of the evolutionary history of a collection of species based on sequence information from several distinct genes sampled throughout the genome. It is widely accepted that each individual gene has its own phylogeny, which may not agree with the species tree. Many possible causes of this gene tree incongruence are known. The best studied is the incomplete lineage sorting, which is commonly modeled by the coalescent process. Numerous methods based on the coalescent process have been proposed for the estimation of the phylogenetic species tree given DNA sequence data. However, use of these methods assumes that the phylogenetic species tree can be identified from DNA sequence data at the leaves of the tree, although this has not been formally established. We prove that the unrooted topology of the n-leaf phylogenetic species tree is generically identifiable given observed data at the leaves of the tree that are assumed to have arisen from the coalescent process under a time-reversible substitution process with the possibility of site-specific rate variation modeled by the discrete gamma distribution and a proportion of invariable sites. PMID:25791286

  2. Interrelation of technologies for RW preparation and sites for final isolation of the wastes from pyrochemical processing of SNF

    SciTech Connect

    Gupalo, V.S.; Chistyakov, V.N.; Kormilitsyn, M.V.; Kormilitsyna, L.A.

    2013-07-01

    For the justification of engineering solutions and practical testing of the radiochemical component of the perspective nuclear power complex with on-site variant of nuclear fuel cycle (NFC), it is planned to establish a multi-functional research-development complex (MFCRC) for radiochemical processing of spent nuclear fuels (SNF) from fast reactors. MFCRC is being established at the NIIAR site, it comprises technological process lines, where innovation pyro-electrochemical and hydrometallurgical technologies are realized, with an option for closing the inter-chain material flows for testing the combined radiochemically converted materials. The technological flowchart for processing at the MFCRC is subdivided into 3 segments: -) complex of the lead operations for dismantling the fuel elements (FE) and fuel assemblies (FA), -) pyrochemical extraction flowchart for processing SNF, and -) hydrometallurgical flowchart for processing SNF. The engineered solutions for the management and disposition of the radioactive wastes from MFCRC are reviewed.

  3. Establishing Junior-Level Colleges in Developing Nations: A Site Selection Process Using Data from Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iaeger, Paula Irene

    2012-01-01

    This research synthesizes data and presents it using mapping software to help to identify potential site locations for community-centered higher education alternatives and more traditional junior-level colleges in Uganda. What factors can be used to quantify one site over another for the location of such an institution and if these factors can be…

  4. Investigation of flow and transport processes at the MADE site using ensemble Kalman filter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Gaisheng; Chen, Y.; Zhang, Dongxiao

    2008-01-01

    In this work the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is applied to investigate the flow and transport processes at the macro-dispersion experiment (MADE) site in Columbus, MS. The EnKF is a sequential data assimilation approach that adjusts the unknown model parameter values based on the observed data with time. The classic advection-dispersion (AD) and the dual-domain mass transfer (DDMT) models are employed to analyze the tritium plume during the second MADE tracer experiment. The hydraulic conductivity (K), longitudinal dispersivity in the AD model, and mass transfer rate coefficient and mobile porosity ratio in the DDMT model, are estimated in this investigation. Because of its sequential feature, the EnKF allows for the temporal scaling of transport parameters during the tritium concentration analysis. Inverse simulation results indicate that for the AD model to reproduce the extensive spatial spreading of the tritium observed in the field, the K in the downgradient area needs to be increased significantly. The estimated K in the AD model becomes an order of magnitude higher than the in situ flowmeter measurements over a large portion of media. On the other hand, the DDMT model gives an estimation of K that is much more comparable with the flowmeter values. In addition, the simulated concentrations by the DDMT model show a better agreement with the observed values. The root mean square (RMS) between the observed and simulated tritium plumes is 0.77 for the AD model and 0.45 for the DDMT model at 328 days. Unlike the AD model, which gives inconsistent K estimates at different times, the DDMT model is able to invert the K values that consistently reproduce the observed tritium concentrations through all times. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Operation of Bubblers in the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility Melter - 12166

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, Brandon C.; Iverson, Daniel C.; Diener, Glenn

    2012-07-01

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC acquired the liquid waste contract at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the summer of 2009. In order to achieve the main goal of the contract, closing of High Level Waste (HLW) tanks, it was necessary to process more waste throughout the SRS liquid waste facilities. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) would need to increase its production rate of radioactive waste glass filled canisters as a part of the plan to achieve this commitment. To attain the increased production rate, four bubblers were installed in the DWPF Melter in September 2010 to agitate the DWPF Melter glass pool. The four bubblers were designed to be installed in existing nozzles on the top-head of the DWPF Melter. The design and fabrication of the four (4) bubblers was accomplished through SRR critical subcontractor EnergySolutions LLC. In addition to the existing bubbler design, a new design concept has been approved and is in the process of fabrication. The new design will allow for the lower end (inside melter) of the bubbler to be replaced while the upper end (outside melter) of the bubbler is reused to minimize cost and waste at the DWPF. The bubblers have been operating in the DWPF Melter for approximately 1 year. The originally installed bubbler set was replaced in January 2011. The bubblers were visually examined once removed from the melter and showed minimal signs of wear. Material testing of the Inconel 690 is being performed to determine if the bubblers operational life can be extended. The use of the bubblers has changed the dynamics within the melter glass pool. This is shown through indications that the bubblers have increased the glass pool circulation. Overall, performance of the bubblers has been encouraging and the DWPF Melter has seen a significant improvement in its ability to process waste since the bubbler installation. The installation of the bubblers accomplished the goal of increasing the glass production capability of DWPF

  6. Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. ); Coats, D.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct studies of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites. Details of the methods and complete listing or graphical representation of the results are contained in this second volume of the two-volume report. Appendix A describes the methods and results of a pre-disposal bathymetric survey of Site B1B, and provides an analysis of the accuracy and precision of the survey. Appendix B describes the moorings and instruments used to obtain physical oceanographic data at the candidate sites, and also discussed other sources of data used in the analyses. Techniques used to analyze the formation, processed data, and complete results of various analyses are provided in tabular and graphical form. Appendix C provides details of the sediment transport calculations. Appendix D describes the format of the archived current meter data, which is available through the National Oceanographic Data Center. 43 refs., 54 figs., 58 tabs.

  7. Independent technical evaluation and recommendations for contaminated groundwater at the department of energy office of legacy management Riverton processing site

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, Brain B.; Denham, Miles E.; Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (DOE-LM) manages the legacy contamination at the Riverton, WY, Processing Site – a former uranium milling site that operated from 1958 to 1963. The tailings and associated materials were removed in 1988-1989 and contaminants are currently flushing from the groundwater. DOE-LM commissioned an independent technical team to assess the status of the contaminant flushing, identify any issues or opportunities for DOE-LM, and provide key recommendations. The team applied a range of technical frameworks – spatial, temporal, hydrological and geochemical – in performing the evaluation. In each topic area, an in depth evaluation was performed using DOE-LM site data (e.g., chemical measurements in groundwater, surface water and soil, water levels, and historical records) along with information collected during the December 2013 site visit (e.g., plant type survey, geomorphology, and minerals that were observed, collected and evaluated).

  8. Site-Resolved Two-Step Relaxation Process in an Asymmetric Dy2 Single-Molecule Magnet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Jung, Julie; Zhang, Peng; Guo, Mei; Zhao, Lang; Tang, Jinkui; Le Guennic, Boris

    2016-01-22

    Elaborate chemical design is of utmost importance in order to slow down the relaxation dynamics in single-molecule magnets (SMMs) and hence improve their potential applications. Much interest was devoted to the study of distinct relaxation processes related to the different crystal fields of crystallographically independent lanthanide ions. However, the assignment of the relaxation processes to specific metal sites remains a challenging task. To address this challenge, a new asymmetric Dy2 SMM displaying a well-separated two-step relaxation process with the anisotropic centers in fine-tuned local environments was elaborately designed. For the first time a one-to-one relationship between the metal sites and the relaxation processes was evidenced. This work sheds light on complex multiple relaxation and may direct the rational design of lanthanide SMMs with enhanced magnetic properties. PMID:26670125

  9. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION TEST, SOLIDITECH, INC. SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION PROCESS VOL II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of the Soliditech, Inc. solidification/stabilization demonstration was to develop reliable performance and cost information. he demonstration took palce at the Imperial Oil Company/Champion Chemical Company Superfund site in Morganiville, New Jersey. ontamin...

  10. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION TEST, SOLIDITECH, INC. SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION PROCESS VOL I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of the Soliditech, Inc. solidification/stabilization demonstration was to develop reliable performance and cost information. he demonstration took palce at the Imperial Oil Company/Champion Chemical Company Superfund site in Morganiville, New Jersey. Contami...

  11. Demonstration of Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation Process Using Savannah River Site High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.B.

    2001-09-10

    This report details the experimental effort to demonstrate the continuous precipitation of cesium from Savannah River Site High Level Waste using sodium tetraphenylborate. In addition, the experiments examined the removal of strontium and various actinides through addition of monosodium titanate.

  12. SMART-1 studies of impact processes: all scales from South Pole-Aitken basin to the SMART-1 bouncing site.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.

    2013-09-01

    We highlight some ESA SMART - 1 results on impact processes. We discuss impact basins, the morphology of raters, the properties of central peaks, and the study of specific impact craters of interest to ILEWG community. We also give an update on the results from SMART-1 impact campaign and the search for SMART-1 bouncing site and debris using latest LRO data.

  13. Blogs and Social Network Sites as Activity Systems: Exploring Adult Informal Learning Process through Activity Theory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heo, Gyeong Mi; Lee, Romee

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses an Activity Theory framework to explore adult user activities and informal learning processes as reflected in their blogs and social network sites (SNS). Using the assumption that a web-based space is an activity system in which learning occurs, typical features of the components were investigated and each activity system then…

  14. SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION ECO LOGIC INTERNATIONAL GAS-PHASE CHEMICAL REDUCTION PROCESS, BAY CITY, MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SITE Program funded a field demonstration to evaluate the Eco Logic Gas-Phase Chemical Reduction Process developed by ELI Eco Logic International Inc. (ELI), Ontario, Canada. The Demonstration took place at the Middleground Landfill in Bay City, Michigan using landfill wa...

  15. Integrated mild gasification processing at the Homer City Electric Power Generating Station site. Final report, July 1989--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Battista, J.J.; Zawadzki, E.A.

    1993-07-01

    A new process for the production of commercial grade coke, char, and carbon products has been evaluated by Penelec/NYSEG. The process, developed by Coal Technology Corporation, CTC, utilizes a unique screw reactor to produce a devolatilized char from a wide variety of coals for the production of commercial grade coke for use in blast furnaces, foundries, and other processes requiring high quality coke. This process is called the CTC Mild Gasification Process (MGP). The process economics are significantly enhanced by integrating the new technology into an existing power generating complex. Cost savings are realized by the coke producer, the coke user, and the electric utility company. Site specific economic studies involving the Homer City Generating Station site in Western Pennsylvania, confirmed that an integrated MGP at the Homer City site, using coal fines produced at the Homer City Coal Preparation Plant, would reduce capital and operating costs significantly and would enable the HC Owners to eliminate thermal dryers, obtain low cost fuel in the form of combustible gases and liquids, and obtain lower cost replacement coal on the spot market. A previous report, identified as the Interim Report on the Project, details the technical and economic studies.

  16. Mixture models of nucleotide sequence evolution that account for heterogeneity in the substitution process across sites and across lineages.

    PubMed

    Jayaswal, Vivek; Wong, Thomas K F; Robinson, John; Poladian, Leon; Jermiin, Lars S

    2014-09-01

    Molecular phylogenetic studies of homologous sequences of nucleotides often assume that the underlying evolutionary process was globally stationary, reversible, and homogeneous (SRH), and that a model of evolution with one or more site-specific and time-reversible rate matrices (e.g., the GTR rate matrix) is enough to accurately model the evolution of data over the whole tree. However, an increasing body of data suggests that evolution under these conditions is an exception, rather than the norm. To address this issue, several non-SRH models of molecular evolution have been proposed, but they either ignore heterogeneity in the substitution process across sites (HAS) or assume it can be modeled accurately using the distribution. As an alternative to these models of evolution, we introduce a family of mixture models that approximate HAS without the assumption of an underlying predefined statistical distribution. This family of mixture models is combined with non-SRH models of evolution that account for heterogeneity in the substitution process across lineages (HAL). We also present two algorithms for searching model space and identifying an optimal model of evolution that is less likely to over- or underparameterize the data. The performance of the two new algorithms was evaluated using alignments of nucleotides with 10 000 sites simulated under complex non-SRH conditions on a 25-tipped tree. The algorithms were found to be very successful, identifying the correct HAL model with a 75% success rate (the average success rate for assigning rate matrices to the tree's 48 edges was 99.25%) and, for the correct HAL model, identifying the correct HAS model with a 98% success rate. Finally, parameter estimates obtained under the correct HAL-HAS model were found to be accurate and precise. The merits of our new algorithms were illustrated with an analysis of 42 337 second codon sites extracted from a concatenation of 106 alignments of orthologous genes encoded by the nuclear

  17. In vivo expression of mutant preproendothelins: hierarchy of processing events but no strict requirement of Trp-Val at the processing site.

    PubMed Central

    Fabbrini, M S; Vitale, A; Pedrazzini, E; Nitti, G; Zamai, M; Tamburin, M; Caiolfa, V R; Patrono, C; Benatti, L

    1993-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a 21-residue vasoconstrictor peptide, originates in human cells from a 212-amino acid precursor (preproET-1). Big ET-1, an intermediate form of 38 amino acids, is generated by cleavage at basic-pair residues of proET-1, while a specific "ET-converting enzyme" was proposed to process the unusual Trp-Val site at positions 21 and 22 of big ET-1. We have previously shown that expression of synthetic RNA encoding human preproET-1 in Xenopus oocytes results in secretion of putative ET-1 and big ET-1. Here, to further dissect the processing pathway of preproET-1, we designed and expressed in oocytes a set of preproET-1 mutants. Four mutants affecting the Trp-Val site always originated putative ET-1(s) at levels comparable to the wild type, suggesting that there is only a conformational requirement for cleavage at this site. An Arg-->Ile mutation at the basic-pair site after the C terminus of big ET-1 fully inhibited the formation of both big ET-1 and ET-1, indicating that processing at this site is an early event and that big ET-1 is an obligate intermediate for the synthesis of ET-1 in vivo. Also, a truncated mutant bearing a stop codon after the C terminus of the big ET-1 sequence was totally stable and further processed into mature big ET-1 and ET-1, indicating that the second part of the precursor is not necessary for maturation. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8483912

  18. Landfill site selection using geographic information system and analytical hierarchy process: A case study Al-Hillah Qadhaa, Babylon, Iraq.

    PubMed

    Chabuk, Ali; Al-Ansari, Nadhir; Hussain, Hussain Musa; Knutsson, Sven; Pusch, Roland

    2016-05-01

    Al-Hillah Qadhaa is located in the central part of Iraq. It covers an area of 908 km(2) with a total population of 856,804 inhabitants. This Qadhaa is the capital of Babylon Governorate. Presently, no landfill site exists in that area based on scientific site selection criteria. For this reason, an attempt has been carried out to find the best locations for landfills. A total of 15 variables were considered in this process (groundwater depth, rivers, soil types, agricultural land use, land use, elevation, slope, gas pipelines, oil pipelines, power lines, roads, railways, urban centres, villages and archaeological sites) using a geographic information system. In addition, an analytical hierarchy process was used to identify the weight for each variable. Two suitable candidate landfill sites were determined that fulfil the requirements with an area of 9.153 km(2) and 8.204 km(2) These sites can accommodate solid waste till 2030. PMID:26965404

  19. GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process for Regional Landfill Site Selection in Transitional Countries: A Case Study From Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenović Vasiljević, Tamara; Srdjević, Zorica; Bajčetić, Ratko; Vojinović Miloradov, Mirjana

    2012-02-01

    The Serbian National Waste Management Strategy for the Period 2010-2019, harmonized with the European Union Directives, mandates new and very strict requirements for landfill sites. To enable analysis of a number of required qualitative and quantitative factors for landfill site selection, the traditional method of site selection must be replaced with a new approach. The combination of GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was selected to solve this complex problem. The Srem region in northern Serbia, being one of the most environmentally sensitive areas, was chosen as a case study. Seventeen factors selected as criteria/sub-criteria were recognized as most important, divided into geo-natural, environmental, social and techno-economic factors, and were evaluated by experts from different fields using an AHP extension in Arc GIS. Weighted spatial layers were combined into a landfill suitability map which was then overlapped with four restriction maps, resulting in a final suitability map. According to the results, 82.65% of the territory of Srem is unsuitable for regional landfill siting. The most suitable areas cover 9.14%, suitable areas 5.24%, while areas with low and very low suitability cover 2.21 and 0.76% of the territory, respectively. Based on these findings, five sites close to two large urban agglomerations were suggested as possible locations for a regional landfill site in Srem. However, the final decision will require further field investigation, a public acceptance survey, and consideration of ownership status and price of the land.

  20. Ferromanganese nodules from MANOP Sites H, S, and R-Control of mineralogical and chemical composition by multiple accretionary processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dymond, J.; Lyle, M.; Finney, B.; Piper, D.Z.; Murphy, K.; Conard, R.; Pisias, N.

    1984-01-01

    The chemical composition of ferromanganese nodules from the three nodule-bearing MANOP sites in the Pacific can be accounted for in a qualitative way by variable contributions of distinct accretionary processes. These accretionary modes are: 1. (1) hydrogenous, i.e., direct precipitation or accumulation of colloidal metal oxides in seawater, 2. (2) oxic diagenesis which refers to a variety of ferromanganese accretion processes occurring in oxic sediments; and 3. (3) suboxic diagenesis which results from reduction of Mn+4 by oxidation of organic matter in the sediments. Geochemical evidence suggests processes (1) and (2) occur at all three MANOP nodule-bearing sites, and process (3) occurs only at the hemipelagic site, H, which underlies the relatively productive waters of the eastern tropical Pacific. A normative model quantitatively accounts for the variability observed in nearly all elements. Zn and Na, however, are not well explained by the three end-member model, and we suggest that an additional accretionary process results in greater variability in the abundances of these elements. Variable contributions from the three accretionary processes result in distinct top-bottom compositional differences at the three sites. Nodule tops from H are enriched in Ni, Cu, and Zn, instead of the more typical enrichments of these elements in nodule bottoms. In addition, elemental correlations typical of most pelagic nodules are reversed at site H. The three accretionary processes result in distinct mineralogies. Hydrogenous precipitation produces ??MnO2. Oxic diagenesis, however, produces Cu-Ni-rich todorokite, and suboxic diagenesis results in an unstable todorokite which transforms to a 7 A?? phase ("birnessite") upon dehydration. The presence of Cu and Ni as charge-balancing cations influence the stability of the todorokite structure. In the bottoms of H nodules, which accrete dominantly by suboxic diagenesis, Na+ and possibly Mn+2 provide much of the charge balance for

  1. Getting to Yes or Bailing on No: The Site Selection Process of Ethanol Plants in Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tigges, Leann M.; Noble, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Prior studies of ethanol location rest on the assumption that ethanol producers are economic free agents--evaluating sites as if all counties are contenders for their business, weighing the availability of feedstocks along with their infrastructure needs, operating without ties to localities, and being subject to enticement from policy incentives.…

  2. Deep borehole disposition of surplus fissile materials-The site selection process

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, G.; WoldeGabriel, G.; Morley, R.; Plannerer, H

    1996-05-01

    One option for disposing of excess weapons plutonium is to place it near the base of deep boreholes in stable crystalline rocks. The technology exists to immediately begin the design of this means of disposition and there are many attractive sites available within the conterminous US. The borehole system utilizes mainly natural barriers to preven migration of Pu and U to the Earth`s surface. Careful site selection ensures favorable geologic conditions that provide natural long-lived migration barriers; they include deep, extremely stable rock formations, strongly reducing brines that exhibit increasing salinity with depth, and most importantly, demonstrated isolation or non-communication of deep fluids with the biosphere for millions of years. This isolation is the most important characteristic, with the other conditions mainly being those that will enhance the potential of locating and maintaining the isolated zones. Candidate sites will probably be located on the craton in very old Precambrian crystalline rocks, most likely the center of a granitic pluton. The sites will be located in tectonically stable areas with no recent volcanic or seismic activity, and situated away from tectonic features that might become active in the near geologic future.

  3. CO2-mineral Wettability and Implications for Understanding Leakage Processes from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarens, A. F.; Edwards, I.; Wang, S.

    2011-12-01

    In geological carbon sequestration (GCS), leakage events will be difficult to predict because parcels of CO2 will travel over long length scales and encounter a number of heterogeneous formations and endogenous brine in their rise to the surface. A constitutive model of a rising parcel of CO2 includes at least three main forces: 1) buoyant forces, 2) surface tension forces, and 3) shear drag forces. Of these, surface tension forces are of great significance, especially for predicting capillary and mineral trapping, and are affected by surface tension and the three-phase contact angle between CO2, brine, and the solid host mineral surfaces. Very limited experimental data on contact angles in GCS relevant systems has been reported in the academic literature. Here, the contact angle of several of the rock and clay species prevailing near GCS sites, e.g. quartz, feldspar, calcite, kaolinite, smectite and illite, were measured under a range of relevant temperature, pressure and ionic strength conditions. The measurements were made in a custom-built high-pressure view cell by introducing precisely controlled pendant CO2 droplets of constant volume to smooth and clean mineral surfaces after saturating the surrounding brine with CO2 and images were recorded using a high resolution digital camera. Images were processed and the contact angle measured using ImageJ software with a plug-in designed for this purpose. To measure the contact angle of CO2 on clay surfaces, ultra-pure microscope glass slides were coated with cleaned and particle-size-separated clay particles using hydrolyzed polyvinyl alcohol to ensure adhesion and a continuous coating on the surface. The uniform morphology of the surface was confirmed using electron microscopy. Preliminary results demonstrate differences in contact angle between the tested minerals, with calcite > quartz > feldspar. The absolute differences between the minerals were on the order of 3-7%. The

  4. Analysis of flow processes during TCE infiltration in heterogeneous soils at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.

    1992-06-01

    Contamination of soils and groundwater from volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as organic solvents and hydrocarbon fuels, is a problem at many industrial facilities. Key to successfully characterizing, containing, and eventually remediating the contamination is a thorough understanding, based on sound scientific principles, of the complex interplay of physical, chemical, and biological processes in geologic media, which affect the migration and distribution of the contaminants, and their response to remediation operations. This report focusses on physical mechanisms that affect contaminant behavior under the conditions encountered at the Savannah River site (SRS). Although other contaminants are present at the site, for the purpose of this discussion we will restrict ourselves to the processes following a spill and infiltration of trichloroethylene (TCE), which is the main contaminant at the location of the Integrated Demonstration Project. We begin by briefly describing the main physical processes following release of TCE into the subsurface. Subsequently we will present simple engineering models that can help to evaluate contaminant migration processes in a semi-quantitative way. Finally, we will discuss results of detailed numerical simulations of TCE infiltration into a heterogeneous medium consisting of sands and clays. These simulations attempt to shed light on the initial distribution of contaminants at the site prior to the start of remediation operations. We also point out limitations of present numerical modeling capabilities, and identify issues that require further research in order that a realistic description of contaminant behavior in the subsurface may be achieved.

  5. The ground processing simulator - A tool for mission model analysis and planning from a launch site perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralph, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The Ground Processing Simulator (GPS) is a computer-assisted planning tool designed and developed for Space Shuttle launch site application. Utilizing two programming languages, General Purpose Simulation System and FORTRAN, GPS provides the capability to analyze proposed Shuttle mission models via computer simulation. NASA-developed mission models which specify Shuttle launch rates, mission durations, cargo elements, and designated launch site are tested for feasibility by the simulator. GPS produces facility utilization schedules (including the identification of conflicts), launch data options, cargo element requirement dates, ground support equipment inventory requirements, and other data necessary to assess both the programmatic and launch site resources required to support proposed mission models. The purpose of this computer-assisted analysis is to determine methods which will permit the launching of the maximum number of cargoes per year on schedule, and in the sequence desired, with the minimum expenditure of resources.

  6. Implementation of a Self-Consistent Stereo Processing Chain for 3D Stereo Reconstruction of the Lunar Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasdelen, E.; Willner, K.; Unbekannt, H.; Glaeser, P.; Oberst, J.

    2014-04-01

    The department for Planetary Geodesy at TU Berlin is developing routines for photogrammetric processing of planetary image data to derive 3D representations of planetary surfaces. The ISIS software [1], developed by USGS, Flagstaff, is readily available, open source, and very well documented. Hence, ISIS was chosen as a prime processing platform and tool kit. However, ISIS does not provide a full photogrammetric stereo processing chain. Several components like image matching, bundle block adjustment (until recently) or digital terrain model (DTM) interpolation from 3D object points are missing. Our group aims to complete this photogrammetric stereo processing chain by implementing the missing components, taking advantage of already existing ISIS classes and functionality. With this abstract we would like to report on the development of our stereo processing chain and its first application on the Lunar Apollo landing sites.

  7. Implementation of a Self-Consistent Stereo Processing Chain for 3D Stereo Reconstruction of the Lunar Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasdelen, E.; Willner, K.; Unbekannt, H.; Glaeser, P.; Oberst, J.

    2014-04-01

    The department for Planetary Geodesy at Technical University Berlin is developing routines for photogrammetric processing of planetary image data to derive 3D representations of planetary surfaces. The Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers (ISIS) software (Anderson et al., 2004), developed by USGS, Flagstaff, is readily available, open source, and very well documented. Hence, ISIS was chosen as a prime processing platform and tool kit. However, ISIS does not provide a full photogrammetric stereo processing chain. Several components like image matching, bundle block adjustment (until recently) or digital terrain model (DTM) interpolation from 3D object points are missing. Our group aims to complete this photogrammetric stereo processing chain by implementing the missing components, taking advantage of already existing ISIS classes and functionality. We report here on the current status of the development of our stereo processing chain and its first application on the Lunar Apollo landing sites.

  8. FACILITY UPGRADES FOR RECEIPT FROM ACTINIDE REMOVAL AND MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, T; Stephen Phillips, S; Benjamin Culbertson, B; Beverly02 Davis, B; Aaron Staub, A

    2007-02-13

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently on an aggressive program to empty its High Level Waste (HLW) tanks and immobilize its radioactive waste into a durable borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). As a part of that program, two new processes will be brought on-line to assist in emptying the HLW tanks. These processes are in addition to the current sludge removal process and are called the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (MCU) Process. In order to accept and process the streams generated from these two new processes, several facility modifications are required and are broken down into several projects. These projects are handling the facility modifications required for the Tank Farm (241-96H), and DWPF vitrification facility (221-S), and DWPF ancillary facilities (511-S, and 512-S). Additional modifications to the 221-S building were required to address the flammability concern from the solvent carryover from the MCU process. This paper will describe a summary of the modifications impacting the 511-S, 512-S, and the 221-S facilities in order to receive the new streams from the ARP and MCU processes at the DWPF.

  9. Integrated system for gathering, processing, and reporting data relating to site contamination

    DOEpatents

    Long, Delmar D.; Goldberg, Mitchell S.; Baker, Lorie A.

    1997-01-01

    An integrated screening system comprises an intrusive sampling subsystem, a field mobile laboratory subsystem, a computer assisted design/geographical information subsystem, and a telecommunication linkup subsystem, all integrated to provide synergistically improved data relating to the extent of site soil/groundwater contamination. According to the present invention, data samples related to the soil, groundwater or other contamination of the subsurface material are gathered and analyzed to measure contaminants. Based on the location of origin of the samples in three-dimensional space, the analyzed data are transmitted to a location display. The data from analyzing samples and the data from the locating the origin are managed to project the next probable sample location. The next probable sample location is then forwarded for use as a guide in the placement of ensuing sample location, whereby the number of samples needed to accurately characterize the site is minimized.

  10. Integrated system for gathering, processing, and reporting data relating to site contamination

    DOEpatents

    Long, D.D.; Goldberg, M.S.; Baker, L.A.

    1997-11-11

    An integrated screening system comprises an intrusive sampling subsystem, a field mobile laboratory subsystem, a computer assisted design/geographical information subsystem, and a telecommunication linkup subsystem, all integrated to provide synergistically improved data relating to the extent of site soil/groundwater contamination. According to the present invention, data samples related to the soil, groundwater or other contamination of the subsurface material are gathered and analyzed to measure contaminants. Based on the location of origin of the samples in three-dimensional space, the analyzed data are transmitted to a location display. The data from analyzing samples and the data from the locating the origin are managed to project the next probable sample location. The next probable sample location is then forwarded for use as a guide in the placement of ensuing sample location, whereby the number of samples needed to accurately characterize the site is minimized. 10 figs.

  11. Scaling-up parameters for site restoration process using surfactant-enhanced soil washing coupled with wastewater treatment by Fenton and Fenton-like processes.

    PubMed

    Bandala, Erick R; Cossio, Horacio; Sánchez-Lopez, Adriana D; Córdova, Felipe; Peralta-Herández, Juan M; Torres, Luis G

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of scaling-up parameters for a site restoration process using a surfactant-enhanced soil washing (SESW) process followed by the application of advanced oxidation processes (Fenton and photo-Fenton) was performed. For the SESW, different parameters were varied and the soil washing efficiency for pesticide (2,4-D) removal assessed. The resulting wastewater was treated using the Fenton reaction in the absence and presence of ultraviolet (UV) radiation for pesticide removal. Results showed that agitation speed of 1550 rpm was preferable for the best pesticide removal from contaminated soil. It was possible to wash contaminated soils with different soil concentrations; however the power drawn was higher as the soil concentration increased. Complete removal of the pesticide and the remaining surfactant was achieved using different reaction conditions. The best degradation conditions were for the photo-Fenton process using [Fe(II)] = 0.3 mM; [H2O2] = 4.0 mM where complete 2,4-D and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) removal was observed after 8 and 10 minutes of reaction, respectively. Further increase in the hydrogen peroxide or iron salt concentration did not show any improvement in the reaction rate. Kinetic parameters, i.e. reaction rate constant and scaling-up parameters, were determined. It was shown that, by coupling both processes (SESW and AOPs), it is possible the restoration of contaminated sites. PMID:23530350

  12. Processing of abasic site damaged lesions by APE1 enzyme on DNA adsorbed over normal and organomodified clay.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Bhavini; Banerjee, Shib Shankar; Singh, Vandana; Das, Prolay; Bhowmick, Anil K

    2014-10-01

    The efficiency of the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) DNA repair enzyme in the processing of abasic site DNA damage lesions at precise location in DNA oligomer duplexes that are adsorbed on clay surfaces was evaluated. Three different forms of clay namely montmorillonite, quaternary ammonium salt modified montmorillonite and its boiled counterpart i.e. partially devoid of organic moiety were used for a comparative study of adsorption, desorption and DNA repair efficiency on their surfaces. The interaction between the DNA and the clay was analysed by X-ray diffraction, Atomic force microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy and Infrared spectroscopy. The abasic site cleavage efficiency of APE1 enzyme was quantitatively evaluated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Apart from the difference in the DNA adsorption or desorption capacity of the various forms of clay, substantial variation in the repair efficiency of abasic sites initiated by the APE1 enzyme on the clay surfaces was observed. The incision efficiency of APE1 enzyme at abasic sites was found to be greatly diminished, when the DNA was adsorbed over organomodified montmorillonite. The reduced repair activity indicates an important role of the pendant surfactant groups on the clay surfaces in directing APE1 mediated cleavage of abasic site DNA damage lesions. PMID:25048946

  13. Lessons learned from evaluating launch-site processing problems of Space Shuttle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, Carlos A.; Heuser, Robert E.; Sales, Johnny R.; Smith, Anthony M.

    1992-01-01

    The authors discuss a trend analysis program that is being conducted on the problem reports written during the processing of Space Shuttle payloads at Kennedy Space Center. The program is aimed at developing lessons learned that can both improve the effectiveness of the current payload processing cycles as well as help to guide the processing strategies for Space Station Freedom. The payload processing reports from STS 26R and STS 41 are used. A two-tier evaluation activity is described, and some typical results from the tier one analyses are presented.

  14. Assessment of microbial processes on gas production at radioactive low-level waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A.J.; Tate, R.L. III; Colombo, P.

    1982-05-01

    Factors controlling gaseous emanations from low level radioactive waste disposal sites are assessed. Importance of gaseous fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide, and possible hydrogen from the site, stems from the inclusion of tritium and/or carbon-14 into the elemental composition of these compounds. In that the primary source of these gases is the biodegradation of organic components of the waste material, primary emphasis of the study involved an examination of the biochemical pathways producing methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, and the environmental parameters controlling the activity of the microbial community involved. Initial examination of the data indicates that the ecosystem is anaerobic. As the result of the complexity of the pathway leading to methane production, factors such as substrate availability, which limit the initial reaction in the sequence, greatly affect the overall rate of methane evolution. Biochemical transformations of methane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide as they pass through the soil profile above the trench are discussed. Results of gas studies performed at three commercial low level radioactive waste disposal sites are reviewed. Methods used to obtain trench and soil gas samples are discussed. Estimates of rates of gas production and amounts released into the atmosphere (by the GASFLOW model) are evaluated. Tritium and carbon-14 gaseous compounds have been measured in these studies; tritiated methane is the major radionuclide species in all disposal trenches studied. The concentration of methane in a typical trench increases with the age of the trench, whereas the concentration of carbon dioxide is similar in all trenches.

  15. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE DEMONSTRATION OF ROCKY MOUNTAIN REMEDIATION SERVICES SOIL AMENDMENT PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    RMRS developed the Envirobond� process to treat heavy metals in soil.This phosphate-based technology consists of a proprietary powder and solution that binds with metals in contaminated waste. RMRS claims that the Envirobond� process converts metal contaminants from their leachab...

  16. Large break frequency for the SRS (Savannah River Site) production reactor process water system

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.L.; Awadalla, N.G.; Sindelar, R.L.; Bush, S.H.; Review and Synthesis Associates, Richland, WA )

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the results and conclusions of an evaluation of the large break frequency for the process water system (primary coolant system), including the piping, reactor tank, heat exchangers, expansion joints and other process water, system components. This evaluation was performed to support the ongoing PRA effort and to complement deterministic analyses addressing the credibility of a double-ended guillotine break. This evaluation encompasses three specific areas: the failure probability of large process water piping directly from imposed loads, the indirect failure probability of piping caused by the seismic-induced failure of surrounding structures, and the failure of all other process water components. The first two of these areas are discussed in detail in other papers. This paper primarily addresses the failure frequency of components other than piping, and includes the other two areas as contributions to the overall process water system break frequency. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Advanced technologies for maintenance of electrical systems and equipment at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Husler, R.O. ); Weir, T.J. )

    1991-01-01

    An enhanced maintenance program is being established to characterize and monitor cables, components, and process response at the Savannah River Site, Defense Waste Processing Facility. This facility was designed and constructed to immobilize the radioactive waste currently stored in underground storage tanks and is expected to begin operation in 1993. The plant is initiating the program to baseline and monitor instrument and control (I C) and electrical equipment, remote process equipment, embedded instrument and control cables, and in-cell jumper cables used in the facility. This program is based on the electronic characterization and diagnostic (ECAD) system which was modified to include process response analysis and to meet rigid Department of Energy equipment requirements. The system consists of computer-automated, state-of-the-art electronics. The data that are gathered are stored in a computerized database for analysis, trending, and troubleshooting. It is anticipated that the data which are gathered and trended will aid in life extension for the facility.

  18. Study of launch site processing and facilities for future launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, Rex

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to provide innovative and creative approaches to assess the impact to the Kennedy Space Center and other launch sites for a range of candidate manned and unmanned space transportation systems. The general scope of the research includes the engineering activities, analyses, and evaluations defined in the four tasks below: (1) development of innovative approaches and computer aided tools; (2) operations analyses of launch vehicle concepts and designs; (3) assessment of ground operations impacts; and (4) development of methodologies to identify promising technologies.

  19. Comparison of reactive transport model predictions for natural attenuation processes occurring at chlorinated solvent contaminated site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, H. M.; Tsai, C. H.; Lai, K. H.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Prediction of an analytical model and numerical model, namely BIOCLOR and HYDRODEOCHEM, for a test scenario involving the natural attenuations of dissolved solvent at chlorinated contaminated site are compared. Two models make same predictions for PCE, TCE and DCE and considerable different predictions for VC and ETH for the case of all species having identical retardation factors. Significant discrepancies between two models are observed for all species when retardation coefficients are considered to be different for all species. These differences can be attributed to the basic assumption that all the species have the same retardation factors embedded in BIOCHLOR.

  20. Investigation of processes controlling summertime gaseous elemental mercury oxidation at midlatitudinal marine, coastal, and inland sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zhuyun; Mao, Huiting; Lin, Che-Jen; Kim, Su Youn

    2016-07-01

    A box model incorporating a state-of-the-art chemical mechanism for atmospheric mercury (Hg) cycling was developed to investigate the oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) at three locations in the northeastern United States: Appledore Island (AI; marine), Thompson Farm (TF; coastal, rural), and Pack Monadnock (PM; inland, rural, elevated). The chemical mechanism in this box model included the most up-to-date Hg and halogen chemistry. As a result, the box model was able to simulate reasonably the observed diurnal cycles of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and chemical speciation bearing distinct differences between the three sites. In agreement with observations, simulated GOM diurnal cycles at AI and TF showed significant daytime peaks in the afternoon and nighttime minimums compared to flat GOM diurnal cycles at PM. Moreover, significant differences in the magnitude of GOM diurnal amplitude (AI > TF > PM) were captured in modeled results. At the coastal and inland sites, GEM oxidation was predominated by O3 and OH, contributing 80-99 % of total GOM production during daytime. H2O2-initiated GEM oxidation was significant (˜ 33 % of the total GOM) at the inland site during nighttime. In the marine boundary layer (MBL) atmosphere, Br and BrO became dominant GEM oxidants, with mixing ratios reaching 0.1 and 1 pptv, respectively, and contributing ˜ 70 % of the total GOM production during midday, while O3 dominated GEM oxidation (50-90 % of GOM production) over the remaining day when Br and BrO mixing ratios were diminished. The majority of HgBr produced from GEM+Br was oxidized by NO2 and HO2 to form brominated GOM species. Relative humidity and products of the CH3O2+BrO reaction possibly significantly affected the mixing ratios of Br or BrO radicals and subsequently GOM formation. Gas-particle partitioning could potentially be important in the production of GOM as well as Br and BrO at the marine site.

  1. Study of launch site processing and facilities for future launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, Rex

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to provide innovative and creative approaches to assess the impact to the Kennedy Space Center and other launch sites for a range of candidate manned and unmanned space transportation systems. The general scope of the research includes the engineering activities, analyses, and evaluations defined in the four tasks below: (1) development of innovative approaches and computer aided tools; (2) operations analyses of launch vehicle concepts and designs; (3) assessment of ground operations impacts; and (4) development of methodologies to identify promising technologies.

  2. Uncertainties in Eddy Covariance fluxes due to post-field data processing: a multi-site, full factorial analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbatini, S.; Fratini, G.; Arriga, N.; Papale, D.

    2012-04-01

    Eddy Covariance (EC) is the only technologically available direct method to measure carbon and energy fluxes between ecosystems and atmosphere. However, uncertainties related to this method have not been exhaustively assessed yet, including those deriving from post-field data processing. The latter arise because there is no exact processing sequence established for any given situation, and the sequence itself is long and complex, with many processing steps and options available. However, the consistency and inter-comparability of flux estimates may be largely affected by the adoption of different processing sequences. The goal of our work is to quantify the uncertainty introduced in each processing step by the fact that different options are available, and to study how the overall uncertainty propagates throughout the processing sequence. We propose an easy-to-use methodology to assign a confidence level to the calculated fluxes of energy and mass, based on the adopted processing sequence, and on available information such as the EC system type (e.g. open vs. closed path), the climate and the ecosystem type. The proposed methodology synthesizes the results of a massive full-factorial experiment. We use one year of raw data from 15 European flux stations and process them so as to cover all possible combinations of the available options across a selection of the most relevant processing steps. The 15 sites have been selected to be representative of different ecosystems (forests, croplands and grasslands), climates (mediterranean, nordic, arid and humid) and instrumental setup (e.g. open vs. closed path). The software used for this analysis is EddyPro™ 3.0 (www.licor.com/eddypro). The critical processing steps, selected on the basis of the different options commonly used in the FLUXNET community, are: angle of attack correction; coordinate rotation; trend removal; time lag compensation; low- and high- frequency spectral correction; correction for air density

  3. Large break frequency for the SRS (Savannah River Site) production reactor process water system

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.L.; Awadalla, N.G.; Sindelar, R.L.; Bush, S.H.; Review and Synthesis Associates, Richland, WA )

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the results and conclusions of an evaluation of the break frequency for the process water system (primary coolant system), including the piping, reactor tank, heat exchangers, expansion joints and other process water system components. This evaluation was performed to support the ongoing PRA effort and to complement deterministic analyses addressing the credibility of a double-ended guillotine break. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Methane emissions from process equipment at natural gas production sites in the United States: pneumatic controllers.

    PubMed

    Allen, David T; Pacsi, Adam P; Sullivan, David W; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Harrison, Matthew; Keen, Kindal; Fraser, Matthew P; Daniel Hill, A; Sawyer, Robert F; Seinfeld, John H

    2015-01-01

    Emissions from 377 gas actuated (pneumatic) controllers were measured at natural gas production sites and a small number of oil production sites, throughout the United States. A small subset of the devices (19%), with whole gas emission rates in excess of 6 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h), accounted for 95% of emissions. More than half of the controllers recorded emissions of 0.001 scf/h or less during 15 min of measurement. Pneumatic controllers in level control applications on separators and in compressor applications had higher emission rates than controllers in other types of applications. Regional differences in emissions were observed, with the lowest emissions measured in the Rocky Mountains and the highest emissions in the Gulf Coast. Average methane emissions per controller reported in this work are 17% higher than the average emissions per controller in the 2012 EPA greenhouse gas national emission inventory (2012 GHG NEI, released in 2014); the average of 2.7 controllers per well observed in this work is higher than the 1.0 controllers per well reported in the 2012 GHG NEI. PMID:25488196

  5. A New Tool for Automated Data Collection and Complete On-site Flux Data Processing for Eddy Covariance Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begashaw, I. G.; Kathilankal, J. C.; Li, J.; Beaty, K.; Ediger, K.; Forgione, A.; Fratini, G.; Johnson, D.; Velgersdyk, M.; Hupp, J. R.; Xu, L.; Burba, G. G.

    2014-12-01

    The eddy covariance method is widely used for direct measurements of turbulent exchange of gases and energy between the surface and atmosphere. In the past, raw data were collected first in the field and then processed back in the laboratory to achieve fully corrected publication-ready flux results. This post-processing consumed significant amount of time and resources, and precluded researchers from accessing near real-time final flux results. A new automated measurement system with novel hardware and software designs was developed, tested, and deployed starting late 2013. The major advancements with this automated flux system include: 1) Enabling logging high-frequency, three-dimensional wind speeds and multiple gas densities (CO2, H2O and CH4), low-frequency meteorological data, and site metadata simultaneously through a specially designed file format 2) Conducting fully corrected, real-time on-site flux computations using conventional as well as user-specified methods, by implementing EddyPro Software on a small low-power microprocessor 3) Providing precision clock control and coordinate information for data synchronization and inter-site data comparison by incorporating a GPS and Precision Time Protocol. Along with these innovations, a data management server application was also developed to chart fully corrected real-time fluxes to assist remote system monitoring, to send e-mail alerts, and to automate data QA/QC, transfer and archiving at individual stations or on a network level. Combination of all of these functions was designed to help save substantial amount of time and costs associated with managing a research site by eliminating the post-field data processing, reducing user errors and facilitating real-time access to fully corrected flux results. The design, functionality, and test results from this new eddy covariance measurement tool will be presented.

  6. Processing and geologic analysis of conventional cores from well ER-20-6 No. 1, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Prothro, L.B., Townsend, M.J.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.

    1997-09-01

    In 1996, Well Cluster ER-20-6 was drilled on Pahute Mesa in Area 20, in the northwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The three wells of the cluster are located from 166 to 296 meters (m) (544 to 971 feet [ft]) southwest of the site of the underground nuclear test code-named BULLION, conducted in 1990 in Emplacement Hole U-20bd. The well cluster was planned to be the site of a forced-gradient experiment designed to investigate radionuclide transport in groundwater. To obtain additional information on the occurrence of radionuclides, nature of fractures, and lithology, a portion of Well ER-20-6 No. 1, the hole closest to the explosion cavity, was cored for later analysis. Bechtel Nevada (BN) geologists originally prepared the geologic interpretation of the Well Cluster ER-20-6 site and documented the geology of each well in the cluster. However, the cores from Well ER-20-6 No. 1 were not accessible at the time of that work. As the forced-gradient experiment and other radio nuclide migration studies associated with the well cluster progressed, it was deemed appropriate to open the cores, describe the geology, and re-package the core for long-term air-tight storage. This report documents and describes the processing, geologic analysis, and preservation of the conventional cores from Well ER20-6 No. 1.

  7. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    Construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS) began during FY-1984. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 15 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Through the long-term census taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has been evaluating the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10 CFR 1022).

  8. US Department of Energy response to standards for remedial actions at inactive uranium processing sites: Proposed rule

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-29

    The Title I groundwater standards for inactive uranium mill tailings sites, which were promulgated on January 5, 1983, by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, were remanded to the EPA on September 3, 1985, by the US Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals. The Court instructed the EPA to compile general groundwater standards for all Title I sites. On September 24, 1987, the EPA published proposed standards (52FR36000-36008) in response to the remand. This report includes an evaluation of the potential effects of the proposed EPA groundwater standards on the UMTRA Project, as well as a discussion of the DOE's position on the proposed standards. The report also contains and appendix which provides supporting information and cost analyses. In order to assess the impacts of the proposed EPA standards, this report summarizes the proposed EPA standards in Section 2.0. The next three sections assess the impacts of the three parts of the EPA standards: Subpart A considers disposal sites; Subpart B is concerned with restoration at processing sites; and Subpart C addresses supplemental standards. Section 6.0 integrates previous sections into a recommendations section. Section 7.0 contains the DOE response to questions posed by the EPA in the preamble to the proposed standards. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Sequence motif upstream of the Hendra virus fusion protein cleavage site is not sufficient to promote efficient proteolytic processing

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, Willie Warren; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis . E-mail: rdutc2@uky.edu

    2005-10-10

    The Hendra virus fusion (HeV F) protein is synthesized as a precursor, F{sub 0}, and proteolytically cleaved into the mature F{sub 1} and F{sub 2} heterodimer, following an HDLVDGVK{sub 109} motif. This cleavage event is required for fusogenic activity. To determine the amino acid requirements for processing of the HeV F protein, we constructed multiple mutants. Individual and simultaneous alanine substitutions of the eight residues immediately upstream of the cleavage site did not eliminate processing. A chimeric SV5 F protein in which the furin site was substituted for the VDGVK{sub 109} motif of the HeV F protein was not processed but was expressed on the cell surface. Another chimeric SV5 F protein containing the HDLVDGVK{sub 109} motif of the HeV F protein underwent partial cleavage. These data indicate that the upstream region can play a role in protease recognition, but is neither absolutely required nor sufficient for efficient processing of the HeV F protein.

  10. Mars-GRAM Applications for Mars Science Laboratory Mission Site Selection Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary; Justus, C. G.

    2007-01-01

    An overview is presented of the Mars-Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) and its new features. One important new feature is the "auxiliary profile" option, whereby a simple input file is used to replace mean atmospheric values from Mars-GRAM's conventional (General Circulation Model) climatology. An auxiliary profile can be generated from any source of data or alternate model output. Results are presented using auxiliary profiles produced from mesoscale model output (Southwest Research Institute's Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS) model and Oregon State University's Mars mesoscale model (MMM5) model) for three candidate Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landing sites (Terby Crater, Melas Chasma, and Gale Crater). A global Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) database has also been generated for purposes of making 'Mars-GRAM auxiliary profiles. This data base contains averages and standard deviations of temperature, density, and thermal wind components, averaged over 5-by-5 degree latitude bins and 15 degree L(sub S) bins, for each of three Mars years of TES nadir data. Comparisons show reasonably good consistency between Mars-GRAM with low dust optical depth and both TES observed and mesoscale model simulated density at the three study sites. Mean winds differ by a more significant degree. Comparisons of mesoscale and TES standard deviations' with conventional Mars-GRAM values, show that Mars-GRAM density perturbations are somewhat conservative (larger than observed variability), while mesoscale-modeled wind variations are larger than Mars-GRAM model estimates. Input parameters rpscale (for density perturbations) and rwscale (for wind perturbations) can be used to "recalibrate" Mars-GRAM perturbation magnitudes to better replicate observed or mesoscale model variability.

  11. Supplemental characterization of the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    Additional characterization was performed at the Belfield and Bowman sites to resolve issues raised at the preliminary design meetings held in San Francisco in May and July, 1988. The characterization was performed in September of 1988. Radiation surveys were performed at the grain elevator at Bowman, and the Dakota Honey building and the kiln foundation at Belfield. The exterior of the grain elevator at Bowman was surveyed for both total and removable alpha contamination. Measurements were made on the exterior of the vertical elevator walls and on the horizontal foundation slab. Soil samples were taken at six locations around the immediate perimeter of the grain elevator. Interior measurements at the grain elevator consisted of both alpha and gamma radiation surveys. Both total and removable alpha measurements were performed on the interior walls and floors. Gamma measurements were made at the floor surface and at one meter above the floor surface. The Dakota Honey building at Belfield was also surveyed for total alpha contamination, removable alpha contamination, and gamma radiation. Alpha measurements were performed at specific locations on the concrete slab floor. Soil samples were taken from beneath the slab to a depth of approximately three feet and were analyzed for Ra-226. The visible kiln foundation at the Belfield site was surveyed for total and removable alpha contamination. Alpha measurements were performed on the vertical kiln foundation walls and the horizontal surfaces. Soil samples were taken from a hole in the center of the foundation to a depth of 18 inches and were analyzed for Ra-226. Also, a sample of the concrete surface of the foundation was taken and analyzed for Ra-226.

  12. Analysis of launch site processing effectiveness for the Space Shuttle 26R payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, Carlos A.; Heuser, Robert E.; Pepper, Richard E., Jr.; Smith, Anthony M.

    1991-01-01

    A trend analysis study has been performed on problem reports recorded during the Space Shuttle 26R payload's processing cycle at NASA-Kennedy, using the defect-flow analysis (DFA) methodology; DFA gives attention to the characteristics of the problem-report 'population' as a whole. It is established that the problem reports contain data which distract from pressing problems, and that fully 60 percent of such reports were caused during processing at NASA-Kennedy. The second major cause of problem reports was design defects.

  13. Ground water elevation monitoring at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Salt Lake City, Utah, Vitro processing site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    In February 1994, a ground water level monitoring program was begun at the Vitro processing site. The purpose of the program was to evaluate how irrigating the new golf driving range affected ground water elevations in the unconfined aquifer. The program also evaluated potential impacts of a 9-hole golf course planned as an expansion of the driving range. The planned golf course expansion would increase the area to be irrigated and, thus, the water that could infiltrate the processing site soil to recharge the unconfined aquifer. Increased water levels in the aquifer could alter the ground water flow regime; contaminants in ground water could migrate off the site or could discharge to bodies of surface water in the area. The potential effects of expanding the golf course have been evaluated, and a report is being prepared. Water level data obtained during this monitoring program indicate that minor seasonal mounding may be occurring in response to irrigation of the driving range. However, the effects of irrigation appear small in comparison to the effects of precipitation. There are no monitor wells in the area that irrigation would affect most; that data limitation makes interpretations of water levels and the possibility of ground water mounding uncertain. Limitations of available data are discussed in the conclusion.

  14. Prevalence Rates of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella at Different Sampling Sites on Cattle Hides at a Feedlot and Processing Plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The distributions of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on cattle hides were mapped at a feedlot and a processing plant. Sponge samples were collected from six hide surface sites at the feedlot (left and right shoulders, left and right ribs, back, and belly) and four sites at the processing pla...

  15. Solar feasibility study for site-specific industrial-process-heat applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, O.L.

    1980-03-18

    This study addresses the technical feasibility of solar energy in industrial process heat (IPH) applications in Mid-America. The study was one of two contracted efforts covering the MASEC 12-state region comprised of: Illinois, Michigan, North Dakota, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, Iowa, Missouri, South Dakota, Kansas, Nebraska, Wisconsin. The results of our study are encouraging to the potential future role of solar energy in supplying process heat to a varied range of industries and applications. We identified and developed Case Study documentation of twenty feasible solar IPH applications covering eight major SIC groups within the Mid-American region. The geographical distribution of these applications for the existing range of solar insolation levels are shown and the characteristics of the applications are summarized. The results of the study include process identification, analysis of process heat requirements, selection of preliminary solar system characteristics, and estimation of system performance and cost. These are included in each of the 20 Case Studies. The body of the report is divided into two primary discussion sections dealing with the Study Methodology employed in the effort and the Follow-On Potential of the identified applications with regard to possible demonstration projects. The 20 applications are rated with respect to their relative overall viability and procedures are discussed for possible demonstration project embarkment. Also, a possible extension of this present feasibility study for late-comer industrial firms expressing interest appears worthy of consideration.

  16. ORNL ADCP POST-PROCESSING GUIDE AND MATLAB ALGORITHMS FOR MHK SITE FLOW AND TURBULENCE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Gunawan, Budi; Neary, Vincent S

    2011-09-01

    Standard methods, along with guidance for post-processing the ADCP stationary measurements using MATLAB algorithms that were evaluated and tested by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), are presented following an overview of the ADCP operating principles, deployment methods, error sources and recommended protocols for removing and replacing spurious data.

  17. Process for carbonaceous material conversion and recovery of alkali metal catalyst constituents held by ion exchange sites in conversion residue

    DOEpatents

    Sharp, David W.

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered for the particles by contacting or washing them with an aqueous solution containing calcium or magnesium ions in an alkali metal recovery zone at a low temperature, preferably below about 249.degree. F. During the washing or leaching process, the calcium or magnesium ions displace alkali metal ions held by ion exchange sites in the particles thereby liberating the ions and producing an aqueous effluent containing alkali metal constituents. The aqueous effluent from the alkali metal recovery zone is then recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF INDIVIDUAL CHEMICAL REACTIONS CONSUMING ACID DURING NUCLEAR WASTE PROCESSING AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - 136B

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Lambert, D.; Newell, J.; Stone, M.

    2009-09-02

    Conversion of legacy radioactive high-level waste at the Savannah River Site into a stable glass waste form involves a chemical pretreatment process to prepare the waste for vitrification. Waste slurry is treated with nitric and formic acids to achieve certain goals. The total quantity of acid added to a batch of waste slurry is constrained by the catalytic activity of trace noble metal fission products in the waste that can convert formic acid into hydrogen gas at many hundreds of times the radiolytic hydrogen generation rate. A large block of experimental process simulations were performed to characterize the chemical reactions that consume acid prior to hydrogen generation. The analysis led to a new equation for predicting the quantity of acid required to process a given volume of waste slurry.

  19. Ionic milieu controls the compartment-specific activation of pro-opiomelanocortin processing in AtT-20 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, W K; Moore, H P

    1995-01-01

    Newly synthesized prohormones and their processing enzymes transit through the same compartments before being packaged into regulated secretory granules. Despite this coordinated intracellular transport, prohormone processing does not occur until late in the secretory pathway. In the mouse pituitary AtT-20 cell line, conversion of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) to mature adrenocorticotropic hormone involves the prohormone convertase PC1. The mechanism by which this proteolytic processing is restricted to late secretory compartments is unknown; PC1 activity could be regulated by compartment-specific activators/inhibitors, or through changes in the ionic milieu that influence its activity. By arresting transport in a semi-intact cell system, we have addressed whether metabolically labeled POMC trapped in early secretory compartments can be induced to undergo conversion if the ionic milieu in these compartments is experimentally manipulated. Prolonged incubation of labeled POMC trapped in the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi/trans-Golgi network did not result in processing, thereby supporting the theory that processing is normally a post-Golgi/trans-Golgi network event. However, acidification of these compartments allowed effective processing of POMC to the intermediate and mature forms. The observed processing increased sharply at a pH below 6.0 and required millimolar calcium, regardless of the compartment in which labeled POMC resided. These conditions also resulted in the coordinate conversion of PC1 from the 84/87 kDa into the 74-kDa and 66-kDa forms. We propose that POMC processing is predominantly restricted to acidifying secretory granules, and that a change in pH within these granules is both necessary and sufficient to activate POMC processing. Images PMID:8573786

  20. Audit Report on "Waste Processing and Recovery Act Acceleration Efforts for Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste at the Hanford Site"

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management's (EM), Richland Operations Office (Richland), is responsible for disposing of the Hanford Site's (Hanford) transuranic (TRU) waste, including nearly 12,000 cubic meters of radioactive contact-handled TRU wastes. Prior to disposing of this waste at the Department's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), Richland must certify that it meets WIPP's waste acceptance criteria. To be certified, the waste must be characterized, screened for prohibited items, treated (if necessary) and placed into a satisfactory disposal container. In a February 2008 amendment to an existing Record of Decision (Decision), the Department announced its plan to ship up to 8,764 cubic meters of contact-handled TRU waste from Hanford and other waste generator sites to the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) at Idaho's National Laboratory (INL) for processing and certification prior to disposal at WIPP. The Department decided to maximize the use of the AMWTP's automated waste processing capabilities to compact and, thereby, reduce the volume of contact-handled TRU waste. Compaction reduces the number of shipments and permits WIPP to more efficiently use its limited TRU waste disposal capacity. The Decision noted that the use of AMWTP would avoid the time and expense of establishing a processing capability at other sites. In May 2009, EM allocated $229 million of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) funds to support Hanford's Solid Waste Program, including Hanford's contact-handled TRU waste. Besides providing jobs, these funds were intended to accelerate cleanup in the short term. We initiated this audit to determine whether the Department was effectively using Recovery Act funds to accelerate processing of Hanford's contact-handled TRU waste. Relying on the availability of Recovery Act funds, the Department changed course and approved an alternative plan that could increase costs by about $25 million

  1. The conservation of the Shahr-e-Zohak archaeological site (central Afghanistan): Geomorphological processes and ecosystem-based mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margottini, Claudio; Fidolini, Francesco; Iadanza, Carla; Trigila, Alessandro; Ubelmann, Yves

    2015-06-01

    The archaeological remains of Shahr-e Zohak are part of the Bamiyan valley, which has been recognized by UNESCO as World Heritage and is famous for hosting the main heritage of the Buddhist culture in Afghanistan. The site comprises the remains of the Zohak fortress, which is placed on a steep hill at the confluence of the Bamiyan and Kalu rivers. The fortress is protected by ramparts, built along the steep cliffs bounding the site, which are equipped with several watchtowers. The citadel is protected by three more orders of walls and is located on the topmost part of the hill. All the structures are made of mudbricks placed on top of stony foundations. Due to the prolonged exposure to weathering, the lack of conservation measures and the misuse during war periods, many constructions collapsed or are prone to collapse. A new topography (1 m contour lines) of the site was produced using drone-derived 3D photogrammetry combined with GPS data. Then a detailed geomorphological survey of the whole site was carried out in order to identify the main geomorphic processes acting on the land surface and structures. GIS analysis allowed defining the internal drainage system of the studied area. The site is affected by incised erosional phenomena on the eastern side, while the hilltop is mainly hit by diffuse erosion and soil mobilization during snowmelt. Monument deterioration is coupled with the lack of an adequate drainage system to collect runoff. Ramparts located on the steep hillslopes are severely affected by gully erosion and siphoning, which cause depressions infilled by eroded and weathered building material. The access path is locally eroded or buried by debris cones. The western margin of the plateau has been rapidly retreating due to collapses, while the citadel is in danger due to diffuse or gully erosional processes developed on all its sides. A mitigation strategy with low environmental impact (ecosystem-based approach) is proposed in order to adopt sustainable

  2. Energy from true in situ processing of Antrim Shale: extraction trials in an explosively fractured site

    SciTech Connect

    VanDerPloeg, M.L.; Peil, C.A.; Kinkel, C.G.; Pihlaja, R.K.; Murdick, D.A.; Frost, J.R.; Lund, M.M.

    1980-08-01

    Three in situ energy extraction trials were conducted at The Dow Chemical Company's oil shale site, in Michigan's Sanilac County, near the town of Peck. Here the Antrim shale layer occurs between 1200 and 1400 feet underground. The trials began on October 14, 1979, and ended on April 1, 1980. The three trials, lasting 7, 60 and 17 days respectively, were conducted in a formation prepared by explosive fracturing. Ignition energy was generated with a methane burner. Some energy in the form of a dilute fuel gas (5 to 50 btu/scf) was recovered in each trial but upon ignition drastic decreases in flow communication occurred between injection and production wells. That problem prevented the planned exploration of techniques which would raise the energy value of the production gas. Upon cool down of the formation after each trial, air permeability tests showed inter-well communication levels returning to near preburn levels. Thermal expansion is the most likely cause of the reduced permeability experienced under retorting conditions.

  3. ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF METALS IN STREAMS ON A DEFENSE MATERIALS PROCESSING SITE IN SOUTH CAROLINA, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.; Dyer, S.

    2009-09-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 780 km{sup 2} U.S. Department of Energy facility near Aiken SC established in 1950 to produce nuclear materials. SRS streams are 'integrators' that potentially receive water transportable contaminants from all sources within their watersheds necessitating a GIS-based watershed approach to organize contaminant distribution data and accurately characterize the effects of multiple contaminant sources on aquatic organisms. Concentrations of metals in sediments, fish, and water were elevated in streams affected by SRS operations, but contaminant exposure models for Lontra Canadensis and Ceryle alcyon indicated that toxicological reference values were exceeded only by Hg and Al. Macroinvertebrate community structure was unrelated to sediment metal concentrations. This study indicated that (1) modeling studies and field bioassessments provide a complementary basis for addressing the individual and cumulative effects of contaminants, (2) habitat effects must be controlled when assessing contaminant impacts, (3) sensitivity analyses of contaminant exposure models are helpful in apportioning sampling effort, and (4) contaminants released during fifty years of industrial operations have not resulted in demonstrable harm to aquatic organisms in SRS streams.

  4. Measuring Methane Emissions from Industrial and Waste Processing Sites Using the Dual Tracer Flux Ratio Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herndon, S.; Floerchinger, C.; Roscioli, J. R.; Yacovitch, T.; Franklin, J. P.; Shorter, J. H.; Kolb, C. E.; Subramanian, R.; Robinson, A. L.; Molina, L. T.; Allen, D.

    2013-12-01

    In order to directly quantify facility scale methane emissions during recent multi-state measurement campaigns we have deployed novel tracer release emission characterization approaches to investigate a wide variety of facility types. The development and application of a dual tracer flux ratio methodology will be discussed. Using known release rates of two (or more) inert tracer species, downwind methane plume measurements can be used to quantify and evaluate the uncertainty in known releases and unknown emissions of methane. Results from experiments designed to challenge the experimental methodology will be presented, which determined that for downwind sampling distances in excess of ~200 m, the dual tracer release method is quite robust (<20% emission rate error) under many atmospheric conditions and landscape variations. At downwind distances less than ~200 m, the assumption of equivalent dispersion between spatially separated release points can break down. For some facilities, this can be used to distinguish and estimate the magnitude of methane emissions taking place at different spatial points within the facility. Measured emissions for selected facilities will be presented and, where possible, the accurate quantification of the episodic releases during specific activities, as well as continuous fugitive emissions are identified and will be discussed . Collaboration with on-site operators allows these measurements to inform the design and implementation of effective mitigation strategies.

  5. Promoters and processing sites within the transforming region of bovine papillomavirus type 1.

    PubMed

    Ahola, H; Stenlund, A; Moreno-López, J; Pettersson, U

    1987-07-01

    The mRNAs present in bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1)-transformed C127 cells were studied by primer extension. The results show that two internal promoters are present in the E region of BPV-1 in addition to the previously identified promoter at coordinate 1 (H. Ahola, A. Stenlund, J. Moreno-López, and U. Pettersson, Nucleic Acids Res. 11:2639-2650, 1983). One, located at coordinate 31, generated a set of mRNAs with heterogeneous 5' ends, which may encode the major transforming protein of BPV-1, the E5 protein. The second promoter, which is located at coordinate 39, generates colinear mRNAs which encode either the E4 protein or a truncated form of the E2 protein. Unlike the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (O. Danos, E. Georges, G. Orth, and M. Yaniv, J. Virol. 53:735-741, 1985), BPV-1 appears to lack a separate promoter for expression of the E7 protein. The major splice sites in the transforming region (E region) of the BPV-1 genome were also identified by nucleotide sequence analysis. PMID:2884331

  6. An Expert Elicitation Process in Support of Groundwater Model Evaluation for Frenchman Flat, Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman Jenny,Pohlmann Karl

    2011-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is implementing corrective actions at facilities where nuclear-related operations were conducted in Nevada. Among the most significant sites being addressed are the locations of underground nuclear tests on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The process for implementing corrective actions for the Underground Test Area (UGTA) locations is defined in Appendix VI of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996, as amended). In broad terms, Appendix VI describes a Corrective Action Investigation followed by a Corrective Action Decision, and implementation of a Corrective Action Plan prior to closure. The Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU) is farthest along in the UGTA corrective action process. It includes ten underground tests within the Frenchman Flat topographic basin, in the southeastern portion of the NNSS. Data have been collected from drilling exploration, hydrologic testing, and field and laboratory studies. Modeling has been completed at a variety of scales and focusing on a variety of flow and transport aspects ranging from regional boundary conditions to process dynamics within a single nuclear cavity. The culmination of the investigations is a transport model for the Frenchman Flat CAU (Stoller Navarro Joint Venture, 2009) that has undergone rigorous peer review and been accepted by the State of Nevada, setting the stage for the Corrective Action Decision and progression from the investigation phase to the corrective action phase of the project.

  7. Priorities determination using novel analytic hierarchy process and median ranked sample set, case study of landfill siting criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, N. E. Ahmad; Basri, H.

    2015-02-01

    Integrating environmental, social, political, and economical attributes enhances the decision making process. Multi criteria decision making (MCDM) involves ambiguity and uncertainty due to various preferences. This study presents a model to minimize the uncertainty and ambiguity of human judgments by means of integrating the counter stakeholders with median ranked sample set (MRSS) and Analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The model uses landfill site selection as a MCDM problem. Sixteen experts belong to four clusters that are government, private, institution, and non-governmental organisations participated and their preferences were ranked in four by four matrix. Then the MRSS and the AHP were used to obtain the priorities of landfill siting criteria. Environmental criteria have the highest priority that equals to 48.1% and the distance from surface water, and the faults zones are the most important factors with priorities equal to 18% and 13.7% respectively. In conclusion, the hybrid approach that integrates counter stakeholders MRSS, and AHP is capable of being applied to complex decision making process and its outputs are justified.

  8. Environmental tracers for elucidating the weathering process in a phosphogypsum disposal site: Implications for restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-López, Rafael; Nieto, José M.; de la Rosa, Jesús D.; Bolívar, Juan P.

    2015-10-01

    This study provides geochemical data with the aim of identifying and tracing the weathering of phosphogypsum wastes stack-piled directly on salt-marshes of the Tinto River (Estuary of Huelva, SW Spain). With that purpose, different types of highly-polluted acid solutions were collected in the stack. Connection between these solutions and the estuarine environment was studied by geochemical tracers, such as rare earth elements (REE) and their North American Shale Composite (NASC)-normalized patterns and Cl/Br ratios. Phosphogypsum-related wastewaters include process water stored on the surface, pore-water contained in the phosphogypsum profile and edge outflow water emerging from inside the stack. Edge outflow waters are produced by waterlogging at the contact between phosphogypsum and the nearly impermeable marsh surface and discharge directly into the estuary. Process water shows geochemical characteristics typical of phosphate fertilizers, i.e. REE patterns with an evident enrichment of heavy-REE (HREE) with respect to middle-REE (MREE) and light-REE (LREE). By contrast, REE patterns of deeper pore-water and edge outflows are identical to those of Tinto River estuary waters, with a clear enrichment of MREE relative to LREE and HREE denoting influence of acid mine drainage. Cl/Br ratios of these solutions are very close to that of seawater, which also supports its estuarine origin. These findings clearly show that process water is not chemically connected with edge outflows through pore-waters, as was previously believed. Phosphogypsum weathering likely occurs by an upward flow of seawater from the marsh because of overpressure and permeability differences. Several recommendations are put forward in this study to route restoration actions, such as developing treatment systems to improve the quality of the edge outflow waters before discharging to the receiving environment.

  9. Chemical processes in sea-salt chloride depletion observed at a Canadian rural coastal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xiaohong; Zhang, Leiming

    2012-01-01

    Chloride depletion in sea-salt aerosols was studied using size-segregated inorganic ions data collected at a Canadian rural coastal site during a summer (June 29-July 15, 2002) and a fall campaign (October 25 - November 15, 2002). Three samples collected in the fall campaign had high concentrations of sea-salt and ammoniated sulfate and nitrate aerosols and were used to study the relative importance of different chemical reactions contributing to the depletion. The percentage depletion (Cl -depletion(%)) increased substantially with decreasing particle size (up to 86% for particles in the size range of 1.0-3.1 μm). For particles >6.2 μm, the observed NO 3- was responsible for all the depleted Cl -; but less than a quarter of the depletion was explained by the HCl-released reaction between NaCl and HNO 3; the rest of the depletion was likely due to the non-HCl-released reactions, e.g., between NaCl and N 2O 5. For particles in the size range of 3.1-6.2 μm, the NO 3- was responsible for nearly 80-90% of all the depleted Cl - via HCl-released and/or non-HCl-released reactions; the remaining depletion was likely due to the reactions releasing Cl 2, HOCl, etc. Particles >3.1 μm were mostly neutral acidity while a portion of particles at 1.0-3.1 μm was acidic. SO 42- was only responsible for Cl -depletion(%) in acidic particles at 1.0-3.1 μm and the highest Cl -depletion(%) was observed in acidic particles of this size range.

  10. Behavioral patterns and lesion sites associated with impaired processing of lexical and conceptual knowledge of actions.

    PubMed

    Kemmerer, David; Rudrauf, David; Manzel, Ken; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    To further investigate the neural substrates of lexical and conceptual knowledge of actions, we administered a battery of six tasks to 226 brain-damaged patients with widely distributed lesions in the left and right cerebral hemispheres. The tasks probed lexical and conceptual knowledge of actions in a variety of verbal and non-verbal ways, including naming, word-picture matching, attribute judgments involving both words and pictures, and associative comparisons involving both words and pictures. Of the 226 patients who were studied, 61 failed one or more of the six tasks, with four patients being impaired on the entire battery, and varied numbers of patients being impaired on varied combinations of tasks. Overall, the 61 patients manifested a complex array of associations and dissociations across the six tasks. The lesion sites of 147 of the 226 patients were also investigated, using formal methods for lesion-deficit statistical mapping and power analysis of lesion overlap maps. Significant effects for all six tasks were found in the following left-hemisphere regions: the inferior frontal gyrus; the ventral precentral gyrus, extending superiorly into what are likely to be hand-related primary motor and premotor areas; and the anterior insula. In addition, significant effects for 4-5 tasks were found in not only the regions just mentioned, but also in several other left-hemisphere areas: the ventral postcentral gyrus; the supramarginal gyrus; and the posterior middle temporal gyrus. These results converge with previous research on the neural underpinnings of action words and concepts. However, the current study goes considerably beyond most previous investigations by providing extensive behavioral and lesion data for an unusually large and diverse sample of brain-damaged patients, and by incorporating multiple measures of verb comprehension. Regarding theoretical implications, the study provides new support for the Embodied Cognition Framework, which maintains that

  11. DEPLOYMENT OF INNOVATIVE CHARACTERIZATION TECHNOLOGIES AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MARSSIM PROCESS AT RADIOLOGICALLY CONTAMINATED SITES.

    SciTech Connect

    KALB,P.D.; MILIAN,L.; LUCKETT,L.; WATTERS,D.; MILLER,K.M.; GOGOLAK,C.

    2001-05-01

    The success of this Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) project is measured on several levels. First, the deployment of this innovative approach using in situ characterization, portable field laboratory measurements, and implementation of MARSSIM was successfully established for all three phases of D and D characterization, i.e., pre-job scoping, on-going disposition of waste, and final status surveys upon completion of the activity. Unlike traditional D and D projects, since the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor Decommissioning Project (BGRR-DP) is operating on an accelerated schedule, much of the work is being carried out simultaneously. Rather than complete a full characterization of the facility before D and D work begins, specific removal actions require characterization as the activity progresses. Thus, the need for rapid and cost-effective techniques for characterization is heightened. Secondly, since the approach used for this ASTD project was not thoroughly proven prior to deployment, a large effort was devoted to demonstrating technical comparability to project managers, regulators and stakeholders. During the initial phases, large numbers of replicate samples were taken and analyzed by conventional baseline techniques to ensure that BGRR-DP quality assurance standards were met. ASTD project staff prepared comparisons of data gathered using ISOCS and BetaScint with traditional laboratory methods and presented this information to BGRR-DP staff and regulators from EPA Region II, NYS Department of Environmental Conservation, and the Suffolk County Board of Health. As the results of comparability evaluations became available, approval for these methods was received and the techniques associated with in situ characterization, portable field laboratory measurements, and implementation of MARSSIM were gradually integrated into BGRR-DP procedures.

  12. Dust Seds And Processing Near Sites Of High Mass Star Formation In The LMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hony, Sacha; Galliano, F.; Madden, S. M.; SAGE Consortium

    2010-01-01

    We present a study into the properties of the dust and complex molecules in and around selected HII regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The analysis is based on the Spitzer program SAGE (Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution). Because of the lower metallicity environment, dust shielding is reduced and the effects of the ultraviolet radiation carry further than in the Milky way. Because of this these HII regions may better represent star forming regions in the more distant universe. We present the near- to far-IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs) as a function of radial distance to the center of the several clusters. The regions span a wide range in luminosities. We have developed a self consistent spherical clumpy dust radiative transfer model to interpret the observed trends. The model treats the detailed dust optical properties and transient grain heating as well as IR absorption and reprocession. This allows us to interpret the observed variations in SED in terms of the clumpiness, varying incident radiation-field and changing abundances of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), transiently heated very small grains (VSG) to submicron-sized grains in thermal equilibrium, i.e. in terms of the varying grain-size distribution. We find that the LMC massive star forming sites are typified by a several parsec sized void and clumpiness and PAH abundance which increases with distance from the central illuminating source. The inner void may be the result of massive star winds. The observed flat mid-IR SEDs require a grain-size distribution skewed to a higher fraction of smaller grains compared to the Milky Way dust.

  13. Sites of Synthesis and Processing of Ribosomal RNA Precursors within the Nucleolus of Urechis caupo Eggs*

    PubMed Central

    Das, Nirmal K.; Micou-Eastwood, Julie; Ramamurthy, Gollu; Alfert, Max

    1970-01-01

    Nucleoli from unfertilized Urechis eggs, labeled with tritiated RNA precursors, have been isolated for simultaneous autoradiographic localization and biochemical analysis of labeled RNA. The production of the ribosomal RNA precursor (38S) and its first cleavage occur at the fibrillar core region of the nucleolus. The products, predominantly 30S RNA, are then rapidly transported and stored in the granular cortex of the nucleolus. The formation of the nucleolar cortex, therefore, seems to result from an accumulation of partially processed ribosomal RNA with its associated proteins. Images PMID:5289033

  14. Studies on the rain scavenging process of tritium in a tropical site in India.

    PubMed

    Nankar, D P; Patra, A K; Ravi, P M; Joshi, C P; Hegde, A G; Sarkar, P K

    2012-02-01

    This study presents the results of one of the first systematic experiments on tritium ((3)H) concentrations in ground level air against that in rainwater near a pressurized heavy water reactor in a tropical region. The samples were collected over the rainy season of three years (2007, 2008 and 2010). For this study, 31 data sets were collected and interpreted based on the theoretical information available in the literature. The specific activity ratio of (3)H between rainwater and air moisture at ground level was calculated for each data set. The average specific activity ratio was found to be 1.96 ± 2.72. A correlation (r = 0.82, p < 0.001) was observed between the total rain hours in a day and the rainwater (3)H activity. Higher rain duration with slower rain rate yielded higher (3)H concentrations as more time was available for the scavenging/wash out process to take effect together with lower dilution. The present data also suggested the need to further investigate the influence of raindrop distribution and other local meteorological parameters on the (3)H wash out process. An attempt was also made to predict the (3)H concentration in air moisture samples using a Gaussian plume dispersion model and the values were compared with the measured (3)H activity. The measured values were generally lower than the predictions. PMID:22115432

  15. Processing of Surface-NMR Data From Sites With High Noise Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behroozmand, A. A.; Larsen, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    The applicability of surface NMR in investigations of groundwater is often limited by high noise levels in many areas of interest. In this paper we present measurements from a high noise level area in Ristrup, Denmark. Standard multichannel filtering techniques for noise reduction are inadequate for several data sets acquired in this area and surface-NMR signals cannot be resolved from the acquired data. With a careful assessment of the frequency content of the data, we show how a model-based approach can be used to subtract two harmonic noise components from the data and reliable surface-NMR data can be extracted from the noise-reduced data. Moreover, we show the impact of the proposed processing approaches on the inversion results and also present an example where the proposed methodology allows us to reveal and avoid an otherwise overlooked contamination of the reference coil signals with surface-NMR signal. The results of this study show that a careful processing of the data makes it possible to extract surface-NMR data in more places of interest.

  16. Characterization of a site contaminated by waste from a monazite ore processing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lauria, D.C.; Reis, V.R.; Nouailhetas, Y.; Godoy, J.M.; Agudo, E.G.

    1993-12-31

    A radiological survey of an area of 60,000 m{sup 2}, previously occupied by the Usina de Interlagos (USIN), a branch of the Brazilian State Monazite Company was conducted. External exposure gamma rates, surface soil, subsurface soil and groundwater concentration of the long-life radionuclides from the uranium and thorium decay chain were determined. Two areas, one of 4,800 m{sup 2} and other of 1,750 m{sup 2}, were found to be contaminated with different radioactive materials, originating from the chemical and physical processing of the monazite sand. {sup 228}Ra is present up to 2.2 {times} 10{sup 4} Bq/kg in soil and 93 Bq/l in groundwater. Based on future scenarios, an allowable residual contamination level of {sup 232}Th and {sup 226}Ra of around 200 Bq/kg was derived. Clean-up actions are suggested.

  17. Using GIS and Fuzzy Logic for Wastewater Treatment Processes Site Selection: The Case of Rodopi Prefecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostopoulos, K. P.; Vavatsikos, A. P.

    2007-12-01

    We perform a GIS-based land-use suitability analysis aiming to identify appropriate locations for implementing natural systems for the wastewater treatment in the Rodopi Prefecture-Northeast Greece. The analysis, implemented in a Spatial Decision Support System that combines GIS and the fuzzy extension of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP), is carried out in three steps. First, threshold values for the criterion maps are decided and the mask of the candidate locations for the final analysis is constructed. Second, the decision criteria are selected and FAHP is used in order to derive weights of preference among them. Finally, the criterion maps are weighted and standardized in order to calculate the overall suitability index for the final classification.

  18. Pulsed-Neutron-Gamma (PNG) saturation monitoring at the Ketzin pilot site considering displacement and evaporation/precipitation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Gunther; Henninges, Jan

    2013-04-01

    monitoring. Within the framework of the EU project CO2CARE, funded by the European Commission (FP7) and by industrial partners, an extended saturation model is developed. This extended saturation model, including both the displacement and evaporation/precipitation process, is applied to the PNG monitoring data of the injection well at the Ketzin pilot site. For the PNG monitoring data of the observation wells the conventional saturation model based on the displacement process is applied, because the arriving CO2 is already water saturated and no water can be evaporated anymore. The methodological background of the extended saturation model and results of the PNG saturation monitoring program at the Ketzin pilot site are presented.

  19. A novel approach for determination of fundamental physical transport processes in natural channel design restoration sites with river steering structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, J.; Endreny, T. A.; Becker, J. F.; Kroll, C.

    2012-12-01

    River restoration projects in the United States are frequently proposed and constructed with the intention of improving water quality, yet relatively little evidence exists regarding the success of these efforts. Many projects use an approach known as natural channel design (NCD), and include river steering structures. Prior assessment of water quality improvements within NCD sites has involved hydrologic retention modeling using a non-reactive tracer, with the goal of separately identifying hyporheic and surface transient storage (STS). A comparative approach involving NCD and non-NCD sites used by the authors yielded mixed results: although physically-based assessments of STS profiles in many NCD sites support larger STS zones than non-NCD sites, these differences are not apparent when examining common transient storage metrics. Inverse modeling within nine NCD sites reveals additional obstacles, including generation of spurious lateral inflow/outflow values, limited detection of hyporheic processes due to strong surface transient storage, shear and Taylor dispersion, and divergent temporal patterns of solute flux over channel cross sections bounding structures. To overcome the obstacles encountered with 1D inverse modeling, data is presented from a new approach used in NCD reaches. This approach involves deriving a mass flux signature via pairing velocity and channel geometry with multiple electrical conductivity (EC) loggers deployed laterally at control cross sections (CCS). These CCS bound sub-reach segments (15 total across four NCD reaches) that include river steering structures and intermediate geomorphic features. Velocity and geometry measurements yield discharge values surrounding each EC logger which are used to weight a composite mass flux breakthrough curve above, within, and below each segment. Composite mass flux signatures reflect exchange processes that are not fully integrated laterally immediately below structures, and can be analyzed via

  20. Analytical study of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in leachate treatment process of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Hiroshi; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Nobutoshi

    2007-01-01

    Influent and processed water were sampled at different points in the leachate treatment facilities of five municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill sites. Then, the concentrations of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), namely, alkylphenols (APs), bisphenol A (BPA), phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and organotin compounds (OTs), in the treated leachate samples were determined and the behavior of the EDCs in the treatment processes was discussed. The concentrations of APs were as low as those in surface waters, and no OTs were detected (detection limit: 0.01 microg/L). Meanwhile, diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), which was the most abundant of the four substances measured as PAEs, and BPA were found in all of the influent samples. BPA was considerably degraded by aeration, except when the water temperature was low and the total organic carbon (TOC) was high. By contrast, aeration, biological treatment, and coagulation/sedimentation removed only a small amount of DEHP. PMID:17585294

  1. Leaching tendencies of uranium and regulated trace metals from the Hanford Site 300 Area North Process Pond sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R.J.; LeGore, V.L.; Mattigod, S.V.

    1994-09-01

    Data are presented that address the leaching tendencies and the total chemical composition of metals in feed materials and soil-washed fines generated by Alternative Remediation Technology, Inc. during a pilot-scale soil physical separation test performed at the 300 Area North Process Pond (Facility 316-2) on the Hanford Site in the spring of 1994. Four 300 Area North Process Pond sediments and one sediment from outside the pond`s fenced area were leach-tested using the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) and other modified US Environmental Protection Agency and American Society for Testing and Materials protocols. Finally, leachate from the most contaminated sediment was used to load the Hanford sediment obtained outside the facility to evaluate the potential for contaminant adsorption onto natural sediments. The sediment characterization, leach, and adsorption results will be used in the evaluation of remedial alternatives in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study.

  2. Analysis of cobbly soils for cobbles-to-fines corrections to radionuclide concentrations at the New Rifle, Colorado, processing site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    A contamination depth and cobbly soil characterization study was performed in November and December 1993 at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Projects`s New Rifle, Colorado, processing site. This study was initiated due to a concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) clarifying that the allowable residual contamination in soil should be averaged over the total mass of the soil volume, including cobbles and gravels (i.e., bulk concentration). The New Rifle processing site has a high percentage of cobbles and gravels underlying the pile and other contaminated areas, which preliminary excavation designs have identified for removal and disposal. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative mass percentage and radionuclide concentrations of cobbles and gravels in order to determine the bulk contamination concentrations, revise the underlying excavation design depths, and improve verification methods. Another important goal of the study was to acquire more accurate contamination depth data (profile) for the subpile material. In summary, this recharacterization study will probably reduce the volume of material for excavation/disposal by several hundred thousand cubic yards and significantly reduce the amount of ground water expected to be pumped out of the excavation during cleanup.

  3. Fugitive dust emission source profiles and assessment of selected control strategies for particulate matter at gravel processing sites in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chang-Tang; Chang, Yu-Min; Lin, Wen-Yinn; Wu, Ming-Ching

    2010-10-01

    Particles emitted from gravel processing sites are one contributor to worsening air quality in Taiwan. Major pollution sources at gravel processing sites include gravel and sand piles, unpaved roads, material crushers, and bare ground. This study analyzed fugitive dust emission characteristics at each pollution source using several types of particle samplers, including total suspended particulates (TSP), suspended particulate (PM10), fine suspended particulate (PM2.5), particulate sizer, and dust-fall collectors. Furthermore, silt content and moisture in the gravel were measured to develop particulate emission factors. The results showed that TSP (< 100 microm) concentrations at the boundary of gravel sites ranged from 280 to 1290 microg/m3, which clearly exceeds the Taiwan hourly air quality standard of 500 microg/m3. Moreover, PM10 concentrations, ranging from 135 to 550 microg/m3, were also above the daily air quality standard of 125 microg/m3 and approximately 1.2 and 1.5 times the PM2.5 concentrations, ranging from 105 to 470 microg/m3. The size distribution analysis reveals that mass mean diameter and geometric standard deviation ranged from 3.2 to 5.7 microm and from 2.82 to 5.51, respectively. In this study, spraying surfactant was the most effective control strategy to abate windblown dust from unpaved roads, having a control efficiency of approximately 93%, which is significantly higher than using paved road strategies with a control efficiency of approximately 45%. For paved roads, wet suppression provided the best dust control efficiencies ranging from 50 to 83%. Re-vegetation of disturbed ground had dust control efficiencies ranging from 48 to 64%. PMID:21090554

  4. Ultrafast Nanocrystals Decorated Micromotors for On-Site Dynamic Chemical Processes.

    PubMed

    Jurado-Sánchez, B; Wang, J; Escarpa, A

    2016-08-01

    CdS-polyaniline-Pt and ZnS-polyaniline-Pt micromotors have been synthesized and characterized. The nanocrystals are generated "in situ" during the template electrosynthesis of the micromotors while being simultaneously trapped in the polymeric network, generating a hybrid structure. The presence of nanocrystal "edges" in the inner polyaniline layer result in a rough Pt catalytic surface and enhanced electron transfer for highly efficient bubble propulsion at remarkable speeds of over 2500 μm/s. The incorporation of CdS and ZnS nanocrystals impart several attractive functions, including cation-exchange based chemical transformation capabilities and enhanced photocatalytic performance. The remarkable ion-exchange properties of ZnS-polyaniline (PANI)-Pt micromotors are illustrated for the cation exchange of heavy metals cations. The superior photocatalytic performance of CdS-PANI-Pt micromotors is used for the enhanced photocatalytic oxidation of bisphenol A. Such self-propelled micromotors act as highly efficient dynamic platforms that offer significantly shorter and more efficient processes as compared with common static operations. The attractive properties of these micromotors will pave the way for diverse sensing, decontamination, energy generation, or electronic applications. PMID:27387459

  5. Hydrology of a nuclear-processing plant site, Rocky Flats, Jefferson County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurr, R. Theodore

    1976-01-01

    Accidental releases of contaminants resulting from the operation of the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration's nuclear-processing and recovery plant located on Rocky Flats will move at different rates through -different parts of the hydrologic system. Rates of movement are dependent upon the magnitude of the accidental release and the hydrologic conditions at the time of the release. For example, during wet periods, a contaminant resulting from a 5,000-gallon (19,000-1itre) release on the land surface would enter the ground-water system in about 2 to 12 hours. Ground-water flow in the Rocky Flats Alluvium might move the contaminant eastward at a rate of about 3 to 11 feet (0.9 to 3.4 metres) per day, if it remains dissolved. Maximum time to a point of discharge would be about 3 years; minimum time could be a few days. A contaminant entering a stream would then move at a rate of about 60 feet (18 metres) per minute under pool-and-riffle conditions. The rate of movement might be about 420 feet (128 metres) per minute under open-channel-flow conditions following intense thunderstorms.

  6. On-site installation and shielding of a mobile electron accelerator for radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catana, Dumitru; Panaitescu, Julian; Axinescu, Silviu; Manolache, Dumitru; Matei, Constantin; Corcodel, Calin; Ulmeanu, Magdalena; Bestea, Virgil

    1995-05-01

    The development of radiation processing of some bulk products, e.g. grains or potatoes, would be sustained if the irradiation had been carried out at the place of storage, i.e. silo. A promising solution is proposed consisting of a mobile electron accelerator, installed on a couple of trucks and traveling from one customer to another. The energy of the accelerated electrons was chosen at 5 MeV, with 10 to 50 kW beam power. The irradiation is possible either with electrons or with bremsstrahlung. A major problem of the above solution is the provision of adequate shielding at the customer, with a minimum investment cost. Plans for a bunker are presented, which houses the truck carrying the radiation head. The beam is vertical downwards, through the truck floor, through a transport pipe and a scanning horn. The irradiation takes place in a pit, where the products are transported through a belt. The belt path is so chosen as to minimize openings in the shielding. Shielding calculations are presented supposing a working regime with 5 MeV bremsstrahlung. Leakage and scattered radiation are taken into account.

  7. Assessment of aircraft impact possibilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant on the INEL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, L.G.; Mines, J.M.; Webb, B.B.

    1993-08-01

    The concern of this study was the possibility of an aircraft collision with facilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Two sets of data were combined in calculating the probability of this event. The first was from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission data is used to check the adequacy of nuclear power plant location relative to aircraft crashes. For neighboring airport scenarios, the accepted rate unit is fatal crashes per square mile. For in-flight crash scenarios, a total loss of control crash rate (where the pilot was completely out of control) is used for evaluating nuclear reactors. Numbers were given per linear mile of flight. The other set of data was obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board`s annual review. These data points show higher crash frequencies because crashes in which the pilot maintained some control have not been excluded. By including this data set, the evaluation gained two advantages. First, the data are separated by type of aircraft, which makes frequencies for specific flight paths more meaningful. Second, the data are given year by year over a ten-year time span. Therefore, it is possible to gain a sense of the variability in crash frequencies from one year to another.

  8. Biochemical and Cell Biological Properties of the Human Prohormone Convertase 1/3 Ser357Gly Mutation: A PC1/3 Hypermorph

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Elias H.; Peinado, Juan R.; Martín, Martín G.

    2014-01-01

    Satiety and appetite signaling are accomplished by circulating peptide hormones. These peptide hormones require processing from larger precursors to become bioactive, often by the proprotein convertase 1/3 (PC1/3). Several subcellular maturation steps are necessary for PC1/3 to achieve its optimal enzymatic activity. Certain PC1/3 variants found in the general population slightly attenuate its enzymatic activity and are associated with obesity and diabetes. However, mutations that increase PC1/3 activity and/or affect its specificity could also have physiological consequences. We here present data showing that the known human Ser357Gly PC1/3 mutant (PC1/3S357G) represents a PC1/3 hypermorph. Conditioned media from human embryonic kidney-293 cells transfected with PC1/3WT and PC1/3S357G were collected and enzymatic activity characterized. PC1/3S357G exhibited a lower calcium dependence; a higher pH optimum (neutral); and a higher resistance to peptide inhibitors than the wild-type enzyme. PC1/3S357G exhibited increased cleavage to the C-terminally truncated form, and kinetic parameters of the full-length and truncated mutant enzymes were also altered. Lastly, the S357G mutation broadened the specificity of the enzyme; we detected PC2-like specificity on the substrate proCART, the precursor of the cocaine- and amphetamine regulated transcript neuropeptide known to be associated with obesity. The production of another anorexigenic peptide normally synthesized only by PC2, αMSH, was increased when proopiomelanocortin was coexpressed with PC1/3S357G. Considering the aberrant enzymatic profile of PC1/3S357G, we hypothesize that this enzyme possesses unusual processing activity that may significantly change the profile of circulating peptide hormones. PMID:24932808

  9. Fluid expulsion sites on the Cascadia accretionary prism: mapping diagenetic deposits with processed GLORIA imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carson, Bobb; Seke, Erol; Paskevich, Valerie F.; Holmes, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

     Point-discharge fluid expulsion on accretionary prisms is commonly indicated by diagenetic deposition of calcium carbonate cements and gas hydrates in near-surface (<10 m below seafloor; mbsf) hemipelagic sediment. The contrasting clastic and diagenetic lithologies should be apparent in side scan images. However, sonar also responds to variations in bottom slope, so unprocessed images mix topographic and lithologic information. We have processed GLORIA imagery from the Oregon continental margin to remove topographic effects. A synthetic side scan image was created initially from Sea Beam bathymetric data and then was subtracted iteratively from the original GLORIA data until topographic features disappeared. The residual image contains high-amplitude backscattering that we attribute to diagenetic deposits associated with fluid discharge, based on submersible mapping, Ocean Drilling Program drilling, and collected samples. Diagenetic deposits are concentrated (1) near an out-of-sequence thrust fault on the second ridge landward of the base of the continental slope, (2) along zones characterized by deep-seated strikeslip faults that cut transversely across the margin, and (3) in undeformed Cascadia Basin deposits which overlie incipient thrust faults seaward of the toe of the prism. There is no evidence of diagenetic deposition associated with the frontal thrust that rises from the dècollement. If the dècollement is an important aquifer, apparently the fluids are passed either to the strike-slip faults which intersect the dècollement or to the incipient faults in Cascadia Basin for expulsion. Diagenetic deposits seaward of the prism toe probably consist dominantly of gas hydrates

  10. Advanced technologies for maintenance of electrical systems and equipment at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Husler, R.O.; Weir, T.J.

    1991-12-31

    An enhanced maintenance program is being established to characterize and monitor cables, components, and process response at the Savannah River Site, Defense Waste Processing Facility. This facility was designed and constructed to immobilize the radioactive waste currently stored in underground storage tanks and is expected to begin operation in 1993. The plant is initiating the program to baseline and monitor instrument and control (I&C) and electrical equipment, remote process equipment, embedded instrument and control cables, and in-cell jumper cables used in the facility. This program is based on the electronic characterization and diagnostic (ECAD) system which was modified to include process response analysis and to meet rigid Department of Energy equipment requirements. The system consists of computer-automated, state-of-the-art electronics. The data that are gathered are stored in a computerized database for analysis, trending, and troubleshooting. It is anticipated that the data which are gathered and trended will aid in life extension for the facility.

  11. Modeling two-rate adsorption kinetics: Two-site, two-species, bilayer and rearrangement adsorption processes.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Sumit; Tabor, Rico F

    2016-08-15

    The adsorption kinetics of many systems show apparent two-rate processes, where there appears to be resolved fast and slow adsorption steps. Such non-standard adsorption processes cannot be accounted for by conventional modeling methods, motivating new approaches. In this work, we present four different models that can account for two-rate adsorption and are based upon physically realistic processes - two adsorbing species, two surface sites having different energies, bilayer formation and molecular rearrangement modes. Each model is tested using a range of conditions, and the characteristic behavior is explored and compared. In these models, the effects of mass transport and bulk concentration are also accounted for, making them applicable in systems which are transport-limited or attachment-limited, or intermediate between the two. The applicability of these models is demonstrated by fitting exemplar experimental data for each of the four models, selecting the model on the basis of the known physical behavior of the adsorption kinetics. These models can be applied in a wide range of systems, from stagnant adsorption in large volume water treatment to highly dynamic flow conditions relevant to printing, coating and processing applications. PMID:27209397

  12. Hydrochemical field investigations at a potential CO2 storage site - analysis of natural salinisation processes as an indicator for deep reaching flow processes in Eastern Brandenburg (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endler, Ricarda; Jahnke, Christoph; Ludwig, Oliver

    2013-04-01

    The storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers may cause an upward brine migration as a result of the pressure increase and brine displacement in the reservoir. With regard to a possible endangerment for regional freshwater resources the understanding of natural and induced migration processes of brines is therefore of great importance for the evaluation of potential storage sites. Within the framework of the BMBF project 'brine - CO2 storage in Eastern Brandenburg' (Germany), hydrochemical investigations were carried out to get an idea of the sources of salinisation, the migration pathways and the current processes and interactions between salt- and freshwater aquifers above a potential CO2 storage reservoir. This reservoir is located at a salt anticline structure in a Lower Triassic sandstone formation at a depth of about 1000 m. Since the 19th century freshwater salinisation and salinised soils in part with populations of halophytes were observed in Brandenburg. Both, fault zones in the Mesozoic/Tertiary and Pleistocene erosion processes led locally to a leakage of the Oligocene Rupelian clay formation, the most important confining layer between Mesozoic saltwater and Cenozoic freshwater aquifers, and thus potential migration pathways for brines. Possible sources for the salinisation are the leaching of deep Permian salt structures as well as in situ brackish or marine waters from Tertiary and Mesozoic sediments. Still unclear is especially the timescale of the salinisation processes in the shallow aquifers. To answer these questions, extensive groundwater samples from Pleistocene, Tertiary and Mesozoic aquifers down to depths of 450 m were taken in an investigation area of 50 x 50 km2 surrounding the potential storage site. In addition, deep thermal waters in Brandenburg in depths down to 1700 m were sampled to have comparable data for the storage reservoir and the deep caprock formations. Field parameters and a wide range of hydrochemical indicators (anions

  13. Environmental assessment on a soil washing process of a Pb-contaminated shooting range site: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hyung; Hwang, Bo-Ram; Moon, Deok-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Seok; Baek, Kitae

    2013-12-01

    In this study, an environmental assessment on a soil washing process for the remediation of a Pb-contaminated shooting range site was conducted, using a green and sustainable remediation tool, i.e., SiteWise ver. 2, based on data relating specifically to the actual remediation project. The entire soil washing process was classified into four major stages, consisting of soil excavation (stage I), physical separation (stage II), acid-based (0.2 N HCl) chemical extraction (stage III), and wastewater treatment (stage IV). Environmental footprints, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy consumption, water consumption, and critical air pollutant productions such as PM10, NO x , and SO x , were calculated, and the relative contribution of each stage was analyzed in the environmental assessment. In stage I, the relative contribution of the PM10 emissions was 55.3 % because the soil excavation emitted the fine particles. In stage II, the relative contribution of NO x and SO x emissions was 42.5 and 52.5 %, respectively, which resulted from electricity consumption for the operation of the separator. Stage III was the main contributing factor to 63.1 % of the GHG emissions, 67.5 % of total energy used, and 37.4 % of water consumptions. The relatively high contribution of stage III comes from use of consumable chemicals such as HCl and water-based extraction processes. In stage IV, the relative contributions of GHG emissions, total energy used, and NO x and SO x emissions were 23.2, 19.4, 19.5, and 25.3 %, respectively, which were caused by chemical and electricity demands for system operation. In conclusion, consumable chemicals such as HCl and NaOH, electric energy consumption for system operation, and equipment use for soil excavation were determined to be the major sources of environmental pollution to occur during the soil washing process. Especially, the acid-based chemical extraction process should be avoided in order to improve the sustainability of soil

  14. The consideration of geological uncertainty in the siting process for a Geological Disposal Facility for radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathers, Steve; McEvoy, Fiona; Shaw, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Any decision about the site of a Geological Disposal Facility at depth for medium to high level radioactive waste is based on a safety case which in turn is based on an understanding of the geological environment which enables, for example, understanding groundwater flows and groundwater chemical composition. Because the information on which geological understanding is based cannot be fully understood, it is important to ensure that: i. Inferences are made from data in a way that is consistent with the data. ii. The uncertainty in the inferred information is described, quantitatively where this is appropriate. Despite these uncertainties decisions can and must be made, and so the implications of the uncertainty need to be understood and quantified. To achieve this it is important to ensure that: i. An understanding of how error propagates in all models and decision tools. Information which is collected to support the decision-making process may be used as input into models of various kinds to generate further information. For example, a process model may be used to predict groundwater flows, so uncertainty in the properties which are input to the model (e.g. on rock porosity and structure) will give rise to uncertainty in the model predictions. Understanding how this happens is called the analysis of error propagation. It is important that there is an understanding of how error propagates in all models and decision tools, and therefore knowledge of how much uncertainty remains in the process at any stage. As successive phases of data collection take place the analysis of error propagation shows how the uncertainty in key model outputs is gradually reduced. ii. The implications of all uncertainties can be traced through the process. A clear analysis of the decision-making process is necessary so that the implications of all uncertainties can be traced through the process. This means that, when a final decision is made, one can state with a high level of confidence

  15. Processing capabilties for the elimination of contaminated metal scrapyards at DOE/ORO-managed sites. [Metal smelting facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, J.E.; Williams, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Capabilities exist for reducing all the contaminated nickel, aluminum, and copper scrap to ingot form by smelting. Processing these metals at existing facilities could be completed in about 5 or 6 years. However, these metals represent only about 20% of the total metal inventories currently on hand at the DOE/ORO-managed sites. No provisions have been made for the ferrous scrap. Most of the ferrous scrap is unclassified and does not require secured storage. Also, the potential resale value of the ferrous scrap at about $100 per ton is very low in comparison. Consequently, this scrap has been allowed to accumulate. With several modifications and equipment additions, the induction melter at PGDP could begin processing ferrous scrap after its commitment to nickel and aluminum. The PGDP smelter is a retrofit installation, and annual throughput capabilities are limited. Processing of the existing ferrous scrap inventories would not be completed until the FY 1995-2000 time frame. An alternative proposal has been the installation of induction melters at the other two enrichment facilities. Conceptual design of a generic metal smelting facility is under way. The design study includes capital and operating costs for scrap preparation through ingot storage at an annual throughput of 10,000 tons per year. Facility design includes an induction melter with the capability of melting both ferrous and nonferrous metals. After three years of operation with scrapyard feed, the smelter would have excess capacity to support on-site decontamination and decomissioning projects or upgrading programs. The metal smelting facility has been proposed for FY 1984 line item funding with start-up operations in FY 1986.

  16. The Effect on the Flow Conditions of Chinese Sturgeons’ Spawning Sites in the Process of Peak Regulation between the Three Gorges Dam and Gezhou Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Guo; Minghai, Huang; Feng, Jin

    Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis Gray) is a kind of key protected fish in ChangJiang river. Recently the Three Gorges dam has run, the peak regulation process between the two dams has serious effect on the formed spawning sites. Based on the previous research results of suitable flow conditions about the spawning sites, this article builds a 2-D shallow water numerical model, calculates the flow conditions of the spawning sites in the process of peak regulation. The results show that the water depth and velocity are various and affect the spawning sites in one 24-hours process of peak regulation, as a whole, when the discharge is below 9000 m3/s and 7500 m3/s respectively, the two spawning sites will be affected seriously.

  17. Remediation of acid mine drainage at the friendship hill national historic site with a pulsed limestone bed process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibrell, P.L.; Watten, B.; Boone, T.

    2003-01-01

    A new process utilizing pulsed fluidized limestone beds was tested for the remediation of acid mine drainage at the Friendship Hill National Historic Site, in southwestern Pennsylvania. A 230 liter-per-minute treatment system was constructed and operated over a fourteen-month period from June 2000 through September 2001. Over this period of time, 50,000 metric tons of limestone were used to treat 50 million liters of water. The influent water pH was 2.5 and acidity was 1000 mg/L as CaCO3. Despite the high potential for armoring at the site, effluent pH during normal plant operation ranged from 5.7 to 7.8 and averaged 6.8. As a result of the high influent acidity, sufficient CO2 was generated and recycled to provide a net alkaline discharge with about 50 mg/L as CaCO3 alkalinity. Additions of commercial CO2 increased effluent alkalinity to as high as 300 mg/L, and could be a useful process management tool for transient high flows or acidities. Metal removal rates were 95% for aluminum (60 mg/L in influent), 50 to 90% for iron (Fe), depending on the ratio of ferrous to ferric iron, which varied seasonally (200 mg/L in influent), and <10% of manganese (Mn) (10 mg/L in influent). Ferrous iron and Mn removal was incomplete because of the high pH required for precipitation of these species. Iron removal could be improved by increased aeration following neutralization, and Mn removal could be effected by a post treatment passive settling/oxidation pond. Metal hydroxide sludges were settled in settling tanks, and then hauled from the site for aesthetic purposes. Over 450 metric tons of sludge were removed from the water over the life of the project. The dried sludge was tested by the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Protocol (TCLP) and was found to be non-hazardous. Treatment costs were $43,000 per year and $1.08 per m 3, but could be decreased to $22,000 and $0.51 per m3 by decreasing labor use and by onsite sludge handling. These results confirm the utility of the new

  18. Pilot-scale ISCO treatment of a MtBE contaminated site using a Fenton-like process.

    PubMed

    Innocenti, Ivan; Verginelli, Iason; Massetti, Felicia; Piscitelli, Daniela; Gavasci, Renato; Baciocchi, Renato

    2014-07-01

    This paper reports about a pilot-scale feasibility study of In-Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) application based on the use of stabilized hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by naturally occurring iron minerals (Fenton-like process) to a site formerly used for fuel storage and contaminated by MtBE. The stratigraphy of the site consists of a 2-3 meter backfill layer followed by a 3-4 meter low permeability layer, that confines the main aquifer, affected by a widespread MtBE groundwater contamination with concentrations up to 4000 μg/L, also with the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons. The design of the pilot-scale treatment was based on the integration of the results obtained from experimental and numerical modeling accounting for the technological and regulatory constraints existing in the site to be remediated. In particular, lab-scale batch tests allowed the selection of the most suitable operating conditions. Then, this information was implemented in a numerical software that allowed to define the injection and monitoring layout and to predict the propagation of hydrogen peroxide in groundwater. The pilot-scale field results confirmed the effective propagation of hydrogen peroxide in nearly all the target area (around 75 m(2) using 3 injection wells). As far as the MtBE removal is concerned, the ISCO application allowed us to meet the clean-up goals in an area of 60 m(2). Besides, the concentration of TBA, i.e. a potential by-product of MtBE oxidation, was actually reduced after the ISCO treatment. The results of the pilot-scale test suggest that ISCO may be a suitable option for the remediation of the groundwater plume contaminated by MtBE, providing the background data for the design and cost-estimate of the full-scale treatment. PMID:24518270

  19. Differentially Expressed Genes Distributed Over Chromosomes and Implicated in Certain Biological Processes for Site Insertion Genetically Modified Rice Kemingdao

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi; Li, Yunhe; Zhao, Jie; Chen, Xiuping; Jian, Guiliang; Peng, Yufa; Qi, Fangjun

    2012-01-01

    Release of genetically modified (GM) plants has sparked off intensive debates worldwide partly because of concerns about potential adverse unintended effects of GM plants to the agro system and the safety of foods. In this study, with the aim of revealing the molecular basis for unintended effects of a single site insertion GM Kemingdao (KMD) rice transformed with a synthetic cry1Ab gene, and bridging unintended effects of KMD rice through clues of differentially expressed genes, comparative transcriptome analyses were performed for GM KMD rice and its parent rice of Xiushui11 (XS11). The results showed that 680 differentially expressed transcripts were identified from 30-day old seedlings of GM KMD rice. The absolute majority of these changed expression transcripts dispersed and located over all rice chromosomes, and existed physical distance on chromosome from the insertion site, while only two transcripts were found to be differentially expressed within the 21 genes located within 100 kb up and down-stream of the insertion site. Pathway and biology function analyses further revealed that differentially expressed transcripts of KMD rice were involved in certain biological processes, and mainly implicated in two types of pathways. One type was pathways implicated in plant stress/defense responses, which were considerably in coordination with the reported unintended effects of KMD rice, which were more susceptible to rice diseases compared to its parent rice XS11; the other type was pathways associated with amino acids metabolism. With this clue, new unintended effects for changes in amino acids synthesis of KMD rice leaves were successfully revealed. Such that an actual case was firstly provided for identification of unintended effects in GM plants by comparative transciptome analysis. PMID:22811617

  20. Sulfates on Mars as Markers of Aqueous Processes: An Integrated Multidisciplinary Study of Minerals, Mars Analog sites and Recent Mission Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Lane, M. D.; Dyar, M. D.; Brown, A. J.; Parente, M.

    2006-01-01

    Our analyses of sulfate minerals, analog sites, and Martian spectra and spectral images is focused on characterization of the Martian surface and in particular identification of aqueous processes there.

  1. Protease recognition sites in Bet v 1a are cryptic, explaining its slow processing relevant to its allergenicity

    PubMed Central

    Freier, Regina; Dall, Elfriede; Brandstetter, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Despite a high similarity with homologous protein families, only few proteins trigger an allergic immune response with characteristic TH2 polarization. This puzzling observation is illustrated by the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1a and its hypoallergenic protein isoforms, e.g., Bet v 1d. Given the key role of proteolytic processing in antigen presentation and T cell polarization, we investigated the recognition of Bet v 1 isoforms by the relevant protease cathepsin S. We found that at moderately acidic pH values Bet v 1a bound to cathepsin S with significantly lower affinity and was more slowly cleaved than its hypoallergenic isoform Bet v 1d. Only at pH values ≤4.5 the known proteolytic cleavage sites in Bet v 1a became accessible, resulting in a strong increase in affinity towards cathepsin S. Antigen processing and class II MHC loading occurs at moderately acidic compartments where processing of Bet v 1a and Bet v 1d differs distinctly. This difference translates into low and high density class II MHC loading and subsequently in TH2 and TH1 polarization, respectively. PMID:26235974

  2. A novel fixed fibre biofilm membrane process for on-site greywater reclamation requiring no fouling control.

    PubMed

    Jabornig, Simon; Podmirseg, Sabine Marie

    2015-03-01

    On-site greywater treatment and reuse in urban areas bears the potential to reduce huge quantities of wastewater and lower freshwater shortages. Until now dissemination of small, single household applications has been rather limited as simple and high quality water producing, but also cost-effective treatment units have not been developed so far. This paper proposes a new process, based on a concurrently working hollow-fibre membrane as fixed biofilm support and filtration device. Bioreactor characteristics, influence of different aeration rates, membrane flux development, as well as structure and composition of biofilm were monitored to evaluate the performance of the tested pilot unit. The introduced process achieved international water reuse guidelines, worked soundly and could, compared to conventional micro MBR, significantly reduce energy demand (<1.4 kWh m(-3)). Fouling control by air scouring and chemical cleaning was not required once flux had stabilized. The biofilm analysis showed a porous, spongy-like structure. Microbiological investigation revealed a community of sheathed bacteria and nematodes that could play an important role in the flux stabilisation effect. In general, the study confirmed the suitability of the presented process for greywater treatment and provides valuable design data for future optimization and systematic analysis. PMID:25220525

  3. Feasibility study for the processing of Hanford Site cesium and strontium isotopic sources in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Anantatmula, R.P.; Watrous, R.A.; Nelson, J.L.; Perez, J.M.; Peters, R.D.; Peterson, M.E.

    1991-09-01

    The final environmental impact statement for the disposal of defense-related wastes at the Hanford Site (Final Environmental Impact Statement: Disposal of Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes [HDW-EIS] [DOE 1987]) states that the preferred alternative for disposal of cesium and strontium wastes at the Hanford Site will be to package and ship these wastes to the commercial high-level waste repository. The Record of Decision for this EIS states that before shipment to a geologic repository, these wastes will be packaged in accordance with repository waste acceptance criteria. However, the high cost per canister for repository disposal and uncertainty about the acceptability of overpacked capsules by the repository suggest that additional alternative means of disposal be considered. Vitrification of the cesium and strontium salts in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) has been identified as a possible alternative to overpacking. Subsequently, Westinghouse Hanford Company`s (Westinghouse Hanford) Projects Technical Support Office undertook a feasibility study to determine if any significant technical issues preclude the vitrification of the cesium and strontium salts. Based on the information presented in this report, it is considered technically feasible to blend the cesium chloride and strontium fluoride salts with neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) and/or complexant concentrate (CC) waste feedstreams, or to blend the salts with fresh frit and process the waste through the HWVP.

  4. Pre-organized structure of viral DNA at the binding-processing site of HIV-1 integrase

    PubMed Central

    Renisio, Jean-Guillaume; Cosquer, Sylvain; Cherrak, Ilham; Antri, Saïd El; Mauffret, Olivier; Fermandjian, Serge

    2005-01-01

    The integration of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA into the host cell genome is catalysed by the viral integrase (IN). The reaction consists of a 3′-processing [dinucleotide released from each 3′ end of the viral long terminal repeat (LTR)] followed by a strand transfer (insertion of the viral genome into the human chromosome). A 17 base pair oligonucleotide d(GGAAAATCTCTAGCAGT), d(ACTGCTAGAGATTTTCC) reproducing the U5-LTR extremity of viral DNA that contains the IN attachment site was analysed by NMR using the classical NOEs and scalar coupling constants in conjunction with a small set of residual dipolar coupling constants (RDCs) measured at the 13C/15N natural abundance. The combination of these two types of parameters in calculations significantly improved the DNA structure determination. The well-known features of A-tracts were clearly identified by RDCs in the first part of the molecule. The binding/cleavage site at the viral DNA end is distinguishable by a loss of regular base stacking and a distorted minor groove that can aid its specific recognition by IN. PMID:15814814

  5. CoPc and CoPcF16 on gold: Site-specific charge-transfer processes

    PubMed Central

    Petraki, Fotini; Uihlein, Johannes; Aygül, Umut; Chassé, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Summary Interface properties of cobalt(II) phthalocyanine (CoPc) and cobalt(II) hexadecafluoro-phthalocyanine (CoPcF16) to gold are investigated by photo-excited electron spectroscopies (X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) and X-ray excited Auger electron spectroscopy (XAES)). It is shown that a bidirectional charge transfer determines the interface energetics for CoPc and CoPcF16 on Au. Combined XPS and XAES measurements allow for the separation of chemical shifts based on different local charges at the considered atom caused by polarization effects. This facilitates a detailed discussion of energetic shifts of core level spectra. The data allow the discussion of site-specific charge-transfer processes. PMID:24991487

  6. Concentrations and forms of heavy metals around two ore processing sites in Katanga, Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mees, F.; Masalehdani, M. N. N.; De Putter, T.; D'Hollander, C.; Van Biezen, E.; Mujinya, B. B.; Potdevin, J. L.; Van Ranst, E.

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of heavy metals and the forms in which they occur were determined for tailings and derived deposits of two major processing sites of Cu-Co and Cu-Zn-(Pb) ores in the Katanga Copperbelt (Kipushi, Likasi). They were studied by a combination of methods, focussed on the nature of water- and EDTA-extractable compounds, the mineralogical composition of tailings and associated secondary minerals, and textural features of metal-bearing efflorescences. For the Kipushi area, sulfide minerals in tailings of decantation basins are identified as the source of extractable metals they contain, but input from an external source rather than local oxidation of substrate components is responsible for high levels of contamination in the Likasi area. Contaminated areas around Likasi are characterized by an abundance of Mg-sulfate efflorescences with high concentrations of cobalt and other metals, acting as an important vector for further dispersion of contaminants by wind and water.

  7. Spatio-temporal modelling of electrical supply systems to optimize the site planning process for the "power to mobility" technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, Florian; Zink, Roland

    2016-04-01

    The transformation of the energy sector towards decentralized renewable energies (RE) requires also storage systems to ensure security of supply. The new "Power to Mobility" (PtM) technology is one potential solution to use electrical overproduction to produce methane for i.e. gas vehicles. Motivated by these fact, the paper presents a methodology for a GIS-based temporal modelling of the power grid, to optimize the site planning process for the new PtM-technology. The modelling approach is based on a combination of the software QuantumGIS for the geographical and topological energy supply structure and OpenDSS for the net modelling. For a case study (work in progress) of the city of Straubing (Lower Bavaria) the parameters of the model are quantified. The presentation will discuss the methodology as well as the first results with a view to the application on a regional scale.

  8. Report of ground water monitoring for expansion of the golf course, Salt Lake City, Utah, Vitro Processing Site. Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Ground water elevations of the shallow unconfined aquifer have been monitored at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, Vitro Processing site, Salt Lake City, Utah, for the purposes of characterizing ground water flow conditions and evaluating the effects of irrigation of the golf driving range. Data collected, to date, show that the water table reached its highest level for the year during March and April 1995. From May through July 1995, the water table elevations decreased in most monitor wells due to less precipitation and higher evapotranspiration. Review and evaluation of collected data suggest that irrigation of the golf driving range will have negligible effects on water levels and ground water flow patterns if rates of irrigation do not significantly exceed future rates of evapotranspiration.

  9. Multivariate optimization of formulation and process variables influencing physico-mechanical characteristics of site-specific release isoniazid pellets.

    PubMed

    Pund, Swati; Joshi, Amita; Vasu, Kamala; Nivsarkar, Manish; Shishoo, Chamanlal

    2010-03-30

    In the present study, isoniazid was formulated as site-specific release pellets with high drug loading (65%, w/w) using extrusion-spheronization followed by aqueous coating of Sureteric (35% weight gain). A statistical experimental strategy was developed to optimize simultaneously the effect of the two formulation variables and one process variable on the critical physico-mechanical properties of the core pellets of isoniazid. Amount of granulating fluid and amount of binder were selected as formulation variables and spheronization speed as a process variable. A 2(3) full factorial experimental design was employed for the present study. Pellets were characterized for physico-mechanical properties viz. usable yield, pellet size, pellips, porosity, abrasion resistance, mechanical crushing force, residual moisture and dissolution efficiency. Graphical and mathematical analysis of the results allowed the identification and quantification of the formulation and process variables active on the selected responses. A polynomial equation fitted to the data was used to predict the responses in the optimal region. The optimum formulation and process parameters were found to be 44.24% (w/w) of granulating fluid, 2.13% (w/w) of binder and spheronization speed of 1000rpm. Optimized formulation showed usable yield 84.95%, particle size 1021.32microm, pellips 0.945, porosity 46.11%, and abrasion resistance 0.485%. However, mechanical crushing force, residual moisture and dissolution efficiency were not significantly affected by the selected independent variables. These results demonstrate the importance of, amount of water, binder and spheronization speed, on physico-mechanical characteristics of the isoniazid core pellets with high drug loading. PMID:20035851

  10. Type Ia Supernovae as Sites of the p-process: Two-dimensional Models Coupled to Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travaglio, C.; Röpke, F. K.; Gallino, R.; Hillebrandt, W.

    2011-10-01

    Beyond Fe, there is a class of 35 proton-rich nuclides, between 74Se and 196Hg, called p-nuclei. They are bypassed by the s and r neutron capture processes and are typically 10-1000 times less abundant than the s- and/or r-isotopes in the solar system. The bulk of p-isotopes is created in the "gamma processes" by sequences of photodisintegrations and beta decays in explosive conditions in both core collapse supernovae (SNe II) and in Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). SNe II contribute to the production of p-nuclei through explosive neon and oxygen burning. However, the major problem in SN II ejecta is a general underproduction of the light p-nuclei for A < 120. We explore SNe Ia as p-process sites in the framework of a two-dimensional SN Ia delayed detonation model as well as pure deflagration models. The white dwarf precursor is assumed to have reached the Chandrasekhar mass in a binary system by mass accretion from a giant/main-sequence companion. We use enhanced s-seed distributions, with seeds directly obtained from a sequence of thermal pulse instabilities both in the asymptotic giant branch phase and in the accreted material. We apply the tracer-particle method to reconstruct the nucleosynthesis by the thermal histories of Lagrangian particles, passively advected in the hydrodynamic calculations. For each particle, we follow the explosive nucleosynthesis with a detailed nuclear reaction network for all isotopes up to 209Bi. We select tracers within the typical temperature range for p-process production, (1.5-3.7) × 109 K, and analyze in detail their behavior, exploring the influence of different s-process distributions on the p-process nucleosynthesis. In addition, we discuss the sensitivity of p-process production to parameters of the explosion mechanism, taking into account the consequences on Fe and alpha elements. We find that SNe Ia can produce a large amount of p-nuclei, both the light p-nuclei below A = 120 and the heavy-p nuclei, at quite flat average

  11. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE AS SITES OF THE p-PROCESS: TWO-DIMENSIONAL MODELS COUPLED TO NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Travaglio, C.; Gallino, R.; Roepke, F. K.; Hillebrandt, W. E-mail: claudia.travaglio@b2fh.org

    2011-10-01

    Beyond Fe, there is a class of 35 proton-rich nuclides, between {sup 74}Se and {sup 196}Hg, called p-nuclei. They are bypassed by the s and r neutron capture processes and are typically 10-1000 times less abundant than the s- and/or r-isotopes in the solar system. The bulk of p-isotopes is created in the 'gamma processes' by sequences of photodisintegrations and beta decays in explosive conditions in both core collapse supernovae (SNe II) and in Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). SNe II contribute to the production of p-nuclei through explosive neon and oxygen burning. However, the major problem in SN II ejecta is a general underproduction of the light p-nuclei for A < 120. We explore SNe Ia as p-process sites in the framework of a two-dimensional SN Ia delayed detonation model as well as pure deflagration models. The white dwarf precursor is assumed to have reached the Chandrasekhar mass in a binary system by mass accretion from a giant/main-sequence companion. We use enhanced s-seed distributions, with seeds directly obtained from a sequence of thermal pulse instabilities both in the asymptotic giant branch phase and in the accreted material. We apply the tracer-particle method to reconstruct the nucleosynthesis by the thermal histories of Lagrangian particles, passively advected in the hydrodynamic calculations. For each particle, we follow the explosive nucleosynthesis with a detailed nuclear reaction network for all isotopes up to {sup 209}Bi. We select tracers within the typical temperature range for p-process production, (1.5-3.7) x 10{sup 9} K, and analyze in detail their behavior, exploring the influence of different s-process distributions on the p-process nucleosynthesis. In addition, we discuss the sensitivity of p-process production to parameters of the explosion mechanism, taking into account the consequences on Fe and alpha elements. We find that SNe Ia can produce a large amount of p-nuclei, both the light p-nuclei below A = 120 and the heavy-p nuclei, at

  12. Salt Processing Through Ion Exchange at the Savannah River Site Selection of Exchange Media and Column Configuration - 9198

    SciTech Connect

    Spires, Renee; Punch, Timothy; McCabe, Daniel

    2009-02-11

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed, modeled, and tested several different ion exchange media and column designs for cesium removal. One elutable resin and one non-elutable resin were considered for this salt processing application. Deployment of non-elutable Crystalline Silicotitanate and elutable Resorcinol Formaldehyde in several different column configurations were assessed in a formal Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE). Salt solutions were selected that would allow a grouping of non-compliant tanks to be closed. Tests were run with the elutable resin to determine compatibility with the resin configuration required for an in-tank ion exchange system. Models were run to estimate the ion exchange cycles required with the two resins in several column configurations. Material balance calculations were performed to estimate the impact on the High Level Waste (HLW) system at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Conceptual process diagrams were used to support the hazard analysis. Data from the hazard analysis was used to determine the relative impact on safety. This report will discuss the technical inputs, SEE methods, results and path forward to complete the technical maturation of ion exchange.

  13. Integrating ecosystems measurements from multiple eddy-covariance sites to a simple model of ecosystem process - Are there possibilities for a uniform model calibration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minunno, Francesco; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Launiainen, Samuli; Mäkelä, Annikki

    2014-05-01

    Biogeochemical models quantify the material and energy flux exchanges between biosphere, atmosphere and soil, however there is still considerable uncertainty underpinning model structure and parametrization. The increasing availability of data from of multiple sources provides useful information for model calibration and validation at different space and time scales. We calibrated a simplified ecosystem process model PRELES to data from multiple sites. In this work we had the following objective: to compare a multi-site calibration and site-specific calibrations, in order to test if PRELES is a model of general applicability, and to test how well one parameterization can predict ecosystem fluxes. Model calibration and evaluation were carried out by the means of the Bayesian method; Bayesian calibration (BC) and Bayesian model comparison (BMC) were used to quantify the uncertainty in model parameters and model structure. Evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary production (GPP) measurements collected in 9 sites of Finland and Sweden were used in the study; half dataset was used for model calibrations and half for the comparative analyses. 10 BCs were performed; the model was independently calibrated for each of the nine sites (site-specific calibrations) and a multi-site calibration was achieved using the data from all the sites in one BC. Then 9 BMCs were carried out, one for each site, using output from the multi-site and the site-specific versions of PRELES. Similar estimates were obtained for the parameters at which model outputs are most sensitive. Not surprisingly, the joint posterior distribution achieved through the multi-site calibration was characterized by lower uncertainty, because more data were involved in the calibration process. No significant differences were encountered in the prediction of the multi-site and site-specific versions of PRELES, and after BMC, we concluded that the model can be reliably used at regional scale to simulate carbon and

  14. Role of post-field raw data processing: a multi-site and full factorial uncertainty analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbatini, Simone; Fratini, Gerardo; Arriga, Nicola; Papale, Dario

    2013-04-01

    Uncertainties in the Eddy Covariance flux measurements are a fundamental issue not yet completely solved. The complexity of the method, involving many, not standardized processing steps is one among the source of such uncertainty. The goal of our work is to quantify uncertainties deriving from post-field raw data processing, needed to calculate fluxes from collected turbulence measurements. The methodology we propose is a full-factorial design, performed using as factors a number of selected processing steps. We applied this approach to 15 European flux stations representative of different ecosystems (forests, croplands and grasslands), climates (Mediterranean, Nordic, arid and humid) and instrumental setups (e.g. open vs. closed path systems). Then we processed one year of raw data from each of the selected stations so as to cover all possible combinations of the available options (levels) relative to all the critical processing steps, i.e: angle of attack correction; coordinate rotation; trend removal; time lag compensation; low- and high- frequency spectral correction; correction for air density fluctuations; and length of the flux averaging interval. The software we used is EddyPro™. At last we calculated the cumulative NEE (response) for each process, and performed an analysis of variance of the factorial design. In addition to the global uncertainty, from this statistical approach we obtain information about the factors that most contribute to the uncertainties, and also the most relevant two-level interactions between factors. Here we present partial results from the first sites analysed. For the beech forest of Sorø, Denmark (Gill R2 anemometer and closed path GA, tube length = 50 m) the factor that most contributes to the variance in 2007 (40.4 %) is the trend removal, with an uncertainty of 7.5%. It is followed by the angle of attack (16.1 % of the total variability, uncertainty 3.5 %) and the interaction between trend removal and time lag compensation

  15. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF BULK VITRIFICATION PROCESS & PRODUCT FOR TANK WASTE TREATMENT AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-07-21

    At the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being constructed to immobilize both high-level waste (IUW) for disposal in a national repository and low-activity waste (LAW) for onsite, near-surface disposal. The schedule-controlling step for the WTP Project is vitrification of the large volume of LAW, current capacity of the WTP (as planned) would require 50 years to treat the Hanford tank waste, if the entire LAW volume were to be processed through the WTP. To reduce the time and cost for treatment of Hanford Tank Waste, and as required by the Tank Waste Remediation System Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision and the Hanford Federal Facility Consent Agreement (Tn-Party Agreement), DOE plans to supplement the LAW treatment capacity of the WTP. Since 2002, DOE, in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency and State of Washington Department of Ecology has been evaluating technologies that could provide safe and effective supplemental treatment of LAW. Current efforts at Hanford are intended to provide additional information to aid a joint agency decision on which technology will be used to supplement the WTP. A Research, Development and Demonstration permit has been issued by the State of Washington to build and (for a limited time) operate a Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) facility to provide information for the decision on a supplemental treatment technology for up to 50% of the LAW. In the Bulk Vitrification (BV) process, LAW, soil, and glass-forming chemicals are mixed, dried, and placed in a refractory-lined box, Electric current, supplied through two graphite electrodes in the box, melts the waste feed, producing a durable glass waste-form. Although recent modifications to the process have resulted in significant improvements, there are continuing technical concerns.

  16. Establishment of a Cost-Effective and Robust Planning Basis for the Processing of M-91 Waste at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Wayne L.; Parker, Brian M.

    2004-07-30

    This report identifies and evaluates viable alternatives for the accelerated processing of Hanford Site transuranic (TRU) and mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) that cannot be processed using existing site capabilities. Accelerated processing of these waste streams will lead to earlier reduction of risk and considerable life-cycle cost savings. The processing need is to handle both oversized MLLW and TRU containers as well as containers with surface contact dose rates greater than 200 mrem/hr. This capability is known as the ''M-91'' processing capability required by the Tri-Party Agreement milestone M-91--01. The new, phased approach proposed in this evaluation would use a combination of existing and planned processing capabilities to treat and more easily manage contact-handled waste streams first and would provide for earlier processing of these wastes.

  17. Effect of Transport and Aging Processes on Metal Speciation in Iron Oxyhydroxide Aggregates, Tar Creek Superfund Site, Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estes, E. R.; Schaider, L. A.; Shine, J. P.; Brabander, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    Following the cessation of mining activity in the late 20th century, Tar Creek Superfund Site was left highly contaminated by Pb, Zn, and Cd. Tar Creek, which flows through the site and into the Neosho River, has been studied extensively because of its potential to transport metals from the mining site to downstream communities. Previous research identified aggregated iron oxyhydroxide material, which forms when mine seepage mixes with Tar Creek surface water, as a major transport vector of metals. Frequent flooding in Tar Creek deposits aggregates on downstream floodplains, where wetting and drying processes alter the speciation of iron and other metals. This study seeks to better quantify those changes and to determine how transport and aging affects the human and ecological health risk. Sequential extractions of aggregate samples collected from the creek demonstrate that Fe is present in both amorphous (10-35% of Fe extracted) and more crystalline (8-23% of Fe extracted) phases. Substantial portions of heavy metals sorb to amorphous iron oxyhydroxide phases (accounting for 10-30% of Pb and Zn extracted) but are not associated with more crystalline iron oxide phases (representing only 1% or less of the Pb and Zn extracted). Samples have a high organic matter content (18-25% mass loss on ignition), but only Fe was significantly extracted by the oxidizing step targeting organic matter (1-2% of Pb and Zn extracted, but 10-26% of Fe extracted). The majority of metals were extracted by the soluble or residual steps. If metals and organic matter inhibit transformation of amorphous iron oxyhydroxide material to nano and crystalline iron oxides, then a steady-state volume of amorphous iron oxyhydroxide material with a high total sorption capacity may exist within Tar Creek, enhancing the metal flux accommodated by this transport mechanism. Once transported downstream and deposited on floodplains, however, it is hypothesized that repeated changes in soil matrix

  18. Sea surface carbon dioxide at the Georgia time series site (2006-2007): Air-sea flux and controlling processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Liang; Cai, Wei-Jun; Hu, Xinping; Sabine, Christopher; Jones, Stacy; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Jiang, Li-Qing; Reimer, Janet J.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) in surface seawater was continuously recorded every three hours from 18 July 2006 through 31 October 2007 using a moored autonomous pCO2 (MAPCO2) system deployed on the Gray's Reef buoy off the coast of Georgia, USA. Surface water pCO2 (average 373 ± 52 μatm) showed a clear seasonal pattern, undersaturated with respect to the atmosphere in cold months and generally oversaturated in warm months. High temporal resolution observations revealed important events not captured in previous ship-based observations, such as sporadically occurring biological CO2 uptake during April-June 2007. In addition to a qualitative analysis of the primary drivers of pCO2 variability based on property regressions, we quantified contributions of temperature, air-sea exchange, mixing, and biological processes to monthly pCO2 variations using a 1-D mass budget model. Although temperature played a dominant role in the annual cycle of pCO2, river inputs especially in the wet season, biological respiration in peak summer, and biological production during April-June 2007 also substantially influenced seawater pCO2. Furthermore, sea surface pCO2 was higher in September-October 2007 than in September-October 2006, associated with increased river inputs in fall 2007. On an annual basis this site was a moderate atmospheric CO2 sink, and was autotrophic as revealed by monthly mean net community production (NCP) in the mixed layer. If the sporadic short productive events during April-May 2007 were missed by the sampling schedule, one would conclude erroneously that the site is heterotrophic. While previous ship-based pCO2 data collected around this buoy site agreed with the buoy CO2 data on seasonal scales, high resolution buoy observations revealed that the cruise-based surveys undersampled temporal variability in coastal waters, which could greatly bias the estimates of air-sea CO2 fluxes or annual NCP, and even produce contradictory results.

  19. The interplay of processivity, substrate inhibition and a secondary substrate binding site of an insect exo-beta-1,3-glucanase.

    PubMed

    Genta, Fernando A; Dumont, Alexandra F; Marana, Sandro R; Terra, Walter R; Ferreira, Clélia

    2007-09-01

    Abracris flavolineata midgut contains a processive exo-beta-glucanase (ALAM) with lytic activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which was purified (yield, 18%; enrichment, 37 fold; specific activity, 1.89 U/mg). ALAM hydrolyses fungal cells or callose from the diet. ALAM (45 kDa; pI 5.5; pH optimum 6) major products with 0.6 mM laminarin as substrate are beta-glucose (61%) and laminaribiose (39%). Kinetic data obtained with laminaridextrins and methylumbelliferyl glucoside suggest that ALAM has an active site with at least six subsites. The best fitting of kinetic data to theoretical curves is obtained using a model where one laminarin molecule binds first to a high-affinity accessory site, causing active site exposure, followed by the transference of the substrate to the active site. The two-binding-site model is supported by results from chemical modifications of amino acid residues and by ALAM action in MUbetaGlu plus laminarin. Low laminarin concentrations increase the modification of His, Tyr and Asp or Glu residues and MUbetaGlu hydrolysis, whereas high concentrations abolish modification and inhibit MUbetaGlu hydrolysis. Our data indicate that processivity results from consecutive transferences of substrate between accessory and active site and that substrate inhibition arises when both sites are occupied by substrate molecules abolishing processivity. PMID:17720633

  20. Position paper on the applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer at the Uranium Mill Tailings Vitro Processing Site, Salt Lake City, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This report documents the results of the evaluation of the potential applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer underlying the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, Vitro Processing Site, Salt Lake City, Utah. There are two goals for this evaluation: provide the landowner with information to make an early qualitative decision on the possible use of the Vitro property, and evaluate the proposed application of supplemental standards as the ground water compliance strategy at the site. Justification of supplemental standards is based on the contention that the uppermost aquifer is of limited use due to wide-spread ambient contamination not related to the previous site processing activities. In support of the above, this report discusses the site conceptual model for the uppermost aquifer and related hydrogeological systems and establishes regional and local background water quality. This information is used to determine the extent of site-related and ambient contamination. A risk-based evaluation of the contaminants` effects on current and projected land uses is also provided. Reports of regional and local studies and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site investigations provided the basis for the conceptual model and established background ground water quality. In addition, a limited field effort (4 through 28 March 1996) was conducted to supplement existing data, particularly addressing the extent of contamination in the northwestern portion of the Vitro site and site background ground water quality. Results of the field investigation were particularly useful in refining the conceptual site model. This was important in light of the varied ground water quality within the uppermost aquifer. Finally, this report provides a critical evaluation, along with the related uncertainties, of the applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer at the Salt Lake City Vitro processing site.

  1. REVISED FINAL REPORT – INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION SURVEY ACTIVITIES AT THE SEPARATIONS PROCESS RESEARCH UNIT SITES, NISKAYUNA, NEW YORK – DCN 0496-SR-06-1

    SciTech Connect

    Evan Harpenau

    2011-10-10

    The Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) complex located on the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) site in Niskayuna, New York, was constructed in the late 1940s to research the chemical separation of plutonium and uranium (Figure A-1). SPRU operated as a laboratory scale research facility between February 1950 and October 1953. The research activities ceased following the successful development of the reduction oxidation and plutonium/uranium extraction processes. The oxidation and extraction processes were subsequently developed for large scale use by the Hanford and Savannah River sites (aRc 2008a). Decommissioning of the SPRU facilities began in October 1953 and continued through the 1990s.

  2. Environmental impacts of unmanaged solid waste at a former base metal mining and ore processing site (Kirki, Greece).

    PubMed

    Liakopoulos, Alexandros; Lemière, Bruno; Michael, Konstantinos; Crouzet, Catherine; Laperche, Valérie; Romaidis, Ioannis; Drougas, Iakovos; Lassin, Arnault

    2010-11-01

    The Kirki project aimed to identify, among the mining waste abandoned at a mine and processing plant, the most critical potential pollution sources, the exposed milieus and the main pathways for contamination of a littoral area. This was accompanied by the definition of a monitoring network and remedial options. For this purpose, field analytical methods were extensively used to allow a more precise identification of the source, to draw relevant conceptual models and outline a monitoring network. Data interpretation was based on temporal series and on a geographical model. A classification method for mining waste was established, based on data on pollutant contents and emissions, and their long-term pollution potential. Mining waste present at the Kirki mine and plant sites comprises (A) extraction waste, mainly metal sulfide-rich rocks; (B) processing waste, mainly tailings, with iron and sulfides, sulfates or other species, plus residues of processing reagents; and (C) other waste, comprising leftover processing reagents and Pb-Zn concentrates. Critical toxic species include cadmium and cyanide. The stormy rainfall regime and hilly topography favour the flush release of large amounts of pollutants. The potential impacts and remedial options vary greatly. Type C waste may generate immediate and severe chemical hazards, and should be dealt with urgently by careful removal, as it is localised in a few spots. Type B waste has significant acid mine drainage potential and contains significant amounts of bioavailable heavy metals and metalloids, but they may also be released in solid form into the surface water through dam failure. The most urgent action is thus dams consolidation. Type A waste is by far the most bulky, and it cannot be economically removed. Unfortunately, it is also the most prone to acid mine drainage (seepage pH 1 to 2). This requires neutralisation to prevent acid water accelerating heavy metals and metalloids transfer. All waste management options

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF REMOTE HANFORD CONNECTOR GASKET REPLACEMENT TOOLING FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE'S DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Krementz, D

    2007-11-27

    The Savannah River Site's (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requested development of tooling for remote replacement of gaskets in mechanical Hanford connectors. The facility has compressed air supply, two master-slave manipulators (MSM's) and a lightweight robotic arm for operation of the remote tools. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed and tested multiple tools to perform the gasket replacement tasks. Separate pneumatic snap-ring removal tools that use the connector skirt as a reaction surface were developed for removal of the snap ring and spent gasket on both vertical and horizontal Hanford connectors. A pneumatic tool that clamps and centers on the jumper pipe ID was developed to simultaneously install the new gasket and snap ring. A pneumatic snap-ring-loading tool was developed that compresses the snap ring and places it in a groove in the installation tool. All of the tools are located on a custom work table with a pneumatic valve station that directs compressed air to the desired tool and vents the tools as needed. The entire system has been successfully tested using MSM's to manipulate the various tools. Deployment of the entire system is expected during FY08. The Hanford connector gasket replacement tooling has been successfully tested using MSM's to manipulate the various tools. Nitric acid is used in many of the decontamination processes performed in the REDC, where the tooling will be deployed. Although most of the tool components were fabricated/purchased with nitric acid and radioactive service in mind, some of the prototype parts must be replaced with parts that are more compatible with nitric acid/radioactive service. Several modifications to the various tools are needed to facilitate maintenance and replacement of failed components. Development of installation tools for replacement of 1-inch, 2-inch and multi-hole gaskets is being considered. Deployment of the existing system in the DWPF REDC is expected during FY

  4. Remedial action plan for the inactive Uranium Processing Site at Naturita, Colorado. Remedial action plan: Attachment 2, Geology report, Attachment 3, Ground water hydrology report: Working draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), 42 USC {section}7901 et seq. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This RAP serves two purposes. First, it describes the activities that are proposed by the DOE to accomplish remediation and long-term stabilization and control of the radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Second, this RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the state of Colorado, and the NRC, become Appendix B of the cooperative agreement between the DOE and the state of Colorado.

  5. The Drosophila Dicer-1 partner Loquacious enhances miRNA processing from hairpins with unstable structures at the dicing site

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Mandy Yu Theng; Ng, Alvin Wei Tian; Chou, Yuting; Lim, Teck Por; Simcox, Amanda; Tucker-Kellogg, Greg; Okamura, Katsutomo

    2016-01-01

    In Drosophila, Dicer-1 binds Loquacious-PB (Loqs-PB) as its major co-factor. Previous analyses indicated that loqs mutants only partially impede miRNA processing but the activity of minor isoforms or maternally deposited Loqs was not eliminated in these studies. We addressed this by generating a cell line from loqs null embryos, and found that only ~40% of miRNAs showed clear Loqs-dependence. Genome-wide comparison of the hairpin structure and Loqs-dependence suggested that Loqs substrates are influenced by base-pairing status at the dicing site. Artificial alteration of base-pairing stability at this position in model miRNA hairpins resulted in predicted changes in the Loqs-dependence, providing evidence for this hypothesis. Finally, we found that evolutionarily young miRNA genes tended to be Loqs-dependent. We propose that Loqs may have roles in assisting the de novo emergence of miRNA genes by facilitating dicing of suboptimal hairpin substrates. PMID:27184838

  6. Short-lived 244Pu points to compact binary mergers as sites for heavy r-process nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotokezaka, Kenta; Piran, Tsvi; Paul, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The origin of heavy elements produced through rapid neutron capture (`r-process’) by seed nuclei is one of the current nucleosynthesis mysteries. Core collapse supernovae (cc-SNe; ref. ) and compact binary mergers are considered as possible sites. The first produces small amounts of material at a high event rate whereas the latter produces large amounts in rare events. Radioactive elements with the right lifetime can break the degeneracy between high-rate/low-yield and low-rate/high-yield scenarios. Among radioactive elements, most interesting is 244Pu (half-life of 81 million years), for which both the current accumulation of live 244Pu particles accreted via interstellar particles in the Earth’s deep-sea floor and the Early Solar System (ESS) abundances have been measured. Interestingly, the estimated 244Pu abundance in the current interstellar medium inferred from deep-sea measurements is significantly lower than that corresponding to the ESS measurements. Here we show that both the current and ESS abundances of 244Pu are naturally explained within the low-rate/high-yield scenario. The inferred event rate remarkably agrees with compact binary merger rates estimated from Galactic neutron star binaries and from short gamma-ray bursts. Furthermore, the ejected mass of r-process elements per event agrees with both theoretical and observational macronova/kilonova estimates.

  7. The Drosophila Dicer-1 Partner Loquacious Enhances miRNA Processing from Hairpins with Unstable Structures at the Dicing Site.

    PubMed

    Lim, Mandy Yu Theng; Ng, Alvin Wei Tian; Chou, Yuting; Lim, Teck Por; Simcox, Amanda; Tucker-Kellogg, Greg; Okamura, Katsutomo

    2016-05-24

    In Drosophila, Dicer-1 binds Loquacious-PB (Loqs-PB) as its major co-factor. Previous analyses indicated that loqs mutants only partially impede miRNA processing, but the activity of minor isoforms or maternally deposited Loqs was not eliminated in these studies. We addressed this by generating a cell line from loqs-null embryos and found that only ∼40% of miRNAs showed clear Loqs dependence. Genome-wide comparison of the hairpin structure and Loqs dependence suggested that Loqs substrates are influenced by base-pairing status at the dicing site. Artificial alteration of base-pairing stability at this position in model miRNA hairpins resulted in predicted changes in Loqs dependence, providing evidence for this hypothesis. Finally, we found that evolutionarily young miRNA genes tended to be Loqs dependent. We propose that Loqs may have roles in assisting the de novo emergence of miRNA genes by facilitating dicing of suboptimal hairpin substrates. PMID:27184838

  8. Biological inventory of the proposed site of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Plant in Aiken, South Carolina. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Vitt, L.J.

    1981-10-01

    Continued inventories of biota at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) site have resulted in the identification of indicator species (Representative Important Species) in addition to adding to our long-term data base on biota of the site. A large number of plant, insect, miscellaneous invertebrate, fish, amphibian, reptile, bird, and mammal species occur on the DWPF site. Of these, there are no nationally Threatened or Endangered species. Three plant species considered Threatened by the State of South Carolina occur on the DWPF site, and one of these, the spathulate seed box is known on the SRP only from Sun Bay, the Carolina bay located directly on the DWPF site. Mitigation attempts to relocate species are discussed. Monitoring will continue. (PSB)

  9. Processing of the yellow fever virus nonstructural polyprotein: a catalytically active NS3 proteinase domain and NS2B are required for cleavages at dibasic sites.

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, T J; Grakoui, A; Rice, C M

    1991-01-01

    The vaccinia virus-T7 transient expression system was used to further examine the role of the NS3 proteinase in processing of the yellow fever (YF) virus nonstructural polyprotein in BHK cells. YF virus-specific polyproteins and cleavage products were identified by immunoprecipitation with region-specific antisera, by size, and by comparison with authentic YF virus polypeptides. A YF virus polyprotein initiating with a signal sequence derived from the E protein fused to the N terminus of NS2A and extending through the N-terminal 356 amino acids of NS5 exhibited processing at the 2A-2B, 2B-3, 3-4A, 4A-4B, and 4B-5 cleavage sites. Similar results were obtained with polyproteins whose N termini began within NS2A (position 110) or with NS2B. When the NS3 proteinase domain was inactivated by replacing the proposed catalytic Ser-138 with Ala, processing at all sites was abolished. The results suggest that an active NS3 proteinase domain is necessary for cleavage at the diabasic nonstructural cleavage sites and that cleavage at the proposed 4A-4B signalase site requires prior cleavage at the 4B-5 site. Cleavages were not observed with a polyprotein whose N terminus began with NS3, but cleavage at the 4B-5 site could be restored by supplying the the NS2B protein in trans. Several experimental results suggested that trans cleavage at the 4B-5 site requires association of NS2B and the NS3 proteinase domain. Coexpression of different proteinases and catalytically inactive polyprotein substrates revealed that trans cleavage at the 2B-3 and 4B-5 sites was relatively efficient when compared with trans cleavage at the 2A-2B and 3-4A sites. Images PMID:1833562

  10. Plant species potentially useful in the phytostabilization process for the abandoned CMC mining site in northern Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Cetinkaya, Gulay; Sozen, Nur

    2011-08-01

    The Cupper Mining Company (CMC)'s site located in Lefke-Gemikonagi, Northern Cyprus has been a continuous source of highly dangerous contamination for the surrounding environment, the Lefke region, and the neighboring ecosystems and settlements. Rehabilitation and reuse possibilities of the CMC site due to its vital importance have kept its place in the agenda of Northern Cyprus. Phytostabilization appears to be a convenient and less expensive method that can immediately be used for reducing the negative impacts of the mining site on the region. The main purpose of this study is to identify potential candidate plant species, adapted to grow on polluted sites, for revegetation in the CMC site. Within this context, the method of the study can be summarized as follows: literature review for examining potential candidate plant species for pyhtostabilization in arid and semiarid regions, especially the ones suitable both for the existing ecological and present conditions of Cyprus; identification of native and/or cultural plant species survived in the heavily polluted mining site, and definition of a number of candidate plant species for the study site. The result of sampling revealed that 23 plant species thrive well in the contaminated site. As a result of the literature review and considering drought, metal, salt tolerant features of semiarid environment in the region, 5 tree, 4 shrub, and 23 herbaceous plant species were proposed for starting revegetation with the purpose of phytostabilization on the CMC mining site. PMID:21972495

  11. Fate and transport processes controlling the migration of hazardous and radioactive materials from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Estrella, R.

    1994-10-01

    Desert vadose zones have been considered as suitable environments for the safe and long-term isolation of hazardous wastes. Low precipitation, high evapotranspiration and thick unsaturated alluvial deposits commonly found in deserts make them attractive as waste disposal sites. The fate and transport of any contaminant in the subsurface is ultimately determined by the operating retention and transformation processes in the system and the end result of the interactions among them. Retention (sorption) and transformation are the two major processes that affect the amount of a contaminant present and available for transport. Retention processes do not affect the total amount of a contaminant in the soil system, but rather decrease or eliminate the amount available for transport at a given point in time. Sorption reactions retard the contaminant migration. Permanent binding of solute by the sorbent is also possible. These processes and their interactions are controlled by the nature of the hazardous waste, the properties of the porous media and the geochemical and environmental conditions (temperature, moisture and vegetation). The present study summarizes the available data and investigates the fate and transport processes that govern the migration of contaminants from the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). While the site is currently used only for low-level radioactive waste disposal, past practices have included burial of material now considered hazardous. Fundamentals of chemical and biological transformation processes are discussed subsequently, followed by a discussion of relevant results.

  12. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Appendix A of Attachment 3: Calculations, Final

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This report contains calculations for: hydraulic gradients for Alluvial Aquifer and Salt Wash Aquifer; slug test analysis to determine hydraulic conductivity for Alluvial Aquifer and Salt Wash Aquifer; average linear groundwater velocity for Alluvial Aquifer and Salt Wash Aquifer; statistical analysis of the extent of existing groundwater contamination; hydraulic gradients for Dakota/Burro Canyon Formation and Salt Wash Aquifer; slug test analysis to determine hydraulic conductivity for Dakota/Burro Canyon Formation and Perched Salt Wash Aquifer; determination of hydraulic conductivity of the Dakota/Burro Canyon Formation from Packer Tests; average linear groundwater velocity for Dakota/Burro Canyon and Salt Wash Aquifer; chemical and mineralogical characterization of core samples from the Dry Flats Disposal Site; and demonstration of low groundwater yield from Uppermost Aquifer.

  13. Surface Electronic Properties and Site-Specific Laser Desorption Processes of Highly Structured Nanoporous MgO Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Henyk, Matthias; Beck, Kenneth M.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Joly, Alan G.; Hess, Wayne P.; Dickinson, J T.

    2005-11-20

    The surface electronic properties of metal oxides critically depends on low-coordinated sites, such as kinks, corners and steps [1]. In order to characterize experimentally those surface states as well as their role for laser desorption processes, we prepare defect enriched surfaces by growing thin MgO films using reactive ballistic deposition [2] on crystalline dielectric substrates. With samples held at room temperature, the resulting MgO films are highly textured and consist of porous columns with column lengths ranging from tens of nanometers up to six micrometers. Measurements by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are carried out in-situ for MgO films, vacuum-cleaved MgO crystals, and water vapor exposed samples. In the case of thin films, we observe O 1s spectra with a significant shoulder feature at 2.3 eV higher binding energy (HBE) than the corresponding peak at 530.0 eV representing regular lattice oxygen. We evaluate this feature in terms of non-stoichiometric oxygen and formation of an oxygen-rich layer at the topmost surface of the MgO columns. In contrast, no HBE-features are detectable from clean single crystal MgO surfaces, while the hydroxyl O 1s band peaks at 531.6 eV. Under excitation with 266-nm-laser-pulses, known to be resonant with low-coordinated surface anions [3], we observe preferential depletion of defective oxygen-states (HBE signal) and temporary restoration of ideal surface stoichiometry. Furthermore, auxiliary signals are observed on several micrometer thick films, acting like satellites to major photoelectron-peaks (O 1s, Mg 2s, and Mg 2p) but shifted by approximately 4 eV towards lower kinetic energy. These features are depleted by UV-light exposure, pointing to the occurrence of surface-charge imbalance, accompanied by photon stimulated charge-transfer reactions. These results are in line with desorption experiments of neutrals, stimulated by laser excitation at 266 nm. According to the low-coordination nature of nanoporous Mg

  14. A MULTI-SCALE SCREENING PROCESS TO IDENTIFY LEAST-DISTURBED STREAM SITES FOR USE IN WATER QUALITY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a four-step screening procedure to identify least-disturbed stream sites for an EPA Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) pilot project being conducted in twelve western states. In this project, biological attributes at least-disturbed sites are use...

  15. Improving LiDAR Data Post-Processing Techniques for Archaeological Site Management and Analysis: A Case Study from Canaveral National Seashore Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesbach, Christopher

    Methods used to process raw Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data can sometimes obscure the digital signatures indicative of an archaeological site. This thesis explains the negative effects that certain LiDAR data processing procedures can have on the preservation of an archaeological site. This thesis also presents methods for effectively integrating LiDAR with other forms of mapping data in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment in order to improve LiDAR archaeological signatures by examining several pre-Columbian Native American shell middens located in Canaveral National Seashore Park (CANA).

  16. Biogeochemical Processes Related to Metal Removal and Toxicity Reduction in the H-02 Constructed Wetland, Savannah River Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, E. A.; Mills, G. L.; Harmon, M.; Samarkin, V.

    2011-12-01

    The H-02 wetland system was designed to treat building process water and storm water runoff from multiple sources associated with the Tritium Facility at the DOE-Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC. The wetland construction included the addition of gypsum (calcium sulfate) to foster a sulfate-reducing bacterial population. Conceptually, the wetland functions as follows: ? Cu and Zn initially bind to both dissolved and particulate organic detritus within the wetland. ? A portion of this organic matter is subsequently deposited into the surface sediments within the wetland. ? The fraction of Cu and Zn that is discharged in the wetland effluent is organically complexed, less bioavailable, and consequently, less toxic. ? The Cu and Zn deposited in the surface sediments are eventually sequestered into insoluble sulfide minerals in the wetland. Development of the H-02 system has been closely monitored; sampling began in August 2007, shortly after its construction. This monitoring has included the measurement of water quality parameters, Cu and Zn concentrations in surface water and sediments, as well as, characterization of the prokaryotic (e.g., bacterial) component of wetland biogeochemical processes. Since the beginning of the study, the mean influent Cu concentration was 31.5±12.1 ppb and the mean effluent concentration was 11.9±7.3 ppb, corresponding to an average Cu removal of 64%. Zn concentrations were more variable, averaging 39.2±13.8 ppb in the influent and 25.7±21.3 ppb in the effluent. Average Zn removal was 52%. The wetland also ameliorated high pH values associated with influent water to values similar to those measured at reference sites. Seasonal variations in DOC concentration corresponded to seasonal variations in Cu and Zn removal efficiency. The concentration of Cu and Zn in the surface layer of the sediments has increased over the lifetime of the wetland and, like removal efficiency, demonstrated seasonal variation. Within its first year, the H-02

  17. Full scale field test of the in situ air stripping process at the Savannah River integrated demonstration test site

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.B.; Hazen, T.C.; Kaback, D.S.; Eddy, C.A.

    1991-06-29

    Under sponsorship from the US Department of Energy, technical personnel from the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) and other DOE laboratories, universities and private industry have completed a full scale demonstration of environmental remediation using horizontal wells. This demonstration was performed as Phase I of an Integrated Demonstration Project designed to evaluate innovative remediation technologies for environmental restoration of sites contaminated with organic contaminants. The demonstration utilized two directionally drilled horizontal wells to deliver gases and extract contaminants from the subsurface. The resulting in situ air stripping process was designed to remediate soils and sediments above and below the water table as well as groundwater contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. The 139 day long test successfully removed volatile chlorinated solvents from the subsurface using the two horizontal wells. One well, approximately 300 ft (90m) long and 165 ft (50m) deep drilled below a contaminant plume in the groundwater, was used to inject air and strip the contaminants from the groundwater. A second horizontal well, approximately 175 ft (53m) long and 75 ft (23m) deep in the vadose zone, was used to extract residual contamination in the vadose zone along with the material purged from the groundwater. Pretest and posttest characterization data and monitoring data during the demonstration were collected to aid in interpretation of the test and to provide the information needed for future environmental restoration that employ directionally drilled wells as extraction or delivery systems. Contaminant concentration data and microbiological monitoring data are summarized in this report; the characterization data and geophysical monitoring data are documented in a series of related project reports.

  18. Efficacy of a Process Improvement Intervention on Inmate Awareness of HIV Services: A Multi-Site Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hiller, Matthew L.; Albizu-García, Carmen E.; Pich, Michele; Patterson, Yvonne; O’Connell, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of HIV among U.S. inmates is much greater than in the general population, creating public health concerns and cost issues for the criminal justice system. The HIV Services and Treatment Implementation in Corrections protocol of the NIDA funded Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies cooperative tested the efficacy of an organizational process improvement strategy on improving HIV services in correctional facilities. For this paper, we analyzed efficacy of this strategy on improving inmate awareness and perceptions of HIV services. The study used a multi-site (n=28) clustered randomized trial approach. Facilities randomized to the experimental condition used a coach-driven local change team approach to improve HIV services at their facility. Facilities in the control condition were given a directive to improve HIV services on their own. Surveys about awareness and perceptions of HIV services were administered anonymously to inmates who were incarcerated in study facilities at baseline (n=1253) and follow-up (n=1048). A series of one-way ANOVAs were run to test whether there were differences between inmates in the experimental and control facilities at baseline and follow-up. Differences were observed at baseline, with the experimental group having significantly lower scores than the control group on key variables. But, at post-test, following the intervention, these differences were no longer significant. Taken in context of the findings from the main study, these results suggest that the change team approach to improving HIV services in correctional facilities is efficacious for improving inmates’ awareness and perceptions of HIV services. PMID:26203411

  19. Aminopeptidase B, a glucagon-processing enzyme: site directed mutagenesis of the Zn2+-binding motif and molecular modelling

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Viet-Laï; Cadel, Marie-Sandrine; Gouzy-Darmon, Cécile; Hanquez, Chantal; Beinfeld, Margery C; Nicolas, Pierre; Etchebest, Catherine; Foulon, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    aminopeptidase catalytic sites and to gain new insight into their physiological functions. Analysis of Ap-B structural model indicates that several interactions between Ap-B and proteins can occur and suggests that endopeptidases might form a complex with Ap-B during hormone processing. PMID:17974014

  20. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-D-50:5 Process Sewers (183-DR Sedimentation Basin Drains), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-025

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-11-06

    The 100-D-50:5 subsite encompasses the southern process sewers formerly servicing the 183-DR coagulation and sedimentation basins and proximate surface runoff collection drains. The results of confirmatory sampling of pipeline sediments and underlying soils at the 100-D-50:5 subsite demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  1. Ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY-1991 and FY-1992

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.E.; Chazel, A.C.; Pechmann, J.H.K.; Estes, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was built on the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the mid-1980`s. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 14 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Research conducted by the SREL has focused primarily on four questions related to these wetlands: (1) Prior to construction, what fauna and flora were present at the DWPF site and at similar, yet undisturbed, alternative sites? (2) By comparing the Carolina bay at the DWPF site (Sun Bay) with an undisturbed control Carolina bay (Rainbow Bay), what effect is construction having on the organisms that inhabited the DWPF site? (3) By comparing control streams with streams on the periphery of the DWPF site, what effect is construction having on the peripheral streams? (4) How effective have efforts been to lessen the impacts of construction, both with respect to erosion control measures and the construction of ``refuge ponds`` as alternative breeding sites for amphibians that formerly bred at Sun Bay? Through the long-term census-taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has begun to evaluate the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. Similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive Orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10 CFR 1022).

  2. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site. FY 1989--1990 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Pechmann, J.H.K.; Scott, D.E.; McGregor, J.H.; Estes, R.A.; Chazal, A.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was built on the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the mid-1980`s. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 12 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Research conducted by the SREL has focused primarily on four questions related to these wetlands: (1) Prior to construction, what fauna and flora were present at the DWPF site and at similar, yet undisturbed, alternative sites? (2) By comparing the Carolina bay at the DWPF site (Sun Bay) with an undisturbed control Carolina bay (Rainbow Bay), what effect is construction having on the organisms that inhabited the DWPF site? (3) By comparing control streams with streams on the periphery of the DWPF site, what effect is construction having on the peripheral streams? (4) How effective have efforts been to lessen the impacts of construction, both with respect to erosion control measures and the construction of ``refuge ponds`` as alternative breeding sites for amphibians that formerly bred at Sun Bay? Through the long-term census-taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has begun to evaluate the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. Similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive Orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10CFR1022).

  3. Geologic analyses of LANDSAT-1 multispectral imagery of a possible power plant site employing digital and analog image processing. [in Pennsylvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovegreen, J. R.; Prosser, W. J.; Millet, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A site in the Great Valley subsection of the Valley and Ridge physiographic province in eastern Pennsylvania was studied to evaluate the use of digital and analog image processing for geologic investigations. Ground truth at the site was obtained by a field mapping program, a subsurface exploration investigation and a review of available published and unpublished literature. Remote sensing data were analyzed using standard manual techniques. LANDSAT-1 imagery was analyzed using digital image processing employing the multispectral Image 100 system and using analog color processing employing the VP-8 image analyzer. This study deals primarily with linears identified employing image processing and correlation of these linears with known structural features and with linears identified manual interpretation; and the identification of rock outcrops in areas of extensive vegetative cover employing image processing. The results of this study indicate that image processing can be a cost-effective tool for evaluating geologic and linear features for regional studies encompassing large areas such as for power plant siting. Digital image processing can be an effective tool for identifying rock outcrops in areas of heavy vegetative cover.

  4. Integrating care for high-risk patients in England using the virtual ward model: lessons in the process of care integration from three case sites

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Geraint; Vaithianathan, Rhema; Wright, Lorraine; Brice, Mary R; Lovell, Paul; Rankin, Seth; Bardsley, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients at high risk of emergency hospitalisation are particularly likely to experience fragmentation in care. The virtual ward model attempts to integrate health and social care by offering multidisciplinary case management to people at high predicted risk of unplanned hospitalisation. Objective To describe the care practice in three virtual ward sites in England and to explore how well each site had achieved meaningful integration. Method Case studies conducted in Croydon, Devon and Wandsworth during 2011–2012, consisting of semi-structured interviews, workshops, and site visits. Results Different versions of the virtual wards intervention had been implemented in each site. In Croydon, multidisciplinary care had reverted back to one-to-one case management. Conclusions To integrate successfully, virtual ward projects should safeguard the multidisciplinary nature of the intervention, ensure the active involvement of General Practitioners, and establish feedback processes to monitor performance such as the number of professions represented at each team meeting. PMID:24250284

  5. F-Tank Farm Performance Assessment Updates through the Special Analysis Process at Savannah River Site - 12169

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, Mark H.

    2012-07-01

    The F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) is owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR), Liquid Waste Operations contractor at DOE's Savannah River Site (SRS). The FTF is in the north-central portion of the SRS and occupies approximately 22 acres within F-Area. The FTF is an active radioactive waste storage facility consisting of 22 carbon steel waste tanks and ancillary equipment such as transfer lines, evaporators and pump tanks. An FTF Performance Assessment (PA) was prepared to support the eventual closure of the FTF underground radioactive waste tanks and ancillary equipment. The PA provides the technical basis and results to be used in subsequent documents to demonstrate compliance with the pertinent requirements identified below for final closure of FTF. The FTank Farm is subject to a state industrial waste water permit and Federal Facility Agreement. Closure documentation will include an F-Tank Farm Closure Plan and tank-specific closure modules utilizing information from the performance assessment. For this reason, the State of South Carolina and the Environmental Protection Agency must be involved in the performance assessment review process. The residual material remaining after tank cleaning is also subject to reclassification prior to closure via a waste determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005. The projected waste tank inventories in the FTF PA provide reasonably bounding FTF inventory projections while taking into account uncertainties in the effectiveness of future tank cleaning technologies. As waste is removed from the FTF waste tanks, the residual contaminants will be sampled and the remaining residual inventory is characterized. In this manner, tank specific data for the tank inventories at closure will be available to supplement the waste tank inventory projections currently used in the FTF PA. For FTF, the new tank specific data will

  6. Rigorous Photogrammetric Processing of HiRISE Stereo Images for Topographic and Geomorphologic Analysis at MER landing sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; di, K.; Hwangbo, J.; Chen, Y.

    2007-12-01

    High-precision topographic information is critical to Mars surface exploration. Such information can be derived from both orbital and ground rover data. The availability of HiRISE stereo images makes a great progress in high resolution imaging and topographic and morphological information derivation. This presentation gives the necessary rigorous photogrammetric model for HiRISE stereo image processing and results achieved at the Mars Exploration Rover mission sites. HiRISE is a push-broom imaging sensor. For short segments of the orbital trajectory, 2nd-order polynomials can be used to model change in the exterior orientation (EO) parameters with respect to time. Since all of the 14 CCD lines (10 red, 2 blue-green and 2 NIR) share the same EO parameters at a specific time, only one set of polynomial parameters is needed to model the EO parameters for all the CCD arrays. The orbit's initial position and pointing angles are provided in the SPICE kernels. For any given ephemeris time, the EO parameters can be retrieved by interpolating the spacecraft's trajectory and pointing vectors. Based on the developed rigorous sensor model, we have developed a method for bundle adjustment (BA) of HiRISE stereo images that removes or reduces measurement inconsistency and improves mapping precision. We have also developed a hierarchical stereo matching process. Based on the original images, an image pyramid with 5 levels is constructed by sub-sampling of each previous level. Interest points are generated by Foerstner operator at every image scale. Matching starts from the images of the lowest resolution; results are transferred to the next higher level, with more interest points being extracted and matched. After matching the highest resolution images, evenly distributed matched interest points are selected as tie points between the stereo images. In the end, grid points (4-pixel spacing) are defined and matched to generate a DTM of the terrain. Using the HiRISE images TRA_000873

  7. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Remedial Action Selection Report, Appendix B of Attachment 2: Geology report, Final

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), 42 USC {section} 7901 et seq. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Included in the RAP is this Remedial Action Selection Report (RAS), which describes the proposed remedial action for the Naturita site. An extensive amount of data and supporting information has been generated and evaluated for this remedial action. These data and supporting information are not incorporated into this single document but are included or referenced in the supporting documents. The RAP consists of this RAS and four supporting documents or attachments. This Attachment 2, Geology Report describes the details of geologic, geomorphic, and seismic conditions at the Dry Flats disposal site.

  8. THE DEACTIVATION DECONTAMINATION & DECOMMISSIONING OF THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) A FORMER PLUTONIUM PROCESSING FACILITY AT DOE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    CHARBONEAU, S.L.

    2006-02-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) was constructed as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. The Manhattan Project was developed to usher in the use of nuclear weapons to end the war. The primary mission of the PFP was to provide plutonium used as special nuclear material (SNM) for fabrication of nuclear devices for the war effort. Subsequent to the end of World War II, the PFP's mission expanded to support the Cold War effort through plutonium production during the nuclear arms race and later the processing of fuel grade mixed plutonium-uranium oxide to support DOE's breeder reactor program. In October 1990, at the close of the production mission for PFP, a shutdown order was prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in Washington, DC and issued to the Richland DOE field office. Subsequent to the shutdown order, a team from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) analyzed the hazards at PFP associated with the continued storage of certain forms of plutonium solutions and solids. The assessment identified many discrete actions that were required to stabilize the different plutonium forms into stable form and repackage the material in high integrity containers. These actions were technically complicated and completed as part of the PFP nuclear material stabilization project between 1995 and early 2005. The completion of the stabilization project was a necessary first step in deactivating PFP. During stabilization, DOE entered into negotiations with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the State of Washington and established milestones for the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) of the PFP. The DOE and its contractor, Fluor Hanford (Fluor), have made great progress in deactivating, decontaminating and decommissioning the PFP at the Hanford Site as detailed in this paper. Background information covering the PFP D&D effort includes descriptions of negotiations with the State of Washington concerning consent-order milestones

  9. Peptide Synthesis through Cell-Free Expression of Fusion Proteins Incorporating Modified Amino Acids as Latent Cleavage Sites for Peptide Release.

    PubMed

    Liutkus, Mantas; Fraser, Samuel A; Caron, Karine; Stigers, Dannon J; Easton, Christopher J

    2016-05-17

    Chlorinated analogues of Leu and Ile are incorporated during cell-free expression of peptides fused to protein, by exploiting the promiscuity of the natural biosynthetic machinery. They then act as sites for clean and efficient release of the peptides simply by brief heat treatment. Dehydro analogues of Leu and Ile are similarly incorporated as latent sites for peptide release through treatment with iodine under cold conditions. These protocols complement enzyme-catalyzed methods and have been used to prepare calcitonin, gastrin-releasing peptide, cholecystokinin-7, and prolactin-releasing peptide prohormones, as well as analogues substituted with unusual amino acids, thus illustrating their practical utility as alternatives to more traditional chemical peptide synthesis. PMID:26918308

  10. Scatterhoarding rodents favor higher predation risks for cache sites: The potential for predators to influence the seed dispersal process.

    PubMed

    Steele, Michael A; Rompré, Ghislain; Stratford, Jeffrey A; Zhang, Hongmao; Suchocki, Matthew; Marino, Shealyn

    2015-05-01

    Scatterhoarding rodents often place caches in the open where pilferage rates are reduced, suggesting that they tradeoff higher risks of predation for more secure cache sites. We tested this hypothesis in two study systems by measuring predation risks inferred from measures of giving-up densities (GUDs) at known cache sites and other sites for comparison. Rodent GUDs were measured with small trays containing 3 L of fine sand mixed with sunflower seeds. In the first experiment, we relied on a 2-year seed dispersal study in a natural forest to identify caches of eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) and then measured GUDs at: (i) these caches; (ii) comparable points along logs and rocks where rodent activity was assumed highest; and (iii) a set of random points. We found that GUDs and, presumably, predation risks, were higher at both cache and random points than those with cover. At the second site, we measured GUDs of eastern gray squirrels in an open park system and found that GUDs were consistently lowest at the base of the tree compared to more open sites, where previous studies show caching by squirrels to be highest and pilferage rates by naïve competitors to be lowest. These results confirm that predation risks can influence scatterhoarding decisions but that they are also highly context dependent, and that the landscape of fear, now so well documented in the literature, could potentially shape the temporal and spatial patterns of seedling establishment and forest regeneration in systems where scatterhoarding is common. PMID:25827710

  11. Accelerated processing of solitary and clustered abasic site DNA damage lesions by APE1 in the presence of aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Bhavini; DAS, Prolay; Kumari, Rekha

    2016-06-01

    The stimulatory effect of the aqueous extract of G. lucidum, a basidiomycetes class fungus in the APE1-enzyme-mediated processing of solitary and bistranded clustered abasic sites DNA damages is presented. Abasic sites are considered the most common type of DNA damage lesions. Our study shows enhanced activity of APE1 in the processing of abasic sites in the presence of the polysaccharides fraction of G. lucidum. Remarkable increase in the amount of single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs) from solitary and bistranded clustered abasic sites respectively with APE1 in the presence of the extract was found. This trend is maintained when abasic sites in DNA oligomers are exposed to fibroblast cell extracts in the presence of the extract. While DNA conformational alteration is negligible, APE1 enzyme shows characteristic changes in the alpha helix and beta strand ratio after incubation with G. lucidum extract. The enhanced reactivity of APE1 at the molecular level in the presence of G. lucidium is attributed to this effect. This study potentially amplifies the scope of the use of G. lucidum, which was earlier shown to have only reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging properties with regards to DNA damage inhibition. PMID:27240987

  12. The operation of cost-effective on-site process for the bio-treatment of mixed municipal solid waste in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Wu, Duo; Zhang, Chunyan; Lü, Fan; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2014-06-01

    The application of on-site waste treatment significantly reduces the need for expensive waste collection and transportation in rural areas; hence, it is considered of fundamental importance in developing countries. In this study, the effects of in-field operation of two types of mini-scale on-site solid waste treatment facilities on de-centralized communities, one using mesophilic two-phase anaerobic digestion combined with composting (TPAD, 50 kg/d) and another using decentralized composting (DC, 0.6-2 t/d), were investigated. Source-separated collection was applied to provide organic waste for combined process, in which the amount of waste showed significant seasonal variation. The highest collection amount was 0.18 kg/capital day and 0.6 kg/household day. Both sites showed good performance after operating for more than 6 months, with peak waste reduction rates of 53.5% in TPAD process and 63.2% in DC process. Additionally, the windrow temperature exceeded 55 °C for >5 days, indicating that the composting products from both facilities were safe. These results were supported by 4 days aerobic static respiration rate tests. The emissions were low enough to avoid any impact on nearby communities (distance <100 m). Partial energy could be recovered by the combined process but with complicated operation. Hence, the choice of process must be considered in case separately. PMID:24369844

  13. Radiological surveillance of Remedial Action activities at the processing site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, April 12--16, 1993. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-04-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project`s Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) performed a radiological surveillance of the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), MK-Ferguson and CWM Federal Environmental Services, Inc., at the processing site in Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The requirements and attributes examined during the audit were developed from reviewing working-level procedures developed by the RAC. Objective evidence, comments, and observations were verified based on investigating procedures, documentation, records located at the site, personal interviews, and tours of the site. No findings were identified during this audit. Ten site-specific observations, three good practice observations, and five programmatic observations are presented in this report. The overall conclusion from the surveillance is that the radiological aspects of the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, remedial action program are performed adequately. The results of the good practice observations indicate that the site health physics (HP) staff is taking the initiative to address and resolve potential issues, and implement suggestions useful to the UMTRA Project. However, potential exists for improving designated storage areas for general items, and the RAC Project Office should consider resolving site-specific and procedural inconsistencies.

  14. Cold and dry processes in the Martian Arctic: Geomorphic observations at the Phoenix landing site and comparisons with terrestrial cold desert landforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Joseph S.; Head, James W.; Marchant, David R.

    2009-11-01

    We analyze Surface Stereo Imager observations of rocks, sediments, and permafrost-related landforms in the vicinity of the Phoenix lander, comparing the imaged features to analogous examples of physical weathering and periglacial processes observed in the Antarctic Dry Valleys. Observations at the Phoenix landing site of pitted rocks, “puzzle rocks” undergoing in-situ breakdown, perched clasts, and thermal contraction crack polygon morphologies strikingly similar to terrestrial sublimation polygons, all strongly suggest that stable (non-churning) permafrost processes dominate the Phoenix landing site. Morphological evidence suggests that cold-desert processes, in the absence of wet active-layer cryoturbation, and largely driven by sublimation of buried ice (either pore ice, excess ice, or both) are shaping the landscape.

  15. Identification of Process Hazards and Accident Scenarios for Site 300 B-Division Firing Areas, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, H; Johnson, G

    2001-05-04

    This report describes a hazard and accident analysis conducted for Site 300 operations to support update of the ''Site 300 B-Division Firing Areas Safety Analysis Report'' (SAR) [LLNL 1997]. A significant change since the previous SAR is the construction and the new Contained Firing Facility (CFF). Therefore, this hazard and accident analysis focused on the hazards associated with bunker operations to ensure that the hazards at CFF are properly characterized in the updated SAR. Hazard tables were created to cover both the CFF and the existing bunkers with ''open air'' firing tables.

  16. Process for Transition of Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title II Disposal Sites to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management for Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-01

    This document presents guidance for implementing the process that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) will use for assuming perpetual responsibility for a closed uranium mill tailings site. The transition process specifically addresses sites regulated under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) but is applicable in principle to the transition of sites under other regulatory structures, such as the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program.

  17. A new hypothesis: some metastases are the result of inflammatory processes by adapted cells, especially adapted immune cells at sites of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Shahriyari, Leili

    2016-01-01

    There is an old hypothesis that metastasis is the result of migration of tumor cells from the tumor to a distant site. In this article, we propose another mechanism for metastasis, for cancers that are initiated at the site of chronic inflammation. We suggest that cells at the site of chronic inflammation might become adapted to the inflammatory process, and these adaptations may lead to the initiation of an inflammatory tumor. For example, in an inflammatory tumor immune cells might be adapted to send signals of proliferation or angiogenesis, and epithelial cells might be adapted to proliferation (like inactivation of tumor suppressor genes). Therefore, we hypothesize that metastasis could be the result of an inflammatory process by adapted cells, especially adapted immune cells at the site of inflammation, as well as the migration of tumor cells with the help of activated platelets, which travel between sites of inflammation.  If this hypothesis is correct, then any treatment causing necrotic cell death may not be a good solution. Because necrotic cells in the tumor micro-environment or anywhere in the body activate the immune system to initiate the inflammatory process, and the involvement of adapted immune cells in the inflammatory processes leads to the formation and progression of tumors. Adapted activated immune cells send more signals of proliferation and/or angiogenesis than normal cells. Moreover, if there were adapted epithelial cells, they would divide at a much higher rate in response to the proliferation signals than normal cells. Thus, not only would the tumor come back after the treatment, but it would also grow more aggressively. PMID:27158448

  18. Metaproteomics and metabolomics analyses of chronically petroleum-polluted sites reveal the importance of general anaerobic processes uncoupled with degradation.

    PubMed

    Bargiela, Rafael; Herbst, Florian-Alexander; Martínez-Martínez, Mónica; Seifert, Jana; Rojo, David; Cappello, Simone; Genovese, María; Crisafi, Francesca; Denaro, Renata; Chernikova, Tatyana N; Barbas, Coral; von Bergen, Martin; Yakimov, Michail M; Ferrer, Manuel; Golyshin, Peter N

    2015-10-01

    Crude oil is one of the most important natural assets for humankind, yet it is a major environmental pollutant, notably in marine environments. One of the largest crude oil polluted areas in the word is the semi-enclosed Mediterranean Sea, in which the metabolic potential of indigenous microbial populations towards the large-scale chronic pollution is yet to be defined, particularly in anaerobic and micro-aerophilic sites. Here, we provide an insight into the microbial metabolism in sediments from three chronically polluted marine sites along the coastline of Italy: the Priolo oil terminal/refinery site (near Siracuse, Sicily), harbour of Messina (Sicily) and shipwreck of MT Haven (near Genoa). Using shotgun metaproteomics and community metabolomics approaches, the presence of 651 microbial proteins and 4776 metabolite mass features have been detected in these three environments, revealing a high metabolic heterogeneity between the investigated sites. The proteomes displayed the prevalence of anaerobic metabolisms that were not directly related with petroleum biodegradation, indicating that in the absence of oxygen, biodegradation is significantly suppressed. This suppression was also suggested by examining the metabolome patterns. The proteome analysis further highlighted the metabolic coupling between methylotrophs and sulphate reducers in oxygen-depleted petroleum-polluted sediments. PMID:26201687

  19. Metaproteomics and metabolomics analyses of chronically petroleum‐polluted sites reveal the importance of general anaerobic processes uncoupled with degradation

    PubMed Central

    Bargiela, Rafael; Herbst, Florian‐Alexander; Martínez‐Martínez, Mónica; Seifert, Jana; Rojo, David; Cappello, Simone; Genovese, María; Crisafi, Francesca; Denaro, Renata; Chernikova, Tatyana N.; Barbas, Coral; von Bergen, Martin; Yakimov, Michail M.; Golyshin, Peter N.

    2015-01-01

    Crude oil is one of the most important natural assets for humankind, yet it is a major environmental pollutant, notably in marine environments. One of the largest crude oil polluted areas in the word is the semi‐enclosed Mediterranean Sea, in which the metabolic potential of indigenous microbial populations towards the large‐scale chronic pollution is yet to be defined, particularly in anaerobic and micro‐aerophilic sites. Here, we provide an insight into the microbial metabolism in sediments from three chronically polluted marine sites along the coastline of Italy: the Priolo oil terminal/refinery site (near Siracuse, Sicily), harbour of Messina (Sicily) and shipwreck of MT Haven (near Genoa). Using shotgun metaproteomics and community metabolomics approaches, the presence of 651 microbial proteins and 4776 metabolite mass features have been detected in these three environments, revealing a high metabolic heterogeneity between the investigated sites. The proteomes displayed the prevalence of anaerobic metabolisms that were not directly related with petroleum biodegradation, indicating that in the absence of oxygen, biodegradation is significantly suppressed. This suppression was also suggested by examining the metabolome patterns. The proteome analysis further highlighted the metabolic coupling between methylotrophs and sulphate reducers in oxygen‐depleted petroleum‐polluted sediments. PMID:26201687

  20. Conditions and processes affecting sand resources at archeological sites in the Colorado River corridor below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    East, Amy E.; Collins, Brian D.; Sankey, Joel B.; Corbett, Skye C.; Fairley, Helen C.; Caster, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    We conclude that most of the river-corridor archeological sites are at elevated risk of net erosion under present dam operations. In the present flow regime, controlled floods do not simulate the magnitude or frequency of natural floods, and are not large enough to deposit sand at elevations that were flooded at annual to decadal inte

  1. "Dreams Are Born on Places Like This": The Process of Interpretive Community Formation at the "Field of Dreams" Site.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aden, Roger C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes the narratives of 113 visitors to the site of the film "Field of Dreams." Develops a theory that explains how interpretive communities are formed despite theoretical writings that argue for individualized interpretations of text. Demonstrates that individuals can at once converge and diverge symbolically within the confines of an…

  2. Investigation of Aluminum Site Changes of Dehydrated Zeolite H-Beta during a Rehydration Process by High Field Solid State NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Zhenchao; Xu, Suochang; Hu, Mary Y.; Bao, Xinhe; Peden, Charles HF; Hu, Jian Z.

    2015-01-22

    Aluminum site changes for dehydrated H-Beta zeolite during rehydration process are systematically investigated by ²⁷Al MAS and MQ MAS NMR at high magnetic fields up to 19.9 T. Benefiting from the high magnetic field, more detailed information is obtained from the considerably broadened and overlapped spectra of dehydrated H-beta zeolite. Dynamic changes of aluminum sites are demonstrated during rehydration process. In completely dehydrated H-Beta, invisible aluminum can reach 29%. The strength of quadrupole interactions for framework aluminum sites decreases gradually during water adsorption processes. The number of extra-framework aluminum (EFAL) species, i.e., penta- (34 ppm) and octa- (4 ppm) coordinated aluminum atoms rises initially with increasing water adsorption, and finally change into either tetra-coordinated framework or extra-framework aluminum in saturated water adsorption samples, with the remaining octa-coordinated aluminum lying at 0 and -4 ppm, respectively. Quantitative ²⁷Al MAS NMR analysis combined with ¹H MAS NMR indicates that some active EFAL species formed during calcination can reinsert into the framework during this hydration process. The assignment of aluminum at 0 ppm to EFAL cation and -4 ppm to framework aluminum is clarified for H-Beta zeolite.

  3. Microbiological, Geochemical and Hydrologic Processes Controlling Uranium Mobility: An Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site at Rifle, Colorado, Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-01-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cleaning up and/or monitoring large, dilute plumes contaminated by metals, such as uranium and chromium, whose mobility and solubility change with redox status. Field-scale experiments with acetate as the electron donor have stimulated metal-reducing bacteria to effectively remove uranium [U(VI)] from groundwater at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Rifle, Colorado. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and a multidisciplinary team of national laboratory and academic collaborators has embarked on a research proposed for the Rifle site, the object of which is to gain a comprehensive and mechanistic understanding of the microbial factors and associated geochemistry controlling uranium mobility so that DOE can confidently remediate uranium plumes as well as support stewardship of uranium-contaminated sites. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Rifle Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Project.

  4. Analysis of orientation patterns in Olduvai Bed I assemblages using GIS techniques: implications for site formation processes.

    PubMed

    Benito-Calvo, Alfonso; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2011-07-01

    Mary Leakey's excavations at Olduvai Beds I and II provided an unparalleled wealth of data on the archaeology of the early Pleistocene. We have been able to obtain axial orientations of the Bed I bone and stone tools by applying GIS methods to the site plans contained in the Olduvai Volume 3 monograph (Leakey, 1971). Our analysis indicates that the Bed I assemblages show preferred orientations, probably caused by natural agents such as water disturbance. These results, based on new GIS techniques applied to paleoanthropological studies, have important implications for the understanding of the formative agents of Olduvai sites and the behavioral meaning of the bone and lithic accumulations in Bed I. PMID:21470661

  5. Burnout among the addiction counseling workforce: the differential roles of mindfulness and values-based processes and work-site factors.

    PubMed

    Vilardaga, Roger; Luoma, Jason B; Hayes, Steven C; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Levin, Michael E; Hildebrandt, Mikaela J; Kohlenberg, Barbara; Roget, Nancy A; Bond, Frank

    2011-06-01

    Although work-site factors have been shown to be a consistent predictor of burnout, the importance of mindfulness and values-based processes among addiction counselors has been little examined. In this study, we explored how strongly experiential avoidance, cognitive fusion, and values commitment related to burnout after controlling for well-established work-site factors (job control, coworker support, supervisor support, salary, workload, and tenure). We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 699 addiction counselors working for urban substance abuse treatment providers in six states of the United States. Results corroborated the importance of work-site factors for burnout reduction in this specific population, but we found that mindfulness and values-based processes had a stronger and more consistent relationship with burnout as compared with work-site factors. We conclude that interventions that target experiential avoidance, cognitive fusion, and values commitment may provide a possible new direction for the reduction of burnout among addiction counselors. PMID:21257281

  6. Burnout among the Addiction Counseling Workforce: The Differential Roles of Mindfulness and Values-based Processes and Work-site Factors*

    PubMed Central

    Vilardaga, Roger; Luoma, Jason B.; Hayes, Steven C.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Levin, Michael E.; Hildebrandt, Mikaela J.; Kohlenberg, Barbara; Roget, Nancy A.; Bond, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Although work-site factors have been shown to be a consistent predictor of burnout, the importance of mindfulness and values-based processes among addiction counselors has been little examined. In this study we explored how strongly experiential avoidance, cognitive fusion and values commitment related to burnout after controlling for well-established work-site factors (job control, co-worker support, supervisor support, salary, workload and tenure). We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 699 addiction counselors working for urban substance abuse treatment providers in six states of the U.S.A. Results corroborated the importance of work-site factors for burnout reduction in this specific population, but we found that mindfulness and values-based processes had a stronger and more consistent relationship with burnout as compared to work-site factors. We conclude that interventions that target experiential avoidance, cognitive fusion and values commitment may provide a possible new direction for the reduction of burnout among addiction counselors. PMID:21257281

  7. New insights into the QuikChange™ process guide the use of Phusion DNA polymerase for site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yongzhen; Chu, Wenqiao; Qi, Qingsheng; Xun, Luying

    2015-01-01

    The QuikChange™ site-directed mutagenesis method is popular but imperfect. An improvement by using partially overlapping primers has been reported several times; however, it is incompatible with the proposed mechanism. The QuikChange™ method using complementary primers is proposed to linearly amplify a target plasmid with the products annealing to produce double-stranded DNA molecules with 5'-overhangs. The overhang annealing is supposed to form circular plasmids with staggered breaks, which can be repaired in Escherichia coli after transformation. Here, we demonstrated that the PCR enzyme fills the 5'-overhangs in the early cycles, and the product is then used as the template for exponential amplification. The linear DNA molecules with homologous ends are joined to generate the plasmid with the desired mutations through homologous recombination in E. coli. The correct understanding is important to method improvements, guiding us to use partially overlapping primers and Phusion DNA polymerase for site-directed mutagenesis. Phusion did not amplify a plasmid with complementary primers but used partially overlapping primers to amplify the plasmid, producing linear DNA molecules with homologous ends for site-directed mutagenesis. PMID:25399421

  8. Precise localization of m6A in Rous sarcoma virus RNA reveals clustering of methylation sites: implications for RNA processing.

    PubMed

    Kane, S E; Beemon, K

    1985-09-01

    N6-methyladenosine (m6A) residues are present as internal base modifications in most higher eucaryotic mRNAs; however, the biological function of this modification is not known. We describe a method for localizing and quantitating m6A within a large RNA molecule, the genomic RNA of Rous sarcoma virus. Specific fragments of 32P-labeled Rous sarcoma virus RNA were isolated by hybridization with complementary DNA restriction fragments spanning nucleotides 6185 to 8050. RNA was digested with RNase and finger-printed, and individual oligonucleotides were analyzed for the presence of m6A by paper electrophoresis and thin-layer chromatography. With this technique, seven sites of methylation in this region of the Rous sarcoma virus genome were localized at nucleotides 6394, 6447, 6507, 6718, 7414, 7424, and 8014. Further, m6A was observed at two additional sites whose nucleotide assignments remain ambiguous. A clustering of two or more m6A residues was seen at three positions within the RNA analyzed. Modification at certain sites was found to be heterogeneous, in that different molecules of RNA appeared to be methylated differently. Previous studies have determined that methylation occurs only in the sequences Gm6AC and Am6AC. We observed a high frequency of methylation at PuGm6ACU sequences. The possible involvement of m6A in RNA splicing events is discussed. PMID:3016525

  9. Development of major process improvements for decontamination of large, complex, highly radioactive mixed waste items at the Hanford Site T Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.L.; Veilleux, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the decontamination/treatment mission at the Hanford Site, Westinghouse Hanford Company, under contract to the US Department of Energy, conducts decontamination activities at the T Plant complex. Currently, the 221-T canyon High-Level Waste Decontamination Facility and the 2706-T Low-Level Waste Decontamination Facility capabilities are limited because upgrades are needed. Major process improvements must be developed to decontaminate large, complex, highly radioactive mixed-waste items. At the T Plant complex, an engineering team process was used to project possible solid mixed-waste feed streams and develop a preconceptual system to decontaminate and treat the waste. Treatment objectives and benefits were identified. Selected technologies were reviewed and improvements required to implement a preconceptual system at T Plant were considered. Decontamination facility alternatives were discussed in conjunction with ongoing and future decontamination activities at the Hanford Site, including efforts to enhance overall decontamination operations and capabilities.

  10. DOWNSTREAM IMPACTS OF SLUDGE MASS REDUCTION VIA ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION ON DWPF PROCESSING OF SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE - 9382

    SciTech Connect

    Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Michael Hay, M; Daniel McCabe, D

    2009-01-14

    The SRS sludge that was to become a major fraction of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) contained a large fraction of H-Modified PUREX (HM) sludge, containing a large fraction of aluminum compounds that could adversely impact the processing and increase the vitrified waste volume. It is beneficial to reduce the non-radioactive fraction of the sludge to minimize the number of glass waste canisters that must be sent to a Federal Repository. Removal of aluminum compounds, such as boehmite and gibbsite, from sludge can be performed with the addition of NaOH solution and heating the sludge for several days. Preparation of SB5 involved adding sodium hydroxide directly to the waste tank and heating the contents to a moderate temperature through slurry pump operation to remove a fraction of this aluminum. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with demonstrating this process on actual tank waste sludge in our Shielded Cells Facility. This paper evaluates some of the impacts of aluminum dissolution on sludge washing and DWPF processing by comparing sludge processing with and without aluminum dissolution. It was necessary to demonstrate these steps to ensure that the aluminum removal process would not adversely impact the chemical and physical properties of the sludge which could result in slower processing or process upsets in the DWPF.

  11. A Process-based, Climate-Sensitive Model to Derive Methane Emissions from Natural Wetlands: Application to 5 Wetland Sites, Sensitivity to Model Parameters and Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Bernadette P.; Heimann, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Methane emissions from natural wetlands constitutes the largest methane source at present and depends highly on the climate. In order to investigate the response of methane emissions from natural wetlands to climate variations, a 1-dimensional process-based climate-sensitive model to derive methane emissions from natural wetlands is developed. In the model the processes leading to methane emission are simulated within a 1-dimensional soil column and the three different transport mechanisms diffusion, plant-mediated transport and ebullition are modeled explicitly. The model forcing consists of daily values of soil temperature, water table and Net Primary Productivity, and at permafrost sites the thaw depth is included. The methane model is tested using observational data obtained at 5 wetland sites located in North America, Europe and Central America, representing a large variety of environmental conditions. It can be shown that in most cases seasonal variations in methane emissions can be explained by the combined effect of changes in soil temperature and the position of the water table. Our results also show that a process-based approach is needed, because there is no simple relationship between these controlling factors and methane emissions that applies to a variety of wetland sites. The sensitivity of the model to the choice of key model parameters is tested and further sensitivity tests are performed to demonstrate how methane emissions from wetlands respond to climate variations.

  12. Multi-criteria site selection for fire services: the interaction with analytic hierarchy process and geographic information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erden, T.; Coşkun, M. Z.

    2010-10-01

    This study combines AHP and GIS to provide decision makers with a model to ensure optimal site location(s) for fire stations selected. The roles of AHP and GIS in determining optimal locations are explained, criteria for site selection are outlined, and case study results for finding the optimal fire station locations in Istanbul, Turkey are included. The city of Istanbul has about 13 million residents and is the largest and most populated city in Turkey. The rapid and constant growth of Istanbul has resulted in the increased number of fire related cases. Fire incidents tend to increase year by year in parallel with city expansion, population and hazardous material facilities. Istanbul has seen a rise in reported fire incidents from 12 769 in 1994 to 30 089 in 2009 according to the interim report of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality Department of Fire Brigade. The average response time was approximately 7 min 3 s in 2009. The goal of this study is to propose optimal sites for new fire station creation to allow the Fire Brigade in Istanbul to reduce the average response time to 5 min or less. After determining the necessity of suggesting additional fire stations, the following steps are taken into account: six criteria are considered in this analysis. They are: High Population Density (HPD); Proximity to Main Roads (PMR); Distance from Existing Fire Stations (DEF); Distance from Hazardous Material Facilities (DHM); Wooden Building Density (WBD); and Distance from the Areas Subjected to Earthquake Risk (DER). DHM criterion, with the weight of 40%, is the most important criterion in this analysis. The remaining criteria have a weight range from 9% to 16%. Moreover, the following steps are performed: representation of criterion map layers in GIS environment; classification of raster datasets; calculating the result raster map (suitability map for potential fire stations); and offering a model that supports decision makers in selecting fire station sites. The existing

  13. Soil suspension/dispersion modeling methods for estimating health-based soil cleanup levels of hexavalent chromium at chromite ore processing residue sites.

    PubMed

    Scott, Paul K; Proctor, Deborah

    2008-03-01

    The primary health concern associated with exposures to chromite ore processing residue (COPR)-affected soils is inhalation of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] particulates. Site-specific soil alternative remediation standards (ARSs) are set using soil suspension and dispersion models to be protective of the theoretical excess cancer risk associated with inhalation of soil suspended by vehicle traffic and wind. The purpose of this study was to update a previous model comparison study that identified the 1995 AP-42 particulate emission model for vehicle traffic over unpaved roads and the Fugitive Dust Model (FDM) as the most appropriate model combination for estimating site-specific ARSs. Because the AP-42 model has been revised, we have updated our past evaluation. Specifically, the 2006 AP-42 particulate emissions model; the Industrial Source Complex-Short Term model, version 3 (ISCST3); and the American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) air dispersion models were evaluated, and the results were compared with those from the previously used modeling approaches. Two sites with and two sites without vehicle traffic were evaluated to determine if wind erosion is a significant source of emissions. For the two sites with vehicle traffic, both FDM and ISCST3 produced total suspended particulate (TSP) estimates that were, on average, within a factor of 2 of measured; whereas AERMOD produced estimates that were as much as 5-fold higher than measured. In general, the estimated TSP concentrations for FDM were higher than those for ISCST3. For airborne Cr(VI), the ISCST3 model produced estimates that were only 2- to 8-fold of the measured concentrations, and both FDM and AERMOD estimated airborne Cr(VI) concentrations that were approximately 4- to 14-fold higher than measured. Results using the 1995 AP-42 model were closer to measured than those from the 2006 AP-42 model. Wind erosion was an insignificant contributor to particulate

  14. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Durango, Colorado: Attachment 6, Supplemental standard for Durango processing site. Revised final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    Excavation control to the 15 pCi/g radium-226 (Ra-226) standard at certain areas along the Animas River on the Durango Site would require extensive engineering and construction support. Elevated Ra-226 concentrations have been encountered immediately adjacent to the river at depths in excess of 7 feet below the present river stage. Decontamination to such depths to ensure compliance with the EPA standards will, in our opinion, become unreasonable. This work does not appear to be in keeping with the intent of the standards. Because the principal reason for radium removal is reduction of radon daughter concentrations (RDC) in homes to be built onsite, and because radon produced at depth will be attenuated in clean fill cover before entering such homes, it is appropriate to calculate the depth of excavation needed under a home to reduce RDC to acceptable levels. Potential impact was assessed through radon emanation estimation, using the RAECOM computer model. Elevated Ra-226 concentrations were encountered during final radium excavation of the flood plain below the large tailings pile, adjacent to the slag area. Data from 7 test pits excavated across the area were analyzed to provide an estimate of the Ra-226 concentration profile. Results are given in this report.

  15. Aberrant hepatic processing causes removal of activation peptide and primary polymerisation site from fibrinogen Canterbury (A alpha 20 Val --> Asp).

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, S O; Hammonds, B; George, P M

    1995-01-01

    A novel mechanism of molecular disease was uncovered in a patient with prolonged thrombin time and a mild bleeding tendency. DNA sequencing of the fibrinogen A alpha chain indicated heterozygosity for a mutation of 20 Val --> Asp. The molar ratio of fibrinopeptide A to B released by thrombin was substantially reduced at 0.64 suggesting either impaired cleavage or that the majority of the variant alpha chains lacked the A peptide. The latter novel proposal arises from the observation that the mutation changes the normal 16R G P R V20 sequence to R G P R D creating a potential furin cleavage site at Arg 19. Synthetic peptides incorporating both sequences were tested as substrates for both thrombin and furin. There was no substantial difference in the thrombin catalyzed cleavage. However, the variant peptide, but not the normal, was rapidly cleaved at Arg 19 by furin. Predictably intracellular cleavage of the Aalpha-chain at Arg 19 would remove fibrinopeptide A together with the G P R polymerisation site. This was confirmed by sequence analysis of fibrinogen Aalpha chains after isolation by SDS-PAGE. The expected normal sequence was detected together with a new sequence (D V E R H Q S A-) commencing at residue 20. Truncation was further verified by nonreducing SDS-PAGE of the NH2-terminal disulfide knot which indicated the presence of aberrant homo- and heterodimers. Images PMID:8675656

  16. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) Applications for Mars Science Laboratory Mission Site Selection Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, H. L.; Justus, C. G.

    2007-01-01

    The new Mars-GRAM auxiliary profile capability, using data from TES observations, mesoscale model output, or other sources, allows a potentially higher fidelity representation of the atmosphere, and a more accurate way of estimating inherent uncertainty in atmospheric density and winds. Figure 3 indicates that, with nominal value rpscale=1, Mars-GRAM perturbations would tend to overestimate observed or mesoscale-modeled variability. To better represent TES and mesoscale model density perturbations, rpscale values as low as about 0.4 could be used. Some trajectory model implementations of Mars-GRAM allow the user to dynamically change rpscale and rwscale values with altitude. Figure 4 shows that an mscale value of about 1.2 would better replicate wind standard deviations from MRAMS or MMM5 simulations at the Gale, Terby, or Melas sites. By adjusting the rpscale and rwscale values in Mars-GRAM based on figures such as Figure 3 and 4, we can provide more accurate end-to-end simulations for EDL at the candidate MSL landing sites.

  17. Local atomic structure and oxidation processes of Cu(I) binding site in amyloid beta peptide: XAS Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremennaya, M. A.; Soldatov, M. A.; Stretsov, V. A.; Soldatov, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    There are two different motifs of X-ray absorption spectra for Cu(I) K-edge in amyloid-β peptide which could be due to two different configurations of local Cu(I) environment. Two or three histidine ligands can coordinate copper ion in varying conformations. On the other hand, oxidation of amyloid-β peptide could play an additional role in local copper environment. In order to explore the peculiarities of local atomic and electronic structure of Cu(I) binding sites in amyloid-β peptide the x-ray absorption spectra were simulated for various Cu(I) environments including oxidized amyloid-β and compared with experimental data.

  18. MEASUREMENTS TAKEN IN SUPPORT OF QUALIFICATION OF PROCESSING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE LOW-LEVEL LIQUID WASTE INTO SALTSTONE

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.; Bibler, N.; Diprete, C.; Cozzi, A.; Staub, A.; Ray, J.

    2010-01-27

    The Saltstone Facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) immobilizes low-level liquid waste into Saltstone to be disposed of in the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility, Class Three Landfill. In order to meet the permit conditions and regulatory limits set by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), both the low-level salt solution and Saltstone samples are analyzed quarterly. Waste acceptance criteria (WAC) are designed to confirm the salt solution sample from the Tank Farm meets specific radioactive and chemical limits. The toxic characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) is used to confirm that the treatment has immobilized the hazardous constituents of the salt solution. This paper discusses the methods used to characterize the salt solution and final Saltstone samples from 2007-2009.

  19. Identification of tubulin drug binding sites and prediction of relative differences in binding affinities to tubulin isotypes using digital signal processing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Huzil, J Torin; Freedman, Holly; Ramachandran, Parameswaran; Antoniou, Andreas; Tuszynski, Jack A; Kurgan, Lukasz

    2008-11-01

    Microtubules are involved in numerous cellular processes including chromosome segregation during mitosis and, as a result, their constituent protein, tubulin, has become a successful target of several chemotherapeutic drugs. In general, these drugs bind indiscriminately to tubulin within both cancerous and healthy cells, resulting in unwanted side effects. However, differences between beta-tubulin isotypes expressed in a wide range of cell types may aid in the development of anti-tubulin drugs having increased specificity for only certain types of cells. Here, we describe a digital signal processing (DSP) method that is capable of predicting hot spots for the tubulin family of proteins as well as determining relative differences in binding affinities to these hot spots based only on the primary sequence of 10 human tubulin isotypes. Due to the fact that several drug binding sites have already been characterized within beta-tubulin, we are able to correlate hot spots with the binding sites for known chemotherapy drugs. We have also verified the accuracy of this method using the correlation between the binding affinities of characterized drugs and the tubulin isotypes. Additionally, the DSP method enables the rapid estimation of relative differences in binding affinities within the binding sites of tubulin isotypes that are yet to be experimentally determined. PMID:18951052

  20. Process studies in modern glacial environments: An innovative method and tool for subsurface site characterization at U.S. Army Alaska installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evenson, E. B.; Lawson, D. E.; Kopczynski, S. E.; Finnegan, D. C.; Bigl, S. R.; Fosbrook, C.

    2002-12-01

    Subsurface stratigraphy in previously glaciated terrain is complex and difficult to interpret. Textbook models illustrating glacial and periglacial environments are often too idealized to serve as adequate analogs to interpret site-specific subsurface data. Models of emplacement generally provide the perspective of glacial and periglacial processes at synoptic scales. While these models are useful to understand general principles, these models are insufficient to provide geologic information at resolutions necessary for quantitative environmental remediation efforts. Contaminated sites on U.S. Army Alaska Installations are characterized by glacially driven complex subsurface stratigraphy. These subsurface conditions cannot entirely be defined through boreholes, nor can geophysical data (ground penetrating radar, shallow seismics, etc.) be readily interpreted through existing conceptual models, especially in areas of discontinuous permafrost (Fort Wainwright, central Alaska) or formerly glaciated terrains (Fort Richardson, South Central Alaska; Haines Fuel Terminal, Southeast Alaska). Process studies at modern glacier locales, such as the Matanuska Glacier and Glacier Bay, allow us to apply actual field-process observations at a variety of scales to characterize site-specific stratigraphy. This work has led us to refine our geophysical approaches to detect the presence of buried ice, permafrost and sediment layers in active terrestrial and tidewater glacial environments, which has greatly enhanced our ability to map the vertical and lateral distribution of confining layers in our investigative areas (i.e. permafrost and sediments). These data and process observations are synthesized as three-dimensional models allowing us to predict the probable spatial distribution and relationships that exist among aquifers and their confining units. This approach allows us the ability to accurately develop subsurface models that are essential in developing groundwater models to

  1. Influenza Vaccine Manufacturing: Effect of Inactivation, Splitting and Site of Manufacturing. Comparison of Influenza Vaccine Production Processes.

    PubMed

    Kon, Theone C; Onu, Adrian; Berbecila, Laurentiu; Lupulescu, Emilia; Ghiorgisor, Alina; Kersten, Gideon F; Cui, Yi-Qing; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Van der Pol, Leo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different inactivation and splitting procedures on influenza vaccine product composition, stability and recovery to support transfer of process technology. Four split and two whole inactivated virus (WIV) influenza vaccine bulks were produced and compared with respect to release criteria, stability of the bulk and haemagglutinin recovery. One clarified harvest of influenza H3N2 A/Uruguay virus prepared on 25.000 fertilized eggs was divided equally over six downstream processes. The main unit operation for purification was sucrose gradient zonal ultracentrifugation. The inactivation of the virus was performed with either formaldehyde in phosphate buffer or with beta-propiolactone in citrate buffer. For splitting of the viral products in presence of Tween®, either Triton™ X-100 or di-ethyl-ether was used. Removal of ether was established by centrifugation and evaporation, whereas removal of Triton-X100 was performed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. All products were sterile filtered and subjected to a 5 months real time stability study. In all processes, major product losses were measured after sterile filtration; with larger losses for split virus than for WIV. The beta-propiolactone inactivation on average resulted in higher recoveries compared to processes using formaldehyde inactivation. Especially ether split formaldehyde product showed low recovery and least stability over a period of five months. PMID:26959983

  2. Influenza Vaccine Manufacturing: Effect of Inactivation, Splitting and Site of Manufacturing. Comparison of Influenza Vaccine Production Processes

    PubMed Central

    Kon, Theone C.; Onu, Adrian; Berbecila, Laurentiu; Lupulescu, Emilia; Ghiorgisor, Alina; Kersten, Gideon F.; Cui, Yi-Qing; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Van der Pol, Leo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different inactivation and splitting procedures on influenza vaccine product composition, stability and recovery to support transfer of process technology. Four split and two whole inactivated virus (WIV) influenza vaccine bulks were produced and compared with respect to release criteria, stability of the bulk and haemagglutinin recovery. One clarified harvest of influenza H3N2 A/Uruguay virus prepared on 25.000 fertilized eggs was divided equally over six downstream processes. The main unit operation for purification was sucrose gradient zonal ultracentrifugation. The inactivation of the virus was performed with either formaldehyde in phosphate buffer or with beta-propiolactone in citrate buffer. For splitting of the viral products in presence of Tween®, either Triton™ X-100 or di-ethyl-ether was used. Removal of ether was established by centrifugation and evaporation, whereas removal of Triton-X100 was performed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. All products were sterile filtered and subjected to a 5 months real time stability study. In all processes, major product losses were measured after sterile filtration; with larger losses for split virus than for WIV. The beta-propiolactone inactivation on average resulted in higher recoveries compared to processes using formaldehyde inactivation. Especially ether split formaldehyde product showed low recovery and least stability over a period of five months. PMID:26959983

  3. ''History of Theatre'' Web Sites: A Brief History of the Writing Process in a High School ESL Language Arts Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Susan; Huot, Diane; Hamers, Josiane; Lemonnier, France H.

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on how Quebec Francophone high school students, enrolled in a program which featured an environment rich in information and communication technologies (ICTs), appropriated the writing process over a four-year period (Grades 7-10) in the context of their ESL language arts courses. Data for the study were obtained using…

  4. 15 CFR 713.2 - Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce, process or consume Schedule 2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... same plant through chemical reaction, including any associated processes (e.g., purification... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS... chemical in excess of any of the following declaration threshold quantities: (1) 1 kilogram of chemical...

  5. 15 CFR 713.2 - Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce, process or consume Schedule 2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... same plant through chemical reaction, including any associated processes (e.g., purification... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS... chemical in excess of any of the following declaration threshold quantities: (1) 1 kilogram of chemical...

  6. 15 CFR 713.2 - Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce, process or consume Schedule 2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... same plant through chemical reaction, including any associated processes (e.g., purification... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS... chemical in excess of any of the following declaration threshold quantities: (1) 1 kilogram of chemical...

  7. 15 CFR 713.2 - Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce, process or consume Schedule 2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... same plant through chemical reaction, including any associated processes (e.g., purification... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS... chemical in excess of any of the following declaration threshold quantities: (1) 1 kilogram of chemical...

  8. Electro-Mechanical Manipulator for Use in the Remote Equipment Decontamination Cell at the Defense Waste Processing Facility, Savannah River Site - 12454

    SciTech Connect

    Lambrecht, Bill; Dixon, Joe; Neuville, John R.

    2012-07-01

    One of the legacies of the cold war is millions of liters of radioactive waste. One of the locations where this waste is stored is at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. A major effort to clean up this waste is on-going at the defense waste processing facility (DWPF) at SRS. A piece of this effort is decontamination of the equipment used in the DWPF to process the waste. The remote equipment decontamination cell (REDC) in the DWPF uses electro-mechanical manipulators (EMM) arms manufactured and supplied by PaR Systems to decontaminate DWPF process equipment. The decontamination fluid creates a highly corrosive environment. After 25 years of operational use the original EMM arms are aging and need replacement. To support continued operation of the DWPF, two direct replacement EMM arms were delivered to the REDC in the summer of 2011. (authors)

  9. Radiological audit of remedial action activities at the processing sites Mexican Hat, Utah and Monument Valley, Arizona. Audit date: May 3--7, 1993, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-05-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project`s Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) performed a radiological audit of the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), MK-Ferguson and CWM Federal Environmental Services, Inc., at the processing sites in Mexican Hat, Utah, and Monument Valley, Arizona. This audit was conducted May 3--7, 1993, by Bill James and Gerry Simiele of the TAC. Three site-specific findings and four observations were identified during the audit and are presented in this report. The overall conclusion from the audit is that the majority of the radiological aspects of the Mexican Hat, Utah, and Monument Valley, Arizona, remedial action programs are performed adequately. However, the findings identify that there is some inconsistency in following procedures and meeting requirements for contamination control, and a lack of communication between the RAC and the DOE on variances from the published remedial action plan (RAP).

  10. Evaluation of ocean color data processing schemes for VIIRS sensor using in-situ data of coastal AERONET-OC sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, S.; Gilerson, A.; Hlaing, S.; Weidemann, A.; Arnone, R.; Wang, M.

    2013-10-01

    In the processing of Ocean Color (OC) data from sensor data recorded by Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard JPSS-Suomi satellite, NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) is deriving a continuous temporal calibration based on the on-board calibration measurements for the visible bands, and then reprocessing the full mission to produce a continuously calibrated sensor data record (SDR) product. In addition, a vicarious calibration during SDR to OC Level-2 processing is applied. In the latest processing the vicarious calibration is derived from the Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) data, whereas in the initial processing it was derived from a sea surface reflectance model and a climatology of chlorophyll-a concentration. Furthermore, NASA has recently reprocessed the OC data for the entire VIIRS mission with lunar-based temporal calibration and updated vicarious gains. On the other hand, in fulfilling the mission of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS) developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems, for the processing of the environmental data products from sensor data records, has gained beta status for evaluation. As these processing schemes continue to evolve, monitoring the validity and assessments of the related VIIRS ocean color products are necessary, especially for coastal waters, to evaluate the consistency of these processing and calibration schemes. The ocean color component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET-OC) has been designed to support long-term satellite ocean color investigations through cross-site measurements collected by autonomous multispectral radiometer systems deployed above water. As part of this network, the Long Island Sound Coastal Observatory (LISCO) near New York City and WaveCIS in the Gulf of Mexico expand those observational capabilities with continuous monitoring as well as (for the LISCO site) additional assessment of the

  11. Robust Patterns and Process Insight from Multi-Site, Multi-Proxy, Multi-Region Holocene Paleohydrologic Reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuman, B. N.; Serravezza, M.; Marsicek, J.

    2014-12-01

    Holocene moisture trends provide a useful context for historic hydrologic variations and potential future changes, and serve as key benchmarks for assessing paleoclimate dynamics. Many different approaches exist for paleohydrologic reconstruction, and comparisons offer an opportunity to validate key patterns and gain information based on differences. We consider multiple datasets from two mid-latitude regions of North America to evaluate centennial-to-millennial hydrologic variability during the Holocene. Comparisons of proxies at individual sites (i.e., pollen-inferred precipitation, reconstructed lake levels, hydrogen isotope ratios of biomarkers) and comparisons of proxies across sites in different hydrologic settings (i.e., closed vrs open lakes) provide insight into regional changes, while differences between the semi-arid (Wyoming) and humid (New England) regions reveal shifts in continental-scale moisture gradients. Pollen-inferred precipitation records were developed using the modern analog technique, which matches fossil pollen data to the climates of equivalent modern pollen assemblages. Lake moisture budgets were quantified in terms of mm/yr of precipitation minus evapotranspiration based on water-level histories systematically reconstructed from transects of sediment cores and geophysical data. Comparisons of the budgets for open and closed lakes, which have modern lake water isotopic values consistent with no or substantial evaporative losses respectively, were used to differentiate precipitation and evapotranspiration trends. Hydrogen isotopic values of aquatic versus terrestrial biomarkers, as well as comparisons with oxygen isotopic values of carbonate sediment, provide additional constrains on the magnitude of past evaporation trends that enrich the heavy isotope composition of lake water and thus aquatic substrates. In New England, pollen-inferred precipitation trends closely agree (Adj. R2 = 0.80) with replicated lake-level reconstructions, which

  12. Uncoupled hydrogen and volatile fatty acids generation in a two-step biotechnological anaerobic process fed with actual site wastewater.

    PubMed

    Monti, Matilde; Scoma, Alberto; Martinez, Gonzalo; Bertin, Lorenzo; Fava, Fabio

    2015-05-25

    Among agro-wastes, olive mill wastewater (OMW) truly qualifies as a high impact organic residue due to its biochemical-rich composition and high annual production. In the present investigation, dephenolized OMW (OMWdeph) was employed as the feedstock for a biotechnological two-stage anaerobic process dedicated to the production of biohydrogen and volatile fatty acids (VFAs), respectively. To this end, two identically configured packed-bed biofilm reactors were operated sequentially. In the first, the hydraulic retention time was set to 1 day, whereas in the second it was equal to 5 days. The rationale was to decouple the hydrolysis of the organic macronutrients held by the OMWdeph, so as to quantitatively generate a biogas enriched in H2 (first stage aim), for the acidogenesis of the residual components left after hydrolysis, to then produce a highly concentrated mixture of VFAs (second stage aim). Results showed that the generation of H2 and VFAs was effectively split, with carbohydrates and lipids, respectively, being the main substrates of the two processes. About 250 ml H2 L(-1) day(-1) was produced, corresponding to a yield of 0.36 mol mol(-1) of consumed carbohydrates (expressed as glucose equivalents). The overall concentration of VFAs in the acidogenic process was 13.80 g COD L(-1), so that 2.76 g COD L(-1) day(-1) was obtained. Second generation biorefineries use a selected fraction of an organic waste to conduct a microbiologically-driven pathway towards the generation of one target molecule. With the proposed approach, a greater value of the waste was attained, since the multi-purpose two-stage process did not entail competition for substrates between the first and the second steps. PMID:25174889

  13. Simple processes drive unpredictable differences in estuarine fish assemblages: Baselines for understanding site-specific ecological and anthropogenic impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheaves, Marcus

    2016-03-01

    Predicting patterns of abundance and composition of biotic assemblages is essential to our understanding of key ecological processes, and our ability to monitor, evaluate and manage assemblages and ecosystems. Fish assemblages often vary from estuary to estuary in apparently unpredictable ways, making it challenging to develop a general understanding of the processes that determine assemblage composition. This makes it problematic to transfer understanding from one estuary situation to another and therefore difficult to assemble effective management plans or to assess the impacts of natural and anthropogenic disturbance. Although system-to-system variability is a common property of ecological systems, rather than being random it is the product of complex interactions of multiple causes and effects at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. I investigate the drivers of differences in estuary fish assemblages, to develop a simple model explaining the diversity and complexity of observed estuary-to-estuary differences, and explore its implications for management and conservation. The model attributes apparently unpredictable differences in fish assemblage composition from estuary to estuary to the interaction of species-specific, life history-specific and scale-specific processes. In explaining innate faunal differences among estuaries without the need to invoke complex ecological or anthropogenic drivers, the model provides a baseline against which the effects of additional natural and anthropogenic factors can be evaluated.

  14. Rare earth elements of seep carbonates: Indication for redox variations and microbiological processes at modern seep sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Dong; Lin, Zhijia; Bian, Youyan; Chen, Duofu; Peckmann, Jörn; Bohrmann, Gerhard; Roberts, Harry H.

    2013-03-01

    At marine seeps, methane is microbially oxidized resulting in the precipitation of carbonates close to the seafloor. Methane oxidation leads to sulfate depletion in sediment pore water, which induces a change in redox conditions. Rare earth element (REE) patterns of authigenic carbonate phases collected from modern seeps of the Gulf of Mexico, the Black Sea, and the Congo Fan were analyzed. Different carbonate minerals including aragonite and calcite with different crystal habits have been selected for analysis. Total REE content (ΣREE) of seep carbonates varies widely, from 0.1 ppm to 42.5 ppm, but a common trend is that the ΣREE in microcrystalline phases is higher than that of the associated later phases including micospar, sparite and blocky cement, suggesting that ΣREE may be a function of diagenesis. The shale-normalized REE patterns of the seep carbonates often show different Ce anomalies even in samples from a specific site, suggesting that the formation conditions of seep carbonates are variable and complex. Overall, our results show that apart from anoxic, oxic conditions are at least temporarily common in seep environments.

  15. Development of a Performance and Processing Property Acceptance Region for Cementitious Low-Level Waste Forms at Savannah River Site - 13174

    SciTech Connect

    Staub, Aaron V.; Reigel, Marissa M.

    2013-07-01

    The Saltstone Production and Disposal Facilities (SPF and SDF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have been treating decontaminated salt solution, a low-level aqueous waste stream (LLW) since facility commissioning in 1990. In 2012, the Saltstone Facilities implemented a new Performance Assessment (PA) that incorporates an alternate design for the disposal facility to ensure that the performance objectives of DOE Order 435.1 and the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) of Fiscal Year 2005 Section 3116 are met. The PA performs long term modeling of the waste form, disposal facility, and disposal site hydrogeology to determine the transport history of radionuclides disposed in the LLW. Saltstone has been successfully used to dispose of LLW in a grout waste form for 15 years. Numerous waste form property assumptions directly impact the fate and transport modeling performed in the PA. The extent of process variability and consequence on performance properties are critical to meeting the assumptions of the PA. The SPF has ensured performance property acceptability by way of implementing control strategies that ensure the process operates within the analyzed limits of variability, but efforts continue to improve the understanding of facility performance in relation to the PA analysis. A similar understanding of the impact of variability on processing parameters is important from the standpoint of the operability of the production facility. The fresh grout slurry properties (particularly slurry rheology and the rate of hydration and structure formation) of the waste form directly impact the pressure and flow rates that can be reliably processed. It is thus equally important to quantify the impact of variability on processing parameters to ensure that the design basis assumptions for the production facility are maintained. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has been pursuing a process that will ultimately establish a property acceptance region (PAR) to incorporate

  16. Quality assessment of Isfahan Medical Faculty web site electronic services and prioritizing solutions using analytic hierarchy process approach

    PubMed Central

    Hajrahimi, Nafiseh; Dehaghani, Sayed Mehdi Hejazi; Hajrahimi, Nargess; Sarmadi, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Context: Implementing information technology in the best possible way can bring many advantages such as applying electronic services and facilitating tasks. Therefore, assessment of service providing systems is a way to improve the quality and elevate these systems including e-commerce, e-government, e-banking, and e-learning. Aims: This study was aimed to evaluate the electronic services in the website of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in order to propose solutions to improve them. Furthermore, we aim to rank the solutions based on the factors that enhance the quality of electronic services by using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method. Materials and Methods: Non-parametric test was used to assess the quality of electronic services. The assessment of propositions was based on Aqual model and they were prioritized using AHP approach. The AHP approach was used because it directly applies experts’ deductions in the model, and lead to more objective results in the analysis and prioritizing the risks. After evaluating the quality of the electronic services, a multi-criteria decision making frame-work was used to prioritize the proposed solutions. Statistical Analysis Used: Non-parametric tests and AHP approach using Expert Choice software. Results: The results showed that students were satisfied in most of the indicators. Only a few indicators received low satisfaction from students including, design attractiveness, the amount of explanation and details of information, honesty and responsiveness of authorities, and the role of e-services in the user's relationship with university. After interviewing with Information and Communications Technology (ICT) experts at the university, measurement criteria, and solutions to improve the quality were collected. The best solutions were selected by EC software. According to the results, the solution “controlling and improving the process in handling users complaints” is of the utmost importance and authorities

  17. Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956)- An Assessment of Quantities released, Off-Site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Apostoaei, A.I.; Burns, R.E.; Hoffman, F.O.; Ijaz, T.; Lewis, C.J.; Nair, S.K.; Widner, T.E.

    1999-07-01

    In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. One of the major contaminants studied in the dose reconstruction was radioactive iodine, which was released to the air by X-10 (now called Oak Ridge National Laboratory) as it processed spent nuclear reactor fuel from 1944 through 1956. The process recovered radioactive lanthanum for use in weapons development. Iodine concentrates in the thyroid gland so health concerns include various diseases of the thyroid, such as thyroid cancer. The large report, ''Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956) - An Assessment of Quantities Released, Off-site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer,'' is in two volumes. Volume 1 is the main body of the report, and Volume 1A, which has the same title, consists of 22 supporting appendices. Together, these reports serve the following purposes: (1) describe the methodologies used to estimate the amount of iodine-131 (I-131) released; (2) evaluate I-131's pathway from air to vegetation to food to humans; (3) estimate doses received by human thyroids; (4) estimate excess risk of acquiring a thyroid cancer during ones lifetime; and (5) provide equations, examples of historical documents used, and tables of calculated values. Results indicate that females born in 1952 who consumed milk from a goat pastured a few miles east of X-10 received the highest doses from I-131 and would have had the highest risks of contracting thyroid cancer. Doses from cow's milk are considerably less . Detailed

  18. Process Design and Economics of On-Site Cellulase Production on Various Carbon Sources in a Softwood-Based Ethanol Plant

    PubMed Central

    Barta, Zsolt; Kovacs, Krisztina; Reczey, Kati; Zacchi, Guido

    2010-01-01

    On-site cellulase enzyme fermentation in a softwood-to-ethanol process, based on SO2-catalysed steam pretreatment followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, was investigated from a techno-economic aspect using Aspen Plus© and Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator© softwares. The effect of varying the carbon source of enzyme fermentation, at constant protein and mycelium yields, was monitored through the whole process. Enzyme production step decreased the overall ethanol yield (270 L/dry tonne of raw material in the case of purchased enzymes) by 5–16 L/tonne. Capital cost was found to be the main cost contributor to enzyme fermentation, constituting to 60–78% of the enzyme production cost, which was in the range of 0.42–0.53 SEK/L ethanol. The lowest minimum ethanol selling prices (4.71 and 4.82 SEK/L) were obtained in those scenarios, where pretreated liquid fraction supplemented with molasses was used as carbon source. In some scenarios, on-site enzyme fermentation was found to be a feasible alternative. PMID:21048869

  19. Evapotranspiration And Geochemical Controls On Groundwater Plumes At Arid Sites: Toward Innovative Alternate End-States For Uranium Processing And Tailings Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.; Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.; Millings, Margaret R.; Kautsky, Mark

    2014-01-08

    Management of legacy tailings/waste and groundwater contamination are ongoing at the former uranium milling site in Tuba City AZ. The tailings have been consolidated and effectively isolated using an engineered cover system. For the existing groundwater plume, a system of recovery wells extracts contaminated groundwater for treatment using an advanced distillation process. The ten years of pump and treat (P&T) operations have had minimal impact on the contaminant plume – primarily due to geochemical and hydrological limits. A flow net analysis demonstrates that groundwater contamination beneath the former processing site flows in the uppermost portion of the aquifer and exits the groundwater as the plume transits into and beneath a lower terrace in the landscape. The evaluation indicates that contaminated water will not reach Moenkopi Wash, a locally important stream. Instead, shallow groundwater in arid settings such as Tuba City is transferred into the vadose zone and atmosphere via evaporation, transpiration and diffuse seepage. The dissolved constituents are projected to precipitate and accumulate as minerals such as calcite and gypsum in the deep vadose zone (near the capillary fringe), around the roots of phreatophyte plants, and near seeps. The natural hydrologic and geochemical controls common in arid environments such as Tuba City work together to limit the size of the groundwater plume, to naturally attenuate and detoxify groundwater contaminants, and to reduce risks to humans, livestock and the environment. The technical evaluation supports an alternative beneficial reuse (“brownfield”) scenario for Tuba City. This alternative approach would have low risks, similar to the current P&T scenario, but would eliminate the energy and expense associated with the active treatment and convert the former uranium processing site into a resource for future employment of local citizens and ongoing benefit to the Native American Nations.

  20. Assessment of microbial quality of fish processing industrial effluent in bar-mouth at Bhidia landing site, Veraval, Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Sivaraman, G K; Visnuvinayagam, S; Jha, Ashish Kumar; Renuka, V; Remya, S; Vanik, Deesha

    2016-07-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the microbial quality of fish processing industries effluent at Bhidia bar-mouth, Veraval, Gujarat during April, 2012 to March 2013. The total viable bacterial count (TVBC), total Enterobacteriaceae count, E. coli count (EC), Staphylococcus aureus and Fecal Streptococcal count in effluent ranged from 3.0 x 10(-1) to 6.8 x 10(6), 9.0 x 10(1) to 2.9 x 10(4), 0 to 0. 5 x 10(4), 0 to 0. 4 x 102 and 0.3 x 10(1) to 0. 1 x 10(4) cfu.(-1)respectively. Significantly higher load of TEC, E. coli, S.aureus, Fecal Streptococci, Total coliforms and Fecal coliforms were higher during summer whereas, TVBC was higher in the month of Sept.-Oct. Furthermore, the total coliform and fecal coliform counts were found to be higher with 1400+ /100 ml MPN value throughout the year of the study, except in the month of August. Overall occurrence of pathogenic strains of E. coli, S. aureus and Fecal streptococci were 41.67%, 25.00% and 66.67% respectively during this period. The antibiogram of the isolated E. coli isolates show that almost 50% were resistant to Cefazidime/Clavulanic acid (CAC), Amoxyclav (AMC), Ciprofloxacin (CIF) and Ampicillin (AMP). The present study indicated that the effluent of fish processing industry was heavily contaminated with E. coli, S. aureus and Fecal Streptococci which confirmed improper treatment of fish processing effluent. Moreover, the precedence of antibiotic resistant E. coli may pose threat to public health safety. PMID:27498498

  1. Environmental assessment operation of the HB-Line facility and frame waste recovery process for production of Pu-238 oxide at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0948, addressing future operations of the HB-Line facility and the Frame Waste Recovery process at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, DOE has concluded that, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  2. Geochemical Processes Data Package for the Vadose Zone in the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Zachara, John M.; Dresel, P. Evan; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2007-09-28

    This data package discusses the geochemistry of vadose zone sediments beneath the single-shell tank farms at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site. The purpose of the report is to provide a review of the most recent and relevant geochemical process information available for the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tank farms and the Integrated Disposal Facility. Two companion reports to this one were recently published which discuss the geology of the farms (Reidel and Chamness 2007) and groundwater flow and contamination beneath the farms (Horton 2007).

  3. Concentrations and solubility of trace elements in fine particles at a mountain site, southern China: regional sources and cloud processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T.; Wang, Y.; Li, W. J.; Chen, J. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, W. X.

    2015-08-01

    The concentrations and solubility of twelve trace elements in PM2.5 at Mt. Lushan, southern China, were investigated during the summer of 2011 and the spring of 2012. The average PM2.5 mass was 55.2 ± 20.1 μg m-3 during the observation period. Temporal variations of all trace elements including total and water-soluble fractions with several dust storm spikes in total fractions of Al and Fe were observed. The enrichment factor (EF) values were 1 order of magnitude higher for the water-soluble fractions versus the total fractions of trace elements. Four major emission sources, namely nonferrous metal mining and smelting (for Cr, As, Ba and parts of Zn), coal combustion (for Pb, Zn, Se, Cu and Mn), crustal materials (for Al and Fe) and municipal solid waste incineration (for Cd and Mo), were classified by principal component analysis (PCA). Trajectory cluster analysis and the potential source contribution function (PSCF) consistently identified the Yangtze River delta (YRD), the Pearl River delta (PRD), and the neighbouring provinces of Mt. Lushan as the major source regions and transport pathways for anthropogenic elements. Northern China was identified as a major source region for crustal elements. It should be noted that apart from the YRD, the area around Mt. Lushan has become the most significant contributor to the solubility of most trace elements. Element solubility can be partially determined by emission sources. However, enhanced solubility of trace elements corresponding to increased concentrations of sulfate after the occurrence of cloud events indicated significant effects of cloud processing on aerosol element dissolution. Metal particles mixed with sulfate in cloud droplet residues were further investigated through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Irreversible alteration of particle morphology by cloud processing was confirmed to be highly responsible for the enhancement of trace element solubility. The findings from this study imply an

  4. Use of chemical modification and mass spectrometry to identify substrate-contacting sites in proteinaceous RNase P, a tRNA processing enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tien-Hao; Tanimoto, Akiko; Shkriabai, Nikoloz; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka; Wysocki, Vicki; Gopalan, Venkat

    2016-01-01

    Among all enzymes in nature, RNase P is unique in that it can use either an RNA- or a protein-based active site for its function: catalyzing cleavage of the 5′-leader from precursor tRNAs (pre-tRNAs). The well-studied catalytic RNase P RNA uses a specificity module to recognize the pre-tRNA and a catalytic module to perform cleavage. Similarly, the recently discovered proteinaceous RNase P (PRORP) possesses two domains – pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) and metallonuclease (NYN) – that are present in some other RNA processing factors. Here, we combined chemical modification of lysines and multiple-reaction monitoring mass spectrometry to identify putative substrate-contacting residues in Arabidopsis thaliana PRORP1 (AtPRORP1), and subsequently validated these candidate sites by site-directed mutagenesis. Using biochemical studies to characterize the wild-type (WT) and mutant derivatives, we found that AtPRORP1 exploits specific lysines strategically positioned at the tips of it's V-shaped arms, in the first PPR motif and in the NYN domain proximal to the catalytic center, to bind and cleave pre-tRNA. Our results confirm that the protein- and RNA-based forms of RNase P have distinct modules for substrate recognition and cleavage, an unanticipated parallel in their mode of action. PMID:27166372

  5. GIS analysis of the siting criteria for the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility and the Idaho Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskinson, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes a study conducted using the Arc/Info{reg_sign} geographic information system (GIS) to analyze the criteria used for site selection for the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility (MLLWTF) and the Idaho Waste Processing Facility (IWPF). The purpose of the analyses was to determine, based on predefined criteria, the areas on the INEL that best satisfied the criteria. The coverages used in this study were produced by importing the AutoCAD files that produced the maps for a pre site selection draft report into the GIS. The files were then converted to Arc/Info{reg_sign} GIS format. The initial analysis was made by considering all of the criteria as having equal importance in determining the areas of the INEL that would best satisfy the requirements. Another analysis emphasized four of the criteria as ``must`` criteria which had to be satisfied. Additional analyses considered other criteria that were considered for, but not included in the predefined criteria. This GIS analysis of the siting criteria for the IWPF and MLLWTF provides a logical, repeatable, and defensible approach to the determination of candidate locations for the facilities. The results of the analyses support the location of the Candidate Locations.

  6. Use of chemical modification and mass spectrometry to identify substrate-contacting sites in proteinaceous RNase P, a tRNA processing enzyme.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tien-Hao; Tanimoto, Akiko; Shkriabai, Nikoloz; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka; Wysocki, Vicki; Gopalan, Venkat

    2016-06-20

    Among all enzymes in nature, RNase P is unique in that it can use either an RNA- or a protein-based active site for its function: catalyzing cleavage of the 5'-leader from precursor tRNAs (pre-tRNAs). The well-studied catalytic RNase P RNA uses a specificity module to recognize the pre-tRNA and a catalytic module to perform cleavage. Similarly, the recently discovered proteinaceous RNase P (PRORP) possesses two domains - pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) and metallonuclease (NYN) - that are present in some other RNA processing factors. Here, we combined chemical modification of lysines and multiple-reaction monitoring mass spectrometry to identify putative substrate-contacting residues in Arabidopsis thaliana PRORP1 (AtPRORP1), and subsequently validated these candidate sites by site-directed mutagenesis. Using biochemical studies to characterize the wild-type (WT) and mutant derivatives, we found that AtPRORP1 exploits specific lysines strategically positioned at the tips of it's V-shaped arms, in the first PPR motif and in the NYN domain proximal to the catalytic center, to bind and cleave pre-tRNA. Our results confirm that the protein- and RNA-based forms of RNase P have distinct modules for substrate recognition and cleavage, an unanticipated parallel in their mode of action. PMID:27166372

  7. Effect of Biogeochemical Redox Processes on the Fate and Transport of As and U at an Abandoned Uranium Mine Site: an X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study

    SciTech Connect

    Troyer, Lyndsay D.; Stone, James J.; Borch, Thomas

    2014-01-28

    Although As can occur in U ore at concentrations up to 10 wt-%, the fate and transport of both U and As at U mine tailings have not been previously investigated at a watershed scale. The major objective of this study was to determine primary chemical and physical processes contributing to transport of both U and As to a down gradient watershed at an abandoned U mine site in South Dakota. Uranium is primarily transported by erosion at the site, based on decreasing concentrations in sediment with distance from the tailings. equential extractions and U X-ray absorption near-edge fine structure (XANES) fitting indicate that U is immobilised in a near-source sedimentation pond both by prevention of sediment transport and by reduction of UVI to UIV. In contrast to U, subsequent release of As to the watershed takes place from the pond partially due to reductive dissolution of Fe oxy(hydr)oxides. However, As is immobilised by adsorption to clays and Fe oxy(hydr)oxides in oxic zones and by formation of As–sulfide mineral phases in anoxic zones down gradient, indicated by sequential extractions and As XANES fitting. This study indicates that As should be considered during restoration of uranium mine sites in order to prevent transport.

  8. Coracoid Process Avulsion Fracture at the Coracoclavicular Ligament Attachment Site in an Osteoporotic Patient with Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Umemoto, Takahisa; Fukuda, Kimitaka; Kajino, Tomomichi

    2016-01-01

    Coracoid fractures are uncommon, mostly occur at the base or neck of the coracoid process (CP), and typically present with ipsilateral acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) dislocation. However, CP avulsion fractures at the coracoclavicular ligament (CCL) attachment with ACJ dislocation have not been previously reported. A 59-year-old woman receiving glucocorticoid treatment fell from bed and complained of pain in her shoulder. Radiographs revealed an ACJ dislocation with a distal clavicle fracture. Three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) reconstruction showed a small bone fragment at the medial apex of the CP. She was treated conservatively and achieved a satisfactory outcome. CP avulsion fractures at the CCL attachment can occur in osteoporotic patients with ACJ dislocations. Three-dimensional computed tomography is useful for identifying this fracture type. CP avulsion fractures should be suspected in patients with ACJ dislocations and risk factors for osteoporosis or osteopenia. PMID:27493819

  9. The Dynamic Process of Drug-GPCR Binding at Either Orthosteric or Allosteric Sites Evaluated by Metadynamics

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Sebastian; Provasi, Davide; Filizola, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Major advances in G Protein-Coupled Receptor (GPCR) structural biology over the past few years have yielded a significant number of high-resolution crystal structures for several different receptor subtypes. This dramatic increase in GPCR structural information has underscored the use of automated docking algorithms for the discovery of novel ligands that can eventually be developed into improved therapeutics. However, these algorithms are often unable to discriminate between different, yet energetically similar, poses because of their relatively simple scoring functions. Here, we describe a metadynamics-based approach to study the dynamic process of ligand binding to/unbinding from GPCRs with a higher level of accuracy and yet satisfying efficiency. PMID:26260607

  10. Coracoid Process Avulsion Fracture at the Coracoclavicular Ligament Attachment Site in an Osteoporotic Patient with Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocation.

    PubMed

    Onada, Yoshihiro; Umemoto, Takahisa; Fukuda, Kimitaka; Kajino, Tomomichi

    2016-01-01

    Coracoid fractures are uncommon, mostly occur at the base or neck of the coracoid process (CP), and typically present with ipsilateral acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) dislocation. However, CP avulsion fractures at the coracoclavicular ligament (CCL) attachment with ACJ dislocation have not been previously reported. A 59-year-old woman receiving glucocorticoid treatment fell from bed and complained of pain in her shoulder. Radiographs revealed an ACJ dislocation with a distal clavicle fracture. Three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) reconstruction showed a small bone fragment at the medial apex of the CP. She was treated conservatively and achieved a satisfactory outcome. CP avulsion fractures at the CCL attachment can occur in osteoporotic patients with ACJ dislocations. Three-dimensional computed tomography is useful for identifying this fracture type. CP avulsion fractures should be suspected in patients with ACJ dislocations and risk factors for osteoporosis or osteopenia. PMID:27493819

  11. Concentrations and solubility of trace elements in fine particles at a mountain site, southern China: regional sources and cloud processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T.; Wang, Y.; Li, W. J.; Chen, J. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, W. X.

    2015-05-01

    The concentrations and solubility of twelve trace elements in PM2.5 at Mt. Lushan, southern China, were investigated during the summer of 2011 and the spring of 2012. The average PM2.5 mass was 55.2 ± 20.1 μg m-3 during the observation period. Temporal variations of all trace elements including total and water-soluble fractions with several dust storm spikes for total fraction Al and Fe were observed. The enrichment factor (EF) values were one order of magnitude higher for the water-soluble fractions vs. the total fractions of trace elements. Four major emission sources were classified by principal component analysis (PCA), namely nonferrous metal mining and smelting (for Cr, As, Ba and parts of Zn), coal combustion (for Pb, Zn, Se, Cu and Mn), crustal materials (for Al and Fe) and municipal solid waste incineration (for Cd and Mo). Trajectory cluster analysis and the potential source contribution function (PSCF) consistently identified the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and parts of Hunan and Jiangxi as the major source regions and pathways for anthropogenic elements, while northern China was identified for crustal elements. In contrast, the local Jiangxi area has become the most significant contributor to the solubility of most trace elements, apart from the YRD with severe air pollution. In addition, the solubility alteration of trace elements in cloud events was investigated and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis indicated that the irreversible alteration of particle morphology by cloud processing was highly responsible for the enhancement of element solubility. Our work implies an important role of regional anthropogenic pollution and cloud processing in the evolution of trace element solubility during transport.

  12. SUCCESSES AND EMERGING ISSUES IN SIMULATING THE PROCESSING BEHAVIOR OF LIQUID-PARTICLE NUCLEAR WASTE SLURRIES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - 205E

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.; Lambert, D.; Stone, M.

    2009-09-02

    Slurries of inorganic solids, containing both stable and radioactive elements, were produced during the cold war as by-products of the production of plutonium and enriched uranium and stored in large tanks at the Savannah River Site. Some of this high level waste is being processed into a stable glass waste form today. Waste processing involves various large scale operations such as tank mixing, inter-tank transfers, washing, gravity settling and decanting, chemical adjustment, and vitrification. The rheological properties of waste slurries are of particular interest. Methods for modeling flow curve data and predicting the properties of slurry blends are particularly important during certain operational phases. Several methods have been evaluated to predict the rheological properties of sludge slurry blends from the data on the individual slurries. These have been relatively successful.

  13. Post-wildfire erosion and mass movement in British Columbia: site-scale soil changes and catchment-scale processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Following the severe 2003 wildfire season in British Columbia, a number of damaging debris flow and flood incidents occurred. Such events had not previously been documented in Canada. The British Columbia Forest Service began a process to analyse risks of post-wildfire natural hazards, including a 3-year research project to study processes in several wildfires which occurred in 2007. The research project, and associated risk analysis work, includes: - mapping of soil and vegetation burn severity; - extent and persistence of water repellency in burned areas; - monitoring the effectiveness of straw mulching treatments to reduce runoff and erosion; - rainfall simulation experiments to study overland flow generation and soil erosion; - streamflow, suspended sediment, and bedload monitoring on adjacent burned and unburned catchments; - investigation of post-wildfire debris flow events. The study area is in a moist, snow-dominated, heavily forested, mountain landscape. Runoff in this region is dominated by spring snowmelt, and by long-duration, low-intensity rainfalls. High-intensity rainfalls occur rarely, but are less dominant in the hydrologic cycle than at lower latitudes. Since the study began, no high-intensity rainfalls exceeding about the 2-year return period have occurred in the study area. The project includes measurements ranging in scale from 1 m2 plots, to small tributary catchments (50 ha), to a large catchment (26 km2). Results to date show that increases in sediment yield at the catchment scale have been barely detectable, and are less than those caused by erosion from roads used for salvage logging. Although erosion on small plots is significantly increased in severely burned areas, sediment yield measured in instrumented catchments decreases downstream, illustrating the importance of ephemeral flow pathways and intermediate storage. Sometimes debris flows are triggered by increased surface runoff in headwater areas, resulting in a very high sediment

  14. Massive barite deposits and carbonate mineralization in the Derugin Basin, Sea of Okhotsk: precipitation processes at cold seep sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greinert, Jens; Bollwerk, Sandra M.; Derkachev, Alexander; Bohrmann, Gerhard; Suess, Erwin

    2002-10-01

    An area of massive barite precipitations was studied at a tectonic horst in 1500 m water depth in the Derugin Basin, Sea of Okhotsk. Seafloor observations and dredge samples showed irregular, block- to column-shaped barite build-ups up to 10 m high which were scattered over the seafloor along an observation track 3.5 km long. High methane concentrations in the water column show that methane expulsion and probably carbonate precipitation is a recently active process. Small fields of chemoautotrophic clams ( Calyptogena sp., Acharax sp.) at the seafloor provide additional evidence for active fluid venting. The white to yellow barites show a very porous and often layered internal fabric, and are typically covered by dark-brown Mn-rich sediment; electron microprobe spectroscopy measurements of barite sub-samples show a Ba substitution of up to 10.5 mol% of Sr. Rare idiomorphic pyrite crystals (˜1%) in the barite fabric imply the presence of H 2S. This was confirmed by clusters of living chemoautotrophic tube worms (1 mm in diameter) found in pores and channels within the barite. Microscopic examination showed that micritic aragonite and Mg-calcite aggregates or crusts are common authigenic precipitations within the barite fabric. Equivalent micritic carbonates and barite carbonate cemented worm tubes were recovered from sediment cores taken in the vicinity of the barite build-up area. Negative δ 13C values of these carbonates (>-43.5‰ PDB) indicate methane as major carbon source; δ 18O values between 4.04 and 5.88‰ PDB correspond to formation temperatures, which are certainly below 5°C. One core also contained shells of Calyptogena sp. at different core depths with 14C-ages ranging from 20 680 to >49 080 yr. Pore water analyses revealed that fluids also contain high amounts of Ba; they also show decreasing SO 42- concentrations and a parallel increase of H 2S with depth. Additionally, S and O isotope data of barite sulfate (δ 34S: 21.0-38.6‰ CDT; δ 18O

  15. Chemical composition, sources and evolution processes of aerosol at an urban site in Yangtze River Delta, China during wintertime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunjiang; Tang, Lili; Yu, Hongxia; Wang, Zhuang; Sun, Yele; Qin, Wei; Chen, Wentai; Chen, Changhong; Ding, Aijun; Wu, Jing; Ge, Shun; Chen, Cheng; Zhou, Hong-cang

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the composition, sources and evolution processes of submicron aerosol during wintertime, a field experiment was conducted during December 1-31, 2013 in urban Nanjing, a megacity in Yangtze River Delta of China. Non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) species were measured with an Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. NR-PM1 is dominated by secondary inorganic aerosol (55%) and organic aerosol (OA, 42%) during haze periods. Six OA components were identified by positive matrix factorization of the OA mass spectra. The hydrocarbon-like OA and cooking-related OA represent the local traffic and cooking sources, respectively. A highly oxidized factor related to biomass burning OA accounted for 15% of the total OA mass during haze periods. Three types of oxygenated OA (OOA), i.e., a less-oxidized OOA (LO-OOA), a more-oxidized OOA (MO-OOA), and a low-volatility OOA (LV-OOA), were identified. LO-OOA is likely associated with fresh urban secondary OA. MO-OOA likely represents photochemical products showing a similar diurnal cycle to nitrate with a pronounced noon peak. LV-OOA appears to be a more oxidized factor with a pronounced noon peak. The OA composition is dominated by secondary species, especially during haze events. LO-OOA, MO-OOA and LV-OOA on average account for 11%, (18%), 24% (21%) and 23% (18%) of the total OA mass for the haze (clean) periods respectively. Analysis of meteorological influence suggested that regional transport from the northern and southeastern areas of the city is responsible for large secondary and low-volatility aerosol formation.

  16. Impact of synoptic controls and boundary layer processes on ground-level ozone evolution at an urban site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haman, Christine Lanier

    Houston, Texas frequently exceeds the standard for ground-level ozone during the spring and fall. The large commuting population and vast number of industrial sources provide the necessary ingredients for photochemical ozone production in the presence of favorable meteorological conditions. The lack of continuous boundary layer (BL) observations prevents a comprehensive understanding of its role in ozone evolution. In this study, almost two years of BL observations are utilized to investigate the impacts of synoptic and micrometeorological-scale forcings on ozone. Aerosol gradients derived from ceilometer backscatter retrievals are used to identify the BL and residual layers (RL). Overall agreement is found between ceilometer and sonde estimates of the RL and BL heights (BLH), but difficulty detecting the layers occurs during cloud periods or immediately following precipitation. Large monthly variability is present in the peak afternoon BLH (e.g. mean August and December peaks are ˜2000 and 1100 m, respectively). Monthly nocturnal BLHs display much smaller differences. The majority of ozone exceedances occur during large-scale subsidence and weak winds in a postfrontal environment. These conditions result in turbulent kinetic energy, mechanical mixing, and ventilation processes that are 2--3 times weaker on exceedance days, which inhibit morning BL growth by an average of ˜100 m·hr-1 compared to low ozone days. The spring has higher nocturnal ozone levels, which is likely attributable to longer day lengths (˜78 minutes), stronger winds (˜0.78 m·s -1), and higher background ozone (˜5 ppbv) compared to the fall. Boundary layer entrainment plays an important role in ozone evolution. Exceedance days show a characteristic early morning rapid rise of ozone. Vertical ozone profiles indicate the RL ozone peak is ˜60 ppbv on exceedance days, which is ˜25 ppbv (+/- 10 ppbv) greater than low ozone days. The Integrated Profile Mixing (IPM) and Photochemical Budget (PB

  17. Hanford Site Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hathaway, H.B.; Daly, K.S.; Rinne, C.A.; Seiler, S.W.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (HSDP) provides an overview of land use, infrastructure, and facility requirements to support US Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site. The HSDP`s primary purpose is to inform senior managers and interested parties of development activities and issues that require a commitment of resources to support the Hanford Site. The HSDP provides an existing and future land use plan for the Hanford Site. The HSDP is updated annually in accordance with DOE Order 4320.1B, Site Development Planning, to reflect the mission and overall site development process. Further details about Hanford Site development are defined in individual area development plans.

  18. Experimental evidence of site specific preferential processing of either ice algae or phytoplankton by benthic macroinfauna in Lancaster Sound and North Water Polynyas, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkelä, Anni; Witte, Ursula; Archambault, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Rapid warming is dramatically reducing the extent and thickness of summer sea ice of the Arctic Ocean, changing both the quantity and type of marine primary production as the longer open water period favours phytoplankton growth and reduces ice algal production. The benthic ecosystem is dependent on this sinking organic matter for source of energy, and ice algae is thought to be a superior quality food source due to higher essential fatty acid content. The resilience of the benthos to changing quality and quantity of food was investigated through sediment incubation experiments in the summer 2013 in two highly productive Arctic polynyas in the North Water and Lancaster Sound, Canada. The pathways of organic matter processing and contribution of different organisms to these processes was assessed through 13C and 15N isotope assimilation into macroinfaunal tissues. In North Water Polynya, the total and biomass specific uptake of ice algal derived C and N was higher than the uptake of phytoplankton, whereas an opposite trend was observed in Lancaster Sound. Polychaetes, especially individuals of families Sabellidae and Spionidae, unselectively ingested both algal types and were significant in the overall organic matter processing at both sites. Feeding preference was observed in crustaceans, which preferentially fed on ice algae at Lancaster Sound, but preferred phytoplankton in North Water Polynya. Bivalves also had a significant role in the organic matter processing overall, but only showed preferential feeding on phytoplankton at Lancaster Sound polynya. Overall the filter feeders and surface deposit feeders occupying lowest trophic levels were responsible for majority of the processing of both algal types. The results provide direct evidence of preferential resource utilisation by benthic macrofauna and highlight spatial differences in the processes. This helps to predict future patterns of nutrient cycling in Arctic sediments, with implications to benthic

  19. Posttranslational processing of endogenous and of baculovirus-expressed human gastrin-releasing peptide precursor.

    PubMed Central

    Lebacq-Verheyden, A M; Kasprzyk, P G; Raum, M G; Van Wyke Coelingh, K; Lebacq, J A; Battey, J F

    1988-01-01

    The 27-amino-acid gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP1-27) is a neuropeptide and growth factor that is synthesized by various neural and neuroendocrine cells. The major pro-GRP hormone (isoform I) contains both GRP1-27 and a novel C-terminal extension peptide termed pro-GRP31-125. In order to define potentially active neuropeptides that could be generated from this novel protein domain, we analyzed the posttranslational processing of endogenous human pro-GRP1-125 in a small-cell lung cancer cell line. Because such studies are much easier in an overexpression system, we investigated at the same time the posttranslational processing of baculovirus-expressed human pro-GRP1-125 in an insect ovary cell line. In the small-cell lung cancer cell line, GRP1-27 was cleaved as expected from the endogenous prohormone at a pair of basic amino acids (29 and 30) and alpha-amidated at its C-terminal methionine; however, a number of novel peptides were generated by additional cleavages in the pro-GRP31-125 domain. In the insect ovary cell line, GRP1-27 was cleaved from the expressed prohormone by a different mechanism, as were a number of other peptides that appeared to be similar in size to those produced by the human neuroendocrine tumor cell line. These data show for the first time that an insect ovary cell line that is widely used to overexpress proteins can process a human neuropeptide precursor. They also reveal the existence of novel pro-GRP-derived peptides that are candidates for biologically active ligands. Images PMID:3211139

  20. A framework for modelling species-specific site quality index based on data generated from remote sensing imagery and a process-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Quazi Khalid

    This Thesis presents a framework for modelling species-specific site quality index (SQI) at a spatial resolution of 250 m by integrating biophysical variables of growing degree days (ODD), soil water content (SWC), and incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in descriptions of potential tree growth. Development of ODD maps is based on processing and blending remotely-sensed data acquired with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on the Terra satellite and ETM+ sensor on Landsat-7 satellite at spatial resolutions of 250 m and 28.5 m. Descriptions of SWC are based on a temperature-vegetation wetness index (TVWI) that relies on MODIS-based optical and thermal image products. PAR is estimated with an existing solar-radiation distribution model. SQI is defined as a function of species vital attributes and species environmental response to ODD, TVWI, and PAR. The methods are applied to a balsam fir [bF; Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.] dominated region in northwest New Brunswick. Comparisons between SQI and field-based estimates of site index and enhanced vegetation index showed that about 66 and 88% of the values corresponding to a series of Forest Development Survey lines (691 in total) were within 16% of SQI values. On average 92.1% of high bF-content stands (> 50% composition) in the area fell on medium-to-very high SQI values (> 0.50). Based on these agreements, SQI can be perceived as a good predictor of potential tree-species growth in the selection of optimal sites for biomass and wood fibre production

  1. Process performance of the pilot-scale in situ vitrification of a simulated waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.G.; Koegler, S.S.; Bates, S.O.

    1988-06-01

    Process feasibility studies have been successfully performed on three developmental scales to determine the potential for applying in situ vitrification to intermediate-level (low-level) waste placed in seepage pits and trenches at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In the laboratory, testing was performed in crucibles containing a mixture of 50% ORNL soil and 50% limestone. In an engineering-scale test at Pacific Northwest Laboratory a /1/12/-scale simulation of an ORNL waste trench was constructed and vitrified, resulting in a waste product containing soil and limestone concentrations of 68 wt % and 32 wt %, respectively. In the pilot-scale test a /3/8/-scale simulation of the same trench was constructed and vitrified at ORNL, resulting in soil and limestone concentrations of 80% and 20%, respectively, in the waste product. Results of the three scales of testing indicate that the ORNL intermediate-level (low-level) waste sites can be successfully processed by in situ vitrification; the waste form will retain significant quantities of the cesium and strontium. Because cesium-137 and strontium-90 are the major components of the radionuclide inventory in the ORNL seepage pits and trenches, final field process decontamination factors (i.e., losses to the off-gas system relative to the waste inventory) of 1.0 E + 4 are desired to minimize activity buildup in the off-gas system. 17 refs., 34 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. Multiple phosphorylation sites at the C-terminus regulate nuclear import of HCMV DNA polymerase processivity factor ppUL44

    SciTech Connect

    Alvisi, Gualtiero; Marin, Oriano; Pari, Gregory; Mancini, Manuela; Avanzi, Simone; Loregian, Arianna; Jans, David A.; Ripalti, Alessandro

    2011-09-01

    The processivity factor of human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase, phosphoprotein ppUL44, is essential for viral replication. During viral infection ppUL44 is phosphorylated by the viral kinase pUL97, but neither the target residues on ppUL44 nor the effect of phosphorylation on ppUL44's activity are known. We report here that ppUL44 is phosphorylated when transiently expressed in mammalian cells and coimmunoprecipitates with cellular kinases. Of three potential phosphorylation sites (S413, S415, S418) located upstream of ppUL44's nuclear localization signal (NLS) and one (T427) within the NLS itself, protein kinase CK2 (CK2) specifically phosphorylates S413, to trigger a cascade of phosphorylation of S418 and S415 by CK1 and CK2, respectively. Negative charge at the CK2/CK1 target serine residues facilitates optimal nuclear accumulation of ppUL44, whereas negative charge on T427, a potential cyclin-dependent 1 phosphorylation site, strongly decreases nuclear accumulation. Thus, nuclear transport of ppUL44 is finely tuned during viral infection through complex phosphorylation events.

  3. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in surface dust at an E-waste processing site in Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Leung, Anna O W; Zheng, Jinshu; Yu, Chik Kin; Liu, Wing Keung; Wong, Chris K C; Cai, Zongwei; Wong, Ming H

    2011-07-01

    Surface dust collected from printed circuit board recycling workshop floors, roads, a schoolyard, and an outdoor food market in Guiyu, China, a village intensely involved in e-waste processing, were investigated for levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). PBDE concentrations in dust from workshop-floors (14,800 ± 5130 ng/g) and on adjacent roads to the workshops (24,900 ± 31,600 ng/g) were highest among the study sites whereas PCDD/F concentrations were highest at the schoolyard (1316 pg/g) and in a workshop (1264 pg/g). Analyses of <2 mm and <53 μm dust particle sizes did not show any significant differences in PBDE concentrations. The cytotoxicity was investigated using two bioassays: 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD-TEQ) and MTT. EROD-TEQ values ranged from 260 to 432 pg/g, with the highest in dust collected from a street lined with workshops. Using the MTT assay, cytoxicity of dust from the plastic chips drying district in Guiyu was higher than dust from the other sites investigated. This study showed that the primitive recycling of e-waste introduced toxic pollutants into the environment which are potentially harmful to the health of e-waste workers and local residents, especially children, and warrants an urgent investigation into POPs related health impacts. PMID:21639085

  4. Dust dispersal and Pb enrichment at the rare-metal Orlovka-Spokoinoe mining and ore processing site: insights from REE patterns and elemental ratios.

    PubMed

    Dolgopolova, Alla; Weiss, Dominik J; Seltmann, Reimar; Dulski, Peter

    2006-04-30

    Different geological, technogenic and environmental samples from the Orlovka-Spokoinoe Ta-Nb-Sn-W mining site and ore processing complex in Eastern Transbaikalia (Russia), were analysed for Pb, Y, Zr, Hf and rare earth elements (REE) to assess the effect of dust and metal dispersal on the environment within the Orlovka-Spokoinoe mining site. Potential source material analysed included ore-bearing and barren granites, host rocks, tailing pond sediments, and ore concentrates. Lichens and birch leaves were used as receptor samples. The REE enrichment relative to chondrite, the extent of the Eu anomalies, the enrichments of heavy REE (HREE), and Zr/Hf and Yb/Y ratios suggest that tailings, barren granites, and metasedimentary host rocks are the main sources of dust in the studied mining environment. In addition, calculated lead enrichment (relative to host rocks) suggests that the environment is polluted with Pb. Our results clearly demonstrate the potential of REE patterns and elemental ratios as a reliable technique to trace dust and metals sources and dispersal within a confined mining area offering a new tool for environmental assessment studies. PMID:16427193

  5. An assessment and evaluation for recycle/reuse of contaminated process and metallurgical equipment at the DOE Rocky Flats Plant Site -- Building 865. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    An economic analysis of the potential advantages of alternatives for recycling and reusing equipment now stored in Building 865 at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado has been conducted. The inventory considered in this analysis consists primarily of metallurgical and process equipment used before January 1992, during development and production of nuclear weapons components at the site. The economic analysis consists of a thorough building inventory and cost comparisons for four equipment dispositions alternatives. The first is a baseline option of disposal at a Low Level Waste (LLW) landfill. The three alternatives investigated are metal recycling, reuse with the government sector, and release for unrestricted use. This report provides item-by-item estimates of value, disposal cost, and decontamination cost. The economic evaluation methods documented here, the simple cost comparisons presented, and the data provided as a supplement, should provide a foundation for D&D decisions for Building 865, as well as for similar D&D tasks at RFP and at other sites.

  6. Ultra Efficient CHHP Using a High Temperature Fuel Cell to Provide On-Site Process Reducing Gas, Clean Power, and Heat

    SciTech Connect

    Jahnke, Fred C.

    2015-06-30

    FuelCell Energy and ACuPowder investigated and demonstrated the use of waste anode exhaust gas from a high temperature fuel cell for replacing the reducing gas in a metal processing furnace. Currently companies purchase high pressure or liquefied gases for the reducing gas which requires substantial energy in production, compression/liquefaction, and transportation, all of which is eliminated by on-site use of anode exhaust gas as reducing gas. We performed research on the impact of the gas composition on product quality and then demonstrated at FuelCell Energy’s manufacturing facility in Torrington, Connecticut. This demonstration project continues to operate even though the research program is completed as it provides substantial benefits to the manufacturing facility by supplying power, heat, and hydrogen.

  7. Process

    SciTech Connect

    Geenen, P.V.; Bennis, J.

    1989-04-04

    A process is described for minimizing the cracking tendency and uncontrolled dimensional change, and improving the strength of a rammed plastic refractory reactor liner comprising phosphate-bonded silicon carbide or phosphate-bonded alumina. It consists of heating the reactor liner placed or mounted in a reactor, prior to its first use, from ambient temperature up to a temperature of from about 490/sup 0/C to about 510/sup 0/C, the heating being carried out by heating the liner at a rate to produce a temperature increase of the liner not greater than about 6/sup 0/C per hour.

  8. Future-oriented maintenance strategy based on automated processes is finding its way into large astronomical facilities at remote observing sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silber, Armin; Gonzalez, Christian; Pino, Francisco; Escarate, Patricio; Gairing, Stefan

    2014-08-01

    With expanding sizes and increasing complexity of large astronomical observatories on remote observing sites, the call for an efficient and recourses saving maintenance concept becomes louder. The increasing number of subsystems on telescopes and instruments forces large observatories, like in industries, to rethink conventional maintenance strategies for reaching this demanding goal. The implementation of full-, or semi-automatic processes for standard service activities can help to keep the number of operating staff on an efficient level and to reduce significantly the consumption of valuable consumables or equipment. In this contribution we will demonstrate on the example of the 80 Cryogenic subsystems of the ALMA Front End instrument, how an implemented automatic service process increases the availability of spare parts and Line Replaceable Units. Furthermore how valuable staff recourses can be freed from continuous repetitive maintenance activities, to allow focusing more on system diagnostic tasks, troubleshooting and the interchanging of line replaceable units. The required service activities are decoupled from the day-to-day work, eliminating dependencies on workload peaks or logistic constrains. The automatic refurbishing processes running in parallel to the operational tasks with constant quality and without compromising the performance of the serviced system components. Consequentially that results in an efficiency increase, less down time and keeps the observing schedule on track. Automatic service processes in combination with proactive maintenance concepts are providing the necessary flexibility for the complex operational work structures of large observatories. The gained planning flexibility is allowing an optimization of operational procedures and sequences by considering the required cost efficiency.

  9. The database of observational results at PRAO ASC LPI sites and on-line pre-processing of the data by their monitoring in the database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samodurov, V. A.; Kitaeva, M. A.; Isaev, E. A.; Pugachev, V. D.; Dumskiy, D. V.; Zaitsev, A. Y.; Logvinenko, S. V.; Ovchinnikov, I. L.; Lapaev, K. A.; Nikolenko, A. A.; Ladejshchikov, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    The site ''Electronic database of observation results from radio telescopes of PRAO ASC LPI'' (http://observations.prao.ru/) was launched in 2006. This database provides access to observational instruments and telescope descriptions, techniques of making data samples per instruments, information about types of observations, observers and dates of observations and so on. As of August 2009, the observational result database contained more than 126000 data files. Data from PRAO instruments and radio telescopes are continuously being stored to this database. The statistical analysis of the data and its pre-processing facilities are available on-line from this database. Facilities for graphical display information and statistical analysis of data of some kinds of celestial radio sources were added to this system, and work on widening of sampling this sources with the aim of accounting every kinds of radio sources is carried out. The development of new facilities for on-line processing of monitoring data from PRAO radio telescopes is performed also. It works on the base of common postgresql database. All observed data of our observatories are written on a special 2-terabyte raid-array.

  10. DARPA/USAF/USN J-UCAS X-45A System Demonstration Program: A Review of Flight Test Site Processes and Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosentino, Gary B.

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Unmanned Combat Air Systems (J-UCAS) program is a collaborative effort between the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA), the US Air Force (USAF) and the US Navy (USN). Together they have reviewed X-45A flight test site processes and personnel as part of a system demonstration program for the UCAV-ATD Flight Test Program. The goal was to provide a disciplined controlled process for system integration and testing and demonstration flight tests. NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) acted as the project manager during this effort and was tasked with the responsibilities of range and ground safety, the provision of flight test support and infrastructure and the monitoring of technical and engineering tasks. DFRC also contributed their engineering knowledge through their contributions in the areas of autonomous ground taxi control development, structural dynamics testing and analysis and the provision of other flight test support including telemetry data, tracking radars, and communications and control support equipment. The Air Force Flight Test Center acted at the Deputy Project Manager in this effort and was responsible for the provision of system safety support and airfield management and air traffic control services, among other supporting roles. The T-33 served as a J-UCAS surrogate aircraft and demonstrated flight characteristics similar to that of the the X-45A. The surrogate served as a significant risk reduction resource providing mission planning verification, range safety mission assessment and team training, among other contributions.

  11. Footprint Reduction Process: Using Remote Sensing and GIS Technologies to Identify Non-Contaminated Land Parcels on the Oak Ridge Reservation National Priorities List Site

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, P.A.; Kendall, D.T.; King, A.L.; Storms, R.A.

    1998-12-09

    In 1989, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry evaluated the entire 35,000-acre U. S: Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR, located in Oak Ridge, TN) and placed it on the National Priorities List (NPL), making the ORR subject to Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) regulations. Although much of the ORR has not been impacted by previous federal activities, without investigation it is difficult to discern which parcels of land are free of surface contamination. In 1996, the DOE Oak Ridge Environmental Management Program (EM) funded the Footprint Reduction Project to: 1) develop a process to study the large areas of the ORR that are believed to be free of surface contamination and 2) initiate the delisting of the "clean" areas from the NPL. Although this project's goals do not include the transfer of federal property to non-federal entities, the process development team aimed to provide a final product with multiple uses. Therefore, the process was developed to meet the requirements of NPL delisting and the transfer of non- contaminated federal lands to future land users. Section 120 (h) of the CERCLA law identifies the requirements for the transfer of federal property that is currently part of an NPL site. Reviews of historical information (including aerial photography), field inspections, and the recorded chain of title documents for the property are required for the delisting of property prior to transfer from the federal government. Despite the widespread availability of remote sensing and other digital geographic data and geographic information systems (GIS) for the analysis of such data, historical aerial photography is the only geographic data source required for review under the CERCLA 120 (h) process. However, since the ORR Environmental Management Program had an established Remote Sensing Program, the Footprint Reduction Project included the development and application of a methodology

  12. Conceptual Design of a Simplified Skid-Mounted Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process for Removal of Cesium from Savannah Rive Site High-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Birdwell, JR.J.F.

    2004-05-12

    This report presents the results of a conceptual design of a solvent extraction process for the selective removal of {sup 137}Cs from high-level radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). This study establishes the need for and feasibility of deploying a simplified version of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process; cost/benefit ratios ranging from 33 to 55 strongly support the considered deployment. Based on projected compositions, 18 million gallons of dissolved salt cake waste has been identified as having {sup 137}Cs concentrations that are substantially lower than the worst-case design basis for the CSSX system that is to be deployed as part of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) but that does not meet the waste acceptance criteria for immobilization as grout in the Saltstone Manufacturing and Disposal Facility at SRS. Absent deployment of an alternative cesium removal process, this material will require treatment in the SWPF CSSX system, even though the cesium decontamination factor required is far less than that provided by that system. A conceptual design of a CSSX processing system designed for rapid deployment and having reduced cesium decontamination factor capability has been performed. The proposed accelerated-deployment CSSX system (CSSX-A) has been designed to have a processing rate of 3 million gallons per year, assuming 90% availability. At a more conservative availability of 75% (reflecting the novelty of the process), the annual processing capacity is 2.5 million gallons. The primary component of the process is a 20-stage cascade of centrifugal solvent extraction contactors. The decontamination and concentration factors are 40 and 15, respectively. The solvent, scrub, strip, and wash solutions are to have the same compositions as those planned for the SWPF CSSX system. As in the SWPF CSSX system, the solvent and scrub flow rates are equal. The system is

  13. Modeling sugar cane yield with a process-based model from site to continental scale: uncertainties arising from model structure and parameter values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Huth, N.; Marin, F.; Martiné, J.-F.

    2014-01-01

    Agro-Land Surface Models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the integration of specific crop processes into large-scale generic land surface models that allow calculating the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. When developing agro-LSM models, a particular attention must be given to the effects of crop phenology and management on the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty of Agro-LSM models is related to their usually large number of parameters. In this study, we quantify the parameter-values uncertainty in the simulation of sugar cane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS, using a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Réunion and Brazil. In ORCHIDEE-STICS, two models are chained: STICS, an agronomy model that calculates phenology and management, and ORCHIDEE, a land surface model that calculates biomass and other ecosystem variables forced by STICS' phenology. First, the parameters that dominate the uncertainty of simulated biomass at harvest date are determined through a screening of 67 different parameters of both STICS and ORCHIDEE on a multi-site basis. Secondly, the uncertainty of harvested biomass attributable to those most sensitive parameters is quantified and specifically attributed to either STICS (phenology, management) or to ORCHIDEE (other ecosystem variables including biomass) through distinct Monte-Carlo runs. The uncertainty on parameter values is constrained using observations by calibrating the model independently at seven sites. In a third step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by varying the most sensitive parameters to investigate their effects at continental scale. A Monte-Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of Partial Ranked Correlation Coefficients is used to quantify the sensitivity of harvested biomass to input

  14. Modeling sugarcane yield with a process-based model from site to continental scale: uncertainties arising from model structure and parameter values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Caubel, A.; Huth, N.; Marin, F.; Martiné, J.-F.

    2014-06-01

    Agro-land surface models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the integration of specific crop processes into large-scale generic land surface models that allow calculating the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. When developing agro-LSM models, particular attention must be given to the effects of crop phenology and management on the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty of agro-LSM models is related to their usually large number of parameters. In this study, we quantify the parameter-values uncertainty in the simulation of sugarcane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS, using a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Réunion and Brazil. In ORCHIDEE-STICS, two models are chained: STICS, an agronomy model that calculates phenology and management, and ORCHIDEE, a land surface model that calculates biomass and other ecosystem variables forced by STICS phenology. First, the parameters that dominate the uncertainty of simulated biomass at harvest date are determined through a screening of 67 different parameters of both STICS and ORCHIDEE on a multi-site basis. Secondly, the uncertainty of harvested biomass attributable to those most sensitive parameters is quantified and specifically attributed to either STICS (phenology, management) or to ORCHIDEE (other ecosystem variables including biomass) through distinct Monte Carlo runs. The uncertainty on parameter values is constrained using observations by calibrating the model independently at seven sites. In a third step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by varying the most sensitive parameters to investigate their effects at continental scale. A Monte Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of partial ranked correlation coefficients is used to quantify the sensitivity of harvested biomass to input

  15. The T210M Substitution in the HLA-a*02:01 gp100 Epitope Strongly Affects Overall Proteasomal Cleavage Site Usage and Antigen Processing.

    PubMed

    Textoris-Taube, Kathrin; Keller, Christin; Liepe, Juliane; Henklein, Petra; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Kloetzel, Peter M; Mishto, Michele

    2015-12-18

    MHC class I-restricted epitopes, which carry a tumor-specific mutation resulting in improved MHC binding affinity, are preferred T cell receptor targets in innovative adoptive T cell therapies. However, T cell therapy requires efficient generation of the selected epitope. How such mutations may affect proteasome-mediated antigen processing has so far not been studied. Therefore, we analyzed by in vitro experiments the effect on antigen processing and recognition of a T210M exchange, which previously had been introduced into the melanoma gp100209-217 tumor epitope to improve the HLA-A*02:01 binding and its immunogenicity. A quantitative analysis of the main steps of antigen processing shows that the T210M exchange affects proteasomal cleavage site usage within the mutgp100201-230 polypeptide, leading to the generation of an unique set of cleavage products. The T210M substitution qualitatively affects the proteasome-catalyzed generation of spliced and non-spliced peptides predicted to bind HLA-A or -B complexes. The T210M substitution also induces an enhanced production of the mutgp100209-217 epitope and its N-terminally extended peptides. The T210M exchange revealed no effect on ERAP1-mediated N-terminal trimming of the precursor peptides. However, mutant N-terminally extended peptides exhibited significantly increased HLA-A*02:01 binding affinity and elicited CD8(+) T cell stimulation in vitro similar to the wtgp100209-217 epitope. Thus, our experiments demonstrate that amino acid exchanges within an epitope can result in the generation of an altered peptide pool with new antigenic peptides and in a wider CD8(+) T cell response also towards N-terminally extended versions of the minimal epitope. PMID:26507656

  16. Field study for disposal of solid wastes from Advanced Coal Processes: Ohio LIMB Site Assessment. Final report, April 1986--November 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, A.; Coel, B.J.; Butler, R.D.

    1994-10-01

    New air pollution regulations will require cleaner, more efficient processes for converting coal to electricity, producing solid byproducts or wastes that differ from conventional pulverized-coal combustion ash. Large scale landfill test cells containing byproducts were built at 3 sites and are to be monitored over at least 3 years. This report presents results of a 3-y field test at an ash disposal site in northern Ohio; the field test used ash from a combined lime injection-multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit at the Ohio Edison Edgewater plant. The landfill test cells used LIMB ash wetted only to control dusting in one cell, and LIMB ash wetted to optimize compaction density in the other cell. Both test cells had adequate load-bearing strength for landfill stability but had continuing dimensional instability. Heaving and expansion did not affect the landfill stability but probably contributed to greater permeability to infiltrating water. Leachate migration occurred from the base, but effects on downgradient groundwater were limited to increased chloride concentration in one well. Compressive strength of landfilled ash was adequate to support equipment, although permeability was higher and strength was lower than anticipated. Average moisture content has increased to about 90% (dry weight basis). Significant water infiltration has occurred; the model suggests that as much as 20% of the incident rainfall will pass through and exit as leachate. However, impacts on shallow ground water is minimal. Results of this field study suggest that LIMB ash from combustion of moderate to high sulfur coals will perform acceptably if engineering controls are used to condition and compact the materials, reduce water influx to the landfill, and minimize leachate production. Handling of the ash did not pose serious problems during cell construction; steaming and heat buildup were moderate.

  17. Sources and atmospheric processes impacting oxalate at a suburban coastal site in Hong Kong: Insights inferred from 1 year hourly measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yang; Huang, Xiaohui Hilda; Bian, Qijing; Griffith, Stephen M.; Louie, Peter K. K.; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2015-09-01

    Oxalic acid is one of the most abundant dicarboxylic acids in the atmosphere, receiving a great deal of attention due to its potential influence on cloud condensation nucleus activities. In this work, we report 10 months of hourly oxalate measurements in particulate matter of less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) by a Monitor for Aerosols and Gases in ambient Air at a suburban coastal site in Hong Kong from April 2012 to February 2013. A total of more than 6000 sets of oxalate and inorganic ion data were obtained. The mean (±SD) oxalate concentration was 0.34 (±0.18) µg m-3, accounting for 2.8% of the total ion mass and 1.5% of the PM2.5 mass. Seasonal variation showed higher concentrations in fall and winter (0.54 and 0.36 µg m-3, respectively) and lower concentrations in spring and summer (~0.26 µg m-3). Different from the inorganic ions, a shallow dip in the oxalate concentration consistently occurred in the morning after sunrise (around 9:00 A.M.) throughout all seasons. Our analysis suggests that this was likely due to photolysis of oxalate-Fe (III) complex under sunlight. In summer, a small daytime peak was discernable for oxalate and nitrate. This characteristic, together with a more evident diurnal variation of O3, indicates comparatively more active photochemical oxidation in summer than other seasons. High correlations were observed between oxalate and non-sea-salt SO42- (NSS) (R2 = 0.63) and Ox (O3 + NO2) (R2 = 0.48), indicating significant commonality in their secondary formation. Positive matrix factorization analysis of oxalate and other real-time gas and particle-phase component data estimates that secondary formation processes, including secondary gas or aqueous oxidation processes (49%), oxidation processes of biomass burning emissions (37%), accounted for the majority of PM2.5 oxalate. A backward trajectories cluster analysis found that higher oxalate/NSS ratios were associated with low pollution samples under the influence of

  18. MEASUREMENT AND CALCULATION OF RADIONUCLIDE ACTIVITIES IN SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE FOR ACCEPTANCE OF DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY GLASS IN A FEDERAL REPOSITORY

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C; David Diprete, D; Ned Bibler, N

    2008-12-31

    This paper describes the results of the analyses of High Level Waste (HLW) sludge slurry samples and of the calculations necessary to decay the radionuclides to meet the reporting requirement in the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) [1]. The concentrations of 45 radionuclides were measured. The results of these analyses provide input for radioactive decay calculations used to project the radionuclide inventory at the specified index years, 2015 and 3115. This information is necessary to complete the Production Records at Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) so that the final glass product resulting from Macrobatch 5 (MB5) can eventually be submitted to a Federal Repository. Five of the necessary input radionuclides for the decay calculations could not be measured directly due to their low concentrations and/or analytical interferences. These isotopes are Nb-93m, Pd-107, Cd-113m, Cs-135, and Cm-248. Methods for calculating these species from concentrations of appropriate other radionuclides will be discussed. Also the average age of the MB5 HLW had to be calculated from decay of Sr-90 in order to predict the initial concentration of Nb-93m. As a result of the measurements and calculations, thirty-one WAPS reportable radioactive isotopes were identified for MB5. The total activity of MB5 sludge solids will decrease from 1.6E+04 {micro}Ci (1 {micro}Ci = 3.7E+04 Bq) per gram of total solids in 2008 to 2.3E+01 {micro}Ci per gram of total solids in 3115, a decrease of approximately 700 fold. Finally, evidence will be given for the low observed concentrations of the radionuclides Tc-99, I-129, and Sm-151 in the HLW sludges. These radionuclides were reduced in the MB5 sludge slurry to a fraction of their expected production levels due to SRS processing conditions.

  19. Deriving site-specific soil clean-up values for metals and metalloids: Rationale for including protection of soil microbial processes

    PubMed Central

    Kuperman, Roman G; Siciliano, Steven D; Römbke, Jörg; Oorts, Koen

    2014-01-01

    Although it is widely recognized that microorganisms are essential for sustaining soil fertility, structure, nutrient cycling, groundwater purification, and other soil functions, soil microbial toxicity data were excluded from the derivation of Ecological Soil Screening Levels (Eco-SSL) in the United States. Among the reasons for such exclusion were claims that microbial toxicity tests were too difficult to interpret because of the high variability of microbial responses, uncertainty regarding the relevance of the various endpoints, and functional redundancy. Since the release of the first draft of the Eco-SSL Guidance document by the US Environmental Protection Agency in 2003, soil microbial toxicity testing and its use in ecological risk assessments have substantially improved. A wide range of standardized and nonstandardized methods became available for testing chemical toxicity to microbial functions in soil. Regulatory frameworks in the European Union and Australia have successfully incorporated microbial toxicity data into the derivation of soil threshold concentrations for ecological risk assessments. This article provides the 3-part rationale for including soil microbial processes in the development of soil clean-up values (SCVs): 1) presenting a brief overview of relevant test methods for assessing microbial functions in soil, 2) examining data sets for Cu, Ni, Zn, and Mo that incorporated soil microbial toxicity data into regulatory frameworks, and 3) offering recommendations on how to integrate the best available science into the method development for deriving site-specific SCVs that account for bioavailability of metals and metalloids in soil. Although the primary focus of this article is on the development of the approach for deriving SCVs for metals and metalloids in the United States, the recommendations provided in this article may also be applicable in other jurisdictions that aim at developing ecological soil threshold values for protection of

  20. Validation of Individual-Based Markov-Like Stochastic Process Model of Insect Behavior and a “Virtual Farm” Concept for Enhancement of Site-Specific IPM

    PubMed Central

    Lux, Slawomir A.; Wnuk, Andrzej; Vogt, Heidrun; Belien, Tim; Spornberger, Andreas; Studnicki, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports application of a Markov-like stochastic process agent-based model and a “virtual farm” concept for enhancement of site-specific Integrated Pest Management. Conceptually, the model represents a “bottom-up ethological” approach and emulates behavior of the “primary IPM actors”—large cohorts of individual insects—within seasonally changing mosaics of spatiotemporally complex faming landscape, under the challenge of the local IPM actions. Algorithms of the proprietary PESTonFARM model were adjusted to reflect behavior and ecology of R. cerasi. Model parametrization was based on compiled published information about R. cerasi and the results of auxiliary on-farm experiments. The experiments were conducted on sweet cherry farms located in Austria, Germany, and Belgium. For each farm, a customized model-module was prepared, reflecting its spatiotemporal features. Historical data about pest monitoring, IPM treatments and fruit infestation were used to specify the model assumptions and calibrate it further. Finally, for each of the farms, virtual IPM experiments were simulated and the model-generated results were compared with the results of the real experiments conducted on the same farms. Implications of the findings for broader applicability of the model and the “virtual farm” approach—were discussed. PMID:27602000

  1. Validation of Individual-Based Markov-Like Stochastic Process Model of Insect Behavior and a "Virtual Farm" Concept for Enhancement of Site-Specific IPM.

    PubMed

    Lux, Slawomir A; Wnuk, Andrzej; Vogt, Heidrun; Belien, Tim; Spornberger, Andreas; Studnicki, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports application of a Markov-like stochastic process agent-based model and a "virtual farm" concept for enhancement of site-specific Integrated Pest Management. Conceptually, the model represents a "bottom-up ethological" approach and emulates behavior of the "primary IPM actors"-large cohorts of individual insects-within seasonally changing mosaics of spatiotemporally complex faming landscape, under the challenge of the local IPM actions. Algorithms of the proprietary PESTonFARM model were adjusted to reflect behavior and ecology of R. cerasi. Model parametrization was based on compiled published information about R. cerasi and the results of auxiliary on-farm experiments. The experiments were conducted on sweet cherry farms located in Austria, Germany, and Belgium. For each farm, a customized model-module was prepared, reflecting its spatiotemporal features. Historical data about pest monitoring, IPM treatments and fruit infestation were used to specify the model assumptions and calibrate it further. Finally, for each of the farms, virtual IPM experiments were simulated and the model-generated results were compared with the results of the real experiments conducted on the same farms. Implications of the findings for broader applicability of the model and the "virtual farm" approach-were discussed. PMID:27602000

  2. Role of re-growth interface preparation process for spectral line-width reduction of single InAs site-controlled quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Herranz, Jesús; Wewior, Lukasz; Alén, Benito; Fuster, David; González, Luisa; González, Yolanda

    2015-05-15

    We present growth and optical characterization measurements of single InAs site-controlled quantum dots (SCQDs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs (001) patterned substrates by atomic force microscopy oxidation lithography. InAs SCQDs directly grown on the patterned surface were used as a seed layer and strain template for the nucleation of optically active single InAs SCQDs. The preservation of the initial geometry of the engraved pattern motifs after the re-growth interface preparation process, the lack of buffer layer growth prior to InAs seed layer deposition and the development of suitable growth conditions provide us an improvement of the SCQDs' active layer optical properties while retaining a high ratio of single occupation (89%). In this work a fivefold reduction of the average optical line-width from 870 μeV to 156 μeV for InAs SCQDs located 15 nm from the re-growth interface is obtained by increasing the temperature of the initial thermal treatment step of the re-growth interface from 490 °C to 530 °C. PMID:25895541

  3. A replacement of the active-site aspartic acid residue 293 in mouse cathepsin D affects its intracellular stability, processing and transport in HEK-293 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Partanen, Sanna; Storch, Stephan; Löffler, Hans-Gerhard; Hasilik, Andrej; Tyynelä, Jaana; Braulke, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The substitution of an active-site aspartic acid residue by asparagine in the lysosomal protease cathepsin D (CTSD) results in a loss of enzyme activity and severe cerebrocortical atrophy in a novel form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis in sheep [Tyynelä, Sohar, Sleat, Gin, Donnelly, Baumann, Haltia and Lobel (2000) EMBO J. 19, 2786-2792]. In the present study we have introduced the corresponding mutation by replacing aspartic acid residue 293 with asparagine (D293N) into the mouse CTSD cDNA to analyse its effect on synthesis, transport and stability in transfected HEK-293 cells. The complete inactivation of mutant D293N mouse CTSD was confirmed by a newly developed fluorimetric quantification system. Moreover, in the heterologous overexpression systems used, mutant D293N mouse CTSD was apparently unstable and proteolytically modified during early steps of the secretory pathway, resulting in a loss of mass by about 1 kDa. In the affected sheep, the endogenous mutant enzyme was stable but also showed the shift in its molecular mass. In HEK-293 cells, the transport of the mutant D293N mouse CTSD to the lysosome was delayed and associated with a low secretion rate compared with wild-type CTSD. These data suggest that the mutation may result in a conformational change which affects stability, processing and transport of the enzyme. PMID:12350228

  4. Creation of a data base for sequences of ribosomal nucleic acids and detection of conserved restriction endonucleases sites through computerized processing.

    PubMed Central

    Patarca, R; Dorta, B; Ramirez, J L

    1982-01-01

    As part of a project pertaining the organization of ribosomal genes in Kinetoplastidae, we have created a data base for published sequences of ribosomal nucleic acids, with information in Spanish. As a first step in their processing, we have written a computer program which introduces the new feature of determining the length of the fragments produced after single or multiple digestion with any of the known restriction enzymes. With this information we have detected conserved SAU 3A sites: (i) at the 5' end of the 5.8S rRNA and at the 3' end of the small subunit rRNA, both included in similar larger sequences; (ii) in the 5.8S rRNA of vertebrates (a second one), which is not present in lower eukaryotes, showing a clear evolutive divergence; and, (iii) at the 5' terminal of the small subunit rRNA, included in a larger conserved sequence. The possible biological importance of these sequences is discussed. PMID:6278402

  5. The FLA3 KAP Subunit Is Required for Localization of Kinesin-2 to the Site of Flagellar Assembly and Processive Anterograde Intraflagellar TransportV⃞

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Joshua; Perrone, Catherine A.; Bower, Raqual; Cole, Douglas G.; Porter, Mary E.

    2005-01-01

    Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is a bidirectional process required for assembly and maintenance of cilia and flagella. Kinesin-2 is the anterograde IFT motor, and Dhc1b/Dhc2 drives retrograde IFT. To understand how either motor interacts with the IFT particle or how their activities might be coordinated, we characterized a ts mutation in the Chlamydomonas gene encoding KAP, the nonmotor subunit of Kinesin-2. The fla3-1 mutation is an amino acid substitution in a conserved C-terminal domain. fla3-1 strains assemble flagella at 21°C, but cannot maintain them at 33°C. Although the Kinesin-2 complex is present at both 21 and 33°C, the fla3-1 Kinesin-2 complex is not efficiently targeted to or retained in the basal body region or flagella. Video-enhanced DIC microscopy of fla3-1 cells shows that the frequency of anterograde IFT particles is significantly reduced. Anterograde particles move at near wild-type velocities, but appear larger and pause more frequently in fla3-1. Transformation with an epitope-tagged KAP gene rescues all of the fla3-1 defects and results in preferential incorporation of tagged KAP complexes into flagella. KAP is therefore required for the localization of Kinesin-2 at the site of flagellar assembly and the efficient transport of anterograde IFT particles within flagella. PMID:15616187

  6. HIV-2 genome dimerization is required for the correct processing of Gag: a second-site reversion in matrix can restore both processes in dimerization-impaired mutant viruses.

    PubMed

    L'Hernault, Anne; Weiss, Eva U; Greatorex, Jane S; Lever, Andrew M

    2012-05-01

    A unique feature of retroviruses is the packaging of two copies of their genome, noncovalently linked at their 5' ends. In vitro, dimerization of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) RNA occurs by interaction of a self-complementary sequence exposed in the loop of stem-loop 1 (SL-1), also termed the dimer initiation site (DIS). However, in virions, HIV-2 genome dimerization does not depend on the DIS. Instead, a palindrome located within the packaging signal (Psi) is the essential motif for genome dimerization. We reported previously that a mutation within Psi decreasing genome dimerization and packaging also resulted in a reduced proportion of mature particles (A. L'Hernault, J. S. Greatorex, R. A. Crowther, and A. M. Lever, Retrovirology 4:90, 2007). In this study, we investigated further the relationship between HIV-2 genome dimerization, particle maturation, and infectivity by using a series of targeted mutations in SL-1. Our results show that disruption of a purine-rich ((392)-GGAG-(395)) motif within Psi causes a severe reduction in genome dimerization and a replication defect. Maintaining the extended SL-1 structure in combination with the (392)-GGAG-(395) motif enhanced packaging. Unlike that of HIV-1, which can replicate despite mutation of the DIS, HIV-2 replication depends critically on genome dimerization rather than just packaging efficiency. Gag processing was altered in the HIV-2 dimerization mutants, resulting in the accumulation of the MA-CA-p2 processing intermediate and suggesting a link between genome dimerization and particle assembly. Analysis of revertant SL-1 mutant viruses revealed that a compensatory mutation in matrix (70TI) could rescue viral replication and partially restore genome dimerization and Gag processing. Our results are consistent with interdependence between HIV-2 RNA dimerization and the correct proteolytic cleavage of the Gag polyprotein. PMID:22419802

  7. Soil use and hydraulic systems in the Terramara S. Rosa (Poviglio, northern Italy). The role of micromorphology in decrypting site formation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremaschi, Mauro; Chiara, Pizzi

    2010-05-01

    The S. Rosa moated site (Terramara), which dates back to the Middle-Recent Bronze age, is under excavation since 1984, by the Soprintendenza ai Beni Archeologici dell Emilia Romagna, in cooperation with the Università degli Studi di Milano, CNR-IDPA of Milano, and the sponsorship of the Comune di Poviglio and Coopsette. The field seasons of the last ten years were concentrated in the south-western part of the fringe of the site and the adjoining ditch, and unearthed a complex hydraulic system composed of several wells, the moat, a canal converging to it, and minor ditches connecting these structure to the countryside surrounding the Terramara. During the early phase of occupation (late Middle Bronze age), a large number of wells, located at the fringe of the village, in coincidence with the fence were dug to reach the water table. They were kept in use for a long time and the water extracted from them was not directed to the interior of the village but it was carried inside the moat throughout a system of ditches. Outside the moat, a large canal has been recently discovered. Its large size and the sophisticated knowledge in hydraulic engineering that its construction required, make it the first archaeological proof of a large scale water management during the Bronze Age. During the last phase of the village (late Recent Bronze age) the wells of the fence and the canal were deactivated and the flow inside the moat interrupted. Consequently, more wells were excavated in a very short time at the bottom of the moat, as indicated by refitting of the potsherds included in the fill. These wells are surrounded by reservoirs connected by small ditches to make the extracted water available to be used at the outer fringe of the moat. An intensive program of micromorphological studies has been undertaken to reconstruct the formation processes of the excavated deposits. Thin section study led to the differentiation of long lasting phases of use, maintenance and abandonment on

  8. Small Wind Site Assessment Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Tim; Preus, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Site assessment for small wind energy systems is one of the key factors in the successful installation, operation, and performance of a small wind turbine. A proper site assessment is a difficult process that includes wind resource assessment and the evaluation of site characteristics. These guidelines address many of the relevant parts of a site assessment with an emphasis on wind resource assessment, using methods other than on-site data collection and creating a small wind site assessment report.

  9. Autoradiographic localization and characterization of atrial natriuretic peptide binding sites in the rat central nervous system and adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, T.R.; Wildey, G.M.; Manaker, S.; Glembotski, C.C.

    1986-07-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP) have recently been identified in both heart and CNS. These peptides possess potent natriuretic, diuretic, and vasorelaxant activities, and are all apparently derived from a single prohormone. Specific ANP binding sites have been characterized in the adrenal zona glomerulosa and kidney cortex, and one study reported ANP binding sites in the CNS. However, a detailed examination of the localization of ANP binding sites throughout the brain has not been reported. In this study, quantitative autoradiography was employed to examine the distribution of ANP receptors in the rat CNS. The binding of (3-/sup 125/I-iodotyrosyl28) rat ANP-28 to binding sites in the rat CNS was saturable, specific for ANP-related peptides, and displayed high affinity (Kd = 600 pM). When the relative concentrations of ANP binding sites were determined throughout the rat brain, the highest levels of ANP binding were localized to the circumventricular organs, including the area postrema and subfornical organ, and the olfactory apparatus. Moderate levels of ANP binding sites were present throughout the midbrain and brain stem, while low levels were found in the forebrain, diencephalon, basal ganglia, cortex, and cerebellum. The presence of ANP binding sites in the subfornical organ and the area postrema, regions considered to be outside the blood-brain barrier, suggests that peripheral ANP levels may regulate some aspects of CNS control of salt and water balance. The possible functions of ANP binding sites in other regions of the rat brain are not known, but, like many other peptides, ANP may act as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator at these loci.

  10. Searching for Clues to the Processes and Conditions of Past Martian Environments: The Roles of Episodic Solutions, Analog Sites and Fe-O(-H) Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, P. L.; De Deckker, P.

    2012-12-01

    are common, and these salts may form eolian dunes with fine particles. We may expect similar processes and mineral and chemical gradients in craters/basins on Mars like Gale Crater, the site of the Mars Science Laboratory mission. ROLE OF Fe-O(-H) PHASES: Nanophase Fe-O(-H)-phases are abundant on Mars and their precipitation results in an Fe-poor solution and salts (like Lake Tyrrell). Fe-O(-H) phases precipitate most readily at near-neutral pH; however, the high Fe of Mars' surface allows for pH>1. Nanophase Fe-O(-H)-phases have surface species that promote adsorption; which may be important in dry conditions like Mars. If we take goethite (FeO(OH)), the surface species and aqueous ions in solution are Fe3+ (pH<~2); Fe(OH)2+ (pH~2-3.5); Fe(OH)2+ (pH~3.5-~8); and FeOH4- (pH>~8). Other Fe-O(-H) phases have slightly different pH limits. Thus, at pH<~8, Fe-O(-H) surfaces sequester anions in surface complexes or in Fe-bearing salts (e.g. Fe3+-phosphate and sulfates, especially at pH<4). PO43- species have high adsorption affinity, followed by SO42-, Cl-(O) and Br-(O) species. At pH>~8, adsorption and exchange of cations are likely. These chemical variations may provide us with clues of the past pH on Mars.

  11. Ecological survey for the siting of the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility and the Idaho Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskinson, R.L.

    1994-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of field ecological surveys conducted by the Center for Integrated Environmental Technologies (CIET) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) at four candidate locations for the siting of the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility (MLLWTF) and the Idaho Waste Processing Facility (IWPF). The purpose of these surveys was to comply with all Federal laws and Executive Orders to identify and evaluate any potential environmental impacts because of the project. The boundaries of the candidate location were marked with blaze-orange lath survey marker stakes by the project management. Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of the marker stakes were made, and input to the Arc/Info{reg_sign} geographic information system (GIS). Field surveys were conducted to assess any potential impact to any important species, important habitats, and to any environmental study areas. The GIS location data was overlayed onto the INEL vegetation map and an analysis of vegetation classes on the locations was done. Results of the field surveys indicate use of Candidate Location {number_sign}1 by pygmy rabbits (Sylvilagus idahoensis) and expected use by them of Candidate Locations {number_sign}3 and {number_sign}9. Pygmy rabbits are categorized as a C2 species by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Two other C2 species, the ferruginous hawk (Buteo regalis) and the loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) would also be expected to frequent the candidate locations. Candidate Location {number_sign}5 at the north end of the INEL is in the winter range of a large number of pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana).

  12. Interdisciplinary study of atmospheric processes and constituents of the mid-Atlantic coastal region. Attachment 4: Data set for background investigation of atmospheric constituents for Nansemond River site. [a proposed oil refinery site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindle, E. C.; Bandy, E. C.; Copeland, G.; Blais, R.; Levy, G.; Sonenshine, D.; Adams, D.; Maier, G.

    1975-01-01

    Background data was provided for the assessment of the environmental impact of a proposed oil refinery location. Climatic background, particulate data, digitized portrayal of site molecular and meteorological data, graphical portrayal of molecular data, hourly meteorological data, and streamflow charts and radiosonde data are given

  13. What have we learned from deterministic geostatistics at highly resolved field sites, as relevant to mass transport processes in sedimentary aquifers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritzi, Robert W.; Soltanian, Mohamad Reza

    2015-12-01

    In the method of deterministic geostatistics (sensu Isaaks and Srivastava, 1988), highly-resolved data sets are used to compute sample spatial-bivariate statistics within a deterministic framework. The general goal is to observe what real, highly resolved, sample spatial-bivariate correlation looks like when it is well-quantified in naturally-occurring sedimentary aquifers. Furthermore, it is to understand how this correlation structure, (i.e. shape and correlation range) is related to independent and physically quantifiable attributes of the sedimentary architecture. The approach has evolved among work by Rubin (1995, 2003), Barrash and Clemo (2002), Ritzi et al. (2004, 2007, 2013), Dai et al. (2005), and Ramanathan et al. (2010). In this evolution, equations for sample statistics have been developed which allow tracking the facies types at the heads and tails of lag vectors. The goal is to observe and thereby understand how aspects of the sedimentary architecture affect the well-supported sample statistics. The approach has been used to study heterogeneity at a number of sites, representing a variety of depositional environments, with highly resolved data sets. What have we learned? We offer and support an opinion that the single most important insight derived from these studies is that the structure of spatial-bivariate correlation is essentially the cross-transition probability structure, determined by the sedimentary architecture. More than one scale of hierarchical sedimentary architecture has been represented in these studies, and a hierarchy of cross-transition probability structures was found to define the correlation structure in all cases. This insight allows decomposing contributions from different scales of the sedimentary architecture, and has led to a more fundamental understanding of mass transport processes including mechanical dispersion of solutes within aquifers, and the time-dependent retardation of reactive solutes. These processes can now be

  14. SITE RANK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Site rank is formulated for ranking the relative hazard of contamination sources and vulnerability of drinking water wells. Site rank can be used with a variety of groundwater flow and transport models.

  15. Site Specific Landfill CH4 Emissions: Shortcomings of National GHG Inventory Guidelines and a New Process-Based Approach Linked to Climate and Soil Microclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogner, J. E.; Spokas, K.; Corcoran, M.

    2012-12-01

    Current (2006) IPCC national GHG inventory guidelines for landfill CH4, which estimate CH4 generation from the mass of waste in place, have high uncertainties, cannot be reliably related to measured emissions at specific sites, and lack comprehensive field validation. Moreover, measured landfill CH4 emissions vary over a wide range from >1000 g/m2/d down to negative values (uptake of atmospheric CH4). Literature over the last decade has emphasized that the major factors controlling emissions in these highly managed soil systems are gaseous transport rates as affected by the thickness and physical properties of cover soils, methanotrophic CH4 oxidation in cover materials as a function of seasonal soil microclimate. and the presence or absence of engineered gas extraction. Thus we developed and field validated a new site specific annual inventory model that incorporates specific soil profile properties and soil microclimate modeling coupled to 0.5° scale global climatic models. Based on 1D diffusion, CALMIM (California Landfill Methane Inventory Model) is a freely available JAVA tool which models a typical annual cycle for CH4 emissions from site specific daily, intermediate, and final landfill cover designs. This new approach, which is compliant with IPCC Tier III criteria, was originally field validated at two California sites (Monterey County; Los Angeles County), with limited field validation at three additional California sites. In addition to regional defaults for inventory purposes, CALMIM permits user selectable parameters and boundary conditions for more rigorous site specific applications where detailed CH4 emissions, meteorological, and soil microclimate data exist. We report here on improvements and expanded international field validation for CALMIM 5.2 in collaboration with research groups in the U.S., Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia.odeled and measured annual cycle of landfill CH4 emissions for Austrian site. Cover consists of 50 cm sand & gravel

  16. Ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY-1994 and FY-1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory initiated ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF on the SRS in FY-1979. Two areas have been used for biological surveys and long-term monitoring: the DWPF construction site (S-Area and Z-Area), and two control sites (Rainbow Bay and Tinker Creek). The Rainbow Bay study area and S-Area are located within 5 km of each other on the SRS, and both once contained Carolina bays which were very similar ecologically. One goal of the SREL`s faunal studies is to compare the natural variation in amphibian populations at the Rainbow Bay control site to the variation observed at the human-altered site (Sun Bay, formerly on the DWPF construction site). Pre-construction biological surveys included data on vegetation, birds, mammals, amphibians, reptiles, fish and several invertebrate groups. No species on the Federal Endangered or Threatened lists were found on either site, but several plants and animals of threatened or special-concern status in South Carolina were present and the gopher frog (Rana areolata) currently is being considered for federal listing. Continuing studies are directed towards assessing construction impacts on the biota and towares modeling the effects of alteration of wetland hydroperiod on the biota. Primary emphasis is being paced on evaluation the effectiveness of mitigation measures undertaken by DOE.

  17. Evidence-Based Update to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee Guideline for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infection: Developmental Process.

    PubMed

    Berríos-Torres, Sandra I

    2016-04-01

    Recommendations in the "Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection, 1999" were based on experts' selective interpretation of the scientific evidence. Effective 2009, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and its Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) updated their guideline development process. This is a narrative summary of the updated process focusing on key changes and challenges specific to the Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection. The guideline development process now incorporates evidence-based methodology and provides explicit links between the evidence and the recommendations using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) method. There is also participation by professional surgical societies, an updated guideline structure (core and procedure-specific sections), additional planned related manuscripts (introductions to the guideline and research opportunities), and new proposed venues for publication. The new CDC and HICPAC "Guideline for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infection" represents a substantial advancement from recommendations for infection control practices based on expert opinion to evidence-based practices. The new structure is meant to facilitate future updates, in particular, those addressing specialty or procedure-specific surgical site infection prevention questions. Increased presence by the surgical community through the professional surgical societies' engagement in the guideline development process, lead authorship of related manuscripts, and proposed publication in the surgical literature not only increase adherence by the surgical community, but also promote an ongoing collaboration with public health and other partners in a multidisciplinary approach to SSI prevention. PMID:26891203

  18. A Team-Based Process for Designing Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-Tiered (CI3T) Models of Prevention: How Does My School-Site Leadership Team Design a CI3T Model?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Jenkins, Abbie; Menzies, Holly Mariah; Kalberg, Jemma Robertson

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered models are context specific and developed by school-site teams according to the core values held by the school community. In this article, the authors provide a step-by-step, team-based process for designing comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered models of prevention that integrate academic, behavioral, and…

  19. TREATABILITY STUDY REPORT OF GREEN MOUNTAIN LABORATORIES, INC.'S BIOREMEDIATION PROCESS, TREATMENT OF PCB CONTAMINATED SOILS, AT BEEDE WASTE OIL/CASH ENERGY SUPERFUND SITE, PLAISTOW, NEW HAMPSHIRE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1998, Green Mountain Laboratories, Inc. (GML) and the USEPA agreed to carry out a Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) project to evaluate the effectiveness of GML's Bioremediation Process for the treatment of PCB contaminated soils at the Beede Waste Oil/Cash Ene...

  20. On-site analysis of d13C- and dD-CH4 by laser spectroscopy for the allocation of source processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyer, Simon; Tuzson, Béla; Popa, Elena; van der Veen, Carina; Röckmann, Thomas; Brand, Willi A.; Fisher, Rebecca; Lowry, David; Nisbet, Euan G.; Brennwald, Matthias S.; Harris, Eliza; Emmenegger, Lukas; Fischer, Hubertus; Mohn, Joachim

    2015-04-01

    Analysis of the most abundant methane isotopologues 12CH4, 13CH4 and 12CH3D can be used to disentangle source/sink processes (Fischer et al. 2008) and to develop target oriented reduction strategies. Isotopic analysis of CH4 is accomplished by isotope-ratio mass-spectrometry (IRMS) and more recently by mid-infrared laser spectroscopy. For high precision measurements in ambient air, however, both techniques rely on preconcentration of the target gas (Eyer et al. 2014). We developed a field-deployable analyser for real-time, on-site analysis of CH4 isotopologues which is based on a dual quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer (QCLAS) in combination with an innovative preconcentration technique named trace gas extractor (TREX). The core part of the 19 ″ rack-mounted preconcentration unit is a highly efficient adsorbent trap attached to the cold end of a Stirling cooler. The system achieves preconcentration factors >500. For fast desorption and optimal heat management, the trap is decoupled from the cooler during desorption. The QCLAS has been developed based on a previously described instrument (Tuzson 2010). It comprises two cw-QC laser sources combined and coupled into an astigmatic multipass absorption cell with 76 m optical path. The developed technique reaches an unsurpassed precision of 0.1‰ for d13C-CH4 and <0.5‰ for dD-CH4 at 600 s spectral averaging. The potential of the new analytical system for field applications has been shown in June 2014, where the system has achieved an overall repeatability of 0.19‰ for d13C and 1.7‰ for dD-CH4 for repeated target gas measurements. Compatibility of TREX - QCLAS with flask sampling - IRMS for analysis of ambient CH4 fulfilled the extended WMO/GAW compatibility goals of 0.2‰ for d13C-CH4 and 5‰ for dD-CH4. References: Fischer, H., Behrens, M., Bock, M., Richter, U., Schmitt, J., Loulergue, L., Chappellaz, J., Spahni, R., Blunier, T., Leuenberger, M., Stocker, T. F. (2008) Nature 452: 864-867. Eyer, S

  1. A Model for the Active-Site Formation Process in DMSO Reductase Family Molybdenum Enzymes Involving Oxido-Alcoholato and Oxido-Thiolato Molybdenum(VI) Core Structures.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Hideki; Sato, Masanori; Asano, Kaori; Suzuki, Takeyuki; Mieda, Kaoru; Ogura, Takashi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Giles, Logan J; Pokhrel, Amrit; Kirk, Martin L; Itoh, Shinobu

    2016-02-15

    New bis(ene-1,2-dithiolato)-oxido-alcoholato molybdenum(VI) and -oxido-thiolato molybdenum(VI) anionic complexes, denoted as [Mo(VI)O(ER)L2](-) (E = O, S; L = dimethoxycarboxylate-1,2-ethylenedithiolate), were obtained from the reaction of the corresponding dioxido-molybdenum(VI) precursor complex with either an alcohol or a thiol in the presence of an organic acid (e.g., 10-camphorsulfonic acid) at low temperature. The [Mo(VI)O(ER)L2](-) complexes were isolated and characterized, and the structure of [Mo(VI)O(OEt)L2](-) was determined by X-ray crystallography. The Mo(VI) center in [Mo(VI)O(OEt)L2](-) exhibits a distorted octahedral geometry with the two ene-1,2-dithiolate ligands being symmetry inequivalent. The computed structure of [Mo(VI)O(SR)L2](-) is essentially identical to that of [Mo(VI)O(OR)L2](-). The electronic structures of the resulting molybdenum(VI) complexes were evaluated using electronic absorption spectroscopy and bonding calculations. The nature of the distorted O(h) geometry in these [Mo(VI)O(EEt)L2](-) complexes results in a lowest unoccupied molecular orbital wave function that possesses strong π* interactions between the Mo(d(xy)) orbital and the cis S(p(z)) orbital localized on one sulfur donor from a single ene-1,2-dithiolate ligand. The presence of a covalent Mo-S(dithiolene) bonding interaction in these monooxido Mo(VI) compounds contributes to their low-energy ligand-to-metal charge transfer transitions. A second important d-p π bonding interaction derives from the ∼180° O(oxo)-Mo-E-C dihedral angle involving the alcoholate and thiolate donors, and this contributes to ancillary ligand contributions to the electronic structure of these species. The formation of [Mo(VI)O(OEt)L2](-) and [Mo(VI)O(SEt)L2](-) from the dioxidomolybdenum(VI) precursor may be regarded as a model for the active-site formation process that occurs in the dimethyl sulfoxide reductase family of pyranopterin molybdenum enzymes. PMID:26816115

  2. FEASIBILITY EVALUATION AND RETROFIT PLAN FOR COLD CRUCIBLE INDUCTION MELTER DEPLOYMENT IN THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE 8118

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, A; Dan Iverson, D; Brannen Adkins, B

    2008-02-06

    Cold crucible induction melters (CCIM) have been proposed as an alternative technology for waste glass melting at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at Savannah River Site (SRS) as well as for other waste vitrification facilities. Proponents of this technology cite high temperature operation, high tolerance for noble metals and aluminum, high waste loading, high throughput capacity, and low equipment cost as the advantages over existing Joule Heated Melter (JHM) technology. The CCIM uses induction heating to maintain molten glass at high temperature. A water-cooled helical induction coil is connected to an AC current supply, typically operating at frequencies from 100 KHz to 5 MHz. The oscillating magnetic field generated by the oscillating current flow through the coil induces eddy currents in conductive materials within the coil. Those oscillating eddy currents, in turn, generate heat in the material. In the CCIM, the induction coil surrounds a 'Cold Crucible' which is formed by metal tubes, typically copper or stainless steel. The tubes are constructed such that the magnetic field does not couple with the crucible. Therefore, the field generated by the induction coil couples primarily with the conductive medium (hot glass) within. The crucible tubes are water cooled to maintain their temperature between 100 C to 200 C so that a protective layer of molten glass and/or batch material, referred to as a 'skull', forms between them and the hot, corrosive melt. Because the protective skull is the only material directly in contact with the molten glass, the CCIM doesn't have the temperature limitations of traditional refractory lined JHM. It can be operated at melt temperatures in excess of 2000 C, allowing processing of high waste loading batches and difficult-to-melt compounds. The CCIM is poured through a bottom drain, typically through a water-cooled slide valve that starts and stops the pour stream. To promote uniform temperature distribution and

  3. Feasibility Evaluation and Retrofit Plan for Cold Crucible Induction Melter Deployment in the Defense Waste Processing Facility at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, A.B.; Iverson, D.C.; Adkins, B.J.; Tchemitcheff, E.

    2008-07-01

    Cold crucible induction melters (CCIM) have been proposed as an alternative technology for waste glass melting at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at Savannah River Site (SRS) as well as for other waste vitrification facilities. Proponents of this technology cite high temperature operation, high tolerance for noble metals and aluminum, high waste loading, high throughput capacity, and low equipment cost as the advantages over existing Joule Heated Melter (JHM) technology. The CCIM uses induction heating to maintain molten glass at high temperature. A water-cooled helical induction coil is connected to an AC current supply, typically operating at frequencies from 100 kHz to 5 MHz. The oscillating magnetic field generated by the oscillating current flow through the coil induces eddy currents in conductive materials within the coil. Those oscillating eddy currents, in turn, generate heat in the material. In the CCIM, the induction coil surrounds a 'Cold Crucible' which is formed by metal tubes, typically copper or stainless steel. The tubes are constructed such that the magnetic field does not couple with the crucible. Therefore, the field generated by the induction coil couples primarily with the conductive medium (hot glass) within. The crucible tubes are water cooled to maintain their temperature between 100 deg. C to 200 deg. C so that a protective layer of molten glass and/or batch material, referred to as a 'skull', forms between them and the hot, corrosive melt. Because the protective skull is the only material directly in contact with the molten glass, the CCIM doesn't have the temperature limitations of traditional refractory lined JHM. It can be operated at melt temperatures in excess of 2000 deg. C, allowing processing of high waste loading batches and difficult-to-melt compounds. The CCIM is poured through a bottom drain, typically through a water-cooled slide valve that starts and stops the pour stream. To promote uniform temperature

  4. FEASIBILITY EVALUATION AND RETROFIT PLAN FOR COLD CRUCIBLE INDUCTION MELTER DEPLOYMENT IN THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - 8118

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, A; Dan Iverson, D; Brannen Adkins, B

    2007-11-15

    Cold crucible induction melters (CCIM) have been proposed as an alternative technology for waste glass melting at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at Savannah River Site (SRS) as well as for other waste vitrification facilities. Proponents of this technology cite high temperature operation, high tolerance for noble metals and aluminum, high waste loading, high throughput capacity, and low equipment cost as the advantages over existing Joule Heated Melter (JHM) technology. This paper describes the CCIM technology and identifies technical challenges that must be addressed in order to implement CCIMs in the DWPF. The CCIM uses induction heating to maintain molten glass at high temperature. A water-cooled helical induction coil is connected to an AC current supply, typically operating at frequencies from 100 KHz to 5 MHz. The oscillating magnetic field generated by the oscillating current flow through the coil induces eddy currents in conductive materials within the coil. Those oscillating eddy currents, in turn, generate heat in the material. In the CCIM, the induction coil surrounds a 'Cold Crucible' which is formed by metal tubes, typically copper or stainless steel. The tubes are constructed such that the magnetic field does not couple with the crucible. Therefore, the field generated by the induction coil couples primarily with the conductive medium (hot glass) within. The crucible tubes are water cooled to maintain their temperature between 100 C to 200 C so that a protective layer of molten glass and/or batch material, referred to as a 'skull', forms between them and the hot, corrosive melt. Because the protective skull is the only material directly in contact with the molten glass, the CCIM doesn't have the temperature limitations of traditional refractory lined Joule heated melters. It can be operated at melt temperatures in excess of 2000 C, allowing processing of high waste loading batches and difficult-to-melt compounds. The CCIM is poured

  5. Fission product iodine during early Hanford-Site operations: Its production and behavior during fuel processing, off-gas treatment and release to the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, L.L.

    1991-05-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate the radiological dose impact that Hanford Site operations may have made on the local and regional population. This impact is estimated by examining operations involving radioactive materials that were conducted at the Hanford Site from the startup of the first reactor in 1944 to the present. HEDR Project work is divided among several technical tasks. One of these tasks, Source Terms, is designed to develop quantitative estimates of all significant emissions of radionuclides by Hanford Site operations since 1944. Radiation doses can be estimated from these emissions by accounting for specific radionuclide transport conditions and population demography. This document provides technical information to assist in the evaluation of iodine releases. 115 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the Fluorinel Dissolution Process Makeup and Cooling and Heating Systems Voluntary Consent Order SITE-TANK-005 Action Plan Tank Systems INTEC-066, INTEC-067, INTEC-068, and INTEC-072

    SciTech Connect

    M.E. Davis

    2007-05-01

    This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure plan for the fluorinel dissolution process makeup and cooling and heating systems located in the Fluorinel Dissolution Process and Fuel Storage Facility (CPP-666), Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Idaho National Laboratory Site, was developed to meet milestones established under the Voluntary Consent Order. The systems to be closed include waste piping associated with the fluorinel dissolution process makeup systems. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods of achieving those standards.

  7. Aqueous and non-aqueous soil processes on the northern plains of Mars: Insights from the distribution of perchlorate salts at the Phoenix landing site and in Earth analog environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cull, Selby; Kennedy, Erin; Clark, Alice

    2014-06-01

    In 2008, the Phoenix lander returned chemical evidence of perchlorate salts in the soils at its landing site on the northern plains of Mars. Subsequent spectral mapping of the perchlorate using Phoenix's multispectral Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) showed that concentrated patches of the salt exist in the subsurface. Because atmospheric formation of Martian perchlorate should form a highly-concentrated layer of salt on the surface, subsurface concentrated patches have been interpreted as evidence that Phoenix soils experienced minor amounts of aqueous reworking after perchlorate formation. Here, we present results from a wide-scale mapping of the Phoenix landing site using SSI multispectral data. We report that, contrary to preliminary case studies, limited occurrences of rocks and soil clods with perchlorate coatings are also found on the undisturbed surface. The discovery of these patches on undisturbed surfaces points to more complex processes operating on modern-day polar soils, perhaps including a combination of aqueous and mechanical processes, such as cryoturbation. Finally, we combine results from this study with an analysis of perchlorate redistribution mechanisms on Earth to illustrate the mechanisms likely responsible for modern processing of soils on the northern plains of Mars. Concentrated perchlorate coatings found on the undisturbed surface at the Phoenix site. Phoenix soils likely processed by both aqueous and non-aqueous processes. Small-volumes of water likely responsible for producing perchlorate coatings. Non-aqueous mechanical processing could bring coated rocks back to the surface. Perchlorate may not be found on the top-most surface at equatorial sites.

  8. Value siting

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrar, T.A.; Howes, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    Finding an appropriate site is becoming an increasing challenge in building new power projects. One of the first orders of business in project development is identifying a site that offers the maximum spread between the cost of fuel and net power price. The collection of sites that exhibit an adequate spread - presenting a first-order, acceptable economic expectation - must now be subjected to an ever increasing number of political, societal, technical, and economic exclusion screens. The barriers can include cooling water constraints, community resistance, visual incompatibility, archaeological concerns and endangered species preservation issues. Most power siting difficulties can be substantially mitigated by gaining access to developed, but under-used sites, whose current owners are bound by circumstances - political or financial - that prevent them from using such locations. There are two such categories of sites: Utilities that have sites on which depreciated power production assets rest; and, The federal government, with numerous sites throughout the country, particularly military bases subject to closure under the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) proceedings. It is in the interests of developers, as well as consumers, investors and taxpayers, ti undertake a thorough examination of these overlooked pearls of opportunities and develop their potential.

  9. V5 AND V10 CONTACTOR TESTING WITH THE NEXT GENERATION (CSSX) SOLVENT FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Restivo, M.; Peters, T.; Pierce, R.; Fondeur, F.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Giddings, B.; Hickman, B.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-17

    A solvent extraction system for removal of cesium (Cs) from alkaline solutions was developed utilizing a novel solvent invented at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This solvent consists of a calix[4]arene-crown-6 extractant dissolved in an inert hydrocarbon matrix. A Modifier is added to the solvent to enhance the extraction power of the calixarene and to prevent the formation of a third phase. An additional additive, called a suppressor, is used to improve stripping performance. The process that deploys this solvent system is known as Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX). The solvent system has been deployed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) since 2008. Subsequent development efforts by ORNL identified an improved solvent system that can raise the expected decontamination factor (DF) in MCU from {approx}200 to more than 40,000. The improved DF is attributed to an improved distribution ratio for cesium [D(Cs)] in extraction from {approx}15 to {approx}60, an increased solubility of the calixarene in the solvent from 0.007 M to >0.050 M, and use of boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}) stripping that also yields improved D(Cs) values. Additionally, the changes incorporated into the Next Generation CSSX Solvent (NGS) are intended to reduce solvent entrainment by virtue of more favorable physical properties. The MCU and Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) facilities are actively pursuing the changeover from the current CSSX solvent to the NGS solvent. To support this integration of the NGS into the MCU and SWPF facilities, the Savannah River Remediation (SRR)/ARP/MCU Life Extension Project requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) perform testing of the new solvent for the removal of Cs from the liquid salt waste stream. Additionally, SRNL was tasked with characterizing both strip (20-in long, 10 micron pore size) and extraction (40-in long, 20 micron pore size) coalescers. SRNL designed a pilot-scale experimental

  10. Remedial action plan for the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Remedial action selection report: Attachment 2, geology report; Attachment 3, ground water hydrology report; Attachment 4, supplemental information

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), 42 USC {section} 7901 et seq. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This RAP serves two purposes. First, it describes the activities that are proposed by the DOE to accomplish remediation and long-term stabilization and control of the radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Second, this RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the state of Colorado, and the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the cooperative agreement between the DOE and the state of Colorado.

  11. Spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil, sediment, and combusted residue at an e-waste processing site in southeast China.

    PubMed

    Leung, Anna O W; Cheung, Kwai Chung; Wong, Ming Hung

    2015-06-01

    The environmental pollution and health impacts caused by the primitive and crude recycling of e-waste have become urgent global issues. Guiyu, China is a major hotspot of e-waste recycling. In this study, the levels and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil in Guiyu were determined to investigate the effect of e-waste activities on the environment and to identify possible sources of these pollutants. Sediment samples from a local duck pond, water gullies, a river tributary, and combusted residue from e-waste burning sites were also investigated. The general trend found in soil (Σ16 PAHs) was acid leaching site > duck pond > rice field > printer roller dump site > reservoir (control site) and ranged from 95.2 ± 54.2 to 5,210 ± 89.6 ng/g (dry wt). The highest average total PAH concentrations were found in combusted residues of wires, cables, and other computer electrical components located at two e-waste open burning sites (18,600 and 10,800 ± 3,940 ng/g). These were 195- and 113-fold higher than the PAH concentrations of soil at the control site. Sediment PAH concentrations ranged from 37.2 ± 6 to 534 ± 271 ng/g. Results of this study provide further evidence of significant input of PAHs to the environment attributed to crude e-waste recycling. PMID:23338991

  12. The Symmetrical Quasi-Classical Model for Electronically Non-Adiabatic Processes Applied to Energy Transfer Dynamics in Site-Exciton Models of Light-Harvesting Complexes.

    PubMed

    Cotton, Stephen J; Miller, William H

    2016-03-01

    In a recent series of papers, it has been illustrated that a symmetrical quasi-classical (SQC) windowing model applied to the Meyer-Miller (MM) classical vibronic Hamiltonian provides an excellent description of a variety of electronically non-adiabatic benchmark model systems for which exact quantum results are available for comparison. In this paper, the SQC/MM approach is used to treat energy transfer dynamics in site-exciton models of light-harvesting complexes, and in particular, the well-known 7-state Fenna-Mathews-Olson (FMO) complex. Again, numerically "exact" results are available for comparison, here via the hierarchical equation of motion (HEOM) approach of Ishizaki and Fleming, and it is seen that the simple SQC/MM approach provides very reasonable agreement with the previous HEOM results. It is noted, however, that unlike most (if not all) simple approaches for treating these systems, because the SQC/MM approach presents a fully atomistic simulation based on classical trajectory simulation, it places no restrictions on the characteristics of the thermal baths coupled to each two-level site, e.g., bath spectral densities (SD) of any analytic functional form may be employed as well as discrete SD determined experimentally or from MD simulation (nor is there any restriction that the baths be harmonic), opening up the possibility of simulating more realistic variations on the basic site-exciton framework for describing the non-adiabatic dynamics of photosynthetic pigment complexes. PMID:26761191

  13. The reaction mechanism for the SCR process on monomer V(5+) sites and the effect of modified Brønsted acidity.

    PubMed

    Arnarson, Logi; Falsig, Hanne; Rasmussen, Søren B; Lauritsen, Jeppe V; Moses, Poul Georg

    2016-06-22

    The energetics, structures and activity of a monomeric VO3H/TiO2(001) catalyst are investigated for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reaction by the use of density functional theory (DFT). Furthermore we study the influences of a dopant substitute in the TiO2 support and its effects on the known properties of the SCR system such as Brønsted acidity and reducibility of vanadium. We find for the reduction part of the SCR mechanism that it involves two Ti-O-V oxygen sites. One is a hydroxyl possessing Brønsted acidity which contributes to the formation of NH4(+), while the other accepts a proton which charge stabilizes the reduced active site. In the reduction the proton is donated to the latter due to a reaction between NH3 and NO that forms a H2NNO molecule which decomposes into N2(g) and H2O(g). A dopant substitution of 10 different dopants: Si, Ge, Se, Zr, Sn, Te, Hf, V, Mo and W at each of the sites, which participate in the reaction, modifies the energetics and therefore the SCR activity. We find that Brønsted acidity is a descriptor for the SCR activity at low temperatures. Based on this descriptor we find that Zr, Hf and Sn have a positive effect as they decrease the activation energy for the SCR reaction. PMID:27297567

  14. Site-specific photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koplitz, Brent D.; Brum, Jeffrey L.; Deshmukh, Subhash; Xu, Xiaodong; Wang, Zhongrui; Yen, Yu-Fong

    1992-04-01

    We present results on `site-specific' H-atom production in photolysis experiments conducted under collisionless conditions. H and D atoms are used as labels to investigate the site(s) at which C-H (or C-D) bond cleavage occurs in a variety of haloalkane systems. Experiments using two photolysis lasers clearly indicate that photon absorption by an intermediate, presumably an alkyl radical, is important in many of the systems studied. The site(s) (e.g., (alpha) , (beta) , or (gamma) ) at which C-H (or C-D) bond cleavage occurs is dependent not only on the nature of the molecule, but also on the photolysis wavelength. As a diagnostic tool, H- and D-atom Doppler spectroscopy allows us to gain insight into the energetics associated with the various dissociation processes. Our overall aim is to gain a further understanding of the photolysis properties of a variety of simple molecules and their associated radicals.