Science.gov

Sample records for project 02-erd-069 discovering

  1. Final Report for LDRD Project 02-ERD-069: Discovering the Unknown Mechanism(s) of Virulence in a BW, Class A Select Agent

    SciTech Connect

    Chain, P; Garcia, E

    2003-02-06

    The goal of this proposed effort was to assess the difficulty in identifying and characterizing virulence candidate genes in an organism for which very limited data exists. This was accomplished by first addressing the finishing phase of draft-sequenced F. tularensis genomes and conducting comparative analyses to determine the coding potential of each genome; to discover the differences in genome structure and content, and to identify potential genes whose products may be involved in the F. tularensis virulence process. The project was divided into three parts: (1) Genome finishing: This part involves determining the order and orientation of the consensus sequences of contigs obtained from Phrap assemblies of random draft genomic sequences. This tedious process consists of linking contig ends using information embedded in each sequence file that relates the sequence to the original cloned insert. Since inserts are sequenced from both ends, we can establish a link between these paired-ends in different contigs and thus order and orient contigs. Since these genomes carry numerous copies of insertion sequences, these repeated elements ''confuse'' the Phrap assembly program. It is thus necessary to break these contigs apart at the repeated sequences and individually join the proper flanking regions using paired-end information, or using results of comparisons against a similar genome. Larger repeated elements such as the small subunit ribosomal RNA operon require verification with PCR. Tandem repeats require manual intervention and typically rely on single nucleotide polymorphisms to be resolved. Remaining gaps require PCR reactions and sequencing. Once the genomes have been ''closed'', low quality regions are addressed by resequencing reactions. (2) Genome analysis: The final consensus sequences are processed by combining the results of three gene modelers: Glimmer, Critica and Generation. The final gene models are submitted to a battery of homology searches and

  2. "Discover Diversities": A Trans-Inter-Disciplinary (SEMEP) Project for Different School Levels and Teachers' Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilo, Miranda; Gavio, Brigitte; Scaldarella, Elda; Di Carlo, Caterina; Martorano, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    "Discover Diversities" is a wide thematic developed within the SEMEP (South-Eastern Mediterranean Environmental Project) project, supported by UNESCO (United Nation Education, Science and Culture Organization). SEMEP is essentially a project for science education, focusing on Mediterranean environment. As the Mediterranean has been the cradle of…

  3. Building a City: A Spin Off Project. Part II of Students Discovering Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Adele

    1988-01-01

    Discusses "Students Discovering Cities" and related activities, explaining how the program evolved into a city planning project for fourth graders in West Jordan, Utah. Describes the final stage of the project in which students "built" their city inside the school gymnasium, complete with streets, lights, cardboard buildings, and green spaces.…

  4. DISCOVER: A Service Oriented Approach to Managing Earth Science Data Across Distributed Project-specific Repositories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiser, K.; Conover, H.; Hawkins, L.; Beaumont, B.; He, M.; Drewry, M.; Nair, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC), a NASA Earth Science data center managed by the University of Alabama in Huntsville, is one of twelve data centers that make up the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC) Alliance. Over the years, GHRC staff have developed and evolved a production information management infrastructure to ingest, inventory, archive and distribute a variety of data products to our users. The GHRC has also collaborated with Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) over the course of three NASA Earth Science programs (ESIP, REaSON, and now MEaSURES) to develop valuable Earth science products and services, specifically for passive microwave sensors. This continued effort, known as the DISCOVER (Distributed Information Services for Climate and Ocean products and Visualizations for Earth Research) project, has been able to explore more experimental data services. A result of this collaboration is that services developed and hardened in the DISCOVER service oriented architecture may be integrated into the baseline GHRC infrastructure. For example, the GHRC Data Pool was originally developed for DISCOVER and is now supporting the inventory, search and distribution of science data products across multiple GHRC and DISCOVER data repositories. Distributed services for harvesting metadata and packaging data orders interoperate with two complementary search/access/order user interfaces through a central metadata and order tracking database. This presentation will discuss the science data tools and services developed by DISCOVER and the GHRC, with a focus on integration of new services into an established data management infrastructure.

  5. Discovering Beaten Paths in Collaborative Ontology-Engineering Projects using Markov Chains

    PubMed Central

    Walk, Simon; Singer, Philipp; Strohmaier, Markus; Tudorache, Tania; Musen, Mark A.; Noy, Natalya F.

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical taxonomies, thesauri and ontologies in the form of the International Classification of Diseases as a taxonomy or the National Cancer Institute Thesaurus as an OWL-based ontology, play a critical role in acquiring, representing and processing information about human health. With increasing adoption and relevance, biomedical ontologies have also significantly increased in size. For example, the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases, which is currently under active development by the World Health Organization contains nearly 50, 000 classes representing a vast variety of different diseases and causes of death. This evolution in terms of size was accompanied by an evolution in the way ontologies are engineered. Because no single individual has the expertise to develop such large-scale ontologies, ontology-engineering projects have evolved from small-scale efforts involving just a few domain experts to large-scale projects that require effective collaboration between dozens or even hundreds of experts, practitioners and other stakeholders. Understanding the way these different stakeholders collaborate will enable us to improve editing environments that support such collaborations. In this paper, we uncover how large ontology-engineering projects, such as the International Classification of Diseases in its 11th revision, unfold by analyzing usage logs of five different biomedical ontology-engineering projects of varying sizes and scopes using Markov chains. We discover intriguing interaction patterns (e.g., which properties users frequently change after specific given ones) that suggest that large collaborative ontology-engineering projects are governed by a few general principles that determine and drive development. From our analysis, we identify commonalities and differences between different projects that have implications for project managers, ontology editors, developers and contributors working on collaborative ontology

  6. Discovering beaten paths in collaborative ontology-engineering projects using Markov chains.

    PubMed

    Walk, Simon; Singer, Philipp; Strohmaier, Markus; Tudorache, Tania; Musen, Mark A; Noy, Natalya F

    2014-10-01

    Biomedical taxonomies, thesauri and ontologies in the form of the International Classification of Diseases as a taxonomy or the National Cancer Institute Thesaurus as an OWL-based ontology, play a critical role in acquiring, representing and processing information about human health. With increasing adoption and relevance, biomedical ontologies have also significantly increased in size. For example, the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases, which is currently under active development by the World Health Organization contains nearly 50,000 classes representing a vast variety of different diseases and causes of death. This evolution in terms of size was accompanied by an evolution in the way ontologies are engineered. Because no single individual has the expertise to develop such large-scale ontologies, ontology-engineering projects have evolved from small-scale efforts involving just a few domain experts to large-scale projects that require effective collaboration between dozens or even hundreds of experts, practitioners and other stakeholders. Understanding the way these different stakeholders collaborate will enable us to improve editing environments that support such collaborations. In this paper, we uncover how large ontology-engineering projects, such as the International Classification of Diseases in its 11th revision, unfold by analyzing usage logs of five different biomedical ontology-engineering projects of varying sizes and scopes using Markov chains. We discover intriguing interaction patterns (e.g., which properties users frequently change after specific given ones) that suggest that large collaborative ontology-engineering projects are governed by a few general principles that determine and drive development. From our analysis, we identify commonalities and differences between different projects that have implications for project managers, ontology editors, developers and contributors working on collaborative ontology

  7. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen

    1998-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

  8. Athlome Project Consortium: a concerted effort to discover genomic and other "omic" markers of athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Tanaka, Masashi; Eynon, Nir; Bouchard, Claude; North, Kathryn N; Williams, Alun G; Collins, Malcolm; Moran, Colin N; Britton, Steven L; Fuku, Noriyuki; Ashley, Euan A; Klissouras, Vassilis; Lucia, Alejandro; Ahmetov, Ildus I; de Geus, Eco; Alsayrafi, Mohammed

    2016-03-01

    Despite numerous attempts to discover genetic variants associated with elite athletic performance, injury predisposition, and elite/world-class athletic status, there has been limited progress to date. Past reliance on candidate gene studies predominantly focusing on genotyping a limited number of single nucleotide polymorphisms or the insertion/deletion variants in small, often heterogeneous cohorts (i.e., made up of athletes of quite different sport specialties) have not generated the kind of results that could offer solid opportunities to bridge the gap between basic research in exercise sciences and deliverables in biomedicine. A retrospective view of genetic association studies with complex disease traits indicates that transition to hypothesis-free genome-wide approaches will be more fruitful. In studies of complex disease, it is well recognized that the magnitude of genetic association is often smaller than initially anticipated, and, as such, large sample sizes are required to identify the gene effects robustly. A symposium was held in Athens and on the Greek island of Santorini from 14-17 May 2015 to review the main findings in exercise genetics and genomics and to explore promising trends and possibilities. The symposium also offered a forum for the development of a position stand (the Santorini Declaration). Among the participants, many were involved in ongoing collaborative studies (e.g., ELITE, GAMES, Gene SMART, GENESIS, and POWERGENE). A consensus emerged among participants that it would be advantageous to bring together all current studies and those recently launched into one new large collaborative initiative, which was subsequently named the Athlome Project Consortium. PMID:26715623

  9. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen

    1996-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

  10. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

  11. A Calculus I Project: Discovering the Derivative of an Exponential Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anne Ludington

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a project one teacher assigns to Calculus I students at the Department of Mathematical Sciences at Loyola College in Baltimore, Maryland. The project is introduced to the students early in the semester and requires the use of technology, team work, and the completion of an extensive writing component. The goal of the project…

  12. The PANOPTES project: discovering exoplanets with low-cost digital cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyon, Olivier; Walawender, Josh; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Butterfield, Mike; Gee, Wilfred T.; Mery, Rawad

    2014-07-01

    The Panoptic Astronomical Networked OPtical observatory for Transiting Exoplanets Survey (PANOPTES, www.projectpanoptes.org) project is aimed at identifying transiting exoplanets using a wide network of low-cost imaging units. Each unit consists of two commercial digital single lens reflex (DSLR) cameras equipped with 85mm F1.4 lenses, mounted on a small equatorial mount. At a few $1000s per unit, the system offers a uniquely advantageous survey eficiency for the cost, and can easily be assembled by amateur astronomers or students. Three generations of prototype units have so far been tested, and the baseline unit design, which optimizes robustness, simplicity and cost, is now ready to be duplicated. We describe the hardware and software for the PANOPTES project, focusing on key challenging aspects of the project. We show that obtaining high precision photometric measurements with commercial DSLR color cameras is possible, using a PSF-matching algorithm we developed for this project. On-sky tests show that percent-level photometric precision is achieved in 1 min with a single camera. We also discuss hardware choices aimed at optimizing system robustness while maintaining adequate cost. PANOPTES is both an outreach project and a scientifically compelling survey for transiting exoplanets. In its current phase, experienced PANOPTES members are deploying a limited number of units, acquiring the experience necessary to run the network. A much wider community will then be able to participate to the project, with schools and citizen scientists integrating their units in the network.

  13. THE PROJECT: an Observatory / Transport Spaceship for Discovering and Populating Habitable Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilston, S.

    1998-12-01

    Recent extrasolar planet discoveries and related progress in astrophysics have refined our knowledge of the implications of the Drake equation. The Space Interferometry Mission and the planned Terrestrial Planet Finder will deepen this understanding, and begin pointing the way to places we need to explore at closer range. If the correct resolution of the Fermi paradox regarding intelligent extraterrestrials (``where are they?") is found to lie in the actual scarcity of such beings, it may turn out that we are more advanced than most other life-forms in our galaxy. In this case, a main purpose in finding planets may be to find places for us to go: astronomy will once again play a major role in human navigation and migration. We describe a strawman design concept for an astronomical observatory ship designed for launch beyond our solar system within several hundred years. This ship design would employ plausible physics, biology, technology, sociology, and economics to carry one million passengers in a one-G environment shielded from space radiation. A cruising speed under 0.01 c, slower than in many science-fiction concepts, minimizes power requirements and the danger from collisional impacts. The ship would contain all subsystems needed to sustain multi-generational life on a voyage of thousands of years, as well as the observatories to identify for human settlement a habitable extrasolar planet. Even the modestly advanced technology described here could spread intelligent life throughout our galaxy within 40 million years, a very small fraction of the galaxy's age. Motivation for such an ambitious project is three-fold: expanding our knowledge of the universe, enlisting the efforts and enthusiasms of humankind toward a very grand goal which will stimulate progress in all aspects of our cultures and technologies, and participating in the process of spreading life so its survivability and fruition are enhanced.

  14. Discovering Deserts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Discovering Deserts." Contents are organized into the following sections: (1)…

  15. Discovering Technicolor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, J. R.; Antipin, O.; Azuelos, G.; Del Debbio, L.; Del Nobile, E.; Di Chiara, S.; Hapola, T.; Järvinen, M.; Lowdon, P. J.; Maravin, Y.; Masina, I.; Nardecchia, M.; Pica, C.; Sannino, F.

    2011-09-01

    We provide a pedagogical introduction to extensions of the Standard Model in which the Higgs is composite. These extensions are known as models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking or, in brief, Technicolor. Material covered includes: motivations for Technicolor, the construction of underlying gauge theories leading to minimal models of Technicolor, the comparison with electroweak precision data, the low-energy effective theory, the spectrum of the states common to most of the Technicolor models, the decays of the composite particles and the experimental signals at the Large Hadron Collider. The level of the presentation is aimed at readers familiar with the Standard Model but who have little or no prior exposure to Technicolor. Several extensions of the Standard Model featuring a composite Higgs can be reduced to the effective Lagrangian introduced in the text. We establish the relevant experimental benchmarks for Vanilla, Running, Walking, and Custodial Technicolor, and a natural fourth family of leptons, by laying out the framework to discover these models at the Large Hadron Collider.

  16. Discovering Constructivism: How a Project-Oriented Activity-Based Media Production Course Effectively Employed Constructivist Teaching Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Glenn T.

    2012-01-01

    Author uses his experience leading a project-oriented special-topics course as a case study in constructivist teaching methods. Citing relevant literature from the education field, this paper considers why students chosen to work for course credit on a promotional video for a university program considered the project their greatest academic…

  17. The Araucaria Project: The Distances to the NGC 247 and WLM Galaxies From Cepheid Variables Discovered in a Wide-Field Imaging Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, A.; Gieren, W.; Pietrzynski, G.

    2009-05-01

    Two different and extensive wide-field imaging surveys for Cepheid variables have been made in the Sculptor Group galaxy NGC 247 and in the Local Group Irregular galaxy WLM. We present the principal results obtained in this surveys in the context of the Araucaria project. We have discovered 60 Cepheids in WLM and 24 Cepheids in NGC 247. Our data define tight period-luminosity relations in V, I and the reddening-free Wesenheit magnitude W_I which are all extremely well fit by the corresponding slopes of the LMC Cepheid PL relation, suggesting no change of the PL relation slope down to a Cepheid metal abundance of about -1.0 dex, in agreement with other recent studies. We derive a true distance modulus to NGC 247 of 27.80+/-0.09 (r) +/-0.06 (s) mag from our data, in good agreement with the earlier 27.9+/-0.1 mag determination of Davidge (2006, ApJ, 641, 822) from TRGB I band magnitude. The true distance modulus to WLM derived from our data was 25.144+/-0.03 (r) +/-0.07 (s), in good agreement with the earlier 24.92+/-0.21determination of Lee, Freedman, & Madore (1993, ApJ, 417, 553) from Cepheid variables. Aditional information is available in The Araucaria Project homepage (http://ezzelino.ifa.hawaii.edu/ bresolin/Araucaria/index.html) and in the series of papers entitled: The Araucaria Project.

  18. Students Discover Unique Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-12-01

    Three undergraduate students, from Leiden University in the Netherlands, have discovered an extrasolar planet. The extraordinary find, which turned up during their research project, is about five times as massive as Jupiter. This is also the first planet discovered orbiting a fast-rotating hot star. Omega Centauri ESO PR Photo 45a/08 A planet around a hot star The students were testing a method of investigating the light fluctuations of thousands of stars in the OGLE database in an automated way. The brightness of one of the stars was found to decrease for two hours every 2.5 days by about one percent. Follow-up observations, taken with ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile, confirmed that this phenomenon is caused by a planet passing in front of the star, blocking part of the starlight at regular intervals. According to Ignas Snellen, supervisor of the research project, the discovery was a complete surprise. "The project was actually meant to teach the students how to develop search algorithms. But they did so well that there was time to test their algorithm on a so far unexplored database. At some point they came into my office and showed me this light curve. I was completely taken aback!" The students, Meta de Hoon, Remco van der Burg, and Francis Vuijsje, are very enthusiastic. "It is exciting not just to find a planet, but to find one as unusual as this one; it turns out to be the first planet discovered around a fast rotating star, and it's also the hottest star found with a planet," says Meta. "The computer needed more than a thousand hours to do all the calculations," continues Remco. The planet is given the prosaic name OGLE2-TR-L9b. "But amongst ourselves we call it ReMeFra-1, after Remco, Meta, and myself," says Francis. The planet was discovered by looking at the brightness variations of about 15 700 stars, which had been observed by the OGLE survey once or twice per night for about four years between 1997 and 2000. Because the data had been made public

  19. Student Discovers New Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-01-01

    A West Virginia high-school student has discovered a new pulsar, using data from the giant Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). Shay Bloxton, 15, a participant in a project in which students analyze data from the radio telescope, spotted evidence of the pulsar on October 15. Bloxton, along with NRAO astronomers observed the object again one month later. The new observation confirmed that the object is a pulsar, a rotating, superdense neutron star. Bloxton is a sophomore at Nicholas County High School in Summersville, West Virginia. "I was very excited when I found out I had actually made a discovery," Bloxton said. She went to Green Bank in November to participate in the follow-up observation. She termed that visit "a great experience." "It also helped me learn a lot about how observations with the GBT are actually done," she added. The project in which she participated, called the Pulsar Search Collaboratory (PSC), is a joint project of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and West Virginia University, funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation. Pulsars are known for their lighthouse-like beams of radio waves that sweep through space as the neutron star rotates, creating a pulse as the beam sweeps by the Earth. First discovered in 1967, pulsars serve as valuable natural "laboratories" for physicists studying exotic states of matter, quantum mechanics and General Relativity. The GBT, dedicated in 2000, has become one of the world's leading tools for discovering and studying pulsars. The PSC, led by NRAO Education Officer Sue Ann Heatherly and Project Director Rachel Rosen, includes training for teachers and student leaders, and provides parcels of data from the GBT to student teams. The project involves teachers and students in helping astronomers analyze data from 1500 hours of observing with the GBT. The 120 terabytes of data were produced by 70,000 individual pointings of the giant, 17-million-pound telescope. Some 300 hours of the

  20. DISCOVER-AQ

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-01-07

    ... of satellites to monitor air quality for public health and environmental benefit. Through targeted airborne and ground-based observations, ... Relevant Documents:  DISCOVER-AQ - Airborne Science Data for Atmospheric Composition DISCOVER-AQ - NASA Earth ...

  1. Discovering the Artist Within.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamill, Sam

    1999-01-01

    Describes a personal artistic struggle against heroin addiction, advising teachers of the difficulty of working to discover and express one's developing self. Considers the effect of poetry and philosophy on the developing creative process. Provides samples of the author's own poetry to demonstrate creative development, as an example to Montessori…

  2. Discovering Hidden Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Carol

    1991-01-01

    Working with teachers and artists from Florida to Maine, a drama educator has discovered that creative power and insight can emerge when using drama in the language arts classroom. One seventh-grade class began with simple warm-ups to loosen inhibitions and then moved into a unit that dealt with improvising using movement. A student who had hardly…

  3. Discovering Mendeleev's Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Donna

    1996-01-01

    Presents an activity that introduces the historical developments in science that led to the discovery of the periodic table and lets students experience scientific discovery firsthand. Enables students to learn about patterns among the elements and experience how scientists analyze data to discover patterns and build models. (JRH)

  4. Helping Your Children Discover.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroepfer, Dorothy; Yeaton, Charles

    Children discover many things about themselves, about the world around them, and about words and language, before they go to school. This booklet was prepared to guide parents in helping their children make such discoveries in preparation for the demands of learning in school. Activities are suggested for developing children's self-confidence,…

  5. Contrasts & Connections: Teachers' Resource Book, Second Edition for the Revised National Curriculum. The Schools History Project, "Discovering the Past Y7."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Colin; Corbishley, Mike; Large, Alan; Tames, Richard

    This history course has been designed by the Schools History Project for the national curriculum in England. It covers three study units for the revised curriculum, including: (1) the Roman Empire as a study of an era or turning point in European history before 1914; (2) Medieval Realms as a statutory unit; and (3) Islamic Civilizations as a study…

  6. Discovering the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Barrie W.

    1999-04-01

    Discovering the Solar System Barrie W. Jones The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK Discovering the Solar System is a comprehensive, up-to-date account of the Solar System and of the ways in which the various bodies have been investigated and modelled. The approach is thematic, with sequences of chapters on the interiors of planetary bodies, on their surfaces, and on their atmospheres. Within each sequence there is a chapter on general principles and processes followed by one or two chapters on specific bodies. There is also an introductory chapter, a chapter on the origin of the Solar System, and a chapter on asteroids, comets and meteorites. Liberally illustrated with diagrams, black and white photographs and colour plates, Discovering the Solar System also features: * tables of essential data * question and answers within the text * end of section review questions with answers and comments Discovering the Solar System is essential reading for all undergraduate students for whom astronomy or planetary science are components of their degrees, and for those at a more advanced level approaching the subject for the first time. It will also be of great interest to non-specialists with a keen interest in astronomy. A small amount of scientific knowledge is assumed plus familiarity with basic algebra and graphs. There is no calculus. Praise for this book includes: ".certainly qualifies as an authoritative text. The author clearly has an encyclopedic knowledge of the subject." Meteorics and Planetary Science ".liberally doused with relevant graphs, tables, and black and white figures of good quality." EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union ".one of the best books on the Solar System I have seen. The general accuracy and quality of the content is excellent." Journal of the British Astronomical Association

  7. The 'PUCE CAFE' Project: the First 15K Coffee Microarray, a New Tool for Discovering Candidate Genes correlated to Agronomic and Quality Traits

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding the genetic elements that contribute to key aspects of coffee biology will have an impact on future agronomical improvements for this economically important tree. During the past years, EST collections were generated in Coffee, opening the possibility to create new tools for functional genomics. Results The "PUCE CAFE" Project, organized by the scientific consortium NESTLE/IRD/CIRAD, has developed an oligo-based microarray using 15,721 unigenes derived from published coffee EST sequences mostly obtained from different stages of fruit development and leaves in Coffea Canephora (Robusta). Hybridizations for two independent experiments served to compare global gene expression profiles in three types of tissue matter (mature beans, leaves and flowers) in C. canephora as well as in the leaves of three different coffee species (C. canephora, C. eugenoides and C. arabica). Microarray construction, statistical analyses and validation by Q-PCR analysis are presented in this study. Conclusion We have generated the first 15 K coffee array during this PUCE CAFE project, granted by Génoplante (the French consortium for plant genomics). This new tool will help study functional genomics in a wide range of experiments on various plant tissues, such as analyzing bean maturation or resistance to pathogens or drought. Furthermore, the use of this array has proven to be valid in different coffee species (diploid or tetraploid), drastically enlarging its impact for high-throughput gene expression in the community of coffee research. PMID:21208403

  8. Discovering system requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Bahill, A.T.; Bentz, B.; Dean, F.F.

    1996-07-01

    Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirements process. This report provides a high-level overview of the system requirements process, explaining types, sources, and characteristics of good requirements. System requirements, however, are seldom stated by the customer. Therefore, this report shows ways to help you work with your customer to discover the system requirements. It also explains terminology commonly used in the requirements development field, such as verification, validation, technical performance measures, and the various design reviews.

  9. BINARIES DISCOVERED BY THE MUCHFUSS PROJECT: SDSS J08205+0008-AN ECLIPSING SUBDWARF B BINARY WITH A BROWN DWARF COMPANION

    SciTech Connect

    Geier, S.; Schaffenroth, V.; Drechsel, H.; Heber, U.; Kupfer, T.; Tillich, A.; Oestensen, R. H.; Smolders, K.; Degroote, P.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Barlow, B. N.; Gaensicke, B. T.; Marsh, T. R.; Napiwotzki, R.

    2011-04-20

    Hot subdwarf B stars (sdBs) are extreme horizontal branch stars believed to originate from close binary evolution. Indeed about half of the known sdB stars are found in close binaries with periods ranging from a few hours to a few days. The enormous mass loss required to remove the hydrogen envelope of the red-giant progenitor almost entirely can be explained by common envelope ejection. A rare subclass of these binaries are the eclipsing HW Vir binaries where the sdB is orbited by a dwarf M star. Here, we report the discovery of an HW Vir system in the course of the MUCHFUSS project. A most likely substellar object ({approx_equal}0.068 M{sub sun}) was found to orbit the hot subdwarf J08205+0008 with a period of 0.096 days. Since the eclipses are total, the system parameters are very well constrained. J08205+0008 has the lowest unambiguously measured companion mass yet found in a subdwarf B binary. This implies that the most likely substellar companion has not only survived the engulfment by the red-giant envelope, but also triggered its ejection and enabled the sdB star to form. The system provides evidence that brown dwarfs may indeed be able to significantly affect late stellar evolution.

  10. The Red Radio Ring: a gravitationally lensed hyperluminous infrared radio galaxy at z = 2.553 discovered through the citizen science project SPACE WARPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geach, J. E.; More, A.; Verma, A.; Marshall, P. J.; Jackson, N.; Belles, P.-E.; Beswick, R.; Baeten, E.; Chavez, M.; Cornen, C.; Cox, B. E.; Erben, T.; Erickson, N. J.; Garrington, S.; Harrison, P. A.; Harrington, K.; Hughes, D. H.; Ivison, R. J.; Jordan, C.; Lin, Y.-T.; Leauthaud, A.; Lintott, C.; Lynn, S.; Kapadia, A.; Kneib, J.-P.; Macmillan, C.; Makler, M.; Miller, G.; Montaña, A.; Mujica, R.; Muxlow, T.; Narayanan, G.; Briain, D. Ó.; O'Brien, T.; Oguri, M.; Paget, E.; Parrish, M.; Ross, N. P.; Rozo, E.; Rusu, C. E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sanchez-Argüelles, D.; Simpson, R.; Snyder, C.; Schloerb, F. P.; Tecza, M.; Wang, W.-H.; Van Waerbeke, L.; Wilcox, J.; Viero, M.; Wilson, G. W.; Yun, M. S.; Zeballos, M.

    2015-09-01

    We report the discovery of a gravitationally lensed hyperluminous infrared galaxy (intrinsic LIR ≈ 1013 L⊙) with strong radio emission (intrinsic L1.4 GHz ≈ 1025 W Hz-1) at z = 2.553. The source was identified in the citizen science project SPACE WARPS through the visual inspection of tens of thousands of iJKs colour composite images of luminous red galaxies (LRGs), groups and clusters of galaxies and quasars. Appearing as a partial Einstein ring (re ≈ 3 arcsec) around an LRG at z = 0.2, the galaxy is extremely bright in the sub-millimetre for a cosmological source, with the thermal dust emission approaching 1 Jy at peak. The redshift of the lensed galaxy is determined through the detection of the CO(3→2) molecular emission line with the Large Millimetre Telescope's Redshift Search Receiver and through [O III] and Hα line detections in the near-infrared from Subaru/Infrared Camera and Spectrograph. We have resolved the radio emission with high-resolution (300-400 mas) eMERLIN L-band and Very Large Array C-band imaging. These observations are used in combination with the near-infrared imaging to construct a lens model, which indicates a lensing magnification of μ ≈ 10. The source reconstruction appears to support a radio morphology comprised of a compact (<250 pc) core and more extended component, perhaps indicative of an active nucleus and jet or lobe.

  11. World Spatiotemporal Analytics and Mapping Project (wstamp): Discovering, Exploring, and Mapping Spatiotemporal Patterns across the World's Largest Open Soruce Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, R.; Piburn, J.; Sorokine, A.; Myers, A.; Moehl, J.; White, D.

    2015-07-01

    The application of spatiotemporal (ST) analytics to integrated data from major sources such as the World Bank, United Nations, and dozens of others holds tremendous potential for shedding new light on the evolution of cultural, health, economic, and geopolitical landscapes on a global level. Realizing this potential first requires an ST data model that addresses challenges in properly merging data from multiple authors, with evolving ontological perspectives, semantical differences, and changing attributes, as well as content that is textual, numeric, categorical, and hierarchical. Equally challenging is the development of analytical and visualization approaches that provide a serious exploration of this integrated data while remaining accessible to practitioners with varied backgrounds. The WSTAMP project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has yielded two major results in addressing these challenges: 1) development of the WSTAMP database, a significant advance in ST data modeling that integrates 10,000+ attributes covering over 200 nation states spanning over 50 years from over 30 major sources and 2) a novel online ST exploratory and analysis tool providing an array of modern statistical and visualization techniques for analyzing these data temporally, spatially, and spatiotemporally under a standard analytic workflow. We discuss the status of this work and report on major findings.

  12. Binaries discovered by the SPY project . V. GD 687 - a massive double degenerate binary progenitor that will merge within a Hubble time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geier, S.; Heber, U.; Kupfer, T.; Napiwotzki, R.

    2010-06-01

    Aims: The ESO SN Ia Progenitor Survey (SPY) aims at finding merging double degenerate binaries as candidates for supernova type Ia (SN Ia) explosions. A white dwarf merger has also been suggested to explain the formation of rare types of stars like R CrB, extreme helium or He sdO stars. Here we present the hot subdwarf B binary GD 687, which will merge in less than a Hubble time. Methods: The orbital parameters of the close binary have been determined from time resolved spectroscopy. Since GD 687 is a single-lined binary, the spectra contain only information about the subdwarf primary and its orbit. From high resolution spectra the projected rotational velocity was derived. Assuming orbital synchronisation, the inclination of the system and the mass of the unseen companion were constrained. Results: The derived inclination is i = 39.3+6.2-5.6 °. The mass M2 = 0.71-0.21+0.22 M_⊙ indicates that the companion must be a white dwarf, most likely of C/O composition. This is only the fourth case that an sdB companion has been proven to be a white dwarf unambiguously. Its mass is somewhat larger than the average white dwarf mass, but may be as high as 0.93 M_⊙ in which case the total mass of the system comes close to the Chandrasekhar limit. Conclusions: GD 687 will evolve into a double degenerate system and merge to form a rare supermassive white dwarf with a mass in excess of solar. A death in a sub-Chandrasekhar supernova is also conceivable. Based on observations at the Paranal Observatory of the European Southern Observatory for programme No. 165.H-0588(A). Based on observations at the La Silla Observatory of the European Southern Observatory for programmes No. 072.D-0510(B), 079.D-0288(A), 080.D-0685(A) and 084.D-0348(A).

  13. World Spatiotemporal Analytics and Mapping Project (WSTAMP): Discovering, Exploring, and Mapping Spatiotemporal Patterns across the World s Largest Open Source Geographic Data Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Robert N; Piburn, Jesse O; Sorokine, Alexandre; Myers, Aaron T; White, Devin A

    2015-01-01

    The application of spatiotemporal (ST) analytics to integrated data from major sources such as the World Bank, United Nations, and dozens of others holds tremendous potential for shedding new light on the evolution of cultural, health, economic, and geopolitical landscapes on a global level. Realizing this potential first requires an ST data model that addresses challenges in properly merging data from multiple authors, with evolving ontological perspectives, semantical differences, and changing attributes, as well as content that is textual, numeric, categorical, and hierarchical. Equally challenging is the development of analytical and visualization approaches that provide a serious exploration of this integrated data while remaining accessible to practitioners with varied backgrounds. The WSTAMP project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has yielded two major results in addressing these challenges: 1) development of the WSTAMP database, a significant advance in ST data modeling that integrates 10,000+ attributes covering over 200 nation states spanning over 50 years from over 30 major sources and 2) a novel online ST exploratory and analysis tool providing an array of modern statistical and visualization techniques for analyzing these data temporally, spatially, and spatiotemporally under a standard analytic workflow. We discuss the status of this work and report on major findings. Acknowledgment Prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6285, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC for the U. S. Department of Energy under contract no. DEAC05-00OR22725. Copyright This manuscript has been authored by employees of UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. Accordingly, the United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or

  14. Discovering the Expanding Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaumer, Harry; Bieri, Lydia; Sandage, Foreword by Allan

    2009-03-01

    Acknowledgments; Foreword; 1. Introduction; 2. Cosmological concepts at the end of the Middle Ages; 3. Nebulae as a new astronomical phenomenon; 4. On the construction of the Heavens; 5. Island universes turn into astronomical facts: a universe of galaxies; 6. The early cosmology of Einstein and de Sitter; 7. The dynamical universe of Friedmann; 8. Redshifts: how to reconcile Slipher and de Sitter?; 9. Lemaître discovers the expanding universe; 10. Hubble's contribution of 1929; 11. The breakthrough for the expanding universe; 12. Hubble's anger about de Sitter; 13. Robertson and Tolman join the game; 14. The Einstein-de Sitter universe; 15. Are Sun and Earth older than the universe?; 16. In search of alternative tracks; 17. The seed for the Big Bang; 18. Summary and Postscript; Appendix; References; Index.

  15. Discovering Community: Activities for Afterschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute on Out-of-School Time, Wellesley College, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The project activities highlighted in this publication were conducted within the framework of school-based afterschool programs operated by community-based organizations. The intention of the Discovering Community initiative, created by The After-School Corporation and MetLife Foundation, is to foster greater collaborations and mutual respect…

  16. Explore and Discover

    NASA Video Gallery

    Train to improve your aerobic and anaerobic fitness by carrying weighted objects in this activity. The Train Like an Astronaut project uses the excitement of exploration to challenge students to se...

  17. Fortuitously discovered liver lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Christoph F; Sharma, Malay; Gibson, Robert N; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; Jenssen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The fortuitously discovered liver lesion is a common problem. Consensus might be expected in terms of its work-up, and yet there is none. This stems in part from the fact that there is no preventive campaign involving the early detection of liver tumors other than for patients with known liver cirrhosis and oncological patients. The work-up (detection and differential diagnosis) of liver tumors comprises theoretical considerations, history, physical examination, laboratory tests, standard ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound techniques, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as image-guided biopsy. CEUS techniques have proved to be the most pertinent method; these techniques became part of the clinical routine about 10 years ago in Europe and Asia and are used for a variety of indications in daily clinical practice. CEUS is in many cases the first and also decisive technical intervention for detecting and characterizing liver tumors. This development is reflected in many CEUS guidelines, e.g., in the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) guidelines 2004, 2008 and 2012 as well as the recently published World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology-EFSUMB guidelines 2012. This article sets out considerations for making a structured work-up of incidental liver tumors feasible. PMID:23745019

  18. Chandra Discovers Cosmic Cannonball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-11-01

    One of the fastest moving stars ever seen has been discovered with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This cosmic cannonball is challenging theories to explain its blistering speed. Astronomers used Chandra to observe a neutron star, known as RX J0822-4300, over a period of about five years. During that span, three Chandra observations clearly show the neutron star moving away from the center of the Puppis A supernova remnant. This remnant is the stellar debris field created during the same explosion in which the neutron star was created about 3700 years ago. Chandra X-ray Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A Chandra X-ray Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A By combining how far it has moved across the sky with its distance from Earth, astronomers determined the neutron star is moving at over 3 million miles per hour. At this rate, RX J0822-4300 is destined to escape from the Milky Way after millions of years, even though it has only traveled about 20 light years so far. "This star is moving at 3 million miles an hour, but it's so far away that the apparent motion we see in five years is less than the height of the numerals in the date on a penny, seen from the length of a football field," said Frank Winkler of Middlebury College in Vermont. "It's remarkable, and a real testament to the power of Chandra, that such a tiny motion can be measured." Labeled Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A Labeled Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A "Just after it was born, this neutron star got a one-way ticket out of the Galaxy," said co-author Robert Petre of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. "Astronomers have seen other stars being flung out of the Milky Way, but few as fast as this." So-called hypervelocity stars have been previously discovered shooting out of the Milky Way with speeds around one million miles per hour. One key difference between RX J0822-4300 and these other reported galactic escapees is the source of their speed. The hypervelocity stars are

  19. Lightest exoplanet yet discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-04-01

    Well-known exoplanet researcher Michel Mayor today announced the discovery of the lightest exoplanet found so far. The planet, "e", in the famous system Gliese 581, is only about twice the mass of our Earth. The team also refined the orbit of the planet Gliese 581 d, first discovered in 2007, placing it well within the habitable zone, where liquid water oceans could exist. These amazing discoveries are the outcome of more than four years of observations using the most successful low-mass-exoplanet hunter in the world, the HARPS spectrograph attached to the 3.6-metre ESO telescope at La Silla, Chile. ESO PR Photo 15a/09 Artist's impression of Gliese 581 e ESO PR Photo 15b/09 A planet in the habitable zone ESO PR Video 15a/09 ESOcast 6 ESO PR Video 15b/09 VNR A-roll ESO PR Video 15c/09 Zoom-in on Gliese 581 e ESO PR Video 15d/09 Artist's impression of Gliese 581 e ESO PR Video 15e/09 Artist's impression of Gliese 581 d ESO PR Video 15f/09 Artist's impression of Gliese 581 system ESO PR Video 15g/09 The radial velocity method ESO PR Video 15h/09 Statement in English ESO PR Video 15i/09 Statement in French ESO PR Video 15j/09 La Silla Observatory "The holy grail of current exoplanet research is the detection of a rocky, Earth-like planet in the ‘habitable zone' -- a region around the host star with the right conditions for water to be liquid on a planet's surface", says Michel Mayor from the Geneva Observatory, who led the European team to this stunning breakthrough. Planet Gliese 581 e orbits its host star - located only 20.5 light-years away in the constellation Libra ("the Scales") -- in just 3.15 days. "With only 1.9 Earth-masses, it is the least massive exoplanet ever detected and is, very likely, a rocky planet", says co-author Xavier Bonfils from Grenoble Observatory. Being so close to its host star, the planet is not in the habitable zone. But another planet in this system appears to be. From previous observations -- also obtained with the HARPS spectrograph

  20. Two Transients discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Young, D. R.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-08-01

    Two transients have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  1. Bright Transients discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Young, D. R.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-08-01

    Six bright transients have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  2. Bright Transients discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Denneau, L.; Stalder, B.; Heinze, A.; Sherstyuk, A.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-04-01

    Seven bright transients have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  3. Discovering General Multidimensional Associations

    PubMed Central

    Murrell, Ben; Murrell, Daniel; Murrell, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    When two variables are related by a known function, the coefficient of determination (denoted R2) measures the proportion of the total variance in the observations explained by that function. For linear relationships, this is equal to the square of the correlation coefficient, ρ. When the parametric form of the relationship is unknown, however, it is unclear how to estimate the proportion of explained variance equitably—assigning similar values to equally noisy relationships. Here we demonstrate how to directly estimate a generalised R2 when the form of the relationship is unknown, and we consider the performance of the Maximal Information Coefficient (MIC)—a recently proposed information theoretic measure of dependence. We show that our approach behaves equitably, has more power than MIC to detect association between variables, and converges faster with increasing sample size. Most importantly, our approach generalises to higher dimensions, estimating the strength of multivariate relationships (Y against A, B, …) as well as measuring association while controlling for covariates (Y against X controlling for C). An R package named matie (“Measuring Association and Testing Independence Efficiently”) is available (http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/matie/). PMID:26991498

  4. Digimarc Discover on Google Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Eliot; Rodriguez, Tony; Lord, John; Alattar, Adnan

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports on the implementation of the Digimarc® Discover platform on Google Glass, enabling the reading of a watermark embedded in a printed material or audio. The embedded watermark typically contains a unique code that identifies the containing media or object and a synchronization signal that allows the watermark to be read robustly. The Digimarc Discover smartphone application can read the watermark from a small portion of printed image presented at any orientation or reasonable distance. Likewise, Discover can read the recently introduced Digimarc Barcode to identify and manage consumer packaged goods in the retail channel. The Digimarc Barcode has several advantages over the traditional barcode and is expected to save the retail industry millions of dollars when deployed at scale. Discover can also read an audio watermark from ambient audio captured using a microphone. The Digimarc Discover platform has been widely deployed on the iPad, iPhone and many Android-based devices, but it has not yet been implemented on a head-worn wearable device, such as Google Glass. Implementing Discover on Google Glass is a challenging task due to the current hardware and software limitations of the device. This paper identifies the challenges encountered in porting Discover to the Google Glass and reports on the solutions created to deliver a prototype implementation.

  5. Temperate Lakes Discovered on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vixie, Graham; Barnes, Jason W.; Jackson, Brian; Wilson, Paul

    2012-04-01

    We have discovered two temperate lakes on Titan using Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). Three key features help to identify these surface features as lakes: morphology, albedo, and specular reflection. The presence of lakes at the mid-latitudes mean liquid can accumulate and remain stable outside of the poles. We first identify a lake surface by looking for possible shorelines with a lacustrine morphology. Then, we apply a simple atmospheric correction that produces an approximate surface albedo. Next, we prepare cylindrical projection maps of the brightness of the sky as seen from any points on the surface to identify specular reflections. Our techniques can then be applied to other areas, such as Arrakis Planitia, to test for liquid. Currently, all the known lakes on Titan are concentrated at the poles. Lakes have been suggested in the tropic zone by Griffith et al. Our discovery of non-transient, temperate lakes has important implications for Titan's hydrologic cycle. Clouds have been recorded accumulating in the mid-latitudes and areas have been darkened by rainfall but later brightened after evaporation (Turtle et al. 2011). Stable temperate lakes would affect total rainfall, liquid accumulation, evaporation rates, and infiltration. Polaznik Macula (Figure 1) is a great candidate for lake filling, evaporation rates, and stability. References: Griffith, C., et al.: "Evidence for Lakes on Titan's Tropical Surface". AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts #42, Vol. 42, pp. 1077, 2010. Turtle, E. P., et al.: "Rapid and Extensive Surface Changes Near Titan's Equator: Evidence of April Showers". Science, Vol. 331, pp. 1414-, 2011. Figure 1: Polaznik Macula is the large, dark area central to the figure. The encircled dark blue areas represent positively identified lake regions in the T66 flyby. The light blue areas represent lake candidates still under analysis. The green circle marks a non-lake surface feature enclosed by a

  6. Large solar system planetoid discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    A newly discovered planetoid, currently dubbed 2004 UN, could be confirmed as the largest such known body in the Kuiper Belt, scientists announced on 19 February.The planetoid, located about 4.4 billion miles from Earth, is estimated at about 1,400 kilometers in diameter, according to Michael Brown, associate professor of planetary astronomy at the California Institute of Technology.

  7. Families Discover the Outdoors Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Polly

    1980-01-01

    An idea for hands-on activities for families to use in discovering the outdoors together when visiting parks is described. Family packs contain discovery and natural history cards, thermometers, magnifiers, insect boxes, photographs of animals and plants, a pencil, and a feedback form. (SA)

  8. Discovering fuzzy spatial association rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacar, Esen; Cicekli, Nihan K.

    2002-03-01

    Discovering interesting, implicit knowledge and general relationships in geographic information databases is very important to understand and use these spatial data. One of the methods for discovering this implicit knowledge is mining spatial association rules. A spatial association rule is a rule indicating certain association relationships among a set of spatial and possibly non-spatial predicates. In the mining process, data is organized in a hierarchical manner. However, in real-world applications it may not be possible to construct a crisp structure for this data, instead some fuzzy structures should be used. Fuzziness, i.e. partial belonging of an item to more than one sub-item in the hierarchy, could be applied to the data itself, and also to the hierarchy of spatial relations. This paper shows that, strong association rules can be mined from large spatial databases using fuzzy concept and spatial relation hierarchies.

  9. The Universe for all to discover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Gil, A.; Ballesteros, F.; Espinós, H.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Lanzara, M.; Moya, M. J.; Navarro, J.

    2015-05-01

    In the title of this paper, we have changed the slogan of the International Year of Astronomy, ``The Universe yours to discover" to ``The Universe for all to discover" in order to emphasize the need to think about broader audiences when we plan astronomical activities at school or during outreach events. The strategy we propose follows what is known as the Universal Design for Learning (UDL). UDL allows to reach to the general public as well as to audiences which might be regarded as ``special" because they have some disability. It has been shown that everybody has a preferred style of learning (some remember better what they see, others what they hear or what they touch) and therefore, everybody is more or less able under the different styles of learning. Through this talk I am going to outline some of the principles of the UDL that can be applied in the teaching and communication of Astronomy, along with an example of its implementation in the project ``A Touch of the Universe".

  10. Discovering New Light States at Neutrino Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Essig, Rouven; Harnik, Roni; Kaplan, Jared; Toro, Natalia; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-11

    Experiments designed to measure neutrino oscillations also provide major opportunities for discovering very weakly coupled states. In order to produce neutrinos, experiments such as LSND collide thousands of Coulombs of protons into fixed targets, while MINOS and MiniBooNE also focus and then dump beams of muons. The neutrino detectors beyond these beam dumps are therefore an excellent arena in which to look for long-lived pseudoscalars or for vector bosons that kinetically mix with the photon. We show that these experiments have significant sensitivity beyond previous beam dumps, and are able to partially close the gap between laboratory experiments and supernovae constraints on pseudoscalars. Future upgrades to the NuMI beamline and Project X will lead to even greater opportunities for discovery. We also discuss thin target experiments with muon beams, such as those available in COMPASS, and show that they constitute a powerful probe for leptophilic PNGBs.

  11. Newly Discovered Martian Impact Basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stam, M.

    1985-01-01

    Three previously unrecognized Martian impact basins were discovered through detailed mapping of landforms, structures and terrains near Cassini and Al Qahira basins. Al Qahira A lies on the Martian dichotomy boundary and intersects the older basin, Al Qahira. It has four rings that are expressed by a variety of landforms. Southwestward Al Qahira A is out by a younger Basin, Al Qahira B. Al Qahira B is a highly degraded basin with one identifiable ring. Its ring is expressed by a few massifs, knobs and inward-facing scarps, but is recognized by the distributions of wrinkle ridges and plains units. Cassini A lies southward of the younger Cassini Basin and is intersected by it. It probably has four rings. The importance of detailed mapping of various types of landforms and terrains to the discovery of basins on Mars are demonstrated.

  12. Discovering Network Structure Beyond Communities

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Takashi; Motter, Adilson E.

    2011-01-01

    To understand the formation, evolution, and function of complex systems, it is crucial to understand the internal organization of their interaction networks. Partly due to the impossibility of visualizing large complex networks, resolving network structure remains a challenging problem. Here we overcome this difficulty by combining the visual pattern recognition ability of humans with the high processing speed of computers to develop an exploratory method for discovering groups of nodes characterized by common network properties, including but not limited to communities of densely connected nodes. Without any prior information about the nature of the groups, the method simultaneously identifies the number of groups, the group assignment, and the properties that define these groups. The results of applying our method to real networks suggest the possibility that most group structures lurk undiscovered in the fast-growing inventory of social, biological, and technological networks of scientific interest. PMID:22355667

  13. Discover Primary Science: Developing Primary Science in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Margaret; Palmer, Marion

    2007-01-01

    "Discover Primary Science" is a major project in primary science education in Ireland. In 2006-2007 it involves 2400 primary schools, 45 host centres, and two government departments. However, it started out as a local initiative taken by one state agency in 2002 involving four Institutes of Technology and 40 primary schools. The aim of the…

  14. Glowing Hot Transiting Exoplanet Discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-04-01

    VLT Spectra Indicate Shortest-Known-Period Planet Orbiting OGLE-TR-3 Summary More than 100 exoplanets in orbit around stars other than the Sun have been found so far. But while their orbital periods and distances from their central stars are well known, their true masses cannot be determined with certainty, only lower limits. This fundamental limitation is inherent in the common observational method to discover exoplanets - the measurements of small and regular changes in the central star's velocity, caused by the planet's gravitational pull as it orbits the star. However, in two cases so far, it has been found that the exoplanet's orbit happens to be positioned in such a way that the planet moves in front of the stellar disk, as seen from the Earth. This "transit" event causes a small and temporary dip in the star's brightness, as the planet covers a small part of its surface, which can be observed. The additional knowledge of the spatial orientation of the planetary orbit then permits a direct determination of the planet's true mass. Now, a group of German astronomers [1] have found a third star in which a planet, somewhat larger than Jupiter, but only half as massive, moves in front of the central star every 28.5 hours . The crucial observation of this solar-type star, designated OGLE-TR-3 [2] was made with the high-dispersion UVES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). It is the exoplanet with the shortest period found so far and it is very close to the star, only 3.5 million km away. The hemisphere that faces the star must be extremely hot, about 2000 °C and the planet is obviously losing its atmosphere at high rate . PR Photo 10a/03 : The star OGLE-TR-3 . PR Photo 10b/03 : VLT UVES spectrum of OGLE-TR-3. PR Photo 10c/03 : Relation between stellar brightness and velocity (diagram). PR Photo 10d/03 : Observed velocity variation of OGLE-TR-3. PR Photo 10e/03 : Observed brightness variation of OGLE-TR-3. The search

  15. Glowing Hot Transiting Exoplanet Discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-04-01

    VLT Spectra Indicate Shortest-Known-Period Planet Orbiting OGLE-TR-3 Summary More than 100 exoplanets in orbit around stars other than the Sun have been found so far. But while their orbital periods and distances from their central stars are well known, their true masses cannot be determined with certainty, only lower limits. This fundamental limitation is inherent in the common observational method to discover exoplanets - the measurements of small and regular changes in the central star's velocity, caused by the planet's gravitational pull as it orbits the star. However, in two cases so far, it has been found that the exoplanet's orbit happens to be positioned in such a way that the planet moves in front of the stellar disk, as seen from the Earth. This "transit" event causes a small and temporary dip in the star's brightness, as the planet covers a small part of its surface, which can be observed. The additional knowledge of the spatial orientation of the planetary orbit then permits a direct determination of the planet's true mass. Now, a group of German astronomers [1] have found a third star in which a planet, somewhat larger than Jupiter, but only half as massive, moves in front of the central star every 28.5 hours . The crucial observation of this solar-type star, designated OGLE-TR-3 [2] was made with the high-dispersion UVES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). It is the exoplanet with the shortest period found so far and it is very close to the star, only 3.5 million km away. The hemisphere that faces the star must be extremely hot, about 2000 °C and the planet is obviously losing its atmosphere at high rate . PR Photo 10a/03 : The star OGLE-TR-3 . PR Photo 10b/03 : VLT UVES spectrum of OGLE-TR-3. PR Photo 10c/03 : Relation between stellar brightness and velocity (diagram). PR Photo 10d/03 : Observed velocity variation of OGLE-TR-3. PR Photo 10e/03 : Observed brightness variation of OGLE-TR-3. The search

  16. Discover Space: an IYA program for libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P.

    2009-12-01

    Across the country, there is a growing concern regarding the number of students entering science and technology careers. While the focus for education reform is on school improvement, there is considerable research that supports the role that out-of-school experiences can play in student achievement. This is particularly true when family interactions are factored in. Libraries provide an untapped resource for engaging underserved youth and their families in fostering an appreciation and deeper understanding of science and technology topics. The nation’s more than 17,000 public libraries attract diverse audiences in almost every community. Science exhibits in libraries could potentially reach many adults and upper elementary and middle school students with STEM content. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is partnering with the American Library Association (ALA) to develop a pilot exhibit called Discover Space. The exhibit includes two areas: Space Storms and Star Quest and is currently on tour in Colorado. It is a featured IYA outreach project from SSI. This presentation will focus on the results of a national survey of libraries that SSI and ALA conducted in 2008 about interest in STEM exhibits as well as the development process that was used to design and fabricate the exhibit. Preliminary evaluation results will also be shared. The presentation will conclude with an examination of how this program could benefit underserved communities around the country.

  17. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-06-01

    . Glycolaldehyde is a simpler molecular cousin to table sugar, the scientists say. The sugar molecule was detected in a large cloud of gas and dust some 26,000 light-years away, near the center of our Galaxy. Such clouds, often many light-years across, are the material from which new stars are formed. Though very rarified by Earth standards, these interstellar clouds are the sites of complex chemical reactions that occur over hundreds of thousands or millions of years. So far, about 120 different molecules have been discovered in these clouds. Most of these molecules contain a small number of atoms, and only a few molecules with eight or more atoms have been found in interstellar clouds. The 12 Meter Telescope "Finding glycolaldehyde in one of these interstellar clouds means that such molecules can be formed even in very rarified conditions," said Hollis. "We don't yet understand how it could be formed there," he added. "A combination of more astronomical observations and theoretical chemistry work will be required to resolve the mystery of how this molecule is formed in space." "We hope this discovery inspires renewed efforts to find even more kinds of molecules, so that, with a better idea of the total picture, we may be able to deduce the details of the prebiotic chemistry taking place in interstellar clouds," Hollis said. The discovery was made by detecting faint radio emission from the sugar molecules in the interstellar cloud. Molecules rotate end-for-end, and as they change from one rotational energy state to another, they emit radio waves at precise frequencies. The "family" of radio frequencies emitted by a particular molecule forms a unique "fingerprint" that scientists can use to identify that molecule. The scientists identified glycolaldehyde by detecting six frequencies of radio emission in what is termed the millimeter-wavelength region of the electromagnetic spectrum -- a region between more-familiar microwaves and infrared radiation. The NRAO 12 Meter Telescope

  18. DISCOVER in Lebanon: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarouphim, Ketty M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of DISCOVER, a performance-based assessment, in identifying gifted students in Lebanon. DISCOVER is grounded in Gardner's MI theory and consists of tasks involving problem-solving and creative abilities. The sample consisted of 49 middle-class 5-th graders, with a mean age of 10.2…

  19. Dive and discover: Expeditions to the seafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayers Lawrence, Lisa

    The Dive and Discover Web site is a virtual treasure chest of deep sea science and classroom resources. The goals of Dive and Discover are to engage students, teachers, and the general public in the excitement of ocean disco very through an interactive educational Web site. You can follow scientists on oceanographic research cruises by reading their daily cruise logs, viewing photos and video clips of the discoveries, and even e-mailing questions to the scientists and crew. WHOI has also included an "Educator's Companion" section with teaching strategies, activities, and assessments, making Dive and Discover an excellent resource for the classroom.

  20. Dive and discover: Expeditions to the seafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Lisa Ayers

    The Dive and Discover Web site is a virtual treasure chest of deep sea science and classroom resources. The goals of Dive and Discover are to engage students, teachers, and the general public in the excitement of ocean disco very through an interactive educational Web site. You can follow scientists on oceanographic research cruises by reading their daily cruise logs, viewing photos and video clips of the discoveries, and even e-mailing questions to the scientists and crew. WHOI has also included an “Educator's Companion” section with teaching strategies, activities, and assessments, making Dive and Discover an excellent resource for the classroom.

  1. Kepler Discovers Earth-size Planet Candidates

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Kepler mission has discovered its first Earth-size planet candidates and its first candidates in the habitable zone, a region where liquid water could exist on a planet's surface. Five of th...

  2. Kepler Discovers Its First Rocky Planet

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Kepler mission confirmed the discovery of its first rocky planet, named Kepler-10b. Measuring 1.4 times the size of Earth, it is the smallest planet ever discovered outside our solar system....

  3. Did the ancient egyptians discover Algol?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jetsu, L.; Porceddu, S.; Porceddu, S.; Lyytinen, J.; Kajatkari, P.; Markkanen, T.; Toivari-Viitala, J.

    2013-02-01

    Fabritius discovered the first variable star, Mira, in 1596. Holwarda determined the 11 months period of Mira in 1638. Montanari discovered the next variable star, Algol, in 1669. Its period, 2.867 days, was determined by Goodricke (178). Algol was associated with demon-like creatures, "Gorgon" in ancient Greek and "ghoul" in ancient Arab mythology. This indicates that its variability was discovered much before 1669 (Wilk 1996), but this mythological evidence is ambiguous (Davis 1975). For thousands of years, the Ancient Egyptian Scribes (AES) observed stars for timekeeping in a region, where there are nearly 300 clear nights a year. We discovered a significant periodicity of 2.850 days in their calendar for lucky and unlucky days dated to 1224 BC, "the Cairo Calendar". Several astrophysical and astronomical tests supported our conclusion that this was the period of Algol three millennia ago. The "ghoulish habits" of Algol could explain this 0.017 days period increase (Battersby 2012).

  4. Fermi discovers giant bubbles in Milky Way

    NASA Video Gallery

    Using data from NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, scientists have recently discovered a gigantic, mysterious structure in our galaxy. This feature looks like a pair of bubbles extending above...

  5. Discover Mathematics in the Physical World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yan

    2011-04-01

    Playing with perspective windows generated an initial idea related to mathematics; an extended experiment with paper cards along the desk helped me to discover the geometry; reading Galileo's Sidereal Messenger allowed me to apply the geometry that I discovered to understand the magnitude of Galileo's telescope. Galileo's study of motion, like pendulum and inclined plane, deepened my (and my classmates') curiosity and fascination with his ingenious use of mathematics.

  6. Regulatory RNAs discovered in unexpected places.

    PubMed

    Pek, Jun Wei; Okamura, Katsutomo

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have discovered both small and long noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) encoded in unexpected places. These ncRNA genes were surprises at the time of their discovery, but many quickly became well-accepted families of functional regulatory RNA species. Even after years of extensive gene annotation studies using high-throughput sequencing technologies, new types of ncRNA genes continue to be discovered in unexpected places. We highlight ncRNAs that have atypical structures and that are encoded in what are generally considered 'junk' sequences, such as spacers and introns. We also discuss current bottlenecks in the approaches for identifying novel ncRNAs and the possibility that many remain to be discovered. PMID:26424536

  7. ROSAT Discovers Unique, Distant Cluster of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-06-01

    galaxies as they were 5,000 million years ago. Knowing the intensity of the X-ray emission as measured by ROSAT and also the distance, the astronomers were then able to estimate the total X-ray energy emitted by this cluster. It was found to be extremely high [3], in fact higher than that of any other cluster ever observed by ROSAT. It amounts to no less than 1.5 million million times the total energy emitted by the Sun. It is believed that this strong X-ray emission originates in a hot gas located between the galaxies in the cluster. The high temperature indicates that the components of the gas move very rapidly; this is related to the strong gravitational field within the cluster. THE GRAVITATIONAL ARCS To their great surprise and delight, the astronomers also discovered two bright arcs, 5 - 6 arcseconds long and symmetrically placed about 35 arcseconds to the North-East and South-West of the brightest galaxies in the cluster (see the photo). They were detected on exposures of only 3 minutes duration with the 2.2-metre telescope and are among the brightest such arcs ever found. At the indicated distance, the arcs are situated at a projected distance of about 500,000 light-years from the centre of the cluster. It is an interesting possibility that the two arcs may in fact be two images of the same, very distant galaxy, that is situated far beyond RXJ1347.5-1145 and whose light has been bent and split by this cluster's strong gravitational field. This strange phenomenon was first discovered in the late 1970's and is referred to as gravitational lensing. Quite a few examples are now known, in most cases in the form of double or multiple images of quasars. About three dozen cases involve well visible galaxy clusters and elongated arcs, but few, if any, of these arcs are as bright as those seen in the present cluster. This particular arc configuration enables a very accurate determination of the total mass of the cluster, once the distance of the background galaxy has been

  8. DISCOVERING PATIENT PHENOTYPES USING GENERALIZED LOW RANK MODELS.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Alejandro; Liu, Vincent; Wan, Joe; Callahan, Alison; Udell, Madeleine; Stark, David E; Shah, Nigam H

    2016-01-01

    The practice of medicine is predicated on discovering commonalities or distinguishing characteristics among patients to inform corresponding treatment. Given a patient grouping (hereafter referred to as a phenotype), clinicians can implement a treatment pathway accounting for the underlying cause of disease in that phenotype. Traditionally, phenotypes have been discovered by intuition, experience in practice, and advancements in basic science, but these approaches are often heuristic, labor intensive, and can take decades to produce actionable knowledge. Although our understanding of disease has progressed substantially in the past century, there are still important domains in which our phenotypes are murky, such as in behavioral health or in hospital settings. To accelerate phenotype discovery, researchers have used machine learning to find patterns in electronic health records, but have often been thwarted by missing data, sparsity, and data heterogeneity. In this study, we use a flexible framework called Generalized Low Rank Modeling (GLRM) to overcome these barriers and discover phenotypes in two sources of patient data. First, we analyze data from the 2010 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample (NIS), which contains upwards of 8 million hospitalization records consisting of administrative codes and demographic information. Second, we analyze a small (N=1746), local dataset documenting the clinical progression of autism spectrum disorder patients using granular features from the electronic health record, including text from physician notes. We demonstrate that low rank modeling successfully captures known and putative phenotypes in these vastly different datasets. PMID:26776181

  9. DISCOVERING PATIENT PHENOTYPES USING GENERALIZED LOW RANK MODELS

    PubMed Central

    SCHULER, ALEJANDRO; LIU, VINCENT; WAN, JOE; CALLAHAN, ALISON; UDELL, MADELEINE; STARK, DAVID E.; SHAH, NIGAM H.

    2016-01-01

    The practice of medicine is predicated on discovering commonalities or distinguishing characteristics among patients to inform corresponding treatment. Given a patient grouping (hereafter referred to as a phenotype), clinicians can implement a treatment pathway accounting for the underlying cause of disease in that phenotype. Traditionally, phenotypes have been discovered by intuition, experience in practice, and advancements in basic science, but these approaches are often heuristic, labor intensive, and can take decades to produce actionable knowledge. Although our understanding of disease has progressed substantially in the past century, there are still important domains in which our phenotypes are murky, such as in behavioral health or in hospital settings. To accelerate phenotype discovery, researchers have used machine learning to find patterns in electronic health records, but have often been thwarted by missing data, sparsity, and data heterogeneity. In this study, we use a flexible framework called Generalized Low Rank Modeling (GLRM) to overcome these barriers and discover phenotypes in two sources of patient data. First, we analyze data from the 2010 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample (NIS), which contains upwards of 8 million hospitalization records consisting of administrative codes and demographic information. Second, we analyze a small (N=1746), local dataset documenting the clinical progression of autism spectrum disorder patients using granular features from the electronic health record, including text from physician notes. We demonstrate that low rank modeling successfully captures known and putative phenotypes in these vastly different datasets. PMID:26776181

  10. Discovering Diabetes Complications: an Ontology Based Model

    PubMed Central

    Daghistani, Tahani; Shammari, Riyad Al; Razzak, Muhammad Imran

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a serious disease that spread in the world dramatically. The diabetes patient has an average of risk to experience complications. Take advantage of recorded information to build ontology as information technology solution will help to predict patients who have average of risk level with certain complication. It is helpful to search and present patient’s history regarding different risk factors. Discovering diabetes complications could be useful to prevent or delay the complications. Method: We designed ontology based model, using adult diabetes patients’ data, to discover the rules of diabetes with its complications in disease to disease relationship. Result: Various rules between different risk factors of diabetes Patients and certain complications generated. Furthermore, new complications (diseases) might be discovered as new finding of this study, discovering diabetes complications could be useful to prevent or delay the complications. Conclusion: The system can identify the patients who are suffering from certain risk factors such as high body mass index (obesity) and starting controlling and maintaining plan. PMID:26862251

  11. Discovering Alaska's Salmon: A Children's Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devaney, Laurel

    This children's activity book helps students discover Alaska's salmon. Information is provided about salmon and where they live. The salmon life cycle and food chains are also discussed. Different kinds of salmon such as Chum Salmon, Chinook Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, and Pink Salmon are introduced, and various activities on salmon are…

  12. Discovering the Sequential Structure of Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John R.; Fincham, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-voxel pattern recognition techniques combined with Hidden Markov models can be used to discover the mental states that people go through in performing a task. The combined method identifies both the mental states and how their durations vary with experimental conditions. We apply this method to a task where participants solve novel…

  13. Discovering Integration through a Physical Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Derek; Magnes, Jenny; Schwarz, Gregory; Hartke, John

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines a method of conducting a laboratory designed to discover mathematical integration with students. The results are produced and verified in the laboratory by students. Understanding that an integral is defined by the area bounded by a function of x and the x-axis from a point a to a point b is challenging. Students often have…

  14. PSN in PGC938372 discovered by MASTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Kuvshinov, D.; Vlasenko, D.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Porosheva, T.; Podesta, R. C.; Levato, O. H.; Lopez, C.; Podestan, F.; Saffe, C.; Potter, S.

    2016-09-01

    MASTER-IAC auto-detection system( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 05h 07m 27.73s -13d 24m 16.1s on 2016-09-06.23199 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 17.2m (limit 19.4m).

  15. Did Viking discover life on Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, H. P.

    1999-01-01

    A major argument in the claim that life had been discovered during the Viking mission to Mars is that the results obtained in the Labeled Release (LR) experiment are analogous to those observed with terrestrial microorganisms. This assertion is critically examined and found to be implausible.

  16. Discovering Science through Art-Based Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberts, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Art and science are intrinsically linked; the essence of art and science is discovery. Both artists and scientists work in a systematic but creative way--knowledge and understanding are built up through pieces of art or a series of labs. In the classroom, integrating science and visual art can provide students with the latitude to think, discover,…

  17. Discover Presidential Log Cabins. Teacher's Discussion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Discover Presidential Log Cabins is a set of materials designed to help educate 6-8 grade students about the significance of three log cabin sites occupied by George Washington, Ulysses Grant, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt. This teacher's discussion guide is intended for use as part of a larger, comprehensive social studies program, and…

  18. Pseudomonas blight discovered on raspberry in Watsonville

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the winter (February) of 2013, a field of raspberries in Watsonville was discovered to be infected with Pseudomonas syringae, the causal agent of Pseudomonas blight disease. This was the first documentation of this disease on raspberry in our region. The infection of raspberry plants is manifeste...

  19. Did Viking discover life on Mars?

    PubMed

    Klein, H P

    1999-12-01

    A major argument in the claim that life had been discovered during the Viking mission to Mars is that the results obtained in the Labeled Release (LR) experiment are analogous to those observed with terrestrial microorganisms. This assertion is critically examined and found to be implausible. PMID:10666745

  20. Discovering English with the Sketch Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, James

    2014-01-01

    "Discovering English with the Sketch Engine" is the title of a new book (Thomas, 2014) which introduces the use of corpora in language study, teaching, writing and translating. It focuses on using the Sketch Engine to identify patterns of normal usage in many aspects of English ranging from morphology to discourse and pragmatics. This…

  1. Discover Earth: Earth's Energy Budget or Can You Spare a Sun?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Tom; Peters, Dale E.; Steeley, Jeanne

    1999-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction, and provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park.

  2. ESA's Integral discovers hidden black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-10-01

    discovered so far? Astronomers, who have been observing the object regularly, guess that it had remained invisible because there must be a very thick shell of obscuring material surrounding it. If that was the case, only the most energetic radiation from the object could get through the shell; less-energetic radiation would be blocked. That could explain why space telescopes that are sensitive only to low-energy radiation had overlooked the object, while Integral, specialised in detecting very energetic emissions, did see it. To test their theory, astronomers turned to ESA's XMM-Newton space observatory, which observes the sky in the X-ray wavelengths. As well as being sensitive to high-energy radiation, XMM-Newton is also able to check for the presence of obscuring material. Indeed, XMM-Newton detected this object last February, as well as the existence of a dense 'cocoon' of cold gas with a diameter of similar size to that of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. This obscuring material forming the cocoon is probably 'stellar wind', namely gas ejected by the supermassive companion star. Astronomers think that this gas may be accreted by the compact black hole, forming a dense shell around it. This obscuring cloud traps most of the energy produced inside it. The main author of these results, Roland Walter of the Integral Science Data Centre, Switzerland, explained: "Only photons with the highest energies [above 10 keV] could escape from that cocoon. IGR J16318-4848 has therefore not been detected by surveys performed at lower energies, nor by previous gamma-ray missions that were much less sensitive than Integral." The question now is to find out how many of these objects lurk in the Galaxy. XMM-Newton and Integral together are the perfect tools to do the job. They have already discovered two more new sources embedded in obscuring material. Future observations are planned. Christoph Winkler, ESA Project Scientist for Integral, said: "These early examples of using two

  3. Libre: A Framework for Sharing and Discovering Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacy, J.; Duerr, R. E.

    2010-12-01

    To enable peer review and re-use, data must be publicly shareable and discoverable. The Libre project within the NSIDC, in conjunction with other members of the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners and the Polar Information Commons, provides a framework for collaborative publishing of open science data. This talk describes the Libre framework as a model for “freeing” science data. Libre uses technologies such as Atom feeds to enable syndication of data sets and services. Open Search services allow the feeds to be discovered. An aggregator, like a news reader, provides notice for new or changed data sets and services. With these technologies, the Libre project provides both open-source tooling and a road map for similar efforts in other fields.

  4. What if Fleming had not discovered penicillin?

    PubMed Central

    Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Wainwright, Milton; Alahmadi, Tahani Awad; Salleeh, Hashim Bin; Faden, Asmaa A.; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam

    2014-01-01

    What would have happened had Alexander Fleming not discovered penicillin in 1928? Perhaps the obvious answer is that, someone else would have discovered penicillin during 1930s and the Oxford group, would still have purified it sometime in the early 1940s. Here, however, in this counterfactual account of the penicillin story, it is argued that without Fleming, penicillin might still be undiscovered and the antibiotic age would never have dawned. As a result, many of the recent developments in medicine, such as organ transplantation, might have been delayed or, at best, made more hazardous. Penicillin might have come onto the scene a few years later but, had Fleming overlooked the discovery, it seems certain that penicillin would not have saved countless Allied lives, during and after D-Day. Instead of having enjoyed fifty and more years of the antibiotic age, it is argued here, that we would have had to rely upon highly developed sulphonamides, so-called “supasulfas”, and other chemically-derived antibacterial drugs. Indeed, it might be the case that, even well into this new millennium, the antibiotic age has yet to dawn, and medicine is still waiting for someone to chance upon penicillin. Here we discuss what might have happened had Fleming not discovered penicillin and come to the conclusion that the medical armoury available today would have been far different and might have relied solely upon highly developed varieties of sulphonamides or similar, synthetic, non-antibiotic antibacterial agents. PMID:25183937

  5. Astronomers Discover Six-Image Gravitational Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-08-01

    An international team of astronomers has used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope and NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to discover the first gravitational lens in which the single image of a very distant galaxy has been split into six different images. The unique configuration is produced by the gravitational effect of three galaxies along the line of sight between the more-distant galaxy and Earth. Optical and Radio Images of Gravitational Lens "This is the first gravitational lens with more than four images of the background object that is produced by a small group of galaxies rather than a large cluster of galaxies," said David Rusin, who just received his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. "Such systems are expected to be extremely rare, so this discovery is an important stepping stone. Because this is an intermediate case between gravitational lenses produced by single galaxies and lenses produced by large clusters of galaxies, it will give us insights we can't get from other types of lenses," Rusin added. The gravitational lens, called CLASS B1359+154, consists of a galaxy more than 11 billion light-years away in the constellation Bootes, with a trio of galaxies more than 7 billion light-years away along the same line of sight. The more-distant galaxy shows signs that it contains a massive black hole at its core and also has regions in which new stars are forming. The gravitational effect of the intervening galaxies has caused the light and radio waves from the single, more-distant galaxy to be "bent" to form six images as seen from Earth. Four of these images appear outside the triangle formed by the three intermediate galaxies and two appear inside that triangle. "This lens system is a very interesting case to study because it is more complicated than lenses produced by single galaxies, and yet simpler than lenses produced by clusters of numerous galaxies," said Chris Kochanek of the Harvard

  6. Discovering Functional Units in Continuous Speech

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung-Joo; Lacerda, Francisco; Holt, Lori L.

    2015-01-01

    Language learning requires that listeners discover acoustically variable functional units like phonetic categories and words from an unfamiliar, continuous acoustic stream. Although many category learning studies have examined how listeners learn to generalize across the acoustic variability inherent in the signals that convey the functional units of language, these studies have tended to focus upon category learning across isolated sound exemplars. However, continuous input presents many additional learning challenges that may impact category learning. Listeners may not know the timescale of the functional unit, its relative position in the continuous input, or its relationship to other evolving input regularities. Moving laboratory-based studies of isolated category exemplars toward more natural input is important to modeling language learning, but very little is known about how listeners discover categories embedded in continuous sound. In 3 experiments, adult participants heard acoustically variable sound category instances embedded in acoustically variable and unfamiliar sound streams within a video game task. This task was inherently rich in multisensory regularities with the to-be-learned categories and likely to engage procedural learning without requiring explicit categorization, segmentation, or even attention to the sounds. After 100 min of game play, participants categorized familiar sound streams in which target words were embedded and generalized this learning to novel streams as well as isolated instances of the target words. The findings demonstrate that even without a priori knowledge, listeners can discover input regularities that have the best predictive control over the environment for both non-native speech and nonspeech signals, emphasizing the generality of the learning. PMID:26010592

  7. Discovering functional units in continuous speech.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sung-Joo; Lacerda, Francisco; Holt, Lori L

    2015-08-01

    Language learning requires that listeners discover acoustically variable functional units like phonetic categories and words from an unfamiliar, continuous acoustic stream. Although many category learning studies have examined how listeners learn to generalize across the acoustic variability inherent in the signals that convey the functional units of language, these studies have tended to focus upon category learning across isolated sound exemplars. However, continuous input presents many additional learning challenges that may impact category learning. Listeners may not know the timescale of the functional unit, its relative position in the continuous input, or its relationship to other evolving input regularities. Moving laboratory-based studies of isolated category exemplars toward more natural input is important to modeling language learning, but very little is known about how listeners discover categories embedded in continuous sound. In 3 experiments, adult participants heard acoustically variable sound category instances embedded in acoustically variable and unfamiliar sound streams within a video game task. This task was inherently rich in multisensory regularities with the to-be-learned categories and likely to engage procedural learning without requiring explicit categorization, segmentation, or even attention to the sounds. After 100 min of game play, participants categorized familiar sound streams in which target words were embedded and generalized this learning to novel streams as well as isolated instances of the target words. The findings demonstrate that even without a priori knowledge, listeners can discover input regularities that have the best predictive control over the environment for both non-native speech and nonspeech signals, emphasizing the generality of the learning. PMID:26010592

  8. Discovering Communicable Models from Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwabacher, Mark; Langley, Pat; Potter, Christopher; Klooster, Steven; Torregrosa, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    This chapter describes how we used regression rules to improve upon results previously published in the Earth science literature. In such a scientific application of machine learning, it is crucially important for the learned models to be understandable and communicable. We recount how we selected a learning algorithm to maximize communicability, and then describe two visualization techniques that we developed to aid in understanding the model by exploiting the spatial nature of the data. We also report how evaluating the learned models across time let us discover an error in the data.

  9. Planet Imager Discovers Young Kuiper Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-07-01

    A debris disk just discovered around a nearby star is the closest thing yet seen to a young version of the Kuiper belt. This disk could be a key to better understanding the interactions between debris disks and planets, as well as how our solar system evolved early on in its lifetime. Hunting for an analog The best way to understand how the Kuiper belt — home to Pluto and thousands of other remnants of early icy planet formation in our solar system — developed would be to witness a similar debris disk in an earlier stage of its life. But before now, none of the disks we've discovered have been similar to our own: the rings are typically too large, the central star too massive, or the stars exist in regions very unlike what we think our Sun's birthplace was like. A collaboration led by Thayne Currie (National Astronomical Observatory of Japan) has changed this using the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), part of a new generation of extreme adaptive-optics systems. The team discovered a debris disk of roughly the same size as the Kuiper belt orbiting the star HD 115600, located in the nearest OB association. The star is only slightly more massive than our Sun, and it lives in a star-forming region similar to the early Sun's environment. HD 115600 is different in one key way, however: it is only 15 million years old. This means that observing it gives us the perfect opportunity to observe how our solar system might have behaved when it was much younger. A promising future GPI's spatially-resolved spectroscopy, combined with measurements of the reflectivity of the disk, have led the team to suspect that the disk might be composed partly of water ice, just as the Kuiper belt is. The disk also shows evidence of having been sculpted by the motions of giant planets orbiting the central star, in much the same way as the outer planets of our solar system may have shaped the Kuiper belt. The observations of HD 115600 are some of the very first to emerge from GPI and the new

  10. Discovering Structural Regularity in 3D Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, Mark; Mitra, Niloy J.; Wallner, Johannes; Pottmann, Helmut; Guibas, Leonidas J.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a computational framework for discovering regular or repeated geometric structures in 3D shapes. We describe and classify possible regular structures and present an effective algorithm for detecting such repeated geometric patterns in point- or mesh-based models. Our method assumes no prior knowledge of the geometry or spatial location of the individual elements that define the pattern. Structure discovery is made possible by a careful analysis of pairwise similarity transformations that reveals prominent lattice structures in a suitable model of transformation space. We introduce an optimization method for detecting such uniform grids specifically designed to deal with outliers and missing elements. This yields a robust algorithm that successfully discovers complex regular structures amidst clutter, noise, and missing geometry. The accuracy of the extracted generating transformations is further improved using a novel simultaneous registration method in the spatial domain. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm on a variety of examples and show applications to compression, model repair, and geometry synthesis. PMID:21170292

  11. Critical perspective: named reactions discovered and developed by women.

    PubMed

    Olson, Julie A; Shea, Kevin M

    2011-05-17

    Named organic reactions. As chemists, we're all familiar with them: who can forget the Diels-Alder reaction? But how much do we know about the people behind the names? For example, can you identify a reaction named for a woman? How about a reaction discovered or developed by a woman but named for her male adviser? Our attempts to answer these simple questions started us on the journey that led to this Account. We introduce you to four reactions named for women and nine reactions discovered or developed by women. Using information obtained from the literature and, whenever possible, through interviews with the chemists themselves, their associates, and their advisers, we paint a more detailed picture of these remarkable women and their outstanding accomplishments. Some of the women you meet in this Account include Irma Goldberg, the only woman unambiguously recognized with her own named reaction. Gertrude Maud Robinson, the wife of Robert Robinson, who collaborated with him on several projects including the Piloty-Robinson pyrrole synthesis. Elizabeth Hardy, the Bryn Mawr graduate student who discovered the Cope rearrangement. Dorothee Felix, a critical member of Albert Eschenmoser's research lab for over forty years who helped develop both the Eschenmoser-Claisen rearrangement and the Eschenmoser-Tanabe fragmentation. Jennifer Loebach, the University of Illinois undergraduate who was part of the team in Eric Jacobsen's lab that discovered the Jacobsen-Katsuki epoxidation. Keiko Noda, a graduate student in Tsutomu Katsuki's lab who also played a key role in the development of the Jacobsen-Katsuki epoxidation. Lydia McKinstry, a postdoc in Andrew Myers's lab who helped develop the Myers asymmetric alkylation. Rosa Lockwood, a graduate student at Boston College whose sole publication is the discovery of the Nicholas reaction. Kaori Ando, a successful professor in Japan who helped develop the Roush asymmetric alkylation as a postdoc at MIT. Bianka Tchoubar, a

  12. Great Explorations: Discovering Science in the Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Maria, Ed.; And Others

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Library Institute was a project that brought together 28 school and public librarians from the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area to discuss science, mathematics, and technology. education reform and what can be done to bring it about. This book discusses the project in 12 chapters:…

  13. Discovering, Indexing and Interlinking Information Resources.

    PubMed

    Celli, Fabrizio; Keizer, Johannes; Jaques, Yves; Konstantopoulos, Stasinos; Vudragović, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    The social media revolution is having a dramatic effect on the world of scientific publication. Scientists now publish their research interests, theories and outcomes across numerous channels, including personal blogs and other thematic web spaces where ideas, activities and partial results are discussed. Accordingly, information systems that facilitate access to scientific literature must learn to cope with this valuable and varied data, evolving to make this research easily discoverable and available to end users. In this paper we describe the incremental process of discovering web resources in the domain of agricultural science and technology. Making use of Linked Open Data methodologies, we interlink a wide array of custom-crawled resources with the AGRIS bibliographic database in order to enrich the user experience of the AGRIS website. We also discuss the SemaGrow Stack, a query federation and data integration infrastructure used to estimate the semantic distance between crawled web resources and AGRIS. PMID:26834982

  14. Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; Liu, Fang; Pande, Vijay S.; Martínez, Todd J.

    2014-11-02

    Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis frommore » primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. Ultimately, these results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings.« less

  15. Flupirtine, a re-discovered drug, revisited.

    PubMed

    Szelenyi, Istvan

    2013-03-01

    Flupirtine was developed long before K(V)7 (KCNQ) channels were known. However, it was clear from the beginning that flupirtine is neither an opioid nor a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesic. Its unique muscle relaxing activity was discovered by serendipity. In the meantime, broad and intensive research has resulted in a partial clarification of its mode of action. Flupirtine is the first therapeutically used K(V)7 channel activator with additional GABA(A)ergic mechanisms and thus the first representative of a novel class of analgesics. The presently accepted main mode of its action, potassium K(V)7 (KCNQ) channel activation, opens a series of further therapeutic possibilities. One of them has now been realized: its back-up compound, the bioisostere retigabine, has been approved for the treatment of epilepsy. PMID:23322112

  16. Discovering New Drugs on the Cellular Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    With the Vision for Space Exploration calling for a sustained human presence in space, astronauts will need to grow plants, while in orbit, for nourishment that they will not receive from only consuming dehydrated foods. As a potential source of food for long-duration missions, space-grown plants could also give astronauts an important psychological boost, as fresh vegetables could serve as a welcomed change from monotonous meals consisting of reconstituted foods in plastic bags. Even more, these plants could likely aid in the recycling of air and wastewater on spacecraft. With a helping hand from a company by the name of Biolog, Inc., NASA is studying the impacts of decreased gravity and spaceborne bacteria on the plants being grown for food in space. With a helping hand from NASA, this very same company is creating powerful new cell- and bacteria-analysis tools for use in discovering and developing new drugs on Earth.

  17. Discovering phenotypic causal structure from nonexperimental data.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, J

    2016-06-01

    The evolutionary potential of organisms depends on how their parts are structured into a cohesive whole. A major obstacle for empirical studies of phenotypic organization is that observed associations among characters usually confound different causal pathways such as pleiotropic modules, interphenotypic causal relationships and environmental effects. The present article proposes causal search algorithms as a new tool to distinguish these different modes of phenotypic integration. Without assuming an a priori structure, the algorithms seek a class of causal hypotheses consistent with independence relationships holding in observational data. The technique can be applied to discover causal relationships among a set of measured traits and to distinguish genuine selection from spurious correlations. The former application is illustrated with a biological data set of rat morphological measurements previously analysed by Cheverud et al. (Evolution 1983, 37, 895). PMID:27007864

  18. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters.

    PubMed

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward

    2014-02-01

    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony. PMID:25241502

  19. Discovering, Indexing and Interlinking Information Resources

    PubMed Central

    Celli, Fabrizio; Keizer, Johannes; Jaques, Yves; Konstantopoulos, Stasinos; Vudragović, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    The social media revolution is having a dramatic effect on the world of scientific publication. Scientists now publish their research interests, theories and outcomes across numerous channels, including personal blogs and other thematic web spaces where ideas, activities and partial results are discussed. Accordingly, information systems that facilitate access to scientific literature must learn to cope with this valuable and varied data, evolving to make this research easily discoverable and available to end users. In this paper we describe the incremental process of discovering web resources in the domain of agricultural science and technology. Making use of Linked Open Data methodologies, we interlink a wide array of custom-crawled resources with the AGRIS bibliographic database in order to enrich the user experience of the AGRIS website. We also discuss the SemaGrow Stack, a query federation and data integration infrastructure used to estimate the semantic distance between crawled web resources and AGRIS. PMID:26834982

  20. How to See a Recently Discovered Supernova

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Berkeley Lab scientist Peter Nugent discusses a recently discovered supernova that is closer to Earth — approximately 21 million light-years away — than any other of its kind in a generation. Astronomers believe they caught the supernova within hours of its explosion, a rare feat made possible with a specialized survey telescope and state-of-the-art computational tools. The finding of such a supernova so early and so close has energized the astronomical community as they are scrambling to observe it with as many telescopes as possible, including the Hubble Space Telescope. More info on how to see it: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/08/31/glimpse-cosmic-explosion/ News release: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/08/25/supernova/

  1. Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; Liu, Fang; Pande, Vijay S; Martínez, Todd J

    2014-12-01

    Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provide detailed physical insight. Although theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor--a highly accelerated first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor, we show new pathways for glycine synthesis from primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, which provide new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. These results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery, in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings. PMID:25411881

  2. Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; Liu, Fang; Pande, Vijay S.; Martínez, Todd J.

    2014-12-01

    Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provide detailed physical insight. Although theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor—a highly accelerated first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor, we show new pathways for glycine synthesis from primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, which provide new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. These results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery, in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings.

  3. Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; Liu, Fang; Pande, Vijay S.; Martínez, Todd J.

    2014-11-02

    Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis from primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. Ultimately, these results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings.

  4. How to See a Recently Discovered Supernova

    ScienceCinema

    Nugent, Peter

    2013-05-29

    Berkeley Lab scientist Peter Nugent discusses a recently discovered supernova that is closer to Earth ? approximately 21 million light-years away ? than any other of its kind in a generation. Astronomers believe they caught the supernova within hours of its explosion, a rare feat made possible with a specialized survey telescope and state-of-the-art computational tools. The finding of such a supernova so early and so close has energized the astronomical community as they are scrambling to observe it with as many telescopes as possible, including the Hubble Space Telescope. More info on how to see it: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/08/31/glimpse-cosmic-explosion/ News release: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/08/25/supernova/

  5. Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Todd

    Traditional approaches for modeling chemical reaction networks such as those involved in combustion have focused on identifying individual reactions and using theoretical approaches to explore the underlying mechanisms. Recent advances involving graphical processing units (GPUs), commodity products developed for the videogaming industry, have made it possible to consider a distinct approach wherein one attempts to discover chemical reactions and mechanisms. We provide a brief summary of these developments and then discuss the concept behind the ``ab initio nanoreactor'' which explores the space of possible chemical reactions and molecular species for a given stoichiometry. The nanoreactor concept is exemplified with an example to the Urey-Miller reaction network which has been previously advanced as a potential model for prebiotic chemistry. We briefly discuss some of the future directions envisioned for the development of this nanoreactor concept.

  6. Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; Liu, Fang; Pande, Vijay S.; Martínez, Todd J.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis from primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. These results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings. PMID:25411881

  7. When Two Circles Determine a Triangle. Discovering and Proving a Geometrical Condition in a Computer Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metaxas, Nikolaos; Karagiannidou, Andromachi

    2010-01-01

    Visualization of mathematical relationships enables students to formulate conjectures as well as to search for mathematical arguments to support these conjectures. In this project students are asked to discover the sufficient and necessary condition so that two circles form the circumscribed and inscribed circle of a triangle and investigate how…

  8. Discovering, Supporting, and Promoting Young Children's Passions and Interests: One Teacher's Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Christine

    2001-01-01

    Describes the journey of one kindergarten teacher as she discovered, supported, and promoted the passions and interests of an at-risk kindergarten student, and shared in his joys of learning. Details an inquiry project about snakes, initiated by the student's knowledge about snakes, involving field trips, class discussion, learning centers, and…

  9. Final Technical Report: Discovering the Nature of Dark Energy: Towards Better Distances from Type Ia Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Saurabh W. Jha

    2012-10-03

    The final technical report from the project "Discovering the Nature of Dark Energy: Towards Better Distances from Type Ia Supernovae" led at Rutgers the State University of New Jersey by Prof. Saurabh W. Jha is presented, including all publications resulting from this award.

  10. Discovering the Art of Mathematics: Using String Art to Investigate Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Renesse, Christine; Ecke, Volker

    2016-01-01

    One goal of our Discovering the Art of Mathematics project is to empower students in the liberal arts to become confident creators of art and imaginative creators of mathematics. In this paper, we describe our experience with using string art to guide liberal arts students in exploring ideas of calculus. We provide excerpts from our inquiry-based…

  11. 76 FR 4393 - Discover Financial Services Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Discover Financial Services Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION... Financial Services negotiated service agreement to the market dominant product list. This notice addresses... 3020, et seq., to add a Discover Financial Services (DFS) negotiated service agreement to the...

  12. Discovering the 'Magic' of Target Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grier, Linda J.; Ackenbom, Charles R.

    1988-01-01

    Describes target marketing of children's summer camps, emphasizing the benefits of collaborative advertising campaigns. Discusses the scope and economics of four model campaigns. Outlines the design, implementation, and evaluation of collaborative marketing projects. (SV)

  13. Discovering the Ancient Maya From Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, T. L.

    2007-01-01

    The Peten region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use o f limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  14. Discovering the Ancient Maya from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, T. L.

    2008-01-01

    The Pet6n region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use of limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  15. Discovering Alzheimer Genetic Biomarkers Using Bayesian Networks.

    PubMed

    Sherif, Fayroz F; Zayed, Nourhan; Fakhr, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contribute most of the genetic variation to the human genome. SNPs associate with many complex and common diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD). Discovering SNP biomarkers at different loci can improve early diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. Bayesian network provides a comprehensible and modular framework for representing interactions between genes or single SNPs. Here, different Bayesian network structure learning algorithms have been applied in whole genome sequencing (WGS) data for detecting the causal AD SNPs and gene-SNP interactions. We focused on polymorphisms in the top ten genes associated with AD and identified by genome-wide association (GWA) studies. New SNP biomarkers were observed to be significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease. These SNPs are rs7530069, rs113464261, rs114506298, rs73504429, rs7929589, rs76306710, and rs668134. The obtained results demonstrated the effectiveness of using BN for identifying AD causal SNPs with acceptable accuracy. The results guarantee that the SNP set detected by Markov blanket based methods has a strong association with AD disease and achieves better performance than both naïve Bayes and tree augmented naïve Bayes. Minimal augmented Markov blanket reaches accuracy of 66.13% and sensitivity of 88.87% versus 61.58% and 59.43% in naïve Bayes, respectively. PMID:26366461

  16. Discovering Alzheimer Genetic Biomarkers Using Bayesian Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sherif, Fayroz F.; Zayed, Nourhan; Fakhr, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contribute most of the genetic variation to the human genome. SNPs associate with many complex and common diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD). Discovering SNP biomarkers at different loci can improve early diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. Bayesian network provides a comprehensible and modular framework for representing interactions between genes or single SNPs. Here, different Bayesian network structure learning algorithms have been applied in whole genome sequencing (WGS) data for detecting the causal AD SNPs and gene-SNP interactions. We focused on polymorphisms in the top ten genes associated with AD and identified by genome-wide association (GWA) studies. New SNP biomarkers were observed to be significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease. These SNPs are rs7530069, rs113464261, rs114506298, rs73504429, rs7929589, rs76306710, and rs668134. The obtained results demonstrated the effectiveness of using BN for identifying AD causal SNPs with acceptable accuracy. The results guarantee that the SNP set detected by Markov blanket based methods has a strong association with AD disease and achieves better performance than both naïve Bayes and tree augmented naïve Bayes. Minimal augmented Markov blanket reaches accuracy of 66.13% and sensitivity of 88.87% versus 61.58% and 59.43% in naïve Bayes, respectively. PMID:26366461

  17. How the antihypertensive losartan was discovered.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Gaurab

    2006-11-01

    Based on interviews and publications, this case study is a history of how DuPont scientists discovered losartan, the first angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Essential aspects of the story include: i) the discovery occurred at a young and inexperienced pharmaceutical business; ii) three bench scientists had recently graduated from PhD programmes and only the fourth had any industrial research experience; iii) pivotal to its success was the support and risk-taking of the highly experienced and recently hired head of pharmaceutical research; iv) a timely patent issued to Takeda Chemical Industries suggested a new line of research; v) a mistake made by an inexperienced pharmacologist yielded pivotal information; vi) the bench scientists were given the freedom to explore while being supported by research managers; vii) luck favoured the scientists in losartan's subreceptor-binding and metabolite; and viii) the marketing group insisted that losartan not be developed until Merck expressed an interest in the drug candidate. Today, losartan is a multibillion dollar drug. PMID:23506070

  18. Astronomers Discover Fastest-Spinning Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-01-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope have discovered the fastest-spinning neutron star ever found, a 20-mile-diameter superdense pulsar whirling faster than the blades of a kitchen blender. Their work yields important new information about the nature of one of the most exotic forms of matter known in the Universe. Pulsar Graphic Pulsars Are Spinning Neutron Stars CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for larger version) "We believe that the matter in neutron stars is denser than an atomic nucleus, but it is unclear by how much. Our observations of such a rapidly rotating star set a hard upper limit on its size, and hence on how dense the star can be.," said Jason Hessels, a graduate student at McGill University in Montreal. Hessels and his colleagues presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Washington, DC. Pulsars are spinning neutron stars that sling "lighthouse beams" of radio waves or light around as they spin. A neutron star is what is left after a massive star explodes at the end of its "normal" life. With no nuclear fuel left to produce energy to offset the stellar remnant's weight, its material is compressed to extreme densities. The pressure squeezes together most of its protons and electrons to form neutrons; hence, the name "neutron star." "Neutron stars are incredible laboratories for learning about the physics of the fundamental particles of nature, and this pulsar has given us an important new limit," explained Scott Ransom, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and one of Hessels' collaborators on this work. The scientists discovered the pulsar, named PSR J1748-2446ad, in a globular cluster of stars called Terzan 5, located some 28,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Sagittarius. The newly-discovered pulsar is spinning 716 times per second, or at 716 Hertz (Hz), readily beating the previous record of 642 Hz from a pulsar

  19. Discovering Students' Voices in Teachers' Classroom Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Myriam N.

    This study is part of a large project on teacher research and professional development in progress in the Teacher Enhancement Program (TEP), a collaborative mid-career program between the University of New Mexico and local public schools. The objective of the study was to describe teachers' engagement in classroom inquiry and the transformative…

  20. Discovering Me: Music Activities for Special Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Keith P.; And Others

    The book contains information on musical activities which were field tested in Project PASE (Program in the Arts for Special Education, Pennsylvania) classrooms with a wide range of exceptionalities from preschool age to adolescence. Activities are seen to help children become more aware of their bodies, feelings, and themselves; feel important…

  1. Discovering New R Coronae Borealis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Tisserand, Patrick; Welch, Douglas L.; LeBleu, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are rare hydrogen-deficient, carbon-rich supergiants. Two evolutionary scenarios have been suggested, a double degenerate merger of two white dwarfs, or a final helium shell flash in a PN central star. The evidence pointing toward a white-dwarf merger or a final-flash origin for RCB stars is contradictory. The distribution on the sky and radial velocities of the RCB stars tend toward those of the bulge population but a much larger sample of stars is needed to determine the true population. We need to discover RCB stars much more efficiently. In order to do this, we have used a series of IR color-color cuts, using the recent release of the WISE All-Sky Catalog, to produce a sample of 2200 candidates that may yield over 200 new RCB star identifications. Most of these candidates do not have lightcurves, the traditional technique of identifying RCB stars from their characteristic large and irregular light variations. We have obtained optical spectra of several hundred candidates and have confirmed over 40 new RCB stars in the Galaxy. We are attempting to develop a quantitative spectral classification system for the RCB stars so that they can be identified without an accompanying light curve. The cooler RCB stars look like carbon stars with strong C2 bands, but they can be differentiated from carbon stars by their extreme hydrogen deficiency and very low 13C/12C ratio. Also, the red CN bands are much weaker in RCB stars than in carbon stars. The number of RCB stars in the Galaxy may be consistent with the predicted number of He/CO white-dwarf mergers. Solving the mystery of how the RCB stars evolve would be a watershed event in the study of stellar evolution that will lead to a better understanding of other important types of stellar merger events such as Type Ia SNe.

  2. DRAGONs DISCOVER Air Quality over Baltimore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J. S.; Eck, T. F.; Giles, D. M.; Sorokin, M.; Smirnov, A.; Sinyuk, A.; Tran, A.; Kenny, P.; Huang, C.; Anderson, B. E.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Crawford, J. H.; Pickering, K. E.; Hoff, R. M.; Hains, J.; Berkoff, T.; Goloub, P.; Mortier, A.; Joseph, E.; Clark, R. D.; Thornhill, K. L.; DaSilva, A.; Dickerson, R. R.; Tsay, S.; Stehr, J. W.; Thompson, A. M.; Levy, R. C.; Abboud, I.

    2011-12-01

    The AERONET program is addressing issues of high resolution aerosol validation and internal retrieval comparisons by establishing short-term mesoscale networks called Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network or DRAGON. The first, DRAGON-USA, was a mesoscale gridded network of 44 sun and sky scanning spectral photometers established in the Washington - Baltimore Metropolitan area at a grid spacing of approximately 10 km to assess the daytime aerosol spatial distributions during the summer of 2011. Concurrently the first of four Earth Venture Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and VERtically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER AQ) campaigns, executed an intensive ground and airborne measurement campaign over the Washington-Baltimore I-95 corridor to improve remote sensing capabilities for near surface air quality assessment during July 2011. Contributing elements of this campaign include the NASA Langley airborne HSRL, ground based lidars, PM 2.5 and surface meteorology, and the Langley Aerosol Research Group Experiment (LARGE) in situ measurements on board the NASA P-3B. Repeat profiles were made over 6 supersites with AERONET observations on 14 flight days in July allowing numerous coincidences under a variety of aerosol conditions. Additional in and out of network profiles were flown over AERONET sites by the UMD Cessna 402B aircraft with in situ scattering and absorption measurements. These combined 4-D characterizations of optical, microphysical and chemical aerosol properties provide a comprehensive understanding of the relationships between AERONET derived aerosol properties and in situ measurements for fine mode dominated urban aerosols, assessment of new AERONET aerosol retrievals and further provides a detailed database for high resolution satellite and model validation. Preliminary results indicate a SSA ~0.02 lower along the I-95 corridor on heavily polluted days and AOD gradients highly variable

  3. HUBBLE AND KECK DISCOVER GALAXY BUILDING BLOCK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows a very small, faint galaxy 'building block' newly discovered by a unique collaboration between ground- and space-based telescopes. Hubble and the 10-meter Keck Telescopes in Hawaii joined forces, using a galaxy cluster which acts as gravitational lens to detect what scientists believe is one of the smallest very distant objects ever found. The galaxy cluster Abell 2218 was used by a team of European and American astronomers led by Richard Ellis (Caltech) in their systematic search for intrinsically faint distant star-forming systems. Without help from Abell 2218's exceptional magnifying power to make objects appear about 30 times brighter, the galaxy building block would have been undetectable. In the image to the right, the object is seen distorted into two nearly identical, very red 'images' by the gravitational lens. The image pair represents the magnified result of a single background object gravitationally lensed by Abell 2218 and viewed at a distance of 13.4 billion light-years. The intriguing object contains only one million stars, far fewer than a mature galaxy, and scientists believe it is very young. Such young star-forming systems of low mass at early cosmic times are likely to be the objects from which present-day galaxies have formed. In the image to the left, the full overview of the galaxy cluster Abell 2218 is seen. This image was taken by Hubble in 1999 at the completion of Hubble Servicing Mission 3A. Credit: NASA, ESA, Richard Ellis (Caltech) and Jean-Paul Kneib (Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees, France) Acknowledgment: NASA, A. Fruchter and the ERO Team (STScI and ST-ECF)

  4. DISCOVER Near Real-Time Ocean Data Products: Examples of Uses and Limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. K.; Wentz, F. J.; Gentemann, C. L.

    2010-12-01

    Scientists at Remote Sensing Systems produce satellite microwave ocean data products for DISCOVER, a NASA MEaSUREs project. These ocean products include ocean surface winds, sea surface temperatures, atmospheric water vapor, cloud liquid water and rain rates created from passive microwave instrument data including that from SSM/I, TMI, AMSR-E, SSMIS and WindSat. Many users download DISCOVER data products in near real-time and use them within their specific applications. For example, some of the applications include ocean weather assessment for military sortie determination, sea surface temperature front identification for use by fishermen, and whale and turtle habitat monitoring. We will present the processing steps used to create the near real-time DISCOVER data, show several examples of user applications and discuss the benefits and limitations users find in applying our data products to their needs.

  5. VLA Discovers Giant Rings Around Galaxy Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-11-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope have discovered giant, ring-like structures around a cluster of galaxies. The discovery provides tantalizing new information about how such galaxy clusters are assembled, about magnetic fields in the vast spaces between galaxy clusters, and possibly about the origin of cosmic rays. Radio-Optical Image of Cluster Galaxy Cluster Abell 3376 (Radio/Optical) CREDIT: Joydeep Bagchi, IUCAA, NRAO/AUI/NSF Above, a combined radio/optical image shows the galaxy cluster Abell 3376 in visible light (blue) and radio (red) images. The giant radio arcs surrounding the cluster were discovered using the Very Large Array. The visible-light image is from the Digitized Sky survey. Below, an X-ray image of Abell 3376 made using the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton telescope shows a spectacular, bullet-shaped region of X-rays coming from gas heated to 60 million degrees Kelvin. The bullet shape results from the supersonic collision of a smaller smaller galaxy subcluster with the main body of the larger cluster. Click on images for larger version. X-Ray Image of Cluster Galaxy Cluster Abell 3376 (X-Ray) CREDIT: Joydeep Bagchi, IUCAA, ESA "These giant, radio-emitting rings probably are the result of shock waves caused by violent collisions of smaller groups of galaxies within the cluster," said Joydeep Bagchi, of the Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics in Pune, India, who led an international research team. The scientists reported their findings in the November 3 edition of the journal Science. The newly-discovered ring segments, some 6 million light-years across, surround a galaxy cluster called Abell 3376, more than 600 million light-years from Earth. They were revealed because fast-moving electrons emitted radio waves as they spiraled around magnetic field lines in intergalactic space. "Even from this large distance, the feeble radio waves were easily picked up by the VLA

  6. DISCOVERING HABITABLE EARTHS, HOT JUPITERS, AND OTHER CLOSE PLANETS WITH MICROLENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Di Stefano, R.

    2012-06-20

    Searches for planets via gravitational lensing have focused on cases in which the projected separation, a, between planet and star is comparable to the Einstein radius, R{sub E} . This paper considers smaller orbital separations and demonstrates that evidence of close-orbit planets can be found in the low-magnification portion of the light curves generated by the central star. We develop a protocol for discovering hot Jupiters as well as Neptune-mass and Earth-mass planets in the stellar habitable zone. When planets are not discovered, our method can be used to quantify the probability that the lens star does not have planets within specified ranges of the orbital separation and mass ratio. Nearby close-orbit planets discovered by lensing can be subject to follow-up observations to study the newly discovered planets or to discover other planets orbiting the same star. Careful study of the low-magnification portions of lensing light curves should produce, in addition to the discoveries of close-orbit planets, definite detections of wide-orbit planets through the discovery of 'repeating' lensing events. We show that events exhibiting extremely high magnification can effectively be probed for planets in close, intermediate, and wide distance regimes simply by adding several-time-per-night monitoring in the low-magnification wings, possibly leading to gravitational lensing discoveries of multiple planets occupying a broad range of orbits, from close to wide, in a single planetary system.

  7. PSLQ: An Algorithm to Discover Integer Relations

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, J. M.

    2009-04-03

    Let x = (x{sub 1}, x{sub 2} {hor_ellipsis}, x{sub n}) be a vector of real or complex numbers. x is said to possess an integer relation if there exist integers a{sub i}, not all zero, such that a{sub 1}x{sub 1} + a{sub 2}x{sub 2} + {hor_ellipsis} + a{sub n}x{sub n} = 0. By an integer relation algorithm, we mean a practical computational scheme that can recover the vector of integers ai, if it exists, or can produce bounds within which no integer relation exists. As we will see in the examples below, an integer relation algorithm can be used to recognize a computed constant in terms of a formula involving known constants, or to discover an underlying relation between quantities that can be computed to high precision. At the present time, the most effective algorithm for integer relation detection is the 'PSLQ' algorithm of mathematician-sculptor Helaman Ferguson [10, 4]. Some efficient 'multi-level' implementations of PSLQ, as well as a variant of PSLQ that is well-suited for highly parallel computer systems, are given in [4]. PSLQ constructs a sequence of integer-valued matrices B{sub n} that reduces the vector y = xB{sub n}, until either the relation is found (as one of the columns of B{sub n}), or else precision is exhausted. At the same time, PSLQ generates a steadily growing bound on the size of any possible relation. When a relation is found, the size of smallest entry of the vector y abruptly drops to roughly 'epsilon' (i.e. 10{sup -p}, where p is the number of digits of precision). The size of this drop can be viewed as a 'confidence level' that the relation is real and not merely a numerical artifact - a drop of 20 or more orders of magnitude almost always indicates a real relation. Very high precision arithmetic must be used in PSLQ. If one wishes to recover a relation of length n, with coefficients of maximum size d digits, then the input vector x must be specified to at least nd digits, and one must employ nd-digit floating-point arithmetic. Maple and

  8. The Impact of Discovering Life beyond Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2015-10-01

    Introduction: astrobiology and society Steven J. Dick; Part I. Motivations and Approaches. How Do We Frame the Problems of Discovery and Impact?: Introduction; 1. Current approaches to finding life beyond earth, and what happens if we do Seth Shostak; 2. The philosophy of astrobiology: the Copernican and Darwinian presuppositions Iris Fry; 3. History, discovery, analogy: three approaches to the impact of discovering life beyond earth Steven J. Dick; 4. Silent impact: why the discovery of extraterrestrial life should be silent Clément Vidal; Part II. Transcending Anthropocentrism. How Do We Move beyond our Own Preconceptions of Life, Intelligence and Culture?: Introduction; 5. The landscape of life Dirk Schulze-Makuch; 6. The landscape of intelligence Lori Marino; 7. Universal biology: assessing universality from a single example Carlos Mariscal; 8. Equating culture, civilization, and moral development in imagining extraterrestrial intelligence: anthropocentric assumptions? John Traphagan; 9. Communicating with the other: infinity, geometry, and universal math and science Douglas Vakoch; Part III. Philosophical, Theological, and Moral Impact. How Do We Comprehend the Cultural Challenges Raised by Discovery?: Introduction; 10. Life, intelligence and the pursuit of value in cosmic evolution Mark Lupisella; 11. 'Klaatu barada nikto' - or, do they really think like us? Michael Ruse; 12. Alien minds Susan Schneider; 13. The moral subject of astrobiology: guideposts for exploring our ethical and political responsibilities towards extraterrestrial life Elspeth Wilson and Carol Cleland; 14. Astrobiology and theology Robin Lovin; 15. Would you baptize an extraterrestrial? Guy Consolmagno, SJ; Part IV. Practical Considerations: How Should Society Prepare for Discovery - and Non-Discovery?: Introduction; 16. Is there anything new about astrobiology and society? Jane Maienschein; 17. Evaluating preparedness for the discovery of extraterrestrial life: considering potential

  9. Discovering Extrasolar Planets with Microlensing Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wambsganss, J.

    2016-06-01

    An astronomical survey is commonly understood as a mapping of a large region of the sky, either photometrically (possibly in various filters/wavelength ranges) or spectroscopically. Often, catalogs of objects are produced/provided as the main product or a by-product. However, with the advent of large CCD cameras and dedicated telescopes with wide-field imaging capabilities, it became possible in the early 1990s, to map the same region of the sky over and over again. In principle, such data sets could be combined to get very deep stacked images of the regions of interest. However, I will report on a completely different use of such repeated maps: Exploring the time domain for particular kinds of stellar variability, namely microlens-induced magnifications in search of exoplanets. Such a time-domain microlensing survey was originally proposed by Bohdan Paczynski in 1986 in order to search for dark matter objects in the Galactic halo. Only a few years later three teams started this endeavour. I will report on the history and current state of gravitational microlensing surveys. By now, routinely 100 million stars in the Galactic Bulge are monitored a few times per week by so-called survey teams. All stars with constant apparent brightness and those following known variability patterns are filtered out in order to detect the roughly 2000 microlensing events per year which are produced by stellar lenses. These microlensing events are identified "online" while still in their early phases and then monitored with much higher cadence by so-called follow-up teams. The most interesting of such events are those produced by a star-plus-planet lens. By now of order 30 exoplanets have been discovered by these combined microlensing surveys. Microlensing searches for extrasolar planets are complementary to other exoplanet search techniques. There are two particular advantages: The microlensing method is sensitive down to Earth-mass planets even with ground-based telecopes, and it

  10. Effective data management for the DISCOVER-AQ airborne field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Ramapriyan, H. K.; Crawford, J. H.; Kleb, M. M.; Rinsland, P.; Kusterer, J.; Sorlie, S.; Perez, J.; Walter, J.

    2011-12-01

    DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) is an airborne study aimed at improving the interpretation of satellite observations to diagnose near-surface conditions relating to air quality. This project will increase fundamental understanding satellite trace gas and aerosol observations and enable the application of satellite data for societal benefit, which is highly relevant to NASA's goals to study the Earth from space. Because of the nature of the project, DISCOVER-AQ is an investigation that involves a wide range of observational assets, including airborne and ground based in-situ and remote sensing observations. It is a broad collaborative study with participants from NASA centers, universities, and research partners from agencies at federal, state and local levels. Therefore, successfully achieving the DISCOVER-AQ science objectives requires a comprehensive and cohesive data management plan to facilitate the sharing and broad use of data to enable research and comply with NASA data policies. This plan governs the science data generation, data exchange between the DISCOVER-AQ science team and its partners, and data transfer to the NASA Langley Research Center's Atmospheric Science Data Center (LaRC ASDC). The DISCOVER-AQ Data Management Plan (DMP) has been developed through a broad collaboration among the DISCOVER-AQ project, NASA LaRC ASDC staff, and NASA Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project. This DMP incorporates procedures that have evolved over more than 20 years of airborne field studies under NASA's Tropospheric Chemistry Program and draws upon experience from collaborations with NOAA, NSF, university, and international partners as well as NASA's experience in managing Earth science data from its various remote sensing missions. To be presented are highlights of the DISCOVER-AQ data management plan, including a brief description of the airborne

  11. Astronomers Discover Six-Image Gravitational Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-08-01

    An international team of astronomers has used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope and NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to discover the first gravitational lens in which the single image of a very distant galaxy has been split into six different images. The unique configuration is produced by the gravitational effect of three galaxies along the line of sight between the more-distant galaxy and Earth. Optical and Radio Images of Gravitational Lens "This is the first gravitational lens with more than four images of the background object that is produced by a small group of galaxies rather than a large cluster of galaxies," said David Rusin, who just received his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. "Such systems are expected to be extremely rare, so this discovery is an important stepping stone. Because this is an intermediate case between gravitational lenses produced by single galaxies and lenses produced by large clusters of galaxies, it will give us insights we can't get from other types of lenses," Rusin added. The gravitational lens, called CLASS B1359+154, consists of a galaxy more than 11 billion light-years away in the constellation Bootes, with a trio of galaxies more than 7 billion light-years away along the same line of sight. The more-distant galaxy shows signs that it contains a massive black hole at its core and also has regions in which new stars are forming. The gravitational effect of the intervening galaxies has caused the light and radio waves from the single, more-distant galaxy to be "bent" to form six images as seen from Earth. Four of these images appear outside the triangle formed by the three intermediate galaxies and two appear inside that triangle. "This lens system is a very interesting case to study because it is more complicated than lenses produced by single galaxies, and yet simpler than lenses produced by clusters of numerous galaxies," said Chris Kochanek of the Harvard

  12. Discover Earth: an earth system science program for libraries and their communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P.

    2011-12-01

    The view from space has deepened our understanding of Earth as a global, dynamic system. Instruments on satellites and spacecraft, coupled with advances in ground-based research, have provided us with astonishing new perspectives of our planet. Now more than ever, enhancing the public's understanding of Earth's physical and biological systems is vital to helping citizens make informed policy decisions especially when they are faced with the consequences of global climate change. While the focus for education reform is on school improvement, there is considerable research that supports the role that out-of-school experiences can play in student achievement. Libraries provide an untapped resource for engaging underserved youth and their families in fostering an appreciation and deeper understanding of science and technology topics. The Space Science Institute's National Center for Interactive Learning (NCIL) in partnership with the American Library Association (ALA), the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), and the National Girls Collaborative Project (NGCP) have received funding from NSF to develop a national project called the STAR Library Education Network: a hands-on learning program for libraries and their communities (or STAR-Net for short). STAR stands for Science-Technology, Activities and Resources. STAR-Net includes two exhibitions: Discover Earth and Discover Tech. The Discover Earth exhibition will focus on local earth science topics-such as weather, water cycle, and ecosystem changes-as well as a global view of our changing planet. The main take-away message (or Big Idea) for this exhibition is that the global environment changes - and is changed by - the host community's local environment. The project team is testing whether this approach will be a good strategy for engaging the public, especially in rural America. This presentation will provide an overview of the Discover Earth project and how it is integrating climate change ideas into the exhibit

  13. Spirit Discovers New Class of Igneous Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    . %' indicates that the numbers tell what percentage of the total weight of each rock is silica (on the horizontal scale) and what percentage is oxides of sodium and potassium (on the vertical scale). The thin lines separate volcanic rock types identified on Earth by different scientific names such as foidite and picrobasalt. Various classes of Gusev rocks (see box in upper right) all plot either on or to the left of the green lines, which define 'alkaline' and 'subalkaline' categories (subalkaline rocks have more silica than alkaline rocks).

    Members of the rover team have named different classes of rocks after specimens examined by Spirit that represent their overall character. During the rover's travels, Spirit discovered that Adirondack-class rocks littered the Gusev plains; that Backstay, Irvine, and Wishstone-class rocks occurred as loose blocks on the northwest slope of 'Husband Hill'; and that outcrops of Algonquin-class rocks protruded in several places on the southeast face.

    These rocks have less silica than all previously analyzed Mars samples, which are subalkaline. The previously analyzed Mars samples include Martian meteorites found on Earth and rocks analyzed by the Mars Pathfinder rover in 1997. Gusev is the first documented example of an alkaline igneous province on Mars.

  14. High-School Student Discovers Strange Astronomical Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    A West Virginia high-school student analyzing data from a giant radio telescope has discovered a new astronomical object -- a strange type of neutron star called a rotating radio transient. Lucas Bolyard, a sophomore at South Harrison High School in Clarksburg, WV, made the discovery while participating in a project in which students are trained to scrutinize data from the National Science Foundation's giant Robert C. Byrd Green The project, called the Pulsar Search Collaboratory (PSC), is a joint project of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and West Virginia University (WVU), funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation. Bolyard made the discovery in March, after he already had studied more than 2,000 data plots from the GBT and found nothing. "I was home on a weekend and had nothing to do, so I decided to look at some more plots from the GBT," he said. "I saw a plot with a pulse, but there was a lot of radio interference, too. The pulse almost got dismissed as interference," he added. Nonetheless, he reported it, and it went on a list of candidates for West Virginia University astronomers Maura McLaughlin and Duncan Lorimer to re-examine, scheduling new observations of the region of sky from which the pulse came. Disappointingly, the follow-up observations showed nothing, indicating that the object was not a normal pulsar. However, the astronomers explained to Bolyard that his pulse still might have come from a rotating radio transient. Confirmation didn't come until July. Bolyard was at the NRAO's Green Bank Observatory with fellow PSC students. The night before, the group had been observing with the GBT in the wee hours, and all were very tired. Then Lorimer showed Bolyard a new plot of his pulse, reprocessed from raw data, indicating that it is real, not interference, and that Bolyard is likely the discoverer of one of only about 30 rotating radio transients known. Suddenly, Bolyard said, he wasn't tired anymore. "That news made me full

  15. Carbon Atmosphere Discovered On Neutron Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-11-01

    without pulsations would require a tiny size, consistent only with exotic stars made of strange quark matter. "Our carbon veil solves one of the big questions about the neutron star in Cas A," said Craig Heinke. "People have been willing to consider some weird explanations, so it's a relief to discover a less peculiar solution." Unlike most astronomical objects, neutron stars are small enough to understand on a human scale. For example, neutron stars typically have a diameter of about 14 miles, only slightly longer than a half-marathon. The atmosphere of a neutron star is on an even smaller scale. The researchers calculate that the carbon atmosphere is only about 4 inches thick, because it has been compressed by a surface gravity that is 100 billion times stronger than on Earth. "For people who are used to hearing about immense sizes of things in space, it might be a surprise that we can study something so small," said Ho. "It's also funny to think that such a thin veil over this star played a key role in frustrating researchers." In Earth's time frame, the estimated age of the neutron star in Cas A is only several hundred years, making it about ten times younger than other neutron stars with detected surface emission. Therefore, the Cas A neutron star gives a unique window into the early life of a cooling neutron star. The carbon itself comes from a combination of material that has fallen back after the supernova, and nuclear reactions on the hot surface of the neutron star which convert hydrogen and helium into carbon. The X-ray spectrum and lack of pulsar activity suggest that the magnetic field on the surface of this neutron star is relatively weak. Similarly low magnetic fields are implied for several other young neutron stars by study of their weak X-ray pulsations. It is not known whether these neutron stars will have low magnetic fields for their entire lives, and never become radio pulsars, or whether processes in their interior will lead to the development of

  16. Youngest Stellar Explosion in Our Galaxy Discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-05-01

    Astronomers have found the remains of the youngest supernova, or exploded star, in our Galaxy. The supernova remnant, hidden behind a thick veil of gas and dust, was revealed by the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) and NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory, which could see through the murk. The object is the first example of a "missing population" of young supernova remnants. 1985 and 2008 VLA Images Move cursor over image to blink. VLA Images of G1.9+0.3 in 1985 and 2008: Circle for size comparison. CREDIT: Green, et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF From observing supernovae in other galaxies, astronomers have estimated that about three such stellar explosions should occur in our Milky Way every century. However, the most recent one known until now occurred around 1680, creating the remnant called Cassiopeia A. The newly-discovered object is the remnant of an explosion only about 140 years ago. "If the supernova rate estimates are correct, there should be the remnants of about 10 supernova explosions in the Milky Way that are younger than Cassiopeia A," said David Green of the University of Cambridge in the UK, who led the VLA study. "It's great to finally track one of them down." Supernova explosions, which mark the violent death of a star, release tremendous amounts of energy and spew heavy elements such as calcium and iron into interstellar space. They thus seed the clouds of gas and dust from which new stars and planets are formed and, through their blast shocks, can even trigger such formation. The lack of evidence for young supernova remnants in the Milky Way had caused astronomers to wonder if our Galaxy, which appears otherwise normal, differed in some unknown way from others. Alternatively, scientists thought that the "missing" Milky Way supernovae perhaps indicated that their understanding of the relationship between supernovae and other galactic processes was in error. The astronomers made their discovery by measuring the expansion of the debris from

  17. Most Powerful Eruption in the Universe Discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    emission within the cavities shows that jets from the black hole erupted to create the cavities. Gas is being pushed away from the black hole at supersonic speeds over a distance of about a million light years. The mass of the displaced gas equals about a trillion Suns, more than the mass of all the stars in the Milky Way. LA Radio & Chandra X-ray Composite of MS 0735.6+7421 VLA Radio & Chandra X-ray Composite of MS 0735.6+7421 The rapid growth of supermassive black holes is usually detected by observing very bright radiation from the centers of galaxies in the optical and X-ray wavebands, or luminous radio jets. In MS 0735 no bright central radiation is found and the radio jets are faint. Therefore, the true nature of MS 0735 is only revealed through X-ray observations of the hot cluster gas. "Until now we had no idea that this black hole was gorging itself", said co-author Michael Wise of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "The discovery of this eruption shows that X-ray telescopes are necessary to understand some of the most violent events in the Universe." The astronomers estimated how much energy was needed to create the cavities by calculating the density, temperature and pressure of the hot gas. By making a standard assumption, that 10% of the gravitational energy goes into launching the jets, they estimated how much material the black hole swallowed. Size Comparison of MS 0735.6+7421 & Perseus Cluster Size Comparison of MS 0735.6+7421 & Perseus Cluster Besides generating the cavities, some of the energy from this eruption should keep the hot gas around the black hole from cooling, and some of it may also generate large-scale magnetic fields in the galaxy cluster. Chandra observers have discovered other cavities in galaxy clusters, but this one is easily the largest and the most powerful. For example, the energy content here exceeds that of the Perseus cavities by 250 times, and dwarfs the cavities in M87 by a factor of 10,000. NASA's Marshall Space Flight

  18. Discovering and Experiencing the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Bill

    1992-01-01

    Offers calculus students and teachers the opportunity to motivate and discover the first Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (FTC) in an experimental, experiential, inductive, intuitive, vernacular-based manner. Starting from the observation that a distance traveled at a constant speed corresponds to the area inside a rectangle, the FTC is discovered,…

  19. DISCOVER: Concurrent Validity, Gender Differences, and Identification of Minority Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarouphim, Ketty M.

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 257 Navajo Indians and Mexican American elementary students, used the Raven Progressive Matrices to examined the concurrent validity of the DISCOVER assessment. Results provided some evidence for concurrent validity and showed that, through the use of the DISCOVER assessment, 22.9 percent were identified as gifted. (Contains…

  20. 27 CFR 46.120 - Errors discovered on inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Errors discovered on inspection. When a TTB officer discovers on a special tax stamp a material error in... amended return and an acceptable explanation for the error, the officer will make the proper correction on the stamp and return it to the taxpayer. However, if the error found by the TTB officer is on...

  1. 27 CFR 46.120 - Errors discovered on inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Errors discovered on inspection. When a TTB officer discovers on a special tax stamp a material error in... amended return and an acceptable explanation for the error, the officer will make the proper correction on the stamp and return it to the taxpayer. However, if the error found by the TTB officer is on...

  2. Biological Activity of Recently Discovered Halogenated Marine Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Gordon W.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents the biological activity—antibacterial, antifungal, anti-parasitic, antiviral, antitumor, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and enzymatic activity—of halogenated marine natural products discovered in the past five years. Newly discovered examples that do not report biological activity are not included. PMID:26133553

  3. TEACHING CHILDREN TO DISCOVER--A PROBLEM OF GOAL DEFINITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KEISLAR, EVAN R.

    BECAUSE OF THE EVER INCREASING EXPANSION OF KNOWLEDGE AND CULTURAL CHANGES, TEACHING CHILDREN TO DISCOVER (DEFINED HERE AS THE ACQUISITION OF AN ABILITY TO FORMULATE AND SOLVE PROBLEMS) SHOULD BE GIVEN CONSIDERABLE SIGNIFICANCE AS AN EDUCATIONAL GOAL. THE PURPOSE OF THIS REPORT IS (1) TO CLARIFY CERTAIN ASPECTS OF TEACHING CHILDREN TO DISCOVER,…

  4. Reviews Book: The 4% Universe: Dark Matter, Dark Energy and the Race to Discover the Rest of Reality Book: Quantitative Understanding of Biosystems: An Introduction to Biophysics Book: Edison's Electric Light: The Art of Invention Book: The Edge of Physics: Dispatches from the Frontiers of Cosmology Equipment: Voicebox Equipment: Tracker 4 Books: Hands-On Introduction to NI LabVIEW with Vernier, and Engineering Projects with NI LabVIEW and Vernier Places to Visit: Discovery Museum Book: Philosophy of Science: A Very Short Introduction Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-11-01

    WE RECOMMEND Quantitative Understanding of Biosystems: An Introduction to Biophysics Text applies physics to biology concepts Edison's Electric Light: The Art of Invention Edison's light still shines brightly The Edge of Physics: Dispatches from the Frontiers of Cosmology Anecdotes explore cosmology Voicebox Voicebox kit discovers the physics and evolution of speech Tracker 4 Free software tracks motion analysis Hands-On Introduction to NI LabVIEW with Vernier, and Engineering Projects with NI LabVIEW and Vernier Books support the LabVIEW software Discovery Museum Newcastle museum offers science enjoyment for all Philosophy of Science: A Very Short Introduction Philosophy opens up science questions WORTH A LOOK The 4% Universe: Dark Matter, Dark Energy and the Race to Discover the Rest of Reality Book researches the universe WEB WATCH Superconductivity websites are popular

  5. Youngest Stellar Explosion in Our Galaxy Discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-05-01

    Astronomers have found the remains of the youngest supernova, or exploded star, in our Galaxy. The supernova remnant, hidden behind a thick veil of gas and dust, was revealed by the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) and NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory, which could see through the murk. The object is the first example of a "missing population" of young supernova remnants. 1985 and 2008 VLA Images Move cursor over image to blink. VLA Images of G1.9+0.3 in 1985 and 2008: Circle for size comparison. CREDIT: Green, et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF From observing supernovae in other galaxies, astronomers have estimated that about three such stellar explosions should occur in our Milky Way every century. However, the most recent one known until now occurred around 1680, creating the remnant called Cassiopeia A. The newly-discovered object is the remnant of an explosion only about 140 years ago. "If the supernova rate estimates are correct, there should be the remnants of about 10 supernova explosions in the Milky Way that are younger than Cassiopeia A," said David Green of the University of Cambridge in the UK, who led the VLA study. "It's great to finally track one of them down." Supernova explosions, which mark the violent death of a star, release tremendous amounts of energy and spew heavy elements such as calcium and iron into interstellar space. They thus seed the clouds of gas and dust from which new stars and planets are formed and, through their blast shocks, can even trigger such formation. The lack of evidence for young supernova remnants in the Milky Way had caused astronomers to wonder if our Galaxy, which appears otherwise normal, differed in some unknown way from others. Alternatively, scientists thought that the "missing" Milky Way supernovae perhaps indicated that their understanding of the relationship between supernovae and other galactic processes was in error. The astronomers made their discovery by measuring the expansion of the debris from

  6. Objective Earth, a planet to discover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borel, G.

    2003-04-01

    Objective Earth is an innovative project part of the "Swiss Virtual Campus", a federal program launched and financially supported by the Swiss University Conference and the Swiss Universities. Objective Earth is an online course devised for first year university students in Geosciences, but is also ideal for people who need or want to broaden their knowledge in Earth Sciences (biologists, civil engineers, high school teachers, etc.). The course is multilingual (English, German, French). The disciplines are integrated in a global approach to the "Earth System," the educational focus is on understanding all the important processes and their interactions in the global context. The pedagogical effort has been placed upon the global understanding of the main processes and their interactions. Our goal is for students to develop the ability to apply their knowledge in a comprehensive way to tackle definite geological problems. Thus, very particular attention has been put on the contextualization of the learning, combining didactically the academic notions and the practical situations. By the study of a thematic context, we intend to deliberately connect the phenomena described by the different disciplines of the geosciences (geology, geography, geophysics, mineralogy) to the way they physically occur in nature. Pages that are delivered to the user are assembled at run-time by the system. Information resources are stored and managed in XML which is the ideal format for structured-documents. Furthermore, using XML, the course structure can be processed separately from the content and re-used in other areas. This technical choice also offers a great flexibility for future developments.

  7. The Community Discovered: The Search for Meaning through the Integration of Art and Technology in K-12 Education. Evaluation Progress Report No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdouch, Ronald; Grandgenett, Neal; Topp, Neal; Ostler, Elliott; Pawloski, Bob; Timms, Mike; Peterson, Joan

    This fourth evaluation progress report concerns the "Community Discovered" project, currently completing its third year of operation, a 5-year project that links technology and the visual and performing arts with other subject areas to transform the education of K-12 students in Nebraska and nationwide. The report states that the project builds…

  8. 8. BASRELIEF DECORATION, 'THE DISCOVERS', MURAL COMMEMORATING JOLLIET, FATHER MARQUETTE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. BAS-RELIEF DECORATION, 'THE DISCOVERS', MURAL COMMEMORATING JOLLIET, FATHER MARQUETTE, LASALLE AND TONTY - Chicago River Bascule Bridge, Michigan Avenue, Spanning Chicago River at North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  9. Spectroscopic Classifications with Magellan of 7 Supernovae Discovered by DES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, P. K.; Challis, P.; Drout, M.; Kirshner, R.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; D'Andrea, C.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of supernova candidates discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectra (425-945 nm) were obtained using IMACS on the 6.5m Baade telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory on Dec 19, 2014.

  10. NASA's Kepler Discovers Its Smallest 'Habitable Zone' Planets to Date

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Kepler mission has discovered two new planetary systems that include three super-Earth-size planets in the "habitable zone," the range of distance from a star where the surface temperature o...

  11. First Multi-Planet System Discovered by Kepler

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Kepler Mission has discovered the first confirmed planetary system with more than one planet transiting the same star. The announcement of the discovery of the two planets, Kepler 9b and 9c,...

  12. NASA's Kepler Mission Discovers Multiple Planets Orbiting Twin Suns

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Kepler mission has discovered the first transiting circumbinary system -- multiple planets orbiting two suns -- 4,900 light-years from Earth, in the constellation Cygnus, proving that more t...

  13. “Fine-Scale Application of the coupled WRF-CMAQ System to the 2011 DISCOVER-AQ Campaign”

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DISCOVER-AQ project (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality), is a joint collaboration between NASA, U.S. EPA and a number of other local organizations with the goal of characterizing air quality in ...

  14. Evaluation and Comparison of Methods for Measuring Ozone and NO2 Concentrations in Ambient Air during DISCOVER-AQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient evaluations of the various ozone and NO2 methods were conducted during field intensive studies as part of the NASA DISCOVER-AQ project conducted during July 2011 near Baltimore, MD; January – February 2013 in the San Juaquin valley, CA; September 2013 in Houston, TX...

  15. Discovering New Minerals at Micron to Nanoscales: A SEM-EBSD-EPMA Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C.

    2014-12-01

    With high-resolution analytical field emission scanning electron microscope and electron probe microanalyzer, we are now capable to characterize Earth and planetary materials easier and faster down to nanoscales. Nanofeatures (such as inclusions, exsolution, zonation, coatings, pores) in minerals and rocks are being discovered. Nanominerals and nanoparticles are being revealed. New minerals and new materials are being identified. During our ongoing nanomineralogy investigation since 2006, more than twenty five new minerals have been discovered at micron to nanoscales. Fifteen of them are from the Allende meteorite, including new refractory minerals like allendeite, hexamolybdenum, tistarite, panguite and kangite, which are among the first solids formed in our solar system. Each of the new extraterrestrial minerals reveals distinctive forming environments, providing insights into nebula or parent-body processes. Presented here are a few nanomineralogy projects demonstrating how to find and characterize new minerals with an integrated SEM-EBSD-EPMA approach.

  16. Talkoot Portals: Discover, Tag, Share, and Reuse Collaborative Science Workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Ramachandran, R.; Lynnes, C.

    2009-05-01

    discoverable using tag search, and advertised using "service casts" and "interest casts" (Atom feeds). Multiple science workflow systems will be plugged into the system, with initial support for UAH's Mining Workflow Composer and the open-source Active BPEL engine, and JPL's SciFlo engine and the VizFlow visual programming interface. With the ability to share and execute analysis workflows, Talkoot portals can be used to do collaborative science in addition to communicate ideas and results. It will be useful for different science domains, mission teams, research projects and organizations. Thus, it will help to solve the "sociological" problem of bringing together disparate groups of researchers, and the technical problem of advertising, discovering, developing, documenting, and maintaining inter-agency science workflows. The presentation will discuss the goals of and barriers to Science 2.0, the social web technologies employed in the Talkoot software appliance (e.g. CMS, social tagging, personal presence, advertising by feeds, etc.), illustrate the resulting collaborative capabilities, and show early prototypes of the web interfaces (e.g. embedded workflows).

  17. Project: "Project!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    In November 2006, the editors of "Campus Technology" launched their first-ever High-Resolution Projection Study, to find out if the latest in projector technology could really make a significant difference in teaching, learning, and educational innovation on US campuses. The author and her colleagues asked campus educators, technologists, and…

  18. Development of a global land cover characteristics database and IGBP DISCover from 1 km AVHRR data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, T.R.; Reed, B.C.; Brown, J.F.; Ohlen, D.O.; Zhu, Z.; Yang, L.; Merchant, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey, University of Nebraska-Lincoln and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy produced a 1 km resolution global land cover characteristics database for use in a wide range of continental- to global-scale environmental studies. This database provides a unique view of the broad patterns of the biogeographical and ecoclimatic diversity of the global land surface, and presents a detailed interpretation of the extent of human development. The project was carried out as an International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, Data and Information Systems (IGBP-DIS) initiative. The IGBP DISCover global land cover product is an integral component of the global land cover database. DISCover includes 17 general land cover classes defined to meet the needs of IGBP core science projects. A formal accuracy assessment of the DISCover data layer will be completed in 1998. The 1 km global land cover database was developed through a continent-by-continent unsupervised classification of 1 km monthly Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) composites covering 1992-1993. Extensive post-classification stratification was necessary to resolve spectral/temporal confusion between disparate land cover types. The complete global database consists of 961 seasonal land cover regions that capture patterns of land cover, seasonality and relative primary productivity. The seasonal land cover regions were aggregated to produce seven separate land cover data sets used for global environmental modelling and assessment. The data sets include IGBP DISCover, U.S. Geological Survey Anderson System, Simple Biosphere Model, Simple Biosphere Model 2, Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme, Olson Ecosystems and Running Global Remote Sensing Land Cover. The database also includes all digital sources that were used in the classification. The complete database can be sourced from the website: http://edcwww.cr.usgs.gov/landdaac/glcc/glcc.html.

  19. Discovering communities in complex networks by edge label propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Jiang, Xingpeng; Pellegrini, Matteo; Wang, Xiaofan

    2016-03-01

    The discovery of the community structure of real-world networks is still an open problem. Many methods have been proposed to shed light on this problem, and most of these have focused on discovering node community. However, link community is also a powerful framework for discovering overlapping communities. Here we present a novel edge label propagation algorithm (ELPA), which combines the natural advantage of link communities with the efficiency of the label propagation algorithm (LPA). ELPA can discover both link communities and node communities. We evaluated ELPA on both synthetic and real-world networks, and compared it with five state-of-the-art methods. The results demonstrate that ELPA performs competitively with other algorithms.

  20. Discovering communities in complex networks by edge label propagation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Jiang, Xingpeng; Pellegrini, Matteo; Wang, Xiaofan

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of the community structure of real-world networks is still an open problem. Many methods have been proposed to shed light on this problem, and most of these have focused on discovering node community. However, link community is also a powerful framework for discovering overlapping communities. Here we present a novel edge label propagation algorithm (ELPA), which combines the natural advantage of link communities with the efficiency of the label propagation algorithm (LPA). ELPA can discover both link communities and node communities. We evaluated ELPA on both synthetic and real-world networks, and compared it with five state-of-the-art methods. The results demonstrate that ELPA performs competitively with other algorithms. PMID:26926830

  1. Discovering biomedical relations utilizing the World-wide Web.

    PubMed

    Mukherjea, Sougata; Sahay, Saurav

    2006-01-01

    To crate a Semantic Web for Life Sciences discovering relations between biomedical entities is essential. Journals and conference proceedings represent the dominant mechanisms of reporting newly discovered biomedical interactions. The unstructured nature of such publications makes it difficult to utilize data mining or knowledge discovery techniques to automatically incorporate knowledge from these publications into the ontologies. On the other hand, since biomedical information is growing explosively, it is difficult to have human curators manually extract all the information from literature. In this paper we present techniques to automatically discover biomedical relations from the World-wide Web. For this purpose we retrieve relevant information from Web Search engines using various lexico-syntactic patterns as queries. Experiments are presented to show the usefulness of our techniques. PMID:17094237

  2. Will cosmic strings be discovered using the Space Telescope?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pacynski, B.

    1986-01-01

    Cosmic strings are topologically stable defects in the vacuum of space which may be produced by a phase transition in the early universe. Here, it is suggested that observations of very distant galaxies are a more useful means of discovering strings than quasar observations. It is argued that if there is only one string out to redshift z - about 1 the probability that it crosses a random image obtained using the Wide Field Camera (WFC) of the Space Telescope is about 0.0001. In order to discover a cosmic string the Space Telescope WFC will be required to operate almost continuously in primary and serendipity modes, and a cosmic string, if it exists, may be discovered within the first few years of operation.

  3. Discovering robust knowledge from dynamic closed-world data

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Chun-Nan; Knoblock, C.A.

    1996-12-31

    Many applications of knowledge discovery require the knowledge to be consistent with data. Examples include discovering rules for query optimization, database integration, decision support, etc. However, databases usually change over time and make machine-discovered knowledge inconsistent with data. Useful knowledge should be robust against database changes so that it is unlikely to become inconsistent after database changes. This paper defines this notion of robustness, describes how to estimate the robustness of Horn-clause rules in closed-world databases, and describes how the robustness estimation can be applied in rule discovery systems.

  4. Discover Earth: An earth system science program for libraries and their communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, L.; Dusenbery, P.

    2010-12-01

    The view from space has deepened our understanding of Earth as a global, dynamic system. Instruments on satellites and spacecraft, coupled with advances in ground-based research, have provided us with astonishing new perspectives of our planet. Now more than ever, enhancing the public’s understanding of Earth’s physical and biological systems is vital to helping citizens make informed policy decisions especially when they are faced with the consequences of global climate change. In spite of this relevance, there are many obstacles to achieving broad public understanding of key earth system science (ESS) concepts. Strategies for addressing climate change can only succeed with the full engagement of the general public. As reported by U.S. News and World Report in 2010, small towns in rural America are emerging as the front line in the climate change debate in the country. The Space Science Institute’s National Center for Interactive Learning (NCIL) in partnership with the American Library Association (ALA), the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), and the National Girls Collaborative Project (NGCP) have received funding from NSF to develop a national project called the STAR Library Education Network: a hands-on learning program for libraries and their communities (or STAR-Net for short). STAR stands for Science-Technology, Activities and Resources. There are two distinct components of STAR-Net: Discover Earth and Discover Tech. While the focus for education reform is on school improvement, there is considerable research that supports the role that out-of-school experiences can play in student achievement. Libraries provide an untapped resource for engaging underserved youth and their families in fostering an appreciation and deeper understanding of science and technology topics. The overarching goal of the project is to reach underserved youth and their families with informal STEM learning experiences. The Discover Earth part of STAR_Net will produce ESS

  5. Challenges and opportunities for remote sensing of air quality: Insights from DISCOVER-AQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, J. H.; Pickering, K. E.; Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Clark, R. D.; Cohen, R. C.; Diskin, G. S.; Ferrare, R. A.; Fried, A.; Holben, B. N.; Herman, J. R.; Hoff, R. M.; Hostetler, C. A.; Janz, S. J.; Szykman, J.; Thompson, A. M.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Wisthaler, A.; Yang, M. M.; Chen, G.; Kleb, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Improving the remote sensing of air quality has been the primary focus of a series of four field studies conducted by a project called DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from COlumn and VERtically resolved observations relevant to Air Quality). Operating as an integrated observing system, DISCOVER-AQ has employed multiple aircraft and ground instrumentation to conduct multi-perspective observations of the distribution of gaseous and particulate pollution in the lower atmosphere over contrasting regions of the U.S. that are currently in violation of National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The four study areas include Maryland (Baltimore-Washington corridor), California (southern San Joaquin Valley), Texas (Greater Houston area), and Colorado (Denver/Northern Front Range). The DISCOVER-AQ observations are actively being used to promote improvements in remote sensing in the following ways: Characterizing vertical structure in the atmosphere and its diurnal patterns to develop improved a priori information for satellite retrievals; Examining horizontal variability to assess the spatial scales needed to resolve emissions and photochemistry; Determining correlative relationships between remotely sensed and in situ observations; Assessing the value of ground-based remote sensing to provide information on impact of boundary layer dynamics and mixing on air pollution. Examples of the ongoing analysis of these datasets and their relevance to future geostationary satellite observations as well as augmentation of air quality monitoring networks with ground-based remote sensing will be discussed.

  6. Ongoing analysis of DISCOVER-AQ observations and their implications for remote sensing of air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, J. H.; Pickering, K. E.; Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Chen, G.; Clark, R. D.; Cohen, R. C.; Diskin, G. S.; Ferrare, R. A.; Fried, A.; Herman, J. R.; Hoff, R. M.; Hostetler, C. A.; Janz, S. J.; Kleb, M. M.; Szykman, J.; Thompson, A. M.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Wisthaler, A.; Yang, M. M.; Holben, B. N.

    2015-12-01

    Improving the remote sensing of air quality has been the primary focus of a series of four field studies conducted by a project called DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from COlumn and VERtically resolved observations relevant to AirQuality). Operating as an integrated observing system, DISCOVER-AQ has employed multiple aircraft and ground instrumentation to conduct multi-perspective observations of the distribution of gaseous and particulate pollution in the lower atmosphere over contrasting regions of the U.S. that are currently in violation of National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The four study areas include Maryland (Baltimore-Washington corridor), California (southern San Joaquin Valley), Texas (Greater Houston area), and Colorado (Denver/Northern Front Range). The DISCOVER-AQ observations are actively being used to promote improvements in remote sensing in the following ways: Characterizing vertical structure in the atmosphere and its diurnal patterns to develop improved a priori information for satellite retrievals; Examining horizontal variability to assess the spatial scales needed to resolve emissions and photochemistry; Determining correlative relationships between remotely sensed and in situ observations; Assessing the value of ground-based remote sensing to provide information on impact of boundary layer dynamics and mixing on air pollution. Current progress on analysis of these datasets and their relevance to future geostationary satellite observations as well as augmentation of air quality monitoring networks with ground-based remote sensing will be discussed.

  7. The Community Discovered: The Search for Meaning through the Integration of Art and Technology in K-12 Education. Annual Progress Report No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coufal, Kathy L.; Grandgenett, Neal F.

    This third evaluation progress report concerns a 5-year project that links technology and the visual and performing arts with other subject areas to transform the education of K-12 students in Nebraska and nationwide. The report states that the "Community Discovered" project is continuing to make substantial and consistent progress in its…

  8. Start the Year Right-Discover Pick's Theorem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcock, Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Describes a problem to challenge students as they come back from summer vacation. Working in small groups, students discover Pick's Theorem, the formula to calculate the area of a polygon constructed on a geoboard. A writing assignment evaluates the students' efforts. (MDH)

  9. Internal Structure of DISCOVER: A Performance-based Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarouphim, Ketty M.

    2000-01-01

    A study involving 257 Navajo and Mexican-American elementary students investigated the internal structure of the DISCOVER assessment, a performance-based assessment grounded in Gardner's theory of multiple intelligence. Results showed low interrating correlations among the five assessment activities, indicating students gifted in one intelligence…

  10. Two new Galactic novae discovered in the VVV disk images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena, C. Contreras; Lucas, P. W.; Saito, R. K.; Minniti, D.; Kurtev, R.

    2016-04-01

    We report two novae in the Galactic plane discovered serendipitously during a search for high amplitude variable young stellar objects (Contreras Pena et al. 2016, arXiv:1602.06267) in the VVV Survey data (vvvsurvey.org; Minniti et al. 2010, New Astronomy, 15, 433).

  11. Discovering How a Communicative Notion Is Expressed in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Graeme D.

    A study to develop a methodology for discovering how one important notion or semantic category, "frequency of occurrence," is expressed in words, phrases, or other linguistic devices in academic English began with a search for devices expressing that notion, by analyzing text from a news magazine, a New Zealand geography textbook, and a…

  12. Discovering Hidden Analogies in an Online Humanities Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cory, Kenneth A.

    1999-01-01

    Drawing upon an efficacious method for discovering previously unknown causes of medical syndromes and searching in the Humanities Index, an illuminating new humanities analogy between the epistemological ideas of Robert Frost and the ancient Greek philosopher Carneades was found by constructing a search statement in which proper names were coupled…

  13. The Regression Trunk Approach to Discover Treatment Covariate Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dusseldorp, Elise; Meulman, Jacqueline J.

    2004-01-01

    The regression trunk approach (RTA) is an integration of regression trees and multiple linear regression analysis. In this paper RTA is used to discover treatment covariate interactions, in the regression of one continuous variable on a treatment variable with "multiple" covariates. The performance of RTA is compared to the classical method of…

  14. Discovering Theorems in Abstract Algebra Using the Software "GAP"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Russell D.; Rainbolt, Julianne G.

    2010-01-01

    A traditional abstract algebra course typically consists of the professor stating and then proving a sequence of theorems. As an alternative to this classical structure, the students could be expected to discover some of the theorems even before they are motivated by classroom examples. This can be done by using a software system to explore a…

  15. Despite Appearances, Cosmic Explosions Have Common Origin, Astronomers Discover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    A Fourth of July fireworks display features bright explosions that light the sky with different colors, yet all have the same cause. They just put their explosive energy into different colors of light. Similarly, astronomers have discovered, a variety of bright cosmic explosions all have the same origin and the same amount of total energy. This is the conclusion of an international team of astronomers that used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to study the closest known gamma-ray burst earlier this year. Artist's conception of burst Artist's Conception of Twin Jets in Energetic Cosmic Explosion CREDIT: Dana Berry, SkyWorks Digital (Click on Image for Larger Version) "For some reason we don't yet understand, these explosions put greatly varying percentages of their explosive energy into the gamma-ray portion of their output," said Dale Frail, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. That means, he said, that both strong and weak gamma-ray bursts, along with X-ray flashes, which emit almost no gamma rays, are just different forms of the same cosmic beast. The research team reported their results in the November 13 issue of the scientific journal Nature. The scientists trained the VLA on a gamma-ray burst discovered using NASA's HETE-2 satellite last March 29. This burst, dubbed GRB 030329, was the closest such burst yet seen, about 2.6 billion light-years from Earth. Because of this relative proximity, the burst was bright, with visible light from its explosion reaching a level that could be seen in amateur telescopes. As the burst faded, astronomers noted an underlying distinctive signature of a supernova explosion, confirming that the event was associated with the death of a massive star. Since 1999, astronomers have known that the strong outbursts of gamma rays, X-rays, visible light and radio waves from these bursts form beams, like those from a flashlight, rather than spreading in all directions

  16. Distant World in Peril Discovered from La Silla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    Giant Exoplanet Orbits Giant Star Summary When, in a distant future, the Sun begins to expand and evolves into a "giant" star, the surface temperature on the Earth will rise dramatically and our home planet will eventually be incinerated by that central body. Fortunately for us, this dramatic event is several billion years away. However, that sad fate will befall another planet, just discovered in orbit about the giant star HD 47536, already within a few tens of millions of years. At a distance of nearly 400 light-years from us, it is the second-remotest planetary system discovered to date [1]. This is an interesting side-result of a major research project, now carried out by a European-Brazilian team of astronomers [2]. In the course of a three-year spectroscopic survey, they have observed about 80 giant stars in the southern sky with the advanced FEROS spectrograph on the 1.52-m telescope installed at the ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile). It is one of these stars that has just been found to host a giant planet. This is only the fourth such case known and with a diameter of about 33 million km (or 23.5 times that of our Sun), HD 47536 is by far the largest of those giant stars [1]. The distance of the planet from the star is still of the order of 300 million km (or twice the distance of the Earth from the Sun), a safe margin now, but this will not always be so. The orbital period is 712 days, i.e., somewhat less than two Earth years, and the planet's mass is 5 - 10 times that of Jupiter. The presence of exoplanets in orbit around giant stars, some of which will eventually perish into their central star (be "cannibalized"), provides a possible explanation of the anomalous abundance of certain chemical elements that is observed in the atmospheres of some stars, cf. ESO PR 10/01. This interesting discovery bodes well for coming observations of exoplanetary systems with new, more powerful instruments, like HARPS to be installed next year at the ESO 3.6-m telescope on

  17. Discover, Visualize, and Deliver Geospatial Data through OGC Standards-based WebGIS System

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Yaxing; SanthanaVannan, Suresh K; Cook, Robert B

    2009-01-01

    Geospatial data are important to understand the Earth - ecosystem dynamics, land cover changes, resource management, and human interactions with the Earth to name a few. One of the biggest difficulties users face is to discover, access, and assemble distributed, large volume, heterogeneous geospatial data to conduct geo-analysis. Traditional methods of geospatial data discovery, visualization, and delivery lack the capabilities of resource sharing and automation across systems or organizational boundaries. They require users to download the data ldquoas-isrdquo in their original file format, projection, and extent. Also, discovering data served by traditional methods requires prior knowledge of data location, and processing requires specialized expertise. These drawbacks of traditional methods create additional burden to users, introduce too much overhead to research, and also reduce the potential usage of the data. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), researchers working on NASA-sponsored projects: Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) and Modeling and Synthesis Thematic Data Center (MAST-DC) have tapped into the benefits of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards to overcome the drawbacks of traditional methods of geospatial data discovery, visualization, and delivery. The OGC standards-based approach facilitates data sharing and interoperability across network, organizational, and geopolitical boundaries. Tools and services based on OGC standards deliver the data in many user defined formats and allow users to visualize the data prior to download. This paper introduces an approach taken to visualize and deliver ORNL DAAC, MAST-DC, and other relevant geospatial data through OGC standards-based Web Services, including Web Map Service (WMS), Web Coverage Service (WCS), and Web Feature Service (WFS). It also introduces a WebGIS system built on top of OGC services that helps users discover, visualize, and access geospatial data.

  18. Updating strategies for isolating and discovering giant viruses.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Jacques Yaacoub Bou; Andreani, Julien; La Scola, Bernard

    2016-06-01

    Almost fifteen years ago, the discovery of Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus, the first giant virus, changed how we define a virus. It was discovered incidentally in a process of isolating Legionella sp. from environmental samples in the context of pneumonia epidemics using a co-culture system with Acanthamoeba. Since then, much effort and improvement has been put into the original technique. In addition to the known families of Mimiviridae and Marseilleviridae, four new proposed families of giant viruses have been isolated: Pandoravirus, Pithovirus, Faustovirus and Mollivirus. Major improvements were based on enrichment systems, targeted use of antibiotics and high-throughput methods. The most recent development, using flow cytometry for isolation and presumptive identification systems, opens a path to large environmental surveys that may discover new giant virus families in new protozoa supports used for culture support. PMID:27039269

  19. Annular pancreas intra operatively discovered: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Zeineb, Mzoughi; Sadri, Ben Abid; Nizar, Miloudi; Hassen, Hentati; Nafaa, Arfa; Taher, Khalfallah

    2011-01-01

    Annular pancreas is a rare congenital abnormality. This entity can rarely be symptomatic. Patients can present with gastrointestinal obstruction or acute pancreatitis. We report a case with a rich iconography, of an annular pancreas discovered intraoperatively. A 46-year-old woman was operated with the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis with common bile duct stones. At operation, a strip of pancreatic tissue (2 cm) completely encircled the second duodenum. Open cholecytectomy with choledocotomy and stones extractionwas done. Postoperatively, she developed an acute pancreatitis. The post-operative cholangiography showed the annular duct surrounding the second duodenum. Annular pancreas is rare. Symptoms may occur in newborn children. In adults, annular pancreas discovering is radiological or intra operatively. PMID:24765382

  20. Discovering simple DNA sequences by the algorithmic significance method.

    PubMed

    Milosavljević, A; Jurka, J

    1993-08-01

    A new method, 'algorithmic significance', is proposed as a tool for discovery of patterns in DNA sequences. The main idea is that patterns can be discovered by finding ways to encode the observed data concisely. In this sense, the method can be viewed as a formal version of the Occam's Razor principle. In this paper the method is applied to discover significantly simple DNA sequences. We define DNA sequences to be simple if they contain repeated occurrences of certain 'words' and thus can be encoded in a small number of bits. Such definition includes minisatellites and microsatellites. A standard dynamic programming algorithm for data compression is applied to compute the minimal encoding lengths of sequences in linear time. An electronic mail server for identification of simple sequences based on the proposed method has been installed at the Internet address pythia/anl.gov. PMID:8402207

  1. Discovering the Higgs boson with low mass muon pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Lisanti, Mariangela; Wacker, Jay G.

    2009-06-01

    Many models of electroweak symmetry breaking have an additional light pseudoscalar. If the Higgs boson can decay to a new pseudoscalar, LEP searches for the Higgs can be significantly altered and the Higgs can be as light as 86 GeV. Discovering the Higgs boson in these models is challenging when the pseudoscalar is lighter than 10 GeV because it decays dominantly into tau leptons. In this paper, we discuss discovering the Higgs in a subdominant decay mode where one of the pseudoscalars decays to a pair of muons. This search allows for potential discovery of a cascade-decaying Higgs boson with the complete Tevatron data set or early data at the LHC.

  2. Line drawing of anomaly discovered in redesigned shuttle motor nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Line drawing titled 'DM-9 Case-to-Nozzle Joint' shows anomaly discovered in redesigned shuttle motor nozzle. The second full-duration test firing of NASA's redesigned Space Shuttle solid rocket motor (SRM), designated DM-9, was conducted 12-23-87 at Morton Thiokol's Wasatch facility in Utah. A post-test examination of the motor has revealed an anomaly in one nozzle component. Material was discovered missing from the nozzle outer boot ring, a large carbon phenolic composite ring used to anchor one end of the flexible boot that allows the nozzle to move and 'steer' the vehicle. About one-third of the missing 160 degrees of missing ring material was found adjacent to the forward nozzle section inside the motor. This diagram shows the location of the nozzle joint on an assembled SRM, and points out the shaded location of the outer boot ring that circles the motor within the nozzle joint.

  3. What are karrikins and how were they 'discovered' by plants?

    PubMed

    Flematti, Gavin R; Dixon, Kingsley W; Smith, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Karrikins are a family of compounds produced by wildfires that can stimulate the germination of dormant seeds of plants from numerous families. Seed plants could have 'discovered' karrikins during fire-prone times in the Cretaceous period when flowering plants were evolving rapidly. Recent research suggests that karrikins mimic an unidentified endogenous compound that has roles in seed germination and early plant development. The endogenous signalling compound is presumably not only similar to karrikins, but also to the related strigolactone hormones. PMID:26689715

  4. Re-discovering ancient wheat varieties as functional foods

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    With the gluten-free food market worth almost $1.6 bn in 2011, there is every reason for renewed interest in ancient grains. This resurgent interest is expressed in re-discovering ancient varieties as functional foods. In particular, people affected by celiac disease have to avoid all gluten in their diet and several ancient grains may offer an important alternative. PMID:26151025

  5. Silas Weir Mitchell, MD: the physician who discovered causalgia.

    PubMed

    Lau, Frank H; Chung, Kevin C

    2004-03-01

    Silas Weir Mitchell discovered and treated causalgia, a condition most often encountered by hand surgeons. He is considered the father of neurology as well as an early pioneer in scientific medicine. He was also a psychiatrist, toxicologist, author, poet, and a celebrity in America and Europe. His many skills and interests led his contemporaries to consider him a genius on par with Benjamin Franklin. His contributions to medicine and particularly hand surgery continue to resonate today. PMID:15043886

  6. Re-discovering ancient wheat varieties as functional foods.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Raymond

    2015-07-01

    With the gluten-free food market worth almost $1.6 bn in 2011, there is every reason for renewed interest in ancient grains. This resurgent interest is expressed in re-discovering ancient varieties as functional foods. In particular, people affected by celiac disease have to avoid all gluten in their diet and several ancient grains may offer an important alternative. PMID:26151025

  7. Why Ampère did not discover electromagnetic induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, L. Pearce

    1986-04-01

    In 1832, after Michael Faraday had announced his discovery of electromagnetic induction, Andre-Marie Ampère claimed that he had actually discovered the induction of one current by another in 1822. In fact, he had, but did not really publish the fact at that time. This article explores the reasons for Ampère's failure to lay claim to a discovery that would have guaranteed him scientific immortality.

  8. MASTER: OT discovered during inspection of HESE 58537957 trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyurina, N.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Kuvshinov, D.; Vlasenko, D.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Shumkov, V.; Potter, S.

    2016-08-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 349171 ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 13h 08m 45.02s -32d 32m 54.9s on 2016-08-24.73811 UT during inspection of HESE alert ( 58537957 trigger number ) http://gcn.gsfc.nasa.gov/notices_amon/58537957_128340.amon . The OT unfiltered magnitude is 19.6m (limit 20.5m).

  9. Re-Discovering Mendel: The Case of Carl Correns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Carl Erich Correns (1864-1933) is remembered in the annals of science as one of the three botanists who re-discovered Mendel's laws. He can also, however, be regarded as one of the founding figures of classical genetics in Germany. Between 1894 and 1899 he carried out the crossing experiments with corn and peas that led to the re-statement of…

  10. Discovering Health Topics in Social Media Using Topic Models

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Michael J.; Dredze, Mark

    2014-01-01

    By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM), as well as our system for filtering general Twitter data based on health keywords and supervised classification. We show how ATAM and other topic models can automatically infer health topics in 144 million Twitter messages from 2011 to 2013. ATAM discovered 13 coherent clusters of Twitter messages, some of which correlate with seasonal influenza (r = 0.689) and allergies (r = 0.810) temporal surveillance data, as well as exercise (r = .534) and obesity (r = −.631) related geographic survey data in the United States. These results demonstrate that it is possible to automatically discover topics that attain statistically significant correlations with ground truth data, despite using minimal human supervision and no historical data to train the model, in contrast to prior work. Additionally, these results demonstrate that a single general-purpose model can identify many different health topics in social media. PMID:25084530

  11. Discovering Pair-wise Synergies in Microarray Data

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuan; Cao, Dan; Gao, Jun; Yuan, Zheming

    2016-01-01

    Informative gene selection can have important implications for the improvement of cancer diagnosis and the identification of new drug targets. Individual-gene-ranking methods ignore interactions between genes. Furthermore, popular pair-wise gene evaluation methods, e.g. TSP and TSG, are helpless for discovering pair-wise interactions. Several efforts to discover pair-wise synergy have been made based on the information approach, such as EMBP and FeatKNN. However, the methods which are employed to estimate mutual information, e.g. binarization, histogram-based and KNN estimators, depend on known data or domain characteristics. Recently, Reshef et al. proposed a novel maximal information coefficient (MIC) measure to capture a wide range of associations between two variables that has the property of generality. An extension from MIC(X; Y) to MIC(X1; X2; Y) is therefore desired. We developed an approximation algorithm for estimating MIC(X1; X2; Y) where Y is a discrete variable. MIC(X1; X2; Y) is employed to detect pair-wise synergy in simulation and cancer microarray data. The results indicate that MIC(X1; X2; Y) also has the property of generality. It can discover synergic genes that are undetectable by reference feature selection methods such as MIC(X; Y) and TSG. Synergic genes can distinguish different phenotypes. Finally, the biological relevance of these synergic genes is validated with GO annotation and OUgene database. PMID:27470995

  12. Discovering Pair-wise Synergies in Microarray Data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan; Cao, Dan; Gao, Jun; Yuan, Zheming

    2016-01-01

    Informative gene selection can have important implications for the improvement of cancer diagnosis and the identification of new drug targets. Individual-gene-ranking methods ignore interactions between genes. Furthermore, popular pair-wise gene evaluation methods, e.g. TSP and TSG, are helpless for discovering pair-wise interactions. Several efforts to discover pair-wise synergy have been made based on the information approach, such as EMBP and FeatKNN. However, the methods which are employed to estimate mutual information, e.g. binarization, histogram-based and KNN estimators, depend on known data or domain characteristics. Recently, Reshef et al. proposed a novel maximal information coefficient (MIC) measure to capture a wide range of associations between two variables that has the property of generality. An extension from MIC(X; Y) to MIC(X1; X2; Y) is therefore desired. We developed an approximation algorithm for estimating MIC(X1; X2; Y) where Y is a discrete variable. MIC(X1; X2; Y) is employed to detect pair-wise synergy in simulation and cancer microarray data. The results indicate that MIC(X1; X2; Y) also has the property of generality. It can discover synergic genes that are undetectable by reference feature selection methods such as MIC(X; Y) and TSG. Synergic genes can distinguish different phenotypes. Finally, the biological relevance of these synergic genes is validated with GO annotation and OUgene database. PMID:27470995

  13. Discovering System Health Anomalies Using Data Mining Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sriastava, Ashok, N.

    2005-01-01

    We present a data mining framework for the analysis and discovery of anomalies in high-dimensional time series of sensor measurements that would be found in an Integrated System Health Monitoring system. We specifically treat the problem of discovering anomalous features in the time series that may be indicative of a system anomaly, or in the case of a manned system, an anomaly due to the human. Identification of these anomalies is crucial to building stable, reusable, and cost-efficient systems. The framework consists of an analysis platform and new algorithms that can scale to thousands of sensor streams to discovers temporal anomalies. We discuss the mathematical framework that underlies the system and also describe in detail how this framework is general enough to encompass both discrete and continuous sensor measurements. We also describe a new set of data mining algorithms based on kernel methods and hidden Markov models that allow for the rapid assimilation, analysis, and discovery of system anomalies. We then describe the performance of the system on a real-world problem in the aircraft domain where we analyze the cockpit data from aircraft as well as data from the aircraft propulsion, control, and guidance systems. These data are discrete and continuous sensor measurements and are dealt with seamlessly in order to discover anomalous flights. We conclude with recommendations that describe the tradeoffs in building an integrated scalable platform for robust anomaly detection in ISHM applications.

  14. A Virtual Screen Discovers Novel, Fragment-Sized Inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis InhA

    PubMed Central

    Perryman, Alexander L.; Yu, Weixuan; Wang, Xin; Ekins, Sean; Forli, Stefano; Li, Shao-Gang; Freundlich, Joel S.; Tonge, Peter J.; Olson, Arthur J.

    2015-01-01

    Isoniazid (INH) is usually administered to treat latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infections, and is used in combination therapy to treat active tuberculosis disease (TB). Unfortunately, resistance to this drug is hampering its clinical effectiveness. INH is a prodrug that must be activated by Mtb catalase peroxidase (KatG) before it can inhibit InhA (Mtb enoyl-acyl-carrier-protein reductase). Isoniazid-resistant cases of TB found in clinical settings usually involve mutations in or deletion of katG, which abrogate INH activation. Compounds that inhibit InhA without requiring prior activation by KatG would not be affected by this resistance mechanism and hence would display continued potency against these drug-resistant isolates of Mtb. Virtual screening experiments versus InhA in the GO Fight Against Malaria project (GO FAM) were designed to discover new scaffolds that display base stacking interactions with the NAD cofactor. GO FAM experiments included targets from other pathogens, including Mtb, when they had structural similarity to a malaria target. Eight of the sixteen soluble compounds identified by docking against InhA plus visual inspection were modest inhibitors and did not require prior activation by KatG. The best two inhibitors discovered are both fragment-sized compounds and displayed Ki values of 54 and 59 μM, respectively. Importantly, the novel inhibitors discovered have low structural similarity to known InhA inhibitors and, thus, help expand the number of chemotypes on which future medicinal chemistry efforts can be focused. These new fragment hits could eventually help advance the fight against INH-resistant Mtb strains, which pose a significant global health threat. PMID:25636146

  15. An Overview of Ozone and Precursor Temporal and Spatial Variability in DISCOVER-AQ Study Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering, K. E.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Loughner, C.; Flynn, C.; Crawford, J. H.; Clark, R. D.; Fried, A.; Herman, J. R.; Janz, S. J.; Lamsal, L. N.; Silverman, M. L.; Stein Zweers, D. C.; Szykman, J.; Weinheimer, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    One of the major goals of the NASA Earth Venture - 1 DISCOVER-AQ project is to better quantify the spatial and temporal variability of pollutant gases in the lower troposphere, as this information is required for the design of new atmospheric chemistry satellite instruments. This objective has been addressed through a series of four field experiments (Baltimore-Washington, San Joaquin Valley, Houston, and Denver). DISCOVER-AQ observations that lend themselves to this analysis include in-situ measurements of trace gases by the NASA P-3B aircraft (spiral profiles and constant altitude flight legs), trace gas columns from the surface-based network of Pandora UV/Vis spectrometers, trace gas columns from the Airborne Compact Atmospheric Mapper (ACAM) on board the NASA King Air, and in-situ tethered balloon observations. We make use of the P-3B observations to assess spatial variability and evaluate regional model simulations through the use of structure functions, which yield the mean difference in column abundance or mixing ratio between observation points at specified distances apart over a designated length of time. Agreement between the observations and model output indicates that the model can be used to derive more comprehensive variability analyses than are possible with the aircraft data. Subsequently, the structure function approach can be used to compute the mean difference over various time intervals to yield temporal variability estimates. The continuous Pandora data also allow for comprehensive temporal variability estimates for the tropospheric column, as does the frequent tethered balloon profiling at fixed sites for the lower portion of the boundary layer. Additionally, the fine-resolution pixels of the ACAM data allow further detailed spatial analysis. A second DISCOVER-AQ objective is to assess the relationship between column observations and surface air quality. We examine the temporal variability of these measurements over the daytime hours, and the

  16. Discovering Astronomy: An Astro 101 e-book

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawl, Stephen J.; Byrd, Gene; Deustua, Susana E.; LoPresto, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Discovering Astronomy, now available in its 6th edition as an eText, has many advantages and features for your students. We have partnered with etextink.com and WebAssign.net to produce an affordable set of cost-saving options for your students. Also available is the Discovering Astronomy Activity Manual, which provides students with an active-learning experience.Our etext is device independent and thus accessible through any web browser. Americans with Disabilities Act compatibility provides access for all students. Hotlinks to outside sites provide further information for interested students. Lecture demonstration videos of important concepts, made specifically for this new edition, are embedded within the text as appropriate. Students can highlight text, take notes, and bookmark locations within the text. Important terms are linked to the glossary. Search capabilities allow students to easily find what they want.Instructors can interact with their students directly through the etext once the class roster has been provided. For example, instructors can embed assignments into their students' etext and add their own notes and updates, which are immediately visible to their students.Updates can be quickly made by us as new findings become available. For example, updates from New Horizons were added at the time of the closest approach to Pluto, and an update on the recent announcement of current water on Mars was added the day of the announcement.We will present results of our own experience with college and high school students' use of Discovering Astronomy in online courses.Details of the book, a sample chapter, and other information are available at discoveringastronomy.weebly.com.

  17. Discovering Communicable Scientific Knowledge from Spatio-Temporal Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwabacher, Mark; Langley, Pat; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes how we used regression rules to improve upon a result previously published in the Earth science literature. In such a scientific application of machine learning, it is crucially important for the learned models to be understandable and communicable. We recount how we selected a learning algorithm to maximize communicability, and then describe two visualization techniques that we developed to aid in understanding the model by exploiting the spatial nature of the data. We also report how evaluating the learned models across time let us discover an error in the data.

  18. Exposed water ice discovered near the south pole of Mars.

    PubMed

    Titus, Timothy N; Kieffer, Hugh H; Christensen, Phillip R

    2003-02-14

    The Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) has discovered water ice exposed near the edge of Mars' southern perennial polar cap. The surface H2O ice was first observed by THEMIS as a region that was cooler than expected for dry soil at that latitude during the summer season. Diurnal and seasonal temperature trends derived from Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer observations indicate that there is H2O ice at the surface. Viking observations, and the few other relevant THEMIS observations, indicate that surface H2O ice may be widespread around and under the perennial CO2 cap. PMID:12471268

  19. Marquette Island: A Distinct Mafic Lithology Discovered by Opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Gellert, R.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Clark, B. C.; Cohen, B. A.; Fleischer, I.; Jolliff, B. L.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Ming, D. W.; Yingst, R. A.

    2010-01-01

    While rolling over the Meridiani Planum sedimentary terrane, the rover Opportunity has occasionally discovered large, > 10 cm erratics. Most of these have proven to be meteorites [1], but one - Bounce Rock - is a martian basaltic rock similar in composition to the meteorite EETA79001 lithology B [2]. Presently, Opportunity is intensively investigating an --30 cm tall rock named Marquette Island that may be a distinct type of martian mafic lithology. We report the results of its continuing investigation using the Microscopic Imager (MI); Mossbauer Spectrometer (MB) and Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS). A companion abstract discusses the results of Panoramic Camera (Pancam) imaging of the rock [3].

  20. Exposed water ice discovered near the south pole of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Titus, T.N.; Kieffer, H.H.; Christensen, P.R.

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) has discovered water ice exposed near the edge of Mars' southern perennial polar cap. The surface H2O ice was first observed by THEMIS as a region that was cooler than expected for dry soil at that latitude during the summer season. Diurnal and seasonal temperature trends derived from Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer observations indicate that there is H2O ice at the surface. Viking observations, and the few other relevant THEMIS observations, indicate that surface H2O ice may be widespread around and under the perennial CO2 cap.

  1. Insights into newly discovered marks and readers of epigenetic information.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Forest H; Strahl, Brian D; Kutateladze, Tatiana G

    2016-08-18

    The field of chromatin biology has been advancing at an accelerated pace. Recent discoveries of previously uncharacterized sites and types of post-translational modifications (PTMs) and the identification of new sets of proteins responsible for the deposition, removal, and reading of these marks continue raising the complexity of an already exceedingly complicated biological phenomenon. In this Perspective article we examine the biological importance of new types and sites of histone PTMs and summarize the molecular mechanisms of chromatin engagement by newly discovered epigenetic readers. We also highlight the imperative role of structural insights in understanding PTM-reader interactions and discuss future directions to enhance the knowledge of PTM readout. PMID:27538025

  2. A New Eclipsing Binary Discovered in a Crowded Star Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Jessica A.; Ranquist, E.; Hernandez, A.; Stoker, E.; Gaillard, C.

    2013-06-01

    Using the 0.9 meter telescope on West Mountain to follow-up possible transiting planets with ground based photometry, we discovered a previously unknown eclipsing binary system. This eclipsing binary is located in a crowded star field and so could not be reduced using photometry. In order to figure out which object in our field of view is the eclipsing binary, we learned how to use DAO phot. By using DAO phot we hope to be able to learn more about the individual stars that make up the binary system and their parameters.

  3. Observational data and orbits of the asteroids discovered at the Baldone Observatory in 2008--2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Černis, K.; Wlodarczyk, I.; Eglitis, I.

    The paper presents statistics of the asteroids observed and discovered at the Baldone Observatory, Latvia, in 2008--2013 within the project for astrometric observations of the near-Earth objects (NEOs), the main belt asteroids and comets. CCD observations of the asteroids were obtained with the 0.80/1.20 m, f/3 Schmidt telescope and a ST-10XME 15 × 10 mm CCD camera. In the Minor Planet Circulars and the Minor Planet Electronic Circulars (2008--2013) we published 3511 astrometric positions of 826 asteroids. Among them, 43 asteroids were newly discovered at Baldone. For 36 of these asteroids the precise orbits are calculated. Because of short observational arc and small number of observations, a few asteroids have low-precision orbits and their tracks have been lost. For seven objects with poorly known orbits we present their ephemerides for 2015--2016. The orbits and the evolution of orbital elements of two asteroids, (428694) 2008 OS9 from the Apollo group and the Centaur (330836) Orius (2009 HW77), are recalculated including new observations obtained after 2011.

  4. A New Species of Frog (Anura: Dicroglossidae) Discovered from the Mega City of Dhaka

    PubMed Central

    Howlader, Mohammad Sajid Ali; Nair, Abhilash; Merilä, Juha

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of frog of the genus Zakerana discovered from the urban core of Dhaka, Bangladesh, one of the most densely populated cities in the world. Although the new species is morphologically similar to the geographically proximate congeners in the Bangladeshi cricket frog group, we show that it can be distinguished from all congeners on the basis of morphological characters, advertisement calls and variation in two mitochondrial DNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA). Apart from several diagnostic differences in body proportions, the new species differs from other Zakerana species in having a flattened snout (from ventral view) projecting over the lower jaw, and diagnostic trapezoid-shaped red markings on the vocal sac in males. Molecular genetic analyses show that the new species is highly divergent (3.1–20.1% sequence divergence) from all congeneric species, and forms a well-supported clade with its sister species, Zakerana asmati. The discovery of a new amphibian species from the urban core of Dhaka together with several recent descriptions of new amphibian species from Bangladesh may indicate that more amphibian species remain to be discovered from this country. PMID:26934699

  5. A New Species of Frog (Anura: Dicroglossidae) Discovered from the Mega City of Dhaka.

    PubMed

    Howlader, Mohammad Sajid Ali; Nair, Abhilash; Merilä, Juha

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of frog of the genus Zakerana discovered from the urban core of Dhaka, Bangladesh, one of the most densely populated cities in the world. Although the new species is morphologically similar to the geographically proximate congeners in the Bangladeshi cricket frog group, we show that it can be distinguished from all congeners on the basis of morphological characters, advertisement calls and variation in two mitochondrial DNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA). Apart from several diagnostic differences in body proportions, the new species differs from other Zakerana species in having a flattened snout (from ventral view) projecting over the lower jaw, and diagnostic trapezoid-shaped red markings on the vocal sac in males. Molecular genetic analyses show that the new species is highly divergent (3.1-20.1% sequence divergence) from all congeneric species, and forms a well-supported clade with its sister species, Zakerana asmati. The discovery of a new amphibian species from the urban core of Dhaka together with several recent descriptions of new amphibian species from Bangladesh may indicate that more amphibian species remain to be discovered from this country. PMID:26934699

  6. Discovering loose group movement patterns from animal trajectories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Yuwei; Luo, Ze; Xiong, Yan; Prosser, Diann J.; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Yan, Baoping

    2015-01-01

    The technical advances of positioning technologies enable us to track animal movements at finer spatial and temporal scales, and further help to discover a variety of complex interactive relationships. In this paper, considering the loose gathering characteristics of the real-life groups' members during the movements, we propose two kinds of loose group movement patterns and corresponding discovery algorithms. Firstly, we propose the weakly consistent group movement pattern which allows the gathering of a part of the members and individual temporary leave from the whole during the movements. To tolerate the high dispersion of the group at some moments (i.e. to adapt the discontinuity of the group's gatherings), we further scheme the weakly consistent and continuous group movement pattern. The extensive experimental analysis and comparison with the real and synthetic data shows that the group pattern discovery algorithms proposed in this paper are similar to the the real-life frequent divergences of the members during the movements, can discover more complete memberships, and have considerable performance.

  7. Discovering Atypical Flights in Sequences of Discrete Flight Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budalakoti, Suratna; Srivastava, Ashok N.; Akella, Ram

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a novel research and development effort conducted at the NASA Ames Research Center for discovering anomalies in discrete parameter sequences recorded from flight data. Many of the discrete parameters that are recorded during the flight of a commercial airliner correspond to binary switches inside the cockpit. The inputs to our system are records from thousands of flights for a given class of aircraft and destination. The system delivers a list of potentially anomalous flights as well as reasons why the flight was tagged as anomalous. This output can be analyzed by safety experts to determine whether or not the anomalies are indicative of a problem that could be addressed with a human factors intervention. The final goal of the system is to help safety experts discover significant human factors issues such as pilot mode confusion, i.e., a flight in which a pilot has lost situational awareness as reflected in atypicality of the sequence of switches that he or she throws during descent compared to a population of similar flights. We view this work as an extension of Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) where the goal is to understand and evaluate the combined health of a class of aircraft ar a given destination.

  8. Discovering fuzzy clusters in databases using an evolutionary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Lewis L. H.; Chan, Keith C. C.; Leung, Henry

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, we present a fuzzy clustering technique for relational database for data mining task. Clustering task for data mining application can be performed more effective if the technique is able to handle both continuous- and discrete- valued data commonly found in real-life relational databases. However, many of fuzzy clustering techniques such as fuzzy c- means are developed only for continuous-valued data due to their distance measure defined in the Euclidean space. When attributes are also characterized by discrete-valued attribute, they are unable to perform their task. Besides, how to deal with fuzzy input data in addition to mixed continuous and discrete is not clearly discussed. Instead of using a distance measure for defining similarity between records, we propose a technique based on a genetic algorithm (GA). By representing a specific grouping of records in a chromosome and using an objective measure as a fitness measure to determine if such grouping is meaningful and interesting, our technique is able to handle continuous, discrete, and even fuzzy input data. Unlike many of the existing clustering techniques, which can only produce the result of grouping with no interpretation, our proposed algorithm is able to generate a set of rules describing the interestingness of the discovered clusters. This feature, in turn, eases the understandability of the discovered result.

  9. Evolutionary approach for discovering changing patterns in historical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Wai-Ho; Chan, Keith C. C.

    2002-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new data mining approach, called dAR, for discovering interesting association rules and their changes by evolutionary computation. dAR searches through huge rule spaces effectively using a genetic algorithm. It has the following characteristics: (i) it encodes a complete set of rules in one single chromosome; (ii) each allele encodes one rule and each rule is represented by some non-binary symbolic values; (iii) the evolutionary process begins with the generation of an initial set of first-order rules (i.e., rules with one condition) using a probabilistic induction technique and based on these rules, rules of higher order (two or more conditions) are obtained iteratively; (iv) it adopts a steady-state reproduction scheme in which only two chromosomes are replaced every time; (v) when identifying interesting rules, an objective interestingness measure is used; and (vi) the fitness of a chromosome is defined in terms of the probability that the attribute values of a tuple can be correctly determined using the rules it encodes. Furthermore, dAR can also be used to mine the changes in discovered rules over time. This allows the accurate prediction of the future based on the historical data in the past. The experimental results on a synthetic database have shown that dAR is very effective at mining interesting association rules and their changes over time.

  10. Discovering pathways by orienting edges in protein interaction networks

    PubMed Central

    Gitter, Anthony; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Gupta, Anupam; Bar-Joseph, Ziv

    2011-01-01

    Modern experimental technology enables the identification of the sensory proteins that interact with the cells’ environment or various pathogens. Expression and knockdown studies can determine the downstream effects of these interactions. However, when attempting to reconstruct the signaling networks and pathways between these sources and targets, one faces a substantial challenge. Although pathways are directed, high-throughput protein interaction data are undirected. In order to utilize the available data, we need methods that can orient protein interaction edges and discover high-confidence pathways that explain the observed experimental outcomes. We formalize the orientation problem in weighted protein interaction graphs as an optimization problem and present three approximation algorithms based on either weighted Boolean satisfiability solvers or probabilistic assignments. We use these algorithms to identify pathways in yeast. Our approach recovers twice as many known signaling cascades as a recent unoriented signaling pathway prediction technique and over 13 times as many as an existing network orientation algorithm. The discovered paths match several known signaling pathways and suggest new mechanisms that are not currently present in signaling databases. For some pathways, including the pheromone signaling pathway and the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway, our method suggests interesting and novel components that extend current annotations. PMID:21109539

  11. Screening individual hybridomas by microengraving to discover monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ogunniyi, Adebola O; Story, Craig M; Papa, Eliseo; Guillen, Eduardo; Love, J Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The demand for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in biomedical research is significant, but the current methodologies used to discover them are both lengthy and costly. Consequently, the diversity of antibodies available for any particular antigen remains limited. Microengraving is a soft lithographic technique that provides a rapid and efficient alternative for discovering new mAbs. This protocol describes how to use microengraving to screen mouse hybridomas to establish new cell lines producing unique mAbs. Single cells from a polyclonal population are isolated into an array of microscale wells (~105 cells per screen). The array is then used to print a protein microarray, where each element contains the antibodies captured from individual wells. The antibodies on the microarray are screened with antigens of interest, and mapped to the corresponding cells, which are then recovered from their microwells by micromanipulation. Screening and retrieval require approximately 1–3 d (9–12 d including the steps for preparing arrays of microwells). PMID:19528952

  12. Novel Virophages Discovered in a Freshwater Lake in China.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chaowen; Zhang, Weijia; Zhou, Xuewen; Wang, Hongming; Sun, Guowei; Xiao, Jinzhou; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    Virophages are small double-stranded DNA viruses that are parasites of giant DNA viruses that infect unicellular eukaryotes. Here we identify a novel group of virophages, named Dishui Lake virophages (DSLVs) that were discovered in Dishui Lake (DSL): an artificial freshwater lake in Shanghai, China. Based on PCR and metagenomic analysis, the complete genome of DSLV1 was found to be circular and 28,788 base pairs in length, with a G+C content 43.2%, and 28 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Fifteen of the DSLV1 ORFs have sequence similarity to known virophages. Two DSLV1 ORFs exhibited sequence similarity to that of prasinoviruses (Phycodnaviridae) and chloroviruses (Phycodnaviridae), respectively, suggesting horizontal gene transfer occurred between these large algal DNA viruses and DSLV1. 46 other virophages-related contigs were also obtained, including six homologous major capsid protein (MCP) gene. Phylogenetic analysis of these MCPs showed that DSLVs are closely related to OLV (Organic Lake virophage) and YSLVs (Yellowstone Lake virophages), especially to YSLV3, except for YSLV7. These results indicate that freshwater ecotopes are the hotbed for discovering novel virophages as well as understanding their diversity and properties. PMID:26834726

  13. Novel Virophages Discovered in a Freshwater Lake in China

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Chaowen; Zhang, Weijia; Zhou, Xuewen; Wang, Hongming; Sun, Guowei; Xiao, Jinzhou; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    Virophages are small double-stranded DNA viruses that are parasites of giant DNA viruses that infect unicellular eukaryotes. Here we identify a novel group of virophages, named Dishui Lake virophages (DSLVs) that were discovered in Dishui Lake (DSL): an artificial freshwater lake in Shanghai, China. Based on PCR and metagenomic analysis, the complete genome of DSLV1 was found to be circular and 28,788 base pairs in length, with a G+C content 43.2%, and 28 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Fifteen of the DSLV1 ORFs have sequence similarity to known virophages. Two DSLV1 ORFs exhibited sequence similarity to that of prasinoviruses (Phycodnaviridae) and chloroviruses (Phycodnaviridae), respectively, suggesting horizontal gene transfer occurred between these large algal DNA viruses and DSLV1. 46 other virophages-related contigs were also obtained, including six homologous major capsid protein (MCP) gene. Phylogenetic analysis of these MCPs showed that DSLVs are closely related to OLV (Organic Lake virophage) and YSLVs (Yellowstone Lake virophages), especially to YSLV3, except for YSLV7. These results indicate that freshwater ecotopes are the hotbed for discovering novel virophages as well as understanding their diversity and properties. PMID:26834726

  14. Screening individual hybridomas by microengraving to discover monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ogunniyi, Adebola O; Story, Craig M; Papa, Eliseo; Guillen, Eduardo; Love, J Christopher

    2009-01-01

    The demand for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in biomedical research is significant, but the current methodologies used to discover them are both lengthy and costly. Consequently, the diversity of antibodies available for any particular antigen remains limited. Microengraving is a soft lithographic technique that provides a rapid and efficient alternative for discovering new mAbs. This protocol describes how to use microengraving to screen mouse hybridomas to establish new cell lines producing unique mAbs. Single cells from a polyclonal population are isolated into an array of microscale wells (approximately 10(5) cells per screen). The array is then used to print a protein microarray, where each element contains the antibodies captured from individual wells. The antibodies on the microarray are screened with antigens of interest, and mapped to the corresponding cells, which are then recovered from their microwells by micromanipulation. Screening and retrieval require approximately 1-3 d (9-12 d including the steps for preparing arrays of microwells). PMID:19528952

  15. Project Pride: Probe, Research, Inquire, Discover, Evaluate. Profiles of Promise 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watford, Robert; And Others

    A small team of social studies and English teachers in a small high school developed a unique American studies program. Activities dedicated to a better comprehension of American culture follow a humanitites approach in the use of music, literature, art, architecture, photography, history and the social sciences. Units are organized on a thematic…

  16. Involving Students in a Collaborative Project to Help Discover Inexpensive, Stable Materials for Solar Photoelectrolysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anunson, Paige N.; Winkler, Gates R.; Winkler, Jay R.; Parkinson, Bruce A.; Christus, Jennifer D. Schuttlefield

    2013-01-01

    In general, laboratory experiments focus on traditional chemical disciplines. While this approach allows students the ability to learn and explore fundamental concepts in a specific area, it does not always encourage students to explore interdisciplinary science. Often little transfer of knowledge from one area to another is observed, as students…

  17. Independent Research Projects Using Protein Extraction: Affordable Ways to Inquire, Discover & Publish for Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pu, Rongsun

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how to use protein extraction, quantification, and analysis in the undergraduate teaching laboratory to engage students in inquiry-based, discovery-driven learning. Detailed instructions for obtaining proteins from animal tissues, using BCA assay to quantify the proteins, and data analysis are provided. The experimental…

  18. Discovering the 80%. Final Project Report by the National Commission on Working Women, 1977-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Work and Learning, Washington, DC.

    Phase 1 of the National Commission on Working Women (NCWW) process for change was dedicated to learning and communicating problems of the 33 million women (80% of the female workforce) who are in the lowest paying and least regarded jobs. Three principal means were developed to reach as many of the 80% as possible: regional dialogues, national…

  19. The "Discover" Project: Improving Assessment and Curriculum for Diverse Gifted Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maker, C. June

    2005-01-01

    C. June Maker, Professor at the University of Arizona, has developed a unique performance-based assessment in which children are observed by teams of teachers, counselors, paraprofessionals, administrators, specialists in education of the gifted and bilingual education, and local community members. The assessment, designed initially to …

  20. Totally Tree-mendous Activities: Projects To Discover the Beauty and Benefits of Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollister, Sarah

    This teacher's guide supplies information and hands-on activities to teach about trees from several disciplines. Activities are grouped into six areas that cover botany, social studies, arts and literature (aesthetics), and trees as a resource. Sections include: (1) Tree Identification, which defines trees and leaves and presents activities that…

  1. Discovering the Structures of Open Source Programs from Their Developer Mailing Lists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Dinh Anh; Doi, Koichiro; Yamamoto, Akihiro

    This paper presents a method which discovers the structure of given open source programs from their developer mailing lists. Our goal is to help successive developers understand the structures and the components of open source programs even if documents about them are not provided sufficiently. Our method consists of two phases: (1) producing a mapping between the source files and the emails, and (2) constructing a lattice from the produced mapping and then reducing it with a novel algorithm, called PRUNIA ( PRUNing Algorithm Based on Introduced Attributes), in order to obtain a more compact structure. We performed experiments with some open source projects which are originally from or popular in Japan such as Namazu and Ruby. The experimental results reveal that the extracted structures reflect very well important parts of the hidden structures of the programs.

  2. DISCOVER-AQ: An Overview and Initial Comparisons of NO2 with OMI Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Kenneth; Crawford, James; Krotkov, Nickolay; Bucsela, Eric; Lamsal, Lok; Celarier, Edward; Herman, Jay; Janz, Scott; Cohen, Ron; Weinheimer, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The first deployment of the Earth Venture -1 DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) project was conducted during July 2011 in the Baltimore-Washington region. Two aircraft (a P-3B for in-situ sampling and a King Air for remote sensing) were used along with an extensive array of surface-based in-situ and remote sensing instrumentation. Fourteen flight days were accomplished by both aircraft and over 250 profiles of trace gases and aerosols were performed by the P-3B over surface air quality monitoring stations, which were specially outfitted with sunphotometers and Pandora UV/Vis spectrometers. The King Air flew with the High Spectral Resolution Lidar for aerosols and the ACAM UV/Vis spectrometer for trace gases. This suite of observations allows linkage of surface air quality with the vertical distributions of gases and aerosols, with remotely-sensed column amounts observed from the surface and from the King Air, and with satellite observations from Aura (OMI and TES), GOME-2, MODIS and GOES. The DISCOVER-AQ data will allow determination of under what conditions satellite retrievals are indicative of surface air quality, and they will be useful in planning new satellites. In addition to an overview of the project, a preliminary comparison of tropospheric column NO2 densities from the integration of in-situ P-3B observations, from the Pandoras and ACAM, and from the new Goddard OMI NO2 algorithm will be presented.

  3. Newly Discovered AGN and their Multi-year Light Curves from Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaya, Edward J.; Olling, R.; Mushotzky, R.

    2014-01-01

    Variability seen at the center of a galaxy is an easy and reliable way to identify AGN. The Kepler space mission provides the ability to find galaxies with very low amplitude variability over a wide range in time delays. We report on a 2 year project to monitor ~400 galaxies with Kepler and our reduction software to stabilize long term photometric trends. We will present light curves for several of our newly discovered AGN with variability measured from the 30 minute to ~2 year timescales. The optical variability that Kepler explores is probably related to accretion disk instabilities, variation in accretion rate or changes in the accretion disk's structure. We developed, in a white paper, a future Kepler project to monitor of order 10,000 galaxies. Statistical analysis of light curves from hundreds of AGN would reveal the physical character of gas, dust or stars falling into AGN or eclipsing the light source and allow better models to be developed of the inner accretion disks/tori. In addition, this project should also find a large number of supernovae and other exotic transient events such as stellar tidal disruption and eta Carinae or P-Cygni type outbursts.

  4. Discover Health Services Near You! The North Dakota Story: Part I.

    PubMed

    Rieke, Judith L; Safratowich, Michael; Markland, Mary J

    2009-04-01

    Since the 2003 launch of NC Health Info, the National Library of Medicine has encouraged the development of Go Local databases. A team of Go Local enthusiasts at North Dakota's only medical school library wanted to obtain NLM funding and build a resource for their rural state. Although short on staff, money, and time, the team found a way to realize a Go Local database that serves the state's residents and helps them "Discover Health Services Near You!" A team approach and collaboration with health providers and organizations worked well in this small rural state. North Dakota's Go Local project offers a low-cost model that stresses collaboration, teamwork and technology. Part I, which appears in this issue, describes the rural setting, explains how the project was conceived, and the processes necessary to begin building the database. Part II, which will appear in the next issue, details how records were created, including developing the input style guide and indexing decisions, the NLM testing and review process, the maintenance and auditing process, and publicity and promotion of the project. PMID:20448842

  5. Discover Health Services Near You! The North Dakota Story: Part I

    PubMed Central

    Rieke, Judith L.; Safratowich, Michael; Markland, Mary J.

    2010-01-01

    Since the 2003 launch of NC Health Info, the National Library of Medicine has encouraged the development of Go Local databases. A team of Go Local enthusiasts at North Dakota’s only medical school library wanted to obtain NLM funding and build a resource for their rural state. Although short on staff, money, and time, the team found a way to realize a Go Local database that serves the state’s residents and helps them “Discover Health Services Near You!” A team approach and collaboration with health providers and organizations worked well in this small rural state. North Dakota’s Go Local project offers a low-cost model that stresses collaboration, teamwork and technology. Part I, which appears in this issue, describes the rural setting, explains how the project was conceived, and the processes necessary to begin building the database. Part II, which will appear in the next issue, details how records were created, including developing the input style guide and indexing decisions, the NLM testing and review process, the maintenance and auditing process, and publicity and promotion of the project. PMID:20448842

  6. Discover Health Services Near You! The North Dakota Story: Part II

    PubMed Central

    Safratowich, Michael; Markland, Mary J.; Rieke, Judith L.

    2010-01-01

    Since the 2003 launch of NC Health Info, the National Library of Medicine has encouraged the development of Go Local databases. A team of Go Local enthusiasts at North Dakota’s only medical school library wanted to obtain NLM funding and build a resource for their rural state. Although short on staff, money, and time, the team found a way to realize a Go Local database that serves the state’s residents and helps them “Discover Health Services Near You!” A team approach and collaboration with health providers and organizations worked well in this small rural state. North Dakota’s Go Local project offers a low-cost model that stresses collaboration, teamwork and technology. Part I which appeared in the last issue describes the rural setting, explains how the project was conceived, and the processes necessary to begin building the database. Part II which appears in this issue details how records were created including developing the input style guide and indexing decisions, the NLM testing and review process, the maintenance and auditing process, and publicity and promotion of the project. PMID:20436944

  7. Discover Health Services Near You! The North Dakota Story: Part II.

    PubMed

    Safratowich, Michael; Markland, Mary J; Rieke, Judith L

    2009-07-01

    Since the 2003 launch of NC Health Info, the National Library of Medicine has encouraged the development of Go Local databases. A team of Go Local enthusiasts at North Dakota's only medical school library wanted to obtain NLM funding and build a resource for their rural state. Although short on staff, money, and time, the team found a way to realize a Go Local database that serves the state's residents and helps them "Discover Health Services Near You!" A team approach and collaboration with health providers and organizations worked well in this small rural state. North Dakota's Go Local project offers a low-cost model that stresses collaboration, teamwork and technology. Part I which appeared in the last issue describes the rural setting, explains how the project was conceived, and the processes necessary to begin building the database. Part II which appears in this issue details how records were created including developing the input style guide and indexing decisions, the NLM testing and review process, the maintenance and auditing process, and publicity and promotion of the project. PMID:20436944

  8. Discover the Cosmos - Bringing Cutting Edge Science to Schools across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Rosa

    2015-03-01

    The fast growing number of science data repositories is opening enormous possibilities to scientists all over the world. The emergence of citizen science projects is engaging in science discovery a large number of citizens globally. Astronomical research is now a possibility to anyone having a computer and some form of data access. This opens a very interesting and strategic possibility to engage large audiences in the making and understanding of science. On another perspective it would be only natural to imagine that soon enough data mining will be an active part of the academic path of university or even secondary schools students. The possibility is very exciting but the road not very promising. Even in the most developed nations, where all schools are equipped with modern ICT facilities the use of such possibilities is still a very rare episode. The Galileo Teacher Training Program GTTP, a legacy of IYA2009, is participating in some of the most emblematic projects funded by the European Commission and targeting modern tools, resources and methodologies for science teaching. One of this projects is Discover the Cosmos which is aiming to target this issue by empowering educators with the necessary skills to embark on this innovative path: teaching science while doing science.

  9. Distant World in Peril Discovered from La Silla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    Giant Exoplanet Orbits Giant Star Summary When, in a distant future, the Sun begins to expand and evolves into a "giant" star, the surface temperature on the Earth will rise dramatically and our home planet will eventually be incinerated by that central body. Fortunately for us, this dramatic event is several billion years away. However, that sad fate will befall another planet, just discovered in orbit about the giant star HD 47536, already within a few tens of millions of years. At a distance of nearly 400 light-years from us, it is the second-remotest planetary system discovered to date [1]. This is an interesting side-result of a major research project, now carried out by a European-Brazilian team of astronomers [2]. In the course of a three-year spectroscopic survey, they have observed about 80 giant stars in the southern sky with the advanced FEROS spectrograph on the 1.52-m telescope installed at the ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile). It is one of these stars that has just been found to host a giant planet. This is only the fourth such case known and with a diameter of about 33 million km (or 23.5 times that of our Sun), HD 47536 is by far the largest of those giant stars [1]. The distance of the planet from the star is still of the order of 300 million km (or twice the distance of the Earth from the Sun), a safe margin now, but this will not always be so. The orbital period is 712 days, i.e., somewhat less than two Earth years, and the planet's mass is 5 - 10 times that of Jupiter. The presence of exoplanets in orbit around giant stars, some of which will eventually perish into their central star (be "cannibalized"), provides a possible explanation of the anomalous abundance of certain chemical elements that is observed in the atmospheres of some stars, cf. ESO PR 10/01. This interesting discovery bodes well for coming observations of exoplanetary systems with new, more powerful instruments, like HARPS to be installed next year at the ESO 3.6-m telescope on

  10. Discovering Mira Ceti: Celestial Change and Cosmic Continuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatch, Robert Alan

    In the short narrative that follows I introduce two new heroes. Although we begin with Fabricius's first sighting in 1596, the new pivot point in the drama is the collaboration between Hevelius and Boulliau that began around 1660. As it happens, Learned Europe paid little attention to Mira in the generation after the first scattered sightings of 1596, indeed, nearly 70 years passed before the New Star was given a working identity. Like Columbus discovering America, Fabricius and Holwarda saw different things - for convenience, I call them Fabricius's Star and Holwarda's Star. Hevelius's Historiola (Danzig, 1662) and Boulliau's Ad astronomos (Paris, 1667) presented a different vision. It made Mira famous. As I shall argue, if Hevelius gave Mira a history, Boulliau gave Mira a future.5 In the end, the New Star not only challenged the ancient cosmos, it became an enduring icon for the New Science, a returning reminder of celestial continuity and cosmic order.

  11. Cardiopulmonary exercise: a recently discovered secret of tai chi.

    PubMed

    Ng, R K

    1992-08-01

    Every piece of literature or book about tai chi claims it to be the supreme martial art (soft style) and a therapeutic exercise. Nevertheless, none of the authors can describe scientifically how and why it works. Many people did not gain any health benefit in practicing tai chi and only very few people were able to apply its legendary secret power. During the last 10 years, the author thought he had discovered the secret in Hong Kong and brought it to Los Angeles. The secret lies in the fundamental movements of the body, called tai chi basic exercise routines. The entry level of the exercise has many similarities with medical treatments for respiratory illness and with walking exercise--the most recommended aerobic exercise for coronary artery disease. PMID:1399544

  12. Sunlight at Southall Green. Dr. Ingen Housz discovers photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Norman; Beale, E

    2001-01-01

    In the following fictitious conversation, Dr. Jan Ingen Housz (1730-1799), the Dutch physician and natural philosopher, describes to William Temple Franklin (1760-1823), the grandson of Benjamin Franklin, how in 1779 he discovered the paramount role of sunlight in what we now call photosynthesis (Wiesner 1905; Van der Pas 1981; Reed 1949; Beale and Beale 1999). The two men, together with the English law reformer Samuel Romilly, were dinner guests of the First Marquis of Lansdowne at Lansdowne House on Wednesday 2 February 1791 (Bowood House Archives 1791). As far as possible we use their own recorded words and phrases, employing surviving manuscripts as a lexicon. Additional biographical and geographical details are provided in an Appendix, and all sources are listed in the References. PMID:11482003

  13. Adrenal Pheochromocytoma Incidentally Discovered in a Patient With Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Petramala, Luigi; Concistrè, Antonio; Marinelli, Cristiano; Zinnamosca, Laura; Iannucci, Gino; Lucia, Piernatale; De Vincentis, Giuseppe; Letizia, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the diagnostic route of pheochromocytoma (PHEO) in a patient under dopaminergic treatment. A 70-year-old man with Parkinsonism and under treatment with levodopa and carbidopa came to our observation for evaluation of arterial hypertension and right adrenal mass discovered incidentally. To evaluate adrenal hormone levels we performed a dexamethasone suppression test, plasma aldosterone levels and 24-hr urinary metanephrine, which revealed elevated levels of catecholamines metabolities. 123-I-metaiodobenzylguanidine SPECT scintiscan revealed raised activity within the right adrenal gland concordant with the mass. The diagnosis of PHEO was posed and an elective laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed; histopathological examination confirmed the PHEO diagnosis. Recently the coexistence of PHEO and Parkinsonism is a very rare association of diseases, with only 3 cases reported in literature. In this article, another case is reported and diagnostic procedures are discussed. PMID:26496334

  14. Gastrointestinal parasitoses discovered in agricultural workers in South Bohemia, Czechoslovakia.

    PubMed

    Stĕrba, J; Ditrich, O; Prokopic, J; Kadlcík, K

    1988-01-01

    In the years from 1975 to 1982 1,750 persons, mostly employed by agricultural enterprises in the South Bohemian Region in Czechoslovakia, were examined. We discovered seven species of parasites: Taenia saginata in 0.3%, Enterobius vermicularis in 10.1%, Giardia lamblia in 1.0%, Endolimax nana in 0.8%, Entamoeba coli in 0.7%, Entamoeba hartmanni in 0.2%, and Chilomastix mesnili in 0.5%. The greatest number of parasites was found in students of the Secondary agricultural and technical school. Only two species of parasites were diagnosed in children of the employees. The incidence of E. vermicularis was 75% in children, in adult employees of agricultural enterprises, however, only 9.8%. PMID:3169645

  15. How did Archimedes discover the law of buoyancy by experiment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroki, Hidetaka

    2016-03-01

    After Archimedes and Vitruvius era, for more than 2000 years, it has been believed that the displaced water measurement of golden crown is impossible, and at his Eureka moment, Archimedes discovered the law of buoyancy (Proposition 7 of his principles) and proved the theft of a goldsmith by weighing the golden crown in water. A previous study showed that a small amount of displaced water was able to be measured with enough accuracy by the introduced method. Archimedes measured the weight of displaced water. He did not find the law of buoyancy but rather specific gravity of things at the moment. After which, Archimedes continued to measure the specific gravity of various solids and fluids. Through these measurements, he reached the discovery of the law of buoyancy directly by experiment. In this paper, the process to the discovery of Archimedes' principle (Proposition 5) is presented.

  16. Detailed Abundances of Stars with Small Planets Discovered by Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuler, Simon C.; Vaz, Zachary A.; Katime Santrich, Orlando J.; Cunha, Katia M. L.; Smith, Verne V.; King, Jeremy R.; Ghezzi, Luan; Howell, Steve B.; Teske, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    We present newly derived stellar parameters and the detailed abundances of 19 elements of seven stars with small planets discovered by NASA's Kepler Mission. Each star save one has at least one planet with a radius less than 2 REarth, suggesting a primarily rocky composition. The stellar parameters and abundances are derived from high signal-to-noise ratio, high-resolution echelle spectroscopy obtained with the 10-m Keck I telescope and HIRES spectrometer using standard spectroscopic techniques. We compare the abundances to those of a general Galactic disk population and investigate possible abundance trends with condensation temperature of the elements.S.C.S. acknowledges support provided by grant NNX12AD19G to S.C.S. from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of the Kepler Participating Scientist Program.

  17. Quantify spatial relations to discover handwritten graphical symbols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinpeng; Mouchère, Harold; Viard-Gaudin, Christian

    2012-01-01

    To model a handwritten graphical language, spatial relations describe how the strokes are positioned in the 2-dimensional space. Most of existing handwriting recognition systems make use of some predefined spatial relations. However, considering a complex graphical language, it is hard to express manually all the spatial relations. Another possibility would be to use a clustering technique to discover the spatial relations. In this paper, we discuss how to create a relational graph between strokes (nodes) labeled with graphemes in a graphical language. Then we vectorize spatial relations (edges) for clustering and quantization. As the targeted application, we extract the repetitive sub-graphs (graphical symbols) composed of graphemes and learned spatial relations. On two handwriting databases, a simple mathematical expression database and a complex flowchart database, the unsupervised spatial relations outperform the predefined spatial relations. In addition, we visualize the frequent patterns on two text-lines containing Chinese characters.

  18. A Systematic Approach to Discover and Characterize Natural Plant Biostimulants

    PubMed Central

    Povero, Giovanni; Mejia, Juan F.; Di Tommaso, Donata; Piaggesi, Alberto; Warrior, Prem

    2016-01-01

    The use of natural plant biostimulants is proposed as an innovative solution to address the challenges to sustainable agriculture, to ensure optimal nutrient uptake, crop yield, quality, and tolerance to abiotic stress. However, the process of selection and characterization of plant biostimulant matrices is complex and involves a series of rigorous evaluations customized to the needs of the plant. Here, we propose a highly differentiated plant biostimulant development and production platform, which involves a combination of technology, processes, and know-how. Chemistry, biology and omic concepts are combined/integrated to investigate and understand the specific mode(s) of action of bioactive ingredients. The proposed approach allows to predict and characterize the function of natural compounds as biostimulants. By managing and analyzing massive amounts of complex data, it is therefore possible to discover, evaluate and validate new product candidates, thus expanding the uses of existing products to meet the emerging needs of agriculture. PMID:27092156

  19. David Levy's Guide to Observing and Discovering Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, David H.

    2003-05-01

    Preface; Part I. Why Observe Comets?: 1. Of history, superstition, magic, and science; 2. Comet science progresses; Part II. Discovering Comets: 3. Comet searching begins; 4. Tails and trails; 5. Comet searching in the twentieth century; 6. How I search for comets; 7. Searching for comets photographically; 8. Searching for comets with CCDs; 9. Comet hunting by reading; 10. Hunting for sungrazers over the Internet; 11. What to do when you think you've found a comet; Part III. A New Way of Looking at Comets: 12. When comets hit planets; 13. The future of visual comet hunting; Part IV. How to Observe Comets: 14. An introduction to comet hunting; 15. Visual observing of comets; 16. Estimating the magnitude of a comet; 17. Taking a picture of a comet; 18. Measuring where a comet is in the sky; Part V. Closing Notes: 19. My passion for comets.

  20. Discovering cancer biomarkers from clinical samples by protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bin; Niu, Xin; Cheng, Li; Yang, Li-Na; Li, Qing; Wang, Yang; Tao, Sheng-Ce; Zhou, Shu-Min

    2015-02-01

    Cancer biomarkers are of potential use in early cancer diagnosis, anticancer therapy development, and monitoring the responses to treatments. Protein-based cancer biomarkers are major forms in use, as they are much easier to be monitored in body fluids or tissues. For cancer biomarker discovery, high-throughput techniques such as protein microarrays hold great promises, because they are capable of global unbiased monitoring but with a miniaturized format. In doing so, novel and cancer type specific biomarkers can be systematically discovered at an affordable cost. In this review, we give a relatively complete picture on protein microarrays applied to clinical samples for cancer biomarker discovery, and conclude this review with the future perspectives. PMID:25523829

  1. SOLAR SYSTEM ANALOGS AROUND IRAS-DISCOVERED DEBRIS DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Christine H.; Sheehan, Patrick; Watson, Dan M.; Manoj, P.; Najita, Joan R.

    2009-08-20

    We have rereduced Spitzer IRS spectra and reanalyzed the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of three nearby debris disks: {lambda} Boo, HD 139664, and HR 8799. We find that the thermal emission from these objects is well modeled using two single temperature black body components. For HR 8799 - with no silicate emission features despite a relatively hot inner dust component (T{sub gr} = 150 K) - we infer the presence of an asteroid belt interior to and a Kuiper Belt exterior to the recently discovered orbiting planets. For HD 139664, which has been imaged in scattered light, we infer the presence of strongly forward scattering grains, consistent with porous grains, if the cold, outer disk component generates both the observed scattered light and thermal emission. Finally, careful analysis of the {lambda} Boo SED suggests that this system possesses a central clearing, indicating that selective accretion of solids onto the central star does not occur from a dusty disk.

  2. Re-discovering Mendel: The Case of Carl Correns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Carl Erich Correns (1864-1933) is remembered in the annals of science as one of the three botanists who re-discovered Mendel's laws. He can also, however, be regarded as one of the founding figures of classical genetics in Germany. Between 1894 and 1899 he carried out the crossing experiments with corn and peas that led to the re-statement of Gregor Mendel's (1822-1884) results. Between 1900 and 1910, he explored the complications of these laws, including the coupling of factors due to their chromosomal location and the inheritance of sex, in a great number of plant species. In later years Correns became interested in and experimented on phenomena of extra-nuclear inheritance.

  3. Los Alamos Discovers Super Efficient Solar Using Perovskite Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Mohite, Aditya; Nie, Wanyi

    2015-01-29

    State-of-the-art photovoltaics using high-purity, large-area, wafer-scale single-crystalline semiconductors grown by sophisticated, high temperature crystal-growth processes offer promising routes for developing low-cost, solar-based clean global energy solutions for the future. Solar cells composed of the recently discovered material organic-inorganic perovskites offer the efficiency of silicon, yet suffer from a variety of deficiencies limiting the commercial viability of perovskite photovoltaic technology. In research to appear in Science, Los Alamos National Laboratory researchers reveal a new solution-based hot-casting technique that eliminates these limitations, one that allows for the growth of high-quality, large-area, millimeter-scale perovskite crystals and demonstrates that highly efficient and reproducible solar cells with reduced trap assisted recombination can be realized.

  4. Discovering Tradeoffs, Vulnerabilities, and Dependencies within Water Resources Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing recognition and interest in using emerging computational tools for discovering the tradeoffs that emerge across complex combinations infrastructure options, adaptive operations, and sign posts. As a field concerned with "deep uncertainties", it is logically consistent to include a more direct acknowledgement that our choices for dealing with computationally demanding simulations, advanced search algorithms, and sensitivity analysis tools are themselves subject to failures that could adversely bias our understanding of how systems' vulnerabilities change with proposed actions. Balancing simplicity versus complexity in our computational frameworks is nontrivial given that we are often exploring high impact irreversible decisions. It is not always clear that accepted models even encompass important failure modes. Moreover as they become more complex and computationally demanding the benefits and consequences of simplifications are often untested. This presentation discusses our efforts to address these challenges through our "many-objective robust decision making" (MORDM) framework for the design and management water resources systems. The MORDM framework has four core components: (1) elicited problem conception and formulation, (2) parallel many-objective search, (3) interactive visual analytics, and (4) negotiated selection of robust alternatives. Problem conception and formulation is the process of abstracting a practical design problem into a mathematical representation. We build on the emerging work in visual analytics to exploit interactive visualization of both the design space and the objective space in multiple heterogeneous linked views that permit exploration and discovery. Many-objective search produces tradeoff solutions from potentially competing problem formulations that can each consider up to ten conflicting objectives based on current computational search capabilities. Negotiated design selection uses interactive visualization

  5. Discovering dense and consistent landmarks in the brain.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dajiang; Zhang, Degang; Faraco, Carlos; Li, Kaiming; Deng, Fan; Chen, Hanbo; Jiang, Xi; Guo, Lei; Miller, L Stephen; Liu, Tianming

    2011-01-01

    The lack of consistent and reliable functionally meaningful landmarks in the brain has significantly hampered the advancement of brain imaging studies. In this paper, we use white matter fiber connectivity patterns, obtained from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data, as predictors of brain function, and to discover a dense, reliable and consistent map of brain landmarks within and across individuals. The general principles and our strategies are as follows. 1) Each brain landmark should have consistent structural fiber connectivity pattern across a group of subjects. We will quantitatively measure the similarity of the fiber bundles emanating from the corresponding landmarks via a novel trace-map approach, and then optimize the locations of these landmarks by maximizing the group-wise consistency of the shape patterns of emanating fiber bundles. 2) The landmark map should be dense and distributed all over major functional brain regions. We will initialize a dense and regular grid map of approximately 2000 landmarks that cover the whole brains in different subjects via linear brain image registration. 3) The dense map of brain landmarks should be reproducible and predictable in different datasets of various subject populations. The approaches and results in the above two steps are evaluated and validated via reproducibility studies. The dense map of brain landmarks can be reliably and accurately replicated in a new DTI dataset such that the landmark map can be used as a predictive model. Our experiments show promising results, and a subset of the discovered landmarks are validated via task-based fMRI. PMID:21761649

  6. Discovering common stem–loop motifs in unaligned RNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Gorodkin, Jan; Stricklin, Shawn L.; Stormo, Gary D.

    2001-01-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression is often accomplished by proteins binding to specific sequence motifs in mRNA molecules, to affect their translation or stability. The motifs are often composed of a combination of sequence and structural constraints such that the overall structure is preserved even though much of the primary sequence is variable. While several methods exist to discover transcriptional regulatory sites in the DNA sequences of coregulated genes, the RNA motif discovery problem is much more difficult because of covariation in the positions. We describe the combined use of two approaches for RNA structure prediction, FOLDALIGN and COVE, that together can discover and model stem–loop RNA motifs in unaligned sequences, such as UTRs from post-transcriptionally coregulated genes. We evaluate the method on two datasets, one a section of rRNA genes with randomly truncated ends so that a global alignment is not possible, and the other a hyper-variable collection of IRE-like elements that were inserted into randomized UTR sequences. In both cases the combined method identified the motifs correctly, and in the rRNA example we show that it is capable of determining the structure, which includes bulge and internal loops as well as a variable length hairpin loop. Those automated results are quantitatively evaluated and found to agree closely with structures contained in curated databases, with correlation coefficients up to 0.9. A basic server, Stem–Loop Align SearcH (SLASH), which will perform stem–loop searches in unaligned RNA sequences, is available at http://www.bioinf.au.dk/slash/. PMID:11353083

  7. Fine-scale application of the WRF-CMAQ modeling system to the 2013 DISCOVER-AQ San Joaquin Valley study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DISCOVER-AQ project (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality), is a joint collaboration between NASA, U.S. EPA and a number of other local organizations with the goal of characterizing air quality in ...

  8. LIMNOBIUM SPONGIA (HYDROCHARITACEAE) DISCOVERED IN NEW ENGLAND. (U915544)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. Newly Discovered Clouds Found Floating High Above Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-10-01

    GREEN BANK, WV -- New studies with the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) have revealed a previously unknown population of discrete hydrogen clouds in the gaseous halo that surrounds the Milky Way Galaxy. These clouds were discovered in the transition zone between the Milky Way and intergalactic space, and provide tantalizing evidence that supernova-powered "galactic fountains" continually blast superheated hydrogen gas into our Galactic suburbs. Hydrogen Clouds Graphic Artist's Rendering of the Milky Way (background) with insert showing GBT image of newly-discovered clouds of Hydrogen gas above the plane of the Galaxy. Credit: Kirk Woellert/National Science Foundation. Extending far above the star-filled disk of the Milky Way is an atmosphere, or halo, of hydrogen gas. "By studying this halo, we can learn a great deal about the processes that are going on inside our Galaxy as well as beyond its borders," said Jay Lockman, an astronomer with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virginia. "It has remained a mystery, however, how this halo formed and what has prevented gravitational forces from collapsing the gas into a thin layer long ago." Some astronomers have speculated that this gas is distributed as a diffuse mist held up by either magnetic fields or cosmic rays streaming out of the plane of the Milky Way. Others believed that it is made of innumerable long-lived hydrogen clouds bobbing up and down like balls tossed by a juggler. Early observations with other telescopes discovered that there was some neutral hydrogen gas floating far above the Galaxy's plane, but these instruments were not sensitive enough to reveal any structure or resolve questions about its origin. Lockman's studies for the first time show a clear picture of the structure of the gas. Rather than a mist, the halo is in fact full of discrete clouds, each containing 50-to-100 solar masses of hydrogen and averaging about 100

  10. Earth's Largest Meteorite Impact Craters discovered in South America?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellndorfer, J. M.; Schmidt-Falkenberg, H.

    2014-12-01

    Novel analysis of high resolution InSAR-based digital elevation data from the year 2001 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission combined with a recently produced dataset of pan-tropical vegetation height from ALOS-1 SAR and IceSAT/GLAS Lidar estimates led to the quasi-bald-Earth discovery of four sizable near-perfect circle arcs in South America under dense tropical forests ranging in length from 216 km to 441 km. Terrain elevation profiles of cross-sections across the arcs show a distinct vertical rising and falling in elevations of hundreds of meters over a horizontal distance of tens of kilometers. It is hypothesized that these sizable arcs and associated rim-like topographic terrain features are remnants of huge meteorite impact craters with diameters ranging from 770 km to 1,310 km, thus forming potentially the largest known impact carter structures discovered on Earth today. The potential impact crater rim structures are located north of the eastern Amazon River, in the coastal region of Recife and Natal, and in the Brazilian, Bolivian and Paraguayan border region encompassing the Pantanal. Elevation profiles, hillshades and gray-shaded elevation maps were produced to support the geomorphologic analysis. It is also speculated whether in three of the four potential impact craters, central uplift domes or peaks, which are typical for complex impact crater structures can be identified. The worlds largest iron ore mining area of Carajás in Para, Brazil, falls exactly in the center of the largest hypothesized circular impact crater showing topographic elevations similar to the rim structure discovered 655 km to the north-north-west. Based on the topographic/geomorphologic driven hypothesis, geologic exploration of these topographic features is needed to test whether indeed meteorite impact craters could be verified, what the more exact ellipsoidal shapes of the potential impact craters might be, and to determine when during geologic times the impacts would have taken